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Sample records for airborne radioactivity monitoring

  1. Effluent monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions data. These data will be reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Effluent Monitoring performs compliance assessments on radioactive airborne sampling and monitoring systems. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is prepared in compliance with interim guidelines and specifications. Topics include: project description; project organization and management; quality assurance objectives; sampling procedures; sample custody; calibration procedures; analytical procedures; monitoring and reporting criteria; data reduction, verification, and reporting; internal quality control; performance and system audits; corrective actions; and quality assurance reports.

  2. Monitoring radioactive plumes by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Grasty, R.L.; Hovgaard, J.; Multala, J.

    1996-06-01

    Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys using large volume sodium-iodide detectors are routinely flown throughout the world for mineral exploration and geological mapping. Techniques have now been developed to detect and map man-made sources of radiation. In Canada, airborne gamma-rays surveys have been flown around nuclear reactors to map {sup 41}Ar plumes from nuclear reactors and to calculate the dose rate at ground level. In May 1986, the Finnish Geological survey aircraft flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. As the aircraft flew through the plume, the aircraft became increasingly contaminated. By measuring the final aircraft contamination, the activity of the plume could be separated from the contamination due to the aircraft. Within 1 h of encountering the plume, the aircraft activity was comparable to the maximum levels found in the plume. From an analysis of the gamma-ray spectra, the concentration of {sup 131}I and {sup 140}La within the plume were calculated as a function of time.

  3. A simple and fractal analysis of the European on-line network for airborne radioactivity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Raes, F; Graziani, G; Girardi, F

    1991-09-01

    We introduce two simple descriptors and use the fractal dimension to characterize the capability of a monitoring network to either 'spot', 'delineate' or 'track' a pollution cloud moving across a territory. The descriptors are applied to the 'European' monitoring network for radioactive aerosol (i.e. the sum of the national networks). Simple analysis shows that on average the time and space resolution of the network are well balanced for tracking the movement of a radioactive cloud. Such tracking, however, can only be started one or two days after the release. The geographical inhomogeneity of the network is quantified by a fractal dimension of 1.6, implying that radioactive clouds with a dimension less than 0.4 might not be detected by the network.

  4. Spectrum correction algorithm for detectors in airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV based on a ratio processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ye; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Peng; Meng, Jia; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2015-10-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radiation monitoring method plays an important role in nuclear accidents emergency. In this research, a spectrum correction algorithm about the UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was studied to measure the radioactive nuclides within a small area in real time and in a fixed place. The simulation spectra of the high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and the lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) detector in the equipment were obtained using the Monte Carlo technique. Spectrum correction coefficients were calculated after performing ratio processing techniques about the net peak areas between the double detectors on the detection spectrum of the LaBr3 detector according to the accuracy of the detection spectrum of the HPGe detector. The relationship between the spectrum correction coefficient and the size of the source term was also investigated. A good linear relation exists between the spectrum correction coefficient and the corresponding energy (R2=0.9765). The maximum relative deviation from the real condition reduced from 1.65 to 0.035. The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible.

  5. Discrimination of airborne radioactivity from radon progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Ching-Jiang Chen; Pao-Shan Weng; Tieh-Chi Chu

    1994-05-01

    Naturally occurring radon and thoron progeny are the most interfering nuclides in the aerosol monitoring system. The high background and fluctuation of natural radioactivity on the filter can cause an error message to the aerosol monitor. A theoretical model was applied in the simulation of radon and thoron progeny behavior in the environment and on the filter. Results show that even a small amount of airborne nuclides on the filter could be discriminated by using the beta:alpha activity ratio instead of gross beta or alpha counting. This method can increase the sensitivity and reliability of real-time aerosol monitoring. 8 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Development and calibration of a real-time airborne radioactivity monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, R; Morant, J J; Salvadó, M

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry in an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network can help to identify and characterize abnormal radioactivity increases quickly. For this reason, a Real-time Airborne Radioactivity Monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors (RARM-D2) was developed. The two scintillation detectors in the RARM-D2 are strategically shielded with Pb to permit the separate measurement of the airborne isotopes with respect to the deposited isotopes.In this paper, we describe the main aspects of the development and calibration of the RARM-D2 when using NaI(Tl) or LaBr3(Ce) detectors. The calibration of the monitor was performed experimentally with the exception of the efficiency curve, which was set using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the EGS5 code system. Prior to setting the efficiency curve, the effect of the radioactive source term size on the efficiency calculations was studied for the gamma-rays from (137)Cs. Finally, to study the measurement capabilities of the RARM-D2, the minimum detectable activity concentrations for (131)I and (137)Cs were calculated for typical spectra at different integration times. PMID:24607535

  7. Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2010-10-18

    This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

  8. Automatic Searching Radioactive Sources by Airborne Radioactive Survey Using Multicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rim, H.; Eun, S. B.; Kim, K.; Park, S.; Jung, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    In order to prepare emergency situation lost a dangerous radioelement source in advance and to search a radioactive source automatically, we develop airborne radioelement survey system by multicopter. This multicopter radioelement survey system consists of a small portable customized BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) detector, video recording part, wireless connecting part to ground pilot, GPS, and several equipments for automatic flight. This system is possible to search flight by preprogramed lines. This radioactive detecting system are tested to find intentional hidden source, The performance of detecting a source is well proved with very low flight altitude in spite of depending on the magnitude of radioelement sources. The advantage of multicopter system, one of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), is to avoid the potential of close access to a dangerous radioactive source by using fully automatic searching capability. In this paper, we introduce our multicopter system for detecting radioactive source and synthetic case history for demonstrating this system.

  9. Utilization of airborne gamma ray spectrometric data for geological mapping, radioactive mineral exploration and environmental monitoring of southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. S.; Elkhodary, Shadia T.

    2013-12-01

    The present work utilizes airborne gamma ray spectrometric data in a trial to refine surface geology of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, detect any radioactive mineralization and monitor environment at southeastern Aswan city, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. This area is mainly covered with igneous rocks (younger granites, older granites, metasediments, metavolcanics, metagabbro, Tertiary basalt and ring complex), metamorphic rocks as well as sedimentary rocks (Um Barmil Formation, Timsah Formation, Abu Aggag Formation and wadi sediments). Airborne gamma ray spectrometry can be very helpful in mapping surface geology. This provides estimates of the apparent surface concentrations of the most common naturally occurring radioactive elements, such as potassium (K), equivalent uranium (eU) and equivalent thorium (eTh). This is based on the assumption that, the absolute and relative concentrations of these radioelements vary measurably and significantly with lithology. The composite image technique is used to display simultaneously three parameters of the three radioelement concentrations and their three binary ratios on one image. The technique offers much in terms of lithological discrimination, based on colour differences and showed efficiency in defining areas, where different lithofacies occur within areas mapped as one continuous lithology. The integration between surface geological information and geophysical data led to detailing the surface geology and the contacts between different rock units. Significant locations or favourable areas for uranium exploration are defined, where the measurements exceed (X + 2S), taking X as the arithmetic mean of eU, eU/eTh and eU/K measurements and S as the standard deviation corresponding to each variables. The study area shows the presence of four relatively high uraniferous zones. These zones cannot be ignored and need further ground follow-up. In addition, the trend analysis based on the three radioelement maps and

  10. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1954-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

  11. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1953-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totalling 5,600 traverse miles were made in ten areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for the occurrence of uraniferous phosphate deposits. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in eight of the ten areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; samples of the river pebble contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphate rock containing as much as 0.016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported to occur.

  12. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  13. Monitoring for airborne allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Burge, H.A. )

    1992-07-01

    Monitoring for allergens can provide some information on the kinds and levels of exposure experienced by local patient populations, providing volumetric methods are used for sample collection and analysis is accurate and consistent. Such data can also be used to develop standards for the specific environment and to begin to develop predictive models. Comparing outdoor allergen aerosols between different monitoring sites requires identical collection and analysis methods and some kind of rational standard, whether arbitrary, or based on recognized health effects.32 references.

  14. Biological monitoring of airborne pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ditz, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Common plants such as grasses, mosses, and even goldenrod may turn out to have a new high-tech role as monitors of airborne pollution from solid waste incinerators. Certain plants that respond to specific pollutants can provide continuous surveillance of air quality over long periods of time: they are bio-indicators. Other species accumulate pollutants and can serve as sensitive indicators of pollutants and of food-chain contamination: they are bio-accumulators. Through creative use of these properties, biological monitoring can provide information that cannot be obtained by current methods such as stack testing.

  15. Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site.

  16. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  17. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  18. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  19. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  20. 10 CFR 20.1203 - Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive... RADIATION Occupational Dose Limits § 20.1203 Determination of external dose from airborne radioactive material. Licensees shall, when determining the dose from airborne radioactive material, include...

  1. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  2. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  3. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  4. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  5. 10 CFR 835.403 - Air monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... monitoring. (a) Monitoring of airborne radioactivity shall be performed: (1) Where an individual is likely to... radioactivity hazard where respiratory protective devices for protection against airborne radionuclides have... warning of airborne radioactivity concentrations that warrant immediate action to terminate inhalation...

  6. Method for radioactivity monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Umbarger, C. John; Cowder, Leo R.

    1976-10-26

    The disclosure relates to a method for analyzing uranium and/or thorium contents of liquid effluents preferably utilizing a sample containing counting chamber. Basically, 185.7-keV gamma rays following .sup.235 U alpha decay to .sup.231 Th which indicate .sup.235 U content and a 63-keV gamma ray doublet found in the nucleus of .sup.234 Pa, a granddaughter of .sup.238 U, are monitored and the ratio thereof taken to derive uranium content and isotopic enrichment .sup.235 U/.sup.235 U + .sup.238 U) in the liquid effluent. Thorium content is determined by monitoring the intensity of 238-keV gamma rays from the nucleus of .sup.212 Bi in the decay chain of .sup.232 Th.

  7. Field investigation of airborne radioactivity anomalies in Marquette County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, Harold L.

    1950-01-01

    The broad radioactivity anomalies recorded by the airborne detector in the vicinity of Republic, Marquette County, Michigan, coincide rather closely with parts of a granitic complex chiefly of Archean age. Ground examination of the rock in these areas of high radioactivity shows that the granitic rock typically yields two to four times the normal background activity. Fissures, shear zones, veins, and pegmatites were tested carefully. None exhibited activity higher than that of the adjacent granitic rock. It is significant that the zones of more-than-average radio-activity are related to the larger elements of the geology - in fact, the information will be of considerable value in reconsideration of some of the regional problems.

  8. Functional requirements document for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Criddle, J.D. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    This document states the functional requirements and procedures for systems making measurements of radioactive airborne emissions from facilities at the Hanford Site. The following issues are addressed in this document: Definition of the program objectives; Selection of the overall approach to collecting the samples; Sampling equipment design; Sampling equipment maintenance, and quality assurance issues. The intent of this document is to assist WHC in demonstrating a high quality of air emission measurements with verified system performance based on documented system design, testing, inspection, and maintenance.

  9. Identification of airborne radioactive spatial patterns in Europe - Feasibility study using Beryllium-7.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Cinelli, G; Tollefsen, T; Marín-Ferrer, M

    2016-05-01

    The present study proposes a methodology to identify spatial patterns in airborne radioactive particles in Europe. The methodology is based on transforming the activity concentrations in the set of stations for each month (monthly index), due to the tightly spaced sampling intervals (daily to monthly), in combination with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering approaches, due to the lack of a priori knowledge of the number of clusters to be created. Three different hierarchical cluster methodologies are explored to set the optimal number of clusters necessary to initialize the non-hierarchical one (k-means). To evaluate this methodology, cosmogenic beryllium-7 ((7)Be) data, collected between 2007 and 2010 at 19 sampling stations in European Union (EU) countries and stored in the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) database, are used. This methodology yields a solution with three distinguishable clusters (south, central and north), each with a different evolution of the (7)Be monthly index. Clear differences between monthly indices are shown in both intensity and time trends, following a latitudinal distribution of the sampling stations. This cluster result is evaluated performing ANOVA analysis, considering the original (7)Be activity concentrations grouped in each cluster. The statistical results (among clusters and sampling stations within clusters) confirm the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe, and, hence, reinforce the use of this methodology. Finally, the impact of tropopause height on this grouping is successfully tested, suggesting its influence on the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe. For airborne radioactive particles the analysis gave valuable results that improve knowledge of these atmospheric compounds in Europe. Hence, this work addresses a methodology to a grouping of airborne sampling stations, 1) allowing a better understanding of the distribution of (7)Be activity concentrations in the EU, and 2) serving as a basis for

  10. Identification of airborne radioactive spatial patterns in Europe - Feasibility study using Beryllium-7.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Cinelli, G; Tollefsen, T; Marín-Ferrer, M

    2016-05-01

    The present study proposes a methodology to identify spatial patterns in airborne radioactive particles in Europe. The methodology is based on transforming the activity concentrations in the set of stations for each month (monthly index), due to the tightly spaced sampling intervals (daily to monthly), in combination with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering approaches, due to the lack of a priori knowledge of the number of clusters to be created. Three different hierarchical cluster methodologies are explored to set the optimal number of clusters necessary to initialize the non-hierarchical one (k-means). To evaluate this methodology, cosmogenic beryllium-7 ((7)Be) data, collected between 2007 and 2010 at 19 sampling stations in European Union (EU) countries and stored in the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) database, are used. This methodology yields a solution with three distinguishable clusters (south, central and north), each with a different evolution of the (7)Be monthly index. Clear differences between monthly indices are shown in both intensity and time trends, following a latitudinal distribution of the sampling stations. This cluster result is evaluated performing ANOVA analysis, considering the original (7)Be activity concentrations grouped in each cluster. The statistical results (among clusters and sampling stations within clusters) confirm the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe, and, hence, reinforce the use of this methodology. Finally, the impact of tropopause height on this grouping is successfully tested, suggesting its influence on the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe. For airborne radioactive particles the analysis gave valuable results that improve knowledge of these atmospheric compounds in Europe. Hence, this work addresses a methodology to a grouping of airborne sampling stations, 1) allowing a better understanding of the distribution of (7)Be activity concentrations in the EU, and 2) serving as a basis for

  11. Atmospheric xenon radioactive isotope monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, J P; Pointurier, F; Blanchard, X; Taffary, T

    2004-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) organisation is implementing a world-wide monitoring network in order to check that the State Signatories comply with the treaty. One of the monitoring facilities consists of an atmospheric noble gas monitoring equipment. According to the requirements annexed in the treaty, the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) developed a device, called SPALAX, which automatically extracts xenon from ambient air and makes in situ measurements of the activities of four xenon radioisotopes (131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, 135Xe). The originality of this device is noticeable essentially in the gas sample processing method: thanks to the coupling of a gas permeator and of a noble gas specific adsorbent, it can selectively extract and concentrate xenon to more than 3 x 10 E6. This process is carried out continuously without cryogenic cooling, without any regeneration time. The detection of the xenon radioactive isotopes is done automatically by high spectral resolution gamma spectrometry, a robust technology well-suited for on-field instrumentation. In the year 2000, a prototype was involved in an international evaluation exercise directed by the CTBT organisation (CTBTO). This exercise demonstrated that the SPALAX equipment perfectly met the requirements of the CTBTO for such systems. On the basis of the continuous 24-h resolution record of the atmospheric xenon radioactive isotopes concentrations, the SPALAX system also demonstrated that ambient levels of 133Xe can fluctuate quickly from less than the detection limit to over 40 x 10(-3) Bq m(-3). In order to build an industrial version of this equipment, the CEA entered into a partnership with a French engineering company (S.F.I., Marseille, France), which is now able to produce an industrial version of SPALAX, i.e. more compact and more efficient than the prototypes. The 133Xe minimum detectable concentration is 0.15 x 10(-3) Bq m(-3) air per 24 h sampling cycle.

  12. Airborne radioactive effluent study at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, R.L.; Broadway, J.A.; Sensintaffar, E.L.; Kirk, W.P.; Kahn, B.; Garrett, A.J.

    1984-07-01

    Under the Clean Air Act, Sections 112 and 122 as amended in 1977, the Office of Radiation Programs (OPR) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency is currently developing standards for radionuclides emitted to the air by several source categories. In order to confirm source-term measurements and pathway calculations for radiation exposures to humans offsite, the ORP performs field studies at selected facilities that emit radionuclides. This report describes the field study conducted at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), a laboratory operated by E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company for the US Department of Energy. This purpose of the study at ARP was to verify reported airborne releases and resulting radiation doses from the facility. Measurements of radionuclide releases for brief periods were compared with measurements performed by SRP staff on split samples and with annual average releases reported by SRP for the same facilities. The dispersion model used by SRP staff to calculate radiation doses offsite was tested by brief environmental radioactivity measurements performed simultaneously with the release measurements, and by examining radioactivity levels in environmental samples. This report describes in detail all measurements made and data collected during the field study and presents the results obtained. 34 references, 18 figures, 49 tables.

  13. An electrostatic precipitator for the study of airborne radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Andrews, L L; Schery, S D; Wilkening, M H

    1984-04-01

    An system has been developed to measure airborne radioactivity using electrostatic precipitation for collection and alpha-particle spectroscopy for detection. Features include good energy resolution (e.g. 170 and 300 KeV for full-width half maximum and full-width tenth maximum for 7.7-MeV alpha particles using a 7-cm2 area detector; and 52- and 122-KeV, respectively, using 1.2-cm2 area detector) and versatile computer control for collection, counting and data reduction. Aerosols bearing the radioactive atoms are deposited on a foil tape by electrostatic precipitation for a predetermined time after which the foil is moved under a solid-state detector to count the alpha-particle emissions. Activities are determined at the same frequency as samples are collected. Helium gas can be introduced at the detector to reduce energy loss and improve resolution. Although in principle certain aerosol sizes could be difficult to collect, in practice no difficulties were observed for typical environmental conditions, provided sufficiently low air-sampling rates were used. One important application is the measurement of 222Rn daughters. The sensitivity is such that detection of individual daughter concentrations less than 0.1 pCi/l. with only a 10% counting error is possible.

  14. Airborne radioactivity survey in the vicinity of Grants, McKinley and Valencia Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stead, Frank W.

    1951-01-01

    An airborne radioactivity survey in the vicinity of Grants, New Mexico, was made on May 28. 1951; aeromagnetic measurements were made concurrently with the radioactivity measurements. Several radioactivity anomalies were noted in conjunction with negative magnetic anomalies; this association is unusual and may reflect a genetic relationship between the uranium mineralization and the geologic structure causing the negative magnetic effect. Further investigation of the vicinity of the anomalies near the Haystack area, including ground magnetometer survey, seems warranted.

  15. Apparatus and method for automated monitoring of airborne bacterial spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponce, Adrian (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus and method for automated monitoring of airborne bacterial spores. The apparatus is provided with an air sampler, a surface for capturing airborne spores, a thermal lysis unit to release DPA from bacterial spores, a source of lanthanide ions, and a spectrometer for excitation and detection of the characteristic fluorescence of the aromatic molecules in bacterial spores complexed with lanthanide ions. In accordance with the method: computer-programmed steps allow for automation of the apparatus for the monitoring of airborne bacterial spores.

  16. Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region, Kern, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1952-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region Kern, Riverside, and Bernardino counties were made in five areas recommended as favorable for the occurrence of radioactive raw materials: (1) Rock Corral area, San Bernardino County. (2) Searles Station area, Kern county. (3) Soledad area, Kern County. (4) White Tank area, Riverside and San Bernardino counties. (5) Harvard Hills area, San Bernardino County. Anomalous radiation was detected in all but the Harvard Hills area. The radioactivity anomalies detected in the Rock Corral area are of the greatest amplitude yet recorded by the airborne equipment over natural sources. The activity is apparently attributable to the thorium-beating mineral associated with roof pendants of crystalline metamorphic rocks in a granitic intrusive. In the Searles Station, Soledad, and White Tank area, several radioactivity anomalies of medium amplitude were recorded, suggesting possible local concentrations of radioactive minerals.

  17. Drilling of airborne radioactivity anomalies in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, 1954

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, J.B.

    1954-01-01

    From April 22 to May 19, 1953, airborne radioactivity surveys totalling 5,600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida (Moxham, 1954).  Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in Bradford, Clay, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties, Florida.  Additional airborne surveys were made in the Spring of 1954 in Hardee and Manatee Counties, Florida, on the drainage of the Altamaha River in Georgia, and in the area of the old phosphate workings in and around Charleston County, South Carolina.

  18. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Miller Hill area, Carbon county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 65 square miles northwest of Miller Hill, Carbon county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomalies shown on the accompanying map cannot be interpreted in terms of either the radioactive content or the extent of the source materials. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to uranium, or to thorium, or to a combination of uranium and thorium. The radioactivity that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. Any particular anomaly

  19. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors.

    PubMed

    McLean, Thomas D; Moore, Murray E; Justus, Alan L; Hudston, Jonathan A; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. The Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch's minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The measured alpha activity increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. Data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source has been used to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors. PMID:27682903

  20. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  1. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Atlantic Ocean beach, Virginia to Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, R.M.; Johnson, R.W.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying maps show the results of an airborne radioactivity survey along the Atlantic Ocean beach from Cape Henry, Virginia to Cape Fear, North Carolina and from Savannah Bach Georgia to Miami Beach, Florida. The survey was made March 23-24, 1953, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft and consisted of one flight line, at a 500-foot altitude, parallel to the beach. The vertical projection of the flight line coincided approximately with the landward limit of the modern beach. The width of the zone on the ground from which anomalous radiation is measured at the normal 500 foot flight altitude varies with the areal extent radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone would be as much as 1,400 feet. The location of the flight lines is shown on the index map below. No abnormal radioactivity was detected along the northern flight line between Cape Henry, Virginia and Cape Fear, North Carolina. Along the southern flight line fourteen areas of abnormal radioactivity were detected between Savannah Beach, Georgia and Anastasia Island, Florida as shown on the map on the left. The abnormal radioactivity is apparently due to radioactive minerals associated with "black sand" deposits with occur locally along the beach in this region. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity sue to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. It is not possible to determine the extent or radioactive content of the materials responsible for the abnormal radioactivity. The information given on the accompanying map indicates only those localities of greater-than-average radioactivity and, therefore suggest areas in which uranium and thorium deposits are more

  2. Savannah River Site Ingestion Pathway Methodology Manual for Airborne Radioactive Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, A.W. III

    2001-01-03

    This manual documents a recommended methodology for determining the ingestion pathway consequences of hypothetical accidental airborne radiological releases from facilities at the Savannah River Site. Both particulate and tritiated radioactive contaminants are addressed. Other approaches should be applied for evaluation of routine releases.

  3. A Computer Code to Estimate Environmental Concentration and Dose Due to Airborne Release of Radioactive Material.

    1991-03-15

    Version 00 ORION-II was developed to estimate environmental concentration and dose due to airborne release of radioactive material from multiple sources of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. ORION-II is an updated version of ORION and is applicable to the sensitivity study of dose assessment at nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  4. Airborne radioactivity Survey of part of Saratoga NW quadrangle, Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 133 square miles of Saratoga NW quadrangle, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater Counties by the U. S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  5. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of the Atlantic Ocean beach, North and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.; Bortner, T.E.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey along the Atlantic Ocean beach between Edisto Island, South Carolina and Cape Fear, North Carolina. The survey was made May 20, 1953, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft and consisted of one flight line, at a 500-foot altitude, parallel to the beach. The vertical projection of the flight line coincided approximately with the landward limit of the modern beach. The width of the zone on the ground from which anomalous radiation is measured at the nominal 500 foot flight altitude varies with areal extent and intensity of radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone may be as much as 1400 feet. The accompanying maps show the approximate locations of the areas of greater-than-average radioactivity (at left) and the location of the traverse flown (at right). The abnormal radioactivity is apparently caused by radioactive minerals associated with "black sand" deposits which occur locally along the beach in this region. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or a combination of these elements. It is not possible to determine the extent or radioactive content of the materials responsible for the abnormal radioactivity. The information given in the accompanying map showing the localities of greater-than-average radioactivity therefore, suggests areas in which uranium and thorium deposits are more likely to occur.

  6. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Gulf of Mexico beach between Sanibel Island and Caladesi Island, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.; Bortner, T.E.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey along the Gulf of Mexico beach between Sanibel Island and Caladesi Island in Florida. This survey was made May 4, 1953, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft and consisted of one flight line, at a 500-foot altitude , parallel to the beach. The vertical projection of the flight line coincided approximately with the landward limit of the modern beach. The width of the zone on the ground from which anomalous radiation is measured at the nominal 500 foot flight altitude varies with the areal extent and intensity of the radioactivity the width of the zone may be as much as 1400 feet. The accompanying map and index map show the approximate locations of the areas of greater-than-average radioactivity and the location of the traverse flown. The abnormal radioactivity is apparently caused by radioactive minerals associated with "black sand" deposits which occur locally along the beach in the region. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. It is not possible to determine the extent or radioactive content of the materials responsible for the abnormal radioactivity. The information given in the accompanying map showing the localities of greater-than-average radioactivity therefore, suggests area in which uranium or thorium deposits are more likely to occur.

  7. Airborne radioactivity of portions of the Defiance Uplift and Carrizo Mountains, Apache county, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.W.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 940 square miles in Apache county, Arizona. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey from September 8 to October 3, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the

  8. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Tabernacle Buttes area, Sublette and Fremont counties, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in an area of 670 square miles in Sublette and Fremont counties, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 20, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the

  9. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Devils Tower area, Crook county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 45 square miles northwest of Devils Tower, Crook County, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey on September 4, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the

  10. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Aspen Mountain area, Sweetwater county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 700 square miles in the Aspen Mountain area, Sweetwater county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 22, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils

  11. Airborne radioactivity survey of the West Lonetree area, Uinta county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in an area of 154 square miles in Uinta county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 23, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area

  12. Can airborne ultrasound monitor bubble size in chocolate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, N.; Hazlehurst, T.; Povey, M.; Vieira, J.; Sundara, R.; Sandoz, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    Aerated chocolate products consist of solid chocolate with the inclusion of bubbles and are a popular consumer product in many countries. The volume fraction and size distribution of the bubbles has an effect on their sensory properties and manufacturing cost. For these reasons it is important to have an online real time process monitoring system capable of measuring their bubble size distribution. As these products are eaten by consumers it is desirable that the monitoring system is non contact to avoid food contaminations. In this work we assess the feasibility of using an airborne ultrasound system to monitor the bubble size distribution in aerated chocolate bars. The experimental results from the airborne acoustic experiments were compared with theoretical results for known bubble size distributions using COMSOL Multiphysics. This combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to develop a greater understanding of how ultrasound propagates through aerated chocolate and to assess the feasibility of using airborne ultrasound to monitor bubble size distribution in these systems. The results indicated that a smaller bubble size distribution would result in an increase in attenuation through the product.

  13. Airborne radioactivity surveys of parts of Savery SW and Savery SE quadrangles, Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 222 square miles of Savery SW and Savery SE quadrangles, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater Counties by the U. S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  14. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Savery NW and Savery NE quadrangles, Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 266 square miles of Savery NW and Savery NE quadrangles, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater Counties by the U. S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  15. Monitoring Groundwater Contaminant Plumes Using Airborne Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Martin; Oftendinger, Ulrich; Ruffell, Alastair; Cowan, Marie; Cassidy, Rachel; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Wilson, Christopher; Desissa, Mohammednur

    2013-04-01

    Under the European Union Water Framework Directive, Member States are required to assess water quality across both surface water and groundwater bodies. Subsurface pollution plumes, originating from a variety of sources, pose a significant direct risk to water quality. The monitoring and characterisation of groundwater contaminant plumes is generally invasive, time consuming and expensive. In particular, adequately capturing the contaminant plume with monitoring installations, when the extent of the feature is unknown and the presence of contamination is only evident from indirect observations, can be prohibitively expensive. This research aims to identify the extent and nature of subsurface contaminant plumes using airborne geophysical survey data. This data was collected across parts of the island of Ireland within the scope of the original Tellus and subsequent Tellus Border projects. The rapid assessment of the airborne electro-magnetic (AEM) data allowed the identification of several sites containing possible contaminant plumes. These AEM anomalies were assessed through the analysis of existing site data and field site inspections, with areas of interest being examined for metallic structures that could affect the AEM data. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and ground-based electro-magnetic (EM) surveys were performed to ground-truth existing airborne data and to confirm the extent and nature of the affected area identified using the airborne data. Groundwater and surface water quality were assessed using existing field site information. Initial results collected from a landfill site underlain by basalt have indicated that the AEM data, coupled with ERT and GPR, can successfully be used to locate possible plumes and help delineate their extent. The analysis of a range of case study sites exhibiting different geological and environmental settings will allow for the development of a consistent methodology for examining the

  16. Enhanced airborne radioactivity during a pine pollen release episode.

    PubMed

    Tschiersch, J; Frank, G; Roth, P; Wagenpfeil, F; Watterson, F; Watterson, J

    1999-07-01

    A single episode of pine pollen release in the highly contaminated area of Novozybkov, Russian Federation, which led to enhanced atmospheric concentrations of 137Cs is discussed. The pollen grains were sampled by a rotating arm impactor and analysed by gamma-spectrometry for 137Cs activity and by image analysis for their size. In the vicinity of a forest, a maximum concentration of 4.5+/-0.4 mBq m(-3) was measured, and a mean activity per pollen grain of 260+/-80 nBq was determined. The emission rate of the Novozybkov mixed pine forest was estimated to be approximately 400 Bq m(-2) per year. Because of the large size of pine pollen grains (about 50 microm) and the short emission period of 5-8 days per year, the estimated potential annual inhalation doses are very low. Biological emissions including pollen release may be a source of increased airborne radionuclide concentrations at larger distances from the source areas as well. PMID:10461761

  17. Evaluation of three portable samplers for monitoring airborne fungi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Airborne fungi were monitored at five sample sites with the Burkard portable, the RCS Plus, and the SAS Super 90 air samplers; the Andersen 2-stage impactor was used for comparison. All samplers were calibrated before being used simultaneously to collect 100-liter samples at each site. The Andersen and Burkard samplers retrieved equivalent volumes of airborne fungi; the SAS Super 90 and RCS Plus measurements did not differ from each other but were significantly lower than those obtained with the Andersen or Burkard samplers. Total fungal counts correlated linearly with Cladosporium and Penicillium counts. Alternaria species, although present at all sites, did not correlate with total count or with amounts of any other fungal genera. Sampler and location significantly influenced fungal counts, but no interactions between samplers and locations were found.

  18. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, D.K.; Tyree, W.H.

    1987-03-23

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-preamplifier combination. 2 figs.

  19. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, David K.; Tyree, William H.

    1989-04-11

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-pre The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP03533 between the Department of Energy and Rockwell International Corporation.

  20. New Methods for Personal Exposure Monitoring for Airborne Particles

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Kirsten A.; Peters, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Airborne particles have been associated with a range of adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes, which has driven its monitoring at stationary, central sites throughout the world. Individual exposures, however, can differ substantially from concentrations measured at central sites due to spatial variability across a region and sources unique to the individual, such as cooking or cleaning in homes, traffic emissions during commutes, and widely varying sources encountered at work. Personal monitoring with small, battery-powered instruments enables the measurement of an individual’s exposure as they go about their daily activities. Personal monitoring can substantially reduce exposure misclassification and improve the power to detect relationships between particulate pollution and adverse health outcomes. By partitioning exposures to known locations and sources, it may be possible to account for variable toxicity of different sources. This review outlines recent advances in the field of personal exposure assessment for particulate pollution. Advances in battery technology have improved the feasibility of 24-hour monitoring, providing the ability to more completely attribute exposures to microenvironment (e.g., work, home, commute). New metrics to evaluate the relationship between particulate matter and health are also being considered, including particle number concentration, particle composition measures, and particle oxidative load. Such metrics provide opportunities to develop more precise associations between airborne particles and health and may provide opportunities for more effective regulations. PMID:26385477

  1. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-06-15

    Radioactive fission product {sup 131}I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m{sup -3} in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m{sup -3}) variation of stable cesium ({sup 133}Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  2. Correlation between Asian Dust and Specific Radioactivities of Fission Products Included in Airborne Samples in Tokushima, Shikoku Island, Japan, Due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakama, M.; Nagano, Y.; Kitade, T.; Shikino, O.; Nakayama, S.

    2014-06-01

    Radioactive fission product 131I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (FD-NPP) was first detected on March 23, 2011 in an airborne aerosol sample collected at Tokushima, Shikoku Island, located in western Japan. Two other radioactive fission products, 134Cs and 137Cs were also observed in a sample collected from April 2 to 4, 2011. The maximum specific radioactivities observed in this work were about 2.5 to 3.5 mBq×m-3 in a airborne aerosol sample collected on April 6. During the course of the continuous monitoring, we also made our first observation of seasonal Asian Dust and those fission products associated with the FDNPP accident concurrently from May 2 to 5, 2011. We found that the specific radioactivities of 134Cs and 137Cs decreased drastically only during the period of Asian Dust. And also, it was found that this trend was very similar to the atmospheric elemental concentration (ng×m-3) variation of stable cesium (133Cs) quantified by elemental analyses using our developed ICP-DRC-MS instrument.

  3. Air modelling as an alternative to sampling for low-level radioactive airborne releases

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, M.Y.; Hueske, K.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes our efforts to assess the effect of airborne releases at one DOE laboratory using air modelling based on historical data. Among the facilities affected by these developments is Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico. RCRA, as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) in 1984, requires all facilities which involve the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste obtain a RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit. LANL complied with CEARP by initiating a process of identifying potential release sites associated with LANL operations prior to filing a RCRA/HSWA permit application. In the process of preparing the RCRA/HSWA waste facility permit application to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a total of 603 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) were identified as part of the requirements of the HSWA Module VIH permit requirements. The HSWA Module VIII permit requires LANL to determine whether there have been any releases of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents from SWMUs at the facility dating from the 1940`s by performing a RCRA Facility Investigation to address known or suspected releases from specified SWMUs to affected media (i.e. soil, groundwater, surface water, and air). Among the most troublesome of the potential releases sites are those associated with airborne radioactive releases. In order to assess health risks associated with radioactive contaminants in a manner consistent with exposure standards currently in place, the DOE and LANL have established Screening Action Levels (SALs) for radioactive soil contamination. The SALs for each radionuclide in soil are derived from calculations based on a residential scenario in which individuals are exposed to contaminated soil via inhalation and ingestion as well as external exposure to gamma emitters in the soil. The applicable SALs are shown.

  4. Evaluation of portable air samplers for monitoring airborne culturable bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Bell-Robinson, D. M.; Groves, T. O.; Stetzenbach, L. D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne culturable bacteria were monitored at five locations (three in an office/laboratory building and two in a private residence) in a series of experiments designed to compare the efficiency of four air samplers: the Andersen two-stage, Burkard portable, RCS Plus, and SAS Super 90 samplers. A total of 280 samples was collected. The four samplers were operated simultaneously, each sampling 100 L of air with collection on trypticase soy agar. The data were corrected by applying positive hole conversion factors for the Burkard portable, Andersen two-stage, and SAS Super 90 air samplers, and were expressed as log10 values prior to statistical analysis by analysis of variance. The Burkard portable air sampler retrieved the highest number of airborne culturable bacteria at four of the five sampling sites, followed by the SAS Super 90 and the Andersen two-stage impactor. The number of bacteria retrieved by the RCS Plus was significantly less than those retrieved by the other samplers. Among the predominant bacterial genera retrieved by all samplers were Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, and Streptococcus.

  5. Concepts for Environmental Radioactive Air Sampling and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-11-04

    Environmental radioactive air sampling and monitoring is becoming increasingly important as regulatory agencies promulgate requirements for the measurement and quantification of radioactive contaminants. While researchers add to the growing body of knowledge in this area, events such as earthquakes and tsunamis demonstrate how nuclear systems can be compromised. The result is the need for adequate environmental monitoring to assure the public of their safety and to assist emergency workers in their response. Two forms of radioactive air monitoring include direct effluent measurements and environmental surveillance. This chapter presents basic concepts for direct effluent sampling and environmental surveillance of radioactive air emissions, including information on establishing the basis for sampling and/or monitoring, criteria for sampling media and sample analysis, reporting and compliance, and continual improvement.

  6. Various consequences regarding hypothetical dispersion of airborne radioactivity in a city center.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Lage; Plamboeck, Agneta H; Johansson, Erik; Waldenvik, Mattias

    2013-02-01

    In case of dispersion of airborne radioactive material in a city center a number of questions will prompt for an answer. While many questions can get their answers in due course of time based on results of tests and sampling, a good understanding of the quantitative effect of dispersion will be very helpful to rescue staff, in particular in the early stage. In the following dose and dose rate estimates are presented for three scenarios including dispersion of radioactivity in a city center. In one case the activity is released in an open place, in another from a roof and in the third case from a source on a street where the wind is blowing along the street. In each case, at specific positions, estimates are made of dose from inhalation, and dose rates for contamination on skin as well as from radioactive particles deposited onto ground, walls and roofs (external exposure) in the city center. It should be noted that the deposition pattern in urban areas varies greatly which means that the consequences are difficult to predict. The dispersion is influenced by recirculation behind tall buildings and diverted flow close to street-ends, which have significant effects on the deposit pattern. Regarding the relative importance of contributions to total dose it is found that inhalation could play a major role for long term effects while dose to skin might dominate acute effects.

  7. Laser sensor for monitoring radioactive contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kascheev, S. V.; Elizarov, V. V.; Grishkanich, A. S.; Bespalov, V. G.; Vasiev, S. K.; Zhevlakov, A. P.

    2014-11-01

    Remote laser spectroscopy availability for airborne search of radionuclides polution has been examined. Experiments were carried out under the CARS circuit. The method of remote detection a radionuclide in atmosphere from container burial places and in places of recycling the fuel waste of the atomic power station is elaborated. Preliminary results of investigation show the real possibility to register of leakage of a radionuclide with concentration at level of 1012÷1013 cm-3 on a safe distance from the infected object.

  8. Monitoring of space weather and radioactivity using small airborne platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles; Lidgard, Jeffrey; Aplin, Karen L.; Nicoll, Keri A.

    2013-04-01

    Space Weather is increasingly considered as a hazard to society's technological systems, but the effects of energetic particles within the atmosphere - with a potential implication for climate - also present an area in which new scientific knowledge needs to be developed. Routine measurements of energetic particle fluxes made above the surface have been made by the Lebedev Institute, undertaking continuous balloon-carried measurements since 1957. An underexploited measurement opportunity is presented by the conventional weather balloons (radiosondes) launched regularly globally by meteorological services, which could potentially provide a cost-effective alternative to custom balloon flights, as well as the ability to make measurements of particle fluxes at a wide range of latitudes. This work describes the development of a small disposable ionisation sensor, exploiting the well-known response of inexpensive semiconductor devices (e.g. PIN photodiodes) to ionising radiation. Such a Photodiode Radiation Detector (PRD) is particularly suitable for balloon use, as, unlike previous Geiger tube detector systems, only low bias voltages are required, which simplifies the circuitry required, reduces power consumption and entirely removes any high voltage hazard. In addition to providing count rate information, basic energy spectrum information is in principle available from pulse amplitudes generated. We discuss the evaluation and deployment considerations for the use of a PRD on a standard radiosonde platform, to operate within and alongside the existing operational meteorological requirements.

  9. Validation of Monte Carlo model of HPGe detector for field-station measurement of airborne radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šolc, J.; Kovář, P.; Dryák, P.

    2016-03-01

    A Monte Carlo (MC) model of a mechanically-cooled High Purity Germanium detection system IDM-200-V™ manufactured by ORTEC® was created, optimized and validated within the scope of the Joint Research Project ENV57 ``Metrology for radiological early warning networks in Europe''. The validation was performed for a planar source homogeneously distributed on a filter placed on top of the detector end cap and for point sources positioned farther from the detector by comparing simulated full-energy peak (FEP) detection efficiencies with the ones measured with two or three different pieces of the IDM detector. True coincidence summing correction factors were applied to the measured FEP efficiencies. Relative differences of FEP efficiencies laid within 8% that is fully satisfactory for the intended use of the detectors as instruments for airborne radioactivity measurement in field-stations. The validated MC model of the IDM-200-V™ detector is now available for further MC calculations planned in the ENV57 project.

  10. Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data compilation and reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, S.A.; Thomas, S.P.

    1994-02-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling data from radioactie aiborne emissions. These data will be reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions are reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants , ``Subpart H, ``National Emissions Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities`` (EPA 1989a). Reporting to US Department of Energy is performed in compliance with requirements of US Department of Energy Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1988a).

  11. HIERARCHIAL BAYESIAN CALIBRATION: AN APPLICATION TO AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER MONITORING DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In studies of the relationship between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and health, researchers frequently use monitoring data with the most extensive temporal coverage. Such data may come from a monitor that is not a federal reference monitor (FRM), a monitor that is d...

  12. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Baggs SW and Baggs SE quadrangles, Carbon and Sweetwater counties, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 151 square miles of Baggs SW and Baggs SE quadrangles, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater counties by the U.S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a C-47 aircraft and consisted of parallel east-west flight lines spaced at quarter mile intervals, flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyrostabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. The width of the zone on the ground form which the anomalous radiation is measured at the nominal 500 foot flight altitude varied with the areal extent and the intensity of radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone may be as much as 1,400 feet. Thus, quarter mile spacing of the flight lines would be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity; however, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight lines may not be noted. The approximate locations of twelve radioactivity anomalies are shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of the anomalies may be in error by as much as a quarter mile owing to the errors in available base maps or to the existence of areas on the base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. The radioactivity

  13. Airborne radioactivity survey of parts of Sand Creek SW and Sand Creek SE quadrangles, Sweetwater county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, J.R.

    1954-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey in 125 square miles of Sand Creek SW and Sand Creek SE quadrangles, Wyoming. This area is part of a larger survey made in southern Carbon and Sweetwater counties by the U.S. Geological Survey, November 9-24, 1953. The work was undertaken as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation detection equipment mounted in a C-47 aircraft and consisted of parallel east-west flight lines spaced at quarter mile intervals, flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyrostabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. The width of the zone on the ground form which the anomalous radiation is measured at the nominal 500 foot flight altitude varied with the areal extent and the intensity of radioactivity of the source. For strong sources of radioactivity the width of the zone may be as much as 1,400 feet. Thus, quarter mile spacing of the flight lines would be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity; however, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight lines may not be noted. The approximate locations of nine radioactivity anomalies are shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of the anomalies may be in error by as much as a quarter mile owing to the errors in available base maps or to the existence of areas on the base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The present technique of airborne radioactivity measurement does not permit distinguishing between activity due to thorium and that due to uranium. An anomaly, therefore, may represent radioactivity due entirely to one or to a combination of these elements. The

  14. Experience of monitoring beaches for radioactive particles.

    PubMed

    Davies, Mike; McCulloch, George; Adsley, Ian

    2007-09-01

    This paper discusses some of the theoretical and practical problems that are encountered in monitoring beaches for hot particles. The experience is from operating a near-continuous monitoring program, for a period of eight years, on beaches near the Dounreay site. The reliability and failure mechanisms of the monitoring systems used will be discussed, together with remedial actions employed. The viability and performance of several types and configurations of radiation detectors will be described, along with methods by which particles might be detected, given their response to buried particles. When large areas are being monitored at high spatial resolution, which is required for efficient particle detection, the volume of data recorded for audit purposes can be very large. The use and abuse of Geographical Information Systems for this work is described. Other practical aspects of performing surveys are also discussed, including understanding health-and-safety requirements; constraints imposed by weather, tides and tidal speed; the logistics of making vehicles available to perform the work; and how a particle should be recovered once detected. PMID:17768319

  15. Environmental hazards and distribution of radioactive black sand along the Rosetta coastal zone in Egypt using airborne spectrometric and remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, M F; Aziz, A M; Ghieth, B M

    2014-11-01

    High-resolution airborne gamma ray spectrometry, conducted in 2003, was used to estimate radioactive elements spatial abundance along the Rosetta coastal zone area. It was noticed that both Uranium and Thorium are concentrated in the black sand deposits along the beach. In contrary, Potassium was observed in high level abundance at the cultivated Nile Delta lands due to the accumulated usage of fertilizers. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR) and Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR) were calculated to evaluate the radiation background influence in human. Results indicated that the human body in the study sites is subjected to radiation hazards exceeds the accepted limit for long duration exposure. In addition, the areas covered by the highest concentration of Uranium and Thorium show the highest level of radiogenic heat production. Detection the environmental hazards of the radioactive black sands in the study site encouraged this research to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of these sediments. The Landsat Thematic Mapper images acquired in 1990, 2003 and 2013 were analyzed using remote sensing image processing techniques. Image enhancements, classification and changes detection indicated a positive significant relationship between the patterns of coastline changes and distribution of the radioactive black sand in the study sites. The radioactive black sands are usually concentrated in the eroded areas. Therefore, in 1990 high concentration of the radioactive black sands were observed along the eastern and western flanks of the Rosetta promontory. Distribution of these sediments decreased due to the construction of the protective sea walls. Most of the radioactive black sands are transported toward the east in Abu Khashaba bay under the effect of the longshore currents and toward the west in Alexandria and Abu Quir bay under the action of the seasonal reverse currents.

  16. Remote monitoring of soil moisture using airborne microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroll, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    The current status of microwave radiometry is provided. The fundamentals of the microwave radiometer are reviewed with particular reference to airborne operations, and the interpretative procedures normally used for the modeling of the apparent temperature are presented. Airborne microwave radiometer measurements were made over selected flight lines in Chickasha, Oklahoma and Weslaco, Texas. Extensive ground measurements of soil moisture were made in support of the aircraft mission over the two locations. In addition, laboratory determination of the complex permittivities of soil samples taken from the flight lines were made with varying moisture contents. The data were analyzed to determine the degree of correlation between measured apparent temperatures and soil moisture content.

  17. Quality assurance program plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Boom, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan identifies quality assurance program requirements and addresses the various Westinghouse Hanford Company organizations and their particular responsibilities in regards to sample and data handling of radiological airborne emissions. This Quality Assurance Program Plan is prepared in accordance with and to written requirements.

  18. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  19. Airborne thermography for condition monitoring of a public baths building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Mats; Hellman, Erik; Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    2001-03-01

    Airborne and ground-based thermography surveys have been performed in order to detect moisture and energy related problems in the construction of a public swimming bath building. This paper describes the information potential and the advantages and limitations using a standard IR-camera and traditional inspection methods to gather information for retrofit priorities. The damage conditions indicated in the thermal images are confirmed by field inspections and photographic documentation.

  20. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk-jin; Jung, Jungkyo; Kang, Ki-mook; Kim, Seung Hee; Xu, Zhen; Hensley, Scott; Swan, Aaron; Duersch, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge.

  1. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk-jin; Jung, Jungkyo; Kang, Ki-mook; Kim, Seung Hee; Xu, Zhen; Hensley, Scott; Swan, Aaron; Duersch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:26437413

  2. Composite design of an advanced airborne monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Busness, K. M.; Alkezweeny, A. J.; Easter, R. C.; Hales, J. M.; Lee, R. N.

    1981-12-01

    Atmospheric chemistry investigations often require a multitude of measurements which can be obtained only through the utilization of airborne sampling platforms. Instrument limitations and the aircraft environment present several considerations for sampling-system design, including such factors as instrument sensitivities and response times, altitude effects, sampling intervals for acquiring samples, and physical compatibility with the aircraft. An aircraft system with an extensive evolutionary instrument array has been in development at PNL for several years during which several special systems have been developed to improve aircraft measurement capabilities. A high-volume air sampling system providing flows of up to 4 m/sup 3//min and simultaneous collection of three filters in parallel has been constructued to reduce filter collection times. A constant pressure inlet system was developed to overcome adverse effects in instrument response resulting from altitude changes. The system functions so that instruments which are connected experinece a constant pre-set pressure regardless of the sampling altitude. This system is particularly useful for airborne operation of a flame photometric sulfur analyzer. Special chemiluminescence NO/NO/sub x/ analyzers utilizing photon counting were built which are capable of fast response and detecton of concentrations in the sub-ppB range.

  3. A Monte Carlo program to calculate the exposure rate from airborne radioactive gases inside a nuclear reactor containment building.

    PubMed

    Sherbini, S; Tamasanis, D; Sykes, J; Porter, S W

    1986-12-01

    A program was developed to calculate the exposure rate resulting from airborne gases inside a reactor containment building. The calculations were performed at the location of a wall-mounted area radiation monitor. The program uses Monte Carlo techniques and accounts for both the direct and scattered components of the radiation field at the detector. The scattered component was found to contribute about 30% of the total exposure rate at 50 keV and dropped to about 7% at 2000 keV. The results of the calculations were normalized to unit activity per unit volume of air in the containment. This allows the exposure rate readings of the area monitor to be used to estimate the airborne activity in containment in the early phases of an accident. Such estimates, coupled with containment leak rates, provide a method to obtain a release rate for use in offsite dose projection calculations.

  4. Use of Airborne Thermal Imagery to Detect and Monitor Inshore Oil Spill Residues During Darkness Hours.

    PubMed

    GRIERSON

    1998-11-01

    / Trials were conducted using an airborne video system operating in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal wavelengths to detect two known oil spill releases during darkness at a distance of 10 nautical miles from the shore in St. Vincent's Gulf, South Australia. The oil spills consisted of two 20-liter samples released at 2-h intervals, one sample consisted of paraffinic neutral material and the other of automotive diesel oil. A tracking buoy was sent overboard in conjunction with the release of sample 1, and its movement monitored by satellite relay. Both oil residues were overflown by a light aircraft equipped with thermal, visible, and infrared imagers at a period of approximately 1 h after the release of the second oil residue. Trajectories of the oil residue releases were also modeled and the results compared to those obtained by the airborne video and the tracking buoy. Airborne imagery in the thermal wavelengths successfully located and mapped both oil residue samples during nighttime conditions. Results from the trial suggest that the most advantageous technique would be the combined use of the tracking beacon to obtain an approximate location of the oil spill and the airborne imagery to ascertain its extent and characteristics.KEY WORDS: Airborne video; Thermal imagery; Global positioning; Oil-spill monitoring; Tracking beacon

  5. Development of an airborne hydrocarbon monitoring system based on FTIR technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogan, Paul A.; Mattson, Carl B.; Schwindt, Chris J.

    1998-10-01

    The capability to monitor airborne hydrocarbon compounds is essential in order to protect sensitive optical payloads from performance degradation caused by the deposition of surface films. Commonly used hydrocarbon monitoring instrumentation such as flame ionization detectors yield no information about the source or identity of compounds they detect. The Fourier Transform IR Spectrometer (FTIR) with its inherent ability to discriminate a large number of compounds offers a tremendous advantage over other types of instrumentation. The contamination monitoring laboratory at John F. Kennedy Space Center has developed an airborne hydrocarbon monitoring system based on FTIR technology to support the AXAF payload. This system consist of a portable cart suitable for use in Class 1 Division 2 environments. This paper describes the system in detail.

  6. Monitoring land use and degradation using satellite and airborne data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Thomas G.; Blom, Ronald G.; Crippen, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    In July 1990 AVIRIS and AIRSAR data were collected over the Manix Basin Area of the Mojave Desert to study land degradation in an arid area where centerpivot irrigation had been in use. The Manix Basin is located NE of Barstow, California, along Interstate-15 at 34 deg 57 min N 116 deg 35 min W. This region was covered by a series of lakes during the Late Pleistocence and Early Holocene. Beginning in the 1960's, areas were cleared of the native creosote bush-dominated plant community to be used for agricultural purposes. Starting in 1972 fields have been abandoned due to the increased cost of electricity needed to pump the irrigation water, with some fields abandoned as recently as 1988 and 1992. These circumstances provide a time series of abandoned fields which provide the possibility of studying the processes which act on agricultural fields in arid regions when they are abandoned. Ray et al. reported that polarimetric SAR (AIRSAR) could detect that the concentric circular planting furrows plowed on these fields persists for a few years after abandonment and then disappear over time and that wind ripples which form on these fields over time due to wind erosion can be detected with polarimetric radar. Ray et al. used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) bandpasses to generate NDVI images of the Manix Basin which showed that the fields abandoned for only a few years had higher NDVI's than the undisturbed desert while the fields abandoned for a longer time had NDVI levels lower than that of the undisturbed desert. The purpose of this study is to use a fusion of a time series of satellite data with airborne data to provide a context for the airborne data. The satellite data time series will additionally help to validate the observation and analysis of time-dependent processes observed in the single AVIRIS image of fields abandoned for different periods of time.

  7. USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO MONITOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT A RADIOACTIVE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    WESTCOTT, J.L.; JOCHEN; PREVETTE

    2007-01-02

    Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State are being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins called K East (KE) and K West (KW) that are large subsurface concrete pools filled with water, with a containment structure over each. The basins presently contain sludge, debris, and equipment that have accumulated over the years. The spent fuel has been removed from the basins. The process for removing the remaining sludge, equipment, and structure has been initiated for the basins. Ongoing removal operations generate solid waste that is being treated as required, and then disposed. The waste, equipment and building structures must be characterized to properly manage, ship, treat (if necessary), and dispose as radioactive waste. As the work progresses, it is expected that radiological conditions in each basin may change as radioactive materials are being moved within and between the basins. It is imperative that these changing conditions be monitored so that radioactive characterization of waste is adjusted as necessary.

  8. USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO MONITOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT A RADIOACTIVE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2006-11-15

    Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins called K East (KE) and K West (KW) that are large subsurface concrete pools filled with water, with a containment structure over each. The basins presently contain sludge, debris, and equipment that have accumulated over the years. The spent fuel has been removed from the basins. The process for removing the remaining sludge, equipment, and structure has been initiated for the basins. Ongoing removal operations generate solid waste that is being treated as required, and then disposed. The waste, equipment and building structures must be characterized to properly manage, ship, treat (if necessary), and dispose as radioactive waste. As the work progresses, it is expected that radiological conditions in each basin may change as radioactive materials are being moved within and between the basins. It is imperative that these changing conditions be monitored so that radioactive characterization of waste is adjusted as necessary.

  9. Sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors for detection of airborne sup 239 Pu

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Amaro, C.R.

    1992-07-01

    Results of measurements of the sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu are presented. Four commercially available alpha CAMs (Kurz model 8311, Merlin Gerin Edgar, RADeCO model 452, and Victoreen model 758) and a prototype alpha CAM currently in use at Argonne National Laboratory- West (ANL-W) were tested sampling natural ambient air and laboratory-generated atmospheres laden with either blank dust or dust containing nCi/g concentrations of {sup 239}Pu. Cumulative alpha spectra were stored at 30 or 60 minute intervals during each sampling and were subsequently analyzed using three different commonly used alpha spectrum analysis algorithms. The effect of airborne dust concentration and sample filter porosity on detector resolution and sensitivity for airborne {sup 239}Pu are described.

  10. Sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Amaro, C.R.

    1992-07-01

    Results of measurements of the sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu are presented. Four commercially available alpha CAMs (Kurz model 8311, Merlin Gerin Edgar, RADeCO model 452, and Victoreen model 758) and a prototype alpha CAM currently in use at Argonne National Laboratory- West (ANL-W) were tested sampling natural ambient air and laboratory-generated atmospheres laden with either blank dust or dust containing nCi/g concentrations of {sup 239}Pu. Cumulative alpha spectra were stored at 30 or 60 minute intervals during each sampling and were subsequently analyzed using three different commonly used alpha spectrum analysis algorithms. The effect of airborne dust concentration and sample filter porosity on detector resolution and sensitivity for airborne {sup 239}Pu are described.

  11. Airborne laser ranging system for monitoring regional crustal deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Alternate approaches for making the atmospheric correction without benefit of a ground-based meteorological network are discussed. These include (1) a two-color channel that determines the atmospheric correction by measuring the time delay induced by dispersion between pulses at two optical frequencies; (2) single-color range measurements supported by an onboard temperature sounder, pressure altimeter readings, and surface measurements by a few existing meteorological facilities; and (3) inclusion of the quadratic polynomial coefficients as variables to be solved for along with target coordinates in the reduction of the single-color range data. It is anticipated that the initial Airborne Laser Ranging System (ALRS) experiments will be carried out in Southern California in a region bounded by Santa Barbara on the norht and the Mexican border on the south. The target area will be bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and will extend eastward for approximately 400 km. The unique ability of the ALRS to provide a geodetic 'snapshot' of such a large area will make it a valuable geophysical tool.

  12. Ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos in non-occupational environments in Tehran, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakooei, Hossein; Meshkani, Mohsen; Azam, Kamal

    2013-12-01

    Airborne asbestos fiber concentrations were monitored in the urban areas of Tehran, Iran during the period of 23 August to 21 September 2012. The airborne fiber concentrations of 110 air samples collected from 15 different sites in five regions of Tehran. The monitoring sites were located 2.5 m above ground nearby the main street and heavy traffic jam. The ambient air samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM). The geometric means of the airborne asbestos fiber concentrations in the outdoor living areas was 1.6 × 10-2 SEM f ml-1 (1.18 × 10-3 PCM f ml-1). This criteria is considerably higher than those reported for the levels of asbestos in outdoor living areas in the Europe and the non-occupational environment of the Korea. No clear correlation was found between asbestos fiber concentration and the relative humidity and temperature. The SEM and PLM analysis revealed that all samples examined contained only chrysotile asbestos. It can be concluded that several factor such as heavy traffic, cement sheet and pipe consumption of asbestos, and geographical conditions play an important role for the high airborne asbestos levels in the non-occupational environments.

  13. Honeybees as monitors of low levels of radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.A. ); Bromenshenk, J.J.; Gudatis, J.L. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1990-07-01

    Large-scale environmental monitoring programs rely on sampling many media -- air, water, food, et cetera -- from a large network of sampling stations. For describing the total region possibly impacted by contaminants, the most efficient sampler would be one that covered a large region and simultaneously sampled many different media, such as water, air, soil, and vegetation. Honeybees have been shown to be useful monitors of the environment in this context for detecting both radionuclides and heavy metals. This study sought to determine the effectiveness of honeybees as monitors of low levels of radioactivity in the form of tritium and gamma-emitting radionuclides. For the study, approximately 50 honeybee colonies were placed on the Hanford Site and along the Columbia River in areas downwind of the site. The mini-hive colonies were sampled after 1 month and tested for tritium and for gamma-emitting radionuclides. From this and other studies, it is known that honeybees can be used to detect radionuclides present in the environment. Their mobility and their ability to integrate all exposure pathways could expand and add another level of confidence to the present monitoring program. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  15. In-flight spectral performance monitoring of the Airborne Prism Experiment.

    PubMed

    D'Odorico, Petra; Alberti, Edoardo; Schaepman, Michael E

    2010-06-01

    Spectral performance of an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer cannot be assumed to be stable over a whole flight season given the environmental stresses present during flight. Spectral performance monitoring during flight is commonly accomplished by looking at selected absorption features present in the Sun, atmosphere, or ground, and their stability. The assessment of instrument performance in two different environments, e.g., laboratory and airborne, using precisely the same calibration reference, has not been possible so far. The Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX), an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer, uses an onboard in-flight characterization (IFC) facility, which makes it possible to monitor the sensor's performance in terms of spectral, radiometric, and geometric stability in flight and in the laboratory. We discuss in detail a new method for the monitoring of spectral instrument performance. The method relies on the monitoring of spectral shifts by comparing instrument-induced movements of absorption features on ground and in flight. Absorption lines originate from spectral filters, which intercept the full field of view (FOV) illuminated using an internal light source. A feature-fitting algorithm is used for the shift estimation based on Pearson's correlation coefficient. Environmental parameter monitoring, coregistered on board with the image and calibration data, revealed that differential pressure and temperature in the baffle compartment are the main driving parameters explaining the trend in spectral performance deviations in the time and the space (across-track) domains, respectively. The results presented in this paper show that the system in its current setup needs further improvements to reach a stable performance. Findings provided useful guidelines for the instrument revision currently under way. The main aim of the revision is the stabilization of the instrument for a range of temperature and pressure conditions

  16. The development of airborne video system for monitoring of river environments

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Shigeya; Mizutani, Nobuyuki; Mizukami, Masumi; Koyano, Toshirou

    1996-11-01

    Recently, airborne videography is widely used by many monitoring for environmental resources, such as rivers, forests, ocean, and so on. Although airborne videography has a low resolution than aerial photographs, it can effectively reduce the cost of continuous monitoring of wide area. Furthermore video images can easily be processed with personal computer. This paper introduces an airborne video system for monitoring of Class A river environment. This system consists of two sub-systems. One is the data collection system that is composed of a video camera, a Global Positioning System(GPS) and a personal computer. This sub-system records information of rivers by video images and their corresponding location data. A GPS system is used for calculating location data and navigating the airplane to the destination of monitoring site. Other is a simplified digital video editing system. This system runs on a personal computer with Microsoft Windows 3.1. This system can also be used for management and planning of road environment, marine resources, forest resources and for prevention of disasters. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Evaluation of radioactive environmental hazards in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria using airborne spectrometric gamma technique.

    PubMed

    Asfahani, J; Aissa, M; Al-Hent, R

    2016-01-01

    Airborne spectrometric gamma data are used in this paper to estimate the degree of radioactive hazard on humanity in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR), and Heat Production (HP) of the eleven radiometric units included in the established lithological scored map in the study area have been computed to evaluate the radiation background influence in humans. The results obtained indicate that a human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. The highest radiogenetic heat production values in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations characterized by relatively high values of uranium and thorium. PMID:26569554

  18. Evaluation of radioactive environmental hazards in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria using airborne spectrometric gamma technique.

    PubMed

    Asfahani, J; Aissa, M; Al-Hent, R

    2016-01-01

    Airborne spectrometric gamma data are used in this paper to estimate the degree of radioactive hazard on humanity in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR), and Heat Production (HP) of the eleven radiometric units included in the established lithological scored map in the study area have been computed to evaluate the radiation background influence in humans. The results obtained indicate that a human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. The highest radiogenetic heat production values in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations characterized by relatively high values of uranium and thorium.

  19. Operational use of airborne laserscanning for glacier monitoring in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joerg, Philip Claudio; Morsdorf, Felix; Zemp, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Glacier mass balance is widely accepted as a key parameter in hydrological and climate change research. Traditionally, the mass balance of a glacier is measured in-situ, at an annual or seasonal basis, using ablation stakes and snow pits and compared with decadal volume changes derived from photogrammetric analysis of aerial photographs. A major drawback in glacier photogrammetry is the lack of contrast in shady and snow covered (accumulation) areas. Since the 1990s, pilot studies have repeatedly shown that laserscanning has the potential to overcome these problems and can provide accurate elevation changes at an even higher spatial resolution. In this study, we show the operational use of airborne laserscanning for the calibration of the glaciological mass balance measurements at Findelgletscher in the Valaisan Alps, Switzerland. So far, two flight campaigns were carried out in June/October 2005 and in October 2009. The area of interest covers 27 km2 with a mean point density of more than two laser echoes per square meter. Besides the geometrical data, the Optech ALTM 3100 laserscanning system provides as well intensity data with 12bit resolution for every return. Using terrestrial survey data of roof tops, the positional and vertical accuracy of the corrected point cloud was estimated to be better than 50 cm and 15 cm, respectively. The point cloud was subsequently converted into a gridded digital surface model with one meter spatial resolution. Preliminary results show that between 2005 and 2009 the ice thickness reduced over the entire Findelgletscher. In the region of the glacier tongue maximum thickness losses of 25 m to 30 m occurred. On average, the glacier, having an area of about 14 km2, lost 3.4 m of ice. Assuming a density of 900 kg m-3, this results in a mean annual mass balance of -0.8 m a-1 and indicates that the corresponding in-situ measurement might have a systematic positive bias. Next steps in the project are detailed analyses of the

  20. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Allison, Robert S; Johnston, Joshua M; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-08-18

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context.

  1. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Robert S.; Johnston, Joshua M.; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-01-01

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context. PMID:27548174

  2. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Allison, Robert S; Johnston, Joshua M; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-01-01

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context. PMID:27548174

  3. Novel method for estimation of the indoor-to-outdoor airborne radioactivity ratio following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanliang; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Janik, Miroslaw; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kearfott, Kimberlee

    2015-12-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan resulted in significant releases of fission products. While substantial data exist concerning outdoor air radioactivity following the accident, the resulting indoor radioactivity remains pure speculation without a proper method for estimating the ratio of the indoor to outdoor airborne radioactivity, termed the airborne sheltering factor (ASF). Lacking a meaningful value of the ASF, it is difficult to assess the inhalation doses to residents and evacuees even when outdoor radionuclide concentrations are available. A simple model was developed and the key parameters needed to estimate the ASF were obtained through data fitting of selected indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity measurement data obtained following the accident at a single location. Using the new model with values of the air exchange rate, interior air volume, and the inner surface area of the dwellings, the ASF can be estimated for a variety of dwelling types. Assessment of the inhalation dose to individuals readily follows from the value of the ASF, the person's indoor occupancy factor, and the measured outdoor radioactivity concentration. PMID:26188529

  4. Novel method for estimation of the indoor-to-outdoor airborne radioactivity ratio following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanliang; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Janik, Miroslaw; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kearfott, Kimberlee

    2015-12-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan resulted in significant releases of fission products. While substantial data exist concerning outdoor air radioactivity following the accident, the resulting indoor radioactivity remains pure speculation without a proper method for estimating the ratio of the indoor to outdoor airborne radioactivity, termed the airborne sheltering factor (ASF). Lacking a meaningful value of the ASF, it is difficult to assess the inhalation doses to residents and evacuees even when outdoor radionuclide concentrations are available. A simple model was developed and the key parameters needed to estimate the ASF were obtained through data fitting of selected indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity measurement data obtained following the accident at a single location. Using the new model with values of the air exchange rate, interior air volume, and the inner surface area of the dwellings, the ASF can be estimated for a variety of dwelling types. Assessment of the inhalation dose to individuals readily follows from the value of the ASF, the person's indoor occupancy factor, and the measured outdoor radioactivity concentration.

  5. On-line remote monitoring of radioactive waste repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calì, Claudio; Cosentino, Luigi; Litrico, Pietro; Pappalardo, Alfio; Scirè, Carlotta; Scirè, Sergio; Vecchio, Gianfranco; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Alfieri, Severino; Mariani, Annamaria

    2014-12-01

    A low-cost array of modular sensors for online monitoring of radioactive waste was developed at INFN-LNS. We implemented a new kind of gamma counter, based on Silicon PhotoMultipliers and scintillating fibers, that behaves like a cheap scintillating Geiger-Muller counter. It can be placed in shape of a fine grid around each single waste drum in a repository. Front-end electronics and an FPGA-based counting system were developed to handle the field data, also implementing data transmission, a graphical user interface and a data storage system. A test of four sensors in a real radwaste storage site was performed with promising results. Following the tests an agreement was signed between INFN and Sogin for the joint development and installation of a prototype DMNR (Detector Mesh for Nuclear Repository) system inside the Garigliano radwaste repository in Sessa Aurunca (CE, Italy). Such a development is currently under way, with the installation foreseen within 2014.

  6. Use of airborne thermal imagery to detect and monitor inshore oil spill residues during darkness hours

    SciTech Connect

    Grierson, I.T.

    1998-11-01

    Trials were conducted using an airborne video system operating in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal wavelengths to detect two known oil spill releases during darkness at a distance of 10 nautical miles from the shore in St. Vincent`s Gulf, South Australia. The oil spills consisted of two 20-liter samples released at 2-h intervals, one sample consisted of paraffinic neutral material and the other of automotive diesel oil. A tracking buoy was sent overboard in conjunction with the release of sample 1, and its movement monitored by satellite relay. Both oil residues were overflown by a light aircraft equipped with thermal, visible, and infrared imagers at a period of approximately 1 h after the release of the second oil residue. Trajectories of the oil residue releases were also modeled and the results compared to those obtained by the airborne video and the tracking buoy. Airborne imagery in the thermal wavelengths successfully located and mapped both oil residue samples during nighttime conditions. Results from the trial suggest that the most advantageous technique would be the combined use of the tracking beacon to obtain an approximate location of the oil spill and the airborne imagery to ascertain its extent and characteristics.

  7. Computerized Mathematical Models of Spray Washout of Airborne Contaminants (Radioactivity) in Containment Vessels.

    2003-05-23

    Version 01 Distribution is restricted to the United States Only. SPIRT predicts the washout of airborne contaminants in containment vessels under postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. SPIRT calculates iodine removal constants (lambdas) for post-LOCA containment spray systems. It evaluates the effect of the spectrum of drop sizes emitted by the spray nozzles, the effect of drop coalescence, and the precise solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation. STEAM-67 routines are included for calculating the properties ofmore » steam and water according to the 1967 ASME Steam Tables.« less

  8. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  9. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of Appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  10. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  11. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  12. 41 CFR 50-204.22 - Exposure to airborne radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... excess of the limits specified in Table I of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. The limits given in Table I... average concentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 20. For... radioactive material. 50-204.22 Section 50-204.22 Public Contracts and Property Management Other...

  13. Real-time monitoring of non-viable airborne particles correlates with airborne colonies and represents an acceptable surrogate for daily assessment of cell-processing cleanroom performance

    PubMed Central

    RAVAL, JAY S.; KOCH, EILEEN; DONNENBERG, ALBERT D.

    2014-01-01

    Background aims Airborne particulate monitoring is mandated as a component of good manufacturing practice. We present a procedure developed to monitor and interpret airborne particulates in an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 7 cleanroom used for the cell processing of Section 351 and Section 361 products. Methods We collected paired viable and non-viable airborne particle data over a period of 1 year in locations chosen to provide a range of air quality. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine empirically the relationship between non-viable and viable airborne particle counts. Results Viable and non-viable particles were well-correlated (r 2 = 0.78), with outlier observations at the low end of the scale (non-viable particles without detectable airborne colonies). ROC analysis predicted viable counts ≥0.5/feet 3 (a limit set by the United States Pharmacopeia) at an action limit of ≥32 000 particles (≥0.5 μ)/feet 3 , with 95.6% sensitivity and 50% specificity. This limit was exceeded 2.6 times during 18 months of retrospective daily cleanroom data (an expected false alarm rate of 1.3 times/year). After implementing this action limit, we were alerted in real time to an air-handling failure undetected by our hospital facilities management. Conclusions A rational action limit for non-viable particles was determined based on the correlation with airborne colonies. Reaching or exceeding the action limit of 32 000 non-viable particles/feet 3 triggers suspension of cleanroom cell-processing activities, deep cleaning, investigation of air handling, and a deviation management process. Our full procedure for particle monitoring is available as an online supplement. PMID:22746538

  14. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc; Gaubicher, Bertrand

    2010-08-01

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration.

  15. Alien Plant Monitoring with Ultralight Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Calviño-Cancela, María; Méndez-Rial, Roi; Reguera-Salgado, Javier; Martín-Herrero, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of invasive plants requires a precise determination of their distribution. Remote sensing techniques constitute a promising alternative to field surveys and hyperspectral sensors (also known as imaging spectrometers, with a large number of spectral bands and high spectral resolution) are especially suitable when very similar categories are to be distinguished (e.g. plant species). A main priority in the development of this technology is to lower its cost and simplify its use, so that its demonstrated aptitude for many environmental applications can be truly realized. With this aim, we have developed a system for hyperspectral imaging (200 spectral bands in the 380–1000 nm range and circa 3 nm spectral resolution) operated on board ultralight aircraft (namely a gyrocopter), which allows a drastic reduction of the running costs and operational complexity of image acquisition, and also increases the spatial resolution of the images (circa 5–8 pixels/m2 at circa 65 km/h and 300 m height). The detection system proved useful for the species tested (Acacia melanoxylon, Oxalis pes-caprae, and Carpobrotus aff. edulis and acinaciformis), with user’s and producer’s accuracy always exceeding 90%. The detection accuracy reported corresponds to patches down to 0.125 m2 (50% of pixels 0.5×0.5 m in size), a very small size for many plant species, making it very effective for initial stages of invasive plant spread. In addition, its low operating costs, similar to those of a 4WD ground vehicle, facilitate frequent image acquisition. Acquired images constitute a permanent record of the status of the study area, with great amount of information that can be analyzed in the future for other purposes, thus greatly facilitating the monitoring of natural areas at detailed spatial and temporal scales for improved management. PMID:25010601

  16. Alien plant monitoring with ultralight airborne imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Calviño-Cancela, María; Méndez-Rial, Roi; Reguera-Salgado, Javier; Martín-Herrero, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of invasive plants requires a precise determination of their distribution. Remote sensing techniques constitute a promising alternative to field surveys and hyperspectral sensors (also known as imaging spectrometers, with a large number of spectral bands and high spectral resolution) are especially suitable when very similar categories are to be distinguished (e.g. plant species). A main priority in the development of this technology is to lower its cost and simplify its use, so that its demonstrated aptitude for many environmental applications can be truly realized. With this aim, we have developed a system for hyperspectral imaging (200 spectral bands in the 380-1000 nm range and circa 3 nm spectral resolution) operated on board ultralight aircraft (namely a gyrocopter), which allows a drastic reduction of the running costs and operational complexity of image acquisition, and also increases the spatial resolution of the images (circa 5-8 pixels/m(2) at circa 65 km/h and 300 m height). The detection system proved useful for the species tested (Acacia melanoxylon, Oxalis pes-caprae, and Carpobrotus aff. edulis and acinaciformis), with user's and producer's accuracy always exceeding 90%. The detection accuracy reported corresponds to patches down to 0.125 m(2) (50% of pixels 0.5 × 0.5 m in size), a very small size for many plant species, making it very effective for initial stages of invasive plant spread. In addition, its low operating costs, similar to those of a 4WD ground vehicle, facilitate frequent image acquisition. Acquired images constitute a permanent record of the status of the study area, with great amount of information that can be analyzed in the future for other purposes, thus greatly facilitating the monitoring of natural areas at detailed spatial and temporal scales for improved management. PMID:25010601

  17. Simultaneous sampling of indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Janik, Miroslaw; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-02-18

    Several studies have estimated inhalation doses for the public because of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Most of them were based on measurement of radioactivity in outdoor air and included the assumption that people stayed outdoors all day. Although this assumption gives a conservative estimate, it is not realistic. The "air decontamination factor" (ratio of indoor to outdoor air radionuclide concentrations) was estimated from simultaneous sampling of radioactivity in both inside and outside air of one building. The building was a workplace and located at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Aerosol-associated radioactive materials in air were collected onto filters, and the filters were analyzed by γ spectrometry at NIRS. The filter sampling was started on March 15, 2011 and was continued for more than 1 year. Several radionuclides, such as (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs were found by measuring the filters with a germanium detector. The air decontamination factor was around 0.64 for particulate (131)I and 0.58 for (137)Cs. These values could give implications for the ratio of indoor to outdoor radionuclide concentrations after the FDNPP accident for a similar type of building.

  18. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  19. Radioactive contamination monitoring for the Korean public following Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Pak, Min-Jeong; Park, Seyong; Kim, Mi-Ryeong; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    On March 11, 2011, as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake, severe damage to the Fukushima nuclear power plant caused the release of radioactive materials. We conducted radioactive contamination monitoring for Korean residents in Japan and Korean travelers to East Japan after the accident. More than 800 members of the Korean public were surveyed for personal monitoring. Measured levels of external and internal contamination were within the screening levels for each monitoring method.

  20. Resuspension: decadal monitoring time series of the anthropogenic radioactivity deposition in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi; Miyao, Takashi; Nemoto, Kazuhiro; Tomita, Masatoshi; Fujikawa, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    Monthly atmospheric depositions of (90)Sr and (137)Cs have been observed at the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Tsukuba, Japan. This study reports temporal trends and levels of (90)Sr and (137)Cs depositions in the 1990s. Although the current (90)Sr and (137)Cs concentrations declined dramatically, they have been found continuously in the deposition samples throughout the 1990s. During this period, the annual (90)Sr ((137)Cs) deposits at MRI ranged from 70-180 (140-350) mBq/m(2)/year. With a sufficiently long time series, the decreasing trend of the deposition evidently differs from the past stratospheric fallout; it is far slower. Thus, reservoirs other than the stratosphere provide small amounts of (90)Sr and (137)Cs to the atmosphere. A simple calculation clearly refutes the significance of the ocean as a potential source of airborne anthropogenic radioactivity. We will demonstrate that these radionuclides in the deposited materials originate from resuspension processes (soil dust suspension processes). The temporal trends of the time series monitoring reveal differences from those in the UNSCEAR Report 2000, which were predicted by a model that disregarded resuspension. The specific activity of (90)Sr ((137)Cs) in the annual depositions exhibited a 10-year (20-year) half-life. Those data were comparable with values reported in the literature for the half-residence time (HRT) of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in Japanese surface soils. They were also comparable to those calculated from nationwide data of (90)Sr and (137)Cs concentrations in the surface soil (0-10 cm) obtained from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Environmental Radiation Database (the MEXT Database). Regarding the activity ratio of (137)Cs/(90)Sr, the Japanese nationwide surface soil data collected during the 1990s in the MEXT Database (median: 5.3, n = 584) did not accord with that in the deposition samples (average: 2.1, n = 82) at MRI. This supports our previous

  1. Airborne monitoring to distinguish engineered nanomaterials from incidental particles for environmental health and safety

    PubMed Central

    Peters, TM; Elzey, S; Johnson, R; Park, H; Grassian, VH; Maher, T; O'Shaughnessy, P

    2016-01-01

    Two methods were used to distinguish airborne engineered nanomaterials from other airborne particles in a facility that produces nano-structured lithium titanate metal oxide powder. The first method involved off-line analysis of filter samples collected with conventional respirable samplers at each of seven locations (six near production processes and one outdoors). Throughout most of the facility and outdoors, respirable mass concentrations were low (<0.050 mg m−3) and were attributed to particles other than the nanomaterial (<10% by mass titanium determined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry). In contrast, in a single area with extensive material handling, mass concentrations were greatest (0.118 mg m−3) and contained up to 39% +/− 11% lithium titanium, indicating the presence of airborne nanomaterial. Analysis of the filter samples collected in this area by transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope revealed that the airborne nanomaterial was associated only with spherical aggregates (clusters of fused 10–80 nm nanoparticles) that were larger than 200 nm. This analysis also showed that nanoparticles in this area were the smallest particles of a larger distribution of submicrometer chain agglomerates likely from welding in an adjacent area of the facility. The second method used two, hand-held, direct-reading, battery-operated instruments to obtain a time series of very fine particle number (<300 nm), respirable mass, and total mass concentration, which were then related to activities within the area of extensive material handling. This activity-based monitoring showed that very fine particle number concentrations (<300 nm) had no apparent correlation to worker activities, but that sharp peaks in the respirable and total mass concentration coincided with loading a hopper and replacing nanomaterial collection bags. These findings were consistent with those from the filter-based method in that they

  2. Monitoring airborne biotic contaminants in the indoor environment of pig and poultry confinement buildings.

    PubMed

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Li, Xiangzhen; Yang, Xufei; Shinkai, Takumi; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Xinlei; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-06-01

    Given the growing concerns over human and animal health issues related to confined animal feeding operations, an in-depth examination is required to monitor for airborne bacteria and associated antibiotic resistance genes. Our 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing revealed that the airborne microbial community skewed towards a higher abundance of Firmicutes (> 59.2%) and Bacteroidetes (4.2-31.4%) within the confinement buildings, while the office environment was predominated by Proteobacteria (55.2%). Furthermore, bioaerosols in the confinement buildings were sporadically associated with genera of potential pathogens, and these genera were more frequently observed in the bioaerosols of pig and layer hen confinement than the turkey confinement buildings and office environment. High abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (9.55 × 10(2) to 1.69 × 10(6) copies ng(-1) DNA) were also detected in the bioaerosols sampled from confinement buildings. Bacterial lineages present in the poultry bioaerosols clustered apart from those present in the pig bioaerosols and among the different phases of pig production, suggesting that different livestock as well as production phase were associated with a distinct airborne microbial community. By understanding the diversity of biotic contaminants associated with the different confinement buildings, this study facilitates the implementation of better management strategies to minimize potential health impacts on both livestock and humans working in this environment. PMID:22414212

  3. The Ebb and Flow of Airborne Pathogens: Monitoring and Use in Disease Management Decisions.

    PubMed

    Mahaffee, Walter F; Stoll, Rob

    2016-05-01

    Perhaps the earliest form of monitoring the regional spread of plant disease was a group of growers gathering together at the market and discussing what they see in their crops. This type of reporting continues to this day through regional extension blogs, by crop consultants and more formal scouting of sentential plots in the IPM PIPE network (http://www.ipmpipe.org/). As our knowledge of plant disease epidemiology has increased, we have also increased our ability to detect and monitor the presence of pathogens and use this information to make management decisions in commercial production systems. The advent of phylogenetics, next-generation sequencing, and nucleic acid amplification technologies has allowed for development of sensitive and accurate assays for pathogen inoculum detection and quantification. The application of these tools is beginning to change how we manage diseases with airborne inoculum by allowing for the detection of pathogen movement instead of assuming it and by targeting management strategies to the early phases of the epidemic development when there is the greatest opportunity to reduce the rate of disease development. While there are numerous advantages to using data on inoculum presence to aid management decisions, there are limitations in what the data represent that are often unrecognized. In addition, our understanding of where and how to effectively monitor airborne inoculum is limited. There is a strong need to improve our knowledge of the mechanisms that influence inoculum dispersion across scales as particles move from leaf to leaf, and everything in between.

  4. The Ebb and Flow of Airborne Pathogens: Monitoring and Use in Disease Management Decisions.

    PubMed

    Mahaffee, Walter F; Stoll, Rob

    2016-05-01

    Perhaps the earliest form of monitoring the regional spread of plant disease was a group of growers gathering together at the market and discussing what they see in their crops. This type of reporting continues to this day through regional extension blogs, by crop consultants and more formal scouting of sentential plots in the IPM PIPE network (http://www.ipmpipe.org/). As our knowledge of plant disease epidemiology has increased, we have also increased our ability to detect and monitor the presence of pathogens and use this information to make management decisions in commercial production systems. The advent of phylogenetics, next-generation sequencing, and nucleic acid amplification technologies has allowed for development of sensitive and accurate assays for pathogen inoculum detection and quantification. The application of these tools is beginning to change how we manage diseases with airborne inoculum by allowing for the detection of pathogen movement instead of assuming it and by targeting management strategies to the early phases of the epidemic development when there is the greatest opportunity to reduce the rate of disease development. While there are numerous advantages to using data on inoculum presence to aid management decisions, there are limitations in what the data represent that are often unrecognized. In addition, our understanding of where and how to effectively monitor airborne inoculum is limited. There is a strong need to improve our knowledge of the mechanisms that influence inoculum dispersion across scales as particles move from leaf to leaf, and everything in between. PMID:27003505

  5. Definition and means of maintaining the room continuous air monitors portion of the plutonium finishing plant (PFP) safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-05-20

    Room Continuous Air Monitors (CAMs) are used in areas where there is potential for dispersible radioactive material. These CAMs provide audible and visual alarms to warn personnel of an increase in airborne radioactivity.

  6. Potential Application of Airborne Passive Microwave Observations for Monitoring Inland Flooding Caused by Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Radley, C.D.; LaFontaine, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Inland flooding from tropical cyclones can be a significant factor in storm-related deaths in the United States and other countries. Information collected during NASA tropical cyclone field studies suggest surface water and flooding induced by tropical cyclone precipitation can be detected and therefore monitored using passive microwave airborne radiometers. In particular, the 10.7 GHz frequency of the NASA Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) flown on the NASA ER-2 has demonstrated high resolution detection of anomalous surface water and flooding in numerous situations. This presentation will highlight the analysis of three cases utilizing primarily satellite and airborne radiometer data. Radiometer data from the 1998 Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) are utilized to detect surface water during landfalling Hurricane Georges in both the Dominican Republic and Louisiana. A third case is landfalling Tropical Storm Gert in Eastern Mexico during the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) experiment in 2005. AMPR data are compared to topographic data and vegetation indices to evaluate the significance of the surface water signature visible in the 10.7 GHz information. The results of this study suggest the benefit of an aircraft 10 GHz radiometer to provide real-time observations of surface water conditions as part of a multi-sensor flood monitoring network.

  7. Determining the Performance of an Arid Zone Radioactive Waste Site Through Site Characterization, Modeling, and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    B. L. Dozier; D. G. Levitt; M. J. Sully; and C. F. Lohrstorfer

    1999-03-09

    A strategy of site characterization, modeling, and monitoring are used to evaluate the performance of an interim cover at a low-level radioactive waste management site. The soil water migration papthway must be evaluated to assure the long-term isolation of low-level radioactive waste. Water balance studies using precision weighing lysimeters have been conducted for five years near the radioactive waste site ath the Nevada Test Site. The numerical flow models UNSAT-H and HYDRUS-2D were tested using the weighing lysimeter data and then used to evaluate various cover design issues including cover thickness, presence of vegetation, and monitoring system design.

  8. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  9. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  10. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  11. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  12. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  13. Borehole-to-tunnel seismic measurements for monitoring radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukyan, Edgar; Maurer, Hansruedi; Marelli, Stefano; Greenhalgh, Stewart A.; Green, Alan A.

    2010-05-01

    Countries worldwide are seeking solutions for the permanent removal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) from the environment. A critical aspect of the disposal process is the need to be confident that the deposited waste is safely isolated from the biosphere. Seismic monitoring represents a potentially powerful option for non-intrusive monitoring. We conducted a series of seismic experiments in the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory, where a 1-m-diameter microtunnel simulates a HLRW repository downsized by a factor of ~2.5. The host rock at the laboratory is Opalinus clay. We had access to two water-filled boreholes, each approximately 25 m long (diameter 85 mm), with one inclined upwards and the other downwards. Both were oriented perpendicular to the microtunnel axis. Seismic signals were generated in the down-dipping borehole with a high frequency P-wave sparker source every 25 cm and received every 25 cm in the upward-dipping borehole on a multi-channel hydrophone chain. Additionally, the seismic waves were recorded on eight (100 Hz natural frequency) vertical-component geophones, mounted and distributed around the circumference of the microtunnel wall within the plane of the boreholes. The experiment was repeated with different material filling the microtunnel and under different physical conditions. So far, six experiments have been performed when the microtunnel was: a. air-filled with a dry excavation damage zone (EDZ), b. dry sand-filled with a dry EDZ, c. 50 % water-saturated sand-filled with partially water-saturated EDZ (experiments were conducted immediately after half water-saturation), d. water-saturated sand-filled with partially water-saturated EDZ (immediately after full water-saturation), e. water-saturated sand-filled with water-saturated EDZ (water was in the microtunnel for about 9.5 months), and f. water-saturated sand-filled and pressurized to 6 bars with water-saturated EDZ. The results of our seismic experiments yield several

  14. Source Identification Of Airborne Antimony On The Basis Of The Field Monitoring And The Source Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, A.; Sato, K.; Fujitani, Y.; Fujimori, E.; Tanabe, K.; Ohara, T.; Shimoda, M.; Kozawa, K.; Furuta, N.

    2008-12-01

    The results of the long-term monitoring of airborne particulate matter (APM) in Tokyo indicated that APM have been extremely enriched with antimony (Sb) compared to crustal composition. This observation suggests that the airborne Sb is distinctly derived from human activities. According to the material flow analysis, automotive brake abrasion dust and fly ash from waste incinerator were suspected as the significant Sb sources. To clarify the emission sources of the airborne Sb, elemental composition, particle size distribution, and morphological profiles of dust particles collected from two possible emission sources were characterized and compared to the field observation data. Brake abrasion dust samples were generated by using a brake dynamometer. During the abrasion test, particle size distribution was measured by an aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer. Concurrently, size- classified dust particles were collected by an Andersen type air sampler. Fly ash samples were collected from several municipal waste incinerators, and the bulk ash samples were re-dispersed into an enclosed chamber. The measurement of particle size distribution and the collection of size-classified ash particles were conducted by the same methodologies as described previously. Field observations of APM were performed at a roadside site and a residential site by using an Andersen type air sampler. Chemical analyses of metallic elements were performed by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometr. Morphological profiling of the individual particle was conducted by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. High concentration of Sb was detected from both of two possible sources. Particularly, Sb concentrations in a brake abrasion dust were extremely high compared to that in an ambient APM, suggesting that airborne Sb observed at the roadside might have been largely derived from

  15. Urban land use monitoring from computer-implemented processing of airborne multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, W. J.; Mausel, P. W.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    Machine processing techniques were applied to multispectral data obtained from airborne scanners at an elevation of 600 meters over central Indianapolis in August, 1972. Computer analysis of these spectral data indicate that roads (two types), roof tops (three types), dense grass (two types), sparse grass (two types), trees, bare soil, and water (two types) can be accurately identified. Using computers, it is possible to determine land uses from analysis of type, size, shape, and spatial associations of earth surface images identified from multispectral data. Land use data developed through machine processing techniques can be programmed to monitor land use changes, simulate land use conditions, and provide impact statistics that are required to analyze stresses placed on spatial systems.

  16. Great Lakes Hyperspectral Water Quality Instrument Suite for Airborne Monitoring of Algal Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John; Leshkevich, George; Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Flatico, Joseph; Prokop, Norman; Kojima, Jun; Anderson, Robert; Demers, James; Krasowski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab are collaborating to utilize an airborne hyperspectral imaging sensor suite to monitor Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the western basin of Lake Erie. The HABs are very dynamic events as they form, spread and then disappear within a 4 to 8 week time period in late summer. They are a concern for human health, fish and wildlife because they can contain blue green toxic algae. Because of this toxicity there is a need for the blooms to be continually monitored. This situation is well suited for aircraft based monitoring because the blooms are a very dynamic event and they can spread over a large area. High resolution satellite data is not suitable by itself because it will not give the temporal resolution due to the infrequent overpasses of the quickly changing blooms. A custom designed hyperspectral imager and a point spectrometer mounted on aT 34 aircraft have been used to obtain data on an algal bloom that formed in the western basin of Lake Erie during September 2006. The sensor suite and operations will be described and preliminary hyperspectral data of this event will be presented

  17. The use of an experimental room for monitoring of airborne concentrations of microorganisms, glass fibers, and total particles

    SciTech Connect

    Buttner, M.P.; Stetzenbach, L.D.

    1996-12-31

    An experimental room was used as a microcosm for studies of airborne particles and microorganisms in indoor environments. The interior of the room measures 4 by 4 by 2.2 m high and has a hardwood floor and the walls and ceiling are sheetrocked and coated with interior latex paint. Exterior walls are 11.4-cm thick plywood panels consisting of two outer sections of plywood insulated with fiber glass batts. The ceiling is of similar construction with 17.1-cm thick panels. Attached to the room entrance is an anteroom equipped with a HEPA-filtered air shower to reduce mixing of air resulting from entering and exiting during experiments. The room is equipped with a computer-controlled heating, ventilation, and cooling system. Temperature, relative humidity, air flow, and room pressure can be continuously monitored by probes located in the room and air handling system components. Several research projects have been conducted using this room including monitoring the potential for airborne glass fibers released from rigid fibrous ductboard, comparisons of commercially available samplers for monitoring of airborne fungal spores, and a study on the efficacy of vacuum bags to minimize dispersal of particles, including fungal spores from fungal-contaminated carpet. During studies designed to monitor airborne fiberglass, air samples were taken in the room serviced by new rigid fibrous glass ductwork, and the results were compared to those obtained in the room with bare metal ductwork installed. Monitoring of airborne fungal spores using the Andersen six-stage sampler, the high flow Spiral Biotech sampler, the Biotest RCS Plus sampler, and the Burkard spore trap sampler was performed following the release of Penicillium spores into the room through the supply register. Dispersal of carpet-associated particles and fungal spores was measured after vacuuming using conventional cellulose vacuum bags in comparison to recently developed bags.

  18. Dielectrophoretic separation of airborne microbes and dust particles using a microfluidic channel for real-time bioaerosol monitoring.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hui-Sung; Nam, Yun-Woo; Park, Jae Chan; Jung, Hyo-Il

    2009-08-01

    Airborne microbes such as fungi, bacteria, and viruses are a threat to public health. Robust and real-time detection systems are necessary to prevent and control such dangerous biological particles in public places and dwellings. For direct and real-time detection of airborne microbes, samples must be collected and typically resuspended in liquid prior to detection; however, environmental particles such as dust are also trapped in such samples. Therefore, the isolation of target bacteria or a selective collection of microbes from unwanted nonbiological particles prior to detection is of great importance. Dielectrophoresis (DEP), the translational motion of charge neutral matter in nonuniform electric fields, is an emerging technique that can rapidly separate biological particles in microfluidics because low voltages produce significant and contactless forces on particles without any modification or labeling. In this paper, we propose a new method for the separation of airborne microbes using DEP with a simple and novel curved electrode design for separating bacteria in a solution containing beads or dust that are taken from an airborne environmental sample. Using this method, we successfully isolated 90% of the airborne bacterium Micrococcus luteus from a mixture of bacteria and dust using a microfluidic device, consisting of novel curved electrodes that attract bacteria and repel or leave dust particles. As there has been little research on analyzing environmental samples using microfluidics and DEP, this work describes a novel strategy for a rapid and direct bioaerosol monitoring system.

  19. Assessing airborne pollution effects on bryophytes: lessons learned through long-term integrated monitoring in Austria.

    PubMed

    Zechmeister, H G; Dirnböck, T; Hülber, K; Mirtl, M

    2007-06-01

    The study uses measured and calculated data on airborne pollutants, particularly nitrogen (ranges between 28 to 43kgN*ha(-1)*yr(-1)) and sulphur (10 to 18kgSO(4)-S*ha(-1)*yr(-1)), in order to assess their long-term (1992 to 2005) effects on bryophytes at the UN-ECE Integrated Monitoring site 'Zöbelboden' in Austria. Bryophytes were used as reaction indicators on 20 epiphytic plots using the IM monitoring method and on 14 terrestrial plots using standardised photography. The plots were recorded in the years 1992, 1993, 1998, and 2004/2005. Most species remained stable in terms of their overall population size during the observed period, even though there were rapid turnover rates of a large percentage of species on all investigated plots. Only a few bryophytes (Hypnum cupressiforme, Leucodon sciuroides) responded unambiguously to N and S deposition. Nitrogen deposition had a weak but significant effect on the distribution of bryophyte communities. However, the time shifts in bryophyte communities did not depend on total deposition of N and S.

  20. Optimized Field Sampling and Monitoring of Airborne Hazardous Transport Plumes; A Geostatistical Simulation Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, DI-WEN

    2001-11-21

    Airborne hazardous plumes inadvertently released during nuclear/chemical/biological incidents are mostly of unknown composition and concentration until measurements are taken of post-accident ground concentrations from plume-ground deposition of constituents. Unfortunately, measurements often are days post-incident and rely on hazardous manned air-vehicle measurements. Before this happens, computational plume migration models are the only source of information on the plume characteristics, constituents, concentrations, directions of travel, ground deposition, etc. A mobile ''lighter than air'' (LTA) system is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will be part of the first response in emergency conditions. These interactive and remote unmanned air vehicles will carry light-weight detectors and weather instrumentation to measure the conditions during and after plume release. This requires a cooperative computationally organized, GPS-controlled set of LTA's that self-coordinate around the objectives in an emergency situation in restricted time frames. A critical step before an optimum and cost-effective field sampling and monitoring program proceeds is the collection of data that provides statistically significant information, collected in a reliable and expeditious manner. Efficient aerial arrangements of the detectors taking the data (for active airborne release conditions) are necessary for plume identification, computational 3-dimensional reconstruction, and source distribution functions. This report describes the application of stochastic or geostatistical simulations to delineate the plume for guiding subsequent sampling and monitoring designs. A case study is presented of building digital plume images, based on existing ''hard'' experimental data and ''soft'' preliminary transport modeling results of Prairie Grass Trials Site. Markov Bayes Simulation, a coupled Bayesian/geostatistical methodology, quantitatively combines soft information

  1. Airborne imaging sensors for environmental monitoring & surveillance in support of oil spills & recovery efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Jones, James; Frystacky, Heather; Coppin, Gaelle; Leavaux, Florian; Neyt, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Collection of pushbroom sensor imagery from a mobile platform requires corrections using inertial measurement units (IMU's) and DGPS in order to create useable imagery for environmental monitoring and surveillance of shorelines in freshwater systems, coastal littoral zones and harbor areas. This paper describes a suite of imaging systems used during collection of hyperspectral imagery in northern Florida panhandle and Gulf of Mexico airborne missions to detect weathered oil in coastal littoral zones. Underlying concepts of pushbroom imagery, the needed corrections for directional changes using DGPS and corrections for platform yaw, pitch, and roll using IMU data is described as well as the development and application of optimal band and spectral regions associated with weathered oil. Pushbroom sensor and frame camera data collected in response to the recent Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster is presented as the scenario documenting environmental monitoring and surveillance techniques using mobile sensing platforms. Data was acquired during the months of February, March, April and May of 2011. The low altitude airborne systems include a temperature stabilized hyperspectral imaging system capable of up to 1024 spectral channels and 1376 spatial across track pixels flown from 3,000 to 4,500 feet altitudes. The hyperspectral imaging system is collocated with a full resolution high definition video recorder for simultaneous HD video imagery, a 12.3 megapixel digital, a mapping camera using 9 inch film types that yields scanned aerial imagery with approximately 22,200 by 22,200 pixel multispectral imagery (~255 megapixel RGB multispectral images in order to conduct for spectral-spatial sharpening of fused multispectral, hyperspectral imagery. Two high spectral (252 channels) and radiometric sensitivity solid state spectrographs are used for collecting upwelling radiance (sub-meter pixels) with downwelling irradiance fiber optic attachment. These sensors are utilized for

  2. A real-time monitoring system for airborne particle shape and size analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, P. H.; Alexander-Buckley, K.; Hirst, E.; Saunders, S.; Clark, J. M.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a new instrument for the study of airborne particles. The instrument performs a rapid analysis of the transient spatial intensity distribution of laser-light scattered by individual aerosol particles drawn from an ambient environment and uses this to characterize the particles in terms of both size and shape parameters. Analyses are carried out at peak particle throughput rates of up to 10,000 particles per second, and semiquantitative data relating to the size and shape (or more correctly asymmetry) spectra of the sampled particles are provided to the user via a graphical display which is refreshed or updated at 5-s intervals. In addition to the real-time display of data, continuous data recording allows subsequent replay of measurements at either normal or high speed. Preliminary experimental results are given for aerosols of both spherical and nonspherical particle types, and these suggest the instrument may find use in environmental monitoring of aerosols or clouds where some real-time semiquantitative assessment of particulate size and shape spectra may be desirable as an aid to characterizing the aerosol and its constituent particulate species.

  3. Radiometric calibration for the airborne interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases simulator.

    PubMed

    Shimota, A; Kobayashi, H; Kadokura, S

    1999-01-20

    The Advanced Earth Observation Satellite (ADEOS), launched in the summer of 1996, has a high-resolution infrared Fourier transform spectrometer, with the interferometric monitor for greenhouse gases (IMG) onboard. The IMG has a high spectral resolution of 0.1 cm(-1) for the purpose of retrieving greenhouse gas profile maps of the Earth. To meet the requirements of the retrieval algorithms for greenhouse gas profiles, atmospheric emission spectra must be calibrated to better than 1 K accuracy. Prior to the launch of the ADEOS with the IMG, we developed an airborne simulator called the tropospheric infrared interferometric sounder (TIIS). We explain the calibration procedure for the TIIS, which determines the points with the same optical path difference on interferograms for complex Fourier transformation, using the retained phase term on the calibrated spectrum. The downward atmospheric radiation, measured with the TIIS, was well calibrated using this algorithm. Furthermore, calibration of the spectra obtained from the IMG initial checkout mission observation was carried out.

  4. Systematic management of environmental monitoring data for radioactive waste repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, C. G.; Park, S. M.; Lim, Y. S.; Lee, H. J.; Park, J. W.; Kim, C. L.

    2003-04-01

    For the safe management of radwaste repository, data of the site and environment have to be collected and managed systematically. Particularly, for the radwaste repository, which has to be institutionally controlled for a long period after closure, data will be collected and maintained through the monitoring programme. To meet this requirement, a new programme called ``Site Information and Total Environmental data management System (SITES)" is being developed. The scope and function of the SITES programme are issued from the first stage of the SITES development. The hardware composed of a server and clients is constructed within those extents. The software system is developed with database and the three-tier server/client system consisted of a server, the middle-ware and PC client. The server is for the DB/GIS managements, and the PC client offers variable GUI in respect of end-user. A middle-ware is for the system management such as transaction. For this system, ArcSDE(ESRI) is used for unifying the spatial/attribute data to the Relative Database Management System. In the server/client system, the function of spatial illustration and analysis is embodied through ArcGIS. The SITES programme is designed with two modules of the Database Management System and the Monitoring and Assessment. The DBMS module is composed of two sub-modules. One is the Site Information Management System, which manages data on site characterization such as topography, geology, hydrogeology, engineering geology, etc. The other is the ENVironmental Information management System, which manages environmental data required for environmental assessment study. To enhance the effectiveness of SIMS and ENVIS, the objects are itemized through analyzing the end-user's demands reflected from domestic regulatory guidelines. The database is constructed based on Entity Relationship Diagram produced from each item. Also using ArcGIS with the spatial characteristics of the data, it enables groundwater and

  5. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1982-06-01

    Results for 1981 of the LBL Environmental Monitoring Program are given. Data include monitoring results for accelerator-produced radiation, airborne and waterborne radionuclides, and nonradioactive pollutants. Population doses resulting from LBL operations are given in terms of accelerator-produced and airborne radioactivities. Trends in the environmental impacts of LBL operations are discussed in terms of accelerator-produced, airborne, and waterborne radionuclides. (ERB)

  6. How Cities Breathe: Ground-Referenced, Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging Precursor Measurements To Space-Based Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, Ira; Tratt, David; Quattrochi, Dale; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John

    2013-01-01

    the complex and often aerosol laden, humid, urban microclimates, atmospheric transport and profile monitoring, spatial resolution, temporal cycles (diurnal and seasonal which involve interactions with the surrounding environment diurnal and seasonal cycles) and representative measurement approaches given traffic realities. Promising approaches incorporate contemporaneous airborne remote sensing and in situ measurements, nocturnal surface surveys, with ground station measurement

  7. Raman Based Process Monitor for Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.; Levitskaia, T.; Schlahta, St.

    2008-07-01

    A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval. (authors)

  8. Raman Based Process Monitor For Continuous Real-Time Analysis Of High Level Radioactive Waste Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Schlahta, Stephan N.

    2008-05-27

    ABSTRACT A new monitoring system was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quickly generate real-time data/analysis to facilitate a timely response to the dynamic characteristics of a radioactive high level waste stream. The developed process monitor features Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for the remote monitoring, MatLab-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display. The monitoring system is capable of simultaneously and continuously quantifying the levels of all the chemically significant anions within the waste stream including nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, chromate, hydroxide, sulfate, and aluminate. The total sodium ion concentration was also determined independently by modeling inputs from on-line conductivity and density meters. In addition to the chemical information, this monitoring system provides immediate real-time data on the flow parameters, such as flow rate and temperature, and cumulative mass/volume of the retrieved waste stream. The components and analytical tools of the new process monitor can be tailored for a variety of complex mixtures in chemically harsh environments, such as pulp and paper processing liquids, electroplating solutions, and radioactive tank wastes. The developed monitoring system was tested for acceptability before it was deployed for use in Hanford Tank S-109 retrieval activities. The acceptance tests included performance inspection of hardware, software, and chemometric data analysis to determine the expected measurement accuracy for the different chemical species that are encountered during S-109 retrieval.

  9. Feasibility Study of Non-Radioactive Tracers for Monitoring Injected Water in Oil Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawamura, H.; Nishimura, K.; Mituishi, H.; Muta, T.; Schweitzer, J. S.

    This paper discusses the results of analyses conducted on non-radioactive tracers that can be used in combination with the sea water injected into a well for monitoring the water permeating through the oil reservoir by a nuclear logging tool utilizing a pulsed neutron generator. The model of the pulsed neutron tool is constructed to permit Monte Carlo Simulations to be performed of the tool response to the presence of non-radioactive tracers to achieve a desirable level of the neutron absorbing cross sections in the sea water injected into and permeating through the oil reservoirs. Sensitivity analyses of the tool response of the nuclear logging tool were performed for two types of non-radioactive tracers, ammonium tetraborate and gadolinium chloride.

  10. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    DL Edwards; KD Shields; MJ Sula; MY Ballinger

    1999-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP--US Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H). In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the US Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Pacific Northwest) on the Hanford Site. Two of the facilities evaluated, 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, and 331 Building Life Sciences Laboratory met state and federal criteria for continuous sampling of airborne radionuclide emissions. One other building, the 3720 Environmental Sciences Laboratory, was recognized as being in transition with the potential for meeting the continuous sampling criteria.

  11. Safety monitoring of the FBG sensor in respect of radioactivity and deformation measurement of a silo structure for radioactive waste disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Soo; Cho, Seong-Kyu

    2015-07-01

    The FBG sensor has globally been commercialized in various fields that is actively applied in Korea as well. Especially it is widely used as a structural monitoring sensor in civil engineering and construction structures due to its advantages including electrical stability, chemical stability and multiplexing. This report aims to introduce safety inspection of the FBG sensor in respect of radioactivity which has been applied to a silo structure for radioactive waste disposal as an example.

  12. Nevada Test Site 2007 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from three monitoring wells located near the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, for calendar year 2007. The NTS is an approximately 3,561 square kilometer (1,375 square mile) restricted-access federal installation located approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). Pilot wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 are used to monitor the groundwater at the Area 5 RWMS (Figure 2). In addition to groundwater monitoring results, this report includes information regarding site hydrogeology, well construction, sample collection, and meteorological data measured at the Area 5 RWMS. The disposal of low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level radioactive waste at the Area 5 RWMS is regulated by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The disposal of mixed low-level radioactive waste is also regulated by the state of Nevada under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulation Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities' (CFR, 1999). The format of this report was requested by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in a letter dated August 12, 1997. The appearance and arrangement of this document have been modified slightly since that date to provide additional information and to facilitate the readability of the document. The objective of this report is to satisfy any Area 5 RWMS reporting agreements between DOE and NDEP.

  13. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  14. Monitor of the concentration of particles of dense radioactive materials in a stream of air

    DOEpatents

    Yule, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    A monitor of the concentration of particles of radioactive materials such as plutonium oxide in diameters as small as 1/2 micron includes in combination a first stage comprising a plurality of virtual impactors, a second stage comprising a further plurality of virtual impactors, a collector for concentrating particulate material, a radiation detector disposed near the collector to respond to radiation from collected material and means for moving a stream of air, possibly containing particulate contaminants, through the apparatus.

  15. Radioactivity Measurement Method for Environmental Monitoring Gross Alpha/beta Activities in Drinking Water in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, Gülten; Aslan, Nazife; Şahin, Mihriban; Yüksek, Simay

    2015-01-01

    The determination of gross alpha/beta activity concentrations of drinking water is the first step of the environmental monitoring studies and can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample. In this study, a procedure using liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSS) for the simultaneously monitoring of gross alpha/beta activity concentration in drinking water was determined, verificated with proficiency test sample and applied to the real drinking water samples in Turkey. The results indicate that the method provides good accuracy and precision. LSS can be employed as a screening technique in high activity concentrations. PMID:26454594

  16. Application of airborne infrared technology to monitor building heat loss. [Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, F. J.; Sampson, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The application of airborne infrared technology to the requirements for energy conservation in buildings was studied. Quantitative airborne data of the City of Ypsilanti, Michigan, were collected and processed to identify roof temperatures. A thermal scanner was flown at an altitude of 1,200 feet with two thermal bands 8.2-9.3 micrometers and 10.4-12.5 micrometers recorded by an analog system. Calibration was achieved by standard hot and cold plates. Using a thermal model to interpret ceiling insulation status, environmental factors were found to influence the relation between roof temperature and insulation. These include interior and sky temperatures, roofing materials, and the pitch and orientation of the roof. A follow-up mail survey established the ability to identify insulated and uninsulated houses from the airborne infrared data.

  17. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    In 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the US Department of Energy (DOE), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR)). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero. Three tests, Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat; the fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. DOE is working to clean up and close all four sites. Substantial cleaned up has been accomplished at Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1. Cleanup of Clean Slate 2 and 3 is on the DOE planning horizon for some time in the next several years. The Desert Research Institute installed two monitoring stations, number 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories Range Operations Center and number 401 at Clean Slate 3, in 2008 and a third monitoring station, number 402 at Clean Slate 1, in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The primary objectives of the data collection and analysis effort are to (1) monitor the concentration of radiological parameters in dust particles suspended in air, (2) determine whether winds are re-distributing radionuclides or contaminated soil material, (3) evaluate the controlling meteorological conditions if wind transport is occurring, and (4) measure ancillary radiological, meteorological, and environmental parameters that might provide insight to the above assessments. The following observations are based on data collected during CY2012. The mean annual concentration of gross alpha and gross beta is highest at Station 400 and lowest at Station

  18. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Barfuss, Brad C.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2008-01-01

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP – U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection – Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2007.

  19. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-05-13

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ([NESHAP]; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated off-site doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2010.

  20. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Edwards, Daniel L.

    2003-12-05

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the assessment performed in 2003.

  1. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Shields, Keith D.; Edwards, Daniel R.

    2001-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods, and provides the results, for the assessment performed in 2001.

  2. 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident: summary of regional radioactive deposition monitoring results.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2012-09-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting Tsunami on March 11, 2011, serious accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has been occurred. Huge amounts of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. Japanese prefectural governments have carried out environmental radioactivity monitoring; external dose rate, radioactivity measurements in environmental samples and others. Since March 18, 2011, daily and monthly deposition samples were collected in 45 stations covering Japanese Islands and radionuclides in the deposition samples were determined. We summarize radioactive deposition data reported by Japanese Government and study the depositional behaviors of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides. The results revealed that Fukushima-derived radioactive cloud dominantly affected in the central and eastern part of Honshu-Island, although it affected all of Japanese land area and also western North Pacific. The temporal change of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs revealed that the apparent atmospheric residence time of the Fukushima-derived (137)Cs in sites within 300 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPis about 10 d.

  3. Nevada Test 1999 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 radioactive waste management sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yvonne Townsend

    2000-05-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 1999 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 3.9 inches at the Area 3 RWMS (61 percent of average) and 3.8 inches at the Area 5 RWMS (75 percent of average). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 1999 rainfall infiltrated less than one foot before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium data indicate very slow migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were insignificant. All 1999 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing as expected at isolating buried waste.

  4. Demolition and removal of radioactively contaminated concrete soil: Aerosol control and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Grace, A.C. III

    1995-12-01

    From 1963 to 1985, two concrete-lined ponds were used to reduce the volume of radioactive liquids from the Institute`s research programs. Following withdrawal of the {open_quotes}hot ponds{close_quotes} from active use, the residual sludges and plastic liners of the ponds were removed and shipped to a radioactive waste disposal site. From 1987 to 1994, the concrete structures remained undisturbed pending environmental restoration on the site. Restoration began in 1994 and was completed in 1995. Restoration involved mechanical breakup and removal of the concrete structures and removal of areas of contaminated soils from the site. This report describes the design and results of the aerosol control and monitoring program that was conducted to ensure protection of workers and the environment during the restoration process. The aerosol control and monitoring strategy developed for remediation of the ITRI hot ponds was successful both in preventing dispersion of radioactive dusts and in demonstrating that exposures of workers and offsite releases were within statutory limits.

  5. Use of the selective agar medium CREAD for monitoring the level of airborne spoilage moulds in cheese production.

    PubMed

    Kure, Cathrine Finne; Borch, Elisabeth; Karlsson, Ingela; Homleid, Jens Petter; Langsrud, Solveig

    2008-02-29

    It was investigated if a selective medium for common cheese spoiling moulds (CREAD) could give more relevant information than a general mould medium in hygienic air-sampling in cheese factories. A total of 126 air-samples were taken in six Nordic cheese factories using the general mould medium DG18 and CREAD. The level and genera of air-borne mould was determined. Identification to species-level was performed for a selection of samples. In five cheese factories the mycobiota was dominated by Penicillium spp. and in one cheese factory by Cladosporium spp. The concentration of air-borne moulds varied between the cheese factories ranging from 1 to 270 cfu/m3 on DG18 with a median value of 17. The number of mould colonies was in general lower at CREAD. Identification indicated that CREAD supported growth of common spoilage moulds for cheese, such as Penicillium palitans and P. commune. The mycobiota on DG18 also consisted of moulds not commonly associated with spoilage of cheese, such as Cladosporium spp., P. brevicompactum and P. chrysogenum. Contamination of cheese with mould is periodically a problem in production of semi-hard cheese and the level of air-borne mould is therefore routinely monitored in cheese factories. A clear correlation between the total number of moulds in air and mould growth on products is not always found. The conclusion from the investigation is that it is recommended to use a selective medium for cheese spoilage moulds, such as CREAD in hygienic monitoring.

  6. Environmental radioactivity monitoring at the deep undeground Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plastino, W.; Povinec, P. P.

    2009-12-01

    The neutron flux background plays a key-role in several research activities for Neutrino Physics and Dark Matter detection in underground environment. The neutron sources considered at deep underground are (α,n) reactions on light elements (e.g., Li, F, Na, etc.), spontaneous fission, mainly of 238U, and those induced by cosmic ray muons. The Gran Sasso National Laboratory—National Institute of Nuclear Physics (LNGS-INFN) is located inside the largest aquifer of central Italy. The natural radioactivity in rock and materials used for the internal structures of the LNGS-INFN has been studied in detail, and the specific activities of natural radionuclides are known with high accuracy for the characterization of neutron background at the LNGS-INFN. Moreover, numerical simulations and neutron flux measurements were carried out inside the LNGS-INFN. Nevertheless, the contribution of the natural radioactivity in the ground water and its spatial-temporal variations induced by the water-rock interaction and the hydrological properties of the Gran Sasso aquifer have never been considered. Within the framework of the INFN scientific program ERMES (Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring for Earth Sciences) environmental radioactivity measurements were performed inside the LNGS-INFN: particularly, radon [1, 2], radiocarbon [3], tritium [4], and new detectors independent of environmental noise parameters such as temperature, acid concentrations, humidity, and air pressure were tested [5]. These measurements have shown the existence of different chemical-physical and fluid dynamical characteristics in the ground water. The results of the ground water radioactivity monitoring show temporal modulations induced by ground water variations due to percolation effect related to snow melting, rainfall and/or diffusive processes through the structural discontinuities [6]. Furthermore, monitoring of chemical and physical groundwater parameters has been carried out worldwide in

  7. Airborne monitoring of crop canopy temperatures for irrigation scheduling and yield prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Goettelman, R. C.; Lapado, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the program discussed was to develop techniques for remotely measuring crop irrigation needs and predicting crop yields, with emphasis on wheat. Airborne measurements, using an IR line scanner and color IR photography, were made to evaluate the feasibility of measuring minimum and maximum (dawn and afternoon) crop temperatures to compute a parameter, termed 'stress degree day' (SDD) - a valuable indicator of crop water needs, which can be related to irrigation scheduling and yield. Crop canopy temperature measurements by airborne IR techniques revealed the superiority of thermal IR data over color IR photography. Water stress undetected in the latter technique was clearly detected in thermal imagery. Color IR photography, however, is valuable in discerning vegetation. The pseudo-colored temperature-difference images (and pseudo-colored images, reading directly in daily SDD increments) are shown to be well suited for assessing plant water status and, thus, for determining the irrigation needs and crop yield potentials.

  8. Development of Wireless Data Transmission System for the Monitoring in Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste - 12063

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kei; Eto, Jiro; Tanabe, Hiromi; Esaki, Taichi; Takamura, Hisashi; Suyama, Yasuhiro

    2012-07-01

    The authors have been developing a wireless data transmission system to monitor the performance of a geological disposal system for radioactive waste. The system's concepts, advantages, and a recent development focused on reducing transmitter size to suit narrow spaces such as bentonite buffers and boreholes. A wireless transmitter with a built-in temperature sensor and a connector for external sensors has been developed, measuring 130 mm in length and 50 mm in diameter. The capability of the transmitter was confirmed by transmission tests on the ground and in a bentonite block. (authors)

  9. 2002 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-06-01

    Environmental, subsidence, and meteorological monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)(refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater,meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorological data indicate that 2002 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 26 mm (1.0 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 38 mm (1.5 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2002 rainfall infiltrated less than 30 cm (1 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. Special investigations conducted in 2002 included: a comparison between waste cover water contents measured by neutron probe and coring; and a comparison of four methods for measuring radon concentrations in air. All 2002 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility Performance Assessments (PAs).

  10. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, K.J.; Jolley, J.G.

    1994-06-01

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA{reg_sign} canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA{reg_sign}, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities.

  11. Testing and assessment of a large BGO detector for beach monitoring of radioactive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Graaf, E. R.; Rigollet, C.; Maleka, P. P.; Jones, D. G.

    2007-06-01

    The Beach Monitoring Steering Group (BMSG) was set up by UKAEA to explore whether improved systems for beach monitoring of radioactive particles are available. The BMSG commissioned the British Geological Survey (BGS) and the Nuclear Geophysics Division of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI/NGD), and other companies, to test their most sensitive system. This paper presents the results of trials in a specially created test facility at UKAEA Harwell with a large BGO detector. The detector's size and weight mean that it would be suitable for vehicle deployment but would be too large and heavy to carry in areas that could not be accessed by a vehicle. However, it would be possible to use the same methodology that is described here with a smaller detector capable of being carried in a backpack, albeit with reduced sensitivity for particle detection. The approach that we present is also applicable, with modifications, to the detection of offshore particles using a towed seabed detector.

  12. GLORI: a new airborne GNSS reflectometry instrument for land surface monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motte, Erwan; Fanise, Pascal; Zribi, Mehrez

    2015-10-01

    From the beginning of the 1990s, the use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) reflected signals have been identified as a as source of opportunity for remote sensing applications. In the last two decades, the potential of the technique have been demonstrated for ocean and continental surfaces studies, and several applications have been proposed in the context of high availability of GNSS signals. The GNSS-R technique is generally based on the use of a passive receiver simultaneously acquiring the direct and reflected signals from various GNSS satellites to estimate geophysical parameters from the scattering surface. In the last years, several ground-based [2], [3], airborne [4] and space-borne [5]-[8] experiments have been proposed. The most considered application foreseen for GNSS-R is ocean altimetry for a precise determination of sea-surface heights as well as roughness and wind direction. For continental surfaces, because of direct relationship between surface permittivity and reflected signal, different approaches [6], [9], [10] have been proposed to estimate surface parameters (soil moisture, vegetation biomass, snow). Different observables have been proposed to analyze GNSS signals: the Delay-Doppler Map, the direct and reflected complex waveforms bistatic signal, the ratio between the direct and reflected waveform's peak time series (Interferometric Complex Field). In this context, the airborne instrument GLORI is proposed to demonstrate contribution of GNSS-R to estimate soil moisture over agricultural soils and biomass of forests or annual cultures. A secondary goal is the feasibility of centimeter-precision altimetry above continental water bodies. The second section describes the characteristics of GLORI instrument. The third section presents airborne campaigns realized over the south West of France and fourth sections discusses the first results. Conclusions are gathered in section 5.

  13. Health-related monitoring and assessment of airborne particulate matter. An overview of recent IAEA programs.

    PubMed

    Parr, R M; Smodis, B

    1999-01-01

    Since 1992, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been promoting studies of air pollution using a standard design of air sampler that provides separation on filters into two size fractions with cutoffs of 2.5 and 10 microns (approximately). These are the size ranges presently considered to have the most important health consequences. Such filter samples are highly amenable to analysis using nuclear and related techniques. After reviewing some of the health effects of airborne particulate matter and current air quality standards and guidelines, this article provides an overview of current and recent IAEA programs in this area, which involve collaborative activities with participants in more than 40 countries.

  14. Tracking and Monitoring of Radioactive Materials in the Commercial Hazardous Materials Supply Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M; Kopsick, Deborah A; Warren, Tracy A; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Hill, David E; Gross, Ian G; Smith, Cyrus M

    2007-01-01

    One of the main components of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Materials Program is to prevent the loss of radioactive materials through the use of tracking technologies. If a source is inadvertently lost or purposely abandoned or stolen, it is critical that the source be recovered before harm to the public or the environment occurs. Radio frequency identification (RFID) tagging on radioactive sources is a technology that can be operated in the active or passive mode, has a variety of frequencies available allowing for flexibility in use, is able to transmit detailed data and is discreet. The purpose of the joint DOE and EPA Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) project is to evaluate the viability, effectiveness and scalability of RFID technology under a variety of transportation scenarios. The goal of the Phase II was to continue testing integrated RFID tag systems from various vendors for feasibility in tracking radioactive sealed sources which included the following performance objectives: 1. Validate the performance of RFID intelligent systems to monitor express air shipments of medical radioisotopes in the nationwide supply chain, 2. Quantify the reliability of these tracking systems with regards to probability of tag detection and operational reliability, 3. Determine if the implementation of these systems improves manpower effectiveness, and 4. Demonstrate that RFID tracking and monitoring of radioactive materials is ready for large scale deployment at the National level. For purposes of analysis, the test scenario employed in this study utilized the real world commerce supply chain process for radioactive medical isotopes to validate the performance of intelligent RFID tags. Three different RFID systems were assessed from a shipping and packaging perspective, included varied environmental conditions, varied commodities on board vehicles, temporary staging in shipping terminals using various commodities and normal

  15. Comparison of three airborne laser bathymetry data sets for monitoring the German Baltic Sea Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yujin; Niemeyer, Joachim; Ellmer, Wilfried; Soergel, Uwe; Heipke, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Airborne laser bathymetry (ALB) can be used for hydrographic surveying with relative high resolution in shallow water. In this paper, we examine the applicability of this technique based on three flight campaigns. These were conducted between 2012 and 2014 close to the island of Poel in the German Baltic Sea. The first data set was acquired by a Riegl VQ-820-G sensor in November 2012. The second and third data sets were acquired by a Chiroptera sensor of Airborne Hydrography AB in September 2013 and May 2014, respectively. We examine the 3D points classified as seabed under different conditions during data acquisition, e.g. the turbidity level of the water and the flight altitude. The analysis comprises the point distribution, point density, and the area coverage in several depth levels. In addition, we determine the vertical accuracy of the 3D seabed points by computing differences to echo sounding data. Finally, the results of the three flight campaigns are compared to each other and analyzed with respect to the different conditions during data acquisition. For each campaign only small differences in elevation between the laser and the echo sounding data set are observed. The ALB results satisfy the requirements of IHO Standards for Hydrographic Surveys (S-44) Order 1b for several depth intervals.

  16. Airborne monitoring of crop canopy temperatures for irrigation scheduling and yield prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Goettelman, R. C.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Lapado, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Airborne and ground measurements were made on April 1 and 29, 1976, over a USDA test site consisting mostly of wheat in various stages of water stress, but also including alfalfa and bare soil. These measurements were made to evaluate the feasibility of measuring crop temperatures from aircraft so that a parameter termed stress degree day, SDD, could be computed. Ground studies have shown that SDD is a valuable indicator of a crop's water needs, and that it can be related to irrigation scheduling and yield. The aircraft measurement program required predawn and afternoon flights coincident with minimum and maximum crop temperatures. Airborne measurements were made with an infrared line scanner and with color IR photography. The scanner data were registered, subtracted, and color-coded to yield pseudo-colored temperature-difference images. Pseudo-colored images reading directly in daily SDD increments were also produced. These maps enable a user to assess plant water status and thus determine irrigation needs and crop yield potentials.

  17. Evaluation of airborne image data and LIDAR main stem data for monitoring physical resources within the Colorado River ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Rosiek, Mark R.; Galuszka, Donna M.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated near-infrared LIDAR data acquired over the main-stem channel at four long-term monitoring sites within the Colorado River ecosystem (CRE) to determine the ability of these data to provide reliable indications in changes in water elevation over time. Our results indicate that there is a good correlation between the LIDAR water-surface elevations and ground measurements of water-edge elevation, but there are also inherent errors in the LIDAR data. The elevation errors amount to about 50 cm and therefore temporal changes in water-surface elevation that exceed this value by the majority of data at a particular location can be deemed significant or real. This study also evaluated airborne image data for producing photogrammetric elevation data and for automated mapping of sand bars and debris flows within the CRE. The photogrammetric analyses show that spatial resolutions of ≤ 10 cm are required to produce vertical accuracies

  18. Linking morphology to ecosystem structure using air-borne sensors for monitoring the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taramelli, A.; Giardino, C.; Valentini, E.; Bresciani, M.; Gasperini, L.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal Landscape, and how they change over time, provide the template on which the emerging role of Earth system science (ESS) closely linked with the development of space-borne sensors can stand in the center of a newly emerging science of the Earth's surface, where strong couplings links human dynamics, biology, biochemistry, geochemistry, geomorphology, and fluid dynamics including climate change. Modern views on the behavior of complex systems like the coastal one, allow the interpretation of phenomenological coastal landscape as a stationary landscape-state that correspond to a dynamic equilibrium, and to a self-organized exogenic order of the edge of the chaos. Therefore is essential for a thoroughly understanding of spatiotemporal variations in coastal dynamics and habitat distribution for the source of nonlinearity and complexity in geomorphic system make gathering data appropriate for use in developing and testing models of biological and physical process interacting across a wide range of scale. In this paper a physics based approach was applied to MIVIS (Multi-spectral IR and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) airborne data, simultaneously acquired on 12 May 2009 in order to integrate geomorphological and ecological observations into a detailed macrophytes map of Lake Trasimeno (Italy). Shallow water vegetation, in fact, plays an essential role in determining how coastal morphology and ecosystems dynamics respond to feedbacks between biological and physical processes. An accurate field campaign was carried out during the airborne survey and a collection of different biophysical parameter has been achieved. The purposes of the field observations were twofold. First, field observations allowed identification of biophysical habitats and properties associated both to radiometric and limnological features. Secondly, field reconnaissance allowed identifying significant parameters involved in optical interpretation of the

  19. Laser measurement of extinction coefficients of highly absorbing liquids. [airborne oil spill monitoring application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Kincaid, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A coaxial dual-channel laser system has been developed for the measurement of extinction coefficients of highly absorbing liquids. An empty wedge-shaped sample cell is first translated laterally through a He-Ne laser beam to measure the differential thickness using interference fringes in reflection. The wedge cell is carefully filled with the oil sample and translated through the coaxially positioned dye laser beam for the differential attenuation or extinction measurement. Optional use of the instrumentation as a single-channel extinction measurement system and also as a refractometer is detailed. The system and calibration techniques were applied to the measurement of two crude oils whose extinction values were required to complete the analysis of airborne laser data gathered over four controlled spills.

  20. Mapping and Monitoring Delmarva Fox Squirrel Habitat Using an Airborne LiDAR Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Ross; Ratnaswamy, Mary; Keller, Cherry

    2004-01-01

    Twenty five hundred thirty nine kilometers of airborne laser profiling and videography data were acquired over the state of Delaware during the summer of 2000. The laser ranging measurements and video from approximately one-half of that data set (1304 km) were analyzed to identify and locate forested sites that might potentially support populations of Delmarva fox squirrel (DFS, Sciurus niger cinereus). The DFS is an endangered species previously endemic to tall, dense, mature forests with open understories on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay. The airborne LiDAR employed in this study can measure forest canopy height and canopy closure, but cannot measure or infer understory canopy conditions. Hence the LiDAR must be viewed as a tool to map potential, not actual, habitat. Fifty-three potentially suitable DFS sites were identified in the 1304 km of flight transect data. Each of the 53 sites met the following criteria according to the LiDAR and video record: (1 ) at least 120m of contiguous forest; (2) an average canopy height greater than 20m; (3) an average canopy closure of >80%; and (4) no roofs, impervious surface (e.g., asphalt, concrete), and/or open water anywhere along the 120m length of the laser segment. Thirty-two of the 53 sites were visited on the ground and measurements taken for a DFS habitat suitability model. Seventy eight percent of the sites (25 of 32) were judged by the model to be suited to supporting a DFS population. Twenty-eight of the 32 sites visited in the field were in forest cover types (hardwood, mixed wood, conifer, wetlands) according to a land cover GIS map. Of these, 23 (82%) were suited to support DFS. The remaining 4 sites were located in nonforest cover types - agricultural or residential areas. Two of the four, or 50% were suited to the DFS. All of the LiDAR flight data, 2539 km, were analyzed to

  1. New specific indicators for qPCR monitoring of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Olivier; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Wéry, Nathalie

    2011-09-01

    Bioaerosols emitted from composting plants are an issue because of their potential harmful impact on public or workers' health. There is a major lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants and the consequent potential exposure of nearby residents. This inadequate knowledge is partly due to the fact that there is currently no method for specifically tracing these microorganisms in the air. The objective of this study was to validate the use of microbial groups as indicators of composting bioaerosols by comparing their concentration in air samples, whether impacted by composting activity or not. Three potential microbial indicators were chosen among the core species of composting bioaerosols. They belong to the genus Saccharopolyspora, to the Thermoactinomycetaceae and to the fungus Thermomyces. Quantitative PCR systems using TaqMan probes were designed to quantify each of the three phylotypes in air samples collected outdoors in natural environments and at composting plants. Compost-turning operations at industrial plants resulted in an increase in the concentration of the three phylotypes of at least 2 orders of magnitude when compared to the concentration measured in control samples collected upwind, and of at least 1 order of magnitude compared to the background concentration measured in natural environments unaffected by industrial activity. In conclusion, these three thermophilic phylotypes can be used as indicators of airborne microorganisms emitted by industrial composting plants. They may be particularly relevant in studying the dispersal of bioaerosols around composting plants and the exposure of nearby residents. This is the first time that indicators of compost bioaerosols have been validated by comparing their concentrations in impacted samples to their background levels in natural environments.

  2. Measurement of airborne radioactivity and its meteorological application. Part VIII. Annual report, 1 August 1976-31 October 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, R.; Kanter, H. J.; Sladkovic, R.; Jaeger, H.; Poetzl, K.

    1980-12-01

    Studies of the stratospheric-tropospheric exchange were continued. Continuous data of the concentration of cosmogenic radionuclides /sup 7/Be, /sup 32/P, /sup 33/P, as well as of fallout and daily means of ozone concentrations, measured at 3000 m ASL are presented for the reporting period. Installation of two additional ozone measuring stations at 1800 and 740 m ASL provided the means for getting insight into the balance of the tropospheric ozone. First results of routine monitoring of the stratospheric aerosol with a high resolution lidar are shown. Accuracy of the method is discussed. Control of the stratospheric-tropospheric exchange by solar activity is examined with the aid of the key day method using an 8-year measuring sequence. Relevant literature available on the subject is reviewed.

  3. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  4. Application of GIS technologies to monitor secondary radioactive contamination in the Delegen mountain massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipbeki, O.; Kabzhanova, G.; Kurmanova, G.; Alipbekova, Ch.

    2016-06-01

    The territory of the Degelen mountain massif is located within territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and it is an area of ecological disaster. Currently there is a process of secondary radioactive contamination that is caused by geodynamic processes activated at the Degelen array, violation of underground hydrological cycles and as a consequence, water seepage into the tunnels. One of the methods of monitoring of geodynamic processes is the modern technology of geographic information systems (GIS), methods of satellite radar interferometry and high accuracy satellite navigation system in conjunction with radioecological methods. This paper discusses on the creation of a GIS-project for the Degelen array, facilitated by quality geospatial analysis of the situation and simulation of the phenomena, in order to maximize an objective assessment of the radiation situation in this protected area.

  5. Landslide Investigation by Repeat Airborne LiDAR and Ground Monitoring in the Western Suburb of Sapporo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, M.; Marutani, T.; Yoshida, H.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents landslide investigation using the combination of airborne LiDAR and ground monitoring data. The study site is located on the Teine Landslide (width: 2 km, Length: 6.5 km) in the western suburb of Sapporo city in Hokkaido Island, Japan, which collapsed more than 50,000 years ago. Since then streams have been developing and incising the landslide mass consisted of rock debris and volcanic deposits, presently causing a series of small deep-seated landslides along the banks. Because Sapporo is the economic center of Hokkaido and the suburb is expanding at the toe of the Teine slide, it is important to understand the behaviors of these active slopes to protect residents and infrastructures from unexpected disasters possibly triggered by an intense storm or earthquake. The LiDAR data for the area was first obtained by a manned helicopter in August 2010, and another survey by an unmanned helicopter is planned in autumn 2014 to estimate their activities from changes in the ground surfaces during the period from 2010 to 2014. Ground water level and landslide mass movements have also been monitored on site by using the coring holes for sampling since 2013. The combination of the data sets can make up the deficits of these methods, e.g., errors created through data processing for LiDAR survey and spatially limited information for ground monitoring, enabling to provide a solid three dimensional view of the slope movements. The notion obtained can be utilized to predict their future behaviors as well as to discover active but hiding landslides nearby. This study also showed that repeat monitoring of sites is a way of utilizing UAVs, particularly in terms of cost and convenience.

  6. GLORI: A GNSS-R Dual Polarization Airborne Instrument for Land Surface Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal; Egido, Alejandro; Darrozes, José; Al-Yaari, Amen; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Baup, Frédéric; Dayau, Sylvia; Fieuzal, Remy; Frison, Pierre-Louis; Guyon, Dominique; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has emerged as a remote sensing tool, which is complementary to traditional monostatic radars, for the retrieval of geophysical parameters related to surface properties. In the present paper, we describe a new polarimetric GNSS-R system, referred to as the GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument (GLORI), dedicated to the study of land surfaces (soil moisture, vegetation water content, forest biomass) and inland water bodies. This system was installed as a permanent payload on a French ATR42 research aircraft, from which simultaneous measurements can be carried out using other instruments, when required. Following initial laboratory qualifications, two airborne campaigns involving nine flights were performed in 2014 and 2015 in the Southwest of France, over various types of land cover, including agricultural fields and forests. Some of these flights were made concurrently with in situ ground truth campaigns. Various preliminary applications for the characterisation of agricultural and forest areas are presented. Initial analysis of the data shows that the performance of the GLORI instrument is well within specifications, with a cross-polarization isolation better than −15 dB at all elevations above 45°, a relative polarimetric calibration accuracy better than 0.5 dB, and an apparent reflectivity sensitivity better than −30 dB, thus demonstrating its strong potential for the retrieval of land surface characteristics. PMID:27213393

  7. Apparatus and methods for monitoring the concentrations of hazardous airborne substances, especially lead

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon

    2004-07-13

    Air is sampled at a rate in excess of 100 L/min, preferably at 200-300 L/min, so as to collect therefrom a substantial fraction, i.e., at least 20%, preferably 60-100%, of airborne particulates. A substance of interest (analyte), such as lead, is rapidly solubilized from the the collected particulates into a sample of liquid extractant, and the concentration of the analyte in the extractant sample is determined. The high-rate air sampling and particulate collection may be effected with a high-throughput filter cartridge or with a recently developed portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler. Rapid solubilization of lead is achieved by a liquid extractant comprising 0.1-1 M of acetic acid or acetate, preferably at a pH of 5 or less and preferably with inclusion of 1-10% of hydrogen peroxide. Rapid determination of the lead content in the liquid extractant may be effected with a colorimetric or an electroanalytical analyzer.

  8. GLORI: A GNSS-R Dual Polarization Airborne Instrument for Land Surface Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal; Egido, Alejandro; Darrozes, José; Al-Yaari, Amen; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Baup, Frédéric; Dayau, Sylvia; Fieuzal, Remy; Frison, Pierre-Louis; Guyon, Dominique; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-05-20

    Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has emerged as a remote sensing tool, which is complementary to traditional monostatic radars, for the retrieval of geophysical parameters related to surface properties. In the present paper, we describe a new polarimetric GNSS-R system, referred to as the GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument (GLORI), dedicated to the study of land surfaces (soil moisture, vegetation water content, forest biomass) and inland water bodies. This system was installed as a permanent payload on a French ATR42 research aircraft, from which simultaneous measurements can be carried out using other instruments, when required. Following initial laboratory qualifications, two airborne campaigns involving nine flights were performed in 2014 and 2015 in the Southwest of France, over various types of land cover, including agricultural fields and forests. Some of these flights were made concurrently with in situ ground truth campaigns. Various preliminary applications for the characterisation of agricultural and forest areas are presented. Initial analysis of the data shows that the performance of the GLORI instrument is well within specifications, with a cross-polarization isolation better than -15 dB at all elevations above 45°, a relative polarimetric calibration accuracy better than 0.5 dB, and an apparent reflectivity sensitivity better than -30 dB, thus demonstrating its strong potential for the retrieval of land surface characteristics.

  9. Monitoring and identification of airborne fungi at historic locations on Ross Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Shona M.; Farrell, Roberta L.; Jordan, Neville; Jurgens, Joel A.; Blanchette, Robert A.

    2010-08-01

    Air sampling in the ‘Heroic Era’ historic huts on Ross Island, Antarctica confirmed fungal presence, viability and winter survival. Cultivation and consensus sequence-based identification of Cladosporium cladosporioides, Pseudeurotium desertorum, Geomyces sp. and Antarctomyces psychrotrophicus demonstrated that they dominated the air environment within the huts. Cadophora sp. and Thebolus sp. were also isolated from the air and identified by morphological characteristics. Viable fungal colony forming units generally dropped in winter 2007 samplings from levels recorded in summer 2006 but were still substantial and greater than observed in summer 2008 and summer 2009 sampling at some locations. Comparing interior to exterior sampling, at the Hut Point and Cape Evans sites, there were more fungi recovered from the air in the interiors but at Cape Royds location, more fungi were recovered from the outside environment, possibly due to the impact of large amounts of organic material from the nearby Adélie penguin rookery. This research reveals airborne fungal biodiversity in summer and winter and demonstrates spores are widespread particularly in the interiors of the huts. Completed conservation efforts appear to have reduced fungal blooms and spores, which should reduce future adverse impacts to wood, textiles, paper and other artefacts so that this important polar heritage can be preserved.

  10. GLORI: A GNSS-R Dual Polarization Airborne Instrument for Land Surface Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal; Egido, Alejandro; Darrozes, José; Al-Yaari, Amen; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Baup, Frédéric; Dayau, Sylvia; Fieuzal, Remy; Frison, Pierre-Louis; Guyon, Dominique; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has emerged as a remote sensing tool, which is complementary to traditional monostatic radars, for the retrieval of geophysical parameters related to surface properties. In the present paper, we describe a new polarimetric GNSS-R system, referred to as the GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument (GLORI), dedicated to the study of land surfaces (soil moisture, vegetation water content, forest biomass) and inland water bodies. This system was installed as a permanent payload on a French ATR42 research aircraft, from which simultaneous measurements can be carried out using other instruments, when required. Following initial laboratory qualifications, two airborne campaigns involving nine flights were performed in 2014 and 2015 in the Southwest of France, over various types of land cover, including agricultural fields and forests. Some of these flights were made concurrently with in situ ground truth campaigns. Various preliminary applications for the characterisation of agricultural and forest areas are presented. Initial analysis of the data shows that the performance of the GLORI instrument is well within specifications, with a cross-polarization isolation better than -15 dB at all elevations above 45°, a relative polarimetric calibration accuracy better than 0.5 dB, and an apparent reflectivity sensitivity better than -30 dB, thus demonstrating its strong potential for the retrieval of land surface characteristics. PMID:27213393

  11. Use of radioactive iodine I-131 and monitoring of radioactivity in patients with chronic kidney disease on haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Villalobos, Angel; García-López, Fernando; Escalada, Carmen; Ortiz, Juan J; Cardona, Jorge; Medina, Amparo; Portolés, José

    2014-05-21

    Thyroid carcinoma is a neoplasia with a higher incidence in patients with chronic kidney disease. In recent years advances have been made in diagnostic and therapeutic trials. Dialysis patients are a particular group, their cancer being detected indirectly in the study of secondary hyperparathyroidism and during the study prior to renal transplantation. Thyroidectomy is the definitive treatment, but in patients with risk of recurrence, ablative therapy is required using radioactive iodine I-131, which is predominantly eliminated by renal excretion, therefore its use in patients on dialysis poses a problem in terms of dosage. Two cases are presented of patients on haemodialysis undergoing radioablation with radioactive iodine I-131, which with multidisciplinary treatment had the expected results in the patients.

  12. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Nikoloch, George; Shadel, Craig; Chapman, Jenny; Mizell, Steve A.; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J.

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  13. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  14. Nevada Test Site 2008 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2008 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities.

  15. Separating and stabilizing phosphate from high-level radioactive waste: process development and spectroscopic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lumetta, Gregg J; Braley, Jenifer C; Peterson, James M; Bryan, Samuel A; Levitskaia, Tatiana G

    2012-06-01

    Removing phosphate from alkaline high-level waste sludges at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State is necessary to increase the waste loading in the borosilicate glass waste form that will be used to immobilize the highly radioactive fraction of these wastes. We are developing a process which first leaches phosphate from the high-level waste solids with aqueous sodium hydroxide, and then isolates the phosphate by precipitation with calcium oxide. Tests with actual tank waste confirmed that this process is an effective method of phosphate removal from the sludge and offers an additional option for managing the phosphorus in the Hanford tank waste solids. The presence of vibrationally active species, such as nitrate and phosphate ions, in the tank waste processing streams makes the phosphate removal process an ideal candidate for monitoring by Raman or infrared spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were acquired for all phases during a test of the process with actual tank waste. Quantitative determination of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate in the liquid phases was achieved by Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of these species in the tank waste process streams. PMID:22571620

  16. Nevada Test Site 2002 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2002 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Results from all samples collected in 2002 were within established criteria. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act(RCRA) regulated unit within the RWMS-5 and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  17. Nevada Test Site 2001 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2001 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure. Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Due to detections of TOC and TOX in some samples collected in 2000, a plan, as approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), was executed to collect an increased number and type of samples in 2001. Results from all samples collected in 2001 were below ILs. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated unit within the Area 5 RWMS and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year.

  18. Separating and stabilizing phosphate from high-level radioactive waste: process development and spectroscopic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lumetta, Gregg J; Braley, Jenifer C; Peterson, James M; Bryan, Samuel A; Levitskaia, Tatiana G

    2012-06-01

    Removing phosphate from alkaline high-level waste sludges at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State is necessary to increase the waste loading in the borosilicate glass waste form that will be used to immobilize the highly radioactive fraction of these wastes. We are developing a process which first leaches phosphate from the high-level waste solids with aqueous sodium hydroxide, and then isolates the phosphate by precipitation with calcium oxide. Tests with actual tank waste confirmed that this process is an effective method of phosphate removal from the sludge and offers an additional option for managing the phosphorus in the Hanford tank waste solids. The presence of vibrationally active species, such as nitrate and phosphate ions, in the tank waste processing streams makes the phosphate removal process an ideal candidate for monitoring by Raman or infrared spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were acquired for all phases during a test of the process with actual tank waste. Quantitative determination of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate in the liquid phases was achieved by Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of these species in the tank waste process streams.

  19. Separating and Stabilizing Phosphate from High-Level Radioactive Waste: Process Development and Spectroscopic Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Peterson, James M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2012-05-09

    Removing phosphate from alkaline high-level waste sludges at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State is necessary to increase the waste loading in the borosilicate glass waste form that will be used to immobilize the highly radioactive fraction of these wastes. We are developing a process which first leaches phosphate from the high-level waste solids with aqueous sodium hydroxide, and then isolates the phosphate by precipitation with calcium oxide. Tests with actual tank waste confirmed that this process is an effective method of phosphate removal from the sludge and offers an additional option for managing the phosphorus in the Hanford tank waste solids. The presence of vibrationally active species, such as nitrate and phosphate ions, in the tank waste processing streams makes the phosphate removal process an ideal candidate for monitoring by Raman or infrared spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were acquired for all phases during a test of the process with actual tank waste. Quantitative determination of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate in the liquid phases was achieved by Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of these species in the tank waste process streams.

  20. Environmental monitoring for a low-level radioactive waste management facility: Incinerator operations

    SciTech Connect

    Tries, M.A. |; Chabot, G.E.; Ring, J.P.

    1996-09-01

    An environmental monitoring program has been developed for Harvard University, Southborough campus, to access the local environmental concentrations of radionuclides released in incinerator effluents. The campus is host to the University`s low-level radioactive waste management facility, which consists of 6,000 drum capacity decay-storage buildings; a 250 drum capacity decay-storage freezer; and a controlled-air incinerator. Developmental considerations were based on the characteristics and use of the incinerator, which has a capacity of 8 tons per day and is operated at 5% of the time for the volume reduction of Type 0 and Type 4 wastes contaminated with a variety of radionuclides used in biomedical research-some in microsphere form. Monitoring was established for air, leafy vegetation, leaf-litter, and surface soil media. Field sampling was optimized regarding location and time based on the action of atmospheric, terrestrial, and biotic transport mechanisms. Preliminary results indicate transient concentrations of {sup 3}H and {sup 125}I in vegetation directly exposed to the dispersing plume. Measurable particulate depositions have not been observed. 52 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  2. Attenuation of elastic waves in bentonite and monitoring of radioactive waste repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, A.; Tisato, N.; Grasselli, G.

    2016-04-01

    Deep geological repositories, isolated from the geosphere by an engineered bentonite barrier, are currently considered the safest solution for high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) disposal. As the physical conditions and properties of the bentonite barrier are anticipated to change with time, seismic tomography was suggested as a viable technique to monitor the physical state and integrity of the barrier and to timely detect any unforeseen failure. To do so, the seismic monitoring system needs to be optimized, and this can be achieved by conducting numerical simulations of wave propagation in the repository geometry. Previous studies treated bentonite as an elastic medium, whereas recent experimental investigations indicate its pronounced viscoelastic behaviour. The aims of this contribution are (i) to numerically estimate the effective attenuation of bentonite as a function of temperature T and water content Wc, so that synthetic data can accurately reproduce experimental traces and (ii) assess the feasibility and limitation of the HLRW repository monitoring by simulating the propagation of sonic waves in a realistic repository geometry. A finite difference method was utilized to simulate the wave propagation in experimental and repository setups. First, the input of the viscoelastic model was varied to achieve a match between experimental and numerical traces. The routine was repeated for several values of Wc and T, so that quality factors Qp(Wc, T) and Qs(Wc, T) were obtained. Then, the full-scale monitoring procedure was simulated for six scenarios, representing the evolution of bentonite's physical state. The estimated Qp and Qs exhibited a minimum at Wc = 20 per cent and higher sensitivity to Wc, rather than T, suggesting that pronounced inelasticity of the clay has to be taken into account in geophysical modelling and analysis. The repository-model traces confirm that active seismic monitoring is, in principle, capable of depicting physical changes in the

  3. Monitoring Strategies for REDD+: Integrating Field, Airborne, and Satellite Observations of Amazon Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Keller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale tropical forest monitoring efforts in support of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation plus enhancing forest carbon stocks) confront a range of challenges. REDD+ activities typically have short reporting time scales, diverse data needs, and low tolerance for uncertainties. Meeting these challenges will require innovative use of remote sensing data, including integrating data at different spatial and temporal resolutions. The global scientific community is engaged in developing, evaluating, and applying new methods for regional to global scale forest monitoring. Pilot REDD+ activities are underway across the tropics with support from a range of national and international groups, including SilvaCarbon, an interagency effort to coordinate US expertise on forest monitoring and resource management. Early actions on REDD+ have exposed some of the inherent tradeoffs that arise from the use of incomplete or inaccurate data to quantify forest area changes and related carbon emissions. Here, we summarize recent advances in forest monitoring to identify and target the main sources of uncertainty in estimates of forest area changes, aboveground carbon stocks, and Amazon forest carbon emissions.

  4. Accumulation of organic air constituents by plant surfaces. Spruce needles for monitoring airborne chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Reischl, A.; Thoma, H.; Reissinger, M.; Hutzinger, O. )

    1988-10-01

    The needles of the spruce (Picea abies) were used to monitor ambient air for organic trace substances. Analyses of spruce needles in an industrialized area demonstrated that the concentrations of these substances were much higher than those in a nonindustrialized area.

  5. The ebb and flow of airborne pathogens: Monitoring and use in disease management decisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perhaps the earliest form of monitoring the regional spread of plant disease was a group of growers gathering together at the market and discussing what they see in their crops. This type of reporting continues to this day through regional extension blogs, by crop consultants and more formal scoutin...

  6. Monitoring airborne dust in a high density coal-fired power station region in North Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Vallack, H W; Chadwick, M J

    1993-01-01

    Concerns about the levels of dust deposition in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations in North Yorkshire, in particular Drax Power Station, prompted the commissioning of a detailed monitoring study in the area. This paper describes the first two years' work. The first 12-month study concentrated on the village of Barlow close to Drax Power Station, whilst in the second 12-month study, monitoring sites were spread along a transect passing through the power station belt formed by Ferrybridge, Eggborough and Drax Power Stations. Two monitoring sites were common to both 12-month studies, thus giving two years of continuous monitoring. Pairs of wet Frisbee dust deposit gauges (based on inverted Frisbees) were located at each site. Undissolved particulate matter from each gauge was weighed and characterized by microscopic examination of individual particles. The first 12-month study revealed a downward gradient in dust deposition rate and cenosphere content with distance from Drax Power Station. The high cenosphere content at Barlow, especially at the eastern end, suggested that there was a significant contribution from coal-fired power stations. In the second year, the overall pattern of dust deposition rate and cenosphere content across the power station belt suggested that power stations were contributing to higher levels. In particular, relatively high levels were again found at Barlow. Wind direction correlations point to the fly-ash tip next to Drax Power Station as being the source of cenospheres arriving at Barlow. It is concluded that in both years the fly-ash tip Drax Power Station was making a significant contribution to higher than expected dust deposition rates at Barlow, particularly its eastern end. Other villages in the area may also have been affected by dust originating from coal-fired power stations.

  7. Radioactive Carbon Isotope Monitoring System Based on Cavity Ring-down Laser Spectroscopy for Decommissioning Process of Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Hideki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Takiguchi, Yu; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    In decommissioning process of nuclear facilities, large amount of radioactive isotopes are discharged as waste. Radioactive carbon isotope (14C) is one of the key nuclides to determine the upper limit of concentration in the waste disposal. In particular, 14C on the graphite reactor decommissioning should be separated from stable carbon isotopes (12C and 13C) and monitored for the public health and safety. We propose an isotope analysis system based on cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy (CRDS) to monitor the carbon isotopes (12C, 13C and 14C) in the isotope separation process for the graphite reactor decommissioning. This system is compact and suitable for a continuous monitoring, because the concentration of molecules including the carbon isotope is derived from its photo absorbance with ultra high sensitive laser absorption spectroscopy. Here are presented the necessary conditions of CRDS system for 14C isotope analysis through the preliminary experimental results of 13C isotope analysis with a prototype system.

  8. Design, construction, and use of a shipping case for radioactive sources used in the calibration of portal monitors in the radiation portal monitoring project

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, Elwood A.; Hensley, Walter K.

    2009-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with US Customs and Border Protection to assist in the installation of radiation portal monitors. We need to provide radioactive sources – both gamma- and neutron-emitting – to ports of entry where the monitors are being installed. The monitors must be calibrated to verify proper operation and detection sensitivity. We designed a portable source-shipping case using numerical modeling to predict the neutron dose rate at the case’s surface. The shipping case including radioactive sources meets the DOT requirements for “limited quantity.” Over 300 shipments, domestic and international, were made in FY2008 using this type of shipping case.

  9. Monitoring airborne fungal spores in an experimental indoor environment to evaluate sampling methods and the effects of human activity on air sampling.

    PubMed Central

    Buttner, M P; Stetzenbach, L D

    1993-01-01

    Aerobiological monitoring was conducted in an experimental room to aid in the development of standardized sampling protocols for airborne microorganisms in the indoor environment. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the relative efficiencies of selected sampling methods for the retrieval of airborne fungal spores and to determine the effect of human activity on air sampling. Dry aerosols containing known concentrations of Penicillium chrysogenum spores were generated, and air samples were taken by using Andersen six-stage, Surface Air System, Burkard, and depositional samplers. The Andersen and Burkard samplers retrieved the highest numbers of spores compared with the measurement standard, an aerodynamic particle sizer located inside the room. Data from paired samplers demonstrated that the Andersen sampler had the highest levels of sensitivity and repeatability. With a carpet as the source of P. chrysogenum spores, the effects of human activity (walking or vacuuming near the sampling site) on air sampling were also examined. Air samples were taken under undisturbed conditions and after human activity in the room. Human activity resulted in retrieval of significantly higher concentrations of airborne spores. Surface sampling of the carpet revealed moderate to heavy contamination despite relatively low airborne counts. Therefore, in certain situations, air sampling without concomitant surface sampling may not adequately reflect the level of microbial contamination in indoor environments. PMID:8439150

  10. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; McCurdy, Greg; Campbell, Scott A.

    2012-09-01

    the study because the aerial survey indicates that a channel mapped on the United States Geological Survey topographic map of the area traverses the south end of the area of surface contamination; this channel lies south of the point marked number 3 in Figure 1, and anecdotal information indicates that sediment has been deposited on the road bordering the southeast boundary of the CAU from an adjacent channel (Traynor, J, personal communication, 2011). Because contamination is particularly close to the boundary of CAU 550, Smoky CA, it is important to know if contaminants are moving, what meteorological conditions result in movement of contaminated soils, and what particle size fractions associated with contamination are involved. Closure plans are being developed for the CAUs on the NNSS. The closure plans may include post-closure monitoring for possible release of radioactive contaminants. Determining the potential for transport of contaminated soils under ambient climatic conditions will facilitate an appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring program.

  11. Evaluation of airborne thermal-infrared image data for monitoring aquatic habitats and cultural resources within the Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined thermal-infrared (TIR) image data acquired using the airborne Advanced Thematic Mapper (ATM) sensor in the afternoon of July 25th, 2000 over a portion of the Colorado River corridor to determine the capability of these 100-cm resolution data to address some biologic and cultural resource requirements for GCMRC. The requirements investigated included the mapping of warm backwaters that may serve as fish habitats and the detection (and monitoring) of archaeological structures and natural springs that occur on land. This report reviews the procedure for calibration of the airborne TIR data to obtain surface water temperatures and shows the results for various river reaches within the acquired river corridor. With respect to mapping warm backwater areas, our results show that TIR data need to be acquired with a gain setting that optimizes the range of temperatures found within the water to increase sensitivity of the resulting data to a level of 0.1 °C and to reduce scan-line noise. Data acquired within a two-hour window around maximum solar heating (1:30 PM) is recommended to provide maximum solar heating of the water and to minimize cooling effects of late-afternoon shadows. Ground-truth data within the temperature range of the warm backwaters are necessary for calibration of the TIR data. The ground-truth data need to be collected with good locational accuracy. The derived water-temperature data provide the capability for rapid, wide-area mapping of warm-water fish habitats using a threshold temperature for such habitats. The collected daytime TIR data were ineffective in mapping (detecting) both archaeological structures and natural springs (seeps). The inability of the daytime TIR data to detect archaeological structures is attributed to the low thermal sensitivity (0.3 °C) of the collected data. The detection of subtle thermal differences between geologic materials requires sensitivities of at least 0.1 °C, which can be obtained by most TIR

  12. Acoustic emission monitoring of cement-based structures immobilising radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Spasova, L.M.; Ojovan, M.I.; Hayes, M.; Godfrey, H.

    2007-07-01

    The long term performance of cementitious structures immobilising radioactive waste can be affected by physical and chemical processes within the encapsulating materials such as formation of new phases (e.g., vaterite, brucite), degradation of cement phases (e.g., CSH gel, portlandite), degradation of some waste components (e.g., organics), corrosion of metallic constituents (aluminium, magnesium), gas emission, further hydration etc. The corrosion of metals in the high pH cementitious environment is of especial concern as it can potentially cause wasteform cracking. One of the perspective non-destructive methods used to monitor and assess the mechanical properties of materials and structures is based on an acoustic emission (AE) technique. In this study an AE non-destructive technique was used to evaluate the mechanical performance of cementitious structures with encapsulated metallic waste such as aluminium. AE signals generated as a result of aluminium corrosion in a small-size blast furnace slag (BFS)/ordinary Portland cement (OPC) sample were detected, recorded and analysed. A procedure for AE data analysis including conventional parameter-based AE approach and signal-based analysis was applied and demonstrated to provide information on the aluminium corrosion process and its impact on the mechanical performance of the encapsulating cement matrix. (authors)

  13. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-02-11

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2012 results. During 2012, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 21, August 7, August 21, and September 11, 2012, and static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 19, June 6, August 2, and October 15, 2012. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Final results from samples collected in 2012 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  14. Nevada Test Site 2009 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program, Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-01-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2009 results. During 2009, groundwater at each of the three pilot wells was sampled on March 10, 2009, and August 18, 2009, and water levels at each of the three pilot wells were measured on February 17, May 6, August 17, and November 10, 2009. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Results from all samples collected in 2009 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  15. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2010 results. During 2010, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Samples were collected at UE5PW-1 on March 10 and August 10, 2010; at UE5PW-2 on March 10, August 10, and August 25, 2010; and at UE5PW-3 on March 31, August 10, and August 25, 2010. Static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 1, April 26, August 9, and November 9, 2010. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Results from all samples collected in 2010 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  16. Monitoring method for airborne glymes and its application in fuel exhaust emission measurement.

    PubMed

    Cao, X L; Zhu, J

    2001-11-01

    A monitoring method based on solvent extraction of adsorbed target glymes followed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry GC-MS analysis was developed for seven glymes, namely ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, propylene glycol dimethyl ether, ethylene glycol diethyl ether, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether, diethylene glycol diethyl ether, triethylene glycol dimethyl ether, and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether. The best recoveries of target glymes were achieved when using a combination of sample collection medium of graphitised carbon black (GCB) with a solvent mixture of methylene chloride and methanol (95/5, v/v). Method detection limits ranged from 1.5 microg/m3 for diethylene glycol diethyl ether to 13.2 microg/m3 for ethylene glycol diethyl ether based on a sample volume of 3.4 1. Using this method, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether and diethylene glycol diethyl ether were detected and measured successfully in diluted vehicle exhausts in diesel fuel engine tests.

  17. Airborne reconnaissance in the civilian sector - Agricultural monitoring from high-altitude powered platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, J. W.; Jackson, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Design concepts and mission applications for unmanned high-altitude powered platforms (HAPPs) are discussed. A chemically powered HAPP (operating altitude 18-21 km, wingspan 26 m, payload 91 kg, endurance 2-3 days) would use current turboprop technology. A microwave-powered HAPP (operating altitude around 21 km, wingspan 57.9 m, payload 500 kg, endurance weeks or months) would circle within or perform boost-glide maneuvers around a microwave beam of density 1.1 kw/sq m. Of two solar-powered-HAPP designs presented, the more promising uses five vertical solar-panel-bearing fins, two of which can be made horizontal at night, (wingspan 57.8/98.3 m, payload 113 kg, endurance weeks or months). The operating altitude depends on the latitude and season: this HAPP design is shown to be capable of year-round 20-km-altitude flights over the San Joaquin Valley in California, where an agricultural-monitoring mission using Landsat-like remote sensors is proposed. Other applications may be better served by the characteristics of the other HAPPs. The primary advantage of HAPPs over satellites is found to be their ability to provide rapidly available high-resolution continuous or repetitive coverage of specific areas at relatively low cost.

  18. Airborne Effluent Monitoring System Certification for New Canister Storage Building Ventilation Exhaust Stack

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Maughan, A.D.

    1999-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted three of the six tests needed to verify that the effluent monitoring system for the new Canister Storage Building ventilation exhaust stack meets applicable regulatory performance criteria for air sampling systems at nuclear facilities. These performance criteria address both the suitability of the location for the air-sampling probe and the transport of the sample to the collection devices. The criteria covering the location for the air-sampling probe ensure that the contaminants in the stack are well mixed with the airflow at the probe location such that the extracted sample represents the whole. The sample-transport criteria ensure that the sampled contaminants are quantitatively delivered to the collection device. The specific performance criteria are described in detail in this report. The tests reported here cover the contaminant tracer uniformity and particle delivery performance criteria. These criteria were successfully met. The other three tests were conducted by the start-up staff of Duke Engineering and Services Hanford Inc. (DESH) and reported elsewhere. The Canister Storage Building is located in the 200 East Area of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The new air-exhaust system was built under the W379 Project. The air sampling system features a probe with a single shrouded sampling nozzle, a sample delivery line, and a filter holder to collect the sample.

  19. Characterization of a New Continuous Air Monitoring System For the University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqahtani, Mohammad Saad

    A continuous air monitor (CAM) is a critical piece of equipment to support radiation safety in nuclear facilities where the generation of airborne radioactivity is a possibility for either normal operations or accident scenarios. The University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor is planning to install a new CAM system manufactured by Canberra Industries for monitoring airborne radioactive particulates. In this study, the new CAM was evaluated to determine 1) baseline response, 2) response to high exposure rates, 3) appropriate background compensation, 4) detection limits, and 5) alarm settings. The results of this study will help to properly integrate the new CAM into the reactor radiation monitoring system.

  20. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-27

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2011 results. During 2011, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Samples were collected at UE5PW-1 on March 8, August 2, August 24, and October 19, 2011; at UE5PW-2 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011; and at UE5PW-3 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011. Static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 1, June 7, August 1, and October 17, 2011. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Initial total organic carbon and total organic halides results for samples collected in August 2011 were above previous measurements and, in some cases, above the established investigation limits. However, after field sample pumps and tubing were disinfected with Clorox solution, the results returned to normal levels. Final results from samples collected in 2011 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  1. IN-SITU, LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James S. Durham; Stephen W.S. McKeever; Mark S. Akselrod

    2002-10-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measureable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, and {sup 99}Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm{sup 3}) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y but is unsuitable for measuring {sup 99}Tc in soil. The second objective was to construct a prototype sensor (dosimeter and fiber optic channel). There were three success criteria for this milestone: (1) Perform measurements with the sensor for both gamma and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 10% or less; (2) Demonstrate the ability of the sensor to discriminate between gamma and beta radiation; and (3) Obtain similar or relatable results for differing lengths of fiber optic cable. These milestones were met. The sensor was able to measure gamma radiation repeatedly with a standard deviation of 3.15% and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 2.85%. Data is presented that demonstrates that an end cap can be used to discriminate between beta plus gamma and gamma radiation. It is shown that some amount of attenuation occurs in longer fiber optic cables, but it is unclear if the attenuation is due to poor alignment of the dosimeter and the cable. This issue will be investigated further when more dosimeters are available so that the dosimeters can be permanently

  2. IN-SITU, LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James S. Durham; Stephen W.S. McKeever; Mark S. Akselrod

    2002-10-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measurable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, and {sup 99}Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm{sup 3}) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y but is unsuitable for measuring {sup 99}Tc in soil. The second objective was to construct a prototype sensor (dosimeter and fiber optic channel). There were three success criteria for this milestone: (1) Perform measurements with the sensor for both gamma and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 10% or less; (2) Demonstrate the ability of the sensor to discriminate between gamma and beta radiation; and (3) Obtain similar or relatable results for differing lengths of fiber optic cable. These milestones were met. The sensor was able to measure gamma radiation repeatedly with a standard deviation of 3.15% and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 2.85%. Data is presented that demonstrates that an end cap can be used to discriminate between beta plus gamma radiation using beta radiation from a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source, and gamma radiation alone. It is shown that some amount of attenuation occurs in longer fiber optic cables, but it is unclear if the attenuation is due to poor alignment of the dosimeter and the cable. This issue will be investigated further when

  3. Accumulation of airborne trace elements in mosses, lichens and synthetic materials exposed at urban monitoring stations: towards a harmonisation of the moss-bag technique.

    PubMed

    Giordano, S; Adamo, P; Spagnuolo, V; Tretiach, M; Bargagli, R

    2013-01-01

    Mosses, lichens and cellulose filters were exposed for 17 weeks at four urban monitoring stations in Naples (S Italy) to assess the accumulation of airborne Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn. In each site, the element accumulation was significantly higher in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme than in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Acid washed mosses accumulated the highest amount of trace elements, but the differences in element concentrations among the moss samples exposed after water washing and different devitalisation treatments (acid washing, oven drying and water boiling) and between the lichen samples exposed with and without the nylon bag were not statistically significant. The cellulose filters showed the lowest accumulation capability. The reciprocal ordination of sites and exposed materials showed an increasing contamination gradient (especially for Pb, Cu and Zn) from the background site to the trafficked city streets; this pattern was undetectable from PM(10) data recorded by the automatic monitoring devices operating in the four exposure sites. The element profile in exposed materials did not change substantially throughout the urban area and particles of polluted urban soils seem the main source of airborne metals in Naples. Through a comprehensive evaluation of the results from this and previous studies, a protocol is suggested for the moss-bag monitoring of trace element deposition in urban environments.

  4. Nevada Test Site 2001 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2001 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 150 mm (5.9 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 120 mm (4.7 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2001 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2001 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility performance assessments.

  5. Nevada Test Site 2000 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yvonne Townsend

    2001-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2000 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 167 mm (6.6 in) at the Area 3 RWMS (annual average is 156 mm [6.5 in]) and 123 mm (4.8 in) at the Area 5 RWMS (annual average is 127 mm [5.0 in]). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2000 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2000 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing well at isolating buried waste.

  6. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, David

    2015-02-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2014 results. Analysis results for leachate contaminants collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included. During 2014, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at three wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 11 and August 12, 2014, and static water levels were measured at each of these wells on March 10, June 2, August 11, and October 14, 2014. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. General water chemistry (cations and anions) was also measured. Results from samples collected in 2014 are within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. The data from the shallow aquifer indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS, and there were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. Leachate from above the primary liner of Cell 18 drains into a sump and is collected in a tank at the ground surface. Cell 18 began receiving waste in January 2011. Samples were collected from the tank when the leachate volume approached the 3,000-gallon tank capacity. Leachate samples have been collected 16 times since January 2011. During 2014, samples were collected on February 25, March 5, May 20, August 12, September 16, November 11, and December 16. Each leachate sample was

  7. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G. S.; Cashwell, J. W.; Apple, M. L.

    1991-01-01

    Shipments of radioactive material (RAM) constitute but a small fraction of the total hazardous materials shipped in the United States each year. Public perception, however, of the potential consequences of a release from a transportation package containing RAM has resulted in significant regulation of transport operations, both to ensure the integrity of a package in accident conditions and to place operational constraints on the shipper. Much of this attention has focused on shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high level wastes which, although comprising a very small number of total shipments, constitute a majority of the total curies transported on an annual basis. This report discusses the shipment of these highly radioactive materials.

  8. Comprehensive monitoring of the occurrence of 22 drugs of abuse and transformation products in airborne particulate matter in the city of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Postigo, Cristina; López de Alda, Miren; Viana, Mar; Rodríguez, Aureli; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Barceló, Damià

    2015-11-01

    In recent years monitoring the presence of psychotropic compounds in wastewater has been proposed as a tool to estimate community drug use. Measurement of drugs of abuse (DAs) in airborne particulate is currently being explored as an additional tool to evaluate drug use patterns in time and space, and identify potential emission sources. In this study, we comprehensively monitor the occurrence of 22 licit and illicit DAs and transformation products, belonging to 6 different chemical groups, in airborne particulate matter (PM10) in the city of Barcelona. In order to study spatial and temporal variations, samples were collected from 12 different selected locations on one weekday (Wednesday) and one weekend day (Saturday), during five consecutive weeks. A previously developed analytical methodology, based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination, was adapted for analysis of the target compounds with satisfactory performance, ensuring reliability of results. Among the investigated compounds, cannabinol (CBN), cocaine (COC), and methamphetamine (MA) were found to be the most ubiquitous and abundant compounds in PM10 with concentrations ranging from 0.7pg/m(3) (MA) to 6020pg/m(3) (CBN). Significant differences in total DA concentrations in PM10 were observed across sampling days and locations. DA emissions were identified in highly densely populated areas, where popular commercial and nightlife zones are located. Psychoactive effects due to inhalation of measured concentrations are probably negligible; however, potential health effects due to chronic exposure have not been explored yet.

  9. Health physics monitoring at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.G.; Priester, H.P.

    1994-06-01

    Remote radiation monitoring has been designed into the Vitrification portion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Local alarms and remote readings are provided for area radiation levels, door alarms, airborne radioactivity, effluent air activity and liquid (process system) activity.

  10. Soil moisture monitoring results at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, FY-1993

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, D.L.

    1993-11-01

    In FY-1993, two tasks were performed for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Low Level Waste Performance Assessment to estimate net infiltration from rain and snow at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) and provide soil moisture data for hydrologic model calibration. The first task was to calibrate the neutron probe to convert neutron count data to soil moisture contents. A calibration equation was developed and applied to four years of neutron probe monitoring data (November 1986 to November 1990) at W02 and W06 to provide soil moisture estimates for that period. The second task was to monitor the soils at two neutron probe access tubes (W02 and W06) located in the SDA of the RWMC with a neutron probe to estimate soil moisture contents. FY-1993 monitoring indicated net infiltration varied widely across the SDA. Less than 1.2 in. of water drained into the underlying basalts near W02 in 1993. In contrast, an estimated 10.9 in. of water moved through the surficial sediments and into the underlying basalts at neutron probe access tube W06. Net infiltration estimates from the November 1986 to November 1990 neutron probe monitoring data are critical to predictive contaminant transport modeling and should be calculated and compared to the FY-1993 net infiltration estimates. In addition, plans are underway to expand the current neutron probe monitoring system in the SDA to address the variability in net infiltration across the SDA.

  11. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  12. Influence of dust loading on the alpha-particle energy resolution of continuous air monitors for thin deposits of radioactive aerosols.

    PubMed

    Huang, Suilou; Schery, Stephen D; Alcantara, Raul E; Rodgers, John C; Wasiolek, Piotr T

    2002-12-01

    Alpha-particle continuous air monitors must sometimes be operated in dusty environments where significant dust loading of the filter can be anticipated. It is important to understand how this dust loading affects the response of the continuous air monitors. Not only must a filter be changed if there is a reduction in airflow, but a change may be necessary if the energy resolution deteriorates and the continuous air monitor loses sensitivity and specificity for the radioactive aerosols of interest. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate alpha-particle energy resolution of continuous air monitor filters, particularly under dust loading conditions. Aerosol particles of various sizes were tagged with radon decay products to serve as surrogates for radioactive aerosols of interest such as plutonium or uranium. While the size of radioactive aerosols, filter type, and dust type affected the energy resolution, the thickness of an underlying (nonradioactive) dust layer did not show significant effect for the materials studied and a loading range of 0.01-10 mg x cm(-2). Our results indicate that it is possible for continuous air monitors to detect the release of radioactive aerosols with little deterioration in energy resolution under conditions of significant dust loading provided that the deposited layer of radioactive aerosols remains thin (< or = 0.1 mg x cm(-2)).

  13. Effects of Elevated Radon Levels on Kanne Tritium Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, W.E.

    2003-11-24

    The Savannah River Site has used Kanne ionization chambers since the late 1950's to monitor for airborne tritium in reactor facilities. Two Kanne monitors indicated elevated airborne tritium levels while monitoring a non-ventilated room used to store tritiated liquid moderator. Subsequent air sample analysis failed to reveal the presence of airborne tritium. It was suspected that elevated radon levels caused the Kanne monitors to falsely indicate tritium activity. Two commercially available monitoring systems were used to quantify radon levels in the storage room. Measurements performed during this evaluation found that radon caused the Kanne monitors in the storage room to falsely indicate the presence of airborne tritium. A side-by-side comparison of a filtered versus an unfiltered Kanne monitor found that a high efficiency particulate filter reduced monitor response to near background under high radon conditions. It was recommended that a high efficiency filter be installed on the dedicated storage room Kanne monitor and that the room be de-posted as an Airborne Radioactivity Area. It was also found that the Kanne monitors would detect a spill from a single drum of moderator within minutes and the dose rate due to tritium exposure at 20 hours following this spill would be 4.56 rem/hour.

  14. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, A.; Arnold, D.; Burda, O.; De Felice, P.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V.; Šolc, J.; Vodenik, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of 60Co, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra and 241Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  15. Nevada Test Site, 2006 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Hudson

    2007-06-30

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2006 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2006; Warren and Grossman, 2007; National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2006 totaled 98.6 millimeters (mm) (3.9 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 80.7 mm (3.2 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 remains at the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that evaporation continues to slowly remove soil moisture that came from the heavy precipitation in the fall of 2004 and the spring of

  16. Nevada Test Site 2005 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Hudson, Cathy A. Wills

    2006-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2005 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2005; Grossman, 2005; Bechtel Nevada, 2006). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2005 totaled 219.1 millimeters (mm) (8.63 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 201.4 mm (7.93 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 has percolated to the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that precipitation from the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 infiltrated past the deepest sensors at 188 centimeters (6.2 feet) and remains in the pit cover

  17. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, David B

    2014-02-13

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2013 results. Beginning with this report, analysis results for leachate collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included.

  18. Monitoring and assessment of airborne Cladosporium Link and Alternaria Nées spores in Sivrihisar (Eskisehir), Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erkara, Ismuhan Potoglu; Ilhan, Semra; Oner, Setenay

    2009-01-01

    The spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp., commonly described as the most allergenic spores, were collected by means of Durham gravimetric sampler from the Sivrihisar (Eskisehir) atmosphere throughout 2005 to 2006. The weekly variations in spores/cm(2) of Cladosporium and Alternaria were recorded. During this period, a total of 6,198 spores belonging to Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. were recorded. Of these spores, 2,969 were identified in 2005 and 3,229 in 2006. While 69.55% of the total spores were those of Cladosporium spp., 30.45% were Alternaria spp. Relationships between airborne fungal spore presence and weather conditions were examined statistically. A Shapiro-Wilk test revealed that the airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. had a normal distribution. Following this, Chi-square test, t test and Pearson correlation analysis were performed. The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the spore numbers of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. were significant according to the month in which they were collected (p < 0.01). The spore concentrations of each species reached to their highest levels in June 2006.

  19. Development and deployment of an underway radioactive cesium monitor off the Japanese coast near Fukushima Dai-ichi.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, J A; Higley, K A; Farsoni, A T; Smith, S; Menn, S

    2012-09-01

    A custom radiation monitoring system was developed by Oregon State University at the request of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute to measure radioactive cesium contaminants in the ocean waters near Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The system was to be used on board the R/V Ka'imikai-O-Kanaloa during a 15 d research cruise to provide real-time approximations of radionuclide concentration and alert researchers to the possible occurrence of highly elevated radionuclide concentrations. A NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was coupled to a custom-built compact digital spectroscopy system and suspended within a sealed tank of continuously flowing seawater. A series of counts were acquired within an energy region corresponding to the main photopeak of (137)Cs. The system was calibrated using known quantities of radioactive (134)Cs and (137)Cs in a ratio equating to that present at the reactors' ocean outlet. The response between net count rate and concentration of (137)Cs was then used to generate temporal and geographic plots of (137)Cs concentration throughout the research cruise in Japanese coastal waters. The concentration of (137)Cs was low but detectable, reaching a peak of 3.8 ± 0.2 Bq/L.

  20. Estimation of surface anthropogenic radioactivity concentrations from NaI(Tl) pulse-height distribution observed at monitoring station.

    PubMed

    Hirouchi, J; Yamazawa, H; Hirao, S; Moriizumi, J

    2015-04-01

    A method of estimating surface radioactivity concentrations of key anthropogenic radionuclides from NaI(Tl) pulse-height distribution observed at a monitoring station (MS) was discussed. In the estimation, a realistic assumption on geometric distribution of source and obstacles around the detector of the MS including the infiltration of radionuclides into the ground was used and the results were compared with ones with a commonly used assumption of a uniformly distributed plane source. The surface radioactivity concentration was determined by comparing the count rates at the full-energy peak ranges between observation and calculation with an electron-photon transport code EGS5. It was shown that the estimated absolute values of concentration differed by a factor of ∼1.5 depending on the assumption of infiltration depth. The estimated surface concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were in good agreement with ones determined by the in situ measurements with an HPGe detector and the cumulative values of daily surface depositions. PMID:25313172

  1. Airborne Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Lois Thommason

    1984-01-01

    Starting from a science project on flight, art students discussed and investigated various means of moving in space. Then they made acetate illustrations which could be used as transparencies. The projection phenomenon made the illustrations look airborne. (CS)

  2. Tillandsia stricta Sol (Bromeliaceae) leaves as monitors of airborne particulate matter-A comparative SEM methods evaluation: Unveiling an accurate and odd HP-SEM method.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Martha Lima; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Miguens, Flávio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure. Hydrated specimen observation by ESEM was the best way to get information from T. stricta leaves. If any artifacts were introduced by AD/FA, they were indiscernible from those caused by CPD. Leaf anatomy was always well preserved. PM density was determined on adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis for each of the SEM proceedings. When compared with ESEM, particle extraction varied from 0 to 20% in air-dried leaves while 23-78% of particles deposited on leaves surfaces were extracted by CPD procedures. ESEM was obviously the best choice over other methods but morphological artifacts increased in function of operation time while HPSEM operation time was without limit. AD/FA avoided the shrinkage observed in the air-dried leaves and particle extraction was low when compared with CPD. Structural and particle density results suggest AD/FA as an important methodological approach to air pollution biomonitoring that can be widely used in all electron microscopy labs. Otherwise, previous PM assessments using terrestrial plants as biomonitors and performed by conventional SEM could have underestimated airborne particulate matter concentration. PMID:27357408

  3. Tillandsia stricta Sol (Bromeliaceae) leaves as monitors of airborne particulate matter-A comparative SEM methods evaluation: Unveiling an accurate and odd HP-SEM method.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Martha Lima; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Miguens, Flávio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure. Hydrated specimen observation by ESEM was the best way to get information from T. stricta leaves. If any artifacts were introduced by AD/FA, they were indiscernible from those caused by CPD. Leaf anatomy was always well preserved. PM density was determined on adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis for each of the SEM proceedings. When compared with ESEM, particle extraction varied from 0 to 20% in air-dried leaves while 23-78% of particles deposited on leaves surfaces were extracted by CPD procedures. ESEM was obviously the best choice over other methods but morphological artifacts increased in function of operation time while HPSEM operation time was without limit. AD/FA avoided the shrinkage observed in the air-dried leaves and particle extraction was low when compared with CPD. Structural and particle density results suggest AD/FA as an important methodological approach to air pollution biomonitoring that can be widely used in all electron microscopy labs. Otherwise, previous PM assessments using terrestrial plants as biomonitors and performed by conventional SEM could have underestimated airborne particulate matter concentration.

  4. Multicriteria relocation analysis of an off-site radioactive monitoring network for a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Ning, Shu-Kuang; Chen, Jen-Chang

    2006-08-01

    Due to increasing environmental consciousness in most countries, every utility that owns a commercial nuclear power plant has been required to have both an on-site and off-site emergency response plan since the 1980s. A radiation monitoring network, viewed as part of the emergency response plan, can provide information regarding the radiation dosage emitted from a nuclear power plant in a regular operational period and/or abnormal measurements in an emergency event. Such monitoring information might help field operators and decision-makers to provide accurate responses or make decisions to protect the public health and safety. This study aims to conduct an integrated simulation and optimization analysis looking for the relocation strategy of a long-term regular off-site monitoring network at a nuclear power plant. The planning goal is to downsize the current monitoring network but maintain its monitoring capacity as much as possible. The monitoring sensors considered in this study include the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) and air sampling system (AP) simultaneously. It is designed for detecting the radionuclide accumulative concentration, the frequency of violation, and the possible population affected by a long-term impact in the surrounding area regularly while it can also be used in an accidental release event. With the aid of the calibrated Industrial Source Complex-Plume Rise Model Enhancements (ISC-PRIME) simulation model to track down the possible radionuclide diffusion, dispersion, transport, and transformation process in the atmospheric environment, a multiobjective evaluation process can be applied to achieve the screening of monitoring stations for the nuclear power plant located at Hengchun Peninsula, South Taiwan. To account for multiple objectives, this study calculated preference weights to linearly combine objective functions leading to decision-making with exposure assessment in an optimization context. Final suggestions should be useful for

  5. Performance level of an autonomous system of continuous monitoring of radioactivity in seawater.

    PubMed

    van Put, P; Debauche, A; De Lellis, C; Adam, V

    2004-01-01

    Following the recognition of their usefulness by the authorities and the scientific community, automatic water monitoring networks were developed again to be able to measure seawater. For that purpose, they had to be fully autonomous, with low power consumption (solar panel power supply), wireless communicating (satellite, GSM, radio) and very sensitive (a few Bq/m3). PMID:15162870

  6. Environmental monitoring at the Barnwell low level radioactive waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, F.A.

    1989-11-01

    The Barnwell site has undergone an evolution to achieve the technology which is utilized today. A historical background will be presented along with an overview of present day operations. This paper will emphasize the environmental monitoring program: the types of samples taken, the methods of compiling and analyzing data, modeling, and resulting actions.

  7. Interpretation of the radioactive background observed in the OSO-7 gamma-ray monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, C. S.; Dunphy, P.; Forest, D. J.; Chupp, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    Application of a spallation activation calculation to the OSO-7 gamma-ray monitor background shows that major line features and about 30% of the continuum can be understood as activation of the central detector crystal by trapped protons. Weaker line features arise from activation of materials unshielded by the anticoincidence cup, while the remaining continuum and annihilation line would seem to come largely from electron-photon cascades originating in the spacecraft.

  8. Repetitive Immunoassay with a Surface Acoustic Wave Device and a Highly Stable Protein Monolayer for On-Site Monitoring of Airborne Dust Mite Allergens.

    PubMed

    Toma, Koji; Miki, Daisuke; Kishikawa, Chisato; Yoshimura, Naoyuki; Miyajima, Kumiko; Arakawa, Takahiro; Yatsuda, Hiromi; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-10-20

    This work describes a sensor to be incorporated into the on-site monitoring system of airborne house dust mite (HDM) allergens. A surface acoustic wave (SAW) device was combined with self-assembled monolayers of a highly stable antibody capture protein on the SAW surface that have high resistance to pH change. A sandwich assay was used to measure a HDM allergen, Der f 1 derived from Dermatophagoides farinae. Capture antibodies were cross-linked to a protein G based capture layer (ORLA85) on the sensor surface, thereby only Der f 1 and detection antibodies were regenerated by changing pH, resulting in fast repetition of the measurement. The sensor was characterized through 10 repetitive measurements of Der f 1, which demonstrated high reproducibility of the sensor with the coefficient of variation of 5.6%. The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor was 6.1 ng·mL(-1), encompassing the standard (20 ng·mL(-1)) set by the World Health Organization. Negligible sensor outputs were observed for five different major allergens including other HDM allergens which tend to have cross-reactivity to Der f 1 and their mixtures with Der f 1. Finally, the sensor lifetime was evaluated by conducting three measurements per day, and the sensor output did not substantially change for 4 days. These characteristics make the SAW immunosensor a promising candidate for incorporation into on-site allergen monitoring systems.

  9. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  10. Radioactivity method.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements have played an important role in geophysics since about 1935, and they have increased in importance to the present. The most important areas of application have been in petroleum and uranium exploration. Radioactivity measurements have proved useful in geologic mapping, as well as in specialized applications such as reactor-site monitoring. The technological development of the method has reached a plateau, and the future of the method for some applications will depend upon development of more sophisticated data processing and interpretation. -Author

  11. Long-term monitoring of airborne pollen in Alaska and the Yukon: Possible implications for global change

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.H.

    1992-03-01

    Airborne pollen and spores have been sampled since 1978 in Fairbanks and 1982 Anchorage and other Alaska-Yukon locations for medical and ecological purposes. Comparative analyses of pre- and post-1986 data subsets reveal that after 1986 (1) pollen is in the air earlier, (2) the multiyear average of degree-days promoting pollen onset is little changed while (3) annual variation in degree-days at onset is greater, (4) pollen and spore annual productions are considerably higher, and (5) there is more year-to-year variation in pollen production. These changes probably reflect directional changes in certain weather variables, and there is some indication that they are of global change significance, i.e., related to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Correlations with pollen data suggest that weather variables of high influence are temperatures during specific periods following pollen dispersal in the preceding year and the average temperature in April of the current year. Annual variations in pollen dispersal might be roughly linked to the 11 year sunspot cycle through air temperature mediators. Weather in 1990, apparent pollen production cycles under endogenous control, and the impending sunspot maximum portend a very severe pollen season in 199 existing but unfunded sampling projects.

  12. Burnup estimation of fuel sourcing radioactive material based on monitored Cs and Pu isotopic activity ratios in Fukushima N. P. S. accident

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ando, Y.

    2012-07-01

    After the severe core damage of Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station, radioactive material leaked from the reactor buildings. As part of monitoring of radioactivity in the site, measurements of radioactivity in soils at three fixed points have been performed for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs with gamma-ray spectrometry and for Pu, Pu, and {sup 240}Pu with {alpha}-ray spectrometry. Correlations of radioactivity ratios of {sup 134}Cs to {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 238}Pu to the sum of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu with fuel burnup were studied by using theoretical burnup calculations and measurements on isotopic inventories, and compared with the Cs and Pu radioactivity rations in the soils. The comparison indicated that the burnup of the fuel sourcing the radioactivity was from 18 to 38 GWd/t, which corresponded to that of the fuel in the highest power and, therefore, the highest decay heat in operating high-burnup fueled BWR cores. (authors)

  13. Observation of radioactive background in the OSO-7 gamma ray monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunphy, P. P.; Forrest, D. J.; Chupp, E. L.; Dyer, C. S.

    1975-01-01

    The counting rate as measured by the gamma ray monitor on the OSO-7 satellite, covering the energy range 0.3-10 MeV, during a sixteen month period (October 1971-December 1972) was considerably higher than expected from balloon data previously reported. Dyer et al. (1971) have shown the importance of activation in satellites for diffuse gamma flux measurements. The OSO-7 spectra exhibit strong, complex line structure, especially between 400 keV and 900 keV, and several identifications can be made consistent with the model of Dyer et al. The spectral structure and time variations are presented which must be explained by any activation model.

  14. Dig-face monitoring during excavation of a radioactive plume at Mound Laboratory, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Josten, N.E.; Gehrke, R.J.; Carpenter, M.V.

    1995-12-01

    A dig-face monitoring system consists of onsite hardware for collecting information on changing chemical, radiological, and physical conditions in the subsurface soil during the hazardous site excavation. A prototype dig-face system was take to Mount Laboratory for a first trial. Mound Area 7 was the site of historical disposals of {sup 232}Th, {sup 227}Ac, and assorted debris. The system was used to monitor a deep excavation aimed at removing {sup 227}Ac-contaminated soils. Radiological, geophysical, and topographic sensors were used to scan across the excavation dig-face at four successive depths as soil was removed. A 3-D image of the contamination plumes was developed; the radiation sensor data indicated that only a small portion of the excavated soil volume was contaminated. The spatial information produced by the dig-face system was used to direct the excavation activities into the area containing the {sup 227}Ac and to evaluate options for handling the separate {sup 232}Th plume.

  15. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  16. Assessment of Superflux relative to fisheries research and monitoring. [airborne remote sensing of the Chesapeake bay plume and shelf regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the findings of the Superflux program relative to fishery research and monitoring are reviewed. The actual and potential influences of the plume on the shelf ecosystem contiguous to the mouth of Chesapeake Bay are described and insights derived from the combined use of in situ and remotely sensed data are presented.

  17. Developing Radioactive Carbon Isotope Tagging for Monitoring, Verification and Accounting in Geological Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yinghuang

    In the wake of concerns about the long-term integrity and containment of sub-surface CO2 sequestration reservoirs, many efforts have been made to improve the monitoring, verification, and accounting methods for geo-sequestered CO2. This Ph.D. project has been part of a larger U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research project to demonstrate the feasibility of a system designed to tag CO2 with radiocarbon at a concentration of one part per trillion, which is the ambient concentration of 14C in the modern atmosphere. Because carbon found at depth is naturally free of 14C, this tag would easily differentiate pre-existing carbon in the underground from anthropogenic, injected carbon and provide an excellent handle for monitoring its whereabouts in the subsurface. It also creates an excellent handle for adding up anthropogenic carbon inventories. Future inventories in effect count 14C atoms. Accordingly, we developed a 14C tagging system suitable for use at the part-per-trillion level. This tagging system uses small containers of tracer fluid of 14C enriched CO2. The content of these containers is transferred into a CO2 stream readied for underground injection in a controlled manner so as to tag it at the part-per-trillion level. These containers because of their shape are referred to in this document as tracer loops. The demonstration of the tracer injection involved three steps. First, a tracer loop filling station was designed and constructed featuring a novel membrane based gas exchanger, which degassed the fluid in the first step and then equilibrated the fluid with CO2 at fixed pressure and fixed temperature. It was demonstrated that this approach could achieve uniform solutions and prevent the formation of bubbles and degassing downstream. The difference between measured and expected results of the CO2 content in the tracer loop was below 1%. Second, a high-pressure flow loop was built for injecting, mixing, and sampling of the fast flowing stream of

  18. Precise measurement of the 222Rn half-life: A probe to monitor the stability of radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellotti, E.; Broggini, C.; Di Carlo, G.; Laubenstein, M.; Menegazzo, R.

    2015-04-01

    We give the results of a study on the 222Rn decay we performed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) by detecting the gamma rays from the radon progeny. The motivation was to monitor the stability of radioactivity measuring several times per year the half-life of a short lifetime (days) source instead of measuring over a long period the activity of a long lifetime (tens or hundreds of years) source. In particular, we give a possible reason of the large periodical fluctuations in the count rate of the gamma rays due to radon inside a closed canister which has been described in literature and which has been attributed to a possible influence of a component in the solar irradiation affecting the nuclear decay rates. We then provide the result of four half-life measurements we performed underground at LNGS in the period from May 2014 to January 2015 with radon diffused into olive oil. Briefly, we did not measure any change of the 222Rn half-life with a 8 ṡ10-5 precision. Finally, we provide the most precise value for the 222Rn half-life: 3.82146(16)stat(4)syst days.

  19. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-07-31

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2011 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. During the last 2 weeks of March 2011, gamma spectroscopy results for air particles showed measurable activities of iodine-131 (131I), cesium-134 (134Cs), and cesium-137 (137Cs). These results are attributed to the release of fission products from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi power plant in Japan. The remaining gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below minimum detectable concentrations. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. The 86.3 millimeters (mm) (3.40 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2011 is 44% below the average of 154.1 mm (6.07 in.), and the 64.8 mm

  20. Nevada Test Site 2009 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Radioactive Waste

    2010-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2009 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NTS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 87.6 millimeters (mm) (3.45 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2009 is 43 percent below the average of 152.4 mm (6.00 in.), and the 62.7 mm (2.47 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2009 is 49 percent below the average of 122.5 mm (4.82 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation

  1. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2010 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2010a; 2010b; 2011). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 246.9 millimeters (mm) (9.72 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2010 is 56 percent above the average of 158.7 mm (6.25 in.), and the 190.4 mm (7.50 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2010 is 50 percent above the average of 126.7 mm (4.99 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than

  2. Nevada Test Site 2007 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2007 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a; 2008; Warren and Grossman, 2008). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are at background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. A single gamma spectroscopy measurement for cesium was slightly above the minimum detectable concentration, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 136.8 millimeters (mm) (5.39 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2007 is 13 percent below the average of 158.1 mm (6.22 in.), and the 123.8 mm (4.87 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2007 is 6 percent below the average of 130.7 mm (5.15 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05U continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward movement percolation of precipitation more effectively

  3. A real time sorbent based air monitoring system for determining low level airborne exposure levels to Lewisite

    SciTech Connect

    Lattin, F.G.; Paul, D.G.; Jakubowski, E.M.

    1994-12-31

    The Real Time Analytical Platform (RTAP) is designed to provide mobile, real-time monitoring support to ensure protection of worker safety in areas where military unique compounds are used and stored, and at disposal sites. Quantitative analysis of low-level vapor concentrations in air is accomplished through sorbent-based collection with subsequent thermal desorption into a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a variety of detectors. The monitoring system is characterized by its sensitivity (ability to measure at low concentrations), selectivity (ability to filter out interferences), dynamic range and linearity, real time mode (versus methods requiring extensive sample preparation procedures), and ability to interface with complimentary GC detectors. This presentation describes an RTAP analytical method for analyzing lewisite, an arsenical compound, that consists of a GC screening technique with an Electron Capture Detector (ECD), and a confirmation technique using an Atomic Emission Detector (AED). Included in the presentation is a description of quality assurance objectives in the monitoring system, and an assessment of method accuracy, precision and detection levels.

  4. Flood disaster monitoring in Thailand by using a airborne L-band SAR: Polarimetric and interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar with L-band(Pi-SAR-L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, N.; Sobue, S.; Shimada, M.; Ohyoshi, K.

    2012-04-01

    It was heavy rainfall around the northern region of Thailand from July to September 2011, which caused flood disaster to quite wide region of Thailand, it finally reached to the Bangkok central in the end of October 2011. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) conducted an emergency observation by using a airborne L-band SAR: Polarimetric and interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar with L-band(Pi-SAR-L) from 5th to 27th November to monitor flood area. Pi-SAR-L has a center frequency of 1271.5 MHz, a band width of 50 MHz, a slant range resolution of 3 m, and an acquisition swath of 15 km on the ground. Pi-SAR-L is boarded on an aircraft of the Gulfstream-II operated by the Diamond Air Service(DAS), Japan, and the Gulfstream-II was ferried to the Chieng-Mai airport in the North Thailand, from Japan. In our presentation, we will show flood area around Bangkok and its variations detected by Pi-SAR-L

  5. Using TerraSAR-X and hyperspectral airborne data to monitor surface deformation and physical properties of the Barrow permafrost landscape, Alask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghshenas-Haghighi, M.; Motagh, M.; Heim, B.; Sachs, T.; Kohnert, K.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we assess seasonal subsidence/heaving due to thawing/freezing of the permafrost in Barrow (71.3 N, 156.5 W) at the northernmost point of Alaska. The topographic relief in this area is low. Thick Permafrost underlies the entire area, with large ice volumes in its upper layer. With a large collection of field measurements during the past decades at the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), it is an ideal site for permafrost investigation. There are long term systematic geocryological investigations within the Global Terrestrial Network (GTN-P) of the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) programme. We use 28 TerraSAR-X images, acquired between December 2012 and December 2013 and analyze them using the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) technique to extract time-series of ground surface deformation. We also analyze hyperspectral images acquired by the airborne AISA sensor over Barrow area, within the AIRMETH2013 programme, to assess physical characteristics such as vegetation biomass and density, surface moisture, and water bodies. Finally, we combine the information derived from both InSAR and hyperspectral analysis, with field measurements to investigate the link between physical characteristics of the permafrost and surface displacement.

  6. Global Test Range: Toward Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.; Freudinger, Larry; DelFrate John H.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned global sensor network that will monitor the Earth's climate, and resources using airborne sensor systems. The vision is an intelligent, affordable Earth Observation System. Global Test Range is a lab developing trustworthy services for airborne instruments - a specialized Internet Service Provider. There is discussion of several current and planned missions.

  7. Estimating individual-level exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the gestational period based on personal, indoor, and outdoor monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, H.; Perera, F.; Pac, A.; Wang, L.; Flak, E.; Mroz, E.; Jacek, R.; Chai-Onn, T.; Jedrychowski, W.; Masters, E.; Camann, D.; Spengler, J.

    2008-11-15

    Current understanding on health effects of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is limited by lack of data on time-varying nature of the pollutants at an individual level. In a cohort of pregnant women in Krakow, Poland, we examined the contribution of temporal, spatial, and behavioral factors to prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs within each trimester and developed a predictive model of PAH exposure over the entire gestational period. The observed personal, indoor, and outdoor B(a)P levels we observed in Krakow far exceed the recommended Swedish guideline value for B(a)P of 0.1 ng/m{sup 3}. Based on simultaneously monitored levels, the outdoor PAH level alone accounts for 93% of total variability in personal exposure during the heating season. Living near the Krakow bus depot, a crossroad, and the city, center and time spent outdoors or commuting were not associated with higher personal exposure. During the nonheating season only, a 1-hr increase in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with a 10-16% increase in personal exposure to the nine measured PAHs. A 1{degree}C decrease in ambient temperature was associated with a 3-5% increase in exposure to benz(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, after accounting for the outdoor concentration. A random effects model demonstrated that mean personal exposure at a given gestational period depends on the season, residence location, and ETS. Considering that most women reported spending < 3 hr/day outdoors, most women in the study were exposed to outdoor-originating PAHs within the indoor setting. Cross-sectional, longitudinal monitoring supplemented with questionnaire data allowed development of a gestation-length model of individual-level exposure with high precision and validity.

  8. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, D. B.

    2014-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2013 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2013; 2014a; 2014b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are close to detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 105.8 millimeters (mm) (4.17 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2013 is 30% below the average of 150.3 mm (5.92 in.), and the 117.5 mm (4.63 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2013 is 5% below the average of 123.6 mm (4.86 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  9. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, David B.

    2013-09-10

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2012 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2012; 2013a; 2013b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 133.9 millimeters (mm) (5.27 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2012 is 12% below the average of 153.0 mm (6.02 in.), and the 137.6 mm (5.42 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2012 is 11% below the average of 122.4 mm (4.82 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  10. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Gregory Graham

    2001-02-01

    This report presents the results of the 2000 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate the facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  11. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island - Unit 2 Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory G. Hall

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the results of the 2002 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate the facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  12. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    SciTech Connect

    G. G. Hall

    2000-02-01

    This report presents the results of the 1999 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  13. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Gregory Graham

    2001-02-01

    This report presents the results of the 2000 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate the facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  14. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Gregory Graham

    2002-02-01

    This report presents the results of the 2001 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate the facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  15. An Evaluation of a Dual Coriolis Meter System for In-Line Monitoring of Suspended Solids Concentrations in Radioactive Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, T.D.

    2000-09-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes stored in underground tanks at several of its sites, such as Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. In order to comply with various regulations and to circumvent potential problems associated with tank integrity, these wastes must be retrieved from the underground tanks, transferred to treatment facilities (or other storage location), and processed to a stable waste form. Each sludge waste will typically be mobilized by some mechanical means (e.g., mixer pump, submerged jet) and mixed with the supernatant to create a slurry that can be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. Depending on the DOE site, such slurries may be transferred up to six miles. Since these wastes are radioactive, it is critically important that the transfers be conducted safely and successfully. The transport properties of a given slurry must be within the appropriate design limits to prevent the formation of a pipeline plug. The consequences of a plugged pipeline with radioactive material are unacceptable from the perspectives of safety, cost, and schedule. If a pipeline plug occurs and conventional methods (e.g., water flushing) are not successful, either the entire pipeline must be replaced (and the plugged pipeline remediated at a later date) or the plugged sections must be located, excised, and replaced. Either option would expose workers to radiation fields, and the cost of the project could escalate and result in a severe delay of the project schedule. Even if a pipeline plug were successfully removed by conventional methods, the project would experience some delay and additional costs. For example, flushing a plugged pipeline would require a shutdown of operations until the situation could be resolved; and such action would lead to the generation of additional liquid waste, which would also require treatment. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the relevant

  16. Radiation protection, radioactive waste management and site monitoring at the nuclear scientific experimental and educational centre IRT-Sofia at INRNE-BAS.

    PubMed

    Mladenov, Al; Stankov, D; Nonova, Tz; Krezhov, K

    2014-11-01

    This article identifies important components and describes the safe practices in implementing radiation protection and radioactive waste management programmes, and in their optimisation at the Nuclear Scientific Experimental and Educational Centre with research reactor IRT at INRNE-BAS. It covers the instrumentation and personal protective equipment and organisational issues related to the continuous site monitoring. The reactor is under major reconstruction and the measures applied to radiation monitoring of environment and working area focused on restricting the radiation exposure of the staff as well as compliance with international good practices related to the environmental and public radiation safety requirements are also addressed.

  17. Estimation of lava flow field volumes and volumetric effusion rates from airborne radar profiling and other data: Monitoring of the Nornahraun (Holuhraun) 2014/15 eruption in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürig, Tobias; Gudmundsson, Magnús; Högnadóttir, Thordís; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Gudbjörnsson, Snaebjörn; Lárusson, Örnólfur; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Riishuus, Morten; Magnússon, Eyjólfur

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of lava-producing eruptions involves systematic measurement of flow field volumes, which in turn can be used to obtain average magma discharge over the period of observation. However, given inaccessibility to the interior parts of active lava fields, remote sensing techniques must be applied. Several satellite platforms provide data that can be geo-referenced, allowing area estimation. However, unless sterographic or tandem satellite data are available, the determination of thicknesses is non-trivial. The ongoing eruption ('Nornaeldar')at Dyngjusandurin the Icelandic highlands offers an opportunity to monitor the temporal and spatial evolution of a typical Icelandic lava flow field. The mode of emplacementis complex and includesboth horizontal and vertical stacking, inflation of lobes and topographic inversions. Due to the large extent of the flow field (>83 km2 on 5 Jan 2015, and still growing) and its considerable local variation in thickness (30 m) and surface roughness, obtaining robust quantification of lava thicknesses is very challenging,despite the lava is being emplaced onto a low-relief sandur plain. Creative methods have been implemented to obtain as reliable observation as possible into the third dimension: Next to areal extent measurements from satellites and maps generated with airborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR), lava thickness profiles are regularly obtained by low-level flights with a fixed-wing aircraft that is equipped with a ground clearance radar coupled witha submeter DGPS,a system originally designed for monitoring surface changes of glaciers above geothermally active areas.The resulting radar profile data are supplemented by analyses of aerial photos and complemented by results from an array of ground based thickness measurement methods. The initial results indicate that average effusion ratewas ~200 m3/s in the first weeks of the eruption (end August, early September) but declined to 50-100 m3/s in November to December period

  18. Temporal multiparameter airborne DLR E-SAR images for crop monitoring: summary of the CLEOPATRA campaign 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmullius, Christiane C.; Nithack, Juergen

    1997-01-01

    From May 11 to July 31, 1992 the Cloud Experiment OberPfaffenhofen And Transports took place as a field experimental contribution to the global energy and water cycle experiment. The DLR Institute of Radio Frequency Technology participated with its experimental SAR system E- SAR. Multitemporal X-, C- and L-band data from 8 dates and three ERS-1 images between May 20 and July 30, 1992 are analyzed in regard to the influence of changing plant backscatter constituents and to investigate the impact of increasing ground cover in the different wavelength on soil moisture mapping. Backscatter curves of four crops are shown, which indicate the possibility for crop monitoring and preferred times for crop classification. Detection of soil moisture changes is only possible with L-band and only under grain crops. Maximum likelihood and isocluster classifications were applied on several single- and multifrequency, mono- and multitemporal channel combinations. The overall classification accuracies were higher than with supervised methods. Maximum likelihood classification allowed identification of ten crop types with accuracies of up to 84 percent, when a temporal multifrequency data set was used.

  19. On monitoring anthropogenic airborne uranium concentrations and (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratio by Lichen - bio-indicator technique.

    PubMed

    Golubev, A V; Golubeva, V N; Krylov, N G; Kuznetsova, V F; Mavrin, S V; Aleinikov, A Yu; Hoppes, W G; Surano, K A

    2005-01-01

    Lichens are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. However, few studies are available in publications on using lichens to qualitatively assess the atmospheric pollution levels. The paper presents research results applying epiphytic lichens as bio-monitors of quantitative atmospheric contamination with uranium. The observations were conducted during 2.5 years in the natural environment. Two experimental sites were used: one in the vicinity of a uranium contamination source, the other one - at a sufficient distance away to represent the background conditions. Air and lichens were sampled at both sites monthly. Epiphytic lichens Hypogimnia physodes were used as bio-indicators. Lichen samples were taken from various trees at about 1.5m from the ground. Air was sampled with filters at sampling stations. The uranium content in lichen and air samples as well as isotopic mass ratios (235)U/(238)U were measured by mass-spectrometer technique after uranium pre-extraction. Measured content of uranium were 1.45 mgkg(-1) in lichen at 2.09 E-04 microgm(-3) in air and 0.106 mgkg(-1) in lichen at 1.13 E-05 microgm(-3) in air. The relationship of the uranium content in atmosphere and that in lichens was determined, C(AIR)=exp(1.1 x C(LICHEN)-12). The possibility of separate identification of natural and man-made uranium in lichens was demonstrated in principle.

  20. SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....

  1. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 327 Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    The 327 Facility [Post-Irradiation Testing Laboratory] provides office and laboratory space for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of post-irradiated fuels and structural materials. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials in the conduct of these activities. This report summarizes the airborne emissions and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  2. Liquid-phase sample preparation method for real-time monitoring of airborne asbestos fibers by dual-mode high-throughput microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myoung-Ock; Kim, Jung Kyung; Han, Hwataik; Lee, Jeonghoon

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos that had been used widely as a construction material is a first-level carcinogen recognized by the World Health Organization. It can be accumulated in body by inhalation causing virulent respiratory diseases including lung cancer. In our previous study, we developed a high-throughput microscopy (HTM) system that can minimize human intervention accompanied by the conventional phase contrast microscopy (PCM) through automated counting of fibrous materials and thus significantly reduce analysis time and labor. Also, we attempted selective detection of chrysotile using DksA protein extracted from Escherichia coli through a recombinant protein production technique, and developed a dual-mode HTM (DM-HTM) by upgrading the HTM device. We demonstrated that fluorescently-labeled chrysotile asbestos fibers can be identified and enumerated automatically among other types of asbestos fibers or non-asbestos particles in a high-throughput manner through a newly modified HTM system for both reflection and fluorescence imaging. However there is a limitation to apply DM-HTM to airborne sample with current air collecting method due to the difficulty of applying the protein to dried asbestos sample. Here, we developed a technique for preparing liquid-phase asbestos sample using an impinger normally used to collect odor molecules in the air. It would be possible to improve the feasibility of the dual-mode HTM by integrating a sample preparation unit for making collected asbestos sample dispersed in a solution. The new technique developed for highly sensitive and automated asbestos detection can be a potential alternative to the conventional manual counting method, and it may be applied on site as a fast and reliable environmental monitoring tool.

  3. Development and comparison of methods using MS scan and selective ion monitoring modes for a wide range of airborne VOCs.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chunrong; Batterman, Stuart; Chernyak, Sergei

    2006-10-01

    Adsorbent sampling with analysis by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) offers many advantages for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and thus is increasingly used in many applications. For environmental samples and other complex mixtures, the MS detector typically is operated in the scan mode to aid identification of co-eluting compounds. However, scan mode does not achieve the optimal sensitivity, thus compounds occurring at low concentrations may not be detected. This paper develops and evaluates the application of a more sensitive TD/GC/MS method using selective ion monitoring (SIM) that is applicable to VOC mixtures found in ambient and indoor air. Based on toxicity and prevalence, 94 VOCs (including terpenes, aromatic, halogenated and aliphatic compounds) were selected as target compounds. Two analytical methods were developed: a conventional full scan method for ions from 29 to 270 m/z; and a SIM method using 16 time windows and different ions selected for the compounds in each window. Both methods used the same Tenax GR adsorbent sampling tubes, TD and GC parameters, and target and qualifier ions. Laboratory tests determined calibrations, method detection limits (MDLs), precisions, recoveries and storage stability. Field tests compared scan and SIM mode analyses for duplicate samples of indoor air in 51 houses and outdoor air at 41 sites. Statistical analyses included the development of error/precision models. The laboratory tests showed that most compounds demonstrated excellent precision (<10% for concentrations exceeding approximately 0.5 microg m(-3)), good linearity, near identical calibrations for scan and SIM modes, a wide dynamic range (up to 1500 microg m(-3)), and negligible storage losses after 1 month (7 compounds showed moderate losses). SIM mode MDLs ranged from 0.004 to 0.27 microg m(-3), representing a modest (1.1 to 22-fold) improvement compared to scan mode. However, in field tests the SIM method detected

  4. Remote detection and ecological monitoring of the industrial and natural nuclei activity of radioactive elements based on passive microwave radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chistyakova, Liliya K.; Chistyakov, Vyacheslav Y.; Losev, Dmitry V.; Penin, Sergei T.; Tarabrin, Yurij K.; Yakubov, Vladimir P.; Yurjev, Igor A.

    1998-12-01

    The passive remote method of microwave radiometry and its instrumental realization for express diagnostics of radioactive elements in the atmosphere have been discussed. Analysis of the microwave radiation due to ionization and dissociation of atmospheric components interacting with radioactive elements is carried out. The photochemical processes resulting in background microwave radiation power have been discussed. As an example, the results of natural experiment of detecting the atomic hydrogen radiation in the plume of emissions of nuclear cycle processing plants have been presented.

  5. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-07

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  6. Airborne Relay-Based Regional Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyuman; Noh, Hongjun; Lim, Jaesung

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based pseudolite systems have some limitations, such as low vertical accuracy, multipath effects and near-far problems. These problems are not significant in airborne-based pseudolite systems. However, the monitoring of pseudolite positions is required because of the mobility of the platforms on which the pseudolites are mounted, and this causes performance degradation. To address these pseudolite system limitations, we propose an airborne relay-based regional positioning system that consists of a master station, reference stations, airborne relays and a user. In the proposed system, navigation signals are generated from the reference stations located on the ground and are relayed via the airborne relays. Unlike in conventional airborne-based systems, the user in the proposed system sequentially estimates both the locations of airborne relays and his/her own position. Therefore, a delay due to monitoring does not occur, and the accuracy is not affected by the movement of airborne relays. We conducted several simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. Based on the simulation results, we demonstrated that the proposed system guarantees a higher accuracy than airborne-based pseudolite systems, and it is feasible despite the existence of clock offsets among reference stations. PMID:26029953

  7. Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2001-09-01

    Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (one site is in Area 3 and the other is in Area 5) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV). The current DOE Order governing management of radioactive waste is 435.1. Associated with DOE Order 435.1 is a Manual (DOE M 435.1-1) and Guidance (DOE G 435.1-1). The Manual and Guidance specify that preliminary closure and monitoring plans for a low-level waste (LLW) management facility be developed and initially submitted with the Performance Assessment (PA) and Composite Analysis (CA) for that facility. The Manual and Guidance, and the Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued for the Area 3 RWMS further specify that the preliminary closure and monitoring plans be updated within one year following issuance of a DAS. This Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) fulfills both requirements. Additional updates will be conducted every third year hereafter. This document is an integrated plan for closing and monitoring both RWMSs, and is based on guidance issued in 1999 by the DOE for developing closure plans. The plan does not follow the format suggested by the DOE guidance in order to better accommodate differences between the two RWMSs, especially in terms of operations and site characteristics. The modification reduces redundancy and provides a smoother progression of the discussion. The closure and monitoring plans were integrated because much of the information that would be included in individual plans is the same, and integration provides efficient presentation and program management. The ICMP identifies the regulatory requirements, describes the disposal sites and the physical environment where they are located, and defines the approach and schedule for both closing and monitoring the sites.

  8. Experiences managing radioactive material at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Rick L

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's largest and most energetic laser system for inertial confinement fusion and experiments studying high energy density science. Many experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility involve radioactive materials; these may take the form of tritium and small quantities of depleted uranium used in targets, activation products created by neutron-producing fusion experiments, and fission products produced by the fast fissioning of the depleted uranium. While planning for the introduction of radioactive material, it was recognized that some of the standard institutional processes would need to be customized to accommodate aspects of NIF operations, such as surface contamination limits, radiological postings, airborne tritium monitoring protocols, and personnel protective equipment. These customizations were overlaid onto existing work practices to accommodate the new hazard of radioactive materials. This paper will discuss preparations that were made prior to the introduction of radioactive material, the types of radiological work activities performed, and the hazards and controls encountered. Updates to processes based on actual monitoring results are also discussed. PMID:23629067

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of radioactive and fluorescent residualizing labels for monitoring protein degradation in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Residualizing labels for proteins, such as dilactitol-{sup 125}I-tyramine, are tracers which have been used to identify the tissue and cellular sites of catabolism of long-lived plasma proteins, such as albumin. The radioactive degradation products formed from labeled proteins are relatively large and hydrophilic. These tracers accumulate in lysosomes following uptake and catabolism of the carrier protein. However, the gradual loss of the catabolites from cells has limited the usefulness of these radioactive labels in studies on longer-lived proteins. The objective of this dissertation was to design a radioactive residualizing label, Inulin-{sup 125}I-tyramine ({sup 125}I-InTn), that would be retained more efficiently in cells than existing labels and to develop and evaluate the first fluorescent residualizing label, N,N-dilactitol-N{prime}-fluoresceinyl-ethylenediamine (DLF).

  10. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) will be used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to measure airborne transuranic radioactivity that might be present in air exhaust or in work-place areas. WIPP CAMs are important to health and safety because they are used to alert workers to airborne radioactivity, to actuate air-effluent filtration systems, and to detect airborne radioactivity so that the radioactivity can be confined in a limited area. In 1993, the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) reported that CAM operational performance was affected by salt aerosol, and subsequently, the WIPP CAM design and usage were modified. In this report, operational data and current theories on aerosol collection were reviewed to determine CAM quantitative performance limitations. Since 1993, the overall CAM performance appears to have improved, but anomalous alpha spectra are present when sampling-filter salt deposits are at normal to high levels. This report shows that sampling-filter salt deposits directly affect radon-thoron daughter alpha spectra and overall monitor efficiency. Previously it was assumed that aerosol was mechanically collected on the surface of CAM sampling filters, but this review suggests that electrostatic and other particle collection mechanisms are more important than previously thought. The mechanism of sampling-filter particle collection is critical to measurement of acute releases of radioactivity. 41 refs.

  11. Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, B.D.

    1994-06-01

    In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ``cold,`` or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications.

  12. [RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AT THE AREA OF THE LOCATION OF THE FAR EASTERN CENTER FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT (FEC "DALRAO"--BRANCH OF FSUE "ROSRAO")].

    PubMed

    Kiselev, S M; Shandala, N K; Akhromeev, S V; Gimadova, T I; Seregin, V A; Titov, A V; Biryukova, N G

    2015-01-01

    Intensification ofactivities in the field of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RW) management in the Far East region of Russia assumes an increase of the environmental load on the territories adjacent to the enterprise and settlements. To ensure radiation safety during works on SNF and radioactive waste management in the standard mode of operation and during the rehabilitation works in the contaminated territories, there is need for the optimization of the existing system of radiation-hygienic monitoring, aimed at the implementation of complex dynamic observation of parameters of radiation-hygienic situation and radiation amount of the population living in the vicinity of the Far Eastern Center for Radioactive Waste Management (FEC "DALRAO"). To solve this problem there is required a significant amount of total and enough structured information on the character of the formation of the radiation situation, the potential ways of the spread of man-made pollution to the surrounding area, determining the radiation load on the population living in the vicinity of the object. In this paper there are presented the results of field studies of the radiation situation at the plant FEC "DALRAO", which were obtained during the course of expedition trips in 2009-2012.

  13. Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1998-04-01

    A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

  14. Annual environmental monitoring report, January-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not easily distinguishable from natural environmental sources. During 1983, the maximum approximated neutron dose near the site boundary was 5 mrem. There have been no measurable increases in radioactivity in ground water attributable to SLAC operations since operation began in 1966. We have never found any evidence of radioactivity in ground water in excess of natural background radioactivity from uranium and thorium decay chains and potassium-40. Airborne radioactivity released from SLAC continues to make only a negligible environmental impact, and results in a site-boundary annual dose of less than 0.3 mrem; this represents less than 0.3% of the annual dose from the natural radiation environment, and about 0.06% of the technical standard. 8 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 324 Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    The 324 Facility [Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory] in the 300 Area primarily supports the research and development of radioactive and nonradioactive waste vitrification technologies, biological waste remediation technologies, spent nuclear fuel studies, waste mixing and transport studies, and tritium development programs. All of the above-mentioned programs deal with, and have the potential to, release hazardous and/or radioactive material. The potential for discharge would primarily result from (1) conducting research activities using the hazardous materials, (2) storing radionuclides and hazardous chemicals, and (3) waste accumulation and storage. This report summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents, and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterizing effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  16. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV.

  17. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV. PMID:26773821

  18. Bio-monitoring the genotoxicity of populations of Scots pine in the vicinity of a radioactive waste storage facility.

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, Stanislav A; Kim, Jin Kyu; Oudalova, Alla A; Vasiliyev, Denis V; Dikareva, Nina S; Zimin, Vladimir L; Dikarev, Vladimir G

    2005-05-01

    Results of a long-term (1997-2002) study of the Scots pine populations growing in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility ('Radon' LWPE) are presented. Cytogenetic disturbances in reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) tissues sampled from Scots pine populations were studied to examine whether Scots pine trees have experienced environmental stress in areas with relatively low levels of pollution. The data clearly indicate the presence of mutagenic contaminants in the environment of the pine trees. An increased number of mitotic abnormalities, especially multipolar mitoses was found in the pine tree populations submitted to man-made exposure, which suggests that the cytogenetic damage is mainly caused by chemical contamination. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds from the impacted populations was shown by use of acute gamma-irradiation. During the observation period 1997-2002, pine trees exposed to anthropogenic pollution showed a steady increase of cytogenetic alterations in the root meristem cells. PMID:15866466

  19. Survey of statistical and sampling needs for environmental monitoring of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Thomas, J.M.

    1986-07-01

    This project was designed to develop guidance for implementing 10 CFR Part 61 and to determine the overall needs for sampling and statistical work in characterizing, surveying, monitoring, and closing commercial low-level waste sites. When cost-effectiveness and statistical reliability are of prime importance, then double sampling, compositing, and stratification (with optimal allocation) are identified as key issues. If the principal concern is avoiding questionable statistical practice, then the applicability of kriging (for assessing spatial pattern), methods for routine monitoring, and use of standard textbook formulae in reporting monitoring results should be reevaluated. Other important issues identified include sampling for estimating model parameters and the use of data from left-censored (less than detectable limits) distributions.

  20. In-situ gamma spectrometry in environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kluson, J

    2010-01-01

    In-situ gamma spectrometry (scintillation or semiconductor) can be used effectively for monitoring natural and man-made radionuclide concentrations, together with the corresponding photon fields, in the environment and in workplaces. It is applied in operational and emergency monitoring of nuclear facilities, waste storage facilities and the uranium industry, in radioactive contamination measurements and mapping, environmental, radiohygienic and radiation safety studies, etc. Methods for processing and interpreting data, experimental techniques (ground or airborne arrangement), calibration and verification and examples of applications are discussed in this paper. PMID:20022255

  1. An Overview of the Summer 2014 Airborne Study of Oil Sands Air Pollutants in Support of the Joint Oil Sands Monitoring Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. M.; Hayden, K. L.; Cober, S.; Wolde, M.; Liggio, J.; Liu, P.; Leithead, A.; O'brien, J.; Wang, D. K.; Moussa, S. G.; Gordon, M.; Darlington, A. L.; McLaren, R.; Makar, P.; Stroud, C.; Wentzell, J. J. B.; Brook, J.; Narayan, J.; Elford, A.; Sung, K.; Sheppard, A.

    2014-12-01

    A short term airborne study of oil sands air pollutants was carried out in August and September 2013. The study had three objectives: 1. to validate emissions of criteria air contaminants (CACs) and other air pollutants from surface mining facilities in the Athabasca oil sands region, using airborne ambient air measurements; 2. to understand the transport and transformation of primary pollutants; and 3. to provide data for model and satellite retrieval validation. The data will be used for the evaluation and improvement of high-resolution air quality models for eventual application in determining the fates of these pollutants and their deposition to the downwind ecosystems. Various chemical species were measured from the National Research Council of Canada Convair-580 aircraft at high time resolution of 1-10 seconds. A total of 22 flights were flown, with 14 flights dedicated to emission validation, 5 flights to transport and transformation of oil sands pollutants, and 5 flights to satellite data validation. An algorithm will be shown to demonstrate how the data from the emission flights can be used to derive a top-down estimate of SO2 emission rates.

  2. Analytical results and effective dose estimation of the operational Environmental Monitoring Program for the radioactive waste repository in Abadia de Goiás from 1998 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Edison; Tauhata, Luiz; dos Santos, Eliane Eugenia; da Silveira Corrêa, Rosangela

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program for the Radioactive waste repository of Abadia de Goiás, which was originated from the accident of Goiania, conducted by the Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-CO) of the National Commission on Nuclear Energy (CNEN), from 1998 to 2008. The results are related to the determination of (137)Cs activity per unit of mass or volume of samples from surface water, ground water, depth sediments of the river, soil and vegetation, and also the air-kerma rate estimation for gamma exposure in the monitored site. In the phase of operational Environmental Monitoring Program, the values of the geometric mean and standard deviation obtained for (137)Cs activity per unit of mass or volume in the analyzed samples were (0.08 ± 1.16) Bq.L(-1) for surface and underground water, (0.22 ± 2.79) Bq.kg(-1) for soil, and (0.19 ± 2.72) Bq.kg(-1) for sediment, and (0.19 ± 2.30) Bq.kg(-1) for vegetation. These results were similar to the values of the pre-operational Environmental Monitoring Program. With these data, estimations for effective dose were evaluated for public individuals in the neighborhood of the waste repository, considering the main possible way of exposure of this population group. The annual effective dose obtained from the analysis of these results were lower than 0.3 mSv.y(-1), which is the limit established by CNEN for environmental impact in the public individuals indicating that the facility is operating safely, without any radiological impact to the surrounding environment.

  3. Radioactivity levels in major French rivers: summary of monitoring chronicles acquired over the past thirty years and current status.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle, Frédérique; Claval, David; Gontier, Gilles; Antonelli, Christelle

    2008-07-01

    French territory, there is no significant difference since the mid 1990 s between (137)Cs activity observed downstream of nuclear facilities and that observed upstream, whether in sediments, mosses and fish. Finally, this study highlights that the natural radioactivity of surface freshwaters are around 25 times greater than artificial radioactivity from gamma emitters. However, non gamma emitters released by nuclear industries, such as (3)H, may lead to artificial activity levels 2 to 20 times higher than natural levels.

  4. Airborne lidar experiments at the Savannah River Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    The results of remote sensing experiments at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Nuclear Facility utilizing the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are presented. The flights were conducted in support of the numerous environmental monitoring requirements associated with the operation of the facility and for the purpose of furthering research and development of airborne lidar technology. Areas of application include airborne laser topographic mapping, hydrologic studies using fluorescent tracer dye, timber volume estimation, baseline characterization of wetlands, and aquatic chlorophyll and photopigment measurements. Conclusions relative to the usability of airborne lidar technology for the DOE for each of these remote sensing applications are discussed.

  5. Rocketdyne division, environmental monitoring and facility effluent. Annual report, De Soto and Santa Susana Field Laboratories Sites, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. D.

    1987-03-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International is performed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Group of the Health, Safety, and Environment Department. Soil and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 10 miles from Division sites. Ground water from site supply water wells and other test wells is periodically sampled to measure radioactivity in these waters. Continuous ambient air sampling and direct radiation monitoring by thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed at several on=site and off-site locations for measuring airborne radioactivity concentrations and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from nuclear facilities is continuously sampled and monitored to ensure that amounts released to uncontrolled areas are below appropriate limits and to identify processes that may require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity in such discharges. In addition, selected nonradioactive chemical constituent concentrations in surface water discharged to uncontrolled areas are determined. The environmental radioactivity reported herein is attributed to natural sources, to local fallout of radioactive debris from the Chernobyl reactor accident, and to residual fallout of radioactive material from past atmospheric testing of nuclear devices.

  6. Challenges and opportunities of airborne metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  7. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles. PMID:25953766

  8. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  9. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  10. Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) Data related to Air, Soil, and Water Monitoring around the Nevada Test Site

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) is a network of 29 monitoring stations located in communities surrounding and downwind of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that monitor the airborne environment for manmade radioactivity that could result from NTS activities. The network stations, located in Nevada, Utah, and California are comprised of instruments that collect a variety of environmental radiological and meteorological data. The emphasis of the CEMP is to monitor airborne radioactivity and weather conditions, and make the results available to the public. Instrumentation that records these data is connected to a datalogger, and real-time radiation levels or weather conditions can immediately and easily be seen on a display at each station. These data are transmitted via direct or wireless internet connection, landline or cellular phone, or satellite transmission to DRI's Western Regional Climate Center in Reno, Nevada, and are updated as frequently as every 10 minutes on the World Wide Web at http://www.cemp.dri.edu. DOE and DRI also publish the results of the monitoring program and distribute these reports throughout the network community. The reports provide summaries of average values for each station and the entire network, and show deviations from the expected range values. [Copied from the CEMP website (Introduction) at http://www.cemp.dri.edu/cemp/moreinfo.html

  11. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bio-indicator species in radioactivity monitoring of Eastern Adriatic coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Krmpotić, Matea; Rožmarić, Martina; Barišić, Delko

    2015-06-01

    Croatian Adriatic coastal waters are systematically monitored within the Mediterranean Mussel Watch Project using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bio-indicator species. The study includes determination of naturally occurring ((7)Be, (40)K, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (238)U), as well as anthropogenic (137)Cs radionuclides. Activity concentrations in dry weight of mussels' soft tissue along the Croatian Adriatic coast are presented, with spatial and seasonal variations given and discussed. Samples were collected in spring and autumn for the period between 2009 and 2013. Radionuclides were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Activity concentrations of (7)Be were the highest in spring periods, especially in the areas with significant fresh water discharges. Activity concentrations of (40)K did not vary significantly with season or location. (137)Cs activities were low, while (232)Th, (226)Ra and (238)U activities were mostly below the detection limit of performed gamma-spectrometric measurement.

  12. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bio-indicator species in radioactivity monitoring of Eastern Adriatic coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Krmpotić, Matea; Rožmarić, Martina; Barišić, Delko

    2015-06-01

    Croatian Adriatic coastal waters are systematically monitored within the Mediterranean Mussel Watch Project using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bio-indicator species. The study includes determination of naturally occurring ((7)Be, (40)K, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (238)U), as well as anthropogenic (137)Cs radionuclides. Activity concentrations in dry weight of mussels' soft tissue along the Croatian Adriatic coast are presented, with spatial and seasonal variations given and discussed. Samples were collected in spring and autumn for the period between 2009 and 2013. Radionuclides were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Activity concentrations of (7)Be were the highest in spring periods, especially in the areas with significant fresh water discharges. Activity concentrations of (40)K did not vary significantly with season or location. (137)Cs activities were low, while (232)Th, (226)Ra and (238)U activities were mostly below the detection limit of performed gamma-spectrometric measurement. PMID:25794925

  13. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  14. 10 CFR 835.209 - Concentrations of radioactive material in air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concentrations of radioactive material in air. 835.209... External Exposure § 835.209 Concentrations of radioactive material in air. (a) The derived air... exposures to airborne radioactive material. (b) The estimation of internal dose shall be based on...

  15. Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants.

    PubMed

    Stetzenbach, Linda D; Buttner, Mark P; Cruz, Patricia

    2004-06-01

    The sampling and analysis of airborne microorganisms has received attention in recent years owing to concerns with mold contamination in indoor environments and the threat of bioterrorism. Traditionally, the detection and enumeration of airborne microorganisms has been conducted using light microscopy and/or culture-based methods; however, these analyses are time-consuming, laborious, subjective and lack sensitivity and specificity. The use of molecular methods, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification, can enhance monitoring strategies by increasing sensitivity and specificity, while decreasing the time required for analysis.

  16. Hydrological investigation of a multi-stratified pit lake using radioactive and stable isotopes combined with hydrometric monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-España, Javier; Diez Ercilla, Marta; Pérez Cerdán, Fernando; Yusta, Iñaki; Boyce, Adrian J.

    2014-04-01

    The internal configuration and hydrological dynamics of meromictic pit lakes is often complex and needs to be studied by different tools including stable and radiogenic isotopes. This study combines a multi-isotopic approach (3Hw, δ2Hw, δ18Ow, δ34SSO4) with meteorological, hydrological and hydrochemical monitoring to deduce the flooding history and hydrological dynamics of a meromictic and deeply stratified pit lake (Cueva de la Mora mine, SW Spain). The mine system is complex and includes horizontal galleries, shafts and large rooms physically connected to the mine pit. Specific conductance and temperature profiles obtained in the pit lake draw a physical structure with four monimolimnetic sub-layers of increasing density with depth. This characteristic stratification with m-scale layers separated by sharp transitional zones is rather unusual in other pit lakes and in most natural lakes. Tritium abundance in the different layers indicates that the deep lake water entered the pit basin between 1971 and 1972 which is coincident with the dates of mine closure. The oxygen and deuterium isotope composition of the different layers describes a marked and stable stratification, with an increasing evaporative influence towards the lake surface and a minimal influence of groundwater flow on the structure and composition of the monimolimnion. This study reveals that the initial stages of flooding (via influx of metal- and sulfate-loaded mine drainage from underlying galleries at different depths) may be essential to imprint a layered physical structure to pit lakes which would be very difficult to explain merely by physical processes. After reaching its present water level and morphology, the monimolimnion of this pit lake seems to have remained essentially isolated and chemically unmodified during decades.

  17. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  18. Rocketdyne division, environmental monitoring and facility effluent. Annual Report, De Soto and Santa Susana Field Laboratories Sites 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. D.

    1988-03-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International is performed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Group of the Health, Safety, and Environment Department. Soil and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 10 miles from Division sites. Ground water from site supply water wells and other test wells is periodically sampled to measure radioactivity in these waters. Continuous ambient air sampling and direct radiation monitoring by thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed at several on-site and off-site locations for measuring airborne radioactivity concentrations and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from nuclear facilities is continually sampled and monitored to ensure that amounts released to uncontrolled areas are below appropriate limited and to identify processes that rnay require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity in such discharges. In addition, selected nonradioactive chemical constituent concentrations in surface water discharged to uncontrolled areas are determined. The environmental radioactivity reported herein is attributed to natural sources and to residual fallout of radioactive material from past atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. Work in nuclear energy research and development in what has become the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation began in 1946. In addition to a broad spectrum of conventional programs in rocket propulsion, utilization of space, and national defense, Rocketdyne is working on the design, development, and testing of components and systems for central station nuclear power plants, the decladding of irradiated nuclear fuel, and the decontamination and decommissioning of facilities.

  19. Rocketdyne division, envionmental monitoring and facility effluent. Annual report, De Soto and Santa Susana Field Laboratories Sites, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. D.

    1989-05-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International is performed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Group of the Health, Safety, and Environment Department. Soil and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 16 km from division sites. Groundwater from Santa Susana Field Laboratories (SSFL) supply water wells and other test wells is periodically sampled to measure radioactivity. Continuous ambient air sampling and direct radiation monitoring by thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed at several on-site and off-site locations for measuring airborne radioactivity concentrations and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from nuclear facilities is continually sampled and monitored to assure that amounts released to uncontrolled areas are below appropriate limits. These procedures also help identify processes that may require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity in such discharges. In addition, selected nonradioactive chemical constituent concentrations in surface water discharged to uncontrolled areas are measured. The environmental radioactivity reported herein is attributed to natural sources and to residual fallout of radioactive material from past atmospheric testing of nuclear devices.

  20. Aerial Orthophoto and Airborne Laser Scanning as Monitoring Tools for Land Cover Dynamics: A Case Study from the Milicz Forest District (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wezyk, Piotr; Tompalski, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents the results from the study concerning the application of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data and derived raster products like the digital surface model (DSM) and the digital terrain model (DTM) for the assessment of the degree of change of the land use based on the forest succession example. Simultaneously, an automated method of ALS data processing was developed based on the normalized (nDSM) and cadastral GIS information. Besides delivering precise information on forest succession, ALS technology is an excellent tool for time-changes spatial analyses. Usage of the ALS data can support the image interpretation process decreasing the subjectivity of the operator. In parallel, a manual vectorization and object classification (object-based image analysis—OBIA) were performed; both based on aerial orthophoto and ALS data. By using integrated ALS point clouds and digital aerial images, one can obtain fast OBIA processing and the determination of areas where the land cover has changed. The Milicz District (central west part of Poland) was chosen as the test site where ALS was to be performed in 2007, together with the digital aerial photos (Vexcel camera; pixel 0.15 m; CIR). The aerial photos were then processed to a CIR orthophoto. The area of study consisted of 68 private parcels (some of them were abandoned; 68.57 ha; scanned cadastral maps from the local survey office; land use information) in the direct neighbourhood of the State Forest, on which a forest succession could often be observed. The operator vectorized forest (trees and shrubs) succession areas on the 2D CIR orthophoto. They were then compared with the results from the OBIA and GIS analysis, based on the normalized digital surface model. The results showed that areas with high vegetation cover were three times larger than the official land cover database (cadastral maps).

  1. Aerial Orthophoto and Airborne Laser Scanning as Monitoring Tools for Land Cover Dynamics: A Case Study from the Milicz Forest District (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wezyk, Piotr; Tompalski, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results from the study concerning the application of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data and derived raster products like the digital surface model (DSM) and the digital terrain model (DTM) for the assessment of the degree of change of the land use based on the forest succession example. Simultaneously, an automated method of ALS data processing was developed based on the normalized (nDSM) and cadastral GIS information. Besides delivering precise information on forest succession, ALS technology is an excellent tool for time-changes spatial analyses. Usage of the ALS data can support the image interpretation process decreasing the subjectivity of the operator. In parallel, a manual vectorization and object classification (object-based image analysis—OBIA) were performed; both based on aerial orthophoto and ALS data. By using integrated ALS point clouds and digital aerial images, one can obtain fast OBIA processing and the determination of areas where the land cover has changed. The Milicz District (central west part of Poland) was chosen as the test site where ALS was to be performed in 2007, together with the digital aerial photos (Vexcel camera; pixel 0.15 m; CIR). The aerial photos were then processed to a CIR orthophoto. The area of study consisted of 68 private parcels (some of them were abandoned; 68.57 ha; scanned cadastral maps from the local survey office; land use information) in the direct neighbourhood of the State Forest, on which a forest succession could often be observed. The operator vectorized forest (trees and shrubs) succession areas on the 2D CIR orthophoto. They were then compared with the results from the OBIA and GIS analysis, based on the normalized digital surface model. The results showed that areas with high vegetation cover were three times larger than the official land cover database (cadastral maps).

  2. Gender, airborne chemical monitoring, and physical work environment are related to indoor air symptoms among nonindustrial workers in the Klang Valley, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Syazwan, Aizat Ismail; Hafizan, Juahir; Baharudin, Mohd Rafee; Azman, Ahmad Zaid Fattah; Izwyn, Zulkapri; Zulfadhli, Ismail; Syahidatussyakirah, Katis

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship of airborne chemicals and the physical work environment risk element on the indoor air symptoms of nonindustrial workers. Design: A cross-sectional study consisting of 200 office workers. A random selection of 200 buildings was analyzed for exposure and indoor air symptoms based on a pilot study in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Methods: A set of modified published questionnaires by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and a previous study (MM040NA questionnaire) pertaining to indoor air symptoms was used in the evaluation process of the indoor air symptoms. Statistical analyses involving logistic regression and linear regression were used to determine the relationship between exposure and indoor air symptoms for use in the development of an indoor risk matrix. Results: The results indicate that some indoor air pollutants (carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, total volatile organic compound, and dust) are related to indoor air symptoms of men and women. Temperature and relative humidity showed a positive association with complaints related to the perceived indoor environmental condition (drafts and inconsistency of temperature). Men predominantly reported general symptoms when stratification of gender involved exposure to formaldehyde. Women reported high levels of complaints related to mucosal and general symptoms from exposure to the dust level indoors. Conclusion: Exposure to pollutants (total volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde) and physical stressors (air temperature and relative humidity) influence reported symptoms of office workers. These parameters should be focused upon and graded as one of the important elements in the grading procedure when qualitatively evaluating the indoor environment. PMID:23526736

  3. Investigation of the cross-ship comparison monitoring method of failure detection in the HIMAT RPRV. [digital control techniques using airborne microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HIMAT) remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) uses cross-ship comparison monitoring of the actuator RAM positions to detect a failure in the aileron, canard, and elevator control surface servosystems. Some possible sources of nuisance trips for this failure detection technique are analyzed. A FORTRAN model of the simplex servosystems and the failure detection technique were utilized to provide a convenient means of changing parameters and introducing system noise. The sensitivity of the technique to differences between servosystems and operating conditions was determined. The cross-ship comparison monitoring method presently appears to be marginal in its capability to detect an actual failure and to withstand nuisance trips.

  4. Airborne digital-image data for monitoring the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, 2009 - Image-mosaic production and comparison with 2002 and 2005 image mosaics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne digital-image data were collected for the Arizona part of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam in 2009. These four-band image data are similar in wavelength band (blue, green, red, and near infrared) and spatial resolution (20 centimeters) to image collections of the river corridor in 2002 and 2005. These periodic image collections are used by the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey to monitor the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on the downstream ecosystem. The 2009 collection used the latest model of the Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor (the SH52), which uses a single optic for all four bands and collects and stores band radiance in 12-bits, unlike the image sensors that GCMRC used in 2002 and 2005. This study examined the performance of the SH52 sensor, on the basis of the collected image data, and determined that the SH52 sensor provided superior data relative to the previously employed sensors (that is, an early ADS40 model and Zeiss Imaging's Digital Mapping Camera) in terms of band-image registration, dynamic range, saturation, linearity to ground reflectance, and noise level. The 2009 image data were provided as orthorectified segments of each flightline to constrain the size of the image files; each river segment was covered by 5 to 6 overlapping, linear flightlines. Most flightline images for each river segment had some surface-smear defects and some river segments had cloud shadows, but these two conditions did not generally coincide in the majority of the overlapping flightlines for a particular river segment. Therefore, the final image mosaic for the 450-kilometer (km)-long river corridor required careful selection and editing of numerous flightline segments (a total of 513 segments, each 3.2 km long) to minimize surface defects and cloud shadows. The final image mosaic has a total of only 3 km of surface defects. The final image mosaic for the western end of the corridor has

  5. Airborne pollen trends in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Aira, M J; Belmonte, J; Diaz de la Guardia, C; Fernández-González, D; Gutierrez-Bustillo, M; Moreno-Grau, S; Pérez-Badía, R; Rodríguez-Rajo, J; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L; Tormo, R; Trigo, M M; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    2016-04-15

    Airborne pollen monitoring is an effective tool for studying the reproductive phenology of anemophilous plants, an important bioindicator of plant behavior. Recent decades have revealed a trend towards rising airborne pollen concentrations in Europe, attributing these trends to an increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions and temperature. However, the lack of water availability in southern Europe may prompt a trend towards lower flowering intensity, especially in herbaceous plants. Here we show variations in flowering intensity by analyzing the Annual Pollen Index (API) of 12 anemophilous taxa across 12 locations in the Iberian Peninsula, over the last two decades, and detecting the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Results revealed differences in the distribution and flowering intensity of anemophilous species. A negative correlation was observed between airborne pollen concentrations and winter averages of the NAO index. This study confirms that changes in rainfall in the Mediterranean region, attributed to climate change, have an important impact on the phenology of plants.

  6. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  7. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:27620100

  8. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  9. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  10. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:26420096

  11. Decadal changes in ozone and precursor emissions in the Los Angeles California region using in-situ airborne and ground-based field observations, roadside monitoring data, and surface network measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Flynn, J. H.; Frost, G. J.; Grossberg, N.; Harley, R. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Lefer, B. L.; Lueb, R.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.

    2011-12-01

    In-situ observations from the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) surface network show decreases in ozone (O3), nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Decreases in CO, NOx, and VOCs reflect changes, such as improved catalytic converters and reformulated fuels etc., that have been implemented in response to increasingly strict emissions standards placed upon on-road vehicles in the state of California. Here, we compare changes in emissions ratios of NOx and VOCs to CO determined from surface network data collected since 1994 to changes in emissions ratios from biennial roadside studies conducted in west Los Angeles since 1999 and airborne and ground-based measurements from three independent field campaigns conducted in California in 2002, 2008, and 2010. Using the more extensive in-situ surface network data set, we show that decreasing ozone is positively correlated with decreasing abundances of NOx and VOCs and with decreasing VOC/NOx ratio over time. The changes observed from 1994 to present suggest that reductions in both NOx and VOCs and the VOC/NOx ratio over the years have been effective in reducing ozone in the SoCAB.

  12. Monitoring of radioactive substances in foods distributed in Kyoto, Japan (1991-2011). - Comparison of detection rates and concentrations before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident - .

    PubMed

    Banno, Yukinori; Namikawa, Mikio; Miwa, Mariko; Ban, Soichirou; Orito, Taichi; Semura, Shunsuke; Kawakami, Masahiro; Doi, Naoya; Miyake, Shiro; Ishikawa, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive substances have been continually monitored in foods collected in the city of Kyoto, Japan. The importance of the monitoring was increased by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Here, the detection rates and concentrations of radioactive substances were compared among food samples collected before and after the accident in Fukushima prefecture. Before the accident, (137)Cs was the only radioactive substance detected in foods. The detection rate was 70% for fish and shellfish samples and the highest concentration was 1.7 Bq/kg. It was also 83% for fresh mushroom samples and the highest concentration was 7.5 Bq/kg. In contrast, the detection rate was low for vegetables and the concentrations were also lower than those of the above samples. On the other hand, after the accident, (131)I was detected in food produced in the Tohoku and Kanto areas. Actually, (131)I (3,400 Bq/kg), (134)Cs (280 Bq/kg), and (137)Cs (280 Bq/kg) were detected in mizuna, a leaf vegetable, on March 23, 2011. These radioactive substances were detected in all leaf vegetable samples examined in March and April 2011, but they were not detected in samples examined in November 2011. (131)I was not detected in any food sample examined after May 2011. However, (137)Cs (average=7.9 Bq/kg) was consistently detected in fish and shellfish samples until November, although the concentrations were less than the regulatory limits. It appears unlikely that foods containing radioactive substances over the regulatory limits are currently being distributed in Kyoto.

  13. 1979 environmental monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Naidu, J.R.

    1980-04-01

    The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) during 1979 are summarized. As an aid in the interpretation of the data, the amounts of radioactivity and other pollutants released in airborne and liquid effluents from Laboratory facilities to the environment are also indicated. The environmental data includes external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium and iodine concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the concentrations of radioactivity in sediments and biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratory; and concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory.

  14. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  15. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  16. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  17. Evaluation of the Eberline AMS-3A and AMS-4 Beta continuous air monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.L.; Sisk, D.R.

    1996-03-01

    Eberline AMS-3A-1 and AMS-4 beta continuous air monitors were tested against the criteria set forth in the ANSI Standards N42.18, Specification and Performance of On-site Instrumentation for Continuously Monitoring Radioactivity in Effluents, and ANSI N42.17B, Performance Specification for Health Physics Instrumentation - Occupational Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring Instrumentation. ANSI N42.18 does not, in general, specify testing procedures for demonstrating compliance with the criteria set forth in the standard; therefore, wherever possible, the testing procedures given in ANSI N42.17B were adopted. In all cases, the more restrictive acceptance criteria and/or the more demanding test conditions of the two standards were used.

  18. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-01-01

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning. PMID:26274959

  19. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-01-01

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R2) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning. PMID:26274959

  20. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-01-01

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning.

  1. Transplanted Lichen Pseudovernia furfuracea as a Multi-Tracer Monitoring Tool Near a Solid Waste Incinerator in Italy: Assessment of Airborne Incinerator-Related Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Protano, Carmela; Owczarek, Malgorzata; Fantozzi, Luca; Guidotti, Maurizio; Vitali, Matteo

    2015-11-01

    The ability of a transplanted lichen, Pseudovernia (P.) furfuracea, to act as a multi-tracer biomonitoring tool for As, Cd, Ni, Pb, 12 PAHs, 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 27 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was evaluated at six areas of varying risk (high, medium, negligible) of pollutant fallout from a municipal waste incinerator in central Italy. Transplanted P. furfuracea proved to be an useful tool to biomonitor PCDDs/Fs and PCBs. Concentrations of As, heavy metals, PAHs, PCDDs/Fs resulted similar for all monitored stations. Small differences in total PCBs (4378 and 4631 pg/g dw vs 3298, 4123, 3676 and 4022 pg/g dw) and dioxin-like PCBs (1235 and 1265 pg/g dw vs 794, 1069, 1106 and 1188 pg/g dw) were observed. Air concentrations of monitored compounds appear to be more related to general air pollution than point emissions from the incinerator. PMID:26205231

  2. Airborne thermography applications in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Eduardo H.; Selles, Eduardo J.; Costanzo, Marcelo; Franco, Oscar; Diaz, Jose

    2002-03-01

    Forest fires in summer and sheep buried under the snow in winter have become important problems in the south of our country, in the region named Patagonia. We are studying to find a solution by means of an airborne imaging system whose construction we have just finished. It is a 12 channel multispectral airborne scanner system that can be mounted in a Guarani airplane or in a Learjet; the first is a non- pressurized aircraft for flight at low height and the second is a pressurized one for higher flights. The scanner system is briefly described. Their sensors can detect radiation from the ultra violet to the thermal infrared. The images are visualized in real time in a monitor screen and can be stored in the hard disc of the PC for later processing. The use of this scanner for some applications that include the prevention and fighting of forest fires and the study of the possibility of detection of sheep under snow in the Patagonia is now being accomplished. Theoretical and experimental results in fire detection and a theoretical model for studying the possibility of detection of the buried sheep are presented.

  3. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    SciTech Connect

    Dilbeck, G.

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  4. A new cavity ring-down instrument for airborne monitoring of N2O5, NO3, NO2 and O3 in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, Albert A.; Brown, Steven S.; Dinesan, Hemanth; Dubé, William P.; Goulette, Marc; Hübler, Gerhard; Orphal, Johannes; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The chemistry of NO3 and N2O5 is important to the regulation of both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone. In situ detection of NO3 and N2O5 in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere (UTLS) represents a new scientific direction as the only previous measurements of these species in this region of the atmosphere has been via remote sensing techniques. Because both the sources and the sinks for NO3 and N2O5 are potentially stratified spatially, their mixing ratios, and their influence on nitrogen oxide and ozone transport and loss at night can show large variability as a function of altitude. Aircraft-based measurements of heterogeneous N2O5 uptake in the lower troposphere have uncovered a surprising degree of variability in the uptake coefficient [1], but there are no corresponding high altitude measurements.The UTLS is routinely sampled by the IAGOS-CARIBIC program (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com), a European infrastructural program with the aim of studying the chemistry and transport across this part of the atmosphere. An airfreight container with 15 different automated instruments from 8 European research partners is utilized on board a commercial Lufthansa airbus 340-600 to monitor ~ 100 atmospheric species (trace gases and aerosol parameters) in the UTLS. The instrumentation in the CARIBIC container is now to be supplemented by a new cavity ring-down device for monitoring nitrogen oxides, jointly developed by researchers from Cork (Ireland), Boulder (USA) and Karlsruhe (Germany). The compact and light-weight instrument is designed to monitor not only NO3 and N2O5, but also NO2 and O3. The detection is based on 4 high-finesse optical cavities (cavity length ~ 44 cm). Two cavities are operated at 662 nm (maximum absorption of NO3), the other two at 405 nm (maximum absorption of NO2). The inlet to one of the (662)-cavities is heated in order to thermally decompose N2O5

  5. ANALYZING WATER QUALITY WITH IMAGES ACQUIRED FROM AIRBORNE SENSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring different parameters of water quality can be a time consuming and expensive activity. However, the use of airborne light-sensitive (optical) instruments may enhance the abilities of resource managers to monitor water quality in rivers in a timely and cost-effective ma...

  6. Airborne data acquisition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arro, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of standards on acceptable procedures for assessing building heat loss has created a dilemma for the contractor performing airborne thermographic surveys. These standards impose specifications on instrumentation, data acquisition, recording, interpretation, and presentation. Under the standard, the contractor has both the obligation of compliance and the requirement of offering his services at a reasonable price. This paper discusses the various aspects of data acquisition for airborne thermographic surveys and various techniques to reduce the costs of this operation. These techniques include the calculation of flight parameters for economical data acquisition, the selection and use of maps for mission planning, and the use of meteorological forecasts for flight scheduling and the actual execution of the mission. The proper consideration of these factors will result in a cost effective data acquisition and will place the contractor in a very competitive position in offering airborne thermographic survey services.

  7. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  8. A quantitative method for optimized placement of continuous air monitors.

    PubMed

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Rodgers, John C; Moxley, John S

    2003-11-01

    Alarming continuous air monitors (CAMs) are a critical component for worker protection in facilities that handle large amounts of hazardous materials. In nuclear facilities, continuous air monitors alarm when levels of airborne radioactive materials exceed alarm thresholds, thus prompting workers to exit the room to reduce inhalation exposures. To maintain a high level of worker protection, continuous air monitors are required to detect radioactive aerosol clouds quickly and with good sensitivity. This requires that there are sufficient numbers of continuous air monitors in a room and that they are well positioned. Yet there are no published methodologies to quantitatively determine the optimal number and placement of continuous air monitors in a room. The goal of this study was to develop and test an approach to quantitatively determine optimal number and placement of continuous air monitors in a room. The method we have developed uses tracer aerosol releases (to simulate accidental releases) and the measurement of the temporal and spatial aspects of the dispersion of the tracer aerosol through the room. The aerosol dispersion data is then analyzed to optimize continuous air monitor utilization based on simulated worker exposure. This method was tested in a room within a Department of Energy operated plutonium facility at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, U.S. Results from this study show that the value of quantitative airflow and aerosol dispersion studies is significant and that worker protection can be significantly improved while balancing the costs associated with CAM programs.

  9. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  10. Airborne rain mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Parks, G. S.; Li, F. K.; Im, K. E.; Howard, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An airborne scanning radar system for remote rain mapping is described. The airborne rain mapping radar is composed of two radar frequency channels at 13.8 and 24.1 GHz. The radar is proposed to scan its antenna beam over + or - 20 deg from the antenna boresight; have a swath width of 7 km; a horizontal spatial resolution at nadir of about 500 m; and a range resolution of 120 m. The radar is designed to be applicable for retrieving rainfall rates from 0.1-60 mm/hr at the earth's surface, and for measuring linear polarization signatures and raindrop's fall velocity.

  11. Radiological environmental monitoring report for Brookhaven National Laboratory 1967--1970

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, C.B.; Hull, A.P.

    1998-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was established in 1947 on the former Army Camp Upton site located in central Long Island, New York. From the very beginning, BNL has monitored the environment on and around the Laboratory site to assess the effects of its operations on the environment. This document summarizes the environmental data collected for the years 1967, 1968, 1969, and 1970. Thus, it fills a gap in the series of BNL annual environmental reports beginning in 1962. The data in this document reflect measurements for those four years of concentrations and/or amounts of airborne radioactivity, radioactivity in streams and ground water, and external radiation levels in the vicinity of BNL. Also included are estimates, made at that time, of BNL`s contribution to radioactivity in the environment. Among the major scientific facilities operated at BNL are the High Flux Beam Reactor, Medical Research Reactor, Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor, Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, and the 60-inch Cyclotron.

  12. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  13. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  14. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  15. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  16. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  17. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  18. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-11-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1979 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1979 release data are compared with previous year's releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  19. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Hickox, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of radioactive wastes. Topics covered include: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; decontamination and decommissioning; remedial actions and treatment; and environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides. 155 refs.

  1. Temperature monitoring along the Rhine River based on airborne thermal infrared remote sensing: qualitative results compared to satellite data and validation with in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Katharina; Baschek, Björn

    2014-10-01

    Water temperature is an important parameter of water quality and influences other physical and chemical parameters. It also directly influences the survival and growth of animal and plant species in river ecosystems. In situ measurements do not allow for a total spatial coverage of water bodies and rivers that is necessary for monitoring and research at the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Germany. Hence, the ability of different remote sensing products to identify and investigate water inflows and water temperatures in Federal waterways is evaluated within the research project 'Remote sensing of water surface temperature'. The research area for a case study is the Upper and Middle Rhine River from the barrage in Iffezheim to Koblenz. Satellite products (e. g. Landsat and ASTER imagery) can only be used for rivers at least twice as wide as the spatial resolution of the satellite images. They can help to identify different water bodies only at tributaries with larger inflow volume (Main and Mosel) or larger temperature differences between the inflow (e. g. from power plants working with high capacity) and the river water. To identify and investigate also smaller water inflows and temperature differences, thermal data with better ground and thermal resolution is required. An aerial survey of the research area was conducted in late October 2013. Data of the surface was acquired with two camera systems, a digital camera with R, G, B, and Near-IR channels, and a thermal imaging camera measuring the brightness temperature in the 8-12 m wavelength region (TIR). The resolution of the TIR camera allowed for a ground resolution of 4 m, covering the whole width of the main stream and larger branches. The RGB and NIR data allowed to eliminate land surface temperatures from the analysis and to identify clouds and shadows present during the data acquisition. By degrading the spatial resolution and adding sensor noise, artificial Landsat ETM+ and TIRS datasets were created

  2. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  3. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  4. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  5. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  6. Test plan for demonstration of Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This plan describes tests to demonstrate the capability of the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) to monitor airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides and analyze soil, smear, and filter samples for alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides under field conditions. The RTML will be tested during June 1993 at a site adjacent to the Cold Test Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Measurement systems installed in the RTML that will be demonstrated include two large-area ionization chamber alpha spectrometers, an x-ray/gamma-ray spectrometer, and four alpha continuous air monitors. Test objectives, requirements for data quality, experimental apparatus and procedures, and safety and logistics issues are described.

  7. Photoreactivation in Airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum

    PubMed Central

    Peccia, Jordan; Hernandez, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Photoreactivation was observed in airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum exposed concurrently to UV radiation (254 nm) and visible light. Photoreactivation rates of airborne cells increased with increasing relative humidity (RH) and decreased with increasing UV dose. Under a constant UV dose with visible light absent, the UV inactivation rate of airborne M. parafortuitum cells decreased by a factor of 4 as RH increased from 40 to 95%; however, under identical conditions with visible light present, the UV inactivation rate of airborne cells decreased only by a factor of 2. When irradiated in the absence of visible light, cellular cyclobutane thymine dimer content of UV-irradiated airborne M. parafortuitum and Serratia marcescens increased in response to RH increases. Results suggest that, unlike in waterborne bacteria, cyclobutane thymine dimers are not the most significant form of UV-induced DNA damage incurred by airborne bacteria and that the distribution of DNA photoproducts incorporated into UV-irradiated airborne cells is a function of RH. PMID:11526027

  8. Technical basis for removal of 221-T tunnel from airborne radiological area status

    SciTech Connect

    Geuther, W.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-30

    This document provides the technical basis for removal of the 221-T Tunnel from airborne radiological control. T Plant Radiological Control has evaluated air sampling data and engineering controls, and determined the necessary administrative controls to make this transition. With these administrative controls (specified within document) in place, the tunnel can be removed from Airborne Radioactive Area status. The removal of the tunnel from airborne status will allow work to be performed within the tunnel under controlled conditions, as outlined in this technical basis, without the use of respiratory protection equipment.

  9. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  10. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction portable temporary radioactive air emission units - August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    FRITZ, D.W.

    1999-07-22

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of three types of portable/temporary radionuclide airborne emission units (PTRAEUs). These three types are portable ventilation-filter systems (Type I), mobile sample preparation facilities (Type II), and mobile sample screening and analysis facilities (Type 111). Approval of the NOC application is intended to allow construction and operation of the three types of PTRAEUs without prior project-specific approval. Environmental cleanup efforts on the Hanford Site often require the use of PTRAEUs. The PTRAEUs support site characterization activities, expedited response actions (ERAs), sampling and monitoring activities, and other routine activities. The PTRAEUs operate at various locations around the Hanford Site. Radiation Air Emissions Program, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, requires that the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) be notified before construction of any new emission that would release airborne radioactivity. The WDOH also must receive notification before any modification of an existing source. This includes changes in the source term or replacement of emission control equipment that might significantly contribute to the offsite maximum dose from a licensed facility. During site characterization activities, ERAs, sampling and monitoring activities, and other routine activities, the PTRAEUs might require startup immediately. The notification period hampers efforts to complete such activities in an effective and timely manner. Additionally, notification is to be submitted to the WDOH when the PTRAEUs are turned off. The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) potentially could generate several notifications monthly. The WDOH would be required to review and provide approval on each NOC as well as review the notices of discontinued sources. The WDOH regulation also allows facilities the opportunity to request a

  11. Influence of suspended inorganic sediment on airborne laser fluorosensor measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, L. R.; Esaias, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of Poole and Esaias (1982) are presently extended to an examination of the influence of inorganic sediment on the water Raman normalization procedure, as well as an assessment of the potential for using the Raman signal to monitor surface water attenuation properties. An optically perfect lidar system is assumed which has geometric properties representative of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar, and is mounted on an airborne platform flying at an altitude of 150 m above the water surface. The results obtained suggest that caution should be exercised in attempts to quantitatively monitor changes in optical attenuation by means of remote measurements of the Raman scattering signal.

  12. Airborne Microwave Imaging of River Velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project was to determine whether airborne microwave remote sensing systems can measure river surface currents with sufficient accuracy to make them prospective instruments with which to monitor river flow from space. The approach was to fly a coherent airborne microwave Doppler radar, developed by APL/UW, on a light airplane along several rivers in western Washington state over an extended period of time. The fundamental quantity obtained by this system to measure river currents is the mean offset of the Doppler spectrum. Since this scatter can be obtained from interferometric synthetic aperture radars (INSARs), which can be flown in space, this project provided a cost effective means for determining the suitability of spaceborne INSAR for measuring river flow.

  13. [Air-borne disease].

    PubMed

    Lameiro Vilariño, Carmen; del Campo Pérez, Victor M; Alonso Bürger, Susana; Felpeto Nodar, Irene; Guimarey Pérez, Rosa; Pérez Alvarellos, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    Respiratory protection is a factor which worries nursing professionals who take care of patients susceptible of transmitting microorganisms through the air more as every day passes. This type of protection covers the use of surgical or hygienic masks against the transmission of infection by airborne drops to the use of highly effective masks or respirators against the transmission of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis or SARS, a recently discovered disease. The adequate choice of this protective device and its correct use are fundamental in order to have an effective protection for exposed personnel. The authors summarize the main protective respiratory devices used by health workers, their characteristics and degree of effectiveness, as well as the circumstances under which each device is indicated for use. PMID:14705591

  14. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  15. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  16. [Mental and physical development of children living in the area of monitoring pollution from a plant for processing and long-term storage of radioactive waste].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, V F; Popova, O L; Mikhaĭlov, A I; Bobrishcheva-Pushkina, N D; Kuznetsova, L Iu; Silaev, A A

    2010-01-01

    Environmental conditions in the area hosting a plant for processing and long storage of low- to moderately-active radioactive waste are described as reasonably safe. Residence in the area does not exert negative influence on the physical and mental development of children. Several indicators of physical development give better estimates than at the control territory. The difference can be accounted for by a better social situation in the study area (housing conditions, financial standing, food patterns, general lifestyle). PMID:21395055

  17. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles.

  18. Mammalian airborne allergens.

    PubMed

    Aalberse, Rob C

    2014-01-01

    Historically, horse dandruff was a favorite allergen source material. Today, however, allergic symptoms due to airborne mammalian allergens are mostly a result of indoor exposure, be it at home, at work or even at school. The relevance of mammalian allergens in relation to the allergenic activity of house dust extract is briefly discussed in the historical context of two other proposed sources of house dust allergenic activity: mites and Maillard-type lysine-sugar conjugates. Mammalian proteins involved in allergic reactions to airborne dust are largely found in only 2 protein families: lipocalins and secretoglobins (Fel d 1-like proteins), with a relatively minor contribution of serum albumins, cystatins and latherins. Both the lipocalin and the secretoglobin family are very complex. In some instances this results in a blurred separation between important and less important allergenic family members. The past 50 years have provided us with much detailed information on the genomic organization and protein structure of many of these allergens. However, the complex family relations, combined with the wide range of post-translational enzymatic and non-enzymatic modifications, make a proper qualitative and quantitative description of the important mammalian indoor airborne allergens still a significant proteomic challenge. PMID:24925404

  19. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  20. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  1. Influence of natural radioactive aerosols on artificial radioactivity detection in the Spanish surveillance networks.

    PubMed

    Vargas, A; Arnold, D; Ortega, X; Parages, C

    2008-11-01

    The device used for continuous measurements of artificial alpha and beta activity in Spanish radiological surveillance networks is the LB BAI 9850 monitor from the Berthold Company. The temporal variation of radon decay product equilibrium introduces a varying background signal in the artificial radioactivity in these monitors. This unwanted background signal can be significantly reduced by analyzing natural radioactive aerosols and their influence on the monitor.

  2. ULTRA SECURE HIGH RELIABILITY WIRELESS RADIATION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-08-03

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be used for classified data

  3. Progress on detection of radioactivity by airborne equipment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stead, Frank W.

    1949-01-01

    Coincidence and anti-coincidence counting rate meters and also an air conductivity meter have been installed in a transport plane to measure gamma radiation from ground sources. Materials containing 0.01 percent uranium can be detected at 500 feet and at an airspeed of 150 miles per hour.

  4. Study of Natural Radioactivity, Radon Exhalation Rate and Radiation Doses in Coal and Flyash Samples from Thermal Power Plants, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sahoo, B. K.; Sapra, B. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    Coal is one of the most important source used for electrical power generation. Its combustion part known as fly ash is used in the manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. Coal and its by-products have significant amounts of radionuclide's including uranium, thorium which is the ultimate source of the radioactive gas radon and thoron respectively. Radiation hazard from airborne emissions of coal-fired power plants have been cited as possible causes of health in environmental. Assessment of the radiation exposure from coal burning is critically dependent on the concentration of radioactive elements in coal and in the fly ash. In the present study, samples of coal and flyash were collected from Rajghat Power Plant and Badarpur Thermal Power Plant, New Delhi, India. Radon exhalation is important parameter for the estimation of radiation risk from various materials. Solis State Nuclear Track Detector based sealed Can Technique (using LR-115 type II) has been used for measurement radon exhalation rate. Also accumulation chamber based Continuous Radon Monitor and Continuous Thoron Monitor have been used for radon masss exhalation and thoron surface exhalation rate respectively. Natural radioactivity has been measured using a low level NaI(Tl) detector based on gamma ray spectrometry.

  5. Estimation of high-level, rapidly-changing concentrations using moving-filter continuous particulate air monitors.

    PubMed

    Evans, William C

    2012-04-01

    A previously published mathematical model for the dynamic response of moving-filter continuous particulate air monitors has been enhanced to extend that model to include decay chains. During this work, it was observed that a quantitative relationship appeared to exist between the monitor count rate and the time-dependent particulate airborne radioactive material concentration if, and only if, the filter (tape) speed was much faster than the nominal 2.54 cm h(-1) (1 in h(-1)). The extended model demonstrated that operating moving-filter monitors at this nominal filter speed does not provide a quantitative measurement of a changing airborne particulate concentration of a fission product or other contaminant. By contrast, at faster filter speeds [e.g., 76.2 or 152.4 cm h(-1) (30 or 60 in h(-1))], numerical experimentation with this model showed that the count rate trace has essentially the same shape as the concentration profile. It was then found that a quantitative relationship applies, but only when the filter speed is sufficiently fast so that a Taylor series expansion of the monitor count rate can be reasonably well truncated at the first-order term. This mode of operation, which does not require any new monitor hardware, is capable of tracking rapidly changing concentrations. Since the fast filter speed also reduces the monitor's count rate, all else being equal, the approach will best be used for relatively high-level concentrations, such as may occur in abnormal or "accident" conditions. The count rate suppression may also be useful for reducing the detector saturation that can occur with higher levels of airborne particulate radioactivity in post-accident situations.

  6. CHARACTERIZING THE SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO MUTAGENIC AND CARCINOGENIC CHEMICALS IN AIRBORNE FINE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal and ambient exposures to airborne fine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and genotoxic activity has been studied in populations in the US, Japan, China, and the Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors used to collect fine particles were extracted f...

  7. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  8. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, John K.; Suh, Charles P.-C.; Yang, Chenghai; Lan, Yubin; Eyster, Ritchie S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective methods are needed for timely areawide detection of regrowth cotton plants because boll weevils (a quarantine pest) can feed and reproduce on these plants beyond the cotton production season. Airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots were acquired on several dates after three shredding (i.e., stalk destruction) dates. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classification was applied to high-resolution airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots to estimate the minimum detectable size and subsequent growth of plants. We found that regrowth cotton fields can be identified when the mean plant width is ˜0.2 m for an image resolution of 0.1 m. LSU estimates of canopy cover of regrowth cotton plots correlated well (r2=0.81) with the ratio of mean plant width to row spacing, a surrogate measure of plant canopy cover. The height and width of regrowth plants were both well correlated (r2=0.94) with accumulated degree-days after shredding. The results will help boll weevil eradication program managers use airborne multispectral images to detect and monitor the regrowth of cotton plants after stalk destruction, and identify fields that may require further inspection and mitigation of boll weevil infestations.

  9. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  10. Stability, Visibility, and Histologic Analysis of a New Implanted Fiducial for Use as a Kilovoltage Radiographic or Radioactive Marker for Patient Positioning and Monitoring in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Neustadter, David; Tune, Michal; Zaretsky, Asaph; Shofti, Rona; Kushnir, Arnon; Harel, Tami; Carmi-Yinon, Dafna; Corn, Ben M.S.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the stability, visibility, and histology of a novel implantable soft-tissue marker (nonradioactive and radioactive) implanted in dog prostate and rabbit liver. Methods and Materials: A total of 34 nonradioactive and 35 radioactive markers were implanted in 1 dog and 16 rabbits. Stability was assessed by measuring intermarker distance (IMD) variation relative to IMDs at implantation. The IMDs were measured weekly for 4 months in the dog and biweekly for 2-4 weeks in the rabbits. Ultrasound and X-ray imaging were performed on all subjects. Computed tomography and MRI were performed on the dog. Histologic analysis was performed on the rabbits after 2 or 4 months. Results: A total of 139 measurements had a mean ({+-} SD) absolute IMD variation of 1.1 {+-} 1.1 mm. These IMD variations are consistent with those reported in the literature as due to random organ deformation. The markers were visible, identifiable, and induced minimal or no image artifacts in all tested imaging modalities. Histologic analysis revealed that all pathologic changes were highly localized and not expected to be clinically significant. Conclusions: The markers were stable from the time of implantation. The markers were found to be compatible with all common medical imaging modalities. The markers caused no significant histologic effects. With respect to marker stability, visibility, and histologic analysis these implanted fiducials are appropriate for soft-tissue target positioning in radiotherapy.

  11. Radioactivity of Drinking-Water in the Vicinity of Nuclear Power Plants in China Based on a Large-Scale Monitoring Study

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Xiao-Xiang; Ji, Yan-Qin; Shao, Xian-Zhang; Wang, Huan; Sun, Quan-Fu; Su, Xu

    2013-01-01

    The public concern for radioactivity of drinking-water has been increasing in recent years after the rapid development of nuclear power plants, and especially after the Fukushima nuclear accident. In this study, the radioactivity of water samples collected in the vicinity of nuclear facilities from seven provinces in China was measured and an average annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was calculated. The results showed that, in winter and spring, the activities of gross α and β ranged from 0.009 Bq/L to 0.200 Bq/L and from 0.067 Bq/L to 0.320 Bq/L, respectively. While, in summer and autumn, the activities of gross α and β varied from 0.002 Bq/L to 0.175 Bq/L and from 0.060 Bq/L to 0.334 Bq/L. Our results indicated that the gross α and β activities in these measured water samples were below the WHO recommended values (0.5 Bq/L for gross α and 1.0 Bq/L for gross β) and the annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was at a safe level. PMID:24322395

  12. Radioactivity of drinking-water in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in China based on a large-scale monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiao-Xiang; Ji, Yan-Qin; Shao, Xian-Zhang; Wang, Huan; Sun, Quan-Fu; Su, Xu

    2013-12-06

    The public concern for radioactivity of drinking-water has been increasing in recent years after the rapid development of nuclear power plants, and especially after the Fukushima nuclear accident. In this study, the radioactivity of water samples collected in the vicinity of nuclear facilities from seven provinces in China was measured and an average annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was calculated. The results showed that, in winter and spring, the activities of gross α and β ranged from 0.009 Bq/L to 0.200 Bq/L and from 0.067 Bq/L to 0.320 Bq/L, respectively. While, in summer and autumn, the activities of gross a and β varied from 0.002 Bq/L to 0.175 Bq/L and from 0.060 Bq/L to 0.334 Bq/L. Our results indicated that the gross a and β activities in these measured water samples were below the WHO recommended values (0.5 Bq/L for gross α and 1.0 Bq/L for gross β) and the annual equivalent effective dose derived from drinking-water ingestion was at a safe level.

  13. Effects of particle size and velocity on burial depth of airborne particles in glass fiber filters

    SciTech Connect

    Higby, D.P.

    1984-11-01

    Air sampling for particulate radioactive material involves collecting airborne particles on a filter and then determining the amount of radioactivity collected per unit volume of air drawn through the filter. The amount of radioactivity collected is frequently determined by directly measuring the radiation emitted from the particles collected on the filter. Counting losses caused by the particle becoming buried in the filter matrix may cause concentrations of airborne particulate radioactive materials to be underestimated by as much as 50%. Furthermore, the dose calculation for inhaled radionuclides will also be affected. The present study was designed to evaluate the extent to which particle size and sampling velocity influence burial depth in glass-fiber filters. Aerosols of high-fired /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ were collected at various sampling velocities on glass-fiber filters. The fraction of alpha counts lost due to burial was determined as the ratio of activity detected by direct alpha count to the quantity determined by photon spectrometry. The results show that burial of airborne particles collected on glass-fiber filters appears to be a weak function of sampling velocity and particle size. Counting losses ranged from 0 to 25%. A correction that assumes losses of 10 to 15% would ensure that the concentration of airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides would not be underestimated when glass-fiber filters are used. 32 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  14. Assessment of Airborne Particles. Fundamentals, Applications, and Implications to Inhalation Toxicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Thomas T., Ed.; And Others

    Concern over chemical and radioactive particulate matter in industry and over rapidly increasing air pollution has stimulated research both on the properties of airborne particles and methods for assessing them and on their biological effects following inhalation. The Third Rochester International Conference on Environmental Toxicity was,…

  15. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown.

  16. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  17. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  18. Visualizing Airborne and Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierwirth, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is a process able to provide information about Earth to better understand Earth's processes and assist in monitoring Earth's resources. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is one remote sensing instrument dedicated to the cause of collecting data on anthropogenic influences on Earth as well as assisting scientists in understanding land-surface and atmospheric interactions. Landsat is a satellite program dedicated to collecting repetitive coverage of the continental Earth surfaces in seven regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Combining these two aircraft and satellite remote sensing instruments will provide a detailed and comprehensive data collection able to provide influential information and improve predictions of changes in the future. This project acquired, interpreted, and created composite images from satellite data acquired from Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). Landsat images were processed for areas covered by CAR during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCT AS), Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC), Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEXB), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 missions. The acquisition of Landsat data will provide supplemental information to assist in visualizing and interpreting airborne and satellite imagery.

  19. Peat Depth Assessment Using Airborne Geophysical Data for Carbon Stock Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keaney, Antoinette; McKinley, Jennifer; Ruffell, Alastair; Robinson, Martin; Graham, Conor; Hodgson, Jim; Desissa, Mohammednur

    2013-04-01

    The Kyoto Agreement demands that all signatory countries have an inventory of their carbon stock, plus possible future changes to this store. This is particularly important for Ireland, where some 16% of the surface is covered by peat bog. Estimates of soil carbon stores are a key component of the required annual returns made by the Irish and UK governments to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Saturated peat attenuates gamma-radiation from underlying rocks. This effect can be used to estimate the thickness of peat, within certain limits. This project examines this relationship between peat depth and gamma-radiation using airborne geophysical data generated by the Tellus Survey and newly acquired data collected as part of the EU-funded Tellus Border project, together encompassing Northern Ireland and the border area of the Republic of Ireland. Selected peat bog sites are used to ground truth and evaluate the use of airborne geophysical (radiometric and electromagnetic) data and validate modelled estimates of soil carbon, peat volume and depth to bedrock. Data from two test line sites are presented: one in Bundoran, County Donegal and a second line in Sliabh Beagh, County Monaghan. The plane flew over these areas at different times of the year and at a series of different elevations allowing the data to be assessed temporally with different soil/peat saturation levels. On the ground these flight test lines cover varying surface land use zones allowing future extrapolation of data from the sites. This research applies spatial statistical techniques, including uncertainty estimation in geostatistical prediction and simulation, to investigate and model the use of airborne geophysical data to examine the relationship between reduced radioactivity and peat depth. Ground truthing at test line locations and selected peat bog sites involves use of ground penetrating radar, terrestrial LiDAR, peat depth probing, magnetometry, resistivity, handheld gamma

  20. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 325 Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Applied Chemistry Laboratory (325 Facility) houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and mixed hazardous waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials, and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes generated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, particulate, and gas. Some of these materials are also heated during testing which can produce vapors. The research activities have been assigned to the following activity designations: High-Level Hot Cell, Hazardous Waste Treatment Unit, Waste Form Development, Special Testing Projects, Chemical Process Development, Analytical Hot Cell, and Analytical Chemistry. The following summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  1. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 3720 Building

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the Environmental Science Laboratory (3720 Facility) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs'' This FEMP has been prepared for the 3720 Facility primarily because it has a major (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The 3720 Facility provides office and laboratory space for PNNL scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of materials characterization and testing and waste management. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials to conduct these activities. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, and dispersible particulate. The facility is in the process of being vacated for shutdown, but is considered a Major Emission Point as of the date of this document approval.

  2. RESRAD. Site-Specific Residual Radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.

    1989-06-01

    RESRAD is designed to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil. A guideline is defined as a radionuclide concentration or a level of radiation or radioactivity that is acceptable if a site is to be used without radiological restrictions. Guidelines are expressed as (1) concentrations of residual radionuclides in soil, (2) concentrations of airborne radon decay products, (3) levels of external gamma radiation, (4) levels of radioactivity from surface contamination, and (5) concentrations of residual radionuclides in air and water. Soil is defined as unconsolidated earth material, including rubble and debris that may be present. The controlling principles of all guidelines are (1) the annual radiation dose received by a member of the critical population group from the residual radioactive material - predicted by a realistic but reasonably conservative analysis and averaged over a 50 year period - should not exceed 100 mrem/yr, and (2) doses should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. All significant exposure pathways for the critical population group are considered in deriving soil guidelines. These pathways include direct exposure to external radiation from the contaminated soil material; internal radiation from inhalation of airborne radionuclides; and internal radiation from ingestion of plant foods grown in the contaminated soil, meat and milk from livestock fed with contaminated fodder and water, drinking water from a contaminated well, and fish from a contaminated pond.

  3. A Proposal for Geologic Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental Zero-State and Subsequent Monitoring Definition - First Lessons Learned from the French Environment Observatory - 13188

    SciTech Connect

    Landais, Patrick; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Mariotti, Andre

    2013-07-01

    Obtaining a reference state of the environment before the beginning of construction work for a geological repository is essential as it will be useful for further monitoring during operations and beyond, thus keeping a memory of the original environmental state. The area and the compartments of the biosphere to be observed and monitored as well as the choice of the markers (e.g. bio-markers, biodiversity, quality of the environment, etc.) to be followed must be carefully selected. In parallel, the choice and selection of the environmental monitoring systems (i.e. scientific and technical criteria, social requirements) will be of paramount importance for the evaluation of the perturbations that could be induced during the operational phase of the repository exploitation. This paper presents learning points of the French environment observatory located in the Meuse/Haute-Marne that has been selected for studying the feasibility of the underground disposal of high level wastes in France. (authors)

  4. Radioactive decay.

    PubMed

    Groch, M W

    1998-01-01

    When a parent radionuclide decays to its daughter radionuclide by means of alpha, beta, or isomeric transition, the decay follows an exponential form, which is characterized by the decay constant lambda. The decay constant represents the probability per unit time that a single radioatom will decay. The decay equation can be used to provide a useful expression for radionuclide decay, the half-life, the time when 50% of the radioatoms present will have decayed. Radiotracer half-life has direct implications in nuclear imaging, radiation therapy, and radiation safety because radionuclide half-life affects the ability to evaluate tracer kinetics and create appropriate nuclear images and also affects organ, tumor, and whole-body radiation dose. The number of radioatoms present in a sample is equal to the activity, defined as the number of transitions per unit time, divided by the decay constant; the mass of radioatoms present in a sample can be calculated to determine the specific activity (activity per unit mass). The dynamic relationship between the number of parent and daughter atoms present over time may lead to radioactive equilibrium, which takes two forms--secular and transient--and has direct relevance to generator-produced radionuclides.

  5. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  6. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  7. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS). Topical report, October 1993--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This document is a Final Technical Report that describes the results of the Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) research project. The objectives were to construct a geophysical data acquisition system that uses a remotely operated unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and to evaluate its effectiveness for characterization of hazardous environmental sites. The GAUSS is a data acquisition system that mitigates the potential risk to personnel during geophysical characterization of hazardous or radioactive sites. The fundamental basis of the GAUSS is as follows: (1) an unmanned survey vehicle carries geophysical sensors into a hazardous location, (2) the pilot remains outside the hazardous site and operates the vehicle using radio control, (3) geophysical measurements and their spatial locations are processed by an automated data-acquisition system which displays data on an off-site monitor in real-time, and (4) the pilot uses the display to direct the survey vehicle for complete site coverage. The objective of our Phase I research was to develop a data acquisition and processing (DAP) subsystem and geophysical sensors suitable for UAV deployment. We integrated these two subsystems to produce an automated, hand-held geophysical surveying system. The objective of the Phase II effort was to modify the subsystems and integrate them into an airborne prototype. The completed GAUSS DAP system consists of a UAV platform, a laser tracking and ranging subsystem, a telemetry subsystem, light-weight geophysical sensors, a base-station computer (BC), and custom-written survey control software (SCS). We have utilized off-the-shelf commercial products, where possible, to reduce cost and design time.

  8. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  9. Improvement in understanding the deposition of ambient dust particles on ECAM (environmental continuous air monitor) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAMs with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Schery, Stephen D., Wasiolek, Piotr; Rodgers, John

    1999-06-01

    Improvement in understanding the deposition of ambient dust particles on ECAM (environmental continuous air monitor) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAMs with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions.

  10. Gamma spectrum unfolding for a NaI monitor of radioactivity in aquatic systems: experimental evaluations of the minimal detectable activity.

    PubMed

    Baré, J; Tondeur, F

    2011-08-01

    This paper deals with the experimental evaluation of the minimal detectable activity achievable by unfolding the gamma spectra of a NaI monitor. An aquatic monitor initially developed by the Institut des Radio-Eléments (IRE) is used for the application. Unfolding of the spectra is performed with GRAVEL, a UMG package code, on the basis of a response matrix obtained with MCNP5.1.40. Experimental data have been measured at IRE, in a 20m(3) seawater tank, for known activities of (137)Cs mixed with other gamma emitters ((40)K, (133)Ba, (113)Sn and (139)Ce). Deconvolution allows one to reduce the MDA of (137)Cs by an order of magnitude. PMID:21146415

  11. A review of acceptance testing of the Los Alamos/Canberra Alpha Sentry Continuous Air Monitor (CAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, J.C.

    1998-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) undertook the design and development of a new generation of alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) instrumentation that would incorporate advanced technologies in the design of the sampling inlet, multi-channel analyzer (MCA) electronics, solid state alpha detectors, radon background interference suppression, background interference compensation and based on spectral analysis, and microcomputer based data communication, processing, storage, and retrieval. The ANSI air monitoring instrument standards (Performance Specifications for Health Physics Instrumentation -- Occupational Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring Instrumentation, N42.17B) specify performance criteria and testing procedures for instruments and instrument systems designed to continuously sample and quantify airborne radioactivity in the workplace. Although the intent of the standard is to provide performance testing criteria for type testing, it is appropriate to evaluate the performance of a new instrument such as the Alpha Sentry against certain of these criteria for purposes of an acceptance test based on stated specifications and the Los Alamos CAM Requirements document. This report provides an overview of the results of these tests, as they pertain to instruments designed to detect alpha-emitting radionuclides in particulate form.

  12. AIRBORNE RADIATION DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Cartmell, T.R.; Gifford, J.F.

    1959-08-01

    An ionization chamber used for measuring the radioactivity of dust present in atmospheric air is described. More particularly. the patent describes a device comprising two concentric open ended, electrically connected cylinders between which is disposed a wire electrcde. A heating source is disposed inside of the cylinder to circulate air through the space between the two cylinders by convective flow. A high voltage electric field between the wire electrcde of the electrically connected cylinder will cause ionization of the air as it passes therethrough.

  13. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  14. Airborne remote sensing for Deepwater Horizon oil spill emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroutil, Robert T.; Shen, Sylvia S.; Lewis, Paul E.; Miller, David P.; Cardarelli, John; Thomas, Mark; Curry, Timothy; Kudaraskus, Paul

    2010-08-01

    On April 28, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) aircraft was deployed to Gulfport, Mississippi to provide airborne remotely sensed air monitoring and situational awareness data and products in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster. The ASPECT aircraft was released from service on August 9, 2010 after having flown over 75 missions that included over 250 hours of flight operation. ASPECT's initial mission responsibility was to provide air quality monitoring (i.e., identification of vapor species) during various oil burning operations. The ASPECT airborne wide-area infrared remote sensing spectral data was used to evaluate the hazard potential of vapors being produced from open water oil burns near the Deepwater Horizon rig site. Other significant remote sensing data products and innovations included the development of an advanced capability to correctly identify, locate, characterize, and quantify surface oil that could reach beaches and wetland areas. This advanced identification product provided the Incident Command an improved capability to locate surface oil in order to improve the effectiveness of oil skimmer vessel recovery efforts directed by the US Coast Guard. This paper discusses the application of infrared spectroscopy and multispectral infrared imagery to address significant issues associated with this national crisis. More specifically, this paper addresses the airborne remote sensing capabilities, technology, and data analysis products developed specifically to optimize the resources and capabilities of the Deepwater Horizon Incident Command structure personnel and their remediation efforts.

  15. Characterization of the airborne activity confinement system prefilter material

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.A.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-05-01

    A general concern with assessing the effects of postulated severe accidents is predicting and preventing the release of radioactive isotopes to the environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor. Unless the confinement systems are breached in an accident the Airborne Activity Confinement System forces all of the internal air through the filter compartments. Proper modeling of the radioactivity released to the environment requires knowledge of the filtering characteristics of the demisters, the HEPA`s, and the charcoal beds. An investigation of the mass loading characteristics for a range of particle sizes was performed under the direction of Vince Novick of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in connection with the restart of the K reactor. Both solid and liquid aerosols were used to challenge sample prefilter and HEPA filters. The results of the ANL investigation are reported in this document.

  16. Characterization of the airborne activity confinement system prefilter material

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.A.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-05-01

    A general concern with assessing the effects of postulated severe accidents is predicting and preventing the release of radioactive isotopes to the environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor. Unless the confinement systems are breached in an accident the Airborne Activity Confinement System forces all of the internal air through the filter compartments. Proper modeling of the radioactivity released to the environment requires knowledge of the filtering characteristics of the demisters, the HEPA's, and the charcoal beds. An investigation of the mass loading characteristics for a range of particle sizes was performed under the direction of Vince Novick of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in connection with the restart of the K reactor. Both solid and liquid aerosols were used to challenge sample prefilter and HEPA filters. The results of the ANL investigation are reported in this document.

  17. Airborne GLM Simulator (FEGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stewart, M. F.; Podgorny, S.; Corredor, D.

    2015-12-01

    Real time lightning observations have proven to be useful for advanced warning and now-casting of severe weather events. In anticipation of the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard GOES-R that will provide continuous real time observations of total (both cloud and ground) lightning, the Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS) is in production. FEGS is an airborne instrument designed to provide cal/val measurements for GLM from high altitude aircraft. It consists of a 5 x 5 array of telescopes each with a narrow passband filter to isolate the 777.4 nm neutral oxygen emission triplet radiated by lightning. The telescopes will measure the optical radiance emitted by lightning that is transmitted through the cloud top with a temporal resolution of 10 μs. When integrated on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the FEGS array with its 90° field-of-view will observe a cloud top area nearly equal to a single GLM pixel. This design will allow FEGS to determine the temporal and spatial variation of light that contributes to a GLM event detection. In addition to the primary telescope array, the instrument includes 5 supplementary optical channels that observe alternate spectral emission features and will enable the use of FEGS for interesting lightning physics applications. Here we present an up-to-date summary of the project and a description of its scientific applications.

  18. Airborne Geophysical Surveys Applied to Hydrocarbon Resource Development Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. D.; Ball, L. B.; Finn, C.; Kass, A.; Thamke, J.

    2014-12-01

    mapping AEM surveys could also be effectively used in mapping tectonic features. Airborne radiometric methods have not been routinely used in hydrocarbon environmental studies but might be useful in understanding the surficial distribution of deposits related to naturally occurring radioactive materials.

  19. An aerial survey of radioactivity associated with Atomic Energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.J.; Harlan, W.E.; Humphrey, P.A.; Kane, R.L.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1992-09-02

    The project covered was an endeavor to (1) compare a group of laboratory instruments as airborne detectors of radioactivity and (2) simultaneously obtain data relative to the diffusion rate of radioactive contamination emitted into the atmosphere from off-gas stacks of production runs. Research was conducted in the Oak Ridge, Tennessee and Hanford, Washington areas. Detection was accomplished at a maximum distance of seventeen miles from the plant. Very little information of a conclusive nature was gained concerning the diffusion. Further research with the nuclear instruments, using a stronger source, is recommended. To obtain conclusive information concerning the meteorological aspects of the project, a larger observational program will be needed.

  20. Tritium recapture behavior at a nuclear power reactor due to airborne releases.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jason T; Miller, David W; Foster, Doug W

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the initiatives taken by Cook Nuclear Plant to study the on-site behavior of recaptured tritium released in its airborne effluents. Recapture is the process where a released radioactive effluent, in this case tritium, is brought back on-site through some mechanism. Precipitation, shifts in wind direction, or anthropogenic structures that restrict or alter effluent movement can all lead to recapture. The investigation was started after tritium was detected in the north storm drain outfall. Recent inadvertent tritium releases by several other nuclear power plants, many of which entered the groundwater, have led to increased surveillance and scrutiny by regulatory authorities and the general public. To determine the source of tritium in the outfall, an on-site surface water, well water, rainwater and air-conditioning condensate monitoring program was begun. Washout coefficients were also determined to compare with results reported by other nuclear power plants. Program monitoring revealed detectable tritium concentrations in several precipitation sample locations downwind of the two monitored containment building release vents. Tritium was found in higher concentrations in air-conditioning condensate, with a mean value of 528 Bq L(-1) (14,300 pCi L(-1)). The condensate, and to a lesser extent rainwater, were contributing to the tritium found in the north storm drain outfall. Maximum concentration values for each sample type were used to estimate the most conservative dose. A maximum dose of 1.1 x 10(-10) mSv (1.1 x 10(-8) mrem) total body was calculated to determine the health impact of the tritium detected.

  1. An airborne sunphotometer for use with helicopters

    SciTech Connect

    Walthall, C.L.; Halthore, R.N.; Elman, G.C.; Schafer, J.R.; Markham, B.L.

    1996-04-01

    One solution for atmospheric correction and calibration of remotely sensed data from airborne platforms is the use of radiometrically calibrated instruments, sunphotometers and an atmospheric radiative transfer model. Sunphotometers are used to measure the direct solar irradiance at the level at which they are operating and the data are used in the computation of atmospheric optical depth. Atmospheric optical depth is an input to atmospheric correction algorithms that convert at-sensor radiance to required surface properties such as reflectance and temperature. Airborne sun photometry has thus far seen limited use and has not been used with a helicopter platform. The hardware, software, calibration and deployment of an automatic sun-tracking sunphotometer specifically designed for use on a helicopter are described. Sample data sets taken with the system during the 1994 Boreal Ecosystem and Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) are presented. The addition of the sun photometer to the helicopter system adds another tool for monitoring the environment and makes the helicopter remote sensing system capable of collecting calibrated, atmospherically corrected data independent of the need for measurements from other systems.

  2. Asthmatic responses to airborne acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Wiener, M.B.; Selner, J.C. )

    1991-06-01

    Controlled exposure studies suggest that asthmatics may be more sensitive to the respiratory effects of acidic aerosols than individuals without asthma. This study investigates whether acidic aerosols and other air pollutants are associated with respiratory symptoms in free-living asthmatics. Daily concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+), nitric acid, fine particulates, sulfates and nitrates were obtained during an intensive air monitoring effort in Denver, Colorado, in the winter of 1987-88. A panel of 207 asthmatics recorded respiratory symptoms, frequency of medication use, and related information in daily diaries. We used a multiple regression time-series model to analyze which air pollutants, if any, were associated with health outcomes reported by study participants. Airborne H+ was found to be significantly associated with several indicators of asthma status, including moderate or severe cough and shortness of breath. Cough was also associated with fine particulates, and shortness of breath with sulfates. Incorporating the participants' time spent outside and exercise intensity into the daily measure of exposure strengthened the association between these pollutants and asthmatic symptoms. Nitric acid and nitrates were not significantly associated with any respiratory symptom analyzed. In this population of asthmatics, several outdoor air pollutants, particularly airborne acidity, were associated with daily respiratory symptoms.

  3. Airborne Laser Polar Nephelometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Gerald W.

    1973-01-01

    A polar nephelometer has been developed at NCAR to measure the angular variation of the intensity of light scattered by air molecules and particles. The system has been designed for airborne measurements using outside air ducted through a 5-cm diameter airflow tube; the sample volume is that which is common to the intersection of a collimated source beam and the detector field of view within the airflow tube. The source is a linearly polarized helium-neon laser beam. The optical system defines a collimated field-of-view (0.5deg half-angle) through a series of diaphragms located behind a I72-mm focal length objective lens. A photomultiplier tube is located immediately behind an aperture in the focal plane of the objective lens. The laser beam is mechanically chopped (on-off) at a rate of 5 Hz; a two-channel pulse counter, synchronized to the laser output, measures the photomultiplier pulse rate with the light beam both on and off. The difference in these measured pulse rates is directly proportional to the intensity of the scattered light from the volume common to the intersection of the laser beam and the detector field-of-view. Measurements can be made at scattering angles from 15deg to 165deg with reference to the direction of propagation of the light beam. Intermediate angles are obtained by selecting the angular increments desired between these extreme angles (any multiple of 0.1deg can be selected for the angular increment; 5deg is used in normal operation). Pulses provided by digital circuits control a stepping motor which sequentially rotates the detector by pre-selected angular increments. The synchronous photon-counting system automatically begins measurement of the scattered-light intensity immediately after the rotation to a new angle has been completed. The instrument has been flown on the NASA Convair 990 airborne laboratory to obtain data on the complex index of refraction of atmospheric aerosols. A particle impaction device is operated simultaneously

  4. Troubleshooting methods for toxicity testing of airborne chemicals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bakand, Shahnaz; Hayes, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Toxicology studies of adverse effects induced by inhaled chemicals are technically challenging, due to the requirement of highly controlled experimental conditions needed to achieve reproducible and comparable results. Therefore, many considerations must be fulfilled before adopting in vitro bioassay test systems for toxicity screening of airborne materials. However, recent methodological and technical breakthroughs of in vitro methods have the potential to fulfil the essential requirements of toxicity testing for airborne chemicals. Technology has now become available that allows cells to be cultured on permeable microporous membranes in transwell or snapwell inserts providing a very close contact between target cells and test atmospheres to study the cellular interactions caused by airborne chemical exposures without any interfering culture medium. Using a direct exposure technique at the air-liquid interface, target cells can be continuously exposed to airborne chemicals on their apical side, while being nourished from their basolateral side. Test atmospheres with different physicochemical characteristics such as gases, vapours, solid and liquid aerosols and more recently nanoaerosols, can be delivered into human target cells using static and/or direct dynamic exposure methods. Therefore, toxicological risk assessments of airborne chemicals and even complex atmospheres can be achieved using in vitro test methods in parallel with real-time air monitoring techniques to fulfil the general regulatory requirements of newly developed chemical or pharmaceutical products with the potential for inhalational exposure. In this review current toxicological methods for toxicity testing of inhaled chemicals are presented. Further, to demonstrate the potential application of in vitro methods for studying inhalation toxicity, more advanced exposure techniques developed for toxicity screening of airborne chemicals are discussed.

  5. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-03-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commerical light water reactors during 1978 have been compiled and reported. Data on soild waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1978 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  6. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1983-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1980 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1980 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  7. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1988-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1985 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1985 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  8. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1987-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1984 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1984 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  9. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  10. Abscess scan - radioactive

    MedlinePlus

    Radioactive abscess scan; Abscess scan; Indium Scan; Indium-labelled white blood cell scan ... the white blood cells are tagged with a radioactive substance called indium. The cells are then injected ...

  11. Measurement of airborne {sup 218}Po - A Bayesian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, P.G.; Lo, Y.

    1996-12-01

    The standard mathematical treatment of the buildup and decay of airborne radionuclides on a filter paper uses the solutions of the so-called bateman equations adapted to the sampling process. The equations can be interpreted as differential equations for the expectation of an underlying stochastic process, which describes the random fluctuations in the accumulation and decay of the sampled radioactive atoms. The process for the buildup and decay of airborne {sup 218}Po can be characterized as an {open_quotes}immigration-death process{close_quotes} in the widely adopted, biologically based jargon. The probability distribution for the number of {sup 218}Po atoms, accumulated after sampling time t, is Poisson. We show that the distribution of the number of counts, registered by a detector with efficiency {epsilon} during a counting period T after the end of sampling, it also Poisson, with mean dependent on {epsilon},t,T, the flowrate and N{sub o}, the number of airborne {sup 218}Po atoms per unit volume. This Poisson distribution was used to construct the likelihood given the observed number of counts. After inversion with Bayes` Theorem we obtained the posterior density for N{sub o}. This density characterizes the remaining uncertainty about the measured under of {sup 218}Po atoms per unit volume of air. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Toward Adaptation of fNIRS Instrumentation to Airborne Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Mackey, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews potential applications of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a well-known medical diagnostic technique, to monitoring the cognitive state of pilots with a focus on identifying ways to adopt this technique to airborne environments. We also discuss various fNIRS techniques and the direction of technology maturation of associated hardware in view of their potential for miniaturization, maximization of data collection capabilities, and user friendliness.

  13. Toward Adaptation of fNIRS Instrumentation to Airborne Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Mackey, Jeffrey; Harrivel, Angela; Hearn, Tristan; Floyd, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews potential applications of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a well-known medical diagnostic technique, to monitoring the cognitive state of pilots with a focus on identifying ways to adopt this technique to airborne environments. We also discuss various fNIRS techniques and the direction of technology maturation of associated hardware in view of their potential for miniaturization, maximization of data collection capabilities, and user friendliness.

  14. Airborne laser topographic mapping results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of terrain mapping experiments utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) over forested areas are presented. The flight tests were conducted as part of a joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) investigation aimed at evaluating the potential of an airborne laser ranging system to provide cross-sectional topographic data on flood plains that are difficult and expensive to survey using conventional techniques. The data described in this paper were obtained in the Wolf River Basin located near Memphis, TN. Results from surveys conducted under winter 'leaves off' and summer 'leaves on' conditions, aspects of day and night operation, and data obtained from decidous and coniferous tree types are compared. Data processing techniques are reviewed. Conclusions relative to accuracy and present limitations of the AOL, and airborne lidar systems in general, to terrain mapping over forested areas are discussed.

  15. An airborne isothermal haze chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal gradient diffusion cloud chambers (TGDCC) are used to determine the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with critical supersaturations greater than or equal to about 0.2%. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than theoretically predicted by factors ranging between 7.9 and 9.0. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than the concentrations measured with the larger laboratory IHC's by factors ranging between 3.9 and 7.5. The bounds of the supersaturation ranges of the airborne IHC and the CSU-Mee TGDCC do not overlap. Nevertheless, the slopes of the interpolated data between the bounds agree favorably with the theoretical slopes.

  16. Radioactive cesium accumulation in seaweeds by the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident-two years' monitoring at Iwaki and its vicinity.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Akira; Mimura, Mari; Mimura, Tetsuro; Tahara, Tomoya; Aida, Daiki; Sato, Kenji; Sasaki, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Accumulations of radionuclides in marine macroalgae (seaweeds) resulting from the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident in March 2011 have been monitored for two years using high-purity germanium detectors. Algal specimens were collected seasonally by snorkeling at Nagasaki, Iwaki, Fukushima Prefecture (Pref.), Japan, ca. 50 km perimeter from the F1NPP. Additional collections were done at Soma, Hironocho, Hisanohama and Shioyazaki in Fukushima Pref. as well as at Chiba Pref. and Hyogo Pref. as controls. In May 2011, specimens of most macroalgal species showed ¹³⁷Cs levels greater than 3,000 Bq kg⁻¹ at Shioyazaki and Nagasaki. The highest ¹³⁷Cs level recorded 7371.20 ± 173.95 Bq kg⁻¹ in Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar on 2 May 2011, whereas seawater collected at the same time at Shioyazaki and Nagasaki measured 8.41 ± 3.21 and 9.74 ± 3.43 Bq L⁻¹, respectively. The concentration factor of marine macroalgae was estimated to be ca. 8-50, depending on taxa and considering a weight ratio of wet/dry samples of ca. 10. ¹³⁷Cs level declined remarkably during the following 5-6 months. In contrast, the ¹³⁷Cs level remained rather stable during the following 12-16 months, and maintained the range of 10-110 Bq kg⁻¹. Contamination was still detectable in many samples in March 2013, 24 months after the most significant pollution.

  17. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  18. Determination of airborne nanoparticles from welding operations.

    PubMed

    Gomes, João Fernando Pereira; Albuquerque, Paula Cristina Silva; Miranda, Rosa Maria Mendes; Vieira, Maria Teresa Freire

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in welding processes (tungsten inert gas [TIG], metal active gas [MAG] of carbon steel, and friction stir welding [FSW] of aluminum) in terms of deposited area in pulmonary alveolar tract using a nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM) analyzer. The obtained results showed the dependence of process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles compared to background levels. Data indicated that the process that resulted in the lowest levels of alveolar deposited surface area (ADSA) was FSW, followed by TIG and MAG. However, all tested processes resulted in significant concentrations of ultrafine particles being deposited in humans lungs of exposed workers.

  19. Determination of airborne nanoparticles from welding operations.

    PubMed

    Gomes, João Fernando Pereira; Albuquerque, Paula Cristina Silva; Miranda, Rosa Maria Mendes; Vieira, Maria Teresa Freire

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in welding processes (tungsten inert gas [TIG], metal active gas [MAG] of carbon steel, and friction stir welding [FSW] of aluminum) in terms of deposited area in pulmonary alveolar tract using a nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM) analyzer. The obtained results showed the dependence of process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles compared to background levels. Data indicated that the process that resulted in the lowest levels of alveolar deposited surface area (ADSA) was FSW, followed by TIG and MAG. However, all tested processes resulted in significant concentrations of ultrafine particles being deposited in humans lungs of exposed workers. PMID:22788362

  20. Airborne Transmission of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Jason M.; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J.

    2012-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets. PMID:22807521

  1. NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon ... continuing to January 1984. Transcribed from the following NASA Tech Reports: McCormick, M. P., and M. T. Osborn, Airborne lidar ...

  2. Statement of work for services provided by the waste sampling and characterization facility for the effluent and environmental monitoring program during calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Greager, E.M.

    1998-01-29

    This document defines the services the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) shall provide the Effluent and Environmental Monitoring Program (EEM) throughout the calendar year for analysis. The purpose of the EEM Program is to monitor liquid and gaseous effluents, and the environment immediately around the facilities which may contain radioactive and hazardous materials. Monitoring data are collected, evaluated, and reported to determine their degree of compliance with applicable federal and state regulations and permits. The Appendix identifies the samples EEM plans to submit for analysis in CY-1998. Analysis of effluent (liquid and air discharges) and environmental (air, liquid, animal, and vegetative) samples is required using standard laboratory procedures, in accordance with regulatory and control requirements cited in Quality Assurance Program Plan for Radionuclide Airborne Emissions Monitoring (especially Appendix G) (WHC 1995a), Effluent Monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radionuclide Airborne Emissions Data (WHC 1995b), Near-Facility Environmental Monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan (WMNW 1997), and Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (DOE 1996). Should changes to this document be necessary, WSCF or the Waste Management Federal Services, Inc. (WMH) Air and Water Services (AWS) Organization may amend it at any time with a jointly approved internal memo.

  3. Statement of work for services provided by the waste sampling and characterization facility for the effluent and environmental monitoring program during calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-28

    This document defines the services the Waste Sampling & Characterization Facility (WSCF) shall provide the Effluent and Environmental Monitoring Program (EEM) throughout the calendar year for analysis. The purpose of the EEM Program is to monitor liquid and gaseous effluents, and the environment immediately around the facilities which may contain radioactive and hazardous materials. Monitoring data are collected, evaluated, and reported to determine their degree of compliance with applicable federal and state regulations and permits. The Appendix identifies the samples EEM plans to submit for analysis in CY-1997. Analysis of effluent (liquid and air discharges) and environmental (air, liquid, animal, and vegetative) samples is required using standard laboratory procedures, in accordance with regulatory and control requirements cited in Quality Assurance Program Plan for Radionuclide Airborne Emissions Monitoring (especially Appendix G) (VTHC 1995a), Effluent Monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radionuclide Airborne Emissions Data (WHC 1995b), Operational Environmental Monitoring Program Quality Assurance Project Plan (WHC 1994b), and Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (DOE 1996). Should changes to this document be necessary, WSCF or the Air & Water Services (A&WS) Organization may amend it at any time with a jointly approved internal memo.

  4. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Potential Impact Categories for Radiological Air Emission Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2012-06-05

    In 2002, the EPA amended 40 CFR 61 Subpart H and 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 to include requirements from ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities for major emission points. Additionally, the WDOH amended the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 Radiation protection-air emissions to include ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements for major and minor emission points when new permitting actions are approved. A result of the amended regulations is the requirement to prepare a written technical basis for the radiological air emission sampling and monitoring program. A key component of the technical basis is the Potential Impact Category (PIC) assigned to an emission point. This paper discusses the PIC assignments for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Integrated Laboratory emission units; this revision includes five PIC categories.

  5. Mismatch in aeroallergens and airborne grass pollen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Hernández-Ceballos, M. A.; Galán, C.

    2016-11-01

    An accurate estimation of the allergen concentration in the atmosphere is essential for allergy sufferers. The major cause of pollinosis all over Europe is due to grass pollen and Phl p 5 has the highest rates of sensitization (>50%) in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy. However, recent research has shown that airborne pollen does not always offer a clear indicator of exposure to aeroallergens. This study aims to evaluate relations between airborne grass pollen and Phl p 5 concentrations in Córdoba (southern Spain) and to study how meteorological parameters influence these atmospheric records. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Hirst-type volumetric spore trap was used for pollen collection, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network (REA). Aeroallergen sampling was performed using a low-volume cyclone sampler, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Besides, the influence of main meteorological factors on local airborne pollen and allergen concentrations was surveyed. A significant correlation was observed between grass pollen and Phl p 5 allergen concentrations during the pollen season, but with some sporadic discrepancy episodes. The cumulative annual Pollen Index also varied considerably. A significant correlation has been obtained between airborne pollen and minimum temperature, relative humidity and precipitation, during the three studied years. However, there is no clear relationship between allergens and weather variables. Our findings suggest that the correlation between grass pollen and aeroallergen Phl p 5 concentrations varies from year-to-year probably related to a complex interplay of meteorological variables.

  6. Airborne Remote Sensing of River Flow and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, S.; Anderson, S. P.; McLean, J.; Redford, R.

    2014-12-01

    River morphology, surface slope and flow are some of the fundamental measurements required for surface water monitoring and hydrodynamic research. This paper describes a method of combining bathymetric lidar with space-time processing of mid-wave infrared (MWIR) imagery to simultaneously measure bathymetry, currents and surface slope from an airborne platform. In May 2014, Areté installed a Pushbroom Imaging Lidar for Littoral Surveillance (PILLS) and a FLIR SC8000 MWIR imaging system sampling at 2 Hz in a small twin-engine aircraft. Data was collected over the lower Colorado River between Picacho Park and Parker. PILLS is a compact bathymetric lidar based on streak-tube sensor technology. It provides channel and bank topography and water surface elevation at 1 meter horizontal scales and 25 cm vertical accuracy. Surface currents are derived from the MWIR imagery by tracking surface features using a cross correlation algorithm. This approach enables the retrieval of currents along extended reaches at the forward speed of the aircraft with spatial resolutions down to 5 m with accuracy better than 10 cm/s. The fused airborne data captures current and depth variability on scales of meters over 10's of kilometers collected in just a few minutes. The airborne MWIR current retrievals are combined with the bathymetric lidar data to calculate river discharge which is then compared with real-time streamflow stations. The results highlight the potential for improving our understanding of complex river environments with simultaneous collections from multiple airborne sensors.

  7. Trace Gas Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Space technology is contributing to air pollution control primarily through improved detectors and analysis methods. Miniaturized mass spectrometer is under development to monitor vinyl chloride and other hydrocarbon contaminants in an airborne laboratory. Miniaturized mass spectrometer can be used to protect personnel in naval and medical operations as well as aboard aircraft.

  8. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  9. Airborne fungi--a resurvey

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.H.; Prince, H.E.; Raymer, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    A 15-month survey of airborne fungi at 14 geographical stations was conducted to determine the incidence of different fungal genera. Five of these stations were surveyed 25 years earlier. A comparison between previous studies and present surveys revealed similar organisms at each station with slight shifts in frequency of dominant genera.

  10. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  11. Airborne chemicals and forest health

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, J.N.; Cowling, E.B.

    1987-02-01

    Over the past few years the possible contribution of acid rain to the problem of forest decline has been a cause of increasing public concern. Research has begun to determine whether airborne chemicals are causing or contributing to visible damage and mortality in eastern spruce-fir and sugar maple forests and to changes in tree growth, usually without visible symptoms, in other parts of North America. This paper describes some of the complex biological relationships that determine health and productivity of forests and that make it difficult to distinguish effects of airborne chemicals from effects of natural stress. It describes four major research approaches for assessment of the effects of airborne chemicals on forests, and it summarizes current understanding of the known and possible effects of airborne chemicals on forest trees in North America and Europe. It also briefly describes the major air quality and forest health research programs in North America, and it assesses how ell these programs are likely to meet information needs during the coming decade. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  12. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  13. Comparative performance of three sampling techniques to detect airborne Salmonella species in poultry farms.

    PubMed

    Adell, Elisa; Moset, Verónica; Zhao, Yang; Jiménez-Belenguer, Ana; Cerisuelo, Alba; Cambra-López, María

    2014-01-01

    Sampling techniques to detect airborne Salmonella species (spp.) in two pilot scale broiler houses were compared. Broilers were inoculated at seven days of age with a marked strain of Salmonella enteritidis. The rearing cycle lasted 42 days during the summer. Airborne Salmonella spp. were sampled weekly using impaction, gravitational settling, and impingement techniques. Additionally, Salmonella spp. were sampled on feeders, drinkers, walls, and in the litter. Environmental conditions (temperature, relative humidity, and airborne particulate matter (PM) concentration) were monitored during the rearing cycle. The presence of Salmonella spp. was determined by culture-dependent and molecular methods. No cultivable Salmonella spp. were recovered from the poultry houses' surfaces, the litter, or the air before inoculation. After inoculation, cultivable Salmonella spp. were recovered from the surfaces and in the litter. Airborne cultivable Salmonella spp. Were detected using impaction and gravitational settling one or two weeks after the detection of Salmonella spp. in the litter. No cultivable Salmonella spp. were recovered using impingement based on culture-dependent techniques. At low airborne concentrations, the use of impingement for the quantification or detection of cultivable airborne Salmonella spp. is not recommended. In these cases, a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods is recommended. These data are valuable to improve current measures to control the transmission of pathogens in livestock environments and for optimising the sampling and detection of airborne Salmonella spp. in practical conditions.

  14. Radiation monitoring using an unmanned helicopter in the evacuation zone around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Kondo, Atsuya; Sugita, Takeshi; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Yuuki, Youichi; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shoji, Yasunori; Torii, Tatsuo

    2014-11-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on 11 March 2011 generated a series of large tsunami waves that caused serious damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, following which a large amount of radioactive material was discharged from the nuclear power plant into the environment. In recent years, technologies for unmanned helicopters have been developed and applied in various fields. In expectation of the application of unmanned helicopters in airborne radiation monitoring, in this study we developed a radiation monitoring system for aerial use. We then measured the radiation level by using unmanned helicopters in areas where the soil had been contaminated by radioactive caesium emitted from the nuclear power plant to evaluate the ambient dose rate distribution around the site. We found that in dry riverbeds near the nuclear power plant, the dose rate was higher than that in the surrounding areas. The results of our measurements show that radiation monitoring using this system was useful in measuring radioactivity in contaminated areas.

  15. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  16. Simulation of atmospheric dispersion of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, R.; Sullivan, T.J.; Gudiksen, P.H. )

    1989-07-01

    Measurements of airborne radioactivity over Europe, Japan, and the United States indicated that the release from the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986 contained a wide spectrum of fission up to heights of 7 km or more within a few days after the initial explosion. This high-altitude presence of radioactivity would in part be attributable to atmospheric dynamics factors other than the thermal energy released in the initial explosion. Indications were that two types of releases had taken place -- an initial powerful explosion followed by days of a less energetic reactor fire. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilized three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models to determine the characteristics of the source term (release) and the evolution of the spatial distributions of the airborne radioactivity as it was transported over Europe and subsequently over the northern hemisphere. This paper describes the ARAC involvement and the results of the hemispheric model calculations which graphically depict the extensive dispersal of radioactivity. 1 fig.

  17. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  18. Integrating Public Data Sets for Analysis of Maternal Airborne Environmental Exposures and Stillbirth

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Eric S.; Connolly, Natalia; Jones, David E.; DeFranco, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to study relationships between maternal airborne pollutant exposures and poor pregnancy outcomes have been frustrated by data limitations. Our objective was to report the proportion of Ohio women in 2006–2010 experiencing stillbirth whose pregnancy exposure to six criteria airborne pollutants could be approximated by applying a geospatial approach to vital records and Environmental Protection Agency air monitoring data. In addition, we characterized clinical and socio-demographic differences among women who lived within 10 km of monitoring stations compared to women who did not live within proximity of monitoring stations. For women who experienced stillbirth, 10.8% listed a residence within 10 km of each type of monitoring station. Maternal race, education, and marital status were significantly different (p<0.0001) comparing those within proximity to monitoring stations to those outside of monitoring range. No significant differences were identified in maternal age, ethnicity, smoking status, hypertension, or diabetes between groups. PMID:25954365

  19. 10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee detects... licensee shall continuously monitor, with an appropriate radiation detection instrument or a logging...

  20. 10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee detects... licensee shall continuously monitor, with an appropriate radiation detection instrument or a logging...

  1. 10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee detects... licensee shall continuously monitor, with an appropriate radiation detection instrument or a logging...

  2. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  3. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  4. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  5. Comparisons between radioactive and non-radioactive gas lantern mantles.

    PubMed

    Furuta, E; Yoshizawa, Y; Aburai, T

    2000-12-01

    Gas lantern mantles containing radioactive thorium have been used for more than 100 years. Although thorium was once believed to be indispensable for giving a bright light, non-radioactive mantles are now available. From the radioactivities of the daughter nuclides, we estimated the levels of radioactivity of 232Th and 228Th in 11 mantles. The mantles contained various levels of radioactivity from background levels to 1410 +/- 140 Bq. Our finding that radioactive and non-radioactive mantles are equally bright suggests that there is no advantage in using radioactive mantles. A remaining problem is that gas lantern mantles are sold without any information about radioactivity.

  6. Airborne Tactical Intent-Based Conflict Resolution Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Vivona, Robert A.; Roscoe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Trajectory-based operations with self-separation involve the aircraft taking the primary role in the management of its own trajectory in the presence of other traffic. In this role, the flight crew assumes the responsibility for ensuring that the aircraft remains separated from all other aircraft by at least a minimum separation standard. These operations are enabled by cooperative airborne surveillance and by airborne automation systems that provide essential monitoring and decision support functions for the flight crew. An airborne automation system developed and used by NASA for research investigations of required functionality is the Autonomous Operations Planner. It supports the flight crew in managing their trajectory when responsible for self-separation by providing monitoring and decision support functions for both strategic and tactical flight modes. The paper focuses on the latter of these modes by describing a capability for tactical intent-based conflict resolution and its role in a comprehensive suite of automation functions supporting trajectory-based operations with self-separation.

  7. Characteristics of an airborne demonstrator for MERLIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amediek, A.; Büdenbender, C.; Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Quatrevalet, M.; Wirth, M.; Dieter, H.; Löhring, J.; Klein, V.

    2012-12-01

    After three years development time, first test measurements on DLR's (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) CO2 and CH4 airborne Lidar have started. It is an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar for the simultaneous measurement of CO2 and CH4 columns, designed for operation onboard the new German research aircraft HALO. In the framework of the project "CHARM-F", funded by the German ministry of education and research, the lidar was developed in collaboration with Fraunhofer Institut für Lasertechnik and Kayser-Threde. Due to the special features of the aircraft, such as the maximum flight altitude of 15 km and its long range, as well as the special design of the lidar, the system is particularly suitable to be an airborne demonstrator for the French-German MERLIN project, a spaceborne IPDA lidar sounder for methane. The layout of the receiver optics allows a large field of view, i.e. a large laser footprint on ground is possible, comparable to the size obtained by a spaceborne system. So, important features that come along with ground reflectivity issues, such as albedo variations on different spatial scales, can be taken into account in the same way and can be investigated in detail. Furthermore, two detector types are used, PIN photodiodes and APDs, each with specially adapted telescopes, to compare their respective properties. The basic design of the transmitter is identical to the one envisaged for MERLIN. Also important subsystems of the presented lidar, like wavelengths stabilization and output power monitoring, can serve as demonstrators for the satellite system. The main features of the airborne system are: Two almost identical laser systems for CH4 and CO2. Nd:YAG lasers serve as the pump sources for optical parametric oscillators (OPO), injection seeded by laser diodes, to generate the desired online and offline wavelengths in single mode operation. The online wavelength is tuned to an absorption line of the measured trace gas, the

  8. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  9. Potential of Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy at Czechglobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuš, J.; Fabiánek, T.; Fajmon, L.

    2016-06-01

    Ecosystems, their services, structures and functions are affected by complex environmental processes, which are both natural and human-induced and globally changing. In order to understand how ecosystems behave in globally changing environment, it is important to monitor the current status of ecosystems and their structural and functional changes in time and space. An essential tool allowing monitoring of ecosystems is remote sensing (RS). Many ecosystems variables are being translated into a spectral response recorded by RS instruments. It is however important to understand the complexity and synergies of the key ecosystem variables influencing the reflected signal. This can be achieved by analysing high resolution RS data from multiple sources acquired simultaneously from the same platform. Such a system has been recently built at CzechGlobe - Global Change Research Institute (The Czech Academy of Sciences). CzechGlobe has been significantly extending its research infrastructure in the last years, which allows advanced monitoring of ecosystem changes at hierarchical levels spanning from molecules to entire ecosystems. One of the CzechGlobe components is a laboratory of imaging spectroscopy. The laboratory is now operating a new platform for advanced remote sensing observations called FLIS (Flying Laboratory of Imaging Spectroscopy). FLIS consists of an airborne carrier equipped with passive RS systems. The core instrument of FLIS is a hyperspectral imaging system provided by Itres Ltd. The hyperspectral system consists of three spectroradiometers (CASI 1500, SASI 600 and TASI 600) that cover the reflective spectral range from 380 to 2450 nm, as well as the thermal range from 8 to 11.5 μm. The airborne platform is prepared for mounting of full-waveform laser scanner Riegl-Q780 as well, however a laser scanner is not a permanent part of FLIS. In 2014 the installation of the hyperspectral scanners was completed and the first flights were carried out with all

  10. 40 CFR 192.03 - Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Standards for the Control of Residual Radioactive Materials from Inactive Uranium Processing Sites § 192.03 Monitoring....

  11. 40 CFR 192.03 - Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Standards for the Control of Residual Radioactive Materials from Inactive Uranium Processing Sites § 192.03 Monitoring....

  12. 40 CFR 192.03 - Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Standards for the Control of Residual Radioactive Materials from Inactive Uranium Processing Sites § 192.03 Monitoring....

  13. 40 CFR 192.03 - Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Standards for the Control of Residual Radioactive Materials from Inactive Uranium Processing Sites § 192.03 Monitoring....

  14. 40 CFR 192.03 - Monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Standards for the Control of Residual Radioactive Materials from Inactive Uranium Processing Sites § 192.03 Monitoring....

  15. Large aperture scanning airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J.; Bindschadler, R.; Boers, R.; Bufton, J. L.; Clem, D.; Garvin, J.; Melfi, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A large aperture scanning airborne lidar facility is being developed to provide important new capabilities for airborne lidar sensor systems. The proposed scanning mechanism allows for a large aperture telescope (25 in. diameter) in front of an elliptical flat (25 x 36 in.) turning mirror positioned at a 45 degree angle with respect to the telescope optical axis. The lidar scanning capability will provide opportunities for acquiring new data sets for atmospheric, earth resources, and oceans communities. This completed facility will also make available the opportunity to acquire simulated EOS lidar data on a near global basis. The design and construction of this unique scanning mechanism presents exciting technological challenges of maintaining the turning mirror optical flatness during scanning while exposed to extreme temperatures, ambient pressures, aircraft vibrations, etc.

  16. Radioactive substances in tap water.

    PubMed

    Atsuumi, Ryo; Endo, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Akihiko; Kannotou, Yasumitu; Nakada, Masahiro; Yabuuchi, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A 9.0 magnitude (M) earthquake with an epicenter off the Sanriku coast occurred at 14: 46 on March 11, 2011. TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1 NPP) was struck by the earthquake and its resulting tsunami. Consequently a critical nuclear disaster developed, as a large quantity of radioactive materials was released due to a hydrogen blast. On March 16(th), 2011, radioiodine and radioactive cesium were detected at levels of 177 Bq/kg and 58 Bq/kg, respectively, in tap water in Fukushima city (about 62km northwest of TEPCO F-1 NPP). On March 20th, radioiodine was detected in tap water at a level of 965 Bq/kg, which is over the value-index of restrictions on food and drink intake (radioiodine 300 Bq/kg (infant intake 100 Bq/kg)) designated by the Nuclear Safety Commission. Therefore, intake restriction measures were taken regarding drinking water. After that, although the all intake restrictions were lifted, in order to confirm the safety of tap water, an inspection system was established to monitor all tap water in the prefecture. This system has confirmed that there has been no detection of radioiodine or radioactive cesium in tap water in the prefecture since May 5(th), 2011. Furthermore, radioactive strontium ((89) Sr, (90)Sr) and plutonium ((238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu) in tap water and the raw water supply were measured. As a result, (89) Sr, (238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu were undetectable and although (90)Sr was detected, its committed effective dose of 0.00017 mSv was much lower than the yearly 0.1 mSv of the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality. In addition, the results did not show any deviations from past inspection results.

  17. Magnetic airborne survey - geophysical flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Camara, Erick; Nei Pereira Guimarães, Suze

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a technical review process in the area of airborne acquisition of geophysical data, with emphasis for magnetometry. In summary, it addresses the calibration processes of geophysical equipment as well as the aircraft to minimize possible errors in measurements. The corrections used in data processing and filtering are demonstrated with the same results as well as the evolution of these techniques in Brazil and worldwide.

  18. Combustion aerosols formed during burning of radioactively contaminated materials: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, M.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Dennis, G.W.

    1987-03-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases. Radioactive aerosols generated by fires were investigated in experiments in which combustible solids and liquids were contaminated with radioactive materials and burned. Uranium in powder and liquid form was used to contaminate five fuel types: polychloroprene, polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate, cellulose, and a mixture of 30% tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. Heat flux, oxygen concentration, air flow, contaminant concentration, and type of ignition were varied in the experiments. The highest release (7.1 wt %) came from burning TBP/kerosene over contaminated nitric acid. Burning cellulose contaminated with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate liquid gave the lowest release (0.01 wt %). Rate of release and particle size distribution of airborne radioactive particles were highly dependent on the type of fuel burned.

  19. NASA Student Airborne Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students majoring in the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2012, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA P-3B aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program from the first four summers and discuss plans for the future.

  20. Transmitter Pulse Estimation and Measurements for Airborne TDEM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.; Mejzr, I.

    2013-12-01

    The processing and interpretation of Airborne Time Domain EM data requires precise description of the transmitter parameters, including shape, amplitude and length of the transmitted pulse. There are several ways to measure pulse shape of the transmitter loop. Transmitted pulse can be recorded by a current monitor installed on the loop. The current monitor readings do not give exact image due to own time-domain physical characteristics of the current monitor. Another way is to restore the primary pulse shape from the receiver data recorded on-time, if such is possible. The receiver gives exact image of the primary field projection combined with the ground response, which can be minimized at high altitude pass, usually with a transmitter elevation higher than 1500 ft from the ground. The readings on the receiver are depending on receiver position and orientation. Modeling of airborne TDEM transmitter pulse allows us to compare estimated and measured shape of the pulse and apply required corrections. Airborne TDEM system transmitter pulse shape has been studied by authors while developing P-THEM system. The data has been gathered during in-doors and out-doors ground tests in Canada, as well as during flight tests in Canada and in India. The P-THEM system has three-axes receiver that is suspended on a tow-cable in the midpoint between the transmitter and the helicopter. The P-THEM receiver geometry does not require backing coils to dump the primary field. The system records full-wave data from the receiver and current monitor installed on the transmitter loop, including on-time and off-time data. The modeling of the transmitter pulse allowed us to define the difference between estimated and measured values. The higher accuracy pulse shape can be used for better data processing and interpretation. A developed model can be applied to similar systems and configurations.

  1. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  2. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  3. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  4. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  5. Radioactive materials deposition in Iwate prefecture, northeast japan, due to the Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Hideyuki

    2013-04-01

    A catastrophic earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011, and additional tsunami gave the big damage along the pacific coastline of the northeast Japan. Tsunami also caused the accident of Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP), released of massive amount of radioactive materials to all over the northeast to central Japan. Ministry of Education, cultural, sports, science and technology (MEXT), Japan, carried out the airborne monitoring survey on several times, however, it is impossible to know the deposition of low level radiation under 0.1μSv/h. On the other hand, radioactive material was detected in Iwate by farm and livestock products, and it was necessary to understand an accurate contamination status in Iwate prefecture. Behavior of radioactive material is very similar to the ashfall by the volcanic eruption. Therefore, it is possible to apply the knowledge of volcanology to evaluation of the natural radiation dose. The author carried out the detailed contamination mapping across the Iwate prefecture. To γ-ray measurement, using scintillation counter A2700 of the clearpulse, measured on 1m grass field above ground, for one minute. The total measurement point became more than 800 point whole in Iwate. Field survey were carried out from April to November, 2011, therefore, it is necessary to consider to the half - life of the radioactive element of the cesium 134 and 137. In this study, the author reconstructed a deposition of April, 2011, just after the accident. In addition, the author also carried out the revision of the natural radiation dose included in the granite and so on. From the result, Concentration of radioactive materials depend on the topography, it tend to high concentrate in the basin or along the valley. The feeble deposition 0.01-0.2μsv/h with the radioactive material was recognized in whole prefecture. High contamination area distributed over the E-W directions widely in the southern part of the prefecture, and it also existence of the

  6. Radiological air monitoring and sample analysis research and development progress report. Calendar year, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Sponsored by a Department Of Energy (DOE) research and development grant, the State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program (OP) personnel designed an independent air monitoring system that provides detection of the presence of priority airborne contaminants potentially migrating beyond INEL boundaries. Initial locations for off-site ambient air monitoring stations were chosen in consultation with: DOE and NOAA reports; Mesodif modeling; review of the relevant literature; and communication with private contractors and experts in pertinent fields. Idaho State University (ISU) has initiated an Environmental Monitoring Program (EMP). The EMP provides an independent monitoring function as well as a training ground for students. Students learn research techniques dedicated to environmental studies and learn analytical skills and rules of compliance related to monitoring. ISU-EMP assisted OP in specific aspects of identifying optimum permanent monitoring station locations, and in selecting appropriate sample collection equipment for each station. The authorization to establish, prepare and install sampling devices on selected sites was obtained by OP personnel in conjunction with ISU-EMP personnel. All samples described in this program are collected by OP or ISU-EMP personnel and returned to the ISU for analysis. This report represents the summary of results of those samples collected and analyzed for radioactivity during the year of 1992.

  7. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one of us (MV) worked at, and after talking with numerous colleagues we know this is still the case at many schools. What options are there then for physics teachers to allow their students to experimentally investigate certain characteristics of radioactivity, such as how distance affects the intensity of radiation coming from a radioactive source? There are computer simulations that can be run, or perhaps the teacher has a light sensor and tries to make an analogy between the intensity of light from a light bulb and the intensity of radiation from a radioactive source based on geometric arguments to get an inverse-square law. But for many there is no direct experimental option if one does not possess a Geiger counter and good radioactive sample. It is for that teacher and class of students that an online, remote radioactivity experiment was created.

  8. Data processing of remotely sensed airborne hyperspectral data using the Airborne Processing Library (APL): Geocorrection algorithm descriptions and spatial accuracy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Mark A.; Taylor, Benjamin H.; Grant, Michael G.; Shutler, Jamie D.

    2014-03-01

    Remote sensing airborne hyperspectral data are routinely used for applications including algorithm development for satellite sensors, environmental monitoring and atmospheric studies. Single flight lines of airborne hyperspectral data are often in the region of tens of gigabytes in size. This means that a single aircraft can collect terabytes of remotely sensed hyperspectral data during a single year. Before these data can be used for scientific analyses, they need to be radiometrically calibrated, synchronised with the aircraft's position and attitude and then geocorrected. To enable efficient processing of these large datasets the UK Airborne Research and Survey Facility has recently developed a software suite, the Airborne Processing Library (APL), for processing airborne hyperspectral data acquired from the Specim AISA Eagle and Hawk instruments. The APL toolbox allows users to radiometrically calibrate, geocorrect, reproject and resample airborne data. Each stage of the toolbox outputs data in the common Band Interleaved Lines (BILs) format, which allows its integration with other standard remote sensing software packages. APL was developed to be user-friendly and suitable for use on a workstation PC as well as for the automated processing of the facility; to this end APL can be used under both Windows and Linux environments on a single desktop machine or through a Grid engine. A graphical user interface also exists. In this paper we describe the Airborne Processing Library software, its algorithms and approach. We present example results from using APL with an AISA Eagle sensor and we assess its spatial accuracy using data from multiple flight lines collected during a campaign in 2008 together with in situ surveyed ground control points.

  9. Some aspects of the airborne transmission of infection

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Raymond P.; de Calcina-Goff, Mervyn L.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between the human body and the dissemination of potentially pathogenic particles and droplets is described. Airborne transmission of infection in operating theatres and a burns unit and the part played by the human microclimate and its interaction with ventilating air flows is discussed. The mechanisms by which different garment assemblies used for surgery can enhance particle dispersion are illustrated and the way that floor cleaning can increase the concentration of airborne organisms is described. The development of the successful use of ultra-clean air systems in orthopaedic implant surgery is reviewed. Relationships between contact and airborne transmission of disease are explored and ways by which containment strategies and metrics used in pharmaceutical and electronics manufacturing can be applied to the design and monitoring of healthcare areas is discussed. It is suggested that currently available techniques involving architectural, ventilation and operational aspects of healthcare provision, when properly applied, can markedly improve treatment outcomes that may otherwise be compromised by hospital-acquired infections involving both bacteria and viruses. PMID:19815574

  10. Airborne ammonia and ammonium within the Northern Adriatic area, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Alebic-Juretic, Ana

    2008-08-01

    Determination of airborne ammonia started in the early 1980s, as a part of air pollution monitoring of industrial plants. Due to high emissions, the city of Rijeka was one of the most polluted in Croatia in the mid-1980s. Considerable reductions in SO2 and NO(x) emissions led to lower airborne levels of these pollutants in the mid 1990s. In spite of the coke plant closure in 1994, there was only a weak decline in airborne ammonia over the period 1980--2005, with annual means in the range of 12-20 microg m(-3) at urban Site 1 and 6-28 microg m(-3) at suburban Site 2. Similar behaviour has been observed with ammonium in bulk rainwater samples since 1996. Higher and approximately equal deposition of nitrogen as ammonium (N-NH4+) were obtained for the urban Site 1 and the mountainous Site 4, but with different causative facts. Ammonium's contribution to total nitrogen (NO3(-)+NH4+) deposition is approximately two thirds, even for a remote Site 3.

  11. Stability of airborne microbes in the Louvre Museum over time.

    PubMed

    Gaüzère, C; Moletta-Denat, M; Blanquart, H; Ferreira, S; Moularat, S; Godon, J-J; Robine, E

    2014-02-01

    The microbial content of air has as yet been little described, despite its public health implications, and there remains a lack of environmental microbial data on airborne microflora in enclosed spaces. In this context, the aim of this study was to characterize the diversity and dynamics of airborne microorganisms in the Louvre Museum using high-throughput molecular tools and to underline the microbial signature of indoor air in this human-occupied environment. This microbial community was monitored for 6 month during occupied time. The quantitative results revealed variations in the concentrations of less than one logarithm, with average values of 10(3) and 10(4) Escherichia coli/Aspergillus fumigatus genome equivalent per m(3) for bacteria and fungi, respectively. Our observations highlight the stability of the indoor airborne bacterial diversity over time, while the corresponding eukaryote community was less stable. Bacterial diversity characterized by pyrosequencing 454 showed high diversity dominated by the Proteobacteria which represented 51.1%, 46.9%, and 38.4% of sequences, for each of the three air samples sequenced. A common bacterial diversity was underlined, corresponding to 58.4% of the sequences. The core species were belonging mostly to the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and to the genus Paracoccus spp., Acinetobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enhydrobacter sp., Sphingomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp., and Streptococcus sp.

  12. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  13. Test plan for glove box testing with the real-time transuranic dust monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Partin, J.K.; Fincke, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    This test plan describes the objectives, instrumentation, and testing procedures used to prove the feasibility of a real-time transuranic dust monitor (RTDM). The RTDM is under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as a Waste Characterization Technology funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Project. The instrument is an in situ monitor that uses optical techniques to establish particle size, particle number density, and mass and species of heavy metal contamination. US Department of Energy orders mandate the assessment of radiological exposure and contamination spread during the remediation of radioactive waste. Of particular concern is heavy metal contamination of dust, both radioactive and nonradioactive. Small particles of metal, particularly the radioactive species, tend to become electrically charged and consequently attach themselves to dust particles. This airborne activated dust is a primary means of contamination transport during remediation activities, and therefore, must be continuously monitored to protect personnel involved in the operations and to control the spread of contamination. If real-time monitoring is not available there is increased likelihood of generating unacceptably high levels of contamination and being forced to shut down costly retrieval operations to decontaminate. A series of experiments are described to determine the optimal experimental design, operational parameters, and levels of detection for the RTDM. Initial screening will be performed using monodisperse particle standards to set parameters and calibrate the instrument. Additional testing will be performed using INEL soil samples spiked with a surrogate, cerium oxide, to prove the design before transporting the apparatus to the Test Reactor Area for testing with plutonium-contaminated dusts.

  14. Airborne and ground reconnaissance of part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, R.C.

    1955-01-01

    Airborne and ground reconnaissance for radioactive minerals in part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wis., found 12 radioactive mineral localities. The rocks in the area are of Precambrian age and consist of syenite and nepheline syenite, which have intruded older granite, greenstone, quartzite, and argillite. There are very few outcrops, and much of the bedrock is deeply weathered and covered by residual soil. Thorium-bearing zircon pegatite float was found within the area of syenite and nepheline syenite at four localities. Reddish-brown euhedral to subeuhedral crystals of well-zoned zircon (variety cyrtolite) comprise more than 40 percent of some of the specimens. The radioactive mineral at four localities outside the area of syneites was identified as thorogummite, which occurred in nodular masses in residual soil. Alinement of the thorogummite float and associated radioactivity suggests that the thorogummite has resulted from weathering of narrow veins or pegmatites containing thorium-bearing minerals. Unidentified thorium-bearing minerals were found at three localities, and a specimen of allanite weighing about 2 pounds was found at one locality. Shallow trenches at two of the largest radioactivity anomalies showed that the radioactive material extended down into weathered bedrock. The occurrences might warrant additional physical exploration should there be sufficient demand for thorium. Further reconnaissance in the area would probably result in the discovery of additional occurrences.

  15. Using mosaicked airborne imagery to assess cotton root rot infection on a regional basis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease in many of the cotton production areas in Texas. Since 2012, many cotton growers in Texas have used the Topguard fungicide to control this disease in their fields under Section 18 emergency exemptions. Airborne images have been used to monitor the...

  16. Validation of Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data at Ray Mine, AZ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, H.; Baloga, S.

    1999-01-01

    We validate 1997 Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) reflectance spectra covering 0.4 meu - 2.4 meu from a stable, flat mineralogically characterized man-made target at Ray Mine, AZ, the site for an EPA/NASA assessment of the utility of remote sensing for monitoring acid drainage from an active open pit mine.

  17. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  18. Airborne wavemeter validation and calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goad, Joseph H., Jr.; Rinsland, Pamela L.; Kist, Edward H., Jr.; Geier, Erika B.; Banziger, Curtis G.

    1992-01-01

    This manuscript outlines a continuing effort to validate and verify the performance of an airborne autonomous wavemeter for tuning solid state lasers to a desired wavelength. The application is measuring the vertical profiles of atmospheric water vapor using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. Improved wavemeter performance data for varying ambient temperatures are presented. This resulted when the electronic grounding and shielding were improved. The results with short pulse duration lasers are also included. These lasers show that similar performance could be obtained with lasers operating in the continuous and the pulsed domains.

  19. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  20. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data