Science.gov

Sample records for airborne radionuclide concentrations

  1. A coupled model of the airborne and surface concentration of radionuclides considering the resuspension-deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichige, Hiroyuki; Hatano, Yuko; Onda, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    We propose a new model of estimating the long-term behavior of both the airborne and the surface concentrations of radionuclides in the vicinity of 30 km of Fukushima plant. Our model consists of the following simultaneous equations: δC- = viδC-+ ΛupS - ΛdownC - ΛdecC (1) δt δxi δS- = - Λ S + Λ C - Λ S, (2) δt up down env where C is the airborne concentration of a specific nuclide, S the surface concentration, the suffix i is 1 or 2 (2 dimensional), v the effective wind velocity which migrates the radionuclides in the air, Λup the rate constant of resuspension process, Λdown of deposition process, Λdec the decay constant, and Λenv is the rate constant of the surface concentration decrease due to environmental factors such as runoff, washoff, infiltrations, and the vegetation effects. These equations are based on our former study (Hatano and Hatano, 1997; Hatano et al., 1998) which successfully reproduce the long-term decrease of airborne concentration of the Chernobyl data such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Ce-144, and Ru-106 over nearly a decade. The first equation of the present study is essentially the same as our previous studies, besides that we added a new term for deposition. The second equation is newly added in the present study which describes the behavior of the surface concentration. In Fukushima case, we found that the radiation risk is much higher than the airborne concentration. That is why we add the second equation. Since the new model requires parameter values of Λs we need to estimate these values from actual data. In order to do so, we apply the method of inverse problem and thereby estimate the values. We also do the spectral analysis of the dose rate (mainly from Cs-137, -134) and study if it is possible to estimate the resuspended amount from the ground surface.

  2. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  3. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  4. Comparison of predicted ground-level airborne radionuclide concentrations to measured values resulting from operation of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoak, W.V.

    1993-05-01

    A comparison study of measured and predicted downwind radionuclide concentrations from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) was performed. The radionuclide emissions consist primarily of the radioisotopes 11C, 13N, and 150. The gases, vented to the outside environment by a stack located at the facility, potentially increase the radiation exposure at the facility boundary. Emission rate, meteorological, and radiation monitoring station data were collected between September 26, 1992 and October 3, 1992. The meteorological and emission data were input to the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 (CAP88-PC) computer code. The downwind radionuclide air concentrations predicted by the code were compared to the air concentrations measured by the monitoring stations. The code was found to slightly over-predict downwind concentrations during unstable atmospheric conditions. For stable atmospheric conditions, the code was not useful for predicting downwind air concentrations. This is thought to be due to an underestimation of horizontal dispersion.

  5. Airborne radionuclides in mosses collected at different latitudes.

    PubMed

    Krmar, M; Wattanavatee, K; Radnović, D; Slivka, J; Bhongsuwan, T; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S

    2013-03-01

    Terrestrial mosses are a promising medium for investigation and monitoring of airborne radionuclide depositions due to their widespread occurrence, ease of sampling, and the possibility of high-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements without preparatory chemical treatment of samples. The overall objective of the present study was to compare (7)Be, (210)Pb and (137)Cs activity concentrations (in Bq/kg) in moss samples collected at two different climate zones: the south of Thailand (7 °N) and in Serbia (∼45 °N) in order to examine deposition of airborne radionuclide in these distant areas. Significant difference of the (210)Pb content (almost a factor of 2) in mosses was observed. The mean value of (7)Be activity in samples from Serbia was almost 40% higher than activity of those collected in Thailand. Level of (137)Cs in Thailand mosses was below the detection limit. It was shown that air transport of water droplets in the area of waterfalls and strong turbulence can deposit U and Th daughter nuclei. PMID:21880403

  6. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in airborne particulate samples collected in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Vallés, I; Camacho, A; Ortega, X; Serrano, I; Blázquez, S; Pérez, S

    2009-02-01

    Results for naturally occurring (7)Be, (210)Pb, (40)K, (214)Bi, (214)Pb, (212)Pb, (228)Ac and (208)Tl and anthropogenic (137)Cs in airborne particulate matter in the Barcelona area during the period from January 2001 to December 2005 are presented and discussed. The (212)Pb and (208)Tl, (214)Bi and (214)Pb, (7)Be and (210)Pb radionuclide levels showed a significant correlation with each other, with correlation coefficients of 0.99, 0.78 and 0.69, respectively, suggesting similar origin/behaviour of these radionuclides in the air. Caessium-137 and Potassium-40 were transported to the air as resuspended particle from the soil. The (7)Be and (210)Pb concentrations showed similar seasonal variations, with a tendency for maximum concentrations during the summer months. An inverse relationship was observed between the (7)Be, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs concentrations and weekly rainfall, indicating washout of atmospheric aerosols carrying these radionuclides. PMID:19027201

  7. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  8. Colloid-Associated Radionuclide Concentration Limits: ANL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Mertz

    2000-12-21

    The purpose and scope of this report is to describe the analysis of available colloidal data from waste form corrosion tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to extract characteristics of these colloids that can be used in modeling their contribution to the source term for sparingly soluble radioelements (e.g., Pu). Specifically, the focus is on developing a useful description of the following waste form colloid characteristics: (1) composition, (2) size distribution, and (3) quantification of the rate of waste form colloid generation. The composition and size distribution information are intended to support analysis of the potential transport of the sparingly soluble radionuclides associated with the waste form colloids. The rate of colloid generation is intended to support analysis of the waste form colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. In addressing the above characteristics, available data are interpreted to address mechanisms controlling colloid formation and stability. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000). Because the end objective is to support the source term modeling we have organized the conclusions into two categories: (1) data analysis conclusions and (2) recommendations for colloid source term modeling. The second category is included to facilitate use of the conclusions from the data analysis in the abstraction of a colloid source term model. The data analyses and conclusions that are presented in this report are based on small-scale laboratory tests conducted on a limited number of waste glass compositions and spent fuel types.

  9. Apparatus for real-time airborne particulate radionuclide collection and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Smart, John E.; Perkins, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus for collecting and analyzing an airborne particulate radionuclide having a filter mounted in a housing, the housing having an air inlet upstream of the filter and an air outlet downstream of the filter, wherein an air stream flows therethrough. The air inlet receives the air stream, the filter collects the airborne particulate radionuclide and permits a filtered air stream to pass through the air outlet. The improvement which permits real time counting is a gamma detecting germanium diode mounted downstream of the filter in the filtered air stream. The gamma detecting germanium diode is spaced apart from a downstream side of the filter a minimum distance for a substantially maximum counting detection while permitting substantially free air flow through the filter and uniform particulate radionuclide deposition on the filter.

  10. Quality Assurance Program Plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, L.M.

    1993-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance requirements and responsibilities for radioactive airborne emissions measurements activities from regulated stacks are controlled at the Hanford Site. Detailed monitoring requirements apply to stacks exceeding 1% of the standard of 10 mrem annual effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual from operations of the Hanford Site.

  11. Quality assurance program plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Boom, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan identifies quality assurance program requirements and addresses the various Westinghouse Hanford Company organizations and their particular responsibilities in regards to sample and data handling of radiological airborne emissions. This Quality Assurance Program Plan is prepared in accordance with and to written requirements.

  12. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS DURING BUFFING OF RESILIENT FLOOR TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although asbestos-containing resilient floor tiles are considered nonfriable, the frictional forces exerted on the tile during routine maintenance operations can generate asbestos-containing structures. tudy was conducted to determine the level of airborne asbestos concentrations...

  13. Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

    2008-08-07

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

  14. Quality assurance program plan for radionuclide airborne emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Boom, R.J.

    1995-03-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan identifies quality assurance program requirements and addresses the various Westinghouse Hanford Company organizations and their particular responsibilities in regards to sample and data handling of airborne emissions. The Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions requirements are defined in National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1991a). Reporting of the emissions to the US Department of Energy is performed in compliance with requirements of US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE-RL 1988). This Quality Assurance Program Plan is prepared in accordance with and to the requirements of QAMS-004/80, Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Program Plans (EPA 1983). Title 40 CFR Part 61, Appendix B, Method 114, Quality Assurance Methods (EPA 1991b) specifies the quality assurance requirements and that a program plan should be prepared to meet the requirements of this regulation. This Quality Assurance Program Plan identifies NESHAP responsibilities and how the Westinghouse Hanford Company Environmental, Safety, Health, and Quality Assurance Division will verify that the methods are properly implemented.

  15. Cluster analysis of radionuclide concentrations in beach sand.

    PubMed

    de Meijer, R J; James, I R; Jennings, P J; Koeyers, J E

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents a method in which natural radionuclide concentrations of beach sand minerals are traced along a stretch of coast by cluster analysis. This analysis yields two groups of mineral deposit with different origins. The method deviates from standard methods of following dispersal of radionuclides in the environment, which are usually based on the construction of lines of equal concentrations. The paper focuses on the methodology of quantitatively correlating activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in two groups of minerals. The methodology is widely applicable, but is demonstrated for natural radioactivity in beach sands along the coast of South West Australia. PMID:11214891

  16. Environmental releases from fuel cycle facility: part 1: radionuclide resuspension vs. stack releases on ambient airborne uranium and thorium levels.

    PubMed

    Masson, Olivier; Pourcelot, Laurent; Boulet, Béatrice; Cagnat, Xavier; Videau, Gérard

    2015-03-01

    Airborne activity levels of uranium and thorium series were measured in the vicinity (1.1 km) of a uranium (UF4) processing plant, located in Malvési, south of France. Regarding its impact on the environment, this facility is characterized by its routine atmospheric releases of uranium and by the emission of radionuclide-labelled particles from a storage pond filled with waste water or that contain dried sludge characterized by traces of plutonium and thorium ((230)Th). This study was performed during a whole year (November 2009-November 2010) and based on weekly aerosol sampling. Thanks to ICP-MS results, it was possible to perform investigations of uranium and thorium decay product concentration in the air. The number of aerosol filters sampled (50) was sufficient to establish a relationship between airborne radionuclide variations and the wind conditions. As expected, the more the time spent in the plume, the higher the ambient levels. The respective contributions of atmospheric releases and resuspension from local soil and waste ponds on ambient dust load and uranium-bearing aerosols were estimated. Two shutdown periods dedicated to facility servicing made it possible to estimate the resuspension contribution and to specify its origin (local or regional) according to the wind direction and remote background concentration. Airborne uranium mainly comes from the emission stack and, to a minor extent (∼20%), from wind resuspension of soil particles from the surrounding fields and areas devoted to waste storage. Moreover, weighed activity levels were clearly higher during operational periods than for shutdown periods. PMID:25613358

  17. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  18. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  19. Concentration of selected radionuclides in seawater from Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Saif; Al Ghadban, Abdul Nabi; Aba, Abdulaziz; Behbehani, Montaha

    2012-06-01

    No baseline existed for the radionuclides in Kuwait territorial water. With changing trend in the region to embrace nuclear energy, the baseline study is imperative to create a reference and to record the influence-functioning of upcoming power plants. The first one in Bushehr, Iran is ready to start and several more are likely to come-up in UAE, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The present baseline concentration of the four considered radionuclide's show low concentration of tritium, polonium, strontium and cesium; their concentration is comparable to most oceanic waters. PMID:22444480

  20. Post-Accident Sporadic Releases of Airborne Radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Site.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Georg; Niisoe, Tamon; Harada, Kouji H; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Schneider, Stephanie; Synal, Hans-Arno; Walther, Clemens; Christl, Marcus; Nanba, Kenji; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Koizumi, Akio

    2015-12-15

    The Fukushima nuclear accident (March 11, 2011) caused the widespread contamination of Japan by direct deposition of airborne radionuclides. Analysis of weekly air filters has revealed sporadic releases of radionuclides long after the Fukushima Daiichi reactors were stabilized. One major discharge was observed in August 2013 in monitoring stations north of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). During this event, an air monitoring station in this previously scarcely contaminated area suddenly reported (137)Cs activity levels that were 30-fold above the background. Together with atmospheric dispersion and deposition simulation, radionuclide analysis in soil indicated that debris removal operations conducted on the FDNPP site on August 19, 2013 are likely to be responsible for this late release of radionuclides. One soil sample in the center of the simulated plume exhibited a high (90)Sr contamination (78 ± 8 Bq kg(-1)) as well as a high (90)Sr/(137)Cs ratio (0.04); both phenomena have usually been observed only in very close vicinity around the FDNPP. We estimate that through the resuspension of highly contaminated particles in the course of these earthmoving operations, gross (137)Cs activity of ca. 2.8 × 10(11) Bq has been released. PMID:26448161

  1. Methods to assess airborne concentrations of cotton dust.

    PubMed

    Corn, M

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of concentrations of airborne cotton dust in the factory is necessary to determine adherence to applicable Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) on a day-to-day basis, as well as for investigatory studies of an epidemiological nature. The latter are required on an ongoing basis to determine the adequacy of PELs to prevent disease in the exposed population. A strategy of sampling includes considerations of the numbers of samples to be obtained for statistical validity and the locations of samples. Current practice is to obtain more "personal samples" of exposure wherever possible, but with regard to cotton dust, instrumentation is not available for such sampling. In the U.S., the vertical elutriator is the instrument of choice for determining the concentrations of cotton dust in air. Results are expressed as milligrams of airborne particulate (cotton dust) per cubic meter. PMID:3434562

  2. Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen

  3. Tracking of airborne radionuclides from the damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactors by European networks.

    PubMed

    Masson, O; Baeza, A; Bieringer, J; Brudecki, K; Bucci, S; Cappai, M; Carvalho, F P; Connan, O; Cosma, C; Dalheimer, A; Didier, D; Depuydt, G; De Geer, L E; De Vismes, A; Gini, L; Groppi, F; Gudnason, K; Gurriaran, R; Hainz, D; Halldórsson, Ó; Hammond, D; Hanley, O; Holeý, K; Homoki, Zs; Ioannidou, A; Isajenko, K; Jankovic, M; Katzlberger, C; Kettunen, M; Kierepko, R; Kontro, R; Kwakman, P J M; Lecomte, M; Leon Vintro, L; Leppänen, A-P; Lind, B; Lujaniene, G; Mc Ginnity, P; Mc Mahon, C; Malá, H; Manenti, S; Manolopoulou, M; Mattila, A; Mauring, A; Mietelski, J W; Møller, B; Nielsen, S P; Nikolic, J; Overwater, R M W; Pálsson, S E; Papastefanou, C; Penev, I; Pham, M K; Povinec, P P; Ramebäck, H; Reis, M C; Ringer, W; Rodriguez, A; Rulík, P; Saey, P R J; Samsonov, V; Schlosser, C; Sgorbati, G; Silobritiene, B V; Söderström, C; Sogni, R; Solier, L; Sonck, M; Steinhauser, G; Steinkopff, T; Steinmann, P; Stoulos, S; Sýkora, I; Todorovic, D; Tooloutalaie, N; Tositti, L; Tschiersch, J; Ugron, A; Vagena, E; Vargas, A; Wershofen, H; Zhukova, O

    2011-09-15

    Radioactive emissions into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. Among the various radionuclides released, iodine-131 ((131)I) and cesium isotopes ((137)Cs and (134)Cs) were transported across the Pacific toward the North American continent and reached Europe despite dispersion and washout along the route of the contaminated air masses. In Europe, the first signs of the releases were detected 7 days later while the first peak of activity level was observed between March 28th and March 30th. Time variations over a 20-day period and spatial variations across more than 150 sampling locations in Europe made it possible to characterize the contaminated air masses. After the Chernobyl accident, only a few measurements of the gaseous (131)I fraction were conducted compared to the number of measurements for the particulate fraction. Several studies had already pointed out the importance of the gaseous (131)I and the large underestimation of the total (131)I airborne activity level, and subsequent calculations of inhalation dose, if neglected. The measurements made across Europe following the releases from the Fukushima NPP reactors have provided a significant amount of new data on the ratio of the gaseous (131)I fraction to total (131)I, both on a spatial scale and its temporal variation. It can be pointed out that during the Fukushima event, the (134)Cs to (137)Cs ratio proved to be different from that observed after the Chernobyl accident. The data set provided in this paper is the most comprehensive survey of the main relevant airborne radionuclides from the Fukushima reactors, measured across Europe. A rough estimate of the total (131)I inventory that has passed over Europe during this period was <1% of the released amount. According to the measurements, airborne activity levels remain of no concern for public health in Europe. PMID:21809844

  4. Heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations in fly ash material

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.D.; Phagan, C.J.; Gray, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    A study was completed to characterize the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides and their mobility in two fly ash covered parking lots at the US Department of Energy`s Pantex Plant. Six composite samples collected from the parking areas were analyzed by an offsite contract laboratory for arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, uranium 234, and uranium 238. All metal and radionuclide concentrations except mercury and silver exceeded the applicable comparison standards for typical Pantex Plant soil; however, concentrations of mercury and silver were significantly below the Texas Risk Reduction Standards. In view of these results, it was strongly recommended that fly ash not be used for future projects at the Pantex Plant unless specialized engineering controls are used.

  5. Gross alpha, gross beta activities and gamma emitting radionuclides composition of airborne particulate samples in an oceanic island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, F.; Hernández-Armas, J.; Catalán, A.; Fernández-Aldecoa, J. C.; Karlsson, L.

    The radiometric compositions of airborne particulate samples, collected weekly during a 4 years period (1 January 2000 till 31 December 2003) at a site located 310 m a.s.l. in Tenerife (Canary Islands), are analysed in this paper. To do this, measurements of gross alpha, gross beta, 7Be, 210Pb, 228Ac, 226Ra, 212Pb, 214Pb, 208Tl, 214Bi, 235U, 40K, 131I and 137Cs concentrations were carried out in 376 cellulose and polypropylene filters. The time variations of the different radionuclides concentrations have been discussed in relation with various meteorological factors and the mean values have been compared to those published in recent literature for other sites located at the same altitude but different latitudes. The weekly activities of 7Be correlated linearly with the 210Pb activities ( R=0.59). In disagreement with other published studies, the 7Be activities did not correlate ( R=-0.05) with the temperature and maximum values were not found during summer season. The gross beta activities showed correlations with the gross alpha ( R=0.72) and 210Pb activities ( R=0.52), but not with the 7Be ( R=0.16). The anthropogenic radionuclide 131I, emitted from a nearby hospital, was detected slightly above detection limits (1.73×10 -6 Bq m -3) in 88 of the 210 weeks of measurement considered in this work. 137Cs was detected in 31 of those weeks. The 4-year average calculated for 7Be and 210Pb were 3 and 0.3 mBq m -3, respectively. These values are lower than those expected for a site at comparable latitude and altitude. In general, the radionuclides which appeared most frequently in the airborne particulate filters ( 7Be, 210Pb, 212Pb and 40K), did not correlate significantly with any of the meteorological parameters considered: rainfall, temperature, pressure, relative humidity, visibility, wind speed and direction. Therefore, no predictive model could be established with the available data as it has been done for continental sites. The long-range transport of aerosols

  6. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in ground level air using the ASS-500 high volume sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Frenzel, E.; Arnold, D.; Wershofen, H.

    1996-06-01

    A method for determination of radionuclide concentrations in air aerosol samples collected by the high volume aerosol sampler ASS-500 was elaborated. The aerosol sampling station ASS-500 is a Stand alone, all-weather proofed instrument. It is designed for representative sampling of airborne radionuclides from ground level air at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level. The ASS-500 station enables continuous air monitoring both normal and emergency Situations. The collection of aerosols on the Petrianov FPP-15-1.5 type filter out of an air volume of about 100,000 m{sup 3} (sampling period 1 wk) or of about 250,000 m{sup 3} (sampling period 3 wk) admits accurate spectrometric low level measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides. The achieved detection limit is 0.5 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} and 0.2 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} for {sup 137}Cs, respectively. A new developed air flow Meter system allows to enhance the collected air volume to about 150,000 m{sup 3} per week and lowers the detection limit to <0.4 {mu}Bq m{sup -3} for {sup 137}Cs for weekly collected aerosol samples. In Poland the CLOR uses 9 Stations ASS-500 at different sites as atmospheric radioactivity control system. On the basis of spectrometric measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in the collected aerosol samples at the different sites, CLOR establishes a weekly report about the radiological situation at Poland for responsible authorities. The very low achievable detection limit of the Station ASS-500 due 10 the high air flow fate and the long possible sampling period were the key argument for other government radiation protection authorities in Europe to introduce the Station ASS-500 into their low level radionuclide atmospheric monitoring programs (Austria, Belarus, France, Germany, Iceland, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine).

  7. Temporal variations of airborne particles concentration in the Brussels environment.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, P; Lénelle, Y; Meurrens, A; Carati, D; Brenig, L; Offer, Z Y

    2007-09-01

    We report and analyze data on the PM10 fraction of airborne particles measured at five recording stations in the Brussels region from October 2002 till September 2003. These stations are representative of the various activity sectors of the Brussels urban area. The objective was the determination of the origin of the PM10 particles (particles up to 10 mum) that are recorded in that region in order to follow the EU directives concerning tolerance level of airborne particles concentration. In order to evaluate the impacts of local and external factors that inject solid particles in the atmosphere of Brussels we compared concentration data from working and not working (holidays) periods. Moreover, we also compared concentrations from periods of agricultural activity and rest in the Brabant provinces surrounding the Brussels region for various crop types. The results lead to the conclusion that the impact or urban traffic is rather limited while that of the agricultural activities is important. Moreover, there appears a clear-cut distinction between different types of crops. PMID:17180416

  8. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report, prepared by the Committee on Toxicology of the National Research Council's Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, is in response to a request from NASA for guidelines to develop spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for space-station contaminants. SMACs are used to provide guidance on allowable chemical exposures during normal operations and emergency situations. Short-term SMACs refer to concentrations of airborne substances (such as gas, vapor, or aerosol) that will not compromise the performance of specific tasks during emergency conditions lasting up to 24 hours. Long-term SMACs are intended to avoid adverse health effects (either immediate or delayed) and to avoid degradation in crew performance with continuous exposure in a closed space-station environment for as long as 180 days.

  9. Natural radionuclide concentrations in two phosphate ores of east Algeria.

    PubMed

    Lakehal, Ch; Ramdhane, M; Boucenna, A

    2010-05-01

    Ore is considered as an important source of many elements such as the iron, phosphorus, and uranium. Concerning the natural radionuclides, their concentrations vary from an ore to other depending on the chemical composition of each site. In this work, two phosphate ores found in East of Algeria have been chosen to assess the activity concentration of natural radionuclides represented mainly by three natural radioactive series (238)U, (235)U and (232)Th, and the primordial radionuclide (40)K where they were determined using ultra-low background, high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The measured activity concentrations of radioactive series ranged from 6.2 +/- 0.4 to 733 +/- 33 Bq.kg(-1) for the (232)Th series, from 249 +/- 16 to 547 +/- 39 Bq.kg(-1) for the (238)U series, around 24.2 +/- 2.5 Bq.kg(-1) for the (235)U series, and from 1.4 +/- 0.2 to 6.7 +/- 0.7 Bq.kg(-1) for (40)K. To assess exposure to gamma radiation in the two ores, from specific activities of (232)Th, (40)K and (226)Ra, three indexes were determined: Radium equivalent (Ra(eq)), external and internal hazard indexes (H(ex) and H(in)), their values ranged from 831 +/- 8 to 1298 +/- 14 Bq.kg(-1) for Ra(eq), from 2.2 +/- 0.4 to 3.5 +/- 0.7 Bq.kg(-1) for H(ex), and from 4.2 +/- 0.7 to 4.5 +/- 0.7 Bq.kg(-1) for H(in). PMID:20303630

  10. Airborne particle concentrations at schools measured at different spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, G.; Fuoco, F. C.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.

    2013-03-01

    Potential adverse effects on children health may result from school exposure to airborne particles. To address this issue, measurements in terms of particle number concentration, particle size distribution and black carbon (BC) concentrations were performed in three school buildings in Cassino (Italy) and its suburbs, outside and inside of the classrooms during normal occupancy and use. Additional time resolved information was gathered on ventilation condition, classroom activity, and traffic count data around the schools were obtained using a video camera. Across the three investigated school buildings, the outdoor and indoor particle number concentration monitored down to 4 nm and up to 3 μm ranged from 2.8 × 104 part cm-3 to 4.7 × 104 part cm-3 and from 2.0 × 104 part cm-3 to 3.5 × 104 part cm-3, respectively. The total particle concentrations were usually higher outdoors than indoors, because no indoor sources were detected. I/O measured was less than 1 (varying in a relatively narrow range from 0.63 to 0.74), however one school exhibited indoor concentrations higher than outdoor during the morning rush hours. Particle size distribution at the outdoor site showed high particle concentrations in different size ranges, varying during the day; in relation to the starting and finishing of school time two modes were found. BC concentrations were 5 times higher at the urban school compared with the suburban and suburban-to-urban differences were larger than the relative differences of ultrafine particle concentrations.

  11. Airborne nanoparticle concentrations in the manufacturing of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) apparel.

    PubMed

    Vosburgh, Donna J H; Boysen, Dane A; Oleson, Jacob J; Peters, Thomas M

    2011-03-01

    One form of waterproof, breathable apparel is manufactured from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane laminated fabric using a specific process to seal seams that have been sewn with traditional techniques. The sealing process involves applying waterproof tape to the seam by feeding the seam through two rollers while applying hot air (600 °C). This study addressed the potential for exposure to particulate matter from this sealing process by characterizing airborne particles in a facility that produces more than 1000 lightweight PTFE rain jackets per day. Aerosol concentrations throughout the facility were mapped, breathing zone concentrations were measured, and hoods used to ventilate the seam sealing operation were evaluated. The geometric mean (GM) particle number concentrations were substantially greater in the sewing and sealing areas (67,000 and 188,000 particles cm⁻³)) compared with that measured in the office area (12,100 particles cm⁻³). Respirable mass concentrations were negligible throughout the facility (GM = 0.002 mg m⁻³) in the sewing and sealing areas). The particles exiting the final discharge of the facility's ventilation system were dominated by nanoparticles (number median diameter = 25 nm; geometric standard deviation of 1.39). The breathing zone particle number concentrations of the workers who sealed the sewn seams were highly variable and significantly greater when sealing seams than when conducting other tasks (p < 0.0001). The sealing workers' breathing zone concentrations ranged from 147,000 particles cm⁻³ to 798,000 particles cm⁻³, and their seam responsibility significantly influenced their breathing zone concentrations (p = 0.03). The finding that particle number concentrations were approximately equal outside the hood and inside the local exhaust duct indicated poor effectiveness of the canopy hoods used to ventilate sealing operations. PMID:21347955

  12. Airborne Nanoparticle Concentrations in the Manufacturing of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Apparel

    PubMed Central

    Vosburgh, Donna J.H.; Boysen, Dane A.; Oleson, Jacob J.; Peters, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    One form of waterproof, breathable apparel is manufactured from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane laminated fabric, using a specific process to seal seams that have been sewn with traditional techniques. The sealing process involves applying waterproof tape to the seam by feeding the seam through two rollers while applying hot air (600°C). This study addressed the potential for exposure to particulate matter from this sealing process, by characterizing airborne particles in a facility that produces over 1,000 lightweight PTFE rain jackets per day. Aerosol concentrations throughout the facility were mapped, breathing zone concentrations were measured, and hoods used to ventilate the seam sealing operation were evaluated. The geometric mean (GM) particle number concentrations were substantially greater in the sewing and sealing areas (67,000 and 188,000 particles cm−3) compared to that measured in the office area (12,100 particles cm−3). Respirable mass concentrations were negligible throughout the facility (GM=0.002 mg m−3 in the sewing and sealing areas). The particles exiting the final discharge of the facility's ventilation system were dominated by nanoparticles (number median diameter = 25 nm; geometric standard deviation of 1.39). The breathing zone particle number concentrations of the workers who sealed the sewn seams were highly variable and significantly greater when sealing seams than when conducting other tasks (p<0.0001). The sealing workers’ breathing zone concentrations ranged from 147,000 particles cm−3 to 798,000 particles cm−3, and their seam responsibility significantly influenced their breathing zone concentrations (p=0.03). The finding that particle number concentrations were approximately equal outside the hood and inside the local exhaust duct indicated poor effectiveness of the canopy hoods used to ventilate sealing operations. PMID:21347955

  13. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to this request, the NRC first developed criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants, published in its 1992 report Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. Since then, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations has been reviewing NASA's documentation of chemical-specific SMAC's as described in the Introduction to this volume. This report is the third volume in the series Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants. The first volume was published in 1994 and the second in 1996.

  14. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    DL Edwards; KD Shields; MJ Sula; MY Ballinger

    1999-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP--US Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H). In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the US Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Pacific Northwest) on the Hanford Site. Two of the facilities evaluated, 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, and 331 Building Life Sciences Laboratory met state and federal criteria for continuous sampling of airborne radionuclide emissions. One other building, the 3720 Environmental Sciences Laboratory, was recognized as being in transition with the potential for meeting the continuous sampling criteria.

  15. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for contaminants, and to review SMACs for various space-craft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee On Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMACs for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMACs for approximately 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the SMAC reports for 12 chemical contaminants that have been reviewed for

  16. Modelling airborne concentration and deposition rate of maize pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosz, Nathalie; Loubet, Benjamin; Huber, Laurent

    2004-10-01

    The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops has reinforced the need to quantify gene flow from crop to crop. This requires predictive tools which take into account meteorological conditions, canopy structure as well as pollen aerodynamic characteristics. A Lagrangian Stochastic (LS) model, called SMOP-2D (Stochastic Mechanistic model for Pollen dispersion and deposition in 2 Dimensions), is presented. It simulates wind dispersion of pollen by calculating individual pollen trajectories from their emission to their deposition. SMOP-2D was validated using two field experiments where airborne concentration and deposition rate of pollen were measured within and downwind from different sized maize (Zea mays) plots together with micrometeorological measurements. SMOP-2D correctly simulated the shapes of the concentration profiles but generally underestimated the deposition rates in the first 10 m downwind from the source. Potential explanations of this discrepancy are discussed. Incorrect parameterisation of turbulence in the transition from the crop to the surroundings is probably the most likely reason. This demonstrates that LS models for particle transfer need to be coupled with air-flow models under complex terrain conditions.

  17. Measurement of airborne particle concentrations near the Sunset Crater volcano, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Benke, Roland R; Hooper, Donald M; Durham, James S; Bannon, Donald R; Compton, Keith L; Necsoiu, Marius; McGinnis, Ronald N

    2009-02-01

    Direct measurements of airborne particle mass concentrations or mass loads are often used to estimate health effects from the inhalation of resuspended contaminated soil. Airborne particle mass concentrations were measured using a personal sampler under a variety of surface-disturbing activities within different depositional environments at both volcanic and nonvolcanic sites near the Sunset Crater volcano in northern Arizona. Focused field investigations were performed at this analog site to improve the understanding of natural and human-induced processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The level of surface-disturbing activity was found to be the most influential factor affecting the measured airborne particle concentrations, which increased over three orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. As the surface-disturbing activity level increased, the particle size distribution and the majority of airborne particle mass shifted from particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 mum (0.00039 in) to particles with aerodynamic diameters greater than 10 mum (0.00039 in). Under ambient conditions, above average wind speeds tended to increase airborne particle concentrations. In contrast, stronger winds tended to decrease airborne particle concentrations in the breathing zone during light and heavy surface-disturbing conditions. A slight increase in the average airborne particle concentration during ambient conditions was found above older nonvolcanic deposits, which tended to be finer grained than the Sunset Crater tephra deposits. An increased airborne particle concentration was realized when walking on an extremely fine-grained deposit, but the sensitivity of airborne particle concentrations to the resuspendible fraction of near-surface grain mass was not conclusive in the field setting when human activities disturbed the bulk of near-surface material. Although the limited sample size precluded detailed statistical analysis, the differences in airborne particle

  18. Analysis of airborne pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia, 2002.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Renata; Culig, Josip; Mitić, Bozena; Vukusić, Ivan; Sostar, Zvonimir

    2003-01-01

    Employing the volumetric method by use of a Hirst sampler, a total of 71,286 pollen grains, as many as 94.20% of them allergenic, were recorded in the air samples from the city of Zagreb during the 2002 pollen season. Among identified pollen of 35 plant species/genera/families, 23 were allergenic: Taxus/Juniperus, Alnus sp., Fraxinus sp., Betula sp., Corylus sp., Poaceae, Urticaceae, Artemisia sp., Ambrosia sp., Carpinus sp., Castanea sp., Chenopodiaceae, Salix sp., Populus sp., Ulmus sp., Juglans sp., Quercus sp., Platanus sp., Fagus sp., Plantago sp., Pinus sp., Picea sp. and Abies sp. The pollen of these plants also cause the majority of pollinosis in Europe. Study results and the pollen calendar designed for the 2002 pollen season for the City of Zagreb provide useful data for allergologists to reach an accurate diagnosis. The calendar also provides timely information on airborne pollen types and air concentrations for individuals with pollen hypersensitivity, thus allowing them to adjust their daily activities so as to minimize their contact with allergens and improve their quality of life both at home and at work. PMID:12852741

  19. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Andrew J; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for (137)Caesium, (90)Strontium and (131)Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide (210)Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. PMID:26094571

  20. Airborne fibre and asbestos concentrations in system built schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdett, Garry; Cottrell, Steve; Taylor, Catherine

    2009-02-01

    This paper summarises the airborne fibre concentration data measured in system built schools that contained asbestos insulation board (AIB) enclosed in the support columns by a protective steel casing. The particular focus of this work was the CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system buildings. A variety of air monitoring tests were carried out to assess the potential for fibres to be released into the classroom. A peak release testing protocol was adopted that involved static sampling, while simulating direct impact disturbances to selected columns. This was carried out before remediation, after sealing gaps and holes in and around the casing visible in the room (i.e. below ceiling level) and additionally round the tops of the columns, which extended into the suspended ceiling void. Simulated and actual measurements of worker exposures were also undertaken, while sealing columns, carrying out cleaning and maintenance work in the ceiling voids. Routine analysis of these air samples was carried out by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) with a limited amount of analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis to confirm whether the fibres visible by PCM were asbestos or non-asbestos. The PCM fibre concentrations data from the peak release tests showed that while direct releases of fibres to the room air can occur from gaps and holes in and around the column casings, sealing is an effective way of minimising releases to below the limit of quantification (0.01 f/ml) of the PCM method for some 95% of the tests carried out. Sealing with silicone filler and taping any gaps and seams visible on the column casing in the room, also gave concentrations below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the PCM method for 95% of the tests carried out. The data available did not show any significant difference between the PCM fibre concentrations in the room air for columns that had or had not been sealed in the ceiling void, as well as in the room

  1. Concentrations and concentration factors of several anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.

    1985-07-17

    Literature is reviewed and summarized with regard to concentrations of several anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in biological organisms from marine environments. Reported concentration factors for these radionuclides in organisms are tabulated for marine fish and invertebrates from water masses affected by different source terms.

  2. Selection of respiratory protection devices for use in very high concentrations of airborne plutonium.

    PubMed

    Bianconi, C J

    2000-08-01

    This paper focuses on the proper selection of respiratory protection devices for use in very high concentrations of airborne plutonium. Special attention is given to the determination of levels at which airborne plutonium presents a hazard that is immediately dangerous to life or health. PMID:10910403

  3. Analysis of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a radiopharmaceutical production facility based on a medical cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardina, M.; Tomarchio, E.; Greco, D.

    2015-11-01

    Positron emitting radionuclides are increasingly used in medical diagnostics and the number of radiopharmaceutical production facilities have been estimated to be growing worldwide. During the process of production and/or patient administration of radiopharmaceuticals, an amount of these radionuclides might become airborne and escape into the environment. Therefore, the analysis of radionuclide concentration in the air released to the stack is a very important issue to evaluate the dose to the population living around the plant. To this end, sampling and measurement of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a Nuclear Medicine Center (NMC), provided with a cyclotron for radiopharmaceuticals production, must be routinely carried out with an automatic measurement system. In this work is presented the air monitoring system realized at "San Gaetano" NMC at Bagheria (Italy) besides the analysis of the recorded stack relesead air concentration data. Sampling of air was carried out continuously and gamma-ray spectrometric measurement are made on-line and for a short time by using a shielded Marinelli beaker filled with sampled air and a gamma detector. The use of this system allows to have 1440 values of air concentration per day from 2002, year of the start of operation with the cyclotron. Therefore, the concentration values are very many and an analysis software is needed to determine the dose to the population. A comparison with the results of a simulation code based on a Gaussian Plume air dispersion modelling allow us to confirm the no-radiological significance of the stack effluent releases in terms of dose to population and to evaluate possible improvements in the plant devices to reduce the air concentration at stack.

  4. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Edwards, Daniel L.

    2003-12-05

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the assessment performed in 2003.

  5. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Shields, Keith D.; Edwards, Daniel R.

    2001-09-28

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods, and provides the results, for the assessment performed in 2001.

  6. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-05-13

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ([NESHAP]; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated off-site doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2010.

  7. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Barfuss, Brad C.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2008-01-01

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP – U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection – Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2007.

  8. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize historical data on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River, (2) determine present-day radionuclide tissue burdens from different locations in the Columbia River, and (3) compare historical data with current data. We first reviewed and summarized the historical literature on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Hanford Reach. Field studies were then conducted to evaluate the relationship among sample locations, age/length of white sturgeon, and present radionuclide tissue burdens. Results and comparisons are discussed in the remainder of this report.

  9. A Quantitative Dynamic Simulation of Bremia lactucae Airborne Conidia Concentration above a Lettuce Canopy.

    PubMed

    Fall, Mamadou Lamine; Van der Heyden, Hervé; Carisse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Bremia lactucae Regel, is a major threat to lettuce production worldwide. Lettuce downy mildew is a polycyclic disease driven by airborne spores. A weather-based dynamic simulation model for B. lactucae airborne spores was developed to simulate the aerobiological characteristics of the pathogen. The model was built using the STELLA platform by following the system dynamics methodology. The model was developed using published equations describing disease subprocesses (e.g., sporulation) and assembled knowledge of the interactions among pathogen, host, and weather. The model was evaluated with four years of independent data by comparing model simulations with observations of hourly and daily airborne spore concentrations. The results show an accurate simulation of the trend and shape of B. lactucae temporal dynamics of airborne spore concentration. The model simulated hourly and daily peaks in airborne spore concentrations. More than 95% of the simulation runs, the daily-simulated airborne conidia concentration was 0 when airborne conidia were not observed. Also, the relationship between the simulated and the observed airborne spores was linear. In more than 94% of the simulation runs, the proportion of the linear variation in the hourly-observed values explained by the variation in the hourly-simulated values was greater than 0.7 in all years except one. Most of the errors came from the deviation from the 1:1 line, and the proportion of errors due to the model bias was low. This model is the only dynamic model developed to mimic the dynamics of airborne inoculum and represents an initial step towards improved lettuce downy mildew understanding, forecasting and management. PMID:26953691

  10. A Quantitative Dynamic Simulation of Bremia lactucae Airborne Conidia Concentration above a Lettuce Canopy

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Mamadou Lamine; Van der Heyden, Hervé; Carisse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Bremia lactucae Regel, is a major threat to lettuce production worldwide. Lettuce downy mildew is a polycyclic disease driven by airborne spores. A weather-based dynamic simulation model for B. lactucae airborne spores was developed to simulate the aerobiological characteristics of the pathogen. The model was built using the STELLA platform by following the system dynamics methodology. The model was developed using published equations describing disease subprocesses (e.g., sporulation) and assembled knowledge of the interactions among pathogen, host, and weather. The model was evaluated with four years of independent data by comparing model simulations with observations of hourly and daily airborne spore concentrations. The results show an accurate simulation of the trend and shape of B. lactucae temporal dynamics of airborne spore concentration. The model simulated hourly and daily peaks in airborne spore concentrations. More than 95% of the simulation runs, the daily-simulated airborne conidia concentration was 0 when airborne conidia were not observed. Also, the relationship between the simulated and the observed airborne spores was linear. In more than 94% of the simulation runs, the proportion of the linear variation in the hourly-observed values explained by the variation in the hourly-simulated values was greater than 0.7 in all years except one. Most of the errors came from the deviation from the 1:1 line, and the proportion of errors due to the model bias was low. This model is the only dynamic model developed to mimic the dynamics of airborne inoculum and represents an initial step towards improved lettuce downy mildew understanding, forecasting and management. PMID:26953691

  11. Modeling Airborne Beryllium Concentrations From Open Air Dynamic Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, N. M.

    2003-12-01

    A heightened awareness of airborne beryllium contamination from industrial activities was reestablished during the late 1980's and early 1990's when it became recognized that Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD) had not been eradicated, and that the Occupational Health and Safety Administration standards for occupational air exposure to beryllium may not be sufficiently protective. This was in response to the observed CBD increase in multiple industrial settings where beryllium was manufactured and/or machined, thus producing beryllium particulates which are then available for redistribution by airborne transport. Sampling and modeling design activities were expanded at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico to evaluate potential airborne beryllium exposure to workers who might be exposed during dynamic testing activities associated with nuclear weapons Stockpile Stewardship. Herein is presented the results of multiple types of collected air measurements that were designed to characterize the production and dispersion of beryllium used in components whose performance is evaluated during high explosive detonation at open air firing sites. Data from fallout, high volume air, medium volume air, adhesive film, particle size impactor, and fine-particulate counting techniques will be presented, integrated, and applied in dispersion modeling to assess potential onsite and offsite personal exposures resulting from dynamic testing activities involving beryllium.

  12. Radionuclide concentrations in agricultural products near the Hanford Site, 1982 through 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed monitoring data for agricultural products collected from 1982 through 1992 near the Hanford Site to determine radionuclide concentration trends. While samples were collected and analyzed, and results reported annual in Hanford Site environmental reports, an 11-year data set was reviewed for this report to increase the ability to assess trends and potential Hanford effects. Products reviewed included milk, chicken, eggs, beef, vegetables, fruit, wine, wheat, and alfalfa. To determine which radionuclides were detected sufficiently often to permit analysis for trends and effects, each radionuclide concentration and its associated uncertainty were ratioed. Radionuclides were considered routinely detectable if more than 50% of the ratios were between zero and one. Data for these radionuclides were then analyzed statistically, using analyses of variance. The statistical analyses indicated the following: for the most part, there were no measurable effects for Hanford operations; radionuclide concentrations in all products reviewed remained relatively low when compared to concentrations that would result in a 1-mrem effective dose equivalent to an individual; radionuclide concentrations are decreasing in general; however, {sup 90}Sr concentrations in all media and {sup 129}I in milk increased from 1982 to 1986, then decreased gradually for the remainder of the review period. The {sup 129}I concentrations may be correlated with processing of irradiated reactor fuel at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant.

  13. Absolute tracer dye concentration using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The use of simultaneous airborne-laser-induced dye fluorescence and water Raman backscatter to measure the absolute concentration of an ocean-dispersed tracer dye is discussed. Theoretical considerations of the calculation of dye concentration by the numerical comparison of airborne laser-induced fluorescence spectra with laboratory spectra for known dye concentrations using the 3400/cm OH-stretch water Raman scatter as a calibration signal are presented which show that minimum errors are obtained and no data concerning water mass transmission properties are required when the laser wavelength is chosen to yield a Raman signal near the dye emission band. Results of field experiments conducted with an airborne conical scan lidar over a site in New York Bight into which rhodamine dye had been injected in a study of oil spill dispersion are then indicated which resulted in a contour map of dye concentrations, with a minimum detectable dye concentration of approximately 2 ppb by weight.

  14. CRRIS: a methodology for assessing the impact of airborne radionuclide releases

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. III; Miller, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) consists of six fully integrated computer codes which calculate environmental transport and resulting doses and risks to individuals or populations exposed to atmospheric radionuclide releases. The individual codes may be used alone for various assessment applications or may be run as a system. This presentation provides an overview and introduction to this system of computer codes and their use in conducting nuclear assessments. Radionuclides are handled by CRRIS either in terms of the released radionuclides or in terms of exposure radionuclides which consist of both the released nuclides and all (or a subset of) the decay daughters that grow in during environmental transport. The capability of CRRIS to handle radionuclide chains is accomplished through PRIMUS which serves as a preprocessor by accessing a library of radionuclide decay data and sets up matricies of decay constants which are used by the other CRRIS codes in all calculations involving transport and decay. PRIMUS may also be run independently by the user to define the decay chains, radionuclide decay constants, and branching ratios.

  15. Ambient airborne solids concentrations including volcanic ash at Hanford, Washington sampling sites subsequent to the Mount St. Helens eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehmel, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne solids concentrations were measured on a near daily basis at two Hanford, Washington sites after the eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980. These sites are about 211 km east of Mount St. Helens. Collected airborne solids included resuspended volcanic ash plus normal ambient solids. Average airborne solids concentrations were greater at the Hanford meteorological station sampling site which is 24 km northwest of the Horn Rapids dam sampling site. These increased concentrations reflect the sampling site proximity to greater ash fallout depths. Both sites are in low ash fallout areas although the Hanford meteorological station site is closer to the greater ash fallout areas. Airborne solids concentrations were decreased by rain, but airborne solids concentrations rapidly increased as surfaces dried. Airborne concentrations tended to become nearly the same at both sampling sites only for July 12 and 13.

  16. NARAC: An Emergency Response Resource for Predicting the Atmospheric Dispersion and Assessing the Consequences of Airborne Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, M M

    2005-08-23

    Hazardous radioactive materials can be released into the atmosphere by accidents at nuclear power plants, fuel processing facilities, and other facilities, and by transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. In addition, the post-cold-war proliferation of nuclear material has increased the potential for terrorism scenarios involving radiological dispersal devices, improvised nuclear devices, and inadequately secured military nuclear weapons. To mitigate these risks, the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) serves as a national resource for the United States, providing tools and services to quickly predict the environmental contamination and health effects caused by airborne radionuclides, and to provide scientifically based guidance to emergency managers for the protection of human life. NARAC's expert staff uses computer models, supporting databases, software systems, and communications systems to predict the plume paths and consequences of radiological, chemical, and biological atmospheric releases.

  17. Airborne endotoxin concentrations at a large open-lot dairy in southern idaho.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Robert S; Leytem, April B

    2009-01-01

    Endotoxins are derived from gram-negative bacteria and are a potential respiratory health risk for animals and humans. To determine the potential for endotoxin transport from a large open-lot dairy, total airborne endotoxin concentrations were determined at an upwind location (background) and five downwind locations on three separate days. The downwind locations were situated at of the edge of the lot, 200 and 1390 m downwind from the lot, and downwind from a manure composting area and wastewater holding pond. When the wind was predominantly from the west, the average endotoxin concentration at the upwind location was 24 endotoxin units (EU) m(-3), whereas at the edge of the lot on the downwind side it was 259 EU m(-3). At 200 and 1390 m downwind from the edge of the lot, the average endotoxin concentrations were 168 and 49 EU m(-3), respectively. Average airborne endotoxin concentrations downwind from the composting site (36 EU m(-3)) and wastewater holding pond (89 EU m(-3)) and 1390 m from the edge of the lot were not significantly different from the upwind location. There were no significant correlations between ambient weather data collected and endotoxin concentrations over the experimental period. The downwind data show that the airborne endotoxin concentrations decreased exponentially with distance from the lot edge. Decreasing an individual's proximity to the dairy should lower their risk of airborne endotoxin exposure and associated health effects. PMID:19643758

  18. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems - Part III: Airborne bacteria concentrations and emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Zhao, D; Ma, H; Liu, K; Atilgan, A; Xin, H

    2016-07-01

    Airborne microorganism level is an important indoor air quality indicator, yet it has not been well documented for laying-hen houses in the United States. As a part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) environmental monitoring project, this study comparatively monitored the concentrations and emissions of airborne total and Gram-negative (Gram(-)) bacteria in three types of commercial laying-hen houses, i.e., conventional cage (CC), aviary (AV), and enriched colony (EC) houses, over a period of eight months covering the mid and late stages of the flock cycle. It also delineated the relationship between airborne total bacteria and particulate matter smaller than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10). The results showed airborne total bacteria concentrations (log CFU/m(3)) of 4.7 ± 0.3 in CC, 6.0 ± 0.8 in AV, and 4.8 ± 0.3 in EC, all being higher than the level recommended for human environment (3.0 log CFU/m(3)). The much higher concentrations in AV arose from the presence of floor litter and hen activities on it, as evidenced by the higher concentrations in the afternoon (with litter access) than in the morning (without litter access). The overall means and standard deviation of airborne total bacteria emission rates, in log CFU/[h-hen] (or log CFU/[h-AU], AU = animal unit or 500 kg live weight) were 4.8 ± 0.4 (or 7.3 ± 0.4) for CC, 6.1 ± 0.7 (or 8.6 ± 0.7) for AV, and 4.8 ± 0.5 (or 7.3 ± 0.5) for EC. Both concentration and emission rate of airborne total bacteria were positively related to PM10 Gram(-) bacteria were present at low concentrations in all houses; and only 2 samples (6%) in CC, 7 (22%) samples in AV, and 2 (6%) samples in EC out of 32 air samples collected in each house were found positive with Gram(-) bacteria. The concentration of airborne Gram(-) bacteria was estimated to be <2% of the total bacteria. Total bacteria counts in manure on belt (in all houses) and floor litter (only in AV) were similar; however, the manure had

  19. Estimates of Columbia River radionuclide concentrations: Data for Phase 1 dose calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, M.C.; Walters, W.H.

    1991-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project to estimate the radiation doses people may have received from historical Hanford Site operations. Under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel, the project is being conducted in phases. The objective of the first phase is to assess the feasibility of the project-wide technical approach for acquiring data and developing models needed to calculate potential radiation doses. This report summarizes data that were generated for the Phase 1 dose calculations. These included monthly average concentrations of specific radionuclides in Columbia River water and sediments between Priest Rapids Dam and McNary Dam for the years 1964 to 1966. Nine key radionuclides were selected for analysis based on estimation of their contribution to dose. Concentrations of these radionuclides in the river were estimated using existing measurements and hydraulic calculations based on the simplifying assumption that dilution and decay were the primary processes controlling the fate of radionuclides released to the river. Five sub-reaches between Priest Rapids Dam and McNary Dam, corresponding to population centers and tributary confluences, were identified and monthly average radionuclide concentrations were calculated for each sub-reach. The hydraulic calculations were performed to provide radionuclide concentration estimates for time periods and geographic locations where measured data were not available. The validity of the calculation method will be evaluated in Phase 2. 12 refs., 13 figs., 49 tabs.

  20. Concentration and size distribution of total airborne microbes in hazy and foggy weather.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lijie; Qi, Jianhua; Shao, Congcong; Zhong, Xi; Gao, Dongmei; Cao, Wanwan; Gao, Jiawei; Bai, Ran; Long, Gaoyuan; Chu, Congcong

    2016-01-15

    Atmospheric bioaerosol particles were collected using a bioaerosol sampler from Oct. 2013 to Aug. 2014 in the coastal region of Qingdao. The total microbes were measured using an epifluorescence microscope after staining with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole). The concentration of total airborne microbes showed seasonal variation, with the highest value in winter and the lowest in summer. The mean concentration of total microbes was 6.55 × 10(5)Cells/m(3) on non-hazy days. The total microbe concentration increased to 7.09 × 10(5) and 9.00 × 10(5)Cells/m(3) on hazy and foggy days, respectively. The particle sizes of the total microbes presented a bimodal distribution on sunny days, with one peak at 1.1-2.1 μm and another at 4.7-7.0 μm. The size distribution of total microbes showed an increase in the fine fraction on hazy days and an increase in the coarse fraction on foggy days. However, the size distribution became unimodal during a heating period. Spearman correlation analysis showed that temperature and O3 had a significant negative correlation with the airborne microbe concentration, while PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO and the air quality index (AQI) had significant positive correlations with the airborne microbe concentration during hazy days. The increased number of airborne microbes will affect the air quality on hazy days. PMID:26473703

  1. Surface and Airborne Arsenic Concentrations in a Recreational Site near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic, up to 7058 μg g-1 in topsoil and bedrock, and more than 0.03 μg m-3 in air on a 2-week basis, were measured in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA), a very popular off-road area near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. The elevated arsenic concentrations in the topsoil and bedrock are correlated to outcrops of yellow sandstone belonging to the Muddy Creek Formation (≈ 10 to 4 Ma) and to faults crossing the area. Mineralized fluids moved to the surface through the faults and deposited the arsenic. A technique was developed to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations from the arsenic content in the topsoil. The technique was tested by comparing calculated with measured concentrations at 34 locations in the NDRA, for 3 periods of 2 weeks each. We then applied it to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations for more than 500 locations all over the NDRA. The highest airborne arsenic concentrations occur over sand dunes and other zones with a surficial layer of aeolian sand. Ironically these areas show the lowest levels of arsenic in the topsoil. However, they are highly susceptible to wind erosion and emit very large amounts of sand and dust during episodes of strong winds, thereby also emitting much arsenic. Elsewhere in the NDRA, in areas not or only very slightly affected by wind erosion, airborne arsenic levels equal the background level for airborne arsenic in the USA, approximately 0.0004 μg m-3. The results of this study are important because the NDRA is visited by more than 300,000 people annually. PMID:25897667

  2. Year-long assessment of airborne endotoxin at a concentrated dairy operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increasing prevalence of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), concern over bioaerosols drifting in downwind plumes is gaining attention as they may cause health effects in humans and livestock. In this study, we monitored total airborne endotoxins at upwind and downwind locations...

  3. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS DURING BUFFING, BURNISHING, AND STRIPPING OF RESILIENT FLOOR TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during low-speed spray-buffing, ultra high-speed burnishing, and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing resilient floor tile under preexisting and prepared levels of floor care maintenance. ow-speed spray-buffing...

  4. A Computer Code to Estimate Environmental Concentration and Dose Due to Airborne Release of Radioactive Material.

    1991-03-15

    Version 00 ORION-II was developed to estimate environmental concentration and dose due to airborne release of radioactive material from multiple sources of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. ORION-II is an updated version of ORION and is applicable to the sensitivity study of dose assessment at nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  5. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS DURING BUFFING, BURNISHING, AND STRIPPING OF RESILIENT FLOOR TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during low-speed spray-buffing, ultra high-speed burnishing, and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing resilient floor tile under pre-existing and prepared levels of floor care maintenance. Low-speed spray-buffin...

  6. Concentrations of airborne endotoxin and microorganisms at a 10,000 cow open-freestall dairy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined animal production systems produce elevated bioaerosol concentrations, which are a potential respiratory health risk to individuals on site and downwind. In this study, airborne endotoxin and microorganisms were collected during the spring, summer, and fall at a large open-freestall dairy i...

  7. Airborne endotoxin concentrations at a large open-lot dairy in southern Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endotoxins are derived from Gram-negative bacteria and are a potential respiratory health risk for animals and humans. To determine the potential for endotoxin transport from a large open lot dairy, airborne endotoxin concentrations were determined at an upwind location (background) and five downwi...

  8. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies for determination of airborne microorganisms at concentrated animal-feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The generation of bioaerosols from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is a concern from a human and animal health perspective. To better understand the airborne microorganisms found in these environments, a number of collection and analytical techniques have been utilized and will be di...

  9. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne contaminants, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee on Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMAC's for 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the first 11 SMAC reports that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee.

  10. A method to quantify infectious airborne pathogens at concentrations below the threshold of quantification by culture

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Timothy D.; Wang, Chong; Hoff, Steven J.; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    In aerobiology, dose-response studies are used to estimate the risk of infection to a susceptible host presented by exposure to a specific dose of an airborne pathogen. In the research setting, host- and pathogen-specific factors that affect the dose-response continuum can be accounted for by experimental design, but the requirement to precisely determine the dose of infectious pathogen to which the host was exposed is often challenging. By definition, quantification of viable airborne pathogens is based on the culture of micro-organisms, but some airborne pathogens are transmissible at concentrations below the threshold of quantification by culture. In this paper we present an approach to the calculation of exposure dose at microbiologically unquantifiable levels using an application of the “continuous-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model” and the validation of this approach using rhodamine B dye as a surrogate for aerosolized microbial pathogens in a dynamic aerosol toroid (DAT). PMID:24082399

  11. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    To protect space crews from air contaminants, NASA requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide guidance for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) and review NASA's development of exposure guidelines for specific chemicals. The NRC convened the Committee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines to address this task. The committee published Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants (NRC 1992). The reason for the review of chemicals in Volume 5 is that many of them have not been examined for more than 10 years, and new research necessitates examining the documents to ensure that they reflect current knowledge. New knowledge can be in the form of toxicologic data or in the application of new approaches for analysis of available data. In addition, because NASA anticipates longer space missions beyond low Earth orbit, SMACs for 1,000-d exposures have also been developed.

  12. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne contaminants. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMAC) reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists nd contractors recommending SMACs for approximately 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the SMAC reports for 12 chemical contaminants that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee. This report is the second volume in the series.

  13. Simple model for the reconstruction of radionuclide concentrations and radiation exposures along the Techa River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorobiova, M. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Neta, M. O. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) was contaminated in 1949-1956 by liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak complex, the first Russian facility for the production of plutonium. The measurements of environmental contamination were started in 1951. A simple model describing radionuclide transport along the free-flowing river and the accumulation of radionuclides by bottom sediments is presented. This model successfully correlates the rates of radionuclide releases as reconstructed by the Mayak experts, hydrological data, and available environmental monitoring data for the early period of contamination (1949-1951). The model was developed to reconstruct doses for people who lived in the riverside communities during the period of the releases and who were chronically exposed to external and internal irradiation. The model fills the data gaps and permits reconstruction of external gamma-exposure rates in air on the river bank and radionuclide concentrations in river water used for drinking and other household needs in 1949-1951.

  14. Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S; Kline, Joel N; Avery, Rachel; Bønløkke, Jakob H; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Dosman, James A; Duchaine, Caroline; Kirkhorn, Steven R; Kulhankova, Katarina; Merchant, James A

    2007-02-01

    Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. PMID:17384782

  15. Health Effects of Airborne Exposures from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S.; Kline, Joel N.; Avery, Rachel; Bønløkke, Jakob H.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Dosman, James A.; Duchaine, Caroline; Kirkhorn, Steven R.; Kulhankova, Katarina; Merchant, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in the surrounding areas. Malodor is one of the predominant concerns, and there is evidence that psychophysiologic changes may occur as a result of exposure to malodorous compounds. There is a paucity of data regarding community adverse health effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards—Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors but also on potential health effects from microbial exposures, concentrating on susceptible subgroups, especially asthmatic children and the elderly, since these exposures have been shown to be related to respiratory health effects among workers in CAFOs. PMID:17384782

  16. The influence of particle size on radionuclide activity concentrations in Tejo River sediments.

    PubMed

    Madruga, M J; Silva, L; Gomes, A R; Libânio, A; Reis, M

    2014-06-01

    Sediment samples from Tejo River were analyzed for (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (137)Cs and (40)K by HPGe gamma spectrometry. The activity concentration data were statistically analyzed. The activity concentrations values were in the range of about two orders of magnitude for each radionuclide. The influence of the particle size on the radionuclide concentrations was observed. The different environmental origins of the radionuclides (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (137)Cs and (40)K, in the sediments were demonstrated through correlation analysis. Cluster analysis showed a close relationship between (228)Ra and (226)Ra and a different behavior for (40)K. The data obtained in this study provides useful information on the background radioactivity of the studied area and can be further used for radiological mapping of the Tejo River. PMID:24561724

  17. Concentration and characterization of airborne particles in Tehran's subway system.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Hosein; Hoseini, Mohammad; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Mahdavi, Yousef; Jaafari, Jalil; Safari, Gholam Hosein

    2014-06-01

    Particulate matter is an important air pollutant, especially in closed environments like underground subway stations. In this study, a total of 13 elements were determined from PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected at two subway stations (Imam Khomeini and Sadeghiye) in Tehran's subway system. Sampling was conducted in April to August 2011 to measure PM concentrations in platform and adjacent outdoor air of the stations. In the Imam Khomeini station, the average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 94.4 ± 26.3 and 52.3 ± 16.5 μg m(-3) in the platform and 81.8 ± 22.2 and 35 ± 17.6 μg m(-3) in the outdoor air, respectively. In the Sadeghiye station, mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 87.6 ± 23 and 41.3 ± 20.4 μg m(-3) in the platform and 73.9 ± 17.3 and 30 ± 15 μg m(-3), in the outdoor air, respectively. The relative contribution of elemental components in each particle fraction were accounted for 43% (PM10) and 47.7% (PM2.5) in platform of Imam Khomeini station and 15.9% (PM10) and 18.5% (PM2.5) in the outdoor air of this station. Also, at the Sadeghiye station, each fraction accounted for 31.6% (PM10) and 39.8% (PM2.5) in platform and was 11.7% (PM10) and 14.3% (PM2.5) in the outdoor. At the Imam Khomeini station, Fe was the predominant element to represent 32.4 and 36 % of the total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 11.5 and 13.3% in the outdoor, respectively. At the Sadeghiye station, this element represented 22.7 and 29.8% of total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 8.7 and 10.5% in the outdoor air, respectively. Other major crustal elements were 5.8% (PM10) and 5.3% (PM2.5) in the Imam Khomeini station platform and 2.3 and 2.4% in the outdoor air, respectively. The proportion of other minor elements was significantly lower, actually less than 7% in total samples, and V was the minor concentration in total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in both platform stations. PMID:24573466

  18. Radionuclide concentrations in fish and invertebrates from Bikini Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    As in other global studies, /sub 137/Cs was found in the highest concentrations in edible flesh of all species of fish and in the lowest concentrations in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global-fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, IL, USA, in 1982. Strontium-90 is associated generally with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of /sub 60/Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of /sub 60/Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of /sup 207/Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of /sup 207/Bi were consistently detected in the muscle and other tissues of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, /sub 207/Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of /sup 207/Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither /sup 239 +240/Pu nor /sup 241/Am is accumulated significantly in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, /sup 238/Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than /sup 239 +240/Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 g of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines. 24 refs., 1 fig., 27 tabs

  19. Characterization of the airborne concentrations of lead in U. S. industry

    SciTech Connect

    Froines, J.R.; Baron, S.; Wegman, D.H.; O'Rourke, S. )

    1990-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead represents a continuing problem of significant magnitude in the United States. To characterize the problem for surveillance purposes, an analysis of the airborne concentrations of lead identified in OSHA compliance inspections was conducted for the years 1979 to 1985. The five specific objectives of the study were: (1) to examine the distribution of air lead concentration in industrial environments; (2) to determine the secular trends in air lead concentrations for high lead industries; (3) to assess which job titles had excessive airborne lead concentrations; (4) to evaluate whether there was a relationship between lead overexposure and company size, unionization, or type of inspection; and (5) to investigate the prevalence of respirator violations for lead. Fifty-two industries were identified which had more than 1/3 of their inspection medians greater than the permissible exposure limit. These included primary and secondary lead smelting, battery manufacture, pigment manufacture, brass/bronze foundries, as well as 46 other industries. There has been little if any improvement in the prevalence and severity of airborne lead concentrations for the high lead industries, battery manufacture, secondary smelting, pigment manufacture, and brass/bronze foundries. Specific high exposure job titles are identified for certain high lead industries. The job title of painting stands out as an especially problematical job title across a number of industries. The prevalence of respirator violations is approximately 20% of all lead inspections.

  20. Concentration and Emission of Airborne Contaminants in a Laboratory Animal Facility Housing Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ooms, Tara G; Artwohl, James E; Conroy, Lorraine M; Schoonover, Todd M; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of animal housing conditions can determine the frequency of bedding and cage changes, which are not standardized from facility to facility. Rabbits produce noticeable odors, and their excreta can scald and stain cages. Our facility wanted to document measurable airborne contaminants in a laboratory rabbit room in which excreta pans were changed weekly and cages changed biweekly. Contaminants included particulate, endotoxin, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and a rabbit salivary protein as a marker for rabbit allergen. Concentrations were measured daily over a 2-wk period in a laboratory animal facility to determine whether they increased over time and on days considered to be the dirtiest. Except for ammonia, concentrations of all airborne contaminants did not differ between clean and dirty days. Concentrations were lower than occupational health exposure guidelines for all contaminants studied, including ammonia. After measurement of concentration, a model was applied to calculate mean emission factors in this rabbit room. Examples of emission factor utilization to determine airborne contaminant concentration in rabbit rooms under various environmental conditions and housing densities are provided. PMID:18351721

  1. Concentrations of radionuclides in reef and lagoon pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Marsh, K.V.

    1981-07-01

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to assess the concentrations of persistent man-made radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands of the Northern Marshall Islands. The atolls and islands include Rongelap, Utirik, Taka, Bikar, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Likiep, Jemo, Ailuk, Mejet, Wotho, Ujelang and Bikini. Over 4000 terrestrial and marine samples were collected for radionuclide analysis from 76 different islands. Soils, vegetation, indigenous animals, and cistern and groundwater were collected from the islands. Reef fish, pelagic species, clams, lagoon water, and sediments were obtained from the lagoons. A report is given of all available concentration data for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239+240/Pu, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 241/Am as well as naturally occurring /sup 40/K and other gamma emitting radionuclides in tissues and organs of different species of fish collected from the atolls.

  2. Basement Fill Model Evaluation of Maximum Radionuclide Concentrations for Initial Suite of Radionuclides. Zion Station Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Terry

    2014-12-10

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in order to establish a new water treatment plant. There is some residual radioactive particles from the plant which need to be brought down to levels so an individual who receives water from the new treatment plant does not receive a radioactive dose in excess of 25 mrem/y⁻¹ as specified in 10 CFR 20 Subpart E. The objectives of this report are: (a) To present a simplified conceptual model for release from the buildings with residual subsurface structures that can be used to provide an upper bound on radionuclide concentrations in the fill material and the water in the interstitial spaces of the fill. (b) Provide maximum water concentrations and the corresponding amount of mass sorbed to the solid fill material that could occur in each building for use by ZSRP in selecting ROCs for detailed dose assessment calculations.

  3. A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.

    1980-06-01

    The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included.

  4. Radionuclide concentrations in terrestrial vegetation and soil on and around the Hanford Site, 1983 through 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Antonio, E.J.; Cooper, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    This report reviews concentrations of {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, U isotopes, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in soil and vegetation samples collected from 1983 through 1993 during routine surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling locations were grouped in study areas associated with operational areas on the Site. While radionuclide concentrations were very low and representative of background concentrations from historic fallout, some study areas on the Site contained slightly elevated concentrations compared to other study areas onsite and offsite. The 100 Areas had concentrations of {sup 60}Co comparable to the minimum detectable concentration of 0.02 pCi/g in soil. Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in 200 Area soils were slightly elevated. The 300 Area had a slight elevation of U in soil. These observations were expected because many of the sampling locations were selected to monitor specific facilities or operations at the operational areas. Generally, concentrations of the radionuclides studied were greater and more readily measured in soil samples compared to vegetation samples. The general pattern of concentrations of radionuclide concentrations in vegetation by area mirrored that observed in soil. Declines in {sup 90}Sr in soil appear to be attributed to radioactive decay and possibly downward migration out of the sampling horizon. The other radionuclides addressed in this report strongly sorb to soil and are readily retained in surface soil. Because of their long half-lives compared to the length of the study period, there was no significant indication that concentrations of U isotopes and Pu isotopes were decreasing over time.

  5. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Sensitivity of airborne fluorosensor measurements to linear vertical gradients in chlorophyll concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, D. D.; Punjabi, A. R.; Poole, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    A semianalytic Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation model for airborne laser fluorosensors has been extended to investigate the effects of inhomogeneities in the vertical distribution of phytoplankton concentrations in clear seawater. Simulation results for linearly varying step concentrations of chlorophyll are presented. The results indicate that statistically significant differences can be seen under certain conditions in the water Raman-normalized fluorescence signals between nonhomogeneous and homogeneous cases. A statistical test has been used to establish ranges of surface concentrations and/or verticl gradients in which calibration by surface samples would by inappropriate, and the results are discussed.

  7. Concentration of radionuclides in fresh water fish downstream of Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Dawson, J.M.; Brunk, J.L.; Wong, X.M.

    1984-12-27

    Fish were collected for radionuclide analysis over a 5-month period in 1984 from creeks downstream of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Plant, which has been discharging quantities of some fission and activation products to the waterway since 1981. Among the fish, the bluegill was selected for intensive study because it is very territorial and the radionuclide concentrations detected should be representative of the levels in the local environment at the downstream locations sampled. Among the gamma-emitting radionuclides routinely released, only /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs were detected in the edible flesh of fish. Concentrations in the flesh of fish decreased with distance from the plant. The relationship between concentration and distance was determined to be exponential. Exponential equations were generated to estimate concentrations in fish at downstream locations where no site-specific information was available. Mean concentrations of /sup 137/Cs in bluegill collected during April, May, July and August from specific downstream stations were not significantly different in spite of the release of 131 mCi to the creeks between April and August. The concentrations in fish are not responding to changes in water concentrations brought about by plant discharges. Diet appears to be a more significant factor than size or weight or water concentration in regulating body burdens of /sup 137/Cs in these fish.

  8. Device and method for accurately measuring concentrations of airborne transuranic isotopes

    DOEpatents

    McIsaac, Charles V.; Killian, E. Wayne; Grafwallner, Ervin G.; Kynaston, Ronnie L.; Johnson, Larry O.; Randolph, Peter D.

    1996-01-01

    An alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) with two silicon alpha detectors and three sample collection filters is described. This alpha CAM design provides continuous sampling and also measures the cumulative transuranic (TRU), i.e., plutonium and americium, activity on the filter, and thus provides a more accurate measurement of airborne TRU concentrations than can be accomplished using a single fixed sample collection filter and a single silicon alpha detector.

  9. Determining Airborne Concentrations of Spatial Repellent Chemicals in Mosquito Behavior Assay Systems

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Nicholas J.; Smith, Philip A.; Achee, Nicole L.; DeLong, Gerald T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mosquito behavior assays have been used to evaluate the efficacy of vector control interventions to include spatial repellents (SR). Current analytical methods are not optimized to determine short duration concentrations of SR active ingredients (AI) in air spaces during entomological evaluations. The aim of this study was to expand on our previous research to further validate a novel air sampling method to detect and quantitate airborne concentrations of a SR under laboratory and field conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings A thermal desorption (TD) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was used to determine the amount of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in samples of air. During laboratory experiments, 1 L volumes of air were collected over 10 min intervals from a three-chamber mosquito behavior assay system. Significantly higher levels of airborne DDT were measured in the chamber containing textiles treated with DDT compared to chambers free of AI. In the field, 57 samples of air were collected from experimental huts with and without DDT for onsite analysis. Airborne DDT was detected in samples collected from treated huts. The mean DDT air concentrations in these two huts over a period of four days with variable ambient temperature were 0.74 µg/m3 (n = 17; SD = 0.45) and 1.42 µg/m3 (n = 30; SD = 0.96). Conclusions/Significance The results from laboratory experiments confirmed that significantly different DDT exposure conditions existed in the three-chamber system establishing a chemical gradient to evaluate mosquito deterrency. The TD GC-MS method addresses a need to measure short-term (<1 h) SR concentrations in small volume (<100 L) samples of air and should be considered for standard evaluation of airborne AI levels in mosquito behavior assay systems. Future studies include the use of TD GC-MS to measure other semi-volatile vector control compounds. PMID:24015195

  10. Airborne crystalline silica concentrations at coal-fired power plants associated with coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Jeffrey; Yager, Janice

    2006-08-01

    This study presents measurements of airborne concentrations of respirable crystalline silica in the breathing zone of workers who were anticipated to encounter coal fly ash. Six plants were studied; two were fired with lignite coal, and the remaining four plants used bituminous and subbituminous coals. A total of 108 personal breathing zone respirable dust air samples were collected. Bulk samples were also collected from each plant site and subjected to crystalline silica analysis. Airborne dust particle size analysis was measured where fly ash was routinely encountered. The results from bituminous and subbituminous fired plants revealed that the highest airborne fly ash concentrations are encountered during maintenance activities: 0.008 mg/m3 to 96 mg/m3 (mean of 1.8 mg/m3). This group exceeded the threshold limit values (TLV) in 60% of the air samples. During normal production activities, airborne concentrations of crystalline silica ranged from nondetectable to 0.18 mg/m3 (mean value of 0.048 mg/m3). Air samples collected during these activities exceeded the current and proposed TLVs in approximately 54% and 65% of samples, respectively. Limited amounts of crystalline silica were detected in samples collected from lignite-fired plants, and approximately 20% of these air samples exceeded the current TLV. Particle size analysis in areas where breathing zone air samples were collected revealed mass median diameters typically between 3 microm and 8 microm. Bulk and air samples were analyzed for all of the common crystalline silica polymorphs, and only alpha quartz was detected. As compared with air samples, bulk samples from the same work areas consistently yielded lower relative amounts of quartz. Controls to limit coal fly ash exposures are indicated during some normal plant operations and during episodes of short term, but high concentrations of dust that may be encountered during maintenance activities, especially in areas where ash accumulations are present

  11. Device and method for accurately measuring concentrations of airborne transuranic isotopes

    DOEpatents

    McIsaac, C.V.; Killian, E.W.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Kynaston, R.L.; Johnson, L.O.; Randolph, P.D.

    1996-09-03

    An alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) with two silicon alpha detectors and three sample collection filters is described. This alpha CAM design provides continuous sampling and also measures the cumulative transuranic (TRU), i.e., plutonium and americium, activity on the filter, and thus provides a more accurate measurement of airborne TRU concentrations than can be accomplished using a single fixed sample collection filter and a single silicon alpha detector. 7 figs.

  12. [The airborne 1,3-butadiene concentrations in rubber and plastic processing plants].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshiaki; Tainaka, Hidetsugu; Matsunaga, Ichiro; Goto, Sumio

    2002-03-01

    Environment pollution by 1,3-butadiene had considerably increased in Japan. The main cause of the pollution is the automotive exhaust gas, and leaks from factories, smoking, and burning of rubber and plastic products are considered to be minor sources. The object of this study was to determine the contamination levels of airborne 1,3-butadiene in factories processing rubber and plastics containing 1,3-butadiene. The concentrations of airborne 1,3-butadiene were measured in 21 plants (10 rubber processing plants and 11 plastics processing plants) in Osaka. 1,3-Butadiene in air was collected for 10 minutes with a charcoal tube and a portable small pump adjusted to a 250 ml/min flow rate. In each plant, indoor air samples at five points and an outdoor air sample at one point outside the plant were collected. The samples were subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after thermal desorption from the charcoal. The concentrations of airborne 1,3-butadiene in the rubber processing plants and the plastics processing plants were 0.14-2.20 micrograms/m3 (geometric mean: 0.48 microgram/m3) and 0.23-4.51 micrograms/m3 (geometric mean: 0.80 microgram/m3), respectively. In all plants examined, indoor 1,3-butadiene concentrations were higher than the outdoor concentrations around the plants. Therefore, 1,3-butadiene was considered to arise from the processing of rubber or plastics, but the indoor 1,3-butadiene concentrations were much lower than the PEL-TWA (1 ppm = 2.21 mg/m3) of OSHA and the TLV-TWA (2 ppm) of ACGIH. The concentrations in the plants with closed room conditions without ventilation were higher than the concentrations in the other plants. It was suggested that ventilation affected the 1,3-butadiene concentration in the plants. PMID:11993233

  13. Non-Seasonal Variation of Airborne Aspergillus Spore Concentration in a Hospital Building.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Michael; Reichmuth, Markus; Laffer, Reto; Ottiger, Cornelia; Fankhauser, Hans; Bregenzer, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Nosocomial fungal infections are gaining increased attention from infectiologists. An adequate investigation into the levels of airborne Aspergillus and other fungal spores in hospital settings, under normal conditions, is largely unknown. We monitored airborne spore contamination in a Swiss hospital building in order to establish a seasonally-dependent base-line level. Air was sampled using an impaction technique, twice weekly, at six different locations over one year. Specimens were seeded in duplicate on Sabouraud agar plates. Grown colonies were identified to genus levels. The airborne Aspergillus spore concentration was constantly low throughout the whole year, at a median level of 2 spores/m³ (inter-quartile range = IQR 1-4), and displayed no seasonal dependency. The median concentration of other fungal spores was higher and showed a distinct seasonal variability with the ambient temperature change during the different seasons: 82 spores/m³ (IQR 26-126) in summer and 9 spores/m³ (IQR 6-15) in winter. The spore concentration varied considerably between the six sampling sites in the building (10 to 26 spores/m³). This variability may explain the variability of study results in the literature. PMID:26516890

  14. Non-Seasonal Variation of Airborne Aspergillus Spore Concentration in a Hospital Building

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Michael; Reichmuth, Markus; Laffer, Reto; Ottiger, Cornelia; Fankhauser, Hans; Bregenzer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial fungal infections are gaining increased attention from infectiologists. An adequate investigation into the levels of airborne Aspergillus and other fungal spores in hospital settings, under normal conditions, is largely unknown. We monitored airborne spore contamination in a Swiss hospital building in order to establish a seasonally-dependent base-line level. Air was sampled using an impaction technique, twice weekly, at six different locations over one year. Specimens were seeded in duplicate on Sabouraud agar plates. Grown colonies were identified to genus levels. The airborne Aspergillus spore concentration was constantly low throughout the whole year, at a median level of 2 spores/m3 (inter-quartile range = IQR 1–4), and displayed no seasonal dependency. The median concentration of other fungal spores was higher and showed a distinct seasonal variability with the ambient temperature change during the different seasons: 82 spores/m3 (IQR 26–126) in summer and 9 spores/m3 (IQR 6–15) in winter. The spore concentration varied considerably between the six sampling sites in the building (10 to 26 spores/m3). This variability may explain the variability of study results in the literature. PMID:26516890

  15. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1991--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stanek, M.A.; Jones, T.S.; Frithsen, J.B.; McLean, R.I.

    1997-02-01

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant produced radionuclides. This report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the period 1991 through 1994 and is the fifth in a series reporting monitoring results initiated at PBAPS in 1979.

  16. A probabilistic approach to obtaining limiting estimates of radionuclide concentration in biota.

    PubMed

    Higley, Kathryn A; Domotor, Stephen L; Antonio, Ernest J

    2003-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has developed a graded approach for evaluating radiation doses to biota. Limiting concentrations of radionuclides in water, soil, and sediment were derived for twenty-three radionuclides. Four organism types (aquatic animals, riparian animals, terrestrial animals, and terrestrial plants) were selected as the basis for method development. While environmental transfer data needed for deriving biota tissue concentrations are available for aquatic animals and terrestrial plants, less information is available for terrestrial and riparian organisms. Two methods were applied and examined for their ability to provide estimates of organism:soil or organism:water concentration factors in lieu of measured data. The kinetic/allometric approach combined with a parameter uncertainty analysis provides a needed method to estimate concentration factors across multiple species with limited input data. PMID:12590071

  17. In-situ remediation of soil contaminated with low concentrations of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Entry, J.A.; Vance, N.C.; Hamilton, M.A.; Zabowski, D.

    1994-12-31

    Since plants are known to take up and accumulate {sup 37}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, removal of these radionuclides from contaminated soils by plants would provide a reliable and economical method of remediation. One approach is to use fast-growing, perennial plants combined with specific mycorrhizal fungi to maximize plant accumulation and removal of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from contaminated soils. The objective is to find a series of plants that can quickly accumulate and remove radionuclides from soils. Specific mycorrhizal fungi inoculated onto plants should enhance the uptake of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. Laboratory studies indicate that certain plants may be able to remove radionuclides, especially {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, from soil over a period of less than 10 yr. In addition, one could change the physical and chemical properties of the soil to enhance the availability of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr to plants while decreasing the mobility of these radionuclides in soil. The above-ground portion of perennial plants would be harvested. High-temperature combustion would be used to oxidize plant material, concentrating {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in ash for disposal. One of the many strengths of this method is its applicability to any terrestrial environment. Transportation of radionuclides from the site could be minimized through plant management, selection of plants that are less palatable to grazing animals, and fencing. Environmental conditions will change with each site; however, radionuclide accumulation could be accomplished by plants that are adapted to a wide spectrum of environmental conditions. There is no other practical and economic method to remove these radionuclides form the vast areas of land that have been contaminated by nuclear testing and nuclear reactor accidents.

  18. Airborne crystalline silica concentrations at coal-fired power plants associated with coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, J.; Yager, J.

    2006-08-15

    This study presents measurements of airborne concentrations of respirable crystalline silica in the breathing zone of workers who were anticipated to encounter coal fly ash. Six plants were studied; two were fired with lignite coal, and the remaining four plants used bituminous and subbituminous coals. A total of 108 personal breathing zone respirable dust air samples were collected. Bulk samples were also collected from each plant site and subjected to crystalline silica analysis. Airborne dust particle size analysis was measured where fly ash was routinely encountered. The results from bituminous and subbituminous fired plants revealed that the highest airborne fly ash concentrations are encountered during maintenance activities: 0.008 mg/m{sup 3} to 96 mg/m{sup 3} (mean of 1.8 mg/m{sup 3}). This group exceeded the threshold limit values (TLV) in 60% of the air samples. During normal production activities, airborne concentrations of crystalline silica ranged from nondetectable to 0.18 mg/m{sup 3} (mean value of 0.048 mg/m{sup 3}). Air samples collected during these activities exceeded the current and proposed TLVs in approximately 54% and 65% of samples, respectively. Limited amounts of crystalline silica were detected in samples collected from lignite-fired plants, and approximately 20% of these air samples exceeded the current TLV. Particle size analysis in areas where breathing zone air samples were collected revealed mass median diameters typically between 3 {mu}m and 8 {mu}m. Bulk and air samples were analyzed for all of the common crystalline silica polymorphs, and only alpha quartz was detected.

  19. Radionuclide Concentrations in Honey Bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Haarmann, T.K.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1999-06-01

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jemez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for various radionuclides. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 3}H, and total uranium. Sample results from one colony were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 238}Pu.

  20. Setting Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for 1 hour or 24 hour contingency exposures to airborne chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Hector D.; Limero, Thomas F.; James, John T.

    1992-01-01

    Since the early years of the manned space program, NASA has developed and used exposure limits called Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) to help protect astronauts from airborne toxicants. Most of these SMACS are based on an exposure duration of 7 days, since this is the duration of a 'typical' mission. A set of 'contingency SMACs' is also being developed for scenarios involving brief (1-hour or 24- hour) exposures to relatively high levels of airborne toxicants from event-related 'contingency' releases of contaminants. The emergency nature of contingency exposures dictates the use of different criteria for setting exposure limits. The NASA JSC Toxicology Group recently began a program to document the rationales used to set new SMACs and plans to review the older, 7-day SMACs. In cooperation with the National Research Council's Committee on Toxicology, a standard procedure has been developed for researching, setting, and documenting SMAC values.

  1. A Probabilistic Approach to Obtaining Limiting Estimates of Radionuclide Concentrations in Biota

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Domotor, S L.; Antonio, Ernest J. )

    2003-06-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed a graded approach fo assessing compliance with radiation standards for protection of biota. Limiting concentrations of radionuclides in water, soil, and sediment were derived for twenty-three radionuclides. Four organisms types (aquatic animals, rparian animals, terrestrial animals, and terrestrial plants) were selected as the basis for methods development. While data are available for aquatic animals and terrestrial plants, less information is available for terrestrial and riparian organisms. Two methods were examined for their ability to provide estimates of organism:soil and organism:water concentration factors in lieu of measured data. The kinetic/allometric approach combined with an uncertainty analysis apprach was able to estimate concentration factors across multiple species with limited input data.

  2. Airborne concentrations of benzene associated with the historical use of some formulations of liquid wrench.

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela R D; Knutsen, Jeffrey S; Atkinson, Chris; Madl, Amy K; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2007-08-01

    The current study characterizes potential inhalation exposures to benzene associated with the historical use of some formulations of Liquid Wrench under specific test conditions. This product is a multiuse penetrant and lubricant commonly used in a variety of consumer and industrial settings. The study entailed the remanufacturing of several product formulations to have similar physical and chemical properties to most nonaerosol Liquid Wrench formulations between 1960 and 1978. The airborne concentrations of benzene and other constituents during the simulated application of these products were measured under a range of conditions. Nearly 200 breathing zone and area bystander air samples were collected during 11 different product use scenarios. Depending on the tests performed, average airborne concentrations of benzene ranged from approximately 0.2-9.9 mg/m(3) (0.08-3.8 ppm) for the 15-min personal samples; 0.1-8 mg/m(3) (0.04-3 ppm) for the 1-hr personal samples; and 0.1-5.1 mg/m(3) (0.04-2 ppm) for the 1-hr area samples. The 1-hr personal samples encompassed two 15-min product applications and two 15-min periods of standing within 5 to 10 feet of the work area. The measured airborne concentrations of benzene varied significantly based on the benzene content of the formulation tested (1%, 3%, 14%, or 30% v/v benzene) and the indoor air exchange rate but did not vary much with the base formulation of the product or the two quantities of Liquid Wrench used. The airborne concentrations of five other volatile chemicals (ethylbenzene, toluene, total xylenes, cyclohexane, and hexane) were also measured, and the results were consistent with the volatility and concentrations of these chemicals in the product tested. A linear regression analysis of air concentration compared with the chemical mole fraction in the solution and air exchange rate provided a relatively good fit to the data. The results of this study should be useful for evaluating potential inhalation

  3. Radionuclide concentrations and dose assessment of cistern water and groundwater at the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Robison, W.L.

    1981-03-16

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands in the Northern Marshall Islands. More than 70 cistern and groundwater samples were collected at the atolls; the volume of each sample was between 55 and 100 l. The concentration of /sup 90/Sr in cistern water at most atolls is that expected from world-wide fallout in wet deposition. Except for Bikini and Rongelap, /sup 137/Cs concentrations in cistern water are in agreement with the average predicted concentrations from wet deposition. The /sup 239 +240/Pu concentrations are everywhere less than the predicted fallout concentrations except at Rongelap, Ailinginae, and Bikini where the measured and predicted concentrations are in general agreement. During the period sampled, most groundwater concentrations of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs were everywhere higher than the concentrations in cistern water. Concentrations of the transurancies in filtered groundwater solution were everywhere comparable to or less than the concentrations in cistern water. It is concluded that the concentrations of radionuclides detected during any single period may not necessarily reflect the long-term average concentrations or the concentrations that might be observed if a lined well were extended above the surface. In any case, at all atolls the /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs concentrations in groundwater are below the concentration guidelines for drinking water recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency. The maximum annual dose rates and the 30- and 50-y integral doses are calculated for the intake of both cistern water and groundwater for each of the atolls.

  4. Crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Sommer, J.; Frederiksen, L.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.

    2012-06-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source to airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the source to the overall load is mainly local, but with intermittent Long Distance Transport (LDT) from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  5. Ambient airborne-solids concentrations including volcanic ash at Hanford, Washington sampling sites subsequent to the Mount St. Helens eruption

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1981-06-01

    A major eruption of Mount St. Helens, state of Washington, USA, occurred on May 18, 1980. The resulting volcanic ash plume was transported to the east. The Hanford area, northwest of Richland, Washington, was within the southern edge of the fallout plume. Airborne solid concentrations and airborne particle size distributions were measured at two sites in the Hanford area, a southern and northern site. During the initial sampling day (May 19), the average concentration for respirable particles, < 5.5-..mu..m diameter, was 1430-..mu..g/m/sup 3/ at the southern site; the total collection was 2610-..mu..g/m/sup 3/. The respirable content of the total airborne solids was 55%. At both sites average airborne solid concentrations decreased to 10- to 20-..mu..g/m/sup 3/ in December.

  6. Relating urban airborne particle concentrations to shipping using carbon based elemental emission ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Graham R.; Juwono, Alamsyah M.; Friend, Adrian J.; Cheung, Hing-Cho; Stelcer, Eduard; Cohen, David; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia

    2014-10-01

    This study demonstrates a novel method for testing the hypothesis that variations in primary and secondary particle number concentration (PNC) in urban air are related to residual fuel oil combustion at a coastal port lying 30 km upwind, by examining the correlation between PNC and airborne particle composition signatures chosen for their sensitivity to the elemental contaminants present in residual fuel oil. Residual fuel oil combustion indicators were chosen by comparing the sensitivity of a range of concentration ratios to airborne emissions originating from the port. The most responsive were combinations of vanadium and sulphur concentration ([S], [V]) expressed as ratios with respect to black carbon concentration ([BC]). These correlated significantly with ship activity at the port and with the fraction of time during which the wind blew from the port. The average [V] when the wind was predominantly from the port was 0.52 ng m-3 (87%) higher than the average for all wind directions and 0.83 ng m-3 (280%) higher than that for the lowest vanadium yielding wind direction considered to approximate the natural background. Shipping was found to be the main source of V impacting urban air quality in Brisbane. However, contrary to the stated hypothesis, increases in PNC related measures did not correlate with ship emission indicators or ship traffic. Hence at this site ship emissions were not found to be a major contributor to PNC compared to other fossil fuel combustion sources such as road traffic, airport and refinery emissions.

  7. Radionuclide Concentrations in Honey Bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1999

    SciTech Connect

    T. K. Haarmann; P. R. Fresquez

    2000-06-01

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jemez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for various radionuclides. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 3}H. Sample results from one colony were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for total uranium, while sample results from the other colony were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 90}Sr.

  8. Background concentrations of radionuclides in soils and river sediments in northern New Mexico, 1974-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Buhl, T.E.; Maes, M.N.; Brown, F.H.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the range and the upper limit for background concentrations of radionuclides and radioactivity in soils and river sediments that occur as natural rock-forming minerals and worldwide fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Documentation is based on the collection of soil and sediment in northern New Mexico and analyzed for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu, /sup 90/Sr, total uranium, gross gamma, and tritium. The data used to establish the statistical range and upper limit of background concentration cover a 9- or 13-year period ending in 1986. The knowledge of background levels is necessary to interpret soil and sediment data collected for the annual environmental surveillance report and other reports relating to radionuclides or radioactivity in soils and sediments. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  9. Twenty-five years of environmental radionuclide concentrations near a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Harris, Charles; Kreeger, Danielle; Patrick, Ruth; Palms, John

    2015-05-01

    The areas in and along a 262-km length of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania were monitored for the presence of radioactive materials. This study began two months after the 1979 Three Mile Island (TMI) partial reactor meltdown; it spanned the next 25 y. Monitoring points included stations at the PPL Susquehanna and TMI nuclear power plants. Monthly gamma measurements document concentrations of radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic sources. During this study, various series of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentration measurements were made in many general categories of animals, plants, and other inorganic matter. Sampling began in 1979 before the first start-up of the PPL Susquehanna power plant. Although all species were not continuously monitored for the entire period, an extensive database was compiled. In 1986, the ongoing measurements detected fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. These data may be used in support of dose or environmental transport calculations. PMID:25811148

  10. A literature review of concentrations and size distributions of ambient airborne Pb-containing particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Thornburg, Jonathan; Portzer, Jeff; Vanderpool, Robert; Cavender, Kevin; Rice, Joann

    2011-09-01

    The final 2008 lead (Pb) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) revision maintains Pb in total suspended particulate matter as the indicator. However, the final rule permits the use of low-volume PM 10 (particulate matter sampled with a 50% cut-point of 10 μm) Federal Reference Method (FRM) monitors in lieu of total suspended particulate (TSP) monitors for some non-source-oriented monitoring. PM 10 FRM monitors are known to provide more reliable concentration measurements than TSP samplers because they are omni-directional samplers and so are not biased by wind conditions. However, by design they exclude the upper tail of the particle size distribution. Hence, each monitor produces uncertainties about measured concentrations of Pb-bearing PM. Uncertainties in reported Pb data are also related to spatiotemporal variation of the concentration and size distribution of Pb-bearing PM. Therefore, a comprehensive literature review was performed to summarize the current knowledge regarding the concentration and size distribution of Pb particles in the atmosphere. The objectives of this review were to compile data that could shed light on these uncertainties, to provide insights useful during future Pb NAAQS reviews, and to identify areas where more research is needed. Results of this review indicated that Pb size distribution data are relatively limited and often outdated. Thirty-nine articles were found to have sufficiently detailed information regarding airborne Pb concentrations, study location, sample collection methods, and analytical techniques; only 16 of those papers reported Pb concentration data for multiple size fractions. For the most part, U.S. and European studies from the last forty years illustrate that the largest mode of the size distribution of airborne particle-bound Pb has shifted to larger sizes while airborne Pb concentrations have decreased in urban areas. This shift occurred as tetraethyl Pb additives in gasoline were phased out and

  11. Concentrations and Sources of Airborne Particles in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Licina, Dusan; Bhangar, Seema; Brooks, Brandon; Baker, Robyn; Firek, Brian; Tang, Xiaochen; Morowitz, Michael J; Banfield, Jillian F; Nazaroff, William W

    2016-01-01

    Premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have underdeveloped immune systems, making them susceptible to adverse health consequences from air pollutant exposure. Little is known about the sources of indoor airborne particles that contribute to the exposure of premature infants in the NICU environment. In this study, we monitored the spatial and temporal variations of airborne particulate matter concentrations along with other indoor environmental parameters and human occupancy. The experiments were conducted over one year in a private-style NICU. The NICU was served by a central heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system equipped with an economizer and a high-efficiency particle filtration system. The following parameters were measured continuously during weekdays with 1-min resolution: particles larger than 0.3 μm resolved into 6 size groups, CO2 level, dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity, and presence or absence of occupants. Altogether, over sixteen periods of a few weeks each, measurements were conducted in rooms occupied with premature infants. In parallel, a second monitoring station was operated in a nearby hallway or at the local nurses' station. The monitoring data suggest a strong link between indoor particle concentrations and human occupancy. Detected particle peaks from occupancy were clearly discernible among larger particles and imperceptible for submicron (0.3-1 μm) particles. The mean indoor particle mass concentrations averaged across the size range 0.3-10 μm during occupied periods was 1.9 μg/m3, approximately 2.5 times the concentration during unoccupied periods (0.8 μg/m3). Contributions of within-room emissions to total PM10 mass in the baby rooms averaged 37-81%. Near-room indoor emissions and outdoor sources contributed 18-59% and 1-5%, respectively. Airborne particle levels in the size range 1-10 μm showed strong dependence on human activities, indicating the importance of indoor

  12. Concentrations and Sources of Airborne Particles in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Licina, Dusan; Bhangar, Seema; Brooks, Brandon; Baker, Robyn; Firek, Brian; Tang, Xiaochen; Morowitz, Michael J.; Banfield, Jillian F.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have underdeveloped immune systems, making them susceptible to adverse health consequences from air pollutant exposure. Little is known about the sources of indoor airborne particles that contribute to the exposure of premature infants in the NICU environment. In this study, we monitored the spatial and temporal variations of airborne particulate matter concentrations along with other indoor environmental parameters and human occupancy. The experiments were conducted over one year in a private-style NICU. The NICU was served by a central heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system equipped with an economizer and a high-efficiency particle filtration system. The following parameters were measured continuously during weekdays with 1-min resolution: particles larger than 0.3 μm resolved into 6 size groups, CO2 level, dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity, and presence or absence of occupants. Altogether, over sixteen periods of a few weeks each, measurements were conducted in rooms occupied with premature infants. In parallel, a second monitoring station was operated in a nearby hallway or at the local nurses’ station. The monitoring data suggest a strong link between indoor particle concentrations and human occupancy. Detected particle peaks from occupancy were clearly discernible among larger particles and imperceptible for submicron (0.3–1 μm) particles. The mean indoor particle mass concentrations averaged across the size range 0.3–10 μm during occupied periods was 1.9 μg/m3, approximately 2.5 times the concentration during unoccupied periods (0.8 μg/m3). Contributions of within-room emissions to total PM10 mass in the baby rooms averaged 37–81%. Near-room indoor emissions and outdoor sources contributed 18–59% and 1–5%, respectively. Airborne particle levels in the size range 1–10 μm showed strong dependence on human activities, indicating the importance of indoor

  13. Waste Form and Indrift Colloids-Associated Radionuclide Concentrations: Abstraction and Summary

    SciTech Connect

    R. Aguilar

    2003-06-24

    This Model Report describes the analysis and abstractions of the colloids process model for the waste form and engineered barrier system components of the total system performance assessment calculations to be performed with the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application model. Included in this report is a description of (1) the types and concentrations of colloids that could be generated in the waste package from degradation of waste forms and the corrosion of the waste package materials, (2) types and concentrations of colloids produced from the steel components of the repository and their potential role in radionuclide transport, and (3) types and concentrations of colloids present in natural waters in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. Additionally, attachment/detachment characteristics and mechanisms of colloids anticipated in the repository are addressed and discussed. The abstraction of the process model is intended to capture the most important characteristics of radionuclide-colloid behavior for use in predicting the potential impact of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport on repository performance.

  14. Platinum and rhodium concentrations in airborne particulate matter in Germany from 1988 to 1998.

    PubMed

    Zereini, F; Wiseman, C; Alt, F; Messerschmidt, J; Müller, J; Urban, H

    2001-05-15

    Increases in platinum group element (PGE) concentrations in ambient air and dust since the introduction of automotive catalytic converters in 1988 is a cause of concern. Until now, data derived from engine-test bench experiments have provided the basis for the assessment of human health risks associated with PGE exposure. Such experiments have provided valuable information regarding emission data that has been used to estimate ambient exposure concentrations. However, these data are not necessarily representative of typical environmental PGE exposure levels and conditions. Data on measured environmental concentrations is needed to provide a more adequate basis for the assessment of exposure and related risks. Twenty air and airborne-dust samples were provided by the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Agency, Germany) in the years 1988, 1989, 1992, 1997, and 1998. The samples were collected in Frankfurt/Main and the adjacent city of Offenbach. For this, 11 to 80 m3 of air were filtered over a 24-72 h period using a vacuum. Glass-fiber filters were used to collect samples. Sample platinum and rhodium concentrations were determined using adsorptive voltammetry. Although the number of samples collected in different years is limited, the results indicate a trend toward continuous increases in ambient concentrations of these metals between 1988 and 1998. Specifically, there were 46- and 27-fold increases in Pt and Rh concentrations, respectively. Despite these observed increases, the Pt concentrations measured (i.e., 147 pg/m3 on average, with a maximum of 246 pg/m3 in 1998) fell far below 15,000 pg/m3, which has been suggested as a guidance value (i.e., exposure at this level would be expected to be without appreciable health risk). The results of a particle-size distribution analysis of one sample (8-step impactor) that was collected 150 m away from a street show that approximately 75% of Pt and 95% of Rh occurs in association with large particulate matter of > 2

  15. A qualitative evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in Hanford Site Wildlife, 1983 through 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    Environmental monitoring has been conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State since 1945. Fish and wildlife have been monitored since 1945, however, a major emphasis on mammals did not occur until the 1970s. This report focuses on the 10-year period from 1983 through 1992. The objectives of this report are to evaluate {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in Site wildlife populations and, when possible, evaluate trends in concentrations over this period of time. No distinct trends in radionuclide concentrations were apparent in most species sampled. Many measurements were at or below the analytical limit of detection. This evaluation found that concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in rabbit and deer bone were elevated in animals collected from areas adjacent to industrialized areas. Similarly, radionuclide concentrations in duck muscle from waterfowl collected at B Pond were elevated with {sup 137}Cs when compared to background concentrations. None of the measured concentrations were high enough to pose any risk to theoretical human consumers of game animals inhabiting the Hanford Site. Estimates of the annual dose from the consumption of 40 kg (88 lb) of Hanford Site wildlife were less than 0.001 times the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and the DOE guideline of 100 mrem/yr.

  16. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the peach bottom atomic power station: 1985-1986. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Domotor, S.L.; McLean, R.I.

    1989-07-01

    High-resolution gamma spectroscopy was used to determine radionuclide concentrations in over 450 biota and sediment samples collected from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) during 1985-1986. Low concentrations of PBAPS-related radionuclides (Zn65, Cs-134, and Cs-137) were detected in finfish, mussels, and crayfish. These PBAPS-related radionuclides and Co-60 were also detected in sediments. I-131 attributable to the Chernobyl reactor accident (April 26, 1986) was detected in environmental samples collected in May 1986. PBAPS-related radionuclide concentrations in biota and sediments represent small increments to the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system relative to natural and weapons test levels; radionuclide releases by PBAPS, and radiation doses to man, are well within regulatory limits.

  17. Vegetation concentration and inventory of metals and radionuclides in the old F-area seepage basin, 904-49G

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Measured concentrations of radionuclides and toxic metals are used to calculate the total inventory of in the vegetation growing on the Old F-Area Seepage Basin. Air concentrations and inhalation doses from exposure to smoke from burning the vegetation are calculated to evaluate the effect of open air burning. Radionuclide inventory is one order of magnitude (10 x) less than those necessary to produce a 1 mrem dose. Air concentrations of toxic metals are less than one third the permissible occupational dose.

  18. Radionuclide Concentrations in Deer and Elk from Los Alamos National Laboratory: 1991-1998

    SciTech Connect

    D. H. Kraig; J. K. Ferenbaugh; J. R. Biggs; K. D. Bennett; M. A. Mullen; P. R. Fresquez

    1998-12-01

    Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) forage in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that may contain radioactivity above natural and/or worldwide fallout levels. This paper summarizes radionuclide concentrations 3H, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, and total uranium in muscle and bone tissue of deer and elk collected from LANL lands from 1991 through 1998. Also, the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) and the risk of excess cancer fatalities (RECF) to people who ingest muscle and bone from deer and elk collected from LANL lands were estimated. Most radionuclide concentrations in muscle and bone from individual deer and elk collected from LANL lands were either at less than detectable quantities (where the analytical result was smaller than two counting uncertainties) and/or within upper (95%) level background (BG) concentrations. As a group, most radionuclides in muscle and bone of deer and elk from LANL lands were not significantly higher (p<0.10) than in similar tissues from deer and elk collected from BG locations. Also, elk that had been radio collared and tracked for two years and spent an average time of 50% on LANL lands were not significantly different in most radionuclides from road kill elk that have been collected as part of the environmental surveillance program. Overall, the upper (95%) level net CEDES (the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background) at the most conservative ingestion rate (51 lbs of muscle and 13 lbs of bone) were as follows: deer muscle = 0.220, deer bone = 3.762, elk muscle = 0.117, and elk bone = 1.67 mrendy. AU CEDES were far below the International Commission on Radiological Protection guideline of 100 mrem/y, and the highest muscle plus bone CEDE (4.0 mrendy) corresponded to a RECF of 2E-06 which is far below the Environmental Protection Agency upper level guideline of 1E04.

  19. Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1998

    SciTech Connect

    G. J. Gonzales; P. R. Fresquez; M. A. Mullen; L. Naranjo, Jr.

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes and evaluates the concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr, and total U in understory and overstory vegetation collected from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), its perimeter, and regional background areas in 1998. Comparisons to conservative toxicity reference value safe limits were also made. The arithmetic mean LANL radionuclide concentrations in understory were 501 pCi L{sup {minus}1} for {sup 3}H, 0.581 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 137}Cs, 0.001 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 238}Pu, 0.008 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 0.007 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 241}Am, 1.46 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 90}Sr, and 0.233 {micro}g ash g{sup {minus}1} for total uranium. The mean LANL radionuclide concentrations in overstory were 463 pCi L{sup {minus}1} for {sup 3}H, 1.51 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 137}Cs, 0.0004 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} {sup 238}Pu, 0.008 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 0.014 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 241}Am, 1.97 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 90}Sr, and 0.388 {micro}g ash g{sup {minus}1} for total uranium. Concentrations of radionuclides and total U in both understory and overstory vegetation at LANL generally were not statistically higher than in perimeter and regional background vegetation ({alpha} = 0.05). The exceptions were LANL {sup 3}H > perimeter {sup 3}H (understory) and LANL {sup 3}H background {sup 3}H (overstory). All maximum radionuclide concentrations were lower than toxicity reference values. With the exception of total U, the relationship between contaminant concentration in soil vs. vegetation was insignificant ({alpha} = 0.05). Generally, as the concentration of total U in soil decreased, the concentration in vegetation increased. This held true for both understory and overstory and regardless of whether data were separated by general location (LANL, perimeter, and background) or not. There was no

  20. Inactivation of Airborne Bacteria and Viruses Using Extremely Low Concentrations of Chlorine Dioxide Gas.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norio; Sakasegawa, Miyusse; Miura, Takanori; Shibata, Takashi; Takigawa, Yasuhiro; Taura, Kouichi; Taguchi, Kazuhiko; Matsubara, Kazuki; Nakahara, Kouichi; Kato, Daisuke; Sogawa, Koushirou; Oka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Infectious airborne microbes, including many pathological microbes that cause respiratory infections, are commonly found in medical facilities and constitute a serious threat to human health. Thus, an effective method for reducing the number of microbes floating in the air will aid in the minimization of the incidence of respiratory infectious diseases. Here, we demonstrate that chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas at extremely low concentrations, which has no detrimental effects on human health, elicits a strong effect to inactivate bacteria and viruses and significantly reduces the number of viable airborne microbes in a hospital operating room. In one set of experiments, a suspension of Staphylococcus aureus, bacteriophage MS2, and bacteriophage ΦX174 were released into an exposure chamber. When ClO2 gas at 0.01 or 0.02 parts per million (ppm, volume/volume) was present in the chamber, the numbers of surviving microbes in the air were markedly reduced after 120 min. The reductions were markedly greater than the natural reductions of the microbes in the chamber. In another experiment, the numbers of viable airborne bacteria in the operating room of a hospital collected over a 24-hour period in the presence or absence of 0.03 ppm ClO2 gas were found to be 10.9 ± 6.7 and 66.8 ± 31.2 colony-forming units/m3 (n = 9, p < 0.001), respectively. Taken together, we conclude that ClO2 gas at extremely low concentrations (≤0.03 ppm) can reduce the number of viable microbes floating in the air in a room. These results strongly support the potential use of ClO2 gas at a non-toxic level to reduce infections caused by the inhalation of pathogenic microbes in nursing homes and medical facilities. PMID:26926704

  1. Evaluation of the area factor used in the RESRAD code for the estimation of airborne contaminant concentrations of finite area sources

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.S.; Yu, C.; Wang, S.K.

    1998-07-01

    The area factor is used in the RESRAD code to estimate the airborne contaminant concentrations for a finite area of contaminated soils. The area factor model used in RESRAD version 5.70 and earlier (referred to as the old area factor) was a simple, but conservative, mixing model that tended to overestimate the airborne concentrations of radionuclide contaminants. An improved and more realistic model for the area factor (referred to here as the new area factor) is described in this report. The new area factor model is designed to reflect site-specific soil characteristics and meteorological conditions. The site-specific parameters considered include the size of the source area, average particle diameter, and average wind speed. Other site-specific parameters (particle density, atmospheric stability, raindrop diameter, and annual precipitation rate) were assumed to be constant. The model uses the Gaussian plume model combined with contaminant removal processes, such as dry and wet deposition of particulates. Area factors estimated with the new model are compared with old area factors that were based on the simple mixing model. In addition, sensitivity analyses are conducted for parameters assumed to be constant. The new area factor model has been incorporated into RESRAD version 5.75 and later.

  2. Performance of photocatalytic lamps on reduction of culturable airborne microorganism concentration.

    PubMed

    Chuaybamroong, Paradee; Thunyasirinon, Chuleewan; Supothina, Sitthisuntorn; Sribenjalux, Pipat; Wu, Chang-Yu

    2011-04-01

    Reduction of viable airborne Staphylococcus epidermidis and Aspergillus niger spore concentrations using two types of photocatalytic fluorescent lamps under controlled environmental conditions (25 vs. 35°C and 55 vs. 75% relative humidity) were investigated. Visible white-light and UVA black light were in-house spray-coated with TiO(2) and then compared with a commercially coated visible white-light for microbial concentration reduction. The white-light photocatalytic lamps reduced the concentration of culturable S. epidermidis up to 92% independent of temperature or humidity change, while the black light photocatalytic lamps completely inactivated the culturable bacteria at 25°C, 55% relative humidity. Humidity seemed to alleviate UVA damage since better bacteria survival was found. For A. niger spores, rising humidity or temperature could lower their concentration or drop their culturabilities so that a difference between the natural decay and photocatalytic disinfection could not be distinguished. Reductions of total bacteria and total fungi concentrations using these lamps were also examined under uncontrolled environmental conditions in an office and a waste-storage room. It was found that photocatalytic lamps could reduce total culturable bacteria concentration from 9 to 97% and total culturable fungi concentration from 3 to 95% within irradiation time of 30-480 min, respectively. Insignificant difference in concentration reduction among these photocatalytic lamps was pronounced. PMID:21339001

  3. A kinetic-allometric approach to predicting tissue radionuclide concentrations for biota.

    PubMed

    Higley, K A; Domotor, S L; Antonio, E J

    2003-01-01

    Allometry, or the biology of scaling, is the study of size and its consequences. It has become a useful tool for comparative physiology. There are several allometric equations that relate body size to many parameters, including ingestion rate, lifespan, inhalation rate, home range and more. While these equations were originally derived from empirical observations, there is a growing body of evidence that these relationships have their origins in the dynamics of energy transport mechanisms. As part of an ongoing effort by the Department of Energy in developing generic methods for evaluating radiation dose to biota, we have examined the utility of applying allometric techniques to predicting radionuclide tissue concentration across a large range of terrestrial and riparian species of animals. This particular study examined 23 radionuclides. Initial investigations suggest that the allometric approach can provide a useful tool to derive limiting values of uptake and elimination factors for animals. PMID:12590070

  4. Diurnal variation in airborne pollen concentrations of the selected taxa in Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Toth, Ivan; Peternel, Renata; Srnec, Lidija; Vojniković, Bozo

    2011-09-01

    The number of individuals allergic to plant pollen has recently been on a constant increase. The knowledge of diurnal distribution and abundance of allergenic pollen types, their patterns and response to source position and weather is useful to correlate hay fever symptoms with the presence of allergenic pollen in the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to determine diurnal distribution of total airborne pollen, pollen of particular allergenic taxa, possible variation in diurnal pollen distribution at measuring sites placed at different heights, and effect of some meteorological parameters on airborne pollen concentrations. A 7-day Hirst-type volumetric pollen trap was used for pollen sampling. Qualitative and quantitative pollen analysis was performed under a light microscope (magnification x400). Total pollen of all plant taxa (Ambrosia sp., Betula sp., Cupressaceae, Urticaceae, Poaceae, Quercus sp., Fraxinus sp., Alnus sp., Corylus sp., Populus sp., Pinus sp., Picea sp.) observed showed a regular diurnal distribution at both sampling sites in both study years, with a rise in the pollen concentration recorded after 4.00 a.m. and 6.00 a.m., respectively. The peak pollen concentration occurred between 12.00 a.m. and 4.00 p.m., and the lowest diurnal pollen concentrations were recorded overnight. About 50% of the 24-h pollen concentration were released to the atmosphere between 10.00 a.m. and 4.00 p.m. The timing and size of diurnal peaks were closely related to high temperature, low humidity and south-west maximum wind direction. PMID:22220402

  5. Airborne particle concentration and meteorologic conditions associated with pneumonia incidence in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    MacVean, D W; Franzen, D K; Keefe, T J; Bennett, B W

    1986-12-01

    To elucidate the role of air quality on the occurrence of pneumonia in feedlot cattle, the following environmental values were measured at a feedlot: suspended particulates in 5 particle-size fractions, relative humidity, air temperature, and barometric pressure. Pneumonia incidence data were classified by the number of days the cattle had been at the feedlot (days on feed). The concentration of airborne particles, range of temperature, days on feed, and season of the year were associated with incidence of pneumonia in cattle. Pneumonia incidence rates were greatest both within 15 days of arrival at the feedlot and during the fall sampling periods. The incidence of pneumonia in the 16 to 30 days-on-feed group was closely associated with the concentration of particles 2.0 to 3.3 microns in diameter and the range of daily temperature when exposure occurred 15 days before the onset of disease in the fall and 10 days before in the spring. PMID:3800131

  6. Airborne particle concentration and meteorologic conditions associated with pneumonia incidence in feedlot cattle

    SciTech Connect

    MacVean, D.W.; Franzen, D.K.; Keefe, T.J.; Bennett, B.W.

    1986-12-01

    To elucidate the role of air quality on the occurrence of pneumonia in feedlot cattle, the following environmental values were measured at a feedlot: suspended particulates in 5 particle-size fractions, relative humidity, air temperature, and barometric pressure. Pneumonia incidence data were classified by the number of days the cattle had been at the feedlot (days on feed). The concentration of airborne particles, range of temperature, days on feed, and season of the year were associated with incidence of pneumonia in cattle. Pneumonia incidence rates were greatest both within 15 days of arrival at the feedlot and during the fall sampling periods. The incidence of pneumonia in the 16 to 30 days-on-feed group was closely associated with the concentration of particles 2.0 to 3.3 microns in diameter and the range of daily temperature when exposure occurred 15 days before the onset of disease in the fall and 10 days before in the spring.

  7. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and produce from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo Gardens

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Salazar, J.G.

    1995-05-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium) concentrations were determined in soils and produce collected from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo gardens. All radionuclides in soils from Pueblo areas were within or just above regional statistical (natural and/or worldwide fallout) reference levels. Similarily, the average levels of radionuclides in produce collected from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso Pueblo gardens were not significantly different in produce collected from regional (background) locations. The effective (radiation) dose equivalent from consuming 352 lb of produce from Cochiti, Jemez, Taos, and San Ildefonso, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.036 ({+-}0.016), 0.072 ({+-}0.051), 0.012 ({+-}0.027), and 0.110 ({+-}0.102) mrem/yr, respectively. The highest calculated dose, based on the mean + 2 std dev (95% confidence level), was 0.314 mrem/yr; this was <0.4% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public.

  8. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

  9. Trends in radionuclide concentrations for selected wildlife and food products near the Hanford Site from 1971 through 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Cadwell, L.L.; Price, K.R.; Carlile, D.W.; Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game, Juneau, AK )

    1989-09-01

    From 1971 through 1988 at least 40 species of wildlife and 27 different types of food products were collected and analyzed for radionuclides as part of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Environmental Monitoring Program. This report summarizes the results of these analyses for sample types collected for all or most of the 18-year period. The objectives of this summary investigation were to identify long-term trends or significant year-to-year changes in radionuclide concentrations and, if possible, relate any observed changes in radionuclide concentrations to their sources and probable causes. Statistical techniques were employed to test for long-term trends. Conspicuous short-term changes in radionuclide concentrations were identified from inspection of the data. 30 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Radionuclide concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue within the Rio Grande drainage basin

    SciTech Connect

    Booher, J.L.; Fresquez, P.R.; Carter, L.F.; Gallaher, B.M.; Mullen, M.A.

    1998-02-01

    In 1992-93, Los Alamos National Laboratory collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey in an effort to characterize radionuclide concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue within the Rio Grande drainage basin from Colorado to Texas. Bed sediment was sampled from 18 locations for cesium ({sup 137}Cs), tritium ({sup 3}H), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu), americium ({sup 241}Am), total uranium ({sup tot}U) and alpha, beta, and gamma activity. Fish tissue was sampled from 12 locations for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup tot}U.

  11. Measurement of the terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in Bafra Kizilirmak delta (bird sanctuary) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Mutuk, Halil; Gümüs, Hasan; Turhan, Seref

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the activity concentrations of terrestrial and anthropogenic radionuclides in the soil samples collected from Bafra Kızılırmak Delta were measured by using gamma spectrometry with an NaI(Tl) detector. The average values of activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be 37.2±2.8, 33.7±3.1 and 413.0±59.8 Bq kg(-1), respectively. (137)Cs was also measured in some samples. It has a mean value of 13.8±1.0 Bq kg(-1). From the activity concentrations, the absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor and the corresponding annual effective dose rates and external hazard index (Hex) were estimated. PMID:24106331

  12. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for Occupational Exposure; Effluent Concentrations; Concentrations for Release to Sewerage B Appendix B to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Pt. 20, App. B Appendix...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for Occupational Exposure; Effluent Concentrations; Concentrations for Release to Sewerage B Appendix B to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Pt. 20, App. B Appendix...

  14. Relationship of airborne trimellitic anhydride concentrations to trimellitic anhydride--induced symptoms and immune responses

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, D.I.; Roach, D.E.; McGrath, K.G.; Larsen, R.S.; Zeiss, C.R.; Patterson, R.

    1983-12-01

    Eighteen workers exposed to trimellitic anhydride (TMA) powder were evaluated in 1979. Twelve of these workers were available for longitudinal study until 1982. Annual clinical evaluations and serum radioimmunoassays for total antibody binding and specific IgE binding to /sup 125/I-TM-HSA were performed. In 1979, five workers had antibody against TM-HSA. Of these, three workers were diagnosed with the late respiratory systemic syndrome (LRSS) and one worker with TMA-induced allergic rhinitis. The LRSS workers had significantly elevated total antibody binding of /sup 125/I-TM-HSA and the worker with rhinitis had significantly elevated specific IgE binding of /sup 125/I-TM-HSA per milliliter of serum. Although TMA handling was intermittent throughout the year, average airborne dust concentrations from 1974 to 1978 at job stations of the two heaviest TMA-exposed occupations, operator and assistant operator, were 2.1 and 0.82 mg/m3, respectively. After local exhaust ventilation had been improved, average airborne dust concentrations of TMA at the two latter job stations fell to levels of 0.03 and 0.01 mg/m3, respectively, in 1982. The decrease in TMA exposure coincided with a gradual fall in total antibody binding of /sup 125/I-TM-HSA per milliliter in 1982 and symptomatic improvement in the three individuals with the LRSS. The continuous low-level exposure of the worker with TMA rhinitis was sufficient to elicit a rise in specific IgE against TM-HSA from 1.1 ng of 125I-TM-HSA bound per milliliter in 1979 to 2.12 in 1982.

  15. Total element concentration and chemical fractionation in airborne particulate matter from Santiago, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Pablo; Griño, Paulina; Ahumada, Inés; Giordano, Ady

    Total element determination and chemical fractionation were carried out in airborne particulate matter (PM 10) from the Cerrillos monitoring station in Santiago, Chile, sampled in July (winter), 1997-2003. Element concentration in the period under study (1997-2003) was statistically analyzed through cluster analysis in order to identify groups of elements having similar behavior along time. Elements such as Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, As and Mg show a clear decrease in concentration with time. On the contrary, chromium increases its concentration almost linearly during the period. In order to estimate whether the presence of a certain element in PM 10 matrix is mainly due to anthropogenic or natural processes, the enrichment factor of each element was determined. According to their behavior in the sequential extraction procedure, the elements were grouped by multivariate analysis in three clusters: (a) those mobile elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, Cu and As) which are weakly bound to the matrix (fractions 1 and 2) (b) those elements (V, Ti, and Cr) mainly bound to carbonates and oxides (fraction 3) and (c) the most immobile elements (Ni, Mo, Ca, Mg, Ba and Al), mainly bound to silicates and organic matter (fraction 4). A source of great concern is the fact that elements of such high toxicity as Pb, Cd and As are highly concentrated in both mobile fractions, indicating that these elements have a direct impact on the environment and on the health of the exposed population.

  16. Accumulation of radionuclides by fish in relation to presence of bottom deposits and concentration of microelements in the water

    SciTech Connect

    Katkov, A.E.

    1980-03-01

    This paper is devoted to determination of the special features of accumulation of hydrobionts of radionuclides desorbed from the bottom in comparison with the accumulation of radionuclides entering the water directly. The investigations were stimulated by published information indicating that bottom deposits can shield bottom bionts against the uptake of some radionuclides and that the uptake of radionuclides by plants is enhanced by the presence of bottom deposits. We also sum up the results of experimental investigations of concentration factors (CF) for nuclides in relation to their concentration in water to obtain a more accurate picture of the role of mineralization in the exchange of microelements. The experiments were conducted on adult (6 to 8 years old) goldfish (Carassius carassius) from a body of water containing fresh water with a total mineral content of 0.06 g/liter.

  17. Influence of urban climate upon distribution of airborne Deuteromycete spore concentrations in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, C.; Lacey, J.; McCartney, A.; Rosas, I.

    The effect of an urban climate upon the spatial and temporal distribution of Deuteromycete spores was studied during 1991 using Burkard volumetric spore traps in two areas of Mexico City with different degrees of urbanization. Deuteromycete conidia formed the largest component of the total airborne fungal spore load in the atmosphere of Mexico City, contributing 52% of the spores trapped in an urban-residential area (southern area) and 65% of those in an urban-commercial area (central area). Among the most common spore types, Cladosporium and Alternaria showed a marked seasonal periodicity with significant differences in concentration (P<0.05) between the dry and wet seasons. Maximum conidial concentrations were found during the end of the wet season and the beginning of the cool, dry season (October-December). Daily mean concentrations of the predominant airborne spore types did not differ significantly between the southern and central areas. Daily mean spore concentrations were significantly correlated (P<0.05) in southern and central areas with maximum temperature (south, r = -0.35 central, r = -0.40) and relative humidity (south, r = 0.43; central, r = 0.29) from the previous day. Moreover, multiple regression analysis of spore concentrations with several meteorological factors showed significant interactions between fungal spores, relative humidity and maximum temperature in both areas. The diurnal periodicity of Cladosporium conidia characteristically showed two or three peaks in concentration during the day at 0200-0400, 1400 and 2000-2200 hours, while that of Alternaria showed only one peak (1200 to 2000 hours) in both areas. Maximum concentrations of these spores generally occurred 2-4 h earlier in the southern than in the central area. The lag in reaching maximum concentrations in the central area probably resulted from differences in the local conditions between the study areas, and from spores transported aerially into the city from distant sources. The

  18. Concentrations of particulate airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals collected in Lahore, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. J. T.; Harrison, Roy M.; Luhana, L.; Pio, Casimiro A.; Castro, L. M.; Tariq, Mohammad Nawaz; Hayat, S.; Quraishi, T.

    Hi-vol air sampling equipment was run at three sites (representative of "city", "industrial" and "rural" sampling locations) in Lahore, Pakistan, for over a year. The extraction and quantitative analyses of all Lahore air samples was completed for a suite of metals, various anions, ammonium, elemental and organic carbon, as well as particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A comparison of Lahore yearly mean pollutant concentrations with those obtained in Birmingham, U.K., shows that airborne metal levels in the Pakistani city are greater by at least one order of magnitude. The concentrations in Lahore obtained from this study are broadly in line with similar studies in Karachi as well as Calcutta and Bombay. Concentrations of particle-associated PAH are also around one order of magnitude higher than in U.K. samples, and, given the difference in ambient temperature, vapour-to-particle ratios of PAH are expected to be far higher in the hotter climate of Lahore. Minerals identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the Lahore air samples were broadly in line with those determined at locations in other parts of the world.

  19. Radionuclide concentrations in fish collected from Jemez, Nambe, and San Ildefonso Tribal Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Salazar, J.G.

    1995-02-01

    Radionuclide concentrations ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu,and total uranium) were determined in fish collected from Jemez, Nambe, and San Ildefonso tribal lakes. With the exception of {sup 137}Cs, all other radionuclides were not significantly different in (stocked) rainbow trout collected from Jemez and Nambe as compared with game fish collected from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado Reservoirs. Although {sup 137}Cs levels in trout from Jemez (3.2 {times} 10{sup -2} pCi per dry gram) and Nambe (7.5 {times} 10{sup -2} pCi per dry gram) were significantly higher than {sup 137}Cs concentrations in fish from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado, they were still well below the regional statistical (worldwide fallout) reference level (i.e., < 28 {times} 10{sup -2} pCi per dry gram). Game and nongame fish collected from San Ildefonso contained higher and significantly higher concentrations of uranium, respectively, as compared with fish collected from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado. The higher uranium concentrations in fish from San Ildefonso as compared with fish from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado were attributed to the higher natural soil uranium contents in the area as compared with the geology of the area upstream of San Ildefonso. The effective (radiation) dose equivalent (EDE) from consuming 46 lb of game fish from Jemez, Nambe, and San Ildefonso lakes, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.013 ({+-}0.002), 0.019 ({+-}0.012), and 0.017 ({+-}0.028) mrem/yr, respectively. Similarly, the EDE from consuming nongame fish from San Ildefonso was 0.0092 ({+-}0.0084) mrem/yr. The highest calculated dose, based on the mean + 2 standard deviation (95% confidence level), was 0.073 mrem/yr; this was <0.08% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public.

  20. DARTAB: a program to combine airborne radionuclide environmental exposure data with dosimetric and health effects data to generate tabulations of predicted health impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, C.L.; Eckerman, K.F.; Schlatter, E.C.; Ohr, S.Y.; Chester, R.O.

    1981-08-01

    The DARTAB computer code combines radionuclide environmental exposure data with dosimetric and health effects data to generate tabulations of the predicted impact of radioactive airborne effluents. DARTAB is independent of the environmental transport code used to generate the environmental exposure data and the codes used to produce the dosimetric and health effects data. Therefore human dose and risk calculations need not be added to every environmental transport code. Options are included in DARTAB to permit the user to request tabulations by various topics (e.g., cancer site, exposure pathway, etc.) to facilitate characterization of the human health impacts of the effluents. The DARTAB code was written at ORNL for the US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation Programs.

  1. EVALUATION OF THREE CLEANING METHODS FOR REMOVING ASBESTOS FROM CARPET: DETERMINATION OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of three cleaning methods to remove asbestos from contaminated carpet and to determine the airborne asbestos concentrations associated with the use of each method. he carpet on which the methods were tested was naturally conta...

  2. EVALUATION OF THREE CLEANING METHODS FOR REMOVING ASBESTOS FROM CARPET. DETERMINATION OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH EACH METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of three cleaning methods to remove asbestos from contaminated carpet and to determine the airborne asbestos concentrations associated with the use of each method. The carpet on which the methods were tested was naturally cont...

  3. Ambient Airborne Solids Concentrations Including Volcanic Ash at Hanford, Washington Sampling Sites Subsequent to the Mount St. Helens Eruption

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1982-12-20

    A major eruption of Mount St. Helens occurred on May 18, 1980. Subsequently, airborne solid concentrations were measured as a function of time at two sites within the southern edge of the fallout plume about 211 km east of Mount St. Helens. This ash was a source for investigating area-wide resuspension. Rain had a variable effect on decreasing airborne concentrations from resuspension. From 0.5 to 1.5 cm of rain were required to significantly reduce airborne solid concentrations through July. For a more aged resuspension source in September, a rain of 2.0 cm had a negligible effect. A monthly average threshold-wind speed for resuspension was defined as 3.6 m/s. For monthly-average wind speeds less than the threshold wind speed, monthly-average airborne concentrations tended to decrease with time. A decrease was recorded between September and October. For this 4-month time period, the half-life was on the order of 50 days, corresponding to a weathering rate of 5.1 year/sup -1/.

  4. Biodiversity and concentrations of airborne fungi in large US office buildings from the BASE study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Feng C.; Macher, Janet M.; Hung, Yun-Yi

    The Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) study measured baseline concentrations of airborne fungi in 100 representative US office buildings in 1994-1998. Multiple samples for different sampling durations, sites, and times of the day were aggregated into building-wide indoor and outdoor average concentrations. Fungal concentrations were compared between locations (indoor vs. outdoor), sampling and analytical methods (culture vs. microscopy), and season (summer vs. winter). The arithmetic means (standard deviations) of the indoor/outdoor concentrations of culturable fungi and fungal spores were 100/680 (230/840) CFUm-3 and 270/6540 (1190/6780) sporem-3, respectively. Although fewer groups were observed indoors than outdoors, at lower average concentrations (except in two buildings), site-specific and building-wide indoor measurements had higher coefficients of variation. More groups were seen in summer, and aggregated concentrations tended to be higher than in winter except for culturable Aureobasidium spp. and Botrytis spp. outdoors and non-sporulating fungi in both locations. Rankings of the predominant fungi identified by both methods were similar, but overall indoor and outdoor spore concentrations were approximately 3 and 10 times higher, respectively, than concentrations of culturable fungi. In the 44 buildings with both measurements, the indoor and outdoor total culturable fungi to fungal spore ratios (total C/S ratios) were 1.27 and 0.25, with opposite seasonal patterns. The indoor C/S ratio was higher in summer than in winter (1.47 vs. 0.86; N=29 and 15, respectively), but the outdoor ratio was lower in summer (0.19 vs. 0.36, respectively). Comparison of the number of different fungal groups and individual occurrence in buildings and samples indicated that the outdoor environment and summer season were more diverse, but the proportional contributions of the groups were very similar suggesting that the indoor and outdoor environments were related

  5. Measuring methane concentrations from anthropogenic and natural sources using airborne imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Roberts, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Two quantitative retrieval techniques were developed for measuring methane (CH4) enhancements for concentrated plumes using high spatial and moderate spectral resolution data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). An Iterative Maximum a Posteriori Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS) algorithm performed well for a homogenous ocean scene containing natural CH4 emissions from the Coal Oil Point (COP) seeps near Santa Barbara, California. A hybrid approach using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) was particularly effective for terrestrial surfaces given it could better account for highly variable surface reflectance of complex urban environments. These techniques permitted mapping of a distinct plume at COP consistent with known seep locations and local wind direction, with maximum near surface enhancements of 2.85 ppm CH4 above background. At the Inglewood Oil Field, a CH4 plume was observed immediately downwind of two hydrocarbon storage tanks with a maximum concentration of 8.45 ppm above background. Results from a field campaign using the next generation sensor (AVIRISng) and controlled CH4 releases will also be discussed. AVIRIS-like sensors offer the potential to better constrain both CH4 and CO2 emissions on local and regional scales, including sources of increasing concern like industrial point source emissions and fugitive CH4 from the oil and gas industry. Fig. 1. CH4 plumes and measured enhancements for the COP seeps (top) and hydrocarbon storage tanks (bottom).

  6. Indicators of airborne fungal concentrations in urban homes: understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Judith A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Anagnost, Susan E; Hunt, Andrew; Abraham, Jerrold L

    2015-06-01

    Indoor fungal exposure can compromise respiratory health. Low-income urban areas are of concern because of high asthma and allergy rates and housing disrepair. Understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures is important for assessing health risks and for developing mitigation strategies. We examined the types and concentrations of airborne fungi inside and outside of homes in low-income areas of Syracuse, NY as well as the effect of snow cover on fungal levels. At 103 homes, air samples for viable fungi were collected, occupants were interviewed and homes were inspected for visible mold, musty odors, water problems and other factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to relate high fungal levels to home conditions. Predominant indoor fungi included Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and hyaline unknowns. Basidiomycetes and an uncommon genus Acrodontium were also found frequently due to analysis methods developed for this project. With snow cover, outdoor total fungal levels were depressed and indoor concentrations were three times higher than outdoor on average with a maximum of 29 times higher. Visible mold was related to elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 4.11 95% CI 1.37-14.0) and bacteria (OR 3.79 95% CI 1.41-11.2). Musty, moldy odors were associated with elevated concentrations of total fungi (OR 3.48 95% CI 1.13-11.6) and basidiomycetes. Cockroaches, an indicator of moisture, were associated with elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 3.66 95% CI 1.16-13.1) and Aspergillus (OR 4.36 95% CI 1.60-13.4). Increasing relative humidity was associated with higher concentrations of Penicillium, yeasts and basidiomycetes. Visible mold, musty odors, indoor humidity and cockroaches are modifiable factors that were important determinants of indoor fungal exposures. Indoor air investigators should interpret indoor:outdoor fungal ratios cautiously when snow cover is present. PMID:25725196

  7. Effect of Radionuclide Activity Concentration on PET-CT Image Uniformity

    PubMed Central

    Hasford, Francis; Wyk, Bronwin Van; Mabhengu, Thulani; Vangu, Mboyo Di Tamba; Kyere, Augustine Kwame; Amuasi, John Humphrey

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of radionuclide activity concentration on positron emission tomography-computedr tomography (PET-CT) image uniformity has been carried out quantitatively. Tomographic PET-CT images of cylindrical phantom containing F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) activity concentration was acquired and used for the assessment. Activity concentrations were varied and PET-CT images were acquired at the constant acquisition parameters of time, matrix size, and reconstruction algorithm, respectively. Using midtransaxial image slices, quantitative index of nonuniformity (NU), and coefficient of uniformity variation were estimated for the different activity concentrations. Maximum NUs of 17.6%, 26.3%, 32.7%, 36.2%, and 38.5% were estimated for activity concentrations of 16.87 kBq/mL, 14.06 kBq/mL, 11.25 kBq/mL, 8.43 kBq/mL, and 5.62 kBq/mL, respectively. The coefficient of uniformity variation established an inverse quadratic relationship with activity concentration. Activity concentrations of 16.87 kBq/mL, 14.06 kBq/mL, 11.25 kBq/mL, 8.43 kBq/mL, and 5.62 kBq/mL produced uniformity variations of 1.47%, 2.52%, 4.23%, 5.12%, and 4.98%, respectively. Increasing activity concentration resulted in decreasing coefficient of uniformity and hence, an increase in image uniformity. The uniformity estimates compared well with the standards set internationally. PMID:27134558

  8. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Column CO2 Concentration to Cloud Tops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Abshire, J. B.; Kawa, S. R.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.

    2015-12-01

    Globally distributed atmospheric CO2 measurements with high precision, low bias and full seasonal sampling are crucial to advance carbon cycle sciences. However, two thirds of the Earth's surface is typically covered by clouds, and passive remote sensing approaches from space, e.g., OCO-2 and GOSAT, are limited to cloud-free scenes. They are unable to provide useful retrievals in cloudy areas where the photon path-length can't be well characterized. Thus, passive approaches have limited global coverage and poor sampling in cloudy regions, even though some cloudy regions have active carbon surface fluxes. NASA Goddard is developing a pulsed integrated-path, differential absorption (IPDA) lidar approach to measure atmospheric column CO2 concentrations from space as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. Measurements of time-resolved laser backscatter profiles from the atmosphere also allow this technique to estimate column CO2 and range to cloud tops in addition to those to the ground with precise knowledge of the photon path-length. This allows retrievals of column CO2 concentrations to cloud tops, providing much higher spatial coverage and some information about vertical structure of CO2. This is expected to benefit atmospheric transport process studies, carbon data assimilation in models, and global and regional carbon flux estimation. We show some preliminary results of the all-sky retrieval capability using airborne lidar measurements from the 2011, 2013 and 2014 ASCENDS airborne campaigns on the NASA DC-8. These show retrievals of atmospheric CO2 over low-level marine stratus clouds, cumulus clouds at the top of planetary boundary layer, some mid-level clouds and visually thin high-level cirrus clouds. The CO2 retrievals from the lidar are validated against in-situ measurements and compared to Goddard PCTM model simulations. Lidar cloud slicing to derive CO2 abundance in the planetary boundary layer and free troposphere also has been demonstrated. The

  9. The concentration of radionuclides and metals in vegetation adjacent to and in the SRL Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C. E. Jr.

    1992-12-14

    In 1991 the trees on the dikes surrounding the SRL Seepage Basins were sampled and analyzed to inventory the contaminants transported from the basins into the vegetation. Tree leaves and wood were collected and analyzed for [sup 90]Sr, [sup 60]Co, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 238]Pu, [sup 239,240]Pu, [sup 242,244]Cm, [sup 241]Am, Ba, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Pb. The concentrations of contaminants were influenced by sample type (leaves versus wood), species type (pines versus hardwoods), and location relative to distance from the basin. The total inventory of each contaminant in the trees was estimated. The relationships between leaf and wood, pines and hardwood, location, and mass of the material in each of these classes were used to weight the total inventory estimate. The radionuclide with the largest inventory was 0.7 mCi for [sup 90]Sr. The metallic contaminant with the largest inventory was Mn at 200 gm.

  10. Natural and artificial radionuclide activity concentrations in surface sediments of Izmit Bay, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ergül, Halim Aytekin; Belivermiş, Murat; Kılıç, Önder; Topcuoğlu, Sayhan; Çotuk, Yavuz

    2013-12-01

    Surface sediments from the north-eastern coast of the Marmara Sea, Turkey's most industrialized coastal region, were enriched with radioisotopes from the Chernobyl explosion in 1986. Caesium-137 in these sediments is also thought to originate from one former paper mill located nearby that used wood contaminated by Chernobyl explosion-originated (137)Cs for paper production. The average activity concentration of the (137)Cs was 21 Bq kg(-1), while naturally occurring radioisotopes, i.e. (40)K, (226)Ra, and (228)Ra, were 568, 18 and 24 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in surface sediments. The natural radionuclide activities reached their highest levels near petrochemical, phosphate and fertilizer processing facilities. Average (137)Cs activities were generally up to ten times higher than in Middle Eastern marine sediments and lower than those in Northern European sediments. PMID:23981563

  11. Concentrations of Radionuclides and Trace Elements in Soils and Vegetation Around the DARHT Facility during 2004

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Fresquez

    2004-10-01

    Samples of soil, sediment, and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation were collected at four locations around the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). All samples were analyzed for concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl. These results, which represent five years since the start of operations, were compared with baseline statistical reference level (BSRL) data established over a four-year-long preoperational period prior to DARHT operations, and to LANL and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Screening Action Levels (SALs). Most radionuclides and trace elements in soil, sediment, and vegetation were below BSRL values and those soils/sediments that were above BSRLs were far below SALs.

  12. The concentration of radionuclides and metals in vegetation adjacent to and in the SRL Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C. E. Jr.

    1992-12-14

    In 1991 the trees on the dikes surrounding the SRL Seepage Basins were sampled and analyzed to inventory the contaminants transported from the basins into the vegetation. Tree leaves and wood were collected and analyzed for {sup 90}Sr, {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 242,244}Cm, {sup 241}Am, Ba, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Pb. The concentrations of contaminants were influenced by sample type (leaves versus wood), species type (pines versus hardwoods), and location relative to distance from the basin. The total inventory of each contaminant in the trees was estimated. The relationships between leaf and wood, pines and hardwood, location, and mass of the material in each of these classes were used to weight the total inventory estimate. The radionuclide with the largest inventory was 0.7 mCi for {sup 90}Sr. The metallic contaminant with the largest inventory was Mn at 200 gm.

  13. Airborne Pollen Concentrations and Emergency Room Visits for Myocardial Infarction: A Multicity Case-Crossover Study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Weichenthal, Scott; Lavigne, Eric; Villeneuve, Paul J; Reeves, François

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have examined the acute cardiovascular effects of airborne allergens. We conducted a case-crossover study to evaluate the relationship between airborne allergen concentrations and emergency room visits for myocardial infarction (MI) in Ontario, Canada. In total, 17,960 cases of MI were identified between the months of April and October during the years 2004-2011. Daily mean aeroallergen concentrations (pollen and mold spores) were assigned to case and control periods using central-site monitors in each city along with daily measurements of meteorological data and air pollution (nitrogen dioxide and ozone). Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression models adjusting for time-varying covariates. Risk of MI was 5.5% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4, 7.6) on days in the highest tertile of total pollen concentrations compared with days in the lowest tertile, and a significant concentration-response trend was observed (P < 0.001). Higher MI risk was limited to same-day pollen concentrations, with the largest risks being observed during May (odds ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.35) and June (odds ratio = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.22), when tree and grass pollen are most common. Mold spore concentrations were not associated with MI. Our findings suggest that airborne pollen might represent a previously unidentified environmental risk factor for myocardial infarction. PMID:26934896

  14. Airborne hyperspectral imaging for sensing phosphorus concentration in the Lake Okeechobee drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogrekci, Ismail; Lee, Won Suk; Jordan, Jonathan D.

    2005-05-01

    Eutrophication disturbs the ecological balance in the Lake Okeechobee due to high concentration of phosphorus emanated from the regions in the lake's drainage basin. Ability of measuring phosphorus (P) concentrations of water in the Lake Okeechobee itself is very important. Furthermore, monitoring P in its drainage basins is crucial in order to find the cause of P loading and contributing regions. Also, inexpensive real-time sensing capability for a large area in a short time would help scientist, government agents, and civilians to understand the causes, spot the high-risk areas, and develop management practices for restoring the natural equilibrium. In order to measure P concentrations in the Lake Okeechobee drainage basin, airborne hyperspectral images were taken from five representative target sites by deploying a modified queen air twin engine aircraft. Each flight line covered a swath of approximately 365 m wide. Spatial resolution was about 1 m. Spectral range covered was between 412.65 and 991.82 nm with an approximate of 5 nm spectral resolution. Ground truthing was conducted to collect soil and vegetation samples, GPS coordinates of each location, and reflectance measurement of each sample. On the ground, spectral reflectance was measured using a handheld spectrometer in 400-2500 nm. The samples were sent to a laboratory for chemical analysis. Also diffuse reflectance of the samples was measured in a laboratory setting using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Images were geocorrected and rectified to reduce geometric effect. Calibration of images was conducted to obtain actual reflectance of the target area. Score, SAM (Spectral Angle Mapping), SFF (Spectral Feature Fitting) were computed for spectral matching with image derived spectral library.

  15. Experimental study of the response functions of direct-reading instruments measuring surface-area concentration of airborne nanostructured particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bau, Sébastien; Witschger, Olivier; Gensdarmes, François; Thomas, Dominique

    2009-05-01

    An increasing number of experimental and theoretical studies focus on airborne nanoparticles (NP) in relation with many aspects of risk assessment to move forward our understanding of the hazards, the actual exposures in the workplace, and the limits of engineering controls and personal protective equipment with regard to NP. As a consequence, generating airborne NP with controlled properties constitutes an important challenge. In parallel, toxicological studies have been carried out, and most of them support the concept that surface-area could be a relevant metric for characterizing exposure to airborne NP [1]. To provide NP surface-area concentration measurements, some direct-reading instruments have been designed, based on attachment rate of unipolar ions to NP by diffusion. However, very few information is available concerning the performances of these instruments and the parameters that could affect their responses. In this context, our work aims at characterizing the actual available instruments providing airborne NP surface-area concentration. The instruments (a- LQ1-DC, Matter Engineering; b-AeroTrak™ 9000, TSI; c- NSAM, TSI model 3550;) are thought to be relevant for further workplace exposure characterization and monitoring. To achieve our work, an experimental facility (named CAIMAN) was specially designed, built and characterized.

  16. Apparatus and methods for monitoring the concentrations of hazardous airborne substances, especially lead

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon

    2004-07-13

    Air is sampled at a rate in excess of 100 L/min, preferably at 200-300 L/min, so as to collect therefrom a substantial fraction, i.e., at least 20%, preferably 60-100%, of airborne particulates. A substance of interest (analyte), such as lead, is rapidly solubilized from the the collected particulates into a sample of liquid extractant, and the concentration of the analyte in the extractant sample is determined. The high-rate air sampling and particulate collection may be effected with a high-throughput filter cartridge or with a recently developed portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler. Rapid solubilization of lead is achieved by a liquid extractant comprising 0.1-1 M of acetic acid or acetate, preferably at a pH of 5 or less and preferably with inclusion of 1-10% of hydrogen peroxide. Rapid determination of the lead content in the liquid extractant may be effected with a colorimetric or an electroanalytical analyzer.

  17. Concentrations of radionuclides in fish collected from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes all available data on the concentrations of radionuclides in fish from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984. As found in other global studies, /sup 137/Cs is most highly accumulated in edible flesh of all species of fish, the lowest fractions are found in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, Illinois, in 1982. /sup 90/Sr is generally associated with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of /sup 60/Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of /sup 60/Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of /sup 207/Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of /sup 207/Bi were consistently detected in the muscle (and other tissues) of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, /sup 207/Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of /sup 207/Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither /sup 239 +240/Pu nor /sup 241/Am is significantly accumulated in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, /sup 238/Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than /sup 239 +240/Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 q of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines.

  18. Concentration, Size Distribution, and Infectivity of Airborne Particles Carrying Swine Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Carmen; Raynor, Peter C.; Davies, Peter R.; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    When pathogens become airborne, they travel associated with particles of different size and composition. Particle size determines the distance across which pathogens can be transported, as well as the site of deposition and the survivability of the pathogen. Despite the importance of this information, the size distribution of particles bearing viruses emitted by infectious animals remains unknown. In this study we characterized the concentration and size distribution of inhalable particles that transport influenza A virus (IAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) generated by acutely infected pigs and assessed virus viability for each particle size range. Aerosols from experimentally infected pigs were sampled for 24 days using an Andersen cascade impactor able to separate particles by size (ranging from 0.4 to 10 micrometer (μm) in diameter). Air samples collected for the first 9, 20 and the last 3 days of the study were analyzed for IAV, PRRSV and PEDV, respectively, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantified as geometric mean copies/m3 within each size range. IAV was detected in all particle size ranges in quantities ranging from 5.5x102 (in particles ranging from 1.1 to 2.1μm) to 4.3x105 RNA copies/m3 in the largest particles (9.0–10.0μm). PRRSV was detected in all size ranges except particles between 0.7 and 2.1μm in quantities ranging from 6x102 (0.4–0.7μm) to 5.1x104 RNA copies/m3 (9.0–10.0μm). PEDV, an enteric virus, was detected in all particle sizes and in higher quantities than IAV and PRRSV (p < 0.0001) ranging from 1.3x106 (0.4–0.7μm) to 3.5x108 RNA copies/m3 (9.0–10.0μm). Infectious status was demonstrated for the 3 viruses, and in the case of IAV and PRRSV, viruses were isolated from particles larger than 2.1μm. In summary, our results indicated that airborne PEDV, IAV and PRRSV can be found in a wide range of

  19. Culturability and concentration of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in six single-family homes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taekhee; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Adhikari, Atin; Crawford, Carlos M.; Reponen, Tiina

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the culturability of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi was determined through long-term sampling (24-h) using a Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler. The air samples were collected during three seasons in six Cincinnati area homes that were free from moisture damage or visible mold. Cultivation and total microscopic enumeration methods were employed for the sample analysis. The geometric means of indoor and outdoor culturable fungal concentrations were 88 and 102 colony-forming units (CFU) m-3, respectively, with a geometric mean of the I/O ratio equal to 0.66. Overall, 26 genera of culturable fungi were recovered from the indoor and outdoor samples. For total fungal spores, the indoor and outdoor geometric means were 211 and 605 spores m-3, respectively, with a geometric mean of I/O ratio equal to 0.32. The identification revealed 37 fungal genera from indoor and outdoor samples based on the total spore analysis. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of culturable and total fungal spores showed significant correlations (r = 0.655, p<0.0001 and r = 0.633, p<0.0001, respectively). The indoor and outdoor median viabilities of fungi were 55% and 25%, respectively, which indicates that indoor environment provides more favorable survival conditions for the aerosolized fungi. Among the seasons, the highest indoor and outdoor culturability of fungi was observed in the fall. Cladosporium had a highest median value of culturability (38% and 33% for indoor and outdoor, respectively) followed by Aspergillus/Penicillium (9% and 2%) among predominant genera of fungi. Increased culturability of fungi inside the homes may have important implications because of the potential increase in the release of allergens from viable spores and pathogenicity of viable fungi on immunocompromised individuals. PMID:18458748

  20. Culturability and concentration of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in six single-family homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taekhee; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Adhikari, Atin; Crawford, Carlos M.; Reponen, Tiina

    In this study, the culturability of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi was determined through long-term sampling (24-h) using a Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler. The air samples were collected during three seasons in six Cincinnati area homes that were free from moisture damage or visible mold. Cultivation and total microscopic enumeration methods were employed for the sample analysis. The geometric means of indoor and outdoor culturable fungal concentrations were 88 and 102 colony-forming units (CFU) m -3, respectively, with a geometric mean of the I/ O ratio equal to 0.66. Overall, 26 genera of culturable fungi were recovered from the indoor and outdoor samples. For total fungal spores, the indoor and outdoor geometric means were 211 and 605 spores m -3, respectively, with a geometric mean of I/ O ratio equal to 0.32. The identification revealed 37 fungal genera from indoor and outdoor samples based on the total spore analysis. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of culturable and total fungal spores showed significant correlations ( r=0.655, p<0.0001 and r=0.633, p<0.0001, respectively). The indoor and outdoor median viabilities of fungi were 55% and 25%, respectively, which indicates that indoor environment provides more favorable survival conditions for the aerosolized fungi. Among the seasons, the highest indoor and outdoor culturability of fungi was observed in the fall. Cladosporium had a highest median value of culturability (38% and 33% for indoor and outdoor, respectively) followed by Aspergillus/Penicillium (9% and 2%) among predominant genera of fungi. Increased culturability of fungi inside the homes may have important implications because of the potential increase in the release of allergens from viable spores and pathogenicity of viable fungi on immunocompromised individuals.

  1. Concentrations, sources and geochemistry of airborne particulate matter at a major European airport.

    PubMed

    Amato, Fulvio; Moreno, Teresa; Pandolfi, Marco; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Delgado, Ana; Pedrero, Manuel; Cots, Nuria

    2010-04-01

    Monitoring of aerosol particle concentrations (PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(1)) and chemical analysis (PM(10)) was undertaken at a major European airport (El Prat, Barcelona) for a whole month during autumn 2007. Concentrations of airborne PM at the airport were close to those at road traffic hotspots in the nearby Barcelona city, with means measuring 48 microg PM(10)/m(3), 21 microg PM(2.5)/m(3) and 17 microg PM(1)/m(3). Meteorological controls on PM at El Prat are identified as cleansing daytime sea breezes with abundant coarse salt particles, alternating with nocturnal land-sourced winds which channel air polluted by industry and traffic (PM(1)/PM(10) ratios > 0.5) SE down the Llobregat Valley. Chemical analyses of the PM(10) samples show that crustal PM is dominant (38% of PM(10)), followed by total carbon (OC + EC, 25%), secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA, 20%), and sea salt (6%). Local construction work for a new airport terminal was an important contributor to PM(10) crustal levels. Source apportionment modelling PCA-MLRA identifies five factors: industrial/traffic, crustal, sea salt, SIA, and K(+) likely derived from agricultural biomass burning. Whereas most of the atmospheric contamination concerning ambient air PM(10) levels at El Prat is not attributable directly to aircraft movement, levels of carbon are unusually high (especially organic carbon), as are metals possibly sourced from tyre detritus/smoke in runway dust (Ba, Zn, Mo) and from brake dust in ambient PM(10) (Cu, Sb), especially when the airport is at its most busy. We identify microflakes of aluminous alloys in ambient PM(10) filters derived from corroded fuselage and wings as an unequivocal and highly distinctive tracer for aircraft movement. PMID:20383366

  2. DIFFERENTIAL LUNG GENE EXPRESSION IN IMMUNOLOGICALLY-CHALLENGED RATS EXPOSED TO CONCENTRATED AIRBORNE PARTICULATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children residing in urbanized areas suffer disproportionately higher asthma-related morbidity and mortality. One explanation is that inner city children are exposured to higher levels of environmental asthma triggers such as airborne particulate matter. To elucidate gene-environ...

  3. Analysis of radionuclide concentrations and movement patterns of Hanford-site mule deer

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Hanson, E.E.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-10-01

    From 1980 through 1982, the movements of 37 radio-collared mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were monitored for periods of 3 to 17 months on the Handord Site in southcentral Washington. The objectives were to compare radionuclide concentrations in deer residing near the 200 Area waste management sites with concentrations in deer occupying areas remote from waste management sites and to document movement patterns of Hanford Site deer with particular emphasis on offsite movements. Cesium-137 in deer muscle and liver and /sup 90/Sr concentrations in deer bone were statistically higher in deer living near the 200 Area than in control animals. During this study, the highest concentrations of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr in 200 Area deer were in those individuals residing in or immediately adjacent to radiation zones. Cesium-137 and /sup 90/Sr concentrations were more variable in deer residing near the 200 Area than in control animals, where only background (fallout) levels were observed. Movement patterns of Hanford site deer were analyzed to determine home range size and usage. The average home range was 0.39 +- 27 km/sup 2/. In addition, ten (27%) of the monitored deer made offsite movements during the study period. While most of these movements were made in the spring and summer, some fall and winter movements were noted. It was estimated that approximately 8% (95% confidence interval is from 0 to 21%) of the Hanford deer herd is harvested each year. As a result of the low harvest rate, the Hanford deer herd appears to have a disproportionate number of older animals, with 24% of the 17 examined deer older than 10.5 years.

  4. Measured and modelled concentrations and vertical profiles of airborne particulate matter within the boundary layer of a street canyon.

    PubMed

    Colls, J J; Micallef, A

    1999-09-01

    Concentrations and vertical profiles of various fractions of airborne particulate matter (suspended particulate matter (SPM), PM10 and PM2.5) have been measured over the first three metres from ground in a street canyon. Measurements were carried out using automated near real-time apparatus called the Kinetic Sequential Sampling (KSS) system. KSS system is essentially an electronically-controlled lift carrying a real-time particle monitor for sampling air sequentially, at different heights within the breathing zone, which includes all heights within the surface layer of a street canyon at which people may breathe. Data is automatically logged at the different receptor levels, for the determination of the average vertical concentration profile of airborne particulate matter. For measuring the airborne particle concentration, a Grimm Dust Monitor 1.104/5 was used. The recorded data also allows for time series analysis of airborne particulate matter concentration at different heights. Time series data and hourly-average vertical concentration profiles in the boundary layer of the confines of a street are thought to be mainly determined by traffic emissions and traffic associated processes. Hence the measured data were compared with results of a street canyon emission-dispersion model in time and space. This Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ) model employs the plume-box technique and includes modules for simulating vehicle-generated effects such as thermally- and mechanically-generated turbulence and resuspension of road dust. Environmental processes, such as turbulence resulting from surface sensible heat and the formation of sulphate aerosol from sulphur dioxide exhaust emissions, are taken into account. The paper presents an outline description of the measuring technique and model used, and a comparison of the measured and modelled data. PMID:10535122

  5. Radionuclide concentrations from waters of selected aquifers in Georgia. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, G.; Olive, R.

    1989-01-01

    The report is part of the National Network for Environmental Management Studies under the auspices of the Office of Cooperative Environmental Management of the US Environmental Protection Agency. In 1988 the US Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV, began a pilot study to investigate the natural occurrence and concentration of Uranium 238, Thorium 232, and Uranium 235 radionuclide series in the ground water for selected aquifers in Georgia. Specific rock types, somewhat geologically homogeneous, were selected as representative of one or more aquifers for each of the geologic provinces in Georgia (Piedmont, Blue Ridge, Valley Ridge, and Coastal Plain). Aquifers sampled within the Piedmont provinces included pre-Cambrian and Paleozoic granite/gneisses and granites from four Piedmont county areas (Gwinnett/Barrow, Greene, Elbert/Oglethorpe, and Spalding/Pike). Ground waters from private water supply wells developed in these aquifers were sampled and analyzed for their radioisotopic and chemical characteristics. Preliminary analysis of 90 ground-water and radioisotopic samples from the pilot study indicates that the geologic setting of the differing aquifers an provinces strongly influences the occurrence of natural radioisotopes in drinking water. Extremely high concentrations of uranium, radium, radon 222, lead 210, and polonium 210 in some aquifers indicate radioisotope enrichment within and near the well bore for some areas. Based on these findings, the present public water monitoring scheme, which is based on gross alpha particle activity, may require modification depending on differing isotopes, rock types, and geological provinces.

  6. Airborne in-situ spectral characterization and concentration estimates of fluorescent organics as a function of depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittle, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    The primary purpose of many in-situ airborne light scattering experiments in natural waters is to spectrally characterize the subsurface fluorescent organics and estimate their relative concentrations. This is often done by shining a laser beam into the water and monitoring its subsurface return signal. To do this with the proper interpretation, depth must be taken into account. If one disregards depth dependence when taking such estimates, both their spectral characteristics and their concentrations estimates can be rather ambiguous. A simple airborne lidar configuration is used to detect the subsurface return signal from a particular depth and wavelength. Underwater scatterometer were employed to show that in-situ subsurface organics are very sensitive to depth, but they also require the use of slow moving boats to cover large sample areas. Also, their very entry into the water disturbs the sample it is measuring. The method described is superior and simplest to any employed thus far.

  7. A study of airborne chrysotile concentrations associated with handling, unpacking, and repacking boxes of automobile clutch discs.

    PubMed

    Jiang, George C T; Madl, Amy K; Ingmundson, Kelsey J; Murbach, Dana M; Fehling, Kurt A; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Finley, Brent L

    2008-06-01

    Although automotive friction products (brakes and manual clutches) historically contained chrysotile asbestos, industrial hygiene surveys and epidemiologic studies of auto mechanics have consistently shown that these workers are not at an increased risk of developing asbestos-related diseases. Airborne asbestos levels during brake repair and brake parts handling have been well-characterized, but the potential exposure to airborne asbestos fibers during the handling of clutch parts has not been examined. In this study, breathing zone samples on the lapel of a volunteer worker (n=100) and area samples at bystander (n=50), remote area (n=25), and ambient (n=9) locations collected during the stacking, unpacking, and repacking of boxes of asbestos-containing clutches, and the subsequent cleanup and clothes handling, were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, fiber morphology and size distribution was evaluated using X-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, and ISO analytical methods. It was observed that the (1) airborne asbestos concentrations increased with the number of boxes unpacked and repacked, (2) repetitive stacking of unopened boxes of clutches resulted in higher asbestos concentrations than unpacking and repacking the boxes of clutches, (3) cleanup and clothes handling tasks yielded very low asbestos concentrations. Fiber size and morphology analyses showed that amphibole fibers were not detected in the clutches and that the vast majority (>95%) of the airborne chrysotile fibers were less than 20 microm in length. Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results, it was found that 30-min average airborne chrysotile concentrations (PCM adjusted) were 0.026+/-0.004 f/cc or 0.100+/-0.017 f/cc for a worker unpacking and repacking 1 or 2 boxes of clutches, respectively. The 30-min PCM adjusted average airborne asbestos

  8. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1987-1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stanek, M.A.; McLean, R.I.

    1995-12-20

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of the monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant produced radionuclides. The data report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the period 1987 through 1990 and is the fourth in a series reporting monitoring results initiated at Peach Bottom in 1978.

  9. Temporal Variability of the Bioaerosol Background at a Subway Station: Concentration Level, Size Distribution, and Diversity of Airborne Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dybwad, Marius; Skogan, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring bioaerosol environments may present a challenge to biological detection-identification-monitoring (BIODIM) systems aiming at rapid and reliable warning of bioterrorism incidents. One way to improve the operational performance of BIODIM systems is to increase our understanding of relevant bioaerosol backgrounds. Subway stations are enclosed public environments which may be regarded as potential bioterrorism targets. This study provides novel information concerning the temporal variability of the concentration level, size distribution, and diversity of airborne bacteria in a Norwegian subway station. Three different air samplers were used during a 72-h sampling campaign in February 2011. The results suggested that the airborne bacterial environment was stable between days and seasons, while the intraday variability was found to be substantial, although often following a consistent diurnal pattern. The bacterial levels ranged from not detected to 103 CFU m−3 and generally showed increased levels during the daytime compared to the nighttime levels, as well as during rush hours compared to non-rush hours. The airborne bacterial levels showed rapid temporal variation (up to 270-fold) on some occasions, both consistent and inconsistent with the diurnal profile. Airborne bacterium-containing particles were distributed between different sizes for particles of >1.1 μm, although ∼50% were between 1.1 and 3.3 μm. Anthropogenic activities (mainly passengers) were demonstrated as major sources of airborne bacteria and predominantly contributed 1.1- to 3.3-μm bacterium-containing particles. Our findings contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for BIODIM equipment by providing information that may be used to simulate operational bioaerosol backgrounds during controlled aerosol chamber-based challenge tests with biological threat agents. PMID:24162566

  10. Elevated Concentrations of Primordial Radionuclides in Sediments from the Reedy River and Surrounding Creeks in Simpsonville, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, B A; Hughes, L D; Soreefan, A M; Falta, D; Wall, M; DeVol, T A

    2006-12-27

    A gamma-ray survey and analysis of sixteen riverbed samples from the Reedy River watershed near Simpsonville, SC were conducted and compared with national and international studies of primordial radionuclides. The study reported here follows on a recent discovery of anomalously high uranium concentrations in several private well waters in the area near Simpsonville, SC. A HPGe spectrometer was used for quantification of gamma emitting radionuclides in the sediments. All sediments contained radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series as well as {sup 40}K. Uranium-238 concentrations in sediment samples ranged from 11.1 to 74.2 Bq kg{sup -1}. The measured radionuclide concentrations were compared with data from UNSCEAR and NURE reports. The river and stream sediment data were augmented by in situ NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer measurements. Comparisons between the ex-situ and in-situ measurements indicate equivalently distributed uranium in the surface soils and stream sediments, the source of which is likely attributed to the monazite belts that are known to exist in the area.

  11. Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1994 growing season

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Biggs, J.B.; Bennett, K.D.

    1995-07-01

    Overstory (pinon pine) and understory (grass and forb) vegetation samples were collected within and around selected points at Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-for the analysis of tritium ({sup 3}H), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238} Pu and {sup 239}Pu), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), americium ({sup 241}Am), and total uranium. In general, most vegetation samples collected within and around Area G contained radionuclide levels in higher concentrations than vegetation collected from background areas. Tritium, in particular, was detected as high as 5,800 pCi/mL in overstory vegetation collected outside the fence just west of the tritium shafts; this suggests that tritium is migrating from this waste repository through subsurface pathways. Also, understory vegetation collected north of the transuranic (TRU) pads (outside the fence of Area G) contained the highest values of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am, and may be a result of surface holding, storage, or disposal activities.

  12. Crop harvest in Denmark and Central Europe contributes to the local load of airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Sommer, J.; Frederiksen, L.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source of airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the contribution to the overall load is mainly local or regional, but with intermittent long distance transport (LDT) from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes (daily average spore concentration above 100 m-3) with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  13. Stochastic model for the fluctuations of the atmospheric concentration of radionuclides and its application to uncertainty evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichige, Hiroyuki; Fukuchi, Shun; Hatano, Yuko

    2015-02-01

    We propose a new model of the atmospheric concentration of a radionuclide with the inclusion of fluctuations of the concentration. The model is a stochastic differential equation and we derive the analytic solution of the equation. The solution agrees very well with the Chernobyl Cs-137 data. The advantage of the model is that the uncertainty in radiation exposure risk, with regard to the concentration fluctuations, can be quantitatively estimated. We show the range of fluctuations of ±σ, ±2σ, ±3σ in the 10-year measurement of the atmospheric concentration in Chernobyl and confirmed the validity of the model.

  14. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV. PMID:26773821

  15. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power station: 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.S.; Frithsen, J.B.; McLean, R.I.

    1997-02-01

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) and from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant produced radionuclides. Radionuclide concentrations in shellfish, finfish, aquatic vegetation, and sediment were measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides in environmental samples originated from natural sources, atmospheric weapons testing, and normal operations of CCNPP and PBAPS.

  16. SLUDGE BATCH 7 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION: RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB7 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J.; Hay, M.

    2011-02-22

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Seven (SB7) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB7 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB6. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB7 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter qualification sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-10-125) received on September 18, 2010. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. With consultation from the Liquid Waste Organization, the qualification sample was then modified by several washes and decants, which included addition of Pu from H Canyon and sodium nitrite per the Tank Farm corrosion control program. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40. Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB7 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0031. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task I.2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task III.2.) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB7 will be taken and transferred to SRNL for measurement of these radionuclides

  17. EVALUATION OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS BEFORE AND DURING AND O&M ACTIVITY: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current lack of information regarding the impact of O&M activities on the potential for asbestos exposure to building staff and occupants prompted this study. This report presents a statistical evaluation of airborne asbestos data collected before and during an O&M activity i...

  18. ESTIMATING DOWNWIND CONCENTRATIONS OF VIABLE AIRBORNE MICROORGANISMS IN DYNAMIC ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Gaussian plume model has been modified to include an airborne microbial survival term that is a best-fit function of laboratory experimental data of weather variables. The model has been included in an algorithm using microbial source strength and local hourly mean weather data...

  19. Airborne concentrations of metals and total dust during solid catalyst loading and unloading operations at a petroleum refinery.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ryan C; Gaffney, Shannon H; Le, Matthew H; Unice, Ken M; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2012-09-01

    Workers handle catalysts extensively at petroleum refineries throughout the world each year; however, little information is available regarding the airborne concentrations and plausible exposures during this type of work. In this paper, we evaluated the airborne concentrations of 15 metals and total dust generated during solid catalyst loading and unloading operations at one of the largest petroleum refineries in the world using historical industrial hygiene samples collected between 1989 and 2006. The total dust and metals, which included aluminum, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, platinum, silicon, silver, vanadium, and zinc, were evaluated in relation to the handling of four different types of solid catalysts associated with three major types of catalytic processes. Consideration was given to the known components of the solid catalysts and any metals that were likely deposited onto them during use. A total of 180 analytical results were included in this analysis, representing 13 personal and 54 area samples. Of the long-term personal samples, airborne concentrations of metals ranged from <0.001 to 2.9mg/m(3), and, in all but one case, resulted in concentrations below the current U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Permissible Exposure Limits and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' Threshold Limit Values. The arithmetic mean total dust concentration resulting from long-term personal samples was 0.31mg/m(3). The data presented here are the most complete set of its kind in the open literature, and are useful for understanding the potential exposures during solid catalyst handling activities at this petroleum refinery and perhaps other modern refineries during the timeframe examined. PMID:22177528

  20. Sea to land transfer of anthropogenic radionuclides to the North Wales coast, Part I: external gamma radiation and radionuclide concentrations in intertidal sediments, soil and air.

    PubMed

    Bryan, S E; McDonald, P; Hill, R; Wilson, R C

    2008-01-01

    Previous projects specifically aimed at performing radiological assessments in the vicinity of North Wales, investigating the presence and transfer of radionuclides from sea to land, were in 1986 and 1989. Since then, changes have occurred in the radioactive discharges from the British Nuclear Group Sellafield site. Annual discharges of (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239,340)Pu and (241)Am have decreased markedly whereas, up until recent years, discharges of (99)Tc have increased. It is therefore desirable to quantify current transfer processes of radionuclides in the North Wales region and thus provide an update on 15-year-old studies. A field campaign was conducted collecting soil samples from 10 inland transects and air particulates on air filters from three High Volume Air Samplers, along the northern coast of Wales at Amlwch, Bangor Pier and Flint. Complementary field data relating to external gamma dose rates were collected at the soil sites. The field data generated for (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239,340)Pu and (241)Am were consistent with what had been reported 15 years previously. Therefore, there has been no increase in the supply of these Sellafield-derived radionuclides to the terrestrial environment of the North Wales coast. The (99)Tc data in sediments were consistent with reported values within annual monitoring programmes, however, a relatively high activity concentration was measured in one sediment sample. This site was further investigated to determine the reason why such a high value was found. At present there is no clear evidence as to why this elevated concentration should be present, but the role of seaweed and its capacity in accumulating (99)Tc and transferring it to sediment is of interest. The analysis of the field samples for (99)Tc, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239,240)Pu and (241)Am has provided a data set that can be used for the modelling of the transfer of anthropogenic radionuclides from sea to land and its subsequent radiological implications and is reported

  1. Airborne DOAS measurements in Arctic: vertical distributions of aerosol extinction coefficient and NO2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, A.; van Roozendael, M.; Theys, N.; Fayt, C.; Hermans, C.; Quennehen, B.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Ancellet, G.; Pommier, M.; Pelon, J.; Burkhart, J.; Stohl, A.; de Mazière, M.

    2011-09-01

    We report on airborne Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of aerosol extinction and NO2 tropospheric profiles performed off the North coast of Norway in April 2008. The DOAS instrument was installed on the Safire ATR-42 aircraft during the POLARCAT-France spring campaign and recorded scattered light spectra in near-limb geometry using a scanning telescope. We use O4 slant column measurements to derive the aerosol extinction at 360 nm. Regularization is based on the maximum a posteriori solution, for which we compare a linear and a logarithmic approach. The latter inherently constrains the solution to positive values and yields aerosol extinction profiles more consistent with independently measured size distributions. We present results from two soundings performed on 8 April 2008 above 71° N, 22° E and on 9 April 2008 above 70° N, 17.8° E. The first profile shows aerosol extinction and NO2 in the marine boundary layer with respective values of 0.04 ± 0.005 km-1 and 1.9 ± 0.3 × 109 molec cm-3. A second extinction layer of 0.01 ± 0.003 km-1 is found at 4 km altitude where the NO2 concentration is 0.32 ± 0.2 × 109 molec cm-3. During the second sounding, clouds prevent retrieval of profile parts under 3 km altitude but a layer with enhanced extinction (0.025 ± 0.005 km-1) and NO2 (1.95 ± 0.2 × 109 molec cm-3) is clearly detected at 4 km altitude. From CO and ozone in-situ measurements complemented by back-trajectories, we interpret the measurements in the free troposphere as, for the first sounding, a mix between stratospheric and polluted air from Northern Europe and for the second sounding, polluted air from Central Europe containing NO2. Considering the boundary layer measurements of the first flight, modeled source regions indicate closer sources, especially the Kola Peninsula smelters, which can explain the NO2 enhancement not correlated with a CO increase at the same altitude.

  2. Radiation-dose estimates and hazard evaluations for inhaled airborne radionuclides. Annual progress report, July 1981-June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Mewhinney, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    The objective was to conduct confirmatory research on aerosol characteristics and the resulting radiation dose distribution in animals following inhalation and to provide prediction of health consequences in humans due to airborne radioactivity which might be released in normal operations or under accident conditions during production of nuclear fuel composed of mixed oxides of U and Pu. Four research reports summarize the results of specific areas of research. The first paper details development of a method for determination of specific surface area of small samples of mixed oxide or pure PuO/sub 2/ particles. The second paper details the extension of the biomathematical model previously used to describe retention, distribution and excretion of Pu from these mixed oxide aerosols to include a description of Am and U components of these aerosols. The third paper summarizes the biological responses observed in radiation dose pattern studies in which dogs, monkeys and rate received inhalation exposures to either 750/sup 0/C heat treated UO/sub 2/ + PuO/sub 2/, 1750/sup 0/C heat-treated (U,Pu)O/sub 2/ or 850/sup 0/C heat-treated pure PuO/sub 2/. The fourth paper described dose-response studies in which rats were exposed to (U,Pu)O/sub 2/ or pure PuO/sub 2/. This paper updates earlier reports and summarizes the status of animals through approximately 650 days after inhalation.

  3. Evaluation of the anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in sediments and fauna collected in the Beaufort Sea and northern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Efurd, D.W.; Miller, G.G.; Rokop, D.J.

    1997-07-01

    This study was performed to establish a quality controlled data set about the levels of radio nuclide activity in the environment and in selected biota in the U.S. Arctic. Sediment and biota samples were collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Biological Service, and the North Slope Borough`s Department of Wildlife Management to determine the impact of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Arctic. The results summarized in this report are derived from samples collected in northwest Alaska with emphasis on species harvested for subsistence in Barrow, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for the anthropogenic radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. The naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 214}Pb were also measured. One goal of this study was to determine the amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides present in the Beaufort Sea. Sediment samples were isotopically fingerprinted to determine the sources of radio nuclide activities. Biota samples of subsistence and ecological value were analyzed to search for evidence of bio-accumulation of radionuclides and to determine the radiation exposures associated with subsistence living in northern Alaska. The anthropogenic radio nuclide content of sediments collected in the Beaufort Sea was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. No other sources of anthropogenic radionuclides could be conclusively identified in the sediments. The anthropogenic radio nuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. Assuming that ingestion of food is an important pathway leading to human contact with radioactive contaminants and given the dietary patterns in coastal Arctic communities, it can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected.

  4. Effects of ceiling-mounted HEPA-UV air filters on airborne bacteria concentrations in an indoor therapy pool building.

    PubMed

    Kujundzic, Elmira; Zander, David A; Hernandez, Mark; Angenent, Largus T; Henderson, David E; Miller, Shelly L

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a new generation of high-volume, ceiling-mounted high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-ultraviolet (UV) air filters (HUVAFs) for their ability to remove or inactivate bacterial aerosol. In an environmentally controlled full-scale laboratory chamber (87 m3), and an indoor therapy pool building, the mitigation ability of air filters was assessed by comparing concentrations of total bacteria, culturable bacteria, and airborne endotoxin with and without the air filters operating under otherwise similar conditions. Controlled chamber tests with pure cultures of aerosolized Mycobacterium parafortuitum cells showed that the HUVAF unit tested provided an equivalent air-exchange rate of 11 hr(-1). Using this equivalent air-exchange rate as a design basis, three HUVAFs were installed in an indoor therapy pool building for bioaerosol mitigation, and their effectiveness was studied over a 2-year period. The HUVAFs reduced concentrations of culturable bacteria by 69 and 80% during monitoring periods executed in respective years. The HUVAFs reduced concentrations of total bacteria by 12 and 76% during the same monitoring period, respectively. Airborne endotoxin concentrations were not affected by the HUVAF operation. PMID:15796111

  5. Baseline concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils and vegetation around the DARHT facility: Construction phase (1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Haagenstad, H.T.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1997-04-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s Mitigation Action Plan for the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), baseline concentrations of radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Am, total U), and heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Tl) in soil, sediment, and vegetation (overstory and understory) around the DARHT facility during the construction phase in 1996 were determined. Also, U and Be concentrations in soil samples collected in 1993 from within the proposed DARHT facility area are reported. Most radionuclides in soils, sediments, and vegetation were within current background and/or long-term regional statistical reference levels.

  6. Radionuclide Concentrations in Terrestrial Vegetation and Soil Samples On and Around the Hanford Site, 1971 Through 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Fritz, Brad G.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-07-29

    Environmental monitoring is conducted on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to comply with DOE Orders and federal and state regulations. Major objectives of the monitoring are to characterize contaminant levels in the environment and to determine site contributions to the contaminant inventory. This report focuses on surface soil and perennial vegetation samples collected between 1971 and 2008 as part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Surface Environmental Surveillance Project performed under contract to DOE. Areas sampled under this program are located on the Hanford Site but outside facility boundaries and on public lands surrounding the Hanford Site. Additional samples were collected during the past 8 years under DOE projects that evaluated parcels of land for radiological release. These data were included because the same sampling methodology and analytical laboratory were used for the projects. The spatial and temporal trends of six radionuclides collected over a 38-year period were evaluated. The radionuclides----cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and uranium (reported either as uranium-238 or total uranium)----were selected because they persist in the environment and are still being monitored routinely and reported in Hanford Site environmental reports. All these radionuclides were associated with plutonium production and waste management of activities occurring on the site. Other sources include fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which ended in 1980, and the Chernobyl explosion in 1986. Uranium is also a natural component of the soil. This assessment of soil and vegetation data provides important information on the distribution of radionuclides in areas adjacent to industrial areas, established perimeter locations and buffer areas, and more offsite nearby and distant locations. The concentrations reflect a tendency for detection of some radionuclides close to where they were

  7. Radionuclide concentrations in pinto beans, sweet corn, and zucchini squash grown in Los Alamos Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Naranjo, L. Jr.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1997-05-01

    Pinto beans, sweet corn, and zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo var. black beauty) were grown in a randomized complete-block field/pot experiment at a site that contained the highest observed levels of surface gross gamma radioactivity within Los Alamos Canyon (LAC) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Soils as well as washed edible and nonedible crop tissues were analyzed for various radionuclides and heavy metals . Most radionuclides, with the exception of {sup 3}H and {sup tot}U, in soil from LAC were detected in significantly higher concentrations (p <0.01) than in soil collected from regional background (RBG) locations. Similarly, most radionuclides in edible crop portions of beans, squash, and corn were detected in significantly higher (p <0.01 and 0.05) concentrations than RBG. Most soil-to-plant concentration ratios for radionuclides in edible and nonedible crop tissues from LAC were within the default values given by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Environmental Protection Agency. All heavy metals in soils, as well as edible and nonedible crop tissues grown in soils from LAC, were within RBG concentrations. Overall, the total maximum net positive committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)--the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background and then all positive doses summed--to a hypothetical 50-year resident that ingested 160 kg of beans, corn, and squash in equal proportions, was 74 mrem y{sup -1}. This dose was below the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit (PDL) of 100 mrem y{sup -1} from all pathways; however, the addition of other internal and external exposure route factors may increase the overall dose over the PDL. Also, the risk of an excess cancer fatality, based on 74 mrem y{sup -1}, was 3.7 x 10{sup -5} (37 in a million), which is above the Environmental Protection Agency`s (acceptable) guideline of one in a million. 31 refs., 15 tabs.

  8. Radionuclide concentrations in game (surface feeders) and nongame (bottom feeders) fish upstream and downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Salazar, J.G.

    1994-03-01

    This paper summarizes radionuclide concentrations in game (surface feeders) and nongame (bottom feeders) fish collected from reservoirs upstream (Abiquiu, Heron and/or El Vado) and downstream (Cochiti) of Los Alamos National Laboratory from 1981 to 1992. Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu- 238, and Pu-239 were not significantly different in either game or nongame fish collected from Cochiti reservoir as compared to fish collected from reservoirs upstream of the Laboratory. Total uranium was the only radionuclide that was found to be significantly different in both game and nongame fish collected from Cochiti as compared to fish collected from Abiquiu, Heron and El Vado. Uranium concentrations in fish collected from Cochiti, however, significantly decrease from 1981 to 1992, and no evidence of depleted uranium was found. Based on the average concentration of radionuclides over the years, the effective (radiation) dose equivalent from consuming 21 kg of game fish and nongame fish from Cochiti reservoir was 0.005 and 0.009 mrem/yr, respectively. This is <0.01% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public.

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in game and nongame fish upstream and downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory: 1981 to 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Salazar, J.G.

    1994-08-01

    Radionuclide concentrations were determined in game (surface-feeding) and nongame (bottom-feeding) fish collected from reservoirs upstream (Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado) and downstream (Cochiti) of Los Alamos National Laboratory from 1981 to 1993. The average levels of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu in game and nongame fish collected from Cochiti reservoir were not significantly different in fish collected from reservoirs upstream of the Laboratory. Total uranium was the only radionuclide that was found to be significantly higher n both game and nongame fish from Cochiti as compared to fish from Abiquiu, Heron, and El Vado. Uranium concentrations in fish collected from Cochiti, however, significantly decreased from 1981 to 1993, and no evidence of depleted uranium was found in fish samples collected from Cochiti in 1993. Based on the average concentration of radionuclides over the year the effective (radiation) dose equivalent from consuming 46 lb of game fish and nongame fish from Cochiti reservoir after natural background has been subtracted was 0.005 and 0.009 mrem/yr, respectively. The highest dose was <0.01% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) permissible dose limit for protecting members of the public.

  10. Radionuclide concentrations in raw and purified phosphoric acids from Brazil and their processing wastes: implications for radiation exposures.

    PubMed

    da Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini; Antunes, Maria Lúcia Pereira; Durrant, Steven F

    2012-02-01

    Radionuclides from the U and Th natural series are present in alkaline rocks, which are used as feedstock in Brazil for the production of raw phosphoric acid, which can be considered as a NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material). As a result of the purification of raw phosphoric acid to food-grade phosphoric acid, two by-products are generated, i.e., solid and liquid wastes. Taking this into account, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclide in the production of food-grade phosphoric acids in Brazil, to determine the radiological impact caused by ingestion of food-grade phosphoric acid, and to evaluate the solid waste environmental hazards caused by its application in crop soils. Radiological characterization of raw phosphoric acid, food-grade phosphoric acid, solid waste, and liquid waste was performed by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, and (232)Th activity concentrations varied depending on the source of raw phosphoric acid. Decreasing radionuclides activity concentrations in raw phosphoric acids used by the producer of the purified phosphoric acid were observed as follows: Tapira (raw phosphoric acid D) > Catalão (raw phosphoric acids B and C) > Cajati (raw phosphoric acid A). The industrial purification process produces a reduction in radionuclide activity concentrations in food-grade phosphoric acid in relation to raw phosphoric acid produced in plant D and single raw phosphoric acid used in recent years. The most common use of food-grade phosphoric acid is in cola soft drinks, with an average consumption in Brazil of 72 l per person per year. Each liter of cola soft drink contains 0.5 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid, which gives an annual average intake of 36 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid per person. Under these conditions, radionuclide intake through consumption of food-grade phosphoric acid per year per person via cola soft drinks is not hazardous to human health in Brazil

  11. Baseline Concentrations of Radionuclides and Trace Elements in Soils and Vegetation around the DARHT Facility: Construction Phase (1998)

    SciTech Connect

    P. R. Fresquez; M. H. Ebinger; H. T. Haagenstad; L. Naranjo, Jr.

    1999-12-01

    The Mitigation Action Plan for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory mandates the establishment of baseline concentrations for potential environmental contaminants. To this end, concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup tot}U and Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl were determined in surface and subsurface soils, sediments, and vegetation (overstory and understory) around the DARHT facility during the construction phase in 1998 (this is the third of a four year baseline study). Also, volatile (VOC) and semivolatile (SVOC) organic compounds were measured in soils and sediments. Most radionuclides and trace metals in soil, sediment, and vegetation were similar to past years at DARHT and were within regional background concentrations. Exceptions were concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, Be, Ba, and total U in some samples--these elements exceeded upper limit regional background concentrations (e.g., >mean plus two std dev). No VOCs and very few SVOCs were detected in soils and sediments at DARHT. Mean ({+-} std dev) radionuclide and trace element concentrations measured in soil, sediment, and vegetation summarized over a three-year period (construction phase) are summarized.

  12. Concentrations of trace elements and radionuclides in four fish species from the Black Lake area of northern Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    Future expansion of uranium mines in northern Saskatchewan, as well as the presence of the small abandoned Nisto uranium mine on the north shore of Black Lake, have raised concerns over potential contaminants in fish consumed by local residents. This report presents results of analyses of six fish caught in Black Lake and Stony Lake by local residents and analyzed for radionuclides and trace elements. For comparison, a rainbow trout raised on a British Columbia fish farm was also analyzed. Food chain transfer of radionuclides and other elements was estimated by using concentrations in gastrointestinal tract samples to represent the food source of the fish. Elements analyzed include uranium, radium-226, lead-210, calcium, potassium, mercury, and chromium.

  13. Correlation between airborne Olea europaea pollen concentrations and levels of the major allergen Ole e 1 in Córdoba, Spain, 2012-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Galán, C.

    2016-04-01

    Olea europaea L. pollen is the second-largest cause of pollinosis in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Airborne-pollen monitoring networks provide essential data on pollen dynamics over a given study area. Recent research, however, has shown that airborne pollen levels alone do not always provide a clear indicator of actual exposure to aeroallergens. This study sought to evaluate correlations between airborne concentrations of olive pollen and Ole e 1 allergen levels in Córdoba (southern Spain), in order to determine whether atmospheric pollen concentrations alone are sufficient to chart changes in hay fever symptoms. The influence of major weather-related variables on local airborne pollen and allergen levels was also examined. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Pollen sampling was performed using a Hirst-type sampler, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. A multi-vial cyclone sampler was used to collect aeroallergens, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Significant positive correlations were found between daily airborne allergen levels and atmospheric pollen concentrations, although there were occasions when allergen was detected before and after the pollen season and in the absence of airborne pollen. The correlation between the two was irregular, and pollen potency displayed year-on-year variations and did not necessarily match pollen-season-intensity.

  14. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Allison P.; Calderon, Leonardo; Xiong, Youyou; Wang, Zuocheng; Senick, Jennifer; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Plotnik, Deborah; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J.; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM) in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1) measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E) and mechanical (Building L) ventilation; (2) compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O) in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3) evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m3) than in Building L (37 µg/m3); I/O was higher in Building E (1.3–2.0) than in Building L (0.5–0.8) for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation) are important factors affecting residents’ exposure to PM in residential green buildings. PMID:26805862

  15. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior.

    PubMed

    Patton, Allison P; Calderon, Leonardo; Xiong, Youyou; Wang, Zuocheng; Senick, Jennifer; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Plotnik, Deborah; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM) in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1) measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E) and mechanical (Building L) ventilation; (2) compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O) in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3) evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m³) than in Building L (37 µg/m³); I/O was higher in Building E (1.3-2.0) than in Building L (0.5-0.8) for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation) are important factors affecting residents' exposure to PM in residential green buildings. PMID:26805862

  16. Radionuclide activities and metal concentrations in sediments of the Sebou Estuary, NW Morocco, following a flooding event.

    PubMed

    Laissaoui, A; Mas, J L; Hurtado, S; Ziad, N; Villa, M; Benmansour, M

    2013-06-01

    This study presents metal concentrations (Fe, Mg, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sr and V) and radionuclide activities ((40)K, (137)Cs, (210)Pb, (226)Ra, (228)Ac, (234)Th and (212)Pb) in surface deposits and a sediment core from the Sebou Estuary, Northwest Morocco. Samples were collected in April 2009, about 2 months after a flooding event, and analysed using a well-type coaxial gamma-ray detector and inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Activities of radionuclides and concentrations of almost all elements in surface samples displayed only moderate spatial variation, suggesting homogenous deposition of eroded local soil in response to intense precipitation. Excess (210)Pb displayed relatively constant activity throughout the sediment core, preventing dating and precluding determination of the historical accumulation rates of pollutants at the core site. Some elements showed non-systematic trends with depth and displayed local maxima and minima. Other elements presented relatively systematic concentration trends or relatively constant levels with discrete maxima and/or minima. Except for Mn, Sr and Cr, all metal concentrations in sediment were below levels typical of polluted systems, suggesting little human impact or losses of metals from sediment particles. PMID:23054286

  17. SLUDGE BATCH 6 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION: RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB6 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, D.

    2010-05-21

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Six (SB6) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB6 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB5. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB6 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-09-110) taken on October 8, 2009. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of the Liquid Waste Organization it was then modified by eight washes, nine decants, an addition of Pu from Canyon Tank 16.3, and an addition of NaNO{sub 2}. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40. Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB6 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2009-0014. The work with this qualification sample is covered by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan and an Analytical Study Plan. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task I.2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task II.2.) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB6 will be taken and transferred

  18. Assessment of EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Concentrations using Landsat-7 and Airborne Microwave Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Markus, Thorsten; Hall, Dorothy K.; Gasiewski, Albin J.; Klein, Marian; Ivanoff, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    An assessment of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sea ice concentrations under winter conditions using ice concentrations derived from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery obtained during the March 2003 Arctic sea ice validation field campaign is presented. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory's Airborne Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer Measurements, which were made from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration P 3B aircraft during the campaign, were used primarily as a diagnostic tool to understand the comparative results and to suggest improvements to the AMSR-E ice concentration algorithm. Based on the AMSR-E/ETM+ comparisons, a good overall agreement with little bias (approx. 1%) for areas of first year and young sea ice was found. Areas of new ice production result in a negative bias of about 5% in the AMSR-E ice concentration retrievals, with a root mean square error of 8%. Some areas of deep snow also resulted in an underestimate of the ice concentration (approx. 10%). For all ice types combined and for the full range of ice concentrations, the bias ranged from 0% to 3%, and the rms errors ranged from 1% to 7%, depending on the region. The new-ice and deep-snow biases are expected to be reduced through an adjustment of the new-ice and ice-type C algorithm tie points.

  19. Radionuclides and radioactivity in soils within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1974 through 1994: Concentrations, trends, and dose comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Ferenbaugh, J.K.; Perona, R.A.

    1996-04-01

    A soil sampling and analysis program is the most direct means of determining the concentration, inventory, and distribution of radionuclides and radioactivity in the environment within and around nuclear facilities. This report summarizes and evaluates the concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr, total uranium, and gross alpha, beta, and gamma activity in soils collected from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), perimeter, and regional (background) areas over a 21-year period (1974 through 1994). Also, trends in radionuclide concentrations and radioactivity over time and the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) were determined for each site. The upper-limit regional background concentration (95% upper-confidence level) for each radionuclide and level of radioactivity were as follows: {sup 3}H (6.34 pCi mL{sup {minus}1}), {sup 137}Cs (1.13 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), {sup 238}Pu (0.008 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), {sup 239,240}Pu (0.028 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), {sup 241}Am (0.208 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), {sup 90}Sr (0.82 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), total uranium (4.05 {micro}g dry g{sup {minus}1}); and gross alpha (35.24 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), beta (13.62 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}), and gamma (7.33 pCi dry g{sup {minus}1}) activity. Based on the average over the years, most LANL and perimeter soils contained three or more radionuclides and/or gross radioactive that were significantly higher in concentration (p < 0.05) than regional background. The net dose (TEDE minus background) for residents living on-site at LANL or along its perimeter ranged from {minus}0.3 mrem y{sup {minus}1} (east of TA-54) to 3.8 mrem y{sup {minus}1} (east of Ta-53) and from {minus}0.4 mrem y{sup {minus}1} (White Rock) to 3.6 mrem yy{sup {minus}1} (west of LANL on Forest Service land across from TA-8GT site).

  20. Optimization of the concentration optics of the Martian airborne dust sensor for MetNet space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, F.; González, A.; de Castro, A. J.; López, F.

    2012-06-01

    Martian atmosphere contains a significant and rapidly changing load of suspended dust that never drops to zero. The main component of Martian aerosol is micron-sized dust thought to be a product of soil weathering. Although airborne dust plays a key role in Martian climate, the basic physical properties of these aerosols are still poorly known. The scope of Mars MetNet Mission is to deploy several tens of mini atmospheric stations on the Martian surface. MEIGA-MetNet payload is the Spanish contribution in MetNet. Infrared Laboratory of University Carlos III (LIR-UC3M) is in charge of the design and development of a micro-sensor for the characterization of airborne dust. This design must accomplish with a strict budget of mass and power, 45 g and 1 W respectively. The sensor design criteria have been obtained from a physical model specifically developed for optimizing IR local scattering. The model calculates the spectral power density scattered and detected between 1 and 5 μm by a certain particle distribution and sensor configuration. From model calculations a modification based on the insertion of a compound ellipsoidal concentrator (CEC) has appeared as necessary. Its implementation has multiplied up to 100 the scattered optical power detected, significantly enhancing the detection limits of the sensor.

  1. Influence of atmospheric ozone, PM 10 and meteorological factors on the concentration of airborne pollen and fungal spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, S. I. V.; Martins, F. G.; Pereira, M. C.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Ribeiro, H.; Oliveira, M.; Abreu, I.

    The increase of allergenic symptoms has been associated with air contaminants such as ozone, particulate matter, pollen and fungal spores. Considering the potential relevance of crossed effects of non-biological pollutants and airborne pollens and fungal spores on allergy worsening, the aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of non-biological pollutants and meteorological parameters on the concentrations of pollen and fungal spores using linear correlations and multiple linear regressions. For that, the seasonal variation of ozone, particulate matter with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, pollen and fungal spores were assessed and statistical correlations were analysed between those parameters. The data were collected through 2003-2005 in Porto, Portugal. The linear correlations showed that ozone and particulate matter had no significant influence on the concentration of pollen and fungal spores. On the contrary, when using multiple linear regressions those parameters showed to have some influence on the biological pollutants, although results were different depending on the year analysed. Among the meteorological parameters analysed, temperature was the one that most influenced the pollen and fungal spores airborne concentrations, both when using linear and multiple linear correlations. Relative humidity also showed to have some influence on the fungal spore dispersion when multiple linear regressions were used. Nevertheless, the conclusions for each pollen and fungal spore were different depending on the analysed period, which means that the correlations identified as statistically significant may not be, even so, consistent enough. Furthermore, the comparison of the results here presented with those obtained by other authors for only one period should be made carefully.

  2. Activity concentration of natural radionuclides and radon and thoron exhalation rates in rocks used as decorative wall coverings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, many dwellings have decorative wall coverings made from granite, andesite, tuff, gabbro, and marble. However, information regarding activity concentrations and radon (Rn) and thoron (Rn) exhalation rates for such rocks is very scarce. Therefore, samples of the granite, andesite, tuff, and marble that are used as wall coverings in Japan were collected from mining companies, and their activity concentrations and Rn and Rn exhalation rates were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built with these materials were also carried out. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in all the materials was lower than the critical values described by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (10,000 Bq kg for K and 1,000 Bq kg for all other radionuclides of natural origin). The maximum values of Rn and Rn mass exhalation rates for the granite samples were 0.12 and 430 mBq kg s, and those for the area exhalation rates were 1.8 and 6300 mBq m s, respectively; these values are higher than those for other samples. The maximum value of effective doses to inhabitants was 0.68 mSv y, which is lower than the intervention exemption level (1 mSv y) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82. PMID:23192085

  3. Airborne black carbon concentrations over an urban region in western India-temporal variability, effects of meteorology, and source regions.

    PubMed

    Bapna, Mukund; Sunder Raman, Ramya; Ramachandran, S; Rajesh, T A

    2013-03-01

    This study characterizes over 5 years of high time resolution (5 min), airborne black carbon (BC) concentrations (July 2003 to December 2008) measured over Ahmedabad, an urban region in western India. The data were used to obtain different time averages of BC concentrations, and these averages were then used to assess the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variability of BC over the study region. Assessment of diurnal variations revealed a strong association between BC concentrations and vehicular traffic. Peaks in BC concentration were co-incident with the morning (0730 to 0830, LST) and late evening (1930 to 2030, LST) rush hour traffic. Additionally, diurnal variability in BC concentrations during major festivals (Diwali and Dushera during the months of October/November) revealed an increase in BC concentrations due to fireworks displays. Maximum half hourly BC concentrations during the festival days were as high as 79.8 μg m(-3). However, the high concentrations rapidly decayed suggesting that local meteorology during the festive season was favorable for aerosol dispersion. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model with BC as the dependent variable and meteorological parameters as independent variables was fitted. The variability in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction accounted for about 49% of the variability in measured BC concentrations. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis was used to identify the geographical location of local source regions contributing to the effective BC measured (at 880 nm) at the receptor site. The east north-east (ENE) direction to the receptor was identified as a major source region. National highway (NH8) and two coal-fired thermal power stations (at Gandhinagar and Sabarmati) were located in the identified direction, suggesting that local traffic and power plant emissions were likely contributors to the measured BC. PMID:22777610

  4. Activity Concentrations and Dose Assessment of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Canned Tuna and Sardines Produced after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Zaid Q; Al-Masoud, Fahad I; Ababneh, Anas M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the radioactivity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides in canned tuna and sardines that were produced after the Fukushima nuclear accident and to assess the resulting radiation doses to the public. Fifty-eight brands of canned tuna and sardines consumed in the Middle East and produced from different parts of the world were analyzed using a germanium detector. Cesium-137 (137Cs) was not detected above the minimum detectable activity in any of the samples. Natural radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra were detected with wide activity concentration ranges and with average values of (in Bq kg(-1) wet weight): 68 ± 36, 0.31 ± 0.45, 0.34 ± 0.25, respectively, in tuna samples and with averages of 129 ± 67, 0.20 ± 0.33, 0.60 ± 0.31 in sardine samples. The results of the activity concentrations of 40K and 226Ra showed some regional dependence. Tuna samples produced in Europe have almost twice the concentration of 40K and half the concentration of 226Ra as compared to samples produced in either East or South Asia and North America. Moreover, sardine samples produced in North Africa and Europe have almost twice the concentrations of 40K and 226Ra as those produced in East or South Asia and North America. Dose assessment due to ingestion of canned seafood was also performed, and the committed effective dose was found to be well within the worldwide average. PMID:26606067

  5. Mining in subarctic Canada: airborne PM2.5 metal concentrations in two remote First Nations communities.

    PubMed

    Liberda, Eric N; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Peltier, Richard E

    2015-11-01

    Airborne particulate matter arising from upwind mining activities is a concern for First Nations communities in the western James Bay region of Ontario, Canada. Aerosol chemical components were collected in 2011 from two communities in northern Ontario. The chemical and mass concentration data of particulate matter collected during this study shows a significant difference in PM2.5 in Attawapiskat compared to Fort Albany. Elemental profiles indicate enhanced levels of some tracers thought to arise from mining activities, such as, K, Ni, and crustal materials. Both communities are remote and isolated from urban and industrial pollution sources, however, Attawapiskat First Nation has significantly enhanced levels of particulate matter, and it is likely that some of this arises from upwind mining activities. PMID:26255141

  6. Baseline concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils and vegetation around the DARHT facility: Construction phase (1997). Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Haagenstad, H.T.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1998-06-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s Mitigation Action Plan for the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), baseline concentrations of radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup tot}U) and heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in soil, sediment, and vegetation (overstory and understory) around the DARHT facility during the construction phase in 1997 were determined. Most radionuclides and heavy metals in soils, sediments, and vegetation, with the exception of {sup 90}Sr in soils and sediments, were within upper (95%) limit background concentrations. Although the levels of {sup 90}Sr in soils and sediments around the DARHT facility were higher than background, they were below LANL screening action levels (<4.4 pCi g{sup {minus}1} dry) and are of no concern.

  7. Radionuclide Concentration in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2005

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Fresquez; M.W. McNaughton; M.J. Winch

    2005-10-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected from up to nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Soil and plant samples were also collected from the proposed expansion area west of Area G for the purpose of gaining preoperational baseline data. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for radionuclides that have shown a history of detection in past years; these included {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U for soils and {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239,240}Pu for plants. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils and vegetation were detected at the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions near the pads for transuranic waste. All concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation, however, were still very low (pCi range) and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards.

  8. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1996--1997. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.I.; Jones, T.S.

    1998-11-20

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) and from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant-produced radionuclides. This report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the 1996 and 1997 calendar years. Radionuclide concentrations in shellfish, finfish, aquatic vegetation, and sediment were measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides in environmental samples originated from natural sources, historic atmospheric weapons testing, and normal operations of CCNPP and PBAPS.

  9. Study of natural radionuclide concentrations in an area of elevated radiation background in the northern districts of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hamid, B N; Chowdhury, M I; Alam, M N; Islam, M N

    2002-01-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials in soil samples from an elevated radiation background area of three northern districts of Bangladesh were determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The outdoor and indoor external effective dose rates and the radiation hazard indices from these soil activities were evaluated. The dose rates were found to be about four times higher than the reported world average value. The concentration of natural radionuclides, derived radium equivalent activities and the representative level indices were also found to be higher. Recommendations on radiological and dosimetric measures have been suggested with an aim of minimising the harmful effects of ionising radiation to the population of the area concerned. PMID:11926374

  10. Historical ambient airborne asbestos concentrations in the United States - an analysis of published and unpublished literature (1960s-2000s).

    PubMed

    Abelmann, Anders; Glynn, Meghan E; Pierce, Jennifer S; Scott, Paul K; Serrano, Samantha; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor concentrations of airborne asbestos have been measured throughout the US over time. However, a thorough review and analysis of these data has not been conducted. The purpose of this study is to characterize asbestos concentrations in ambient air by environment type (urban, rural) and by decade, using measurements collected in the absence of known asbestos emission sources. A total of 17 published and unpublished studies and datasets were identified that reported the results of 2058 samples collected from the 1960s through the 2000s across the US. Most studies did not report asbestos fiber type, and data based on different analytical methods (e.g. Phase Contrast Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, etc.) were combined in the dataset; however, only fibers ≥5 μm in length were considered. For a small subset of the measurements (n = 186, 9.0%), a conversion factor was used to convert mass-based data (e.g. ng/m(3)) to count-based values (i.e. f/cc ≥5 μm). The estimated overall mean and median ambient asbestos concentrations for the 1960s through 2000s were 0.00093 f/cc and 0.00022 f/cc, respectively. Concentrations generally increased from the 1960s through the early 1980s, after which they declined considerably. While asbestos use decreased throughout the 1970s, these results indicate that ambient concentrations peaked during the early 1980s, which suggests the possible contribution of abatement or demolition activities. Lastly, ambient asbestos concentrations were higher in urban than rural settings, which is consistent with the greater use of asbestos-containing materials in more densely populated areas. PMID:26671195

  11. Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine: daughter nuclide build-up optimisation, elution-purification-concentration integration, and effective control of radionuclidic purity.

    PubMed

    Le, Van So; Do, Zoe Phuc-Hien; Le, Minh Khoi; Le, Vicki; Le, Natalie Nha-Truc

    2014-01-01

    Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine radiotherapy and SPECT/PET imaging were developed and detailed for 99Mo/99mTc and 68Ge/68Ga radionuclide generators as the cases. Optimisation methods of the daughter nuclide build-up versus stand-by time and/or specific activity using mean progress functions were developed for increasing the performance of radionuclide generators. As a result of this optimisation, the separation of the daughter nuclide from its parent one should be performed at a defined optimal time to avoid the deterioration in specific activity of the daughter nuclide and wasting stand-by time of the generator, while the daughter nuclide yield is maintained to a reasonably high extent. A new characteristic parameter of the formation-decay kinetics of parent/daughter nuclide system was found and effectively used in the practice of the generator production and utilisation. A method of "early elution schedule" was also developed for increasing the daughter nuclide production yield and specific radioactivity, thus saving the cost of the generator and improving the quality of the daughter radionuclide solution. These newly developed optimisation methods in combination with an integrated elution-purification-concentration system of radionuclide generators recently developed is the most suitable way to operate the generator effectively on the basis of economic use and improvement of purposely suitable quality and specific activity of the produced daughter radionuclides. All these features benefit the economic use of the generator, the improved quality of labelling/scan, and the lowered cost of nuclear medicine procedure. Besides, a new method of quality control protocol set-up for post-delivery test of radionuclidic purity has been developed based on the relationship between gamma ray spectrometric detection limit, required limit of impure radionuclide activity and its measurement certainty with respect to

  12. Airborne DOAS measurements in Arctic: vertical distributions of aerosol extinction coefficient and NO2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, A.; van Roozendael, M.; Theys, N.; Fayt, C.; Hermans, C.; Quennehen, B.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Ancellet, G.; Pommier, M.; Pelon, J.; Burkhart, J.; Stohl, A.; de Mazière, M.

    2011-05-01

    We report airborne differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of aerosol extinction and NO2 tropospheric profiles performed off the North coast of Norway in April 2008. The DOAS instrument was installed on the Safire ATR-42 aircraft during the POLARCAT-France spring campaign and recorded scattered light spectra in near-limb geometry using a scanning telescope. We use O4 slant column measurements to derive the aerosol extinction at 360 nm. Regularization is based on the maximum a posteriori solution, for which we compare a linear and a logarithmic approach. The latter inherently constrains the solution to positive values and yields aerosol extinction profiles more consistent with independently measured size distributions. Two soundings are presented, performed on 8 April 2008 above 71° N, 22° E and on 9 April 2008 above 70° N, 17.8° E. The first profile shows aerosol extinction and NO2 in the marine boundary layer with respective values of 0.04±0.005 km-1 and 1.9±0.3 × 109 molec cm-3. A second extinction layer of 0.01±0.003 km-1 is found at 4 km altitude. During the second sounding, clouds prevented us to retrieve profile parts under 3 km altitude but a layer with enhanced extinction (0.025±0.005 km-1) and NO2 (1.95±0.2 × 109 molec cm-3) is clearly detected at 4 km altitude. From CO and ozone in-situ measurements complemented by back-trajectories, we interpret the measurements in the free troposphere as, for the first sounding, a mix between stratospheric and polluted air from Northern Europe and for the second sounding, polluted air from Central Europe containing NO2. Considering the boundary layer measurements of the first flight, modeled source regions indicate closer sources, especially the Kola Peninsula smelters, which can explain the NO2 enhancement not correlated with a CO increase at the same altitude.

  13. Vinyl flooring in the home is associated with children's airborne butylbenzyl phthalate and urinary metabolite concentrations.

    PubMed

    Just, Allan C; Miller, Rachel L; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Rundle, Andrew G; Chen, Qixuan; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Hoepner, Lori; Camann, David E; Calafat, Antonia M; Perera, Frederica P; Whyatt, Robin M

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that vinyl flooring as well as the vinyl-softening plasticizers butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are associated with asthma and airway inflammation. Although DEHP exposure is primarily dietary, whether home vinyl flooring contributes to indoor air and urinary metabolite concentrations for these two phthalates is unclear. Exposures to BBzP and DEHP were examined in a prospective birth cohort of New York City children (n=239) using: (i) visual observation of potential phthalate containing flooring, (ii) a 2-week home indoor air sample, and (iii) concurrent urinary metabolites in a subset (n=193). The category "vinyl or linoleum" flooring was observed in 135 (56%) of monitored rooms; these rooms had statistically significantly higher indoor air geometric mean concentrations of BBzP (23.9 ng/m(3)) than rooms with wood or carpet flooring (10.6 ng/m(3)). Children from homes with "vinyl or linoleum" flooring also had significantly higher urinary BBzP metabolite concentrations than other children. Indoor air BBzP and urinary metabolite concentrations were correlated positively (Spearman's rho 0.40). By contrast, indoor air DEHP was not associated with flooring type nor with its urinary metabolite concentrations. Vinyl flooring in the home may be an important source of children's exposure to BBzP via indoor air. PMID:25690585

  14. Spatial variations in airborne microorganism and endotoxin concentrations at green waste composting facilities.

    PubMed

    Pankhurst, L J; Deacon, L J; Liu, J; Drew, G H; Hayes, E T; Jackson, S; Longhurst, P J; Longhurst, J W S; Pollard, S J T; Tyrrel, S F

    2011-09-01

    The emission and dispersal of bioaerosols from open-air commercial composting facilities continues to be contentious. A meta-dataset enumerating cultivable microorganism emission and downwind concentrations is not yet available. A dataset derived from repeated and replicated field studies over a period of two years at two commercial composting facilities is presented. The data characterises patterns in Aspergillus fumigatus, actinomycetes, Gram-negative bacteria and endotoxin emission and downwind concentrations. For all bioaerosols, compost agitation activities had a significant impact on concentrations; levels were variable up to 600 m downwind from site. Bioaerosols declined rapidly from source and exhibited a secondary peak 100-150 m from site boundary. All bioaerosols were found downwind from site in elevated concentrations. Compared to those found 100 m upwind, levels were significantly higher at 180 m downwind for A. fumigatus; at 300-400 m for actinomycetes and Gram negative bacteria, and at 100 m for endotoxins. Periodically, elevated concentrations could be found for all bioaerosols at distances further downwind. The evidence provided by this data set provides operators and regulators of facilities with reliable data to inform the location, risk assessment and bioaerosol sampling strategies of commercial composting facilities. PMID:21737345

  15. Radionuclide Concentrations in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1997 Growing Season

    SciTech Connect

    L. Naranjo, Jr.; P. R. Fresquez; R. J. Wechsler

    1998-08-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-were analyzed for 3H, 238Pu, 239Pu, 137CS, 234U, 235U, 228AC, Be, 214Bi, 60Co, 40& 54Mn, 22Na, 214Pb and 208Tl. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 3Ef and ~9Pu, in soils and overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper (95'%) level background concentrations. Although 3H concentrations in vegetation from most sites were significantly higher than background (>2 pCi mL-l), concentrations decreased markedly in comparison to last year's results. The highest `H concentration in vegetation was detected from a juniper tree that was growing over tritium shaft /+150; it contained 530,000 pCi 3H mL-l. Also, as in the pas~ the transuranic waste pad area contained the highest levels of 239Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  16. Phase 1 summaries of radionuclide concentration data for vegetation, river water, drinking water, and fish. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, D.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Poston, T.M.; Thiede, M.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1993-06-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. As part of the HEDR Project, the Environmental Monitoring Data Task (Task 05) staff assemble, evaluate, and summarize key historical measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the environment as a result of Hanford operations. The scope of work performed during Phase I included initiating the search, recovery, and inventory of environmental reports. Summaries of the environmental monitoring data that were recovered and evaluated are presented for specific periods of interest. These periods include vegetation monitoring data (primarily sagebrush) for the years 1945 through 1947, Columbia River water and drinking water monitoring data for the years 1963 through 1966, and fish monitoring data for the years 1964 through 1966. Concern was limited to those radionuclides identified as the most likely major contributors to the dose potentially received by the public during the times of interest: phosphorous-32, copper-64, zinc-65, arsenic-76, and neptunium-239 in Columbia River fish and drinking water taken from the river, and iodine-131 in vegetation. This report documents the achievement of the Phase I objectives of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task.

  17. An Innovative Approach for the Calculation of Exposure Point Concentrations for Large Areas of Surface Radionuclide Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Winchester Chromec, F.; Myers, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-15

    The Department of Energy Rocky Flats site was designated as a wildlife refuge by the Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge Act of 2001. Rocky Flats was considered to be one of the most highly contaminated radiological sites in the country. Some portions of the site have low-level radionuclide contamination in surface soils. A site-wide risk and dose assessment to evaluate threats to human health and the environment were performed, so that the site could be released for this land use. The aggressive accelerated action program combined with defensible and innovative risk assessment methods resulted in there being no radionuclides of concern in the final comprehensive risk assessment (DOE 2006). An innovative approach for delineating functional exposure areas and area-weighted exposure point concentration-activities (EPCs) was negotiated with the regulatory agencies in Colorado. This procedure leads to realistic estimates of risk and dose to workers and visitors. This innovative approach to the calculation of EPCs was negotiated with both State and Federal regulators. The value of developing and maintaining good working relationships with regulators responsible for a site can not be overestimated. The building of trust and confidence among responsible parties and regulators is essential for the development and implementation of innovative methods and technologies.

  18. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, and fish collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, total U) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl) contents were determined in soil, vegetation (overstory and understory), and fish (rainbow trout) collected around and within Tsicoma Lake in Santa Clara Canyon in 1995. All heavy metal and most radionuclide contents around or within the lake, except for U in soil, vegetation, and fish, were within or just above upper limit background. Detectable levels (where the analytical result was greater than two times counting uncertainty) of U in soils, vegetation, and fish were found in slightly higher concentrations than in background samples. Overall, however, maximum total committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)(95% confidence level)--based on consumption of 46 lb of fish--from Tsicoma Lake (0.066 mrem/y) was within the maximum total CEDE from the ingestion of fish from the Mescalero National Fish Hatchery (background)(0.113 mrem/y).

  19. Evaluation of the Transfer Coefficient Matrix (TCM) approach to model the atmospheric radionuclide air concentrations from Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draxler, Roland R.; Rolph, Glenn D.

    2012-03-01

    A procedure is developed and tested to provide operational plume forecasts in real-time by continuously updating the previous day's simulations as new meteorological data become available. Simulations are divided into smaller time segments and each segment is continued as an independent calculation using a unit source emission. Multiple computational species are tracked at the same time to represent different classes of radionuclides, each with different dry and wet deposition characteristics. When quantitative air concentration results are required, the unit source calculations are multiplied by the appropriate temporally varying emission rates and decay factors for the radionuclide species involved. Air concentrations for multiple emission scenarios can easily be created in a few minutes and used to optimize model results as more measurement data become available. The procedure was evaluated for the Fukushima accident using publically available emission estimates and some I-131 and Cs-137 monitoring data. The model performance was evaluated at four sampling locations (Dutch Harbor, Alaska; Seattle, Washington; Dublin, Ireland; and Huelva, Spain) at various distances from Japan. The model results showed a very high correlation for the I-131 particulate predictions (0.94) and a moderate correlation for the Cs-137 predictions (0.40). The cesium predictions at Seattle showed five distinct time periods of concentration over-predictions associated with two peak emission periods. Adjusting these emission rates downward to correspond more closely with the time-adjacent rates eliminated the over-prediction but resulted in total emissions of Cs-137 (3 PBq) that were much less than estimated by other researchers (36 PBq).

  20. Concentrations of radionuclides in terrestrial vegetation on the Hanford site of potential interest to Native Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-03-01

    Concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in Carey`s balsamroot (Balsamorhiza careyana) and Gray`s desert parsley (Lomatium grayi) were similar to concentrations observed in other plants collected on the Hanford Site and from offsite locations surrounding the Site as part of annual Hanford Site surveillance. Observed concentrations may be attributed to historic fallout more than to Hanford Site emissions, although the observation that 200 Area plants had slightly higher concentrations of {sup 137}Cs than 100 Area plants is consistent with other monitoring data of radioactivity in soil and vegetation collected onsite. The present concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in balsamroot and parsley fluctuate around background levels with some of the higher observed concentrations of {sup 90}Sr found on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve. Analytical results and summary statistics by species and location are presented in the appendixes.

  1. Radionuclide concentrations in elk that winter on Los Alamos National Laboratory lands

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.A.; Salazar, J.G.

    1994-07-01

    Elk spend the winter in areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that may contain radioactivity above natural and/or worldwide fallout levels. This study was initiated to determine the levels of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium in various tissues (brain, hair, heart, jawbone, kidneys, leg bone, liver, and muscle) of adult cow elk that use LANL lands during the fall/winter months. No significant differences in radionuclide contents were detected in any of the tissue samples collected from elk on LANL lands as compared with elk collected from off-site locations. The total effective (radiation) dose equivalent a person would receive from consuming 3.2 lb of heart, 5.6 lb of liver, and 226 lb of muscle from elk that winter on LANL lands, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.00008, 0.0001, and 0.008 mrem/yr, respectively. The highest dose was less than 0.01% of the International Commission of Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting the public.

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in elk that winter on Los Alamos National Laboratory lands. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.A.; Salazar, J.G.

    1994-07-01

    Elk spend the winter in areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that may contain radioactivity above natural and/or worldwide fallout levels. This study was initiated to determine the levels of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium in various tissues (brain, hair, heart, jawbone, kidneys, leg bone, liver, and muscle) of adult cow elk that use LANL lands during the fall/winter months. No significant differences in radionuclide contents were detected in any of the tissue samples collected from elk on LANL lands as compared with elk collected from off-site locations. The total effective (radiation) dose equivalent a person would receive from consuming 3.2 lb of heart, 5.6 lb of liver, and 226 lb of muscle from elk that winter on LANL lands, after natural background has been subtracted, was 0.00008, 0.0001, and 0.008 mrem/yr, respectively. The highest dose was less than 0.01% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit for protecting the public.

  3. Vertical distribution of aerosol number concentration in the troposphere over Siberia derived from airborne in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Boris D.; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Machida, Toshinobu; Kozlov, Alexandr; Malyskin, Sergei; Simonenkov, Denis; Davydov, Denis; Fofonov, Alexandr

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the vertical distribution of aerosols particles is very important when estimating aerosol radiative effects. To date there are a lot of research programs aimed to study aerosol vertical distribution, but only a few ones exist in such insufficiently explored region as Siberia. Monthly research flights and several extensive airborne campaigns carried out in recent years in Siberian troposphere allowed the vertical distribution of aerosol number concentration to be summarized. In-situ aerosol measurements were performed in a wide range of particle sizes by means of improved version of the Novosibirsk-type diffusional particle sizer and GRIMM aerosol spectrometer Model 1.109. The data on aerosol vertical distribution enabled input parameters for the empirical equation of Jaenicke (1993) to be derived for Siberian troposphere up to 7 km. Vertical distributions of aerosol number concentration in different size ranges averaged for the main seasons of the year will be presented. This work was supported by Interdisciplinary integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 35, No. 70 and No. 131; the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 14-05-00526). Jaenicke R. Tropospheric aerosols, in Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interactions, edited by P.V. Hobs. -Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1993.- P. 1-31.

  4. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE MEASUREMENT OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS - A PROVISIONAL METHODOLOGY MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual describes a provisional optimum electron microscope (EM) procedure for measuring the concentration of asbestos in air samples. The main features of the method include depositing an air sample on a polycarbonate membrane filter, examining an EM grid specimen in a trans...

  5. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE MEASUREMENT OF AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS. A PROVISIONAL METHODOLOGY MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual describes a provisional optimum electron microscope (EM) procedure for measuring the concentration of asbestos in air samples. The main features of the method include depositing an air sample on a polycarbonate membrane filter, examining an EM grid specimen in a trans...

  6. Impact of spatiotemporal fluctuations in airborne chemical concentration on toxic hazard assessment.

    PubMed

    Bogen, K T; Gouveia, F J

    2008-03-21

    Models widely used to assess atmospheric chemical-dispersion hazards for emergency response rely on acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) or similar concentration guidelines to map geographic areas potentially affected by corresponding levels of toxic severity. By ignoring substantial, random variability in concentration over time and space, such standard methods routinely underestimate the size of potentially affected areas. Underestimation due to temporal fluctuation - applicable to chemicals like hydrogen cyanide (HCN) for which peak concentrations best predict acute toxicity - becomes magnified by spatial fluctuation, defined as heterogeneity in average concentration at each location relative to standard-method predictions. The combined impact of spatiotemporal fluctuation on size of assessed threat areas was studied using a statistical-simulation assessment method calibrated to Joint Urban 2003 Oklahoma City field-tracer data. For a hypothetical 60-min urban release scenario involving HCN gas, the stochastic method predicted that lethal/severe effects could occur in an area 18 or 25 times larger than was predicted by standard methods targeted to a 60-min AEGL, assuming wind speeds > or =2.0 or < or =1.5m/s, respectively. The underestimation doubled when the standard method was targeted to a 10-min AEGL. Further research and field data are needed for improved stochastic methods to assess spatiotemporal fluctuation effects. PMID:17706864

  7. Trends and threshold exceedances analysis of airborne pollen concentrations in Metropolitan Santiago Chile

    PubMed Central

    Toro A., Richard; Córdova J., Alicia; Canales, Mauricio; Morales S., Raul G. E.; Mardones P., Pedro; Leiva G., Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is one of the primary causes of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in urban centers. In the present study, the concentrations of 39 different pollens in the Santiago de Chile metropolitan area over the period 2009–2013 are characterized. The pollen was monitored daily using Burkard volumetric equipment. The contribution of each type of pollen and the corresponding time trends are evaluated. The concentrations of the pollens are compared with the established threshold levels for the protection of human health. The results show that the total amount of pollen grains originating from trees, grasses, weeds and indeterminate sources throughout the period of the study was 258,496 grains m-3, with an annual average of 51,699 ± 3,906 grains m-3 year-1. The primary source of pollen is Platanus orientalis, which produces 61.8% of the analyzed pollen. Grass pollen is the third primary component of the analyzed pollen, with a contribution of 5.82%. Among the weeds, the presence of Urticacea (3.74%) is remarkable. The pollination pattern of the trees is monophasic, and the grasses have a biphasic pattern. The trends indicate that the total pollen and tree pollen do not present a time trend that is statistically significant throughout the period of the study, whereas the grass pollen and weed pollen concentrations in the environment present a statistically significant decreasing trend. The cause of this decrease is unclear. The pollen load has doubled over the past decade. When the observed concentrations of the pollens were compared with the corresponding threshold levels, the results indicated that over the period of the study, the pollen concentrations were at moderate, high and very high levels for an average of 293 days per year. Systematic counts of the pollen grains are an essential method for diagnosing and treating patients with pollinosis and for developing forestation and urban planning strategies. PMID:25946339

  8. Trends and threshold exceedances analysis of airborne pollen concentrations in Metropolitan Santiago Chile.

    PubMed

    Toro A, Richard; Córdova J, Alicia; Canales, Mauricio; Morales S, Raul G E; Mardones P, Pedro; Leiva G, Manuel A

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is one of the primary causes of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in urban centers. In the present study, the concentrations of 39 different pollens in the Santiago de Chile metropolitan area over the period 2009-2013 are characterized. The pollen was monitored daily using Burkard volumetric equipment. The contribution of each type of pollen and the corresponding time trends are evaluated. The concentrations of the pollens are compared with the established threshold levels for the protection of human health. The results show that the total amount of pollen grains originating from trees, grasses, weeds and indeterminate sources throughout the period of the study was 258,496 grains m-3, with an annual average of 51,699 ± 3,906 grains m-3 year-1. The primary source of pollen is Platanus orientalis, which produces 61.8% of the analyzed pollen. Grass pollen is the third primary component of the analyzed pollen, with a contribution of 5.82%. Among the weeds, the presence of Urticacea (3.74%) is remarkable. The pollination pattern of the trees is monophasic, and the grasses have a biphasic pattern. The trends indicate that the total pollen and tree pollen do not present a time trend that is statistically significant throughout the period of the study, whereas the grass pollen and weed pollen concentrations in the environment present a statistically significant decreasing trend. The cause of this decrease is unclear. The pollen load has doubled over the past decade. When the observed concentrations of the pollens were compared with the corresponding threshold levels, the results indicated that over the period of the study, the pollen concentrations were at moderate, high and very high levels for an average of 293 days per year. Systematic counts of the pollen grains are an essential method for diagnosing and treating patients with pollinosis and for developing forestation and urban planning strategies. PMID:25946339

  9. Conceptual Approach For Estimating Potential Air Toxics And Radionuclide Airborne Emissions From A Temporary Exhaust System For The 216-Z-9 Crib Removal Action

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.; Sutter, C.; O'Brien, P.; Bates, J.; Klos, B.; Teal, J.; Oates, L.

    2008-07-01

    The 216-Z-9 Crib, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in southeastern Washington State, was the site of a successful mining effort to recover plutonium from the contaminated soils at the disposal site. A CERCLA Action Memorandum (AM) issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires the removal of the buildings associated with this mining effort to facilitate a remedial action planned for the near future. The decontamination and demolition of the 216 Z-9 Crib facilities is required under a consent order between the DOE, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Removal of the buildings located on and near the concrete cover slab over the 216-Z-9 Crib will require removal of the large soil-packaging glovebox located inside the 216-Z- 9A Building. Prior to cleaning out the glovebox, it will be necessary to provide active filtered ventilation capability to ensure a negative pressure exists between the glovebox and the adjacent airspace while hands-on work proceeds within. The glovebox floor is open to the Z-9 crib cavern environment below. For this reason the crib and glovebox currently share a common airspace. The functional requirements for safely conducting work within the glovebox include provision of a negative pressure in the box of about 0.5 inches of water gage (nominal) less than the interior of the building. In addition, the building surrounding the glovebox will be maintained at a slight negative pressure with respect to outdoor ambient pressure. In order to assess the relevant and appropriate clean air requirements for the new temporary ventilation system and associated emissions monitoring, it was necessary to reliably predict the nature of the exhaust air stream. Factors used to predict the presence and concentrations of certain radionuclide particulates and certain gases considered to be air toxics, included reliability parameters, flow rates, radionuclide content, and off

  10. Reconstruction of radionuclide concentrations in the Columbia River from Hanford, Washington to Portland, Oregon, January 1950--January 1971. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Gilmore, B.G.; Richmond, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, this report addresses the radioactivity in the Columbia River. The Columbia River received cooling-water effluent from the eight Hanford single-pass reactors and was the major pathway for waterborne radionuclides. The pathway began at the Hanford Site and continued downstream past the mouth of the Columbia River to the adjacent coastal and ocean areas. The objective of the HEDR Project`s Surface-Water Transport Task is to provide monthly average radionuclide concentrations in river water at specific locations along the Columbia River. These concentrations will be used in final estimates of radiation doses that individuals may have received from the Columbia River pathway. Under this task, a river hydraulic computer model was used to simulate transport of specific radionuclides from the Hanford reactors to Portland, Oregon. The model output consisted of monthly average water concentrations of radionuclides computed for 12 locations over 253 months (January 1950--January 1971). These water concentrations were forwarded to the staff of the Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates Task for calculating dose estimates. The model used a source term input data file developed by the staff of the Source Terms Task which provided monthly average releases from each of the eight reactors, from January 1950 through January 1971. The Environmental Monitoring Task staff provided historical river monitoring data for use in validating computed water concentrations. The purpose of this report is to document the mathematical modeling required to reconstruct concentrations of radionuclides in Columbia River water. Modeling was required because available monitoring data are limited. The specific radionuclides considered are sodium-24, phosphorus-32, zinc-65, arsenic-76, and neptunium-239, determined by their relative contribution to dose for the river pathway (Napier 1993).

  11. 3D Trace gas concentration distributions from groundbased and airborne tomographic DOAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pundt, I.; Hak, C.; Hartl, A.; Heue, K.-P.; Knab, V.; Kunz, C.; Laepple, T.; Lee, W.-D.; Mettendorf, K. U.; Sun, H.

    2003-04-01

    An overview on the AFO-2000 project "Tom-DOAS" is given. The project aims the assessment of concentration maps from DOAS measurements performed from ground or aircraft with more than ten light beams. 1) A first ground-based experiment was set up in April/May 2001 during the motorway campaign BABII (organised by Fiedler et al.): Two DOAS telescopes were directed onto eight retro reflector arrays mounted on two cranes, providing 16 light beams in total. From the data Luff and Lee profiles and the emission plumes of NO2 and ozone could be derived. 2) A new telescope type, the Multibeam telescope, was developed for the simultaneous measurement of multiple paths at ground. 3) An aircraft instrument was developed and about 20 flight hours of Tom-DOAS measurements were performed onboard a Partenavia aircraft in the Milano area (Italy) in the frame of the EU "FORMAT" project (July/August 2002) - in co-operation with the Institut für Umweltphysik of the University of Bremen 4) A new inversion software, "TOMOLAB", was developed, which converts the DOAS column data to concentration maps. It is used for the optimisation of tomographic setups using model data, e.g. for flight track choices, as well as for the inversion of real data sets from the measurements.

  12. Airborne fine particulate pollution in Jinan, China: Concentrations, chemical compositions and influence on visibility impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lingxiao; Zhou, Xuehua; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Yang; Cheng, Shuhui; Xu, Pengju; Gao, Xiaomei; Nie, Wei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Wenxing

    2012-08-01

    Daily PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously at an urban site (SD) and a rural site (MP) in Jinan, China from March 2006 to February 2007. The samples were analyzed for major inorganic and organic water-soluble ions, 24 elements and carbonaceous species to determine the spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 mass concentrations and chemical compositions and evaluate their contributions to visibility impairment. The annual average concentrations of PM2.5 were 148.71 μg m-3 and 97.59 μg m-3 at SD and MP, respectively. The predominant component of PM2.5 was (NH4)2SO4 at SD and organic mass at MP, which accounted for 28.71% and 37.25% of the total mass, respectively. The higher SOR (sulfur oxidation ratio) and ratios of OC/EC at SD indicated that the formation of secondary inorganic ions and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) could be accelerated in the urban area. Large size (NH4)2SO4 and large size organic mass were the most important contributors to visibility impairment at SD and MP, accounting for 43.80% and 41.02% of the light extinction coefficient, respectively.

  13. Evaluation of Maximum Radionuclide Groundwater Concentrations for Basement Fill Model. Zion Station Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Terry

    2014-12-02

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in order to establish a new water treatment plant. There is some residual radioactive particles from the plant which need to be brought down to levels so an individual who receives water from the new treatment plant does not receive a radioactive dose in excess of 25 mrem/y⁻¹. The objectives of this report are: (a) To present a simplified conceptual model for release from the buildings with residual subsurface structures that can be used to provide an upper bound on contaminant concentrations in the fill material; (b) Provide maximum water concentrations and the corresponding amount of mass sorbed to the solid fill material that could occur in each building for use in dose assessment calculations; (c) Estimate the maximum concentration in a well located outside of the fill material; and (d) Perform a sensitivity analysis of key parameters.

  14. Deriving the concentration of airborne ash with a CAS-DPOL instrument: assessing uncertainties introduced by the instrument design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanu, Antonio; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Freudenthaler, Volker; Sauer, Daniel; Gasteiger, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject large amounts of gas and particles into the atmosphere resulting in strong impacts on anthropic systems and climate. Fine ash particles in suspension, even if at low concentrations, are a serious aviation safety hazard. A key point to predict the dispersion and deposition of volcanic ash is the knowledge of emitted mass and its particle size distribution. Usually the deposit is used to characterize the source but a large uncertainty is present for fine and very fine ash particles which are usually not well preserved. Conversely, satellite observations provide only column-integrated information and are strongly sensitive to cloud conditions above the ash plumes. Consequently, in situ measurements are fundamental to extend our knowledge on ash clouds, their properties, and interactions over the vertical extent of the atmosphere. Different in-situ instruments are available covering different particle size ranges using a variety of measurement techniques. Depending on the measurement technique, artefacts due to instrument setup and ambient conditions can strongly modify the measured number concentration and size distribution of the airborne particles. It is fundamental to correct for those effects to quantify the uncertainty associated with the measurement. Here we evaluate the potential of our optical light-scattering spectrometer CAS-DPOL to detect airborne mineral dust and volcanic ash (in the size range between 0.7μm and 50μm) and to provide a reliable estimation of the mass concentration, investigating the associate uncertainty. The CAS-DPOL instrument sizes particles by detecting the light scattered off the particle into a defined angle. The associated uncertainty depends on the optical instrument design and on unknown particles characteristics such as shape and material. Indirect measurements of mass concentrations are statistically reconstructed using the air flow velocity. Therefore, the detected concentration is strongly

  15. Analysis of cobbly soils for cobbles-to-fines corrections to radionuclide concentrations at the New Rifle, Colorado, processing site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    A contamination depth and cobbly soil characterization study was performed in November and December 1993 at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Projects`s New Rifle, Colorado, processing site. This study was initiated due to a concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) clarifying that the allowable residual contamination in soil should be averaged over the total mass of the soil volume, including cobbles and gravels (i.e., bulk concentration). The New Rifle processing site has a high percentage of cobbles and gravels underlying the pile and other contaminated areas, which preliminary excavation designs have identified for removal and disposal. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative mass percentage and radionuclide concentrations of cobbles and gravels in order to determine the bulk contamination concentrations, revise the underlying excavation design depths, and improve verification methods. Another important goal of the study was to acquire more accurate contamination depth data (profile) for the subpile material. In summary, this recharacterization study will probably reduce the volume of material for excavation/disposal by several hundred thousand cubic yards and significantly reduce the amount of ground water expected to be pumped out of the excavation during cleanup.

  16. Concentration of radionuclides in hydrosphere affected by Temelín Nuclear Power Plant in Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hanslík, E; Ivanovová, D; Jedináková-Krízová, V; Juranová, E; Simonek, P

    2009-07-01

    The paper presents results of a long-term field study of the possible impact of Temelín NPP on the Vltava and Elbe Rivers. The study was divided into 2 stages: before and after the operation of the NPP. The main goal of the investigation before the operation (1989-2000) was to determine the background levels of radionuclides resulting from the tests of nuclear weapons and the Chernobyl accident for different components of the environment. The paper discusses also the risk of a river radioactive contamination due to the tritium discharges in wastewater from Temelín NPP. During the operation period of 2001-2006, the results of the monitoring did not detect any impact of Temelín NPP on the concentrations of activation and fission products in the hydrosphere, apart from tritium. The annual average tritium concentrations in the Vltava River correspond with the previously calculated predictions for the conditions of the average and minimum guaranteed flows. The maximum concentration of tritium of 26.6 Bq/l in Vltava River at Prague was observed after dry period in 2003. PMID:19419807

  17. A survey of airborne HDI, HDI-based polyisocyanate and solvent concentrations in the manufacture and application of polyurethane coatings.

    PubMed

    Myer, H E; O'Block, S T; Dharmarajan, V

    1993-11-01

    This study summarizes the results of industrial hygiene surveys performed between 1979 and 1987 in paint manufacturing and application operations using polyurethane coatings containing hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and HDI-based polyisocyanates (trade name Desmodur N). A total of 466 Desmodur N and 457 HDI samples were collected from 47 operations most of which were in application. The application surveys covered manufacture and refinishing of transportation vehicles, painting of large military and civilian equipment, industrial finishing operations, and maintenance and construction operations. The primary objective of the surveys was to assess the potential exposure to HDI and HDI-based polyisocyanate. In more than 60% of the surveys, concentrations of airborne organic solvents also were monitored. Isocyanates were sampled using toluene/nitroreagent in midget impingers, and solvents were collected using charcoal tubes. They were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, respectively. The data from these workplace situations show there is some potential for isocyanate overexposure of unprotected workers and that it is greater in spray than in nonspray operations. PMID:8256690

  18. Concentration and particle size of airborne toxic algae (brevetoxin) derived from ocean red tide events.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung Sung; McDonald, Jacob D; Kracko, Dean; Irvin, C Mitch; Zhou, Yue; Pierce, Richard H; Henry, Michael S; Bourdelaisa, Andrea; Naar, Jerome; Baden, Daniel G

    2005-05-15

    Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico are formed by blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, which produces brevetoxins (PbTx). Brevetoxins can be transferred from water to air in the wind-powered whitecapped waves during red tide episodes. Inhalation exposure to marine aerosol containing PbTx causes respiratory problems. A liquid chromatograph/ tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the detection and quantitation of several PbTxs in ambient samples collected during red tide events. This method was complemented by a previously developed antibody assay that analyzes the entire class of PbTx compounds. The method showed good linearity, accuracy, and reproducibility, allowing quantitation of PbTx compounds in the 10 pg/m3 range. Air concentrations of PbTxs and brevenal for individual samples ranged from 0.01 to 80 ng/m3. The particle size showed a single mode with a mass median diameter between 6 and 10 microm, which was consistent for all of the PbTx species that were measured. Our results imply that individual PbTxs were from the same marine aerosol or from marine aerosol that was produced from the same process. The particle size indicated the likelihood of high deposition efficiency in the respiratory tract with the majority of aerosol deposited in the upper airways and small but not insignificant deposition in the lower airways. PMID:15954221

  19. Seasonal and intradiurnal variation of airborne pollen concentrations in Bodrum, SW Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tosunoglu, Aycan; Bicakci, Adem

    2015-04-01

    An aeropalynological study was performed in Bodrum, the famous tourism center in southwestern Turkey with a Hirst-type volumetric 7-day pollen and spore trap for 2 years (2007-2008). In Bodrum, 25,099 pollen grains as a mean value belonging to 41 taxa were recorded annually during the study period, and pollen grains from woody plant taxa had the largest atmospheric contribution of 86.99% and 24 taxa. However, 17 herbaceous plant taxa constituted 12.82% of the annual total pollen count, and 0.19% were unidentified. An average annual pollen index of 22.66% was recorded in March, despite differences from year to year. The highest pollen variability of 34 taxa was recorded in April and May. Predominant pollen types belonged to Cupressaceae/Taxaceae (42.73%), Quercus (15.95%), Pinus (9.78%), Olea europaea (9.04%), Poaceae (5.50%), Betula (1.82%), Pistacia (1.74%), Morus (1.72%), Urticaceae (1.46%), and Plantago (1.28%) and generated 91.03 of the annual total. In total, 32.59% of the mean annual total pollen index was recorded in the morning, and less pollen was recorded in the evening (18.71%). Maximum pollen concentration was recorded between 11:00 and 12:00 a.m. PMID:25750068

  20. Airborne tunable diode laser sensor for high-precision concentration and flux measurements of carbon monoxide and methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Hill, G. F.; Wade, L. O.; Burney, L. G.; Ritter, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    An airborne tunable diode laser instrument is described that is capable of operating in two measurement modes. One mode provides high precision (0.1 percent CH4; 1 percent CO) measurements of CH4 and CO with a 5 second response time, and a second mode achieves the very fast response time that is necessary to make airborne eddy correlation flux measurements. Examples of data from atmospheric expeditions of the Global Tropospheric Experiment are presented.

  1. Evaluation of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation in reducing the airborne cultural bacteria concentrations in an elementary school in the Midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Su, Chunxiao; Lau, Josephine; Gibbs, Shawn G

    2015-05-01

    This article describes a casestudythe authors conducted in an elementary school in the Midwest. The objective was to evaluate the performance of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UGVI) to reduce the bioaerosol concentration in a classroom. Two fourth grade classrooms with the same dimensions were studied. One classroom was designated as the UVGI group and the other as the control group. Two-stage Tisch culturable impactors were utilized for collecting airborne bacteria with monthly samples collected from October 2012 to January 2013. Nonparametric methods were applied and p-values smaller than .05 were deemed significant. The concentrations of airborne cultural bacteria with a smaller size (1-8 pm) and the total bacterial concentrations from the UVGI classroom were significantly lower than those of the control room in three of four sampling months. These results could provide the preliminary results necessary to determine the effectiveness of upper-room UVGI in reducing the concentration of airborne cultural bacteria in classrooms and other buildings. PMID:25985534

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1996 growing season. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Vold, E.L.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1997-07-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G--a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National laboratory--were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup tot}U, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 60}Co, {sup 40}K, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 22}Na, {sup 214}Pb, and {sup 208}Tl. Also, heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in soil and vegetation were determined. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu, in soils and washed and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper limit background concentrations. Tritium was detected as high as 14,744 pCi mL{sup {minus}1} in understory vegetation collected from transuranic (TRU) waste pad {number_sign}4, and the TRU waste pad area contained the highest levels of {sup 239}Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in honey bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1997. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Haarmann, T.K.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1998-07-01

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jamez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for the following: cesium ({sup 137}Cs), americium ({sup 241}Am), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239,240}Pu), tritium ({sup 3}H), total uranium, and gross gamma activity. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 238}Pu and {sup 3}H.

  4. Radionuclide Concentrations in soils an Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G During 2004

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Fresquez; E.A. Lopez

    2004-11-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected at nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These samples were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U. Soil samples collected at Area G contained detectable concentrations of 3H (27%), {sup 239,240}Pu (60%), {sup 238}Pu (40%), and {sup 241}Am (47%) above regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). In contrast, the levels of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and U in all of the soil samples at Area G were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils were detected in the southwestern portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts, whereas the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions. All concentrations of {sup 3}H and Pu in soils, however, were far below LANL screening action levels. As for vegetation, most radionuclides in/on plants were either nondetectable or within RSRLs. The exceptions were {sup 3}H in overstory and some understory vegetation, particularly in the southwestern portion of Area G, which correlated very well with the soils data in that area. Also, there was some foliar contamination from {sup 241}Am and Pu isotopes in/on a few plant samples--the highest concentrations occurring in the northern section of Area G.

  5. Influence of mineralogical and heavy metal composition on natural radionuclide concentrations in the river sediments.

    PubMed

    Suresh, G; Ramasamy, V; Meenakshisundaram, V; Venkatachalapathy, R; Ponnusamy, V

    2011-10-01

    The natural radiation level has been determined for the sediment samples of the Ponnaiyar River with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard. The mineralogical characterizations of the sediments have been carried out using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction coefficient. The concentration and spatial distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni) have been studied to understand the heavy metal contamination and its level of toxicity. To evaluate the potential toxicity, heavy metal concentrations are compared with different toxicological and geological reference values. The comparison results suggest that the present metals create an adverse effect on the aquatic ecosystems associated with this river. To assess the sediment contamination due to the studied heavy metals, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) is calculated. Multivariate Statistical analyses (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factor analysis) were carried out between the parameters obtained from radioactivity, mineralogical and geochemical analysis to know the existing relations. Obtained results showed that the effect of mineralogy on level of radioactivity should be significant. However, mineralogy effect on heavy metal composition in the sediments should be limited, indicating that other factors such as vicinity of the pollution sources are more important. Also, the influence of mineralogical characterization on level of radioactivity is significant, whereas the influence of the heavy metal composition on level of radioactivity should be limited. PMID:21636283

  6. Activity concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in marine sediments close to the estuary of Shatt al-Arab/Arvand Rud River, the Gulf.

    PubMed

    Patiris, D L; Tsabaris, C; Anagnostou, C L; Androulakaki, E G; Pappa, F K; Eleftheriou, G; Sgouros, G

    2016-06-01

    Tigris and Euphrates rivers both emerge in eastern Turkey and cross Syria and Iraq. They unite to Shatt al-Arab/Arvand Rud River and discharge in Arabic/Persian Gulf. The activity concentration of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides was measured during the August of 2011 in a number of surficial sediment samples collected from the seabed along an almost straight line beginning near the estuary mouth and extending seaward. The results exhibited low activity concentration levels and an almost homogeneous spatial distribution except locations where sediment of biogenic origin, poor in radionuclides, dilute their concentrations. Dose rates absorbed by reference marine biota were calculated by the ERICA Assessment Tool considering the contribution of 40 K. The results revealed a relatively low impact of 40 K mainly to species living in, on and close to the seabed. Also, statistical association of radionuclides with selected stable elements (Ca, Ba and Sr) did not indicate presence of by-products related with oil and gas exploitation and transportation activities. Moreover, a semi-empirical sedimentology model applied to reproduce seabed granulometric facies based entirely on radionuclides activity concentrations. PMID:26945883

  7. Variation in background concentrations and specific activities of 36Cl, 129I and U/Th-series radionuclides in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, S C; Herod, M

    2012-04-01

    Assessment of the potential environmental impacts of nuclear fuel waste involves multiple lines of argument, one of which is an evaluation of the possible increments to background concentrations of certain radionuclides. This is especially relevant for radionuclides such as (3)H, (36)Cl and (129)I where there is continuous cosmogenic or geogenic production. However, for (36)Cl and (129)I and certain U/Th-series radionuclides, data are scarce because the analysis methods are complex and costly. The present study used accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) to measure(36)Cl and (129)I in river waters throughout Canada. Radiochemical methods were used for (3)H and the selected U/Th-series radionuclides, and stable element concentrations were also determined. There were distinct differences in concentrations among the sites. Stable Cl and I tended to be at higher concentrations near the ocean or population centres. The (3)H was high in regions with power reactors. The (226)Ra, (235)U and (238)U concentrations were high in areas with known U mineralizations, as expected. The (36)Cl and (129)I concentrations were generally homogenous in mid-latitudes, but the (129)I concentration was lower in the one arctic site sampled. Because the stable and radioactive isotopes of Cl and I varied in response to different factors, the resulting specific activities were especially variable. Both Cl and I are homeostatically controlled in animals, thus it follows that dose from (36)Cl and (129)I will depend more closely on specific activity than concentration, and therefore the environmental increments of interest are in the specific activities rather than simply concentrations. PMID:22304997

  8. Effects on radionuclide concentrations by cement/ground-water interactions in support of performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J.

    1998-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a technical position document that provides guidance regarding the performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This guidance considers the effects that the chemistry of the vault disposal system may have on radionuclide release. The geochemistry of pore waters buffered by cementitious materials in the disposal system will be different from the local ground water. Therefore, the cement-buffered environment needs to be considered within the source term calculations if credit is taken for solubility limits and/or sorption of dissolved radionuclides within disposal units. A literature review was conducted on methods to model pore-water compositions resulting from reactions with cement, experimental studies of cement/water systems, natural analogue studies of cement and concrete, and radionuclide solubilities experimentally determined in cement pore waters. Based on this review, geochemical modeling was used to calculate maximum concentrations for americium, neptunium, nickel, plutonium, radium, strontium, thorium, and uranium for pore-water compositions buffered by cement and local ground-water. Another literature review was completed on radionuclide sorption behavior onto fresh cement/concrete where the pore water pH will be greater than or equal 10. Based on this review, a database was developed of preferred minimum distribution coefficient values for these radionuclides in cement/concrete environments.

  9. The Aqueous Thermodynamics and Complexation Reactions of Anionic Silica Species to High Concentration: Effects on Neutralization of Leaked Tank Wastes and Migration of Radionuclides in the Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Choppin, Gregory; Dixon, David A.

    2002-06-01

    Highly basic tank wastes contain several important radionuclides, including {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 60}Co, as well as actinide elements (i.e., isotopes of U, Pu, and Am). These highly basic tank wastes are known to have leaked into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Upon entering the sediments in the vadose zone, the highly basic solutions dissolve large concentrations of silica from the silica and aluminosilicate minerals present in the subsurface. These dissolution reactions alter the chemical composition of the leaking solutions, transforming them from a highly basic (as high as 2M NaOH) solution into a pore solution with a very high concentration of dissolved silica and a significantly reduced pH. This moderately basic (pH 9 to 11), high-silica solution has the potential to complex radionuclides and move through the subsurface. Such strong radionuclide complexation is a currently unconsidered transport vector that has the potential to expedite radionuclide transport through the vadose zone. These strong complexation effects have the ability to significantly alter current conceptual models of contaminant migration beneath leaking tanks. In this project, we are determining the aqueous thermodynamics and speciation of dissolved silica and silica-radionuclide complexes to high silica concentration using a combination of (1) studies of chemical species structure and composition [via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and, where applicable, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy] (2) molecular simulations to help identify key species structures and assist in interpreting experimental measurements (3) fundamental physical chemistry measurements, including solubility, electromotive force, and isopiestic measurements, to obtain the necessary thermodynamic data for predicting contaminant complexation and waste neutralization reactions. The radioactive elements we are studying include Sr, Co, Cs, Am(III), and U(VI).

  10. Retrieval of Atmospheric CO2 Concentration above Clouds and Cloud Top Pressure from Airborne Lidar Measurements during ASCENDS Science Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Rodriguez, M.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; Kawa, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    NASA Goddard is developing an integrated-path, differential absorption (IPDA) lidar approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations from space as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) mission. The approach uses pulsed lasers to measure both CO2 and O2 absorption simultaneously in the vertical path to the surface at a number of wavelengths across a CO2 line at 1572.335 nm and an O2 line doublet near 764.7 nm. Measurements of time-resolved laser backscatter profiles from the atmosphere allow the technique to estimate column CO2 and O2 number density and range to cloud tops in addition to those to the ground. This allows retrievals of CO2 column above clouds and cloud top pressure, and all-sky measurement capability from space. This additional information can be used to evaluate atmospheric transport processes and other remote sensing carbon data in the free atmosphere, improve carbon data assimilation in models and help global and regional carbon flux estimates. We show some preliminary results of this capability using airborne lidar measurements from the summers of 2011 and 2014 ASCENDS science campaigns. These show simultaneous retrievals of CO2 and O2 column densities for laser returns from low-level marine stratus clouds in the west coast of California. This demonstrates the supplemental capability of the future space carbon mission to measure CO2 above clouds, which is valuable particularly for the areas with persistent cloud covers, e.g, tropical ITCZ, west coasts of continents with marine layered clouds and southern ocean with highest occurrence of low-level clouds, where underneath carbon cycles are active but passive remote sensing techniques using the reflected short wave sunlight are unable to measure accurately due to cloud scattering effect. We exercise cloud top pressure retrieval from O2 absorption measurements during the flights over the low-level marine stratus cloud decks, which is one of

  11. The use of an experimental room for monitoring of airborne concentrations of microorganisms, glass fibers, and total particles

    SciTech Connect

    Buttner, M.P.; Stetzenbach, L.D.

    1996-12-31

    An experimental room was used as a microcosm for studies of airborne particles and microorganisms in indoor environments. The interior of the room measures 4 by 4 by 2.2 m high and has a hardwood floor and the walls and ceiling are sheetrocked and coated with interior latex paint. Exterior walls are 11.4-cm thick plywood panels consisting of two outer sections of plywood insulated with fiber glass batts. The ceiling is of similar construction with 17.1-cm thick panels. Attached to the room entrance is an anteroom equipped with a HEPA-filtered air shower to reduce mixing of air resulting from entering and exiting during experiments. The room is equipped with a computer-controlled heating, ventilation, and cooling system. Temperature, relative humidity, air flow, and room pressure can be continuously monitored by probes located in the room and air handling system components. Several research projects have been conducted using this room including monitoring the potential for airborne glass fibers released from rigid fibrous ductboard, comparisons of commercially available samplers for monitoring of airborne fungal spores, and a study on the efficacy of vacuum bags to minimize dispersal of particles, including fungal spores from fungal-contaminated carpet. During studies designed to monitor airborne fiberglass, air samples were taken in the room serviced by new rigid fibrous glass ductwork, and the results were compared to those obtained in the room with bare metal ductwork installed. Monitoring of airborne fungal spores using the Andersen six-stage sampler, the high flow Spiral Biotech sampler, the Biotest RCS Plus sampler, and the Burkard spore trap sampler was performed following the release of Penicillium spores into the room through the supply register. Dispersal of carpet-associated particles and fungal spores was measured after vacuuming using conventional cellulose vacuum bags in comparison to recently developed bags.

  12. Concentration and distribution of heavy metals and radionuclides in topsoils from Middle Jiu Valley surface coal exploitations sourrounding area (Gorj County, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corneanu, Mihaela; Corneanu, Gabriel; Lacatusu, Anca-Rovena; Cojocaru, Luminita; Butnariu, Monica

    2013-04-01

    Middle Jiu Valley is one of the largest surface coal exploitation area in Romania. The coal exploitation area is a dense populated one, along the valleys are villages and the inhabitants produce for their own consumption fruits and vegetables, in their personal gardens, or cereals in the fields, nearby the villages. There was considered to be of great interest to investigate the heavy metals and radionuclides content in gardens and cropfield soils from the villages sourrounding the Thermo Electric Power Plants (TEPP) and coal surface exploitation, as well as in crude /cultivated sterile soil or ash. The topsoil samples (104) were harvested from population gardens (58), cropfields sourronding Thermo Electric Power Plants (24), crude sterile dumps (7), cultivated sterile dumps (9) and ash dumps (6). The content in radionuclides in soil was performed by Duggan (1988) method. Radionuclide activity was expressed in Bqkg-1, confidence level 95%. The total content of heavy metals in soil (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Co) was measured with flame atomic mass spectrometry. The content in heavy metals was expressed in mgkg-1. Soil analysis revealed the presence of natural radionuclides, beloging from ash and coal dust, as well as of Cs-137, of Cernobal provenance. In the cropfields radionuclides content in topsoil is lower than in gardens, due to the deepper soil mobilisation. Radionuclides content over the normal limits for Romania were registered for Th-234, Pb-210, U-235 and in few locations for Ra-226. The soil content for all analysed metals was over the normal limits in most samples, in few cases with values close to allert limits. Concentrations between allert and intervention limits were registered in samples collected from 15-20 km North of TEPP Turceni, in population gardens.

  13. Concentrations of trace elements and compounds in the airborne suspended particulate matter in Cleveland, Ohio, from August 1971 to August 1972 and their dependence on wind direction: Complete data listing and concentration roses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Neustadter, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Concentrations of 75 chemical constituents in the airborne particulate matter were measured in Cleveland, Ohio during 1971 and 1972. Daily values, maxima, geometric means and their standard deviations covering a 1-year period (45 to 50 sampling days) at each of 16 sites are presented on microfiche for 60 elements, and for a lesser number of days for 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAH), the aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds (AH) as a group and carbon. In addition, concentration roses showing directional properties are presented for 39 elements, 10 PAH and the AH as a group. The elements (except carbon) are shown both in terms of concentration and percentage of the suspended particulate matter.

  14. Natural radionuclide concentrations in granite rocks in Aswan and Central-Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt and their radiological implications.

    PubMed

    Issa, Shams A M; Uosif, M A M; Abd el-Salam, L M

    2012-07-01

    Different types of granites, used extensively in local construction, were collected from five localities in Egypt, namely: Abu Ziran (Central Eastern Desert), Gabal El Maesala (Aswan) and three areas from Wadi Allaqi, (Gabal Abu Marw, Gabal Haumor and Gabal um Shalman), in the South Eastern Desert. Granite samples were studied radiologically, petrographically and geochemically. The contents of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) were measured in investigated samples by using gamma spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3'×3']. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the selected granite samples ranged from 9±0.5 to 111±7, 8±1 to 75±4 and 100±6 to 790±40 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The external hazard index (H(ex)), absorbed dose and annual effective dose rate were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The calculated radium equivalents were lower than the values recommended for construction materials (370 Bq kg(-1)). The excess lifetime cancer risks were also calculated. Petrographically, the granites studied are varied in the form of potash-feldspar, quartz, plagioclase, mica and hornblende. The accessory minerals are zircon, apatite and allanite. Geochemically, the chemical composition of the granite is studied especially for major oxides. They are characterized to have SiO(2), K(2)O, Na(2)O and Al(2)O(3) with depletion in CaO, MgO, TiO(2) and P(2)O(5). PMID:22147926

  15. Assessments of radioactivity concentration of natural radionuclides and radiological hazard indices in sediment samples from the East coast of Tamilnadu, India with statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Ravisankar, R; Chandramohan, J; Chandrasekaran, A; Prince Prakash Jebakumar, J; Vijayalakshmi, I; Vijayagopal, P; Venkatraman, B

    2015-08-15

    This paper reports on the distribution of three natural radionuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in coastal sediments from Pattipulam to Devanampattinam along the East coast of Tamilnadu to establish baseline data for future environmental monitoring. Sediment samples were collected by a Peterson grab samples from 10m water depth parallel to the shore line. Concentration of natural radionuclides were determined using a NaI(Tl) detector based γ-spectrometry. The mean activity concentration is ⩽2.21, 14.29 and 360.23Bqkg(-1) for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The average activity of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K is lower when compared to the world average value. Radiological hazard parameters were estimated based on the activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K to find out any radiation hazard associated with the sediments. The radiological hazard parameters such as radium equivalent activity (Raeq), absorbed gamma dose rates in air (DR), the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE), annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), external hazard index (Hex) internal hazard index (Hin), activity utilization index (AUI) and excess lifetime cancer (ELCR) associated with the radionuclides were calculated and compared with internationally approved values and the recommended safety limits. Pearson correlation, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) have been applied in order to recognize and classify radiological parameters in sediments collected at 22 sites on East coast of Tamilnadu. The values of radiation hazard parameters were comparable to the world averages and below the recommended values. Therefore, coastal sediments do not to pose any significant radiological health risk to the people living in nearby areas along East coast of Tamilnadu. The data obtained in this study will serve as a baseline data in natural radionuclide concentration in sediments along the coastal East coast of Tamilnadu. PMID:26036177

  16. Analysis of palladium concentrations in airborne particulate matter with reductive co-precipitation, He collision gas, and ID-ICP-Q-MS.

    PubMed

    Alsenz, H; Zereini, F; Wiseman, C L S; Püttmann, W

    2009-11-01

    The concentration of platinum group elements (PGE) in the environment has increased significantly in the last 20 years mainly due to their use as catalysts in automotive catalytic converters. The quantitation of these metals in different environmental compartments is, however, challenging due to their very low concentrations and the presence of interfering matrix constituents when inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used for analysis. Previously, the research focus was on the analysis of platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh). However, due to the increasing use of palladium (Pd) in automotive catalytic converters, quantitation of this element in airborne particulate matter (PM) is also needed. Compared to Pt and Rh, measurements of Pd using ICP-MS are plagued by greater molecular interferences arising from elements such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) strontium (Sr), yttrium (Y), and zirconium (Zr). The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of reductive co-precipitation procedures using both mercury (Hg) and tellurium (Te) for the pre-concentration of Pd from airborne PM. Furthermore, helium (He) was tested as a collision gas for isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole-mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-Q-MS) to measure Pd in the Hg and Te precipitates. Airborne PM samples (PM10) were collected from Neuglobsow (Brandenburg, north-eastern Germany) and Deuselbach (Rhineland-Palatinate, south-western Germany), considered to represent background levels, and from the city Frankfurt am Main (Hesse, Germany), a high-traffic area. Samples were first digested with aqua regia in a high-pressure asher (HPA) at 320 degrees C and 130 bar prior to the application of reductive co-precipitation procedures. The method was validated with road dust reference material BCR-723 and the CANMET-CCRMP reference material TDB-1 and WPR-1. In airborne PM collected at the background areas Neuglobsow and Deuselbach, Pd was detected with median concentrations values of

  17. A model for selecting bioindicators to monitor radionuclide concentrations using Amchitka Island in the Aleutians as a case study.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2007-11-01

    World War II and the Cold War have left the Unites States, and other Nations, with massive cleanup and remediation tasks for radioactive and other legacy hazardous wastes. While some sites can be cleaned up to acceptable residential risk levels, others will continue to hold hazardous wastes, which must be contained and monitored to protect human health and the environment. While media (soil, sediment, groundwater) monitoring is the usual norm at many radiological waste sites, for some situations (both biological and societal), biomonitoring may provide the necessary information to assure greater peace of mind for local and regional residents, and to protect ecologically valuable buffer lands or waters. In most cases, indicators are selected using scientific expertise and a literature review, but not all selected indicators will seem relevant to stakeholders. In this paper, I provide a model for the inclusion of stakeholders in the development of bioindicators for assessing radionuclide levels of biota in the marine environment around Amchitka Island, in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Amchitka was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. The process was stakeholder-initiated, stakeholder-driven, and included stakeholders during each phase. Phases included conceptualization, initial selection of biota and radionuclides, refinement of biota and radionuclide target lists, collection of biota, selection of biota and radionuclides for analysis, and selection of biota, tissues, and radionuclides for bioindicators. The process produced site-specific information on biota availability and on radionuclide levels that led to selection of site-appropriate bioindicators. I suggest that the lengthy, iterative, stakeholder-driven process described in this paper results in selection of bioindicators that are accepted by biologists, public health personnel, public-policy makers, resource agencies, regulatory agencies, subsistence hunters/fishers, and a wide

  18. A model for selecting bioindicators to monitor radionuclide concentrations using Amchitka Island in the Aleutians as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna

    2007-11-15

    World War II and the Cold War have left the Unites States, and other Nations, with massive cleanup and remediation tasks for radioactive and other legacy hazardous wastes. While some sites can be cleaned up to acceptable residential risk levels, others will continue to hold hazardous wastes, which must be contained and monitored to protect human health and the environment. While media (soil, sediment, groundwater) monitoring is the usual norm at many radiological waste sites, for some situations (both biological and societal), biomonitoring may provide the necessary information to assure greater peace of mind for local and regional residents, and to protect ecologically valuable buffer lands or waters. In most cases, indicators are selected using scientific expertise and a literature review, but not all selected indicators will seem relevant to stakeholders. In this paper, I provide a model for the inclusion of stakeholders in the development of bioindicators for assessing radionuclide levels of biota in the marine environment around Amchitka Island, in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Amchitka was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. The process was stakeholder-initiated, stakeholder-driven, and included stakeholders during each phase. Phases included conceptualization, initial selection of biota and radionuclides, refinement of biota and radionuclide target lists, collection of biota, selection of biota and radionuclides for analysis, and selection of biota, tissues, and radionuclides for bioindicators. The process produced site-specific information on biota availability and on radionuclide levels that led to selection of site-appropriate bioindicators. I suggest that the lengthy, iterative, stakeholder-driven process described in this paper results in selection of bioindicators that are accepted by biologists, public health personnel, public-policy makers, resource agencies, regulatory agencies, subsistence hunters/fishers, and a wide

  19. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  20. Development of a new methodology for the retrieval of in-situ stratospheric trace gases concentration from airborne limb-absorption measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petritoli, Andrea; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Bortoli, Daniele; Kostadinov, Ivan K.; Castelli, Elisa; Bonafe, U.; Oulanovsky, A.; Yushkov, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The UV-Vis DOAS spectrometer GASCOD/A4p (Gas Analyzer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences, Airborne version) was installed on board the stratospheric Geophysica aircraft during the APE-THESEO and APE-GAIA campaign in February-March and September-October 1999 respectively. The instrument is provided by five input windows, three of which measure scattered solar radiation from the zenith and from two horizontal windows, 90 degree(s) away from the zenith to perform limb-absorption measurements. Spectra from 290 to 700 nm were processed through DOAS technique to obtain trace gases column amounts. Data from horizontal windows, which are performed for the first time from an airborne spectrometer, are used to retrieve an average concentration of the gases along a characteristic length of the line of sight. An atmospheric Air Mass Factor model (AMEFCO) is used to calculate the probability density function and the characteristic length used to reduce the slant column amounts to in-situ concentration values. The validation of the method is performed through a comparison of the values obtained, with a in-situ chemiluminescent ozone analyzer (FOZAN) which performed synchronous measurements on board Geophysica aircraft. Data from the APE-GAIA campaign was presented and discussed.

  1. Oscillations in the concentration of artificial radionuclides in the waters of the Baltic and North Seas in 1977-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Styro, D.B.; Kadzhene, G.I.; Kleiza, I.V.; Lukinskene, M.V.

    1984-12-01

    As a result of extended atmospheric tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weaponry, a certain ''background'' of artificial radionuclides has been formed in the environment. Up to this time this background has decreased significantly in the waters of the Pacific Ocean. Oscillations of it have turned out to be primarily associated with discharges of radioactive wastes by undertakings of the nuclear industry or with the effects of individual atmospheric nuclear explosions carried out up to the present by the PRC. The contamination of the Baltic and North seas with radionuclides of which the most radioactively dangerous are /sup 137/Cs, 90 /sup Sr/ and to a lesser degree, /sup 144/Ce, is the result primarily of contamination by the wastes of the nuclear industry and a review of this contamination is presented in this paper.

  2. Determination of heavy metals concentrations in airborne particulates matter (APM) from Manjung district, Perak using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Nursyairah; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Airborne particulates trace metals are considered as public health concern as it can enter human lungs through respiratory system. Generally, any substance that has been introduced to the atmosphere that can cause severe effects to living things and the environment is considered air pollution. Manjung, Perak is one of the development districts that is active with industrial activities. There are many industrial activities surrounding Manjung District area such as coal fired power plant, quarries and iron smelting which may contribute to the air pollution into the environment. This study was done to measure the concentrations of Hg, U, Th, K, Cu, Fe, Cr, Zn, As, Se, Pb and Cd in the Airborne Particulate Matter (APM) collected at nine locations in Manjung District area within 15 km radius towards three directions (North, North-East and South-East) in 5 km intervals. The samples were collected using mini volume air sampler with cellulose filter through total suspended particulate (TSP). The sampler was set up for eight hours with the flow rate of 5 L/min. The filter was weighed before and after sample collection using microbalance, to get the amount of APM and kept in desiccator before analyzing. The measurement was done using calibrated Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The air particulate concentrations were found below the Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines for TSP (260 µg/m3). All of the metals concentrations were also lower than the guidelines set by World Health Organization (WHO), Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Argonne National Laboratory, USA NCRP (1975). From the concentrations, the enrichment factor were calculated.

  3. Airborne Particle Size Distribution Measurements at USDOE Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Chittaporn, P.; Heikkinen, M.; Medora, R.; Merrill, R.

    2003-03-27

    There are no long term measurements of the particle size distribution and concentration of airborne radionuclides at any USDOE facility except Fernald. Yet the determinant of lung dose is the particle size, determining the airway and lower lung deposition. Beginning in 2000, continuous (6 to 8 weeks) measurements of the aerosol particle size distribution have been made with a miniature sampler developed under EMSP. Radon gas decays to a chain of four short lived solid radionuclides that attach immediately to the resident atmospheric aerosol. These in turn decay to long lived polonium 210. Alpha emitting polonium is a tracer for any atmospheric aerosol. Six samplers at Fernald and four at QC sites in New Jersey show a difference in both polonium concentration and size distribution with the winter measurements being higher/larger than summer by almost a factor of two at all locations. EMSP USDOE Contract DE FG07 97ER62522.

  4. Mapping methane concentrations from a controlled release experiment using the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Roberts, D. A.; Aubrey, A. D.; Green, R. O.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometers like the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng) are well suited for monitoring local methane sources by covering large regions with the high spatial resolution necessary to resolve emissions. As part of a field campaign with controlled methane releases at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC), a number of methane plumes were clearly visible at multiple flux rates and flight altitudes. Images of plumes appeared consistent with wind directions measured at ground stations and were present for fluxes as low as 14.2 cubic meters of methane per hour, equivalent to 0.09 kt/year. Direct comparison of results from AVIRISng and plume dispersion models is ongoing and will be used to assess the potential of constraining emission fluxes using AVIRISng. Methane plumes observed at RMOTC with the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) will also be presented. This controlled release experiment was used to determine the methane sensitivity of AVIRISng and inform sensor design for future imaging spectrometers that could constrain natural and anthropogenic methane emissions on local and regional scales. Imaging spectrometers permit direct attribution of emissions to individual point sources which is particularly useful given the large uncertainties associated with anthropogenic emissions, including industrial point source emissions and fugitive methane from the oil and gas industry. Figure caption: a. AVIRISng true color image indicating tube trailer (TT), meteorological tower (MT), and release point (RP). b. Prominent methane plume and measured enhancements for 70.8 cubic meters per hour methane flux is consistent with wind speed and direction (see arrow) measured by meteorological tower. A linear transect is shown in red and corresponds to enhancements shown in c. d. True color image showing release point (RP). e. Smaller methane plume for 14.2 cubic meters per hour flux. f. Methane

  5. Airborne concentrations, skin contamination, and urinary metabolite excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among paving workers exposed to coal tar derived road tars

    SciTech Connect

    Jongeneelen, F.J.; Scheepers, P.T.; Groenendijk, A.; Van Aerts, L.A.; Anzion, R.B.; Bos, R.P.; Veenstra, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    The exposure of surface dressing workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was studied. Four different paving sites, at which coal tar-containing binders were applied, were selected as work sites with high exposure levels of PAH. Breathing zone airborne particulates, contamination of the skin with PAH, and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of the workers involved in chip sealing were determined. Substantial concentrations of cyclohexane-soluble airborne particulate matter were found (GM = 0.2 mg/m3, n = 28). Skin contamination was determined using two different methods: with exposure pads and by hand washing. Pads were mounted on several parts of the body: wrist, elbow, neck, shoulder, and ankle. The pads located on the wrist appeared to be the most contaminated (pyrene: GM = 22 ng/1.77 cm2, n = 40). The end-of-shift hand washing showed that the hands of the workers were contaminated with PAH (pyrene: GM = 70 micrograms, n = 35). Preshift hand washing showed far lower, but detectable, quantities of PAH on workers' hands (pyrene: GM = 5 micrograms, n = 35). Enhanced levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene among the workers were found. The highest levels were found in the end-of-shift urine samples. Correlations between the pyrene exposure variables were studied. Significant positive correlations were found between pyrene on the wrist pad versus end-of-shift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene; between pyrene on the hands versus end-of-shift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene; and between the two different skin contamination variables.

  6. Reconstruction of radionuclide concentrations in the Columbia River from Hanford, Washington to Portland, Oregon, January 1950--January 1971. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Gilmore, B.G.; Richmond, M.C.

    1994-05-01

    Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories conducted this study of the Columbia River for the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project was established to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received from operations that began at the Hanford Site in 1944. The purpose of the study was to reconstruct concentrations of radionuclides in Columbia River water for estimating doses to humans from the river pathway.

  7. Airborne polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in concentrated vehicle parking areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiru; Liu, Hehuan; Mo, Ligui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Peng, Ping'an

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in air around three concentrated vehicle parking areas (underground, indoor, and outdoor) in a metropolitan of South China. The parking areas showed higher concentrations of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP than their adjacent urban area or distinct congener/isomer profiles, which indicate their local emission sources. The highest PBDE and DP concentrations were found in the outdoor parking lot, which might be related to the heating effect of direct sunlight exposure. Multi-linear regression analysis results suggest that deca-BDEs without noticeable transformation contributed most to airborne PBDEs in all studied areas, followed by penta-BDEs. The statistically lower anti-DP fractions in the urban area than that of commercial product signified its degradation/transformation during transportation. Neither PBDEs nor vehicle exhaust contributed much to airborne PBDD/Fs in the parking areas. There were 68.1-100 % of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP associated with particles. Logarithms of gas-particle distribution coefficients (K ps) of PBDEs were significantly linear-correlated with those of their sub-cooled vapor pressures (p Ls) and octanol-air partition coefficients (K OAs) in all studied areas. The daily inhalation doses of PBDEs, DP, and PBDD/Fs were individually estimated as 89.7-10,741, 2.05-39.4, and 0.12-4.17 pg kg(-1) day(-1) for employees in the parking areas via Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:26884244

  8. A method for computing the damage level due to the exposure to an airborne chemical with a time-varying concentration.

    PubMed

    Acquesta, Alejandro D; Sánchez, Erica Yanina; Porta, Andres; Jacovkis, Pablo M

    2011-09-01

    The calculation of damage level due to the exposure to a toxic cloud is usually not included in most popular software, or it is included using techniques that do not take into account the variation in concentration over a period of time. In this work, a method is introduced for calculating the temporal evolution of the potential damage level and to obtain a more precise and descriptive estimation of this level. The proposed goal is: to estimate the maximum and minimum damage level experienced by a population due to the exposure to an airborne chemical with a time-varying concentration; to be able to assess the damage level experienced in a progressive way, as the exposure to the airborne chemical occurs. The method relies on transformations of time-concentration pairs on a continuum of damage level curves based on the available guideline levels, obtaining maximum and minimum approximations of the expected damage level for any exposure duration. Consequently, applying this method to transport model output data and demographic information, damage evolution in relation to time and space can be predicted, as well as its effect on the local population, which enables the determination of threat zones. The comparison between the proposed method and the current (Spanish and ALOHA) ones showed that the former can offer a more precise estimation and a more descriptive approach of the potential damage level. This method can be used by atmospheric dispersion models to compute damage level and graphically display the regions exposed to each guideline level on area maps. PMID:21395635

  9. Emission of airborne fibers from mechanically impacted asbestos-cement sheets and concentration of fibrous aerosol in the home environment in Upper Silesia, Poland.

    PubMed

    Pastuszka, Jozef S

    2009-03-15

    The emission rate ((S)) of fibers released from asbestos-cement plates due to mechanical impact was determined experimentally. The emission rate has been defined as a number of fibers (F) emitted from a unit area (m(2)) due to the unit impact energy (J). For fiber longer than 5 microm the obtained surface emission factor for asbestos-cement slabs slightly increased with deteriorating surface, changing from 2.7 x 10(3) F/(m(2)J) for samples with a very good surface to 6.9 x 10(3) F/(m(2)J) for the sample with worn surface (in the SI system the emission rate unit should be (m(-2)J(-1))). The emission rate for short fibers (L < or = 5 microm) was little higher compared with emission of long fibers for all studied asbestos materials. The averaged emission rate for all studied samples was about 5000 and 6000 of long and short fibers, respectively, emitted per square meter (because of the impact energy equal to 1J). The dominating population of emitted fibers ranged from 2 to around 8 microm in length. The second part of this work constitutes the report on the concentration of airborne respirable fibers, and their length distribution in two different groups of homes in Upper Silesia, Poland. Mean concentration level of the respirable fibers, longer than 5 microm, was found to be 850 F/m(3) (according to the SI system the fiber concentration unit is (m(-3))) in the buildings covered with asbestos-cement sheets and 280 F/m(3) in the homes without asbestos-containing facades, located away from other asbestos sources. Although the laboratory and field measurements have been made by using the MIE Laser Fiber Monitor FM-7400 only, the obtained results indicate that the outdoor asbestos-cement building facades are significant sources of airborne fibers inside the dwellings in Upper Silesian towns. PMID:18692307

  10. Assessment and determinants of airborne bacterial and fungal concentrations in different indoor environments: Homes, child day-care centres, primary schools and elderly care centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Rufo, João Cavaleiro; Pereira, Cristiana; Teixeira, João Paulo; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    Until now the influence of risk factors resulting from exposure to biological agents in indoor air has been far less studied than outdoor pollution; therefore the uncertainty of health risks, and how to effectively prevent these, remains. This study aimed (i) to quantify airborne cultivable bacterial and fungal concentrations in four different types of indoor environment as well as to identify the recovered fungi; (ii) to assess the impact of outdoor bacterial and fungal concentrations on indoor air; (iii) to investigate the influence of carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature and relative humidity on bacterial and fungal concentrations; and (iv) to estimate bacterial and fungal dose rate for children (3-5 years old and 8-10 years old) in comparison with the elderly. Air samples were collected in 68 homes, 9 child day-care centres, 20 primary schools and 22 elderly care centres, in a total of 264 rooms with a microbiological air sampler and using tryptic soy agar and malt extract agar culture media for bacteria and fungi growth, respectively. For each building, one outdoor representative location were identified and simultaneously studied. The results showed that child day-care centres were the indoor microenvironment with the highest median bacterial and fungal concentrations (3870 CFU/m3 and 415 CFU/m3, respectively), whereas the lowest median concentrations were observed in elderly care centres (222 CFU/m3 and 180 CFU/m3, respectively). Indoor bacterial concentrations were significantly higher than outdoor concentrations (p < 0.05); whereas the indoor/outdoor ratios for the obtained fungal concentrations were approximately around the unit. Indoor CO2 levels were associated with the bacterial concentration, probably due to occupancy and insufficient ventilation. Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most frequently occurring fungi. Children's had two times higher dose rate to biological pollutants when compared to adult individuals. Thus, due to children

  11. Site survey of former naval base in Andreyev Bay, northwest-Russia - Radiation levels and radionuclide concentrations on and below the surface level

    SciTech Connect

    Reistad, Ole; Dick, Oeystein B.; Grepstad, Gisle; Hustveit, Styrkaar; Amundsen, Ingar

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents the main results of the program to examine radiation levels and radionuclide concentrations on and below the surface level at the former Russian naval base in Andreyev Bay, Murmansk County. Presently, this base represents an exceptional case regarding future remediation and cleanup operations due to the accident risk (- max. fuel inventory of 100 submarine cores) and degree of contamination (over 25 years with continuous release - still ongoing - of radionuclides into the terrestrial and marine environment). The first part of the survey consists of about 1030 measurement points established as a grid with 10 m and 5 m mesh size for the measurement of dose rate in two heights above the ground level (0.1 m, 1 m), radionuclide concentrations, drilling of 50 boreholes for further examination of the radionuclide releases on site and the establishment of a 1:500 map of the area. These surveys were completed 2002-04. The results for dose rate measurements taken 1 m above the ground level varies between background levels and 3 mSv/h. Additional measurements were completed around the main building structures at the site and as part of a geological survey of the site. The activity concentration levels for Cs-137 and Sr-90 were measured in 250 points being part of the same measurement grid as above. The results for both isotopes range from normal fallout levels from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing to above 1 MBq/kg. The main conclusion is that continuous releases of fission products from spent nuclear fuel and fuel residues in defect storage pools have, together with inadequate storage facilities for large amounts of solid radioactive waste, led to heavy contamination of fission products in large areas. The 1:500 map is not public accessible. Thus, the second part of the survey was to analyse and document the results in adequate maps. These maps, geo-referenced to the UTM WGS84 system, have been established on the basis of commercial available satellite

  12. On monitoring anthropogenic airborne uranium concentrations and (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratio by Lichen - bio-indicator technique.

    PubMed

    Golubev, A V; Golubeva, V N; Krylov, N G; Kuznetsova, V F; Mavrin, S V; Aleinikov, A Yu; Hoppes, W G; Surano, K A

    2005-01-01

    Lichens are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. However, few studies are available in publications on using lichens to qualitatively assess the atmospheric pollution levels. The paper presents research results applying epiphytic lichens as bio-monitors of quantitative atmospheric contamination with uranium. The observations were conducted during 2.5 years in the natural environment. Two experimental sites were used: one in the vicinity of a uranium contamination source, the other one - at a sufficient distance away to represent the background conditions. Air and lichens were sampled at both sites monthly. Epiphytic lichens Hypogimnia physodes were used as bio-indicators. Lichen samples were taken from various trees at about 1.5m from the ground. Air was sampled with filters at sampling stations. The uranium content in lichen and air samples as well as isotopic mass ratios (235)U/(238)U were measured by mass-spectrometer technique after uranium pre-extraction. Measured content of uranium were 1.45 mgkg(-1) in lichen at 2.09 E-04 microgm(-3) in air and 0.106 mgkg(-1) in lichen at 1.13 E-05 microgm(-3) in air. The relationship of the uranium content in atmosphere and that in lichens was determined, C(AIR)=exp(1.1 x C(LICHEN)-12). The possibility of separate identification of natural and man-made uranium in lichens was demonstrated in principle. PMID:16083999

  13. 3D modeling of effects of increased oxygenation and activity concentration in tumors treated with radionuclides and antiangiogenic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerloef, Jakob H.; Kindblom, Jon; Bernhardt, Peter

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) in response to hypoxia is a fundamental event in the process of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. However, abnormalities in tumor neovasculature often induce increased interstitial pressure (IP) and further reduce oxygenation (pO{sub 2}) of tumor cells. In radiotherapy, well-oxygenated tumors favor treatment. Antiangiogenic drugs may lower IP in the tumor, improving perfusion, pO{sub 2} and drug uptake, by reducing the number of malfunctioning vessels in the tissue. This study aims to create a model for quantifying the effects of altered pO{sub 2}-distribution due to antiangiogenic treatment in combination with radionuclide therapy. Methods: Based on experimental data, describing the effects of antiangiogenic agents on oxygenation of GlioblastomaMultiforme (GBM), a single cell based 3D model, including 10{sup 10} tumor cells, was developed, showing how radionuclide therapy response improves as tumor oxygenation approaches normal tissue levels. The nuclides studied were {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 211}At. The absorbed dose levels required for a tumor control probability (TCP) of 0.990 are compared for three different log-normal pO{sub 2}-distributions: {mu}{sub 1} = 2.483, {sigma}{sub 1} = 0.711; {mu}{sub 2} = 2.946, {sigma}{sub 2} = 0.689; {mu}{sub 3} = 3.689, and {sigma}{sub 3} = 0.330. The normal tissue absorbed doses will, in turn, depend on this. These distributions were chosen to represent the expected oxygen levels in an untreated hypoxic tumor, a hypoxic tumor treated with an anti-VEGF agent, and in normal, fully-oxygenated tissue, respectively. The former two are fitted to experimental data. The geometric oxygen distributions are simulated using two different patterns: one Monte Carlo based and one radially increasing, while keeping the log-normal volumetric distributions intact. Oxygen and activity are distributed, according to the same pattern. Results: As tumor pO{sub 2

  14. Effects of particle size and velocity on burial depth of airborne particles in glass fiber filters

    SciTech Connect

    Higby, D.P.

    1984-11-01

    Air sampling for particulate radioactive material involves collecting airborne particles on a filter and then determining the amount of radioactivity collected per unit volume of air drawn through the filter. The amount of radioactivity collected is frequently determined by directly measuring the radiation emitted from the particles collected on the filter. Counting losses caused by the particle becoming buried in the filter matrix may cause concentrations of airborne particulate radioactive materials to be underestimated by as much as 50%. Furthermore, the dose calculation for inhaled radionuclides will also be affected. The present study was designed to evaluate the extent to which particle size and sampling velocity influence burial depth in glass-fiber filters. Aerosols of high-fired /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ were collected at various sampling velocities on glass-fiber filters. The fraction of alpha counts lost due to burial was determined as the ratio of activity detected by direct alpha count to the quantity determined by photon spectrometry. The results show that burial of airborne particles collected on glass-fiber filters appears to be a weak function of sampling velocity and particle size. Counting losses ranged from 0 to 25%. A correction that assumes losses of 10 to 15% would ensure that the concentration of airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides would not be underestimated when glass-fiber filters are used. 32 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  15. Relationships between airborne fungal spore concentration of Cladosporium and the summer climate at two sites in Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollins, P. D.; Kettlewell, P. S.; Atkinson, M. D.; Stephenson, D. B.; Corden, J. M.; Millington, W. M.; Mullins, J.

    Cladosporium conidia have been shown to be important aeroallergens in many regions throughout the world, but annual spore concentrations vary considerably between years. Understanding these annual fluctuations may be of value in the clinical management of allergies. This study investigates the number of days in summer when spore concentration exceeds the allergenic threshold in relation to regional temperature and precipitation at two sites in England and Wales over 27 years. Results indicate that number of days in summer when the Cladosporium spores are above the allergenic concentration is positively correlated with regional temperature and negatively correlated with precipitation for both sites over the study period. Further analysis used a winter North Atlantic Oscillation index to explore the potential for long-range forecasting of the aeroallergen. For both spore measurement sites, a positive correlation exists between the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index and the number of days in summer above the allergenic threshold for Cladosporium spore concentration.

  16. Variations in mugwort (Artemisia spp.) airborne pollen concentrations at three sites in central Croatia, in period from 2002 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Renata; Hrga, Ivana; Culig, Josip

    2006-12-01

    In spite of the low atmospheric pollen levels, Artemisia sensitisation and allergy has been reported widely. The aim of the study was to determine the length of pollen season, intradiurnal, daily and monthly pollen variation, and the effect of some meteorological parameters on atmospheric pollen concentrations in Central Croatia. Seven-day Hirst volumetric pollen and spore traps were used for pollen sampling. The Artemisia pollen season lasted from the end of July until the end of September with the highest concentrations in August. The percentage of the total pollen count ranged from 0.52% to 0.92%. The intradiurnal peak occurred between 10 a.m. and 12 a.m. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlations between higher air temperature and high pollen concentration as well as high precipitation and low pollen concentration. Results of this study are expected to help in preventing the symptoms of allergic reaction in individuals with Artemisia pollen hypersensitivity. PMID:17243566

  17. Radionuclide trap

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  18. Regional variation in radionuclide concentrations and radiation dose in caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in the Canadian Arctic; 1992-94.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, C R; Ewing, L L; Elkin, B T; Wiewel, A M

    1996-04-01

    Gamma-emitting radionuclides and 210Po, an alpha-emitting product of the 238U decay chain, were analysed in tissues from 16 caribou (Rangifer tarandus) collections in the Canadian North between 1992 and 1994. The study was conducted to determine the regional variability of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in Canadian caribou, and to estimate the background radiation dose to caribou tissues. 137Cs, 40K, 210Pb and 210Po were consistently found in most herds. Mean muscle 137Cs varied from below detection limits on Banks Island to 231 Bq kg-1 wet weight (ww) in the Beverly herd in the central Arctic. Comparison of 1992-94 levels with published values from the 1960s and 1980s showed that 137Cs in caribou is declining with an effective half-life (Teff) of 9.9 years. The highest mean bone and liver 210Pb activities were observed on south Baffin Island, which included one bone sample with 3800 Bq kg-1 ww of 210Pb and 3070 Bq kg-1 ww of 210Po. The distribution of 137Cs and 210Pb between herds was attributed to higher atmospheric deposition rates between 60 and 65 degrees N, and changes in plant community structure and lichen species composition. The highest mean absorbed dose (30 mGy year-1) was observed in 1993 in the liver of caribou from Lake Harbour. This dose translated into a weighted absorbed dose of 300 mGy year-1, assuming a radiation weighting factor (wR) of 10 to account for the increased biological efficiency of alpha particles for deterministic effects. The Lake Harbour site also had the highest individual weighted absorbed dose in bone (810 mGy year-1) and liver (530 mGy year-1) in the study. There was no significant relationship between bone 210Pb activity and age for individual or pooled herds, indicating that the estimated doses are probably present throughout the lifetime of the caribou. Because some herds number several hundred thousand individuals, collective doses may also be very high. As yet, there have been no reports of observable effects due

  19. The effects of meteorological factors on airborne fungal spore concentration in two areas differing in urbanisation level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M.; Ribeiro, H.; Delgado, J. L.; Abreu, I.

    2009-01-01

    Although fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere throughout the year, their concentration oscillates widely. This work aims to establish correlations between fungal spore concentrations in Porto and Amares and meteorological data. The seasonal distribution of fungal spores was studied continuously (2005-2007) using volumetric spore traps. To determine the effect of meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on spore concentration, the Spearman rank correlation test was used. In both locations, the most abundant fungal spores were Cladosporium, Agaricus, Agrocybe, Alternaria and Aspergillus/Penicillium, the highest concentrations being found during summer and autumn. In the present study, with the exception of Coprinus and Pleospora, spore concentrations were higher in the rural area than in the urban location. Among the selected spore types, spring-autumn spores ( Coprinus, Didymella, Leptosphaeria and Pleospora) exhibited negative correlations with temperature and positive correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. On the contrary, late spring-early summer (Smuts) and summer spores ( Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma, Stemphylium and Ustilago) exhibited positive correlations with temperature and negative correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. Rust, a frequent spore type during summer, had a positive correlation with temperature. Aspergillus/Penicillium, showed no correlation with the meteorological factors analysed. This knowledge can be useful for agriculture, allowing more efficient and reliable application of pesticides, and for human health, by improving the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory allergic disease.

  20. Vinyl flooring in the home is associated with children’s airborne butylbenzyl phthalate and urinary metabolite concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Just, Allan C.; Miller, Rachel L.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Chen, Qixuan; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Hoepner, Lori; Camann, David E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that vinyl flooring, as well as the vinyl-softening plasticizers butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), are associated with asthma and airway inflammation. While DEHP exposure is primarily dietary, whether home vinyl flooring contributes to indoor air and urinary metabolite concentrations for these two phthalates is unclear. Exposures to BBzP and DEHP were examined in a prospective birth cohort of New York City children (n=239) using: (1) visual observation of potential phthalate containing flooring, (2) a two-week home indoor air sample, and (3) concurrent urinary metabolites in a subset (n=193). The category “vinyl or linoleum” flooring was observed in 135 (56%) of monitored rooms; these rooms had statistically significantly higher indoor air geometric mean concentrations of BBzP (23.9 ng/m3) than rooms with wood or carpet flooring (10.6 ng/m3). Children from homes with “vinyl or linoleum” flooring also had significantly higher urinary BBzP metabolite concentrations than other children. Indoor air BBzP and urinary metabolite concentrations were correlated positively (Spearman’s rho 0.40). By contrast, indoor air DEHP was not associated with flooring type nor with its urinary metabolite concentrations. Vinyl flooring in the home may be an important source of children’s exposure to BBzP via indoor air. PMID:25690585

  1. Airborne pollutant characteristics in an urban, industrial and agricultural complex metroplex with high emission loading and ammonia concentration.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Li-Peng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2014-10-01

    The size distribution of particulate mass and water-soluble ionic constituents and their gaseous precursors was investigated in a subtropical area, southern Taiwan. Field sampling and chemical analysis of particulate matter (PM) were conducted using a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposition Impactor (MOUDI) and a Nano-MOUDI, and gaseous pollutants were determined by a denuder-filter pack system. PM size mass distribution, mass concentration and ionic species concentration were measured during the day and at night in the winter and summer. Average PM concentrations in the winter were as high as 132 ± 42 μg/m(3), and PM mass concentrations in the summer were as low as 38 ± 19 μg/m(3). Generally, PM concentration was 111 ± 60 μg/m(3) at night, which was 20% higher than that in the daytime. The size-segregated mass distribution of PM mass concentration was over 85% in the 0.1-3.2 μm range. Ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate were the dominant water-soluble ionic species in PM, contributing 34%-48% of PM mass. High ammonia (12.9-49 μg/m(3)) and SO2 (2.6-27 μg/m(3)) were observed in the gas precursors. The molar ratio [Formula: see text] was 3.18 ± 1.20 at PM1.0, which indicated that the PM was rich in ammonium. Therefore, the excess ammonium could neutralize nitrate to form ammonium nitrate, after the more stable ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate formation. PMID:25037046

  2. Measurement of airborne concentrations of tire and road wear particles in urban and rural areas of France, Japan, and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panko, Julie M.; Chu, Jennifer; Kreider, Marisa L.; Unice, Ken M.

    2013-06-01

    In addition to industrial facilities, fuel combustion, forest fires and dust erosion, exhaust and non-exhaust vehicle emissions are an important source of ambient air respirable particulate matter (PM10). Non-exhaust vehicle emissions are formed from wear particles of vehicle components such as brakes, clutches, chassis and tires. Although the non-exhaust particles are relatively minor contributors to the overall ambient air particulate load, reliable exposure estimates are few. In this study, a global sampling program was conducted to quantify tire and road wear particles (TRWP) in the ambient air in order to understand potential human exposures and the overall contribution of these particles to the PM10. The sampling was conducted in Europe, the United States and Japan and the sampling locations were selected to represent a variety of settings including both rural and urban core; and within each residential, commercial and recreational receptors. The air samples were analyzed using validated chemical markers for rubber polymer based on a pyrolysis technique. Results indicated that TRWP concentrations in the PM10 fraction were low with averages ranging from 0.05 to 0.70 μg m-3, representing an average PM10 contribution of 0.84%. The TRWP concentration in air was associated with traffic load and population density, but the trend was not statistically significant. Further, significant differences across days were not observed. This study provides a robust dataset to understand potential human exposures to airborne TRWP.

  3. Concentrations and size distributions of airborne influenza A viruses measured indoors at a health centre, a day-care centre and on aeroplanes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan; Elankumaran, Subbiah; Marr, Linsey C

    2011-08-01

    The relative importance of the aerosol transmission route for influenza remains contentious. To determine the potential for influenza to spread via the aerosol route, we measured the size distribution of airborne influenza A viruses. We collected size-segregated aerosol samples during the 2009-2010 flu season in a health centre, a day-care facility and onboard aeroplanes. Filter extracts were analysed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Half of the 16 samples were positive, and their total virus concentrations ranged from 5800 to 37,000 genome copies m(-3). On average, 64 per cent of the viral genome copies were associated with fine particles smaller than 2.5 µm, which can remain suspended for hours. Modelling of virus concentrations indoors suggested a source strength of 1.6±1.2×10(5) genome copies m(-3) air h(-1) and a deposition flux onto surfaces of 13±7 genome copies m(-2) h(-1) by Brownian motion. Over 1 hour, the inhalation dose was estimated to be 30±18 median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50), adequate to induce infection. These results provide quantitative support for the idea that the aerosol route could be an important mode of influenza transmission. PMID:21300628

  4. Implementation of a near-real time cross-border web-mapping platform on airborne particulate matter (PM) concentration with open-source software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knörchen, Achim; Ketzler, Gunnar; Schneider, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Although Europe has been growing together for the past decades, cross-border information platforms on environmental issues are still scarce. With regard to the establishment of a web-mapping tool on airborne particulate matter (PM) concentration for the Euregio Meuse-Rhine located in the border region of Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands, this article describes the research on methodical and technical backgrounds implementing such a platform. An open-source solution was selected for presenting the data in a Web GIS (OpenLayers/GeoExt; both JavaScript-based), applying other free tools for data handling (Python), data management (PostgreSQL), geo-statistical modelling (Octave), geoprocessing (GRASS GIS/GDAL) and web mapping (MapServer). The multilingual, made-to-order online platform provides access to near-real time data on PM concentration as well as additional background information. In an open data section, commented configuration files for the Web GIS client are being made available for download. Furthermore, all geodata generated by the project is being published under public domain and can be retrieved in various formats or integrated into Desktop GIS as Web Map Services (WMS).

  5. Characteristics of mass concentrations depending on synoptic features during airborne dustfall episodes observed at Cheongwon in Korea in 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hak-Sung; Chung, Yong-Seung

    2010-05-01

    Sandstorms in the desert and loess regions of north China and Mongolia, as well as the associated dustfall episodes on the Korean Peninsula, were monitored in 2005. The ground mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were analyzed during dustfall episodes at Cheongwon, in central south Korea, based on synoptic features at surface, 850 hPa and 500 hPa levels. A total of seven dustfall episodes lasting eleven days were observed and the mass concentration ratios of PM2.5 and PM10 during dustfall episodes were classified into a severe dustfall episode (SDE) and a moderate dustfall episode (MDE) depending upon two synoptic features. The main synoptic feature was for SDEs, which occurred frequently under a surface anticyclone and cyclone located in the west and east of the Korean Peninsula with large amplitude trough at 500 hPa over the northern Korean Peninsula. The sandstorms at the source headed directly to Korea via a strong N-NW wind without passing through any large cities or industrial areas of east China. The PM10 mass concentration sharply increased during the SDEs; however, the fine aerosol fraction of PM2.5 levels was relatively low with 13.6% of the mass concentration. In a synoptic feature for MDEs, a slow moving cyclone headed to Korea via the industrial areas of northeastern China under a small amplitude trough at a 500 hPa level. A weak anticyclone was also located over China. MDEs showed low mass concentrations of coarse PM10 particles and large fraction of fine PM2.5 particles at 46.3%.

  6. Radionuclide and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Fish from the Confluences of Major Canyons That Cross Los Alamos National Laboratory Lands with the Rio Grande

    SciTech Connect

    Kraig, D.H.; Naranjo, L. Jr.; Mullen, M.A.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1999-02-01

    Bottom-feeding fish--catfish, suckers, and carp--that were collected from the confluences of some of the major canyons that cross LANL lands with the Rio Grande (RG) exhibited similar radionuclide (with the exception of {sup 90}Sr), and nonradionuclide concentrations to fish collected upstream of any potential LANL contamination sources. Strontium-90 concentrations in fish from LANL canyons/RG may be associated with LANL operations; however, the concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in fish decrease to background concentrations further downstream of LANL at CR. And, based on the most conservative assumptions (a 95% source term and maximum consumption rate), LANL operations do not result in significant doses to the general public from consuming fish along the length of the RG as it passes through the eastern edge of LANL lands to CR. Moreover, since over 85% of the doses were a result of {sup 90}Sr detected in the muscle plus bone portions of the fish and most of the {sup 90}Sr is associated with the bone, the doses to people that consume only the edible portions of the fish (muscle only), would be significantly lower.

  7. Airborne concentrations of PM(2.5) and diesel exhaust particles on Harlem sidewalks: a community-based pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, P L; Aggarwal, M; Northridge, M E; Janssen, N A; Shepard, P

    2000-01-01

    Residents of the dense urban core neighborhoods of New York City (NYC) have expressed increasing concern about the potential human health impacts of diesel vehicle emissions. We measured concentrations of particulate matter [less than/equal to] 2.5 micro in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)) and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on sidewalks in Harlem, NYC, and tested whether spatial variations in concentrations were related to local diesel traffic density. Eight-hour (1000-1800 hr) air samples for PM(2.5 )and elemental carbon (EC) were collected for 5 days in July 1996 on sidewalks adjacent to four geographically distinct Harlem intersections. Samples were taken using portable monitors worn by study staff. Simultaneous traffic counts for diesel trucks, buses, cars, and pedestrians were carried out at each intersection on [Greater/equal to] 2 of the 5 sampling days. Eight-hour diesel vehicle counts ranged from 61 to 2,467 across the four sites. Mean concentrations of PM(2.5) exhibited only modest site-to-site variation (37-47 microg/m(3)), reflecting the importance of broader regional sources of PM(2.5). In contrast, EC concentrations varied 4-fold across sites (from 1.5 to 6 microg/m(3)), and were associated with bus and truck counts on adjacent streets and, at one site, with the presence of a bus depot. A high correlation (r = 0.95) was observed between EC concentrations measured analytically and a blackness measurement based on PM(2.5) filter reflectance, suggesting the utility of the latter as a surrogate measure of DEP in future community-based studies. These results show that local diesel sources in Harlem create spatial variations in sidewalk concentrations of DEP. The study also demonstrates the feasibility of a new paradigm for community-based research involving full and active partnership between academic scientists and community-based organizations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10706526

  8. Radionuclides in US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  9. Concentrations of Radionuclides and Trace Elements in Environmantal Media arond te Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facilit at Los Alamos National Laboratory during 2005

    SciTech Connect

    G.J.Gonzales; P.R. Fresquez; C.D.Hathcock; D.C. Keller

    2006-05-15

    The Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that samples of biotic and abiotic media be collected after operations began to determine if there are any human health or environmental impacts. The DARHT facility is the Laboratory's principal explosive test facility. To this end, samples of soil and sediment, vegetation, bees, and birds were collected around the facility in 2005 and analyzed for concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl. Bird populations have also been monitored. Contaminant results, which represent up to six sample years since the start of operations, were compared with (1) baseline statistical reference levels (BSRLs) established over a four-year preoperational period before DARHT facility operations, (2) screening levels (SLs), and (3) regulatory standards. Most radionuclides and trace elements were below BSRLs and those few samples that contained radionuclides and trace elements above BSRLs were below SLs. Concentrations of radionuclides and nonradionuclides in biotic and abiotic media around the DARHT facility do not pose a significant human health hazard. The total number of birds captured and number of species represented were similar in 2003 and 2004, but both of these parameters increased substantially in 2005. Periodic interruption of the scope and schedule identified in the MAP generally should have no impact on meeting the intent of the MAP. The risk of not sampling one of the five media in any given year is that if a significant impact to contaminant levels were to occur there would exist a less complete understanding of the extent of the change to the baseline for these media and to the ecosystem as a whole. Since the MAP is a requirement that was established under the regulatory framework of the

  10. Diurnal variations of airborne pollen concentration and the effect of ambient temperature in three sites of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Ríos, B; Torres-Jardón, R; Ramírez-Arriaga, E; Martínez-Bernal, A; Rosas, I

    2016-05-01

    Pollen is an important cause of allergic respiratory ailments in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). However, very little is known if ambient air temperature correlates with the early blooming of plants observed in other urban areas around the world. A research study was conducted during the dry season of 2012-2013 at three representative sites of the MCMA with different urban characteristics with the aim to understand the relationships between the profusion and diversity of pollen against temperature and other meteorological variables and degree of urbanization. Pollen samples were collected using a Hirst-type trap sampler in the sites: Merced (highly urbanized), Iztapalapa (medium-high urbanized) and Coyoacan (moderately urbanized). Urbanization levels were determined using a composite index based on population density, proportion of surface covered by construction and asphalt, and urban heat island intensity. A set of representative pollen sampling tapes were assayed under a light microscope at magnification of ×1,000 and converted to grains per cubic meter. The most representative pollen types found in the three sites were, regardless of urbanization levels were: Fraxinus, Cupressaceae/Taxodiaceae, Casuarina, Alnus, Myrtaceae, and Pinus. Total pollen concentration was greatest in the moderately urbanized area, although earlier blooming took place at the highly urbanized zone. Total pollen concentration in the medium-high urbanized site has the lowest because the green areas in this zone of MCMA are few. In a diurnal basis, the most abundant pollen types peaked near midday or in the afternoon evening at the three sites. A Spearman test showed a positive correlation among bihourly pollen concentrations, temperature and relative humidity in all sites, but wind speed just correlated in Iztapalapa and Coyoacan. The results obtained suggest that Urban Heat Island Intensity can disturb flowering periods and pollen concentrations, largely in the highly urbanized

  11. Diurnal variations of airborne pollen concentration and the effect of ambient temperature in three sites of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ríos, B.; Torres-Jardón, R.; Ramírez-Arriaga, E.; Martínez-Bernal, A.; Rosas, I.

    2016-05-01

    Pollen is an important cause of allergic respiratory ailments in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). However, very little is known if ambient air temperature correlates with the early blooming of plants observed in other urban areas around the world. A research study was conducted during the dry season of 2012-2013 at three representative sites of the MCMA with different urban characteristics with the aim to understand the relationships between the profusion and diversity of pollen against temperature and other meteorological variables and degree of urbanization. Pollen samples were collected using a Hirst-type trap sampler in the sites: Merced (highly urbanized), Iztapalapa (medium-high urbanized) and Coyoacan (moderately urbanized). Urbanization levels were determined using a composite index based on population density, proportion of surface covered by construction and asphalt, and urban heat island intensity. A set of representative pollen sampling tapes were assayed under a light microscope at magnification of ×1,000 and converted to grains per cubic meter. The most representative pollen types found in the three sites were, regardless of urbanization levels were: Fraxinus, Cupressaceae/Taxodiaceae, Casuarina, Alnus, Myrtaceae, and Pinus. Total pollen concentration was greatest in the moderately urbanized area, although earlier blooming took place at the highly urbanized zone. Total pollen concentration in the medium-high urbanized site has the lowest because the green areas in this zone of MCMA are few. In a diurnal basis, the most abundant pollen types peaked near midday or in the afternoon evening at the three sites. A Spearman test showed a positive correlation among bihourly pollen concentrations, temperature and relative humidity in all sites, but wind speed just correlated in Iztapalapa and Coyoacan. The results obtained suggest that Urban Heat Island Intensity can disturb flowering periods and pollen concentrations, largely in the highly urbanized

  12. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Concentration and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection IPDA Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Ramanathan, Anand; Riris, Haris; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Weaver, Clark J.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar to measure range and the column concentration of atmospheric CO2. The lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and samples the shape of the 1,572.33 nm CO2 absorption line. We participated in the ASCENDS science flights on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during August 2011 and report here lidar measurements made on four flights over a variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US. These included over a stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, to a dry lake bed surrounded by mountains in Nevada, to a desert area with a coal-fired power plant, and from the Rocky Mountains to Iowa, with segments with both cumulus and cirrus clouds. Most flights were to altitudes >12 km and had 5-6 altitude steps. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range, CO2 column absorption, and CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, through thin clouds, between cumulus clouds, and to stratus cloud tops. The retrievals shows the decrease in column CO2 due to growing vegetation when flying over Iowa cropland as well as a sudden increase in CO2 concentration near a coal-fired power plant. For regions where the CO2 concentration was relatively constant, the measured CO2 absorption lineshape (averaged for 50 s) matched the predicted shapes to better than 1% RMS error. For 10 s averaging, the scatter in the retrievals was typically 2-3 ppm and was limited by the received signal photon count. Retrievals were made using atmospheric parameters from both an atmospheric model and from in situ temperature and pressure from the aircraft. The retrievals had no free parameters and did not use empirical adjustments, and >70% of the measurements passed screening and were used in analysis. The differences between the lidar-measured retrievals and in situ measured average CO2 column concentrations were <1.4 ppm for flight measurement altitudes >6 km.

  13. Airborne observed and receptor-oriented modelled urban increments of anthropogenic CO2, CO and NOX concentrations in the megacity of London in summer 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font Font, Anna Maria; Morguí, Josep Anton; Lee, James; McQuaid, Jim B.; Barratt, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    A better characterization of the emissions and the dynamics of anthropogenic CO2 in large-urban centres are needed to implement more effective mitigation measures to combat climate change. This study aims to establish a representative emissions ratio of anthropogenic CO2 (CO2ff) in the megacity of London using CO and NOX as tracers. Observations of CO2, CO and NOX mixing ratios obtained onboard the NERC-ARSF aircraft undertaken on 12 July 2012 over the city of London were used. Airborne observations were taken at ~380 m along four transects crossing London, two in the morning (10:30 to 12:30 GMT) and two in the afternoon (15:30-16:30 GMT). The ratio of the amounts of CO and CO2 in excess of natural abundances (denoted as ΔCO and ΔCO2, respectively) from the airborne observations was used to determine the fraction of CO2 derived from burning fossil fuels (CO2ff). Total observations of CO and CO2 were compared to NOX observations and background concentrations were determined as the intercept when NOX mixing ratios equalled zero derived from standardised major axis linear regression. Excess concentrations were calculated by subtracting total amounts minus the background. ΔCO showed good correlation with ΔCO2 in the morning transects (R=0.95) but not in the afternoon (R=-0.50). The mean (±1σ) CO/CO2ff was derived from linear regression using the morning measurements and valued 5.0±0.4 ppb ppm-1. Lagrangian Particle Dispersion (LPD) simulations in backward mode were undertaken to model urban increments of anthropogenic CO2 and CO and to calculate the emissions ratio from the emissions inventory EDGAR v4.2. The LPD model FLEXPART was run with the meteorological data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (spatial resolution of 0.2 x 0.2 degrees; 91 vertical levels) and multiplied with the EDGAR emissions inventory (spatial resolution 0.1 x 0.1 degrees) to obtain an increment at each receptor point along the transects. Annual and temporal

  14. Assessment of atmospherically-released radionuclides using the computerized radiological risk investigation system

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.B.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Miller, C.W.; Baes, C.F. III

    1986-01-01

    For radionuclides, the standards are in terms of an annual dose, and the regulations require assurance that no member of the general public receives a dose in excess of that standard. Thus, spatial variations in the population around an emission source must be considered. Furthermore, for most chemical pollutants the standards are written in terms of an air concentration while for radionuclides other pathways of exposure, e.g., uptake of the airborne emissions by terrestrial food chains must also be considered. The remainder of this paper discusses the computer codes that make up the CRRIS and how they are used to perform an assessment of the health impacts on man of radionuclides released to the atmosphere.

  15. Baseline Radionuclide and Nonradionuclide Concentrations in Soils, Vegetation, and Small Mammals at the Proposed Expansion Area at TA-54 Area G

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Romero, P. R. Fresquez

    2007-11-30

    Area G is a 25.5-hectare (63-acre), fenced, low-level radioactive solid waste processing and disposal area located on the east end of Mesa del Buey at Technical Area 54 at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This disposal area has been in existence since 1957 and is expected to be filled by the year 2015. Thus, a new area, located adjacent to Area G on the west side, has been proposed for the expansion of disposal activities. Since 1994 to the present, baseline levels of several radionuclides and nonradionuclides have been collected in soils, vegetation, and small mammals (field mice and rock squirrels). These data will be used to assess potential impacts, if any, at the expanded site once operations begin. Baseline statistical reference levels (BSRLs) (mean plus three standard deviations = 99% confidence level) of radionuclides and nonradionuclides in these media were calculated and compared with regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). RSRLs are calculated from regional areas away from the influence of the Laboratory and represent natural and worldwide fallout sources. BSRLs in most media, with the exception of field mice (mostly Peromyscus spp.), compare very well with RSRLs. Field mice, probably because they are mobile and may have spent time within the active disposal area, appeared to be impacted by Area G operations as they contained higher concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am as compared to RSRLs. Overall, however, the preoperational data from the other media show that the proposed expansion area has been impacted very little by Area G operations.

  16. Multidisciplinary study of radionuclides and heavy-metal concentrations in wildlife on phosphate-mined and reclaimed lands. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, P.C.H.; Bloodwell, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    The phosphate-rich mineral deposits of central Florida tend to exhibit background radiation levels that are elevated due to the uranium and its decay products found in association with the ore. The report documents radioactivity levels in two groups of animals that had heretofore not been examined by other investigators -- aquatic reptiles (American alligators, softshell turtles, and Florida cooter turtles) and terrestrial mammals (armadillos), based on the criterion that these species have significant proportions of their mass comprised of bony tissue likely to show elevated concentrations of radium. The alligator bones contained only low concentrations of radium, and there were no significant differences between alligators collected from mined, mineralized-unmined, or unmineralized land. Whether the levels of radium in the bones of the turtles represents a hazard to the health of these long-lived animals or to humans who may consume their flesh is unclear.

  17. Parameterization of gaseous constituencies concentration profiles in the planetary boundary layer as required in support of airborne and satellite borne sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindle, E. C.; Condon, E.; Casas, J.

    1976-01-01

    The research to develop the capabilities for sensing air pollution constituencies using satellite or airborne remote sensors is reported. Sensor evaluation and calibration are analyzed including data reduction. The proposed follow-on research is presented.

  18. Baseline radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation around the proposed Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility and the Weapons Subsystems Laboratory at TA-16

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Ennis, M.

    1995-09-01

    A preoperational environmental survey is required by the Department of Energy (DOE) for all federally funded research facilities that have the potential to cause adverse impacts on the environment. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, an environmental survey was conducted over the proposed sites of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) and the Weapons Subsystems Laboratory (WSL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at TA-16. Baseline concentrations of tritium ({sup 3}H), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu) and total uranium were measured in soils, vegetation (pine needles and oak leaves) and ground litter. Tritium was also measured from air samples, while cesium ({sup 137}Cs) was measured in soils. The mean concentration of airborne tritiated water during 1987 was 3.9 pCi/m{sup 3}. Although the mean annual concentration of {sup 3}H in soil moisture at the 0--5 cm (2 in) soil depth was measured at 0.6 pCi/mL, a better background level, based on long-term regional data, was considered to be 2.6 pCi/mL. Mean values for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 218}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium in soils collected from the 0--5 cm depth were 1.08 pCi/g, 0.0014 pCi/g, 0.0325 pCi/g, and 4.01 {micro}g/g, respectively. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) needles contained higher values of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium than did leaves collected from gambel`s oak (Quercus gambelii). In contrast, leaves collected from gambel`s oak contained higher levels of {sup 137}Cs than what pine needles did.

  19. Dealing with non-detect values in time-series measurements of radionuclide concentration in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Fiévet, Bruno; Della Vedova, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The attention of scientists in the field of environmental radioactivity is drawn to statistical methods recommended by Dennis Helsel for dealing with datasets including measurements that fall below the detection limits, as often encountered in environmental monitoring programmes. The methods are described by Helsel in his book entitled "Nondetects and Data Analysis: Statistics for Censored Environmental Data" (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2005, 250p). These methods are applied to a data subset (using data from France) of the Radioactive Substance Committee (OSPAR commission for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic), corresponding to time-series measurements of Cs-137 concentration in seaweed in the vicinity of the Areva NC reprocessing plant at La Hague, which is used as an illustrative example. Despite the presence of 163 non-detect values out of 514 measurements, it is possible to estimate descriptive parameters and perform statistical tests to compare concentration levels between two periods of time. Finally, evidence is obtained for an overall decreasing trend with time. The benefits of these statistical methods for data analysis are discussed. PMID:19781826

  20. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  1. Airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven E.

    2002-06-01

    The US Air Force Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the risk reduction approach being utilized to ensure program success.

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in/on vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1995 growing season. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Vold, E.L.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Overstory (pinon pine) and understory (grass and forb) vegetation were collected within and around selected points at Area G--a low- level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory--for the analysis of tritium ({sup 3}H), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), and total uranium. Also, heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Tl) in/on vegetation were determined. In general, most (unwashed) vegetation collected within and around Area G contained {sup 3}H, uranium, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu in higher concentrations than vegetation collected from background areas. Tritium, in particular, was detected as high as 7300 pCi mL{sup -1} in understory vegetation collected from the west side of the transuranic (TRU) pads. The south and west ends of the tritium shaft field also contained elevated levels of {sup 3}H in overstory, and especially in understory vegetation, as compared to background; this suggests that {sup 3}H may be migrating from this waste repository through surface and subsurface pathways. Also, understory vegetation collected north of the TRU pads (adjacent to the fence line of Area G) contained the highest values of {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu as compared to background, and may be a result of surface holding, storage, and/or disposal activities.

  3. Noblegas Radionuclide (KR-85, AR-39, KR-81) Concentrations in Deep Fracture Waters of the Withwatersrand Basin South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purtschert, R.; Onstott, T. C.; Jiang, W.; Lu, Z.; Müller, P.; van Heerden, E.; Erasmus, M.; Borgonie, G.; Linage, B.; Kuloyo, O.; Kipfer, R.; Brennwald, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    81Kr has been proposed since many years an ideal tracer for dating subsurface fluids on timescales up to 2 million years. However, only recently the method became practicable for real case investigations due to significant analytical improvements [1]. In this study radioactive noble gas isotopes (81Kr, 85Kr and 39Ar) were applied for the characterisation of fracture waters in the deep gold mines of the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa [2]. Those waters catalyzed interest because of deep microbial communities that persists to depths of over 3 km [3]. The key objective of the present study is to further constrain the origin of the fluids, to determine the timing of deep subsurface life and to test the 81Kr method in all kinds of environments. In contrast to expectations [4] we discovered that underground production of 81Kr is a significant process in the rocks of the Withwatersrand and Ventersdorp Supergroups. All measured 81Kr activities from fracture water were significantly higher than in atmospheric equilibrium. This is most likely related to elevated U/Th concentrations in the rock strata. Radiometric decay dating is complicated in such cases. [1].W. Jiang et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 91, 1 (2012). [2].T. C. Onstott et al., Geomicrobiology J. 26, 269 (2009). [3].G. Borgonie et al., Nature 474, 79. [4]. B. Lehmann et al, WRR. 29, 2027 (1993).

  4. Limiting values of radionuclide intake and air concentration and dose conversion factors for inhalation, submersion, and ingestion: Federal guidance report No. 11

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Wolbarst, A.B.; Richardson, A.C.B.

    1988-09-01

    Radiation protection programs for workers are based, in the United States, on a hierarchy of limitations stemming from Federal guidance approved by the President. This guidance, which consists of principles, policies, and numerical primary guides, is used by Federal agencies as the basis for developing and implementing their own regulatory standards. The primary guides are usually expressed in terms of limiting doses to workers. The protection of workers against taking radioactive materials into the body, however, is accomplished largely through the use of regulations based on derived guides expressed in terms of quantities or concentrations of radionuclides. The values of these derived guides are chosen so as to assure that workers in work environments that conform to them are unlikely to receive radiation doses that exceed the primary guides. The purpose of the present report is to set forth derived guides that are consistent with current Federal radiation protection guidance. They are intended to serve as the basis for regulations setting upper bounds on the inhalation and ingestion of, and submersion in, radioactive materials in the workplace. The report also includes tables of exposure-to-dose conversion factors, for general use in assessing average individual committed doses in any population that is adequately characterized by Reference Man. 38 refs.

  5. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems ... damage. The amount of radiation used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  6. Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Nicholas R.; Lister, Tedd E.; Tranter, Troy J.

    2011-03-08

    Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

  7. Airborne radioactive contamination monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, C.R.; Adams, J.R.; Bounds, J.A.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-03-01

    Current technologies for the detection of airborne radioactive contamination do not provide real-time capability. Most of these techniques are based on the capture of particulate matter in air onto filters which are then processed in the laboratory; thus, the turnaround time for detection of contamination can be many days. To address this shortcoming, an effort is underway to adapt LRAD (Long-Range-Alpha-Detection) technology for real-time monitoring of airborne releases of alpa-emitting radionuclides. Alpha decays in air create ionization that can be subsequently collected on electrodes, producing a current that is proportional to the amount of radioactive material present. Using external fans on a pipe containing LRAD detectors, controlled samples of ambient air can be continuously tested for the presence of radioactive contamination. Current prototypes include a two-chamber model. Sampled air is drawn through a particulate filter and then through the first chamber, which uses an electrostatic filter at its entrance to remove ambient ionization. At its exit, ionization that occurred due to the presence of radon is collected and recorded. The air then passes through a length of pipe to allow some decay of short-lived radon species. A second chamber identical to the first monitors the remaining activity. Further development is necessary on air samples without the use of particulate filtering, both to distinguish ionization that can pass through the initial electrostatic filter on otherwise inert particulate matter from that produced through the decay of radioactive material and to separate both of these from the radon contribution. The end product could provide a sensitive, cost-effective, real-time method of determining the presence of airborne radioactive contamination.

  8. An airborne isothermal haze chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal gradient diffusion cloud chambers (TGDCC) are used to determine the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with critical supersaturations greater than or equal to about 0.2%. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than theoretically predicted by factors ranging between 7.9 and 9.0. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than the concentrations measured with the larger laboratory IHC's by factors ranging between 3.9 and 7.5. The bounds of the supersaturation ranges of the airborne IHC and the CSU-Mee TGDCC do not overlap. Nevertheless, the slopes of the interpolated data between the bounds agree favorably with the theoretical slopes.

  9. Sources and pathways of artificial radionuclides to soils at a High Arctic site.

    PubMed

    Lokas, E; Bartmiński, P; Wachniew, P; Mietelski, J W; Kawiak, T; Srodoń, J

    2014-11-01

    Activity concentrations, inventories and activity ratios of (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239 + 240)Pu and (241)Am in soil profiles were surveyed in the dry tundra and the adjoining proglacial zones of glaciers at a High Arctic site on Svalbard. Vertical profiles of radionuclide activities were determined in up to 14-cm-thick soil sequences. Additionally, soil properties (pH, organic matter, texture, mineral composition and sorption capacity) were analyzed. Results obtained in this study revealed a large range of activity concentrations and inventories of the fallout radionuclides from the undetectable to the uncommonly high levels (inventories of 30,900 ± 940, 47 ± 6, 886 ± 80 and 296 ± 19 Bq/m(2) for (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239 + 240)Pu and (241)Am, respectively) found in two profiles from the proglacial zone. Concentration of these initially airborne radionuclides in the proglacial zone soils is related to their accumulation in cryoconites that have a large ability to concentrate trace metals. The cryoconites develop on the surface of glaciers, and the material they accumulate is deposited on land surface after the glaciers retreat. The radionuclide inventories in the tundra soils, which effectively retain radionuclides due to high organic matter contents, were comparable to the global fallout deposition for this region of the world. The (238)Pu/(239 + 240)Pu activity ratios for tundra soils suggested global fallout as the dominant source of Pu. The (238)Pu/(239 + 240)Pu and (239 + 240)Pu/(137)Cs activity ratios in the proglacial soils pointed to possible contributions of these radionuclides from other, unidentified sources. PMID:24946703

  10. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems with the flow of spinal fluid. ... a lumbar puncture include pain at the injection site, bleeding, and ... used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  11. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Zinc in Airborne Particulate Matter Shows Tire Debris Concentrated in > 0.5 μm Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J. W.; Gill, T. E.; Amaya, M. A.; Cahill, T. A.

    2009-12-01

    Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), we speciated Zn in size-resolved fractions of particulate matter (PM) from El Paso, Texas. Spectral patterns indicated that Zn in tire debris is the dominant form of Zn in PM coarser than 0.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter. Although concentrated in the > 0.5 μm fraction, a large portion of the tire debris in PM is small enough to penetrate and deposit in the lower respiratory tract. We collected 3 sets of size-resolved samples of airborne particulate matter (PM) over periods of several days to several weeks in November 2008, and April and May 2009. Local PM compositions typically are dominated by anthropogenic input in November and geologic sources in April, and a mixture in May. The collection site is in the urban core of El Paso, TX, contiguous to the University of Texas at El Paso, 0.6 km from Interstate Highway 10, 0.4 km from State Highway 20, and 1 km from Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The DRUM sampler (Davis Rotating Uniform size-cut Monitor) employs a rotating Lundgren-type impactor, draws 10 l per minute, and deposits PM on plastic strips mounted on rotating drums. The sampler collected and segregated ambient PM into 8 size cuts: 12-5 μm, 5-2.5, 2.5-1.15, 1.15-0.75, 0.75-0.56, 0.56-0.34, 0.34-0.26, and 0.26-0.09. We conducted the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource on beam line 7-3. Spectra of the 24 samples of PM and numerous model compounds were collected at the Zn K absorption edge in fluorescence mode using a 30-element Ge solid-state detector. The overall spectral patterns from the 3 seasons were similar to one another. But strikingly, each set of 8 XAS spectra displayed an obvious change in the Zn speciation at the 0.56-0.75 μm size cut. We compared the PM spectra to those of our suite of known model compounds and materials. The spectral pattern of the coarser size cuts was quite similar to those of the tires we tested. The Zn in the tires

  12. Survival rate of airborne Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Gannon, B W; Hayes, C M; Roe, J M

    2007-04-01

    Despite years of study the principle transmission route of bovine tuberculosis to cattle remains unresolved. The distribution of pathological lesions, which are concentrated in the respiratory system, and the very low dose of Mycobacterium bovis needed to initiate infection from a respiratory tract challenge suggest that the disease is spread by airborne transmission. Critical to the airborne transmission of a pathogenic microorganism is its ability to survive the stresses incurred whilst airborne. This study demonstrates that M. bovis is resistant to the stresses imposed immediately after becoming airborne, 94% surviving the first 10 min after aerosolisation. Once airborne the organism is robust, its viability decreasing with a half-life of approximately 1.5 hours. These findings support the hypothesis that airborne transmission is the principle route of infection for bovine tuberculosis. PMID:17045316

  13. THE AQUEOUS THERMODYNAMICS AND COMPLEXATION REACTIONS OF ANIONIC SILICA SPECIES TO HIGH CONCENTRATION: EFFECTS ON NEUTRALIZATION OF LEAKED TANK WASTES AND MIGRATION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE SUBSURFACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly basic tank wastes contain several important radionuclides, including 90Sr, 99Tc, and 60Co, as well as actinide elements (isotopes of U, Pu and Am). These highly basic tank wastes are known to have leaked into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Upon entering the sedimen...

  14. Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines.

  15. Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-11-06

    We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

  16. Past radionuclide releases from routine operations at Rocky Flats.

    PubMed

    Ripple, S R; Widner, T E; Mongan, T R

    1996-10-01

    The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment sponsored a study to reconstruct contaminant doses to the public from operations at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility. This analysis of routine releases of plutonium and uranium, the principal radioactive materials used at the plant, was part of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment study. Historical radionuclide monitoring and data handling practices are characterized and uncertainties are quantified. Estimates of the annual release of plutonium and uranium are provided for the period from 1953 to 1989. Off-site airborne concentrations and deposition of plutonium and uranium associated with the releases are estimated, along with the highest doses for off-site populations. The predicted effective doses from the routine release of plutonium and uranium from Rocky Flats for a person residing near the plant boundary between 1953 and 1989 are very small. PMID:8830751

  17. Radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Webber, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging of the skeleton, now well established as the most important diagnostic procedure in detecting bone metastases, is also a reliable method for the evaluation of the progression or regression of metastatic bone disease. The article concentrates on the technetium-99m agents and the value of these agents in the widespread application of low-dose radioisotope scanning in such bone diseases as metastasis, osteomyelitis, trauma, osteonecrosis, and other abnormal skeletal conditions.

  18. [Functional-ecological and age-specific regularities in radionuclide concentration in freshwater molluscs from the Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station exclusion zone].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The results of the studies on 90Sr and 137Cs content in the tissues of bivalve and gastropod mollusks of water basins in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP have been analyzed. The dependence of radionuclide accumulation factors on the peculiarities of morphological structure, functional ecology and nutrition type was found. The age dynamics of 137Cs content in some species of Gastropoda was studied. PMID:11458648

  19. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Viner, Brian J.; Jannik, Tim; Stone, Daniel; Hepworth, Allan; Naeher, Luke; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Blake, John; Eddy, Teresa

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 ×more » 107 Bq ha–1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. Potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2 m s–1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. As a result, our approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.« less

  20. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke.

    SciTech Connect

    Viner, Brian J.

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 x 107Bq ha-1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. The potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2ms-1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. This approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.

  1. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Viner, Brian J.; Jannik, Tim; Stone, Daniel; Hepworth, Allan; Naeher, Luke; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Blake, John; Eddy, Teresa

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 × 107 Bq ha–1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. Potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2 m s–1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. As a result, our approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1998 growing season (with a cumulative summary of {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu over time)

    SciTech Connect

    P. R. Fresquez; M. H. Ebinger; R. J. Wechsler; L. Naranjo, Jr.

    1999-11-01

    Soils and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation were collected at eight locations within and around Area G, a disposal facility for low-level, radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The samples were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 137}Cs, {sup tot}U. Most of the radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation were within the upper 95% level of background concentrations except for {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu. Tritium concentrations in vegetation from most sites were greater than background concentrations of about 2 pCi mL{sup {minus}1}. The concentrations of {sup 239}Pu in soils and understory vegetation were largest in samples collected several meters north of the transuranic waste pad area and were consistent with previous results. Based on {sup 3}H and {sup 239}Pu data through 1998, it was shown that concentrations were (1) significantly greater than background concentrations (p < 0.05) in soils and vegetation collected from most locations at Area G, and (2) there was no systematic increase or decrease in concentrations with time apparent in the data.

  3. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

  4. Increased Concentrations of Short-Lived Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of short-lived uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at

  5. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  6. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  7. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

  8. AIRBORNE MERCURY DEPOSITION AND WATERSHED CHARACTERISTICS IN RELATION TO MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN WATER, SEDIMENTS, PLANKTON, AND FISH OF EIGHTY NORTHERN MINNESOTA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In light of increasing fish consumption advisories in several states, a comprehensive multimedia database was created to answer a variety of questions. Mercury concentrations in precipitation, lake water and sediment, zooplankton, and fish were measured and analyzed together with...

  9. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Improved Instrumentation for the Detection of Atmospheric CO2 Concentration using an Airborne IPDA LIDAR for 2014 NASA ASCENDS Science Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, G. R.; Riris, H.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Rodriguez, M.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Sun, X.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    NASA-GSFC is developing a twin-channel, Integrated-Path, Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar to measure atmospheric CO2 from space as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons). This lidar consists of two independent, tuned, pulsed transmitters on the same optical bench using a common 8" receiver telescope. The system measures CO2 abundance and O2 surface pressure in the same column to derive the dry volume mixing ratio (vmr). The system is being tested on an airborne platform up to altitudes of 13 Km. The lidar uses a cw scanning laser, externally pulsed and a fiber amplifier in a Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) configuration to measure lineshape, range to scattering surfaces and backscatter profiles. The CO2 operates at 1572.335 nm. The O2 channel uses similar technology but frequency doubles to the O2 A-band absorption, around 765nm. Both lasers are scanned across the absorption feature measuring at a fixed number of discrete (~30) wavelengths per scan around ~300 scans/s. Each output pulse is slightly chirped <12MHz as the laser is tuning. Removing this chirp will improve our ability to infer vertical CO2 distribution from a more accurately measured line shape. A Step Tuned Frequency Locked (STFL) DBR diode laser system has been integrated into the CO2 lidar. Tuning and locking takes a ~30μs and the laser is locked to < ±100KHz. We have the ability to position these pulses anywhere on the absorption line other than within a few MHz of line center. While the telescope and fiber coupling scheme remains unchanged the detectors have been upgraded. The O2 system now uses eight SPCMs in parallel to improve count rates and increase dynamic range. Especially useful when flying over bright surfaces. This will improve our ability to measure the O2 pressure at cloud tops and aid in the determining the vmr above clouds. An HgCdTe e-APD detector with a quantum efficient of >80%, linear over five

  11. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  12. Enhanced airborne radioactivity during a pine pollen release episode.

    PubMed

    Tschiersch, J; Frank, G; Roth, P; Wagenpfeil, F; Watterson, F; Watterson, J

    1999-07-01

    A single episode of pine pollen release in the highly contaminated area of Novozybkov, Russian Federation, which led to enhanced atmospheric concentrations of 137Cs is discussed. The pollen grains were sampled by a rotating arm impactor and analysed by gamma-spectrometry for 137Cs activity and by image analysis for their size. In the vicinity of a forest, a maximum concentration of 4.5+/-0.4 mBq m(-3) was measured, and a mean activity per pollen grain of 260+/-80 nBq was determined. The emission rate of the Novozybkov mixed pine forest was estimated to be approximately 400 Bq m(-2) per year. Because of the large size of pine pollen grains (about 50 microm) and the short emission period of 5-8 days per year, the estimated potential annual inhalation doses are very low. Biological emissions including pollen release may be a source of increased airborne radionuclide concentrations at larger distances from the source areas as well. PMID:10461761

  13. Airborne particle PM 2.5/PM 10 mass distribution and particle-bound PAH concentrations near a medical waste incinerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, I.-Fang; Chen, Chien-Nan; Lin, Yi-Chang; Chen, Mei-Lien

    This study attempts to determine the influence of air quality in a residential area near a medical waste incineration plant. Ambient air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PM 10 and PM 2.5 (PM—particulate matter) were determined by collecting air samples in areas both upwind and downwind of the plant. The differences in air pollutant levels between the study area and a reference area 11 km away from the plant were evaluated. Dichotomous samplers were used for sampling PM 2.5 and PM 10 from ambient air. Two hundred and twenty samples were obtained from the study area, and 100 samples were taken from a reference area. Samples were weighed by an electronic microbalance and concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were determined. A HPLC equipped with a fluorescence detector was employed to analyze the concentrations of 15 PAHs compounds adsorbed into PM 2.5 and PM 10. The experimental results indicated that the average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were 30.34±17.95 and 36.81±20.45 μg m -3, respectively, in the study area, while the average ratio of PM 2.5/PM 10 was 0.82±0.01. The concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 of the study area located downwind of the incinerator were significantly higher than the study area upwind of the incinerator ( P<0.05). The concentration of PAHs in PM 2.5 in the study area was 2.2 times higher than in the reference area ( P<0.05). Furthermore, the benzo( a)pyrene concentrations in PM 2.5 and PM 10 were 0.11±0.05 ng m -3 and 0.12±0.06 ng m -3 in the study area, respectively. The benzo( a)pyrene concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in the study area were 7 and 5.3 times higher than in the reference area ( P<0.05), respectively. The study indicated that the air quality of PM 2.5, PM 10 and PAHs had significant contamination by air pollutants emitted from a medical waste incineration factory, representing a public health problem for nearby residences, despite the factory being equipped with a modern air pollution

  14. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

  15. Investigation of off-site airborne transport of lead from a superfund removal action site using lead isotope ratios and concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pribil, Michael J.; Maddaloni, Mark A.; Staiger, Kimberly; Wilson, Eric; Magriples, Nick; Ali, Mustafa; Santella, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic composition of surface and subsurface soil samples were used to investigate the potential for off-site air transport of Pb from a former white Pb processing facility to neighboring residential homes in a six block area on Staten Island, NY. Surface and subsurface soil samples collected on the Jewett White Pb site were found to range from 1.122 to 1.138 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.393 to 2.411 for 208Pb/207Pb. The off-site surface soil samples collected from residential backyards, train trestle, near site grass patches and background areas varied from 1.144 to 1.196 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.427 to 2.464 for 208Pb/207Pb. Two soil samples collected along Richmond Terrace, where Jewett site soils accumulated after major rain events, varied from 1.136 to 1.147 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.407 to 2.419 for 208Pb/207Pb. Lead concentration for on-site surface soil samples ranged from 450 to 8000 ug/g, on-site subsurface soil samples ranged from 90,000 to 240,000 ug/g and off-site samples varied from 380 to 3500 ug/g. Lead concentration and isotopic composition for the Staten Island off-site samples were similar to previously published data for other northeastern US cities and reflect re-suspension and re-mobilization of local accumulated Pb. The considerable differences in both the Pb isotopic composition and Pb concentration of on-site and off-site samples resulted in the ability to geochemically trace the transport of particulate Pb. Data in this study indicate minimal off-site surface transport of Pb from the Jewett site into the neighboring residential area.

  16. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  17. Resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: part I. Fire experiments.

    PubMed

    Yoschenko, V I; Kashparov, V A; Protsak, V P; Lundin, S M; Levchuk, S E; Kadygrib, A M; Zvarich, S I; Khomutinin, Yu V; Maloshtan, I M; Lanshin, V P; Kovtun, M V; Tschiersch, J

    2006-01-01

    Controlled burning of experimental plots of forest or grassland in the Chernobyl exclusion zone has been carried out in order to estimate the parameters of radionuclide resuspension, transport and deposition during forest and grassland fires and to evaluate the working conditions of firemen. An increase of several orders of magnitude of the airborne radionuclide concentration was observed in the territory near the fire area. The resuspension factor for (137)Cs and (90)Sr was determined to range from 10(-6) to 10(-5) m(-1), and for the plutonium radionuclides from 10(-7) to 10(-6) m(-1) (related to the nuclides in the combustible biomass). These values are 2 orders of magnitude lower if they are calculated relatively to the total contamination density (including the nuclides in the soil). The radionuclide fallout along the plume axis is negligible in comparison to the existing contamination. However, the additional inhalation dose for firemen exposed in the affected area can reach the level of the additional external irradiation in the period of their mission. The plutonium nuclides constitute the dominating contribution to the inhalation dose. PMID:16213067

  18. AIRBORNE MONITORING OF COOLING TOWER EFFLUENTS. VOLUME I. TECHNICAL SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    MRI conducted an airborne plume monitoring program as part of the Chalk Point Cooling Tower Project. Plume measurement included: temperature, dew point, visibility, turbulence, droplet size distribution and concentration, liquid water content, sodium chloride concentration (NaCl)...

  19. ESTIMATION OF VIABLE AIRBORNE MICROBES DOWNWIND FROM A POINT SOURCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modification of the Pasquill atmospheric diffusion equations for estimating viable microbial airborne cell concentrations downwind from a continuous point source is presented. A graphical method is given to estimate the ground level cell concentration given (1) microbial death ra...

  20. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-07

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  1. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are given. The AOL system is described and its potential for various measurement applications including bathymetry and fluorosensing is discussed.

  2. Calibration and operation of continuous air monitors for alpha-emitting radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.

    1993-12-31

    Spectrometer-based continuous air monitors have improved our capabilities for detecting aerosols of alpha-emitting radionuclides. This paper describes basic requirements and statistical limitations in the sensitivity of alpha continuous air monitors, and presents a technical basis for selecting the energy window for detection of uranium and plutonium aerosols, correcting for interference from airborne dust, selecting filters with low pressure drop and good front surface collection characteristics, and properly using electroplated calibration sources. Sensitivity limits are described for detecting uranium or plutonium aerosols in the presence of increased concentrations of naturally occurring, alpha-emitting radon progeny radionuclides. Decreasing the lower energy boundary of the detection window from 4.3 MeV to 2.7 MeV improves by a factor of three the detection of plutonium in the presence of dust, while causing minimal additional interference from ambient radon progeny. Selection of the Millipore Fluoropore teflon membrane filter reduces both pressure drop and interference from ambient radon progeny by up to a factor of two. Field collection of ambient radon progeny can be used to verify the proper energy of alpha emissions from electroplated calibration sources. In the absence of energy verification, errors in instrument calibration may result from solid state diffusion of the electroplated calibration radionuclide into the substrate plate.

  3. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs radionuclides in Turkish medicinal herbs, their ingestion doses and cancer risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmaksız, Aydın; Ağuş, Yusuf

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-two medicinal herb samples, each representing a distinct species, were collected from Turkish markets and measured by the gamma spectrometric method. The activity concentration of 226Ra in medicinal herbs was found in the range of minimum detectable activity (MDA) and 15.1 ± 2.2 Bqkg-1. The activity concentration of 232Th ranged from MDA values to 3.5 ± 0.8 Bqkg-1. The activity concentration of 40K varied between 50.0 ± 16.8 and 1311.5 ± 57.3 Bqkg-1. All 137Cs activity concentrations of medicinal herbs were found to have lower than MDA values. The bone surface dose, lower large intestine and colon doses were found to be 182.9, 18.8 and 18.7 µSvy-1, respectively. The highest committed effective dose originated from the annual ingestion of 1 kg medicinal herb was calculated notably low as 9.0 µSv. The cancer risk of ingestion of medicinal herbs was found to be small enough to be neglected. The selected Turkish medicinal herbs are considered safe for human consumption.

  4. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-03-27

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less.

  5. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

  6. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  7. Seasonal and spatial variation of trace elements in multi-size airborne particulate matters of Beijing, China: Mass concentration, enrichment characteristics, source apportionment, chemical speciation and bioavailability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jiajia; Tian, Hezhong; Cheng, Ke; Lu, Long; Wang, Yuxuan; Wu, Ye; Zhu, Chuanyong; Liu, Kaiyun; Zhou, Junrui; Liu, Xingang; Chen, Jing; Hao, Jiming

    2014-12-01

    The seasonal and spatial variation characteristics of 19 elements (Al, As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Zn) in TSP/PM10/PM2.5 samples were investigated, which were collected from April 2011 to January 2012 simultaneously at an urban downtown site, a traffic roadside site, a suburban site, and a rural site in Beijing. The elevated concentrations of several toxic trace elements (As, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, etc.) in particles revealed that the contamination of toxic elements in Beijing could not be neglected. Positive matrix factorization method (PMF) was applied for source apportionment of trace elements in PM, and three factors (crust related sources, combustion sources, and traffic and steel industrial related sources) were identified. Furthermore, the chemical speciation and bioavailability of various elements were identified by applying European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedure. Our results showed that eight toxic elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn) exhibited higher mobility in PM2.5 than in PM10. Notably, elements of As, Cd, Pb and Zn were presented with higher mobility than the other elements, and these elements were lightly to release into the environment and easily available to human body. Additionally, As, Cd, Pb and Zn also accounted for higher percentages in the bound to mobile fractions at the central urban areas of Beijing. Therefore, special concerns should be paid to these toxic trace elements which had relatively high mobility in fine particles, when planning and implementing the comprehensive air pollution mitigation policies in Beijing.

  8. Airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in a background site in the North China Plain: concentration, size distribution, toxicity and sources.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanhong; Yang, Lingxiao; Yuan, Qi; Yan, Chao; Dong, Can; Meng, Chuanping; Sui, Xiao; Yao, Lan; Yang, Fei; Lu, Yaling; Wang, Wenxing

    2014-01-01

    The size-fractionated characteristics of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied from January 2011 to October 2011 using a Micro-orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) at the Yellow River Delta National Nature Reserve (YRDNNR), a background site located in the North China Plain. The average annual concentration of total PAHs in the YRDNNR (18.95 ± 16.51 ng/m(3)) was lower than that in the urban areas of China; however, it was much higher than that in other rural or remote sites in developed countries. The dominant PAHs, which were found in each season, were fluorene (5.93%-26.80%), phenanthrene (8.17%-26.52%), fluoranthene (15.23%-27.12%) and pyrene (9.23%-16.31%). A bimodal distribution was found for 3-ring PAHs with peaks at approximately 1.0-1.8 μm and 3.2-5.6 μm; however, 4-6 ring PAHs followed a nearly unimodal distribution, with the highest peak in the 1.0-1.8 μm range. The mass median diameter (MMD) values for the total PAHs averaged 1.404, 1.467, 1.218 and 0.931 μm in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. The toxicity analysis indicated that the carcinogenic potency of particulate PAHs existed primarily in the <1.8 μm size range. Diagnostic ratios and PCA analysis indicated that the PAHs in aerosol particles were mainly derived from coal combustion. In addition, back-trajectory calculations demonstrated that atmospheric PAHs were produced primarily by local anthropogenic sources. PMID:23921366

  9. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  10. Accumulation of atmospheric radionuclides and heavy metals in cryoconite holes on an Arctic glacier.

    PubMed

    Łokas, Edyta; Zaborska, Agata; Kolicka, Małgorzata; Różycki, Michał; Zawierucha, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Surface of glaciers is covered by mineral and organic dust, together with microorganisms forming cryoconite granules. Despite fact that glaciers and ice sheets constitute significance part of land surface, reservoir of freshwater, and sites of high biological production, the knowledge on the cryoconite granules still remain unsatisfactory. This study presents information on radionuclide and heavy metal contents in cryoconites. Cryoconites collected from the Hans Glacier in SW Spitsbergen reveal high activity concentrations of anthropogenic ((238,239,240)Pu, (137)Cs, (90)Sr) and natural ((210)Pb) radionuclides. The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratios in these cryoconites significantly exceed the mean global fallout ratio (0.025). The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu ranged from 0.064 to 0.118. The (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs varied from 0.011 ± 0.003 to 0.030 ± 0.007. Such activity ratios as observed in these cryoconites were significantly higher than the values characterizing global fallout, pointing to possible contributions of these radionuclides from other sources. Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) in cryoconites exceed both UCC concentrations and local rocks' concentrations, particularly for cadmium. The concentration ratios of stable lead isotopes ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb) were determined to discriminate between the natural and anthropogenic sources of Pb in cryoconites and to confirm the strong anthropogenic contribution to heavy metal deposition in the Arctic. In investigated cryoconite holes, two groups of invertebrates, both extremophiles, Tardigrada and Rotifera were detected. Our study indicate that cryoconites are aggregates of mineral and organic substances on surfaces of glaciers are able to accumulate large amounts of airborne pollutants bound to extracellular polymeric substances secreted by microorganisms. PMID:27372266

  11. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  12. Airborne pollen trends in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Aira, M J; Belmonte, J; Diaz de la Guardia, C; Fernández-González, D; Gutierrez-Bustillo, M; Moreno-Grau, S; Pérez-Badía, R; Rodríguez-Rajo, J; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L; Tormo, R; Trigo, M M; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    2016-04-15

    Airborne pollen monitoring is an effective tool for studying the reproductive phenology of anemophilous plants, an important bioindicator of plant behavior. Recent decades have revealed a trend towards rising airborne pollen concentrations in Europe, attributing these trends to an increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions and temperature. However, the lack of water availability in southern Europe may prompt a trend towards lower flowering intensity, especially in herbaceous plants. Here we show variations in flowering intensity by analyzing the Annual Pollen Index (API) of 12 anemophilous taxa across 12 locations in the Iberian Peninsula, over the last two decades, and detecting the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Results revealed differences in the distribution and flowering intensity of anemophilous species. A negative correlation was observed between airborne pollen concentrations and winter averages of the NAO index. This study confirms that changes in rainfall in the Mediterranean region, attributed to climate change, have an important impact on the phenology of plants. PMID:26803684

  13. Airborne gravity is here

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, S.

    1982-01-11

    After 20 years of development efforts, the airborne gravity survey has finally become a practical exploration method. Besides gravity data, the airborne survey can also collect simultaneous, continuous records of high-precision magneticfield data as well as terrain clearance; these provide a topographic contour map useful in calculating terrain conditions and in subsequent planning and engineering. Compared with a seismic survey, the airborne gravity method can cover the same area much more quickly and cheaply; a seismograph could then detail the interesting spots.

  14. High sensitive airborne radioiodine monitor.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yoshimune; Yamasaki, Tadashi; Hanafusa, Ryuji

    2013-11-01

    Airborne radioiodine monitoring includes a problem in that commercial radioactive gas monitors have inadequate sensitivity. To solve this problem, we designed a highly sensitive monitoring system. The higher counting efficiency and lower background made it possible to perform the low-level monitoring. The characteristics of the system were investigated using gaseous (125)I. The minimum detectable activity concentration was 1 × 10(-4)Bq cm(-3) for 1 min counting, which is one tenth of the legal limit for the radiation controlled areas in Japan. PMID:23602709

  15. Toolsets for Airborne Data

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-04-02

    article title:  Toolsets for Airborne Data     View larger image The ... limit of detection values. Prior to accessing the TAD Web Application ( https://tad.larc.nasa.gov ) for the first time, users must ...

  16. The airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven; Schall, Harold; Shattuck, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the current program status.

  17. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  18. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP

  19. Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

  20. Radionuclide bone imaging and densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclides and the Normal Bone Scan; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Malignant Disease; Pediatric Applications of Radionuclide Bone Imaging; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Arthritis and Metabolic and Miscellaneous Disorders; and Soft Tissue Activity on the Radionuclide Bone Scan.

  1. EVALUATING AND OPTIMIZING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZING AIRBORNE ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of EM methods for measuring airborne asbestos fiber concentrations and size distributions was carried out by studying a large number of variables and subprocedures in a five-phase program using elaborate statistically designed experiments. Observations were analyzed by...

  2. Novel method for estimation of the indoor-to-outdoor airborne radioactivity ratio following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanliang; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Janik, Miroslaw; Tokonami, Shinji; Hosoda, Masahiro; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kearfott, Kimberlee

    2015-12-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan resulted in significant releases of fission products. While substantial data exist concerning outdoor air radioactivity following the accident, the resulting indoor radioactivity remains pure speculation without a proper method for estimating the ratio of the indoor to outdoor airborne radioactivity, termed the airborne sheltering factor (ASF). Lacking a meaningful value of the ASF, it is difficult to assess the inhalation doses to residents and evacuees even when outdoor radionuclide concentrations are available. A simple model was developed and the key parameters needed to estimate the ASF were obtained through data fitting of selected indoor and outdoor airborne radioactivity measurement data obtained following the accident at a single location. Using the new model with values of the air exchange rate, interior air volume, and the inner surface area of the dwellings, the ASF can be estimated for a variety of dwelling types. Assessment of the inhalation dose to individuals readily follows from the value of the ASF, the person's indoor occupancy factor, and the measured outdoor radioactivity concentration. PMID:26188529

  3. Airborne Microalgae: Insights, Opportunities, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Tesson, Sylvie V M; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Löndahl, Jakob

    2016-04-01

    Airborne dispersal of microalgae has largely been a blind spot in environmental biological studies because of their low concentration in the atmosphere and the technical limitations in investigating microalgae from air samples. Recent studies show that airborne microalgae can survive air transportation and interact with the environment, possibly influencing their deposition rates. This minireview presents a summary of these studies and traces the possible route, step by step, from established ecosystems to new habitats through air transportation over a variety of geographic scales. Emission, transportation, deposition, and adaptation to atmospheric stress are discussed, as well as the consequences of their dispersal on health and the environment and state-of-the-art techniques to detect and model airborne microalga dispersal. More-detailed studies on the microalga atmospheric cycle, including, for instance, ice nucleation activity and transport simulations, are crucial for improving our understanding of microalga ecology, identifying microalga interactions with the environment, and preventing unwanted contamination events or invasions. PMID:26801574

  4. Airborne Microalgae: Insights, Opportunities, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Löndahl, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Airborne dispersal of microalgae has largely been a blind spot in environmental biological studies because of their low concentration in the atmosphere and the technical limitations in investigating microalgae from air samples. Recent studies show that airborne microalgae can survive air transportation and interact with the environment, possibly influencing their deposition rates. This minireview presents a summary of these studies and traces the possible route, step by step, from established ecosystems to new habitats through air transportation over a variety of geographic scales. Emission, transportation, deposition, and adaptation to atmospheric stress are discussed, as well as the consequences of their dispersal on health and the environment and state-of-the-art techniques to detect and model airborne microalga dispersal. More-detailed studies on the microalga atmospheric cycle, including, for instance, ice nucleation activity and transport simulations, are crucial for improving our understanding of microalga ecology, identifying microalga interactions with the environment, and preventing unwanted contamination events or invasions. PMID:26801574

  5. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  6. Fibrous mineral sorbents for concentration of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Luneva, N.K.; Rat`ko, A.I.; Petushok, I.A.

    1995-03-01

    The sorption properties of fibrous mineral sorbents prepared from modified clinoptilolite and an acidic cellulose ester containing hexacyanoferrates are studied. The sorbents can be used to purify liquid radioactive wastes with a total specific activity of (4.9-7){center_dot}10{sup {minus}6} Ci/liter.

  7. Hydrogeological interpretation of natural radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Gerhard; Berka, Rudolf; Hörhan, Thomas; Katzlberger, Christian; Landstetter, Claudia; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) stores comprehensive data sets of radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwater. There are several analyses concerning Rn-222, Ra-226, gross alpha and gross beta as well as selected analyses of Ra-228, Pb-210, Po-210, Uranium and U-234/U-238. In a current project financed by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, AGES and the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) are evaluating these data sets with regard to the geological backgrounds. Several similar studies based on groundwater monitoring have been made in the USA (for instance by Focazio, M.J., Szabo, Z., Kraemer, T.F., Mullin, A.H., Barringer, T.H., De Paul, V.T. (2001): Occurrence of selected radionuclides in groundwater used for drinking water in the United States: a reconnaissance survey, 1998. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4273). The geological background for the radionuclide contents of groundwater will be derived from geological maps in combination with existing Thorium and Uranium analyses of the country rocks and stream-sediments and from airborne radiometric maps. Airborne radiometric data could contribute to identify potential radionuclide hot spot areas as only airborne radiometric mapping could provide countrywide Thorium and Uranium data coverage in high resolution. The project will also focus on the habit of the sampled wells and springs and the hydrological situation during the sampling as these factors can have an important influence on the Radon content of the sampled groundwater (Schubert, G., Alletsgruber, I., Finger, F., Gasser, V., Hobiger, G. and Lettner, H. (2010): Radon im Grundwasser des Mühlviertels (Oberösterreich) Grundwasser. - Springer (in print). Based on the project results an overview map (1:500,000) concerning the radionuclide potential should be produced. The first version should be available in February 2011.

  8. Short- and long-lived radionuclide particle size measurements in a uranium mine

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Keng-Wu; Fisenne, I.M.; Hutter, A.R.

    1997-04-01

    The radon-222 progeny and long-lived radionuclide measurements were done in a wet underground uranium mine in Saskatchewan, Canada, on Nov. 8-12, 1995. Radon-222 in the mine varied from 2 kBq/m{sup 3} at 90 m below surface to 12 kBq/m{sup 3} in the mining areas, 240 m below surface. Radon-222 progeny activity and potential alpha energy concentration appear affected by the airborne particle number concentration and size distribution. Particle number was up to 200x10{sup 3}/cm{sup 3}. Only an accumulation mode (30-1000 nm) and some bimodal size distributions in this accumulation size range were significant. Diesel particles and combustion particles from burning propane caused a major modal diameter shift to a smaller size range (50-85 nm) compared with previous values (100-200 nm). The high particle number reduced the unattached progeny (0.5-2 nm) to >5%. The nuclei mode (2-30 nm) in this test was nonexistent, and the coarse mode (>1000 nm), except from the drilling areas and on the stopes, was mostly not measurable. Airborne particle total mass and long- lived radionuclide alpha activity concentrations were very low (80- 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 4-5 mBq/m{sup 3}) owing to high ventilation rates. Mass-weighted size distributions were trimodal, with the major mode at the accumulation size region, which accounts for 45-50% of the mass. The coarse model contains the the least mass, about 20%. The size spectra from gross alpha activities were bimodal with major mode in the coarse region (>1000 nm) and a minor accumulation mode in the 50-900 nm size range. These size spectra were different from the {sup 222}Rn progeny that showed a single accumulation mode in the 50- 85 nm size region. The accumulation mode in the long-lived radionuclide size spectrum was not found in previous studies in other uranium mines.

  9. Radionuclides in haematology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, S.M.; Bayly, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Some prerequisites to the use of radionuclides in haematology; Instrumentation and counting techniques; In vitro techniques; Cell labelling; Protein labelling; Autoradiography; Imaging and quantitative scanning; Whole body counting; Absorption and excretion studies; Blood volume studies; Plasma clearance studies; and Radionuclide blood cell survival studies.

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Ciucci, John

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  11. Short-term dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides off Japan: modeling efforts and model-data intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypina, I. I.; Jayne, S. R.; Yoshida, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Douglass, E.; Buesseler, K.

    2013-01-01

    The March of 2011 earthquake and tsunami that caused a loss of power at the Fukushima nuclear power plants (FNPP) resulted in emission of radioactive isotopes into the atmosphere and the ocean. In June of 2011, an international survey of various radionuclide isotopes, including 137Cs, was conducted in surface and subsurface waters off Japan. This paper presents the results of numerical simulations aimed at interpreting these observations, investigating the spread of Fukushima-derived radionuclides off the coast of Japan and into the greater Pacific Ocean, studying the dominant mechanisms governing this process, as well as estimating the total amount of radionuclides in discharged coolant waters and atmospheric airborne radionuclide fallout. The numerical simulations are based on two different ocean circulation models, one inferred from AVISO altimetry and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis wind stress, and the second generated numerically by the NCOM model. Our simulations determine that >95% of 137Cs remaining in the water within ~600 km of Fukushima, Japan in mid-June 2011 was due to the direct oceanic discharge. The estimated strength of the oceanic source is 16.2 ± 1.6 PBq, based on minimizing the model-data mismatch. We cannot make an accurate estimate for the atmospheric source strength since most of the fallout cesium would have moved out of the survey area by mid-June. The model explained several features of the observed 137Cs distribution. First, the absence of 137Cs at the southernmost stations is attributed to the Kuroshio Current acting as a transport barrier against the southward progression of 137Cs. Second, the largest 137Cs concentrations were associated with a semi-permanent eddy that entrained 137Cs-rich waters collecting and stirring them around the eddy perimeter. Finally, the intermediate 137Cs concentrations at the westernmost stations were attributed to younger, and therefore less Cs-rich, coolant waters that continued to leak from the reactor in June of

  12. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  13. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  14. The Airborne Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven E.

    2002-09-01

    The US Air Force Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the risk reduction approach being utilized to ensure program success.

  15. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  16. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  17. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  18. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knerr, T. J.; Schaffner, P. R.; Mielke, R. R.; Gilreath, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for numerically calculating radiation patterns of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas using the Volumetric Pattern Analysis Program is presented. Special attention is given to aircraft modeling. An actual case study involving a large commercial aircraft is included to illustrate the analysis procedure.

  19. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  20. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  1. Airborne Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA imaging technology has provided the basis for a commercial agricultural reconnaissance service. AG-RECON furnishes information from airborne sensors, aerial photographs and satellite and ground databases to farmers, foresters, geologists, etc. This service produces color "maps" of Earth conditions, which enable clients to detect crop color changes or temperature changes that may indicate fire damage or pest stress problems.

  2. VULNERABILITY OF HEADWATER CATCHMENT RESOURCES TO INCIDENCES OF 210PB EXCESS AND 137CS RADIONUCLIDE FALLOUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent identification of elevated excess 210Pb (≤302.6 mBq L-1) and 137Cs (≤ 111.3 mBq L-1) activity in drinking water wells up to 20 m depth indicates some transport of airborne radionuclide fallout beyond soils in the Shaker Village c...

  3. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  4. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  5. Radionuclide Behavior in Containments.

    2000-02-14

    MATADOR analyzes the transport and deposition of radionuclides as vapor or aerosol through Light Water Reactor (LWR) containments during severe accidents and calculates environmental release fractions of radionuclides as a function of time. It is intended for use in system risk studies. The principal output is information on the timing and magnitude of radionuclide releases to the environment as a result of severely degraded core accidents. MATADOR considers the transport of radionuclides through the containmentmore » and their removal by natural deposition and the operation of engineered safety systems such as sprays. Input data on the source term from the primary system, the containment geometry, and thermal-hydraulic conditions are required.« less

  6. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  7. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  8. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  9. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  10. Exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in Seoul metropolitan subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Hyeon Tae

    2011-01-01

    The exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi were assessed in the workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and passengers' activity areas (station precinct, inside the passenger carriage, and platform) of the Seoul metropolitan subway. Among investigated areas, the levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in the workers' bedroom and station precincts were relatively high. No significant difference was found in the concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi between the underground and above ground activity areas of the subway. The genera identified in all subway activity areas with a 5% or greater detection rate were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Corynebacterium for airborne bacteria and Penicillium, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Aspergillus for airborne fungi. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus comprised over 50% of the total airborne bacteria and Penicillium and Cladosporium comprised over 60% of the total airborne fungi, thus these four genera are the predominant genera in the subway station. PMID:21173524

  11. Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Harp, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

  12. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  13. Ambient monitoring of airborne radioactivity near a former thorium processing plant.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L; Regan, G; Goranson, S; Bolka, B

    1984-05-01

    Twenty-four hour sampling for airborne radioactivity near a former thorium and rare-earth extraction facility was conducted for approx. 2 months with high-volume and dichotomous air samplers. Thoron ( 220Rn ) daughters were identified in the air and confirmed to be originating from the waste storage site. High-volume samplers near the facility measured average 212Pb concentrations of 177, 43, and 237 pCi/m3 with corresponding ranges of (1.9-1351), (1.5-301) and (0.73-2201)pCi/m3. Simultaneous measurements with dichotomous samplers at the same sites measured average 212Pb concentrations on coarse particulates (2.5-15 microns dia.) of 14, 4 and 10 pCi/m3 and on fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns dia.) of 94, 9 and 214 pCi/m3, respectively. Corresponding ranges were (0.2-109), (0.1-63) and (0.1-94) pCi/m3 for coarse particulates and (0.7-1094), (0.4-101) and (0.5-2685) pCi/m3 for fine particulates. Uranium, thorium and radium radionuclides were not identified as being present in significant concentrations in the particulate samples. PMID:6327571

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  16. On the lognormality of radionuclide deposition.

    PubMed

    Grubich, Andry

    2015-05-01

    The influence of the variation of soil density and the uncertainty of activity measurements on the statistical distribution of radionuclide concentrations on a site is considered. It is demonstrated that the influence of these factors adequately explains the observed deviation of radionuclide empirical probability distribution functions (empirical PDFs) from lognormal. In all probability lognormality of activity density distributions is the consequence of the atmospheric fallout process, as observed for deposition from Chernobyl and Fukushima. The results obtained are in no way specific to radioactive contaminants, and are consequently applicable for depositions of non-radioactive pollutants as well. PMID:25725453

  17. [Air-borne disease].

    PubMed

    Lameiro Vilariño, Carmen; del Campo Pérez, Victor M; Alonso Bürger, Susana; Felpeto Nodar, Irene; Guimarey Pérez, Rosa; Pérez Alvarellos, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    Respiratory protection is a factor which worries nursing professionals who take care of patients susceptible of transmitting microorganisms through the air more as every day passes. This type of protection covers the use of surgical or hygienic masks against the transmission of infection by airborne drops to the use of highly effective masks or respirators against the transmission of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis or SARS, a recently discovered disease. The adequate choice of this protective device and its correct use are fundamental in order to have an effective protection for exposed personnel. The authors summarize the main protective respiratory devices used by health workers, their characteristics and degree of effectiveness, as well as the circumstances under which each device is indicated for use. PMID:14705591

  18. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  19. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  20. Environmental radioactivity in the UK: the airborne geophysical view of dose rate estimates.

    PubMed

    Beamish, David

    2014-12-01

    This study considers UK airborne gamma-ray data obtained through a series of high spatial resolution, low altitude surveys over the past decade. The ground concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides Potassium, Thorium and Uranium are converted to air absorbed dose rates and these are used to assess terrestrial exposure levels from both natural and technologically enhanced sources. The high resolution airborne information is also assessed alongside existing knowledge from soil sampling and ground-based measurements of exposure levels. The surveys have sampled an extensive number of the UK lithological bedrock formations and the statistical information provides examples of low dose rate lithologies (the formations that characterise much of southern England) to the highest sustained values associated with granitic terrains. The maximum dose rates (e.g. >300 nGy h(-1)) encountered across the sampled granitic terrains are found to vary by a factor of 2. Excluding granitic terrains, the most spatially extensive dose rates (>50 nGy h(-1)) are found in association with the Mercia Mudstone Group (Triassic argillaceous mudstones) of eastern England. Geological associations between high dose rate and high radon values are also noted. Recent studies of the datasets have revealed the extent of source rock (i.e. bedrock) flux attenuation by soil moisture in conjunction with the density and porosity of the temperate latitude soils found in the UK. The presence or absence of soil cover (and associated presence or absence of attenuation) appears to account for a range of localised variations in the exposure levels encountered. The hypothesis is supported by a study of an extensive combined data set of dose rates obtained from soil sampling and by airborne geophysical survey. With no attenuation factors applied, except those intrinsic to the airborne estimates, a bias to high values of between 10 and 15 nGy h(-1) is observed in the soil data. A wide range of

  1. Airborne field strength monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredemeyer, J.; Kleine-Ostmann, T.; Schrader, T.; Münter, K.; Ritter, J.

    2007-06-01

    In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS) are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS) increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR) is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz), the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) accelerated method of moments (MoM) using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  2. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles. PMID:7005667

  3. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

  4. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  5. RADONE: a computer code for simulating fast-transient, one-dimensional hydrodynamic conditions and two-layer radionuclide concentrations including the effect of bed-deposition in controlled rivers and tidal estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Eraslan, A.H.; Abdel-Razek, M.M.

    1985-05-01

    RADONE is a computer code for predicting the transient, one-dimensional transport of radiouclides in receiving water bodies. The model formulation considers the one-dimensional (cross-sectionally averaged) conservation of mass and momentum equations and the two coupled, depth-averaged radionuclide transport equations for the water layer and the bottom sediment layer. The coupling conditions incorporate bottom deposition and resuspension effects. The computer code uses a discrete-element method that offers variable river cross-section spacing, accurate representation of cross-sectional geometry, and numerical accuracy. A sample application is provided for the problem of hypothetical accidental releases and actual routine releases of radionuclides to the Hudson River.

  6. Estimating sediment and caesium-137 fluxes in the Ribble Estuary through time-series airborne remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, R; Tyler, A N; McDonald, P; Atkin, P A; Gleizon, P; Gilvear, D

    2011-03-01

    High spatial and temporal resolution airborne imagery were acquired for the Ribble Estuary, North West England in 1997 and 2003, to assess the application of time-series airborne remote sensing to quantify total suspended sediment and radionuclide fluxes during a flood and ebb tide sequence. Concomitant measurements of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and water column turbidity were obtained during the time-series image acquisition for the flood and ebb tide sequence on the 17th July 2003 to verify the assumption of a vertically well mixed estuary and thus justifying the vertical extrapolation of spatially integrated estimate of surface SPM. The ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations were calculated from a relatively stable relationship between SPM and ¹³⁷Cs for the Ribble Estuary. Total estuary wide budgets of sediment and ¹³⁷Cs were obtained by combining the image-derived estimates of surface SPM and ¹³⁷Cs with estimates of water volume from a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (VERSE) developed for the Ribble Estuary. These indicate that around 10,000 tons of sediment and 2.72 GBq of ¹³⁷Cs were deposited over the tidal sequence monitored in July 2003. This compared favourably with bed height elevation change estimated from field work. An uncertainty analysis on the total sediment and ¹³⁷Cs flux yielded a total budget of the order of 40% on the final estimate. The results represent a novel approach to providing a spatially integrated estimate of the total net sediment and radionuclide flux in an intertidal environment over a flood and ebb tide sequence. PMID:21195513

  7. Fast analysis of radionuclide decay chain migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. S.; Liang, C. P.; Liu, C. W.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    A novel tool for rapidly predicting the long-term plume behavior of an arbitrary length radionuclide decay chain is presented in this study. This fast tool is achieved based on generalized analytical solutions in compact format derived for a set of two-dimensional advection-dispersion equations coupled with sequential first-order decay reactions in groundwater system. The performance of the developed tool is evaluated by a numerical model using a Laplace transform finite difference scheme. The results of performance evaluation indicate that the developed model is robust and accurate. The developed model is then used to fast understand the transport behavior of a four-member radionuclide decay chain. Results show that the plume extents and concentration levels of any target radionuclide are very sensitive to longitudinal, transverse dispersion, decay rate constant and retardation factor. The developed model are useful tools for rapidly assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  8. Approximate methods to calculate radionuclide discharges for performance assessment of HLW repositories in fractured rock

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, K.L.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Siegel, M.D.; Beyeler, W.

    1986-12-31

    Three approximate methods appear useful for calculating radionuclide discharges in fractured, porous rock: (1) a semi-infinite-medium approximation where radionuclide diffusion rates into the matrix are calculated assuming a semi-infinite matrix; (2) a linear-driving-force approximation where radionuclide diffusion rates into the matrix are assumed to be proportional to the difference between bulk concentrations in the fracture fluid and in the matrix pore water; and (3) an equivalent-porous-medium approximation where radionuclide diffusion rates into the matrix are calculated assuming that the time rate of change of the bulk radionuclide concentration in the matrix is proportional to the time rate of change of the radionuclide concentration in the fracture fluid. A preliminary evaluation of these approximations was made by considering transport of a single radionuclide in saturated, porous rock containing uniform, parallel fractures.

  9. A chemical basis for the partitioning of radionuclides in incinerator operation

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, L.L.

    1994-09-01

    For waste containing small amounts of radioactivity, rad waste (RW), or mixed waste (MW) containing both radioactive and chemically hazardous components, incineration is a logical management candidate because of inherent safety, waste volume reduction, and low costs. Successful operation requires that the facility is properly designed and operated to protect workers and to limit releases of hazardous materials. The large decrease in waste volume achieved by incineration also results in a higher concentration of most of the radionuclides and non radioactive heavy metals in the ash products. These concentrations impact subsequent treatment and disposal. The various constituents (chemical elements) are not equal in concentration in the various incinerator feed materials, nor are they equal in their contribution to health risks on subsequent handling, or accidental release. Thus, for management of the wastes it is important to be able to predict how the nuclides partition between the primary combustion residue which may be an ash or a fused slag, the fine particulates or fly ash that is trapped in the burner off-gas by several different techniques, and the airborne fraction that escapes to the atmosphere. The objective of this report is to provide an estimate of how different elements of concern may behave in the chemical environment of the incinerator. The study briefly examines published incinerator operation data, then considers the properties of the elements of concern, and employs thermodynamic calculations, to help predict the fate of these RW and MW constituents. Many types and configurations of incinerators have been designed and tested.

  10. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  11. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H

    2005-07-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  12. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  13. A numerical solution for a model of the one-dimensional radionuclide migration in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Trasanidis, S.X.; Seftelis, I.B.; Tsagas, N.F.

    1996-10-01

    A numerical simulation of the radionuclide transport behaviour through the soil is presented. This simulation is derived by embodying, in its main structure, the boundary conditions that should be fulfilled by the radionuclide concentration differential equation. Based on the results received by applying the above numerical method, estimations of the radionuclide concentration at a soil point, of known depth, time period and initial surface concentration, can be obtained. An application example shows the variation of the radionuclide concentration refer to different time periods and soil depths. The results are compared to actual measured data and found to be satisfactory.

  14. Radionuclide transport coupled with bentonite extrusion in a saturated fracture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, Robert Angelo

    The study in this dissertation focuses on the characterization of radionuclide migration in a water saturated fracture. The near field of a high level radioactive waste repository contains the engineered barrier system, which provides manufactured components designed to limit radionuclide releases to the environment. A major component in this system involves the utilization of bentonite as a buffer to protect the degraded waste package and limit release of radionuclides into intersecting fractures that pose possible pathways for transport to the environment. A model is derived for radionuclide migration through this fracture. The model incorporates the features of bentonite: extrusion into the fracture, sorption, and the effect of bentonite swelling on groundwater flow. The resulting derivation of this model is a coupled system of differential equations. The differential equation describing the mass conservation of radionuclides is coupled to the equation system for bentonite extrusion. The models are coupled through the parameters in the radionuclide transport model, which are dependent on the spatial distribution of solid material in the domain. Numerical evaluations of the solution to this radionuclide transport model were conducted for neptunium, a weakly sorbing radionuclide and americium, a strongly sorbing radionuclide. Results were presented in terms normalized spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration in the fluid phase and normalized radionuclide release rate in the fluid phase. Major findings of the study conducted for this dissertation are provided. (1) Bentonite extrusion affects fluid phase advection resulting in groundwater flow countercurrent to the direction of extrusion to the direction of radionuclide migration. (2) The sorption distribution coefficient is the most important parameter affecting radionuclide behavior in this system for this model. (3) Simulations of the model for americium, a highly sorbing radionuclide, indicate that

  15. Radionuclide studies in impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Hilson, A.J.; Lewis, C.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Impotence may be of physiological origin with causes including vascular or neurological pathology. Alternatively, it may be of psychogenic origin. Clinicians can distinguish between psychological and organic impotence by observing nocturnal penile tumescence. Non-radionuclide investigations for organic impotence include penile plethysmography or pulse Doppler analysis for arterial supply, cavernosometry for venous drainage, and biothesiometry or evoked potentials for neurological pathology. Radionuclide studies are primarily based on the use of technetium 99m-pertechnetate, 99mTc-red blood cells, or xenon 133 to study the blood flow, with or without pharmacological intervention, commonly papaverine. 26 references.

  16. Radionuclides in the lichen-caribou-human food chain near uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P A; Gates, T E

    1999-01-01

    The richest uranium ore bodies ever discovered (Cigar Lake and McArthur River) are presently under development in northeastern Saskatchewan. This subarctic region is also home to several operating uranium mines and aboriginal communities, partly dependent upon caribou for subsistence. Because of concerns over mining impacts and the efficient transfer of airborne radionuclides through the lichen-caribou-human food chain, radionuclides were analyzed in tissues from 18 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Radionuclides included uranium (U), radium (226Ra), lead (210Pb), and polonium (210Po) from the uranium decay series; the fission product (137Cs) from fallout; and naturally occurring potassium (40K). Natural background radiation doses average 2-4 mSv/year from cosmic rays, external gamma rays, radon inhalation, and ingestion of food items. The ingestion of 210Po and 137Cs when caribou are consumed adds to these background doses. The dose increment was 0.85 mSv/year for adults who consumed 100 g of caribou meat per day and up to 1.7 mSv/year if one liver and 10 kidneys per year were also consumed. We discuss the cancer risk from these doses. Concentration ratios (CRs), relating caribou tissues to lichens or rumen (stomach) contents, were calculated to estimate food chain transfer. The CRs for caribou muscle ranged from 1 to 16% for U, 6 to 25% for 226Ra, 1 to 2% for 210Pb, 6 to 26% for 210Po, 260 to 370% for 137Cs, and 76 to 130% for 40K, with 137Cs biomagnifying by a factor of 3-4. These CRs are useful in predicting caribou meat concentrations from the lichens, measured in monitoring programs, for the future evaluation of uranium mining impacts on this critical food chain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10378999

  17. A Coincidence Signature Library for Multicoincidence Radionuclide Analysis Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leon E.; Ellis, J E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Miley, Harry S.

    2003-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is currently developing multicoincidence systems to perform trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point, for applications that include emergency response, nuclear forensics, and environmental monitoring. Quantifying radionuclide concentrations with these systems requires a library of accurate emission intensities for each detected signature, for all candidate radionuclides. To meet this need, a Coincidence Lookup Library (CLL) is being developed to calculate the emission intensities of coincident signatures from a user-specified radionuclide, or conversely, to determine the radionuclides that may be responsible for a specific detected coincident signature. The algorithms used to generate absolute emission intensities and various query modes for our developmental CLL are described.

  18. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  19. Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, G. T.; Baker, R. A.; Lee, P. L.; Eddy, T. P.; Blount, G. C.; Whitney, G. R.

    2012-11-06

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, indepth statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 millisievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the ''effective'' half-life of Cs-137 in deer

  20. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. Gallbladder radionuclide scan is a test that uses radioactive material to check gallbladder function. It is also used to look for bile duct blockage or leak. How the Test is Performed The health care provider will inject ...

  1. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  2. Airborne Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaps, Wm. S.; Burris, J.

    1996-12-01

    We designed and tested an airborne lidar system using Raman scattering to make simultaneous measurements of methane, water vapor, and temperature in a series of flights on a NASA-operated C-130 aircraft. We present the results for methane detection, which show that the instrument has the requisite sensitivity to atmospheric trace gases. Ultimately these measurements can be used to examine the transport of chemically processed air from within the polar vortex to mid-latitudinal regions and the exchange of stratospheric air between tropical and mid-latitudinal regions.

  3. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  4. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  5. Airborne transmission of lyssaviruses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N; Phillpotts, R; Fooks, A R

    2006-06-01

    In 2002, a Scottish bat conservationist developed a rabies-like disease and subsequently died. This was caused by infection with European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2), a virus closely related to Rabies virus (RABV). The source of this infection and the means of transmission have not yet been confirmed. In this study, the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, particularly RABV and the bat variant EBLV-2, might be transmitted via the airborne route was tested. Mice were challenged via direct introduction of lyssavirus into the nasal passages. Two hours after intranasal challenge with a mouse-adapted strain of RABV (Challenge Virus Standard), viral RNA was detectable in the tongue, lungs and stomach. All of the mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation developed disease signs by 7 days post-infection. Two out of five mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation of EBLV-2 developed disease between 16 and 19 days post-infection. In addition, a simple apparatus was evaluated in which mice could be exposed experimentally to infectious doses of lyssavirus from an aerosol. Using this approach, mice challenged with RABV, but not those challenged with EBLV-2, were highly susceptible to infection by inhalation. These data support the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, and RABV in particular, can be spread by airborne transmission in a dose-dependent manner. This could present a particular hazard to personnel exposed to aerosols of infectious RABV following accidental release in a laboratory environment. PMID:16687600

  6. Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L.) as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Caprio, Emilio; Pellecchia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy) that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry -, postmining -, and soil –derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs). The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants. PMID:26147982

  7. Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L.) as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter.

    PubMed

    Negri, Ilaria; Mavris, Christian; Di Prisco, Gennaro; Caprio, Emilio; Pellecchia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy) that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry-, postmining-, and soil-derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs). The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants. PMID:26147982

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities radionuclide inventory assessment CY 1992-1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-09-01

    Assessments for evaluating compliance with airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subparts H and I) were performed for 33 buildings at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory on the Hanford Site, and for five buildings owned and operated by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The assessments were performed using building radionuclide inventory data obtained in 1992 and 1993. Results of the assessments are summarized in Table S.1 for DOE-PNL buildings and in Table S.2 for Battelle-owned buildings. Based on the radionuclide inventory assessments, four DOE-PNL buildings (one with two emission points) require continuous sampling for radionuclides per 40 CFR 61. None of the Battelle-owned buildings require continuous emission sampling.

  9. Bioaccumulation of radionuclides in fertilized Canadian Shield lake basins.

    PubMed

    Bird, G A; Hesslein, R H; Mills, K H; Schwartz, W J; Turner, M A

    1998-07-11

    Radionuclide tracers of heavy metals (59Fe, 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se, 85Sr, 134Cs and 203Hg) representing potential contamination from nuclear power plants, industry and agriculture were added to separate basins of Lake 226, Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario. The two basins were part of a eutrophication experiment and differed in their trophic status; the north basin (L226N) was eutrophic whereas the south basin (L226S) was mesotrophic. Our objective was to determine the uptake of the radionuclides by biota and the effect of lake trophic status on their bioaccumulation. The trophic status of the lakes did not appear to have a marked effect on the accumulation of radionuclides by the biota. This may have been because of a mid-summer leakage of nutrients between the basins which enhanced primary production in L226S, because there is a time lag between primary production and the availability of the radionuclides to the fishes or because trophic status does not affect the uptake of at least some of these radionuclides. However, there was a tendency for faster uptake of the radionuclides in L226N by fish than L226S, but the differences were not significant. Concentrations in the biota generally decreased in the order: fathead minnow > pearl dace > tadpoles > slimy sculpin > leeches. Concentrations in biota generally decreased in the order. 65Zn > 203Hg > 75Se > 134Cs > 60Co > 85Sr = 59Fe. Cobalt-60 concentrations in tadpoles were greater than in the other biota. Radionuclide concentrations in the tissues of lake whitefish indicated that uptake was predominantly from food. Radionuclide concentrations were usually higher in the posterior gut, liver and kidney than in other tissues, whereas body burdens were generally high in the muscle for 75Se, 134Cs and 203Hg; kidney and gut for 60Co; and bone for 65Zn and 75Se. Mercury-203 burdens were also high in the bone and gut. PMID:9718743

  10. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  11. A first attempt to derive soil erosion rates from 137Cs airborne gamma measurements in two Alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bucher, Benno; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers is currently one of the most promising and effective approach for evaluating soil erosion magnitudes in mountainous grasslands. Conventional assessment or measurement methods are laborious and constrained by the topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. The 137Cs (half-life = 30.2 years) is the most frequently used FRN to study soil redistribution. However the application of 137Cs in alpine grasslands is compromised by the high heterogeneity of the fallout due to the origin of 137Cs fallout in the Alps, which is linked to single rain events occurring just after the Chernobyl accident when most of the Alpine soils were still covered by snow. The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the 137Cs distribution in two study areas in the Central Swiss Alps: the Ursern valley (Canton Uri), and the Piora valley (Canton Ticino). In June 2015, a helicopter equipped with a NaI gamma detector flew over the two study sites and screened the 137Cs activity of the top soil. The use of airborne gamma measurements is particularly efficient in case of higher 137Cs concentration in the soil. Due to their high altitude and high precipitation rates, the Swiss Alps are expected to be more contaminated by 137Cs fallout than other parts of Switzerland. The airborne gamma measurements have been related to several key parameters which characterize the areas, such as soil properties, slopes, expositions and land uses. The ground truthing of the airborne measurements (i.e. the 137Cs laboratory measurements of the soil samples collected at the same points) returned a good fit. The obtained results offer an overview of the 137Cs concentration in the study areas, which allowed us to identify suitable reference sites, and to analyse the relationship between the 137Cs distribution and the above cited parameters. The authors also derived a preliminary qualitative and a quantitative assessment of soil redistribution

  12. Airborne electromagnetic hydrocarbon mapping in Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffhuber, Andreas A.; Monstad, Ståle; Rudd, Jonathan

    2009-09-01

    The Inhaminga hydrocarbon exploration licence in central Mozambique sets the location for a multi-method airborne geophysical survey. The size of the Inhaminga block, spanning some 16500km2 from Beira to the Zambezi, limited available data and a tight exploration schedule made an airborne survey attractive for the exploration portfolio. The aim of the survey was to map hydrocarbon seepage zones based on the evidence that seepage may create resistivity, radiometric and sometimes magnetic anomalies. The survey involved a helicopter-borne time domain electromagnetic induction system (AEM) and a fixed wing magnetic gradiometer and radiometer. Our data analysis highlights an anomaly extending some tens of kilometres through the survey area along the eastern margin of the Urema Graben. The area is imaged by AEM as a shallow resistive unit below a strong surface conductor and shows high Uranium and low Potassium concentrations (normalised to mean Thorium ratios). A seismic dimming zone on a 2D seismic line crossing the area coincides with the resistivity and radiometric anomaly. The geological exploration model expects seepage to be linked to the graben fault systems and an active seep has been sampled close to the anomaly. We thus interpret this anomaly to be associated with a gas seepage zone. Further geological ground work and seismic investigations are planned to assess this lead. Airborne data has further improved the general understanding of the regional geology allowing spatial mapping of faults and other features from 2D seismic lines crossing the survey area.

  13. Radionuclide limits for vault disposal at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    1992-02-04

    The Savannah River Site is developing a facility called the E-Area Vaults which will serve as the new radioactive waste disposal facility beginning early in 1992. The facility will employ engineered below-grade concrete vaults for disposal and above-grade storage for certain long-lived mobile radionuclides. This report documents the determination of interim upper limits for radionuclide inventories and concentrations which should be allowed in the disposal structures. The work presented here will aid in the development of both waste acceptance criteria and operating limits for the E-Area Vaults. Disposal limits for forty isotopes which comprise the SRS waste streams were determined. The limits are based on total facility and vault inventories for those radionuclides which impact groundwater, and or waste package concentrations for those radionuclides which could affect intruders.

  14. Osteoid osteoma: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, C.A.; Hattner, R.S.; Vogler, J.B. III

    1984-06-01

    The double-density sign, seen on radionuclide bone scans, is described for diagnosing osteoid osteomas and for localizing the nidus. Its use in differentiating the nidus of an osteoid osteoma from osteomyelitis is also described. The utility of computed tomography in localization of the nidus is also illustrated. The double-density sign was helpful in diagnosing seven cases of surgically confirmed osteoid osteoma.

  15. Characterization of Airborne Bacteria at an Underground Subway Station

    PubMed Central

    Dybwad, Marius; Granum, Per Einar; Bruheim, Per

    2012-01-01

    The reliable detection of airborne biological threat agents depends on several factors, including the performance criteria of the detector and its operational environment. One step in improving the detector's performance is to increase our knowledge of the biological aerosol background in potential operational environments. Subway stations are enclosed public environments, which may be regarded as potential targets for incidents involving biological threat agents. In this study, the airborne bacterial community at a subway station in Norway was characterized (concentration level, diversity, and virulence- and survival-associated properties). In addition, a SASS 3100 high-volume air sampler and a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry-based isolate screening procedure was used for these studies. The daytime level of airborne bacteria at the station was higher than the nighttime and outdoor levels, and the relative bacterial spore number was higher in outdoor air than at the station. The bacterial content, particle concentration, and size distribution were stable within each environment throughout the study (May to September 2010). The majority of the airborne bacteria belonged to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus, but a total of 37 different genera were identified in the air. These results suggest that anthropogenic sources are major contributors to airborne bacteria at subway stations and that such airborne communities could harbor virulence- and survival-associated properties of potential relevance for biological detection and surveillance, as well as for public health. Our findings also contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for biological detection/surveillance systems by providing information that can be used to mimic real-life operational airborne environments in controlled aerosol test chambers. PMID:22247150

  16. Characterization of airborne bacteria at an underground subway station.

    PubMed

    Dybwad, Marius; Granum, Per Einar; Bruheim, Per; Blatny, Janet Martha

    2012-03-01

    The reliable detection of airborne biological threat agents depends on several factors, including the performance criteria of the detector and its operational environment. One step in improving the detector's performance is to increase our knowledge of the biological aerosol background in potential operational environments. Subway stations are enclosed public environments, which may be regarded as potential targets for incidents involving biological threat agents. In this study, the airborne bacterial community at a subway station in Norway was characterized (concentration level, diversity, and virulence- and survival-associated properties). In addition, a SASS 3100 high-volume air sampler and a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-based isolate screening procedure was used for these studies. The daytime level of airborne bacteria at the station was higher than the nighttime and outdoor levels, and the relative bacterial spore number was higher in outdoor air than at the station. The bacterial content, particle concentration, and size distribution were stable within each environment throughout the study (May to September 2010). The majority of the airborne bacteria belonged to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus, but a total of 37 different genera were identified in the air. These results suggest that anthropogenic sources are major contributors to airborne bacteria at subway stations and that such airborne communities could harbor virulence- and survival-associated properties of potential relevance for biological detection and surveillance, as well as for public health. Our findings also contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for biological detection/surveillance systems by providing information that can be used to mimic real-life operational airborne environments in controlled aerosol test chambers. PMID:22247150

  17. Monitoring release of disposable radionuclides in the Kara sea: Bioaccumulation of long-lived radionuclides in echinoderms and molluscs

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present proposal is to continue and extend our research on the trophic transfer of important radionuclides in benthic fauna of the Kara Sea. This project is assessing the extent to which select species of seastars, brittle stars, and clams typical of the Kara Sea concentrate and retain a variety of long-lived radionuclides known to be (or suspected to be) present in the disposed wastes in the Russian Arctic. The rates and routes of uptake and depuration of isotopes in the same or in closely related species are being quantified so that endemic benthic organisms can be assessed as potential bioindicators of released radionuclides in Arctic waters.

  18. Seepage basin radionuclide transport in sediments and vegetation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Jerome, K.M.

    1993-12-31

    Radionuclide concentrations were measured in soil and vegetation growing adjacent to and in the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins as part of the plan for closure of the basin system. The results of the measurements provide some information about the mobility of the radionuclides introduced into the basins. {sup 90}Sr is the most mobile of the radionuclides in soil. Its high mobility and high relative uptake by vegetation cause {sup 90}Sr to be distributed throughout the basin system. {sup 137}Cs is not as mobile in the basin soil, limiting its uptake by vegetation growing on the edge of the seepage basins; however, it is readily taken up by the vegetation growing in the basins. Soil mobility and vegetation uptake is relatively low for all of the transuranic radionuclides. For the most part these radionuclides remain near the surface of the basin soils where they were absorbed from the waste-water. The relative role of soil mobility and vegetation uptake on the distribution of radionuclide at the basins was futher evaluated by comparing the vegetation concentration ratio and the half-depth of penetration of the radionuclides in the basin soil. The results suggest that vegetation processes dominate in determining the concentration of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs in the vegetation. The influences of soil and vegetation are more balanced for {sup 90}Sr. The other radionuclides exhibit both low soil mobility and low vegetation uptake. The lack of soil mobility is seen in the lower concentrations found in vegetation growing on the edge of the basin compared to those growing in the basin.

  19. Processor architecture for airborne SAR systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Digital processors for spaceborne imaging radars and application of the technology developed for airborne SAR systems are considered. Transferring algorithms and implementation techniques from airborne to spaceborne SAR processors offers obvious advantages. The following topics are discussed: (1) a quantification of the differences in processing algorithms for airborne and spaceborne SARs; and (2) an overview of three processors for airborne SAR systems.

  20. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  1. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  2. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  3. Biophysical influence of airborne carbon nanomaterials on natural pulmonary surfactant.

    PubMed

    Valle, Russell P; Wu, Tony; Zuo, Yi Y

    2015-05-26

    Inhalation of nanoparticles (NP), including lightweight airborne carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNM), poses a direct and systemic health threat to those who handle them. Inhaled NP penetrate deep pulmonary structures in which they first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) lining at the alveolar air-water interface. In spite of many research efforts, there is a gap of knowledge between in vitro biophysical study and in vivo inhalation toxicology since all existing biophysical models handle NP-PS interactions in the liquid phase. This technical limitation, inherent in current in vitro methodologies, makes it impossible to simulate how airborne NP deposit at the PS film and interact with it. Existing in vitro NP-PS studies using liquid-suspended particles have been shown to artificially inflate the no-observed adverse effect level of NP exposure when compared to in vivo inhalation studies and international occupational exposure limits (OELs). Here, we developed an in vitro methodology called the constrained drop surfactometer (CDS) to quantitatively study PS inhibition by airborne CNM. We show that airborne multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets induce a concentration-dependent PS inhibition under physiologically relevant conditions. The CNM aerosol concentrations controlled in the CDS are comparable to those defined in international OELs. Development of the CDS has the potential to advance our understanding of how submicron airborne nanomaterials affect the PS lining of the lung. PMID:25929264

  4. Dynamics and transformations of radionuclides in soils and ecosystem health

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J. ); Ainsworth, Calvin C. ); Driver, Crystal J. ); Cataldo, Dominic A. )

    1998-12-01

    The chemical behavior of radionuclides can vary widely in soil and sediment environments. Equally important, for a given radionuclide the physico-chemical properties of the solids and aqueous phase can greatly influence a radionuclides behavior. Radionuclides can conceivably occur in soils as soluble-free, inorganic-soluble-complexed, organic-soluble, complexed, adsorbed, precipitated, coprecipitated, or solid structural species. While it is clear that an assessment of a radionuclide?s soil chemistry and potential shifts in speciation will yield a considerable understanding of its behavior in the natural environment, it does not directly translate to bioavailability or its impact on ecosystems health. The soil chemical factors have to be linked to food chain considerations and other ecological parameters that directly tie to an analysis of ecosystem health. In general, the movement of radionuclides from lower to higher trophic levels diminishes with each trophic level in both aqua tic and terrestrial systems. In some cases, transfer is limited because of low absorption/assimilation by successive trophic organisms (Pu, U); for other radionuclides (Tc, H) assimilation may be high but rapid metabolic turnover and low retention greatly reduce tissue concentrations available to predator species. Still others are chemical analogs of essential elements whose concentrations are maintained under strict metabolic control in tissues (Cs) or are stored in tissues seldom consumed by other organisms (Sr storage in exoskeleton, shells, and bone). Therefore, the organisms that receive the greatest ingestion exposures are those in lower trophic positions or are in higher trophic levels but within simple, short food chains. Food source, behavior, and habitat influence the accumulation of radionuclides in animals.

  5. Critical radionuclide/critical pathway analysis for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, G.T.

    1999-06-01

    Many different radionuclides have been released to the environment from the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the facility`s operational history. However, as shown by this analysis, only a small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to potential doses and risks to off-site people. This article documents the radiological critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis performed for SRS. If site missions and operations remain constant over the next 30 years, only tritium oxide releases are projected to exceed a maximally exposed individual (MEI) risk of 1.0E-06 for either the airborne or liquid pathways. The critical exposure pathways associated with site airborne releases are inhalation and vegetation consumption, whereas the critical exposure pathways associated with liquid releases are drinking water and fish consumption. For the SRS-specific, nontypical exposure pathways (i.e., recreational fishing and deer and hog hunting), cesium-137 is the critical radionuclide.

  6. Measurement of airborne {sup 218}Po - A Bayesian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, P.G.; Lo, Y.

    1996-12-01

    The standard mathematical treatment of the buildup and decay of airborne radionuclides on a filter paper uses the solutions of the so-called bateman equations adapted to the sampling process. The equations can be interpreted as differential equations for the expectation of an underlying stochastic process, which describes the random fluctuations in the accumulation and decay of the sampled radioactive atoms. The process for the buildup and decay of airborne {sup 218}Po can be characterized as an {open_quotes}immigration-death process{close_quotes} in the widely adopted, biologically based jargon. The probability distribution for the number of {sup 218}Po atoms, accumulated after sampling time t, is Poisson. We show that the distribution of the number of counts, registered by a detector with efficiency {epsilon} during a counting period T after the end of sampling, it also Poisson, with mean dependent on {epsilon},t,T, the flowrate and N{sub o}, the number of airborne {sup 218}Po atoms per unit volume. This Poisson distribution was used to construct the likelihood given the observed number of counts. After inversion with Bayes` Theorem we obtained the posterior density for N{sub o}. This density characterizes the remaining uncertainty about the measured under of {sup 218}Po atoms per unit volume of air. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Measurement of airborne 218Po--a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Groer, P G; Lo, Y

    1996-12-01

    The standard mathematical treatment of the buildup and decay of airborne radionuclides on a filter paper uses the solutions of the so-called Bateman equations adapted to the sampling process. These equations can be interpreted as differential equations for the expectation of an underlying stochastic process, which describes the random fluctuations in the accumulation and decay of the sampled radioactive atoms. The process for the buildup and decay of airborne 218Po can be characterized as an "immigration-death process" in the widely adopted, biologically based jargon. The probability distribution for the number of 218Po atoms, accumulated after sampling time t, is Poisson. We show that the distribution of the number of counts, registered by a detector with efficiency epsilon during a counting period T after the end of sampling, is also Poisson, with mean dependent on epsilon, t, T, the flowrate and N(o), the number of airborne 218Po atoms per unit volume. This Poisson distribution was used to construct the likelihood given the observed number of counts. After inversion with Bayes' Theorem we obtained the posterior density for N(o). This density characterizes the remaining uncertainty about the measured number of 218Po atoms per unit volume of air. PMID:8919080

  8. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  9. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Norain, Abdullah; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-05-01

    An estimated 60,000 individuals in the United States and 132,000 worldwide are yearly diagnosed with melanoma. Until recently, treatment options for patients with stages III-IV metastatic disease were limited and offered marginal, if any, improvement in overall survival. The situation changed with the introduction of B-RAF inhibitors and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 immunotherapies into the clinical practice. With only some patients responding well to the immune therapies and with very serious side effects and high costs of immunotherapy, there is still room for other approaches for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma could be divided into the domains of radioimmunotherapy (RIT), radiolabeled peptides, and radiolabeled small molecules. RIT of melanoma is currently experiencing a renaissance with the clinical trials of alpha-emitter (213)Bi-labeled and beta-emitter (188)Rhenium-labeled monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic melanoma producing encouraging results. The investigation of the mechanism of efficacy of melanoma RIT points at killing of melanoma stem cells by RIT and involvement of immune system such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The domain of radiolabeled peptides for targeted melanoma therapy has been preclinical so far, with work concentrated on radiolabeled peptide analogues of melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor and on melanin-binding peptides. The field of radiolabeled small molecule produced radioiodinated benzamides that cross the cellular membrane and bind to the intracellular melanin. The recent clinical trial demonstrated measurable antitumor effects and no acute or midterm toxicities. We are hopeful that the targeted radionuclide therapy of metastatic melanoma would become a clinical reality as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with the immunotherapies such as anti-PD1 programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies

  10. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  11. An independent review and prioritization of past radionuclide and chemical releases from the Los Alamos National Laboratory--implications for future dose reconstruction studies.

    PubMed

    Le, Matthew H; Buddenbaum, John E; Burns, Robert E; Shonka, Joseph J; Gaffney, Shannon H; Donovan, Ellen P; Flack, Susan M; Widner, Thomas E

    2011-10-01

    From 1999 through 2010, a team of scientists and engineers systematically reviewed approximately eight million classified and unclassified documents at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that describe historical off-site releases of radionuclides and chemicals in order to determine the extent to which a full-scale dose reconstruction for releases is warranted and/or feasible. As a part of this effort, a relative ranking of historical airborne and waterborne radionuclide releases from LANL was established using priority index (PI) values that were calculated from estimated annual quantities released and the maximum allowable effluent concentrations according to The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Chemical releases were ranked based on annual usage estimates and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) toxicity values. PI results for airborne radionuclides indicate that early plutonium operations were of most concern between 1948 and 1961, in 1967, and again from 1970 through 1973. Airborne releases of uranium were found to be of most interest for 1968, from 1974 through 1978, and again in 1996. Mixed fission products yielded the highest PI value for 1969. Mixed activation product releases yielded the highest PI values from 1979 to 1995. For waterborne releases, results indicate that plutonium is of most concern for all years evaluated with the exception of 1956 when (90)Sr yielded the highest PI value. The prioritization of chemical releases indicate that four of the top five ranked chemicals were organic solvents that were commonly used in chemical processing and for cleaning. Trichloroethylene ranked highest, indicating highest relative potential for health effects, for both cancer and non-cancer effects. Documents also indicate that beryllium was used in significant quantities, which could have lead to residential exposures exceeding established environmental and occupational exposure limits, and warrants further consideration. In part because

  12. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-15

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7,255 ± 285 Bq kg(-1), mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (<1.0 μm). Depending on smoke particle concentration, (210)Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 m Bq m(-3), while in smoke-free air (210)Po concentration was about 30 μ Bq m(-3). The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from (210)Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of (210)Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. PMID:24295758

  13. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    SciTech Connect

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified.

  14. LEAVES AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octan...

  15. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a method at least equivalent to that method in... centimeter of air (f/cc). (ii) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc) as averaged over a...

  16. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a method at least equivalent to that method in... centimeter of air (f/cc). (ii) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc) as averaged over a...

  17. 30 CFR 57.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contrast microscopy (PCM) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910... full-shift airborne concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (ii) Excursion limit... cubic centimeter of air (f/cc) as averaged over a sampling period of 30 minutes. (3) Measurement...

  18. 30 CFR 57.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contrast microscopy (PCM) using the OSHA Reference Method in OSHA's asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910... full-shift airborne concentration of 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc). (ii) Excursion limit... cubic centimeter of air (f/cc) as averaged over a sampling period of 30 minutes. (3) Measurement...

  19. Total contribution of airborne lead to blood lead.

    PubMed Central

    Manton, W I

    1985-01-01

    A nine year study of blood lead concentrations and isotope ratios carried out on a married couple shows that pulmonary deposition cannot account for all the airborne lead in blood; that lead from bone may comprise 70% of blood lead; and that during pregnancy blood lead may double due to mobilisation of lead from bone. PMID:3970881

  20. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a method at least equivalent to that method in... centimeter of air (f/cc). (ii) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc) as averaged over a...

  1. 30 CFR 56.5001 - Exposure limits for airborne contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... asbestos standard found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, Appendix A, or a method at least equivalent to that method in... centimeter of air (f/cc). (ii) Excursion limit. No miner shall be exposed at any time to airborne concentrations of asbestos in excess of 1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (f/cc) as averaged over a...

  2. Accumulation of artificial radionuclides in agricultural plants in the area used for surface nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Kozhakhanov, T E; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V

    2014-11-01

    The paper reports on the study of artificial radionuclide accumulation in agricultural crops grown at the territory with high concentration of radionuclides, and first of all - with high concentration of transuranium elements. As a result of this work, peculiarities of accumulation and distribution of artificial radionuclides in the vegetative and generative organs of the studied plants have been revealed. Basic accumulation factors have been found for (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (239+240)Pu, and (241)Am in agricultural products. Accumulation factor dependence on type of planting was found for the investigated types of plants. It has been found that the vegetative organs accumulate radionuclides most of all. PMID:25128979

  3. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2005-09-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest.

  4. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p < 0.05). Additionally, positive correlations were also detected between endotoxin concentrations and natural sources of Na+, K+, Mg2+, and F-, while negative correlations were observed between endotoxin concentrations and anthropogenic sources of P, Co, Zn, As, and Tl. Oxidative potential analysis revealed that endotoxin concentrations were positively correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  5. Mass Spectrometric Radionuclide Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, John F.; Eiden, Greg C.; Lehn, Scott A.

    2006-02-01

    Measurement of ionized atoms by mass spectrometry is an alternative to radiation detection for measuring radioactive isotopes. These systems are large and complex; they require trained operators and extensive maintenance. They began as research systems but have been developed commercially for measuring amounts of radioactive isotopes and their atom ratios to other isotopes. Several types of mass spectrometer systems are in use. This chapter covers the basics of mass spectrometry and surveys the application of these instruments for radionuclide detection and discusses the circumstances under which use of mass spectrometers is advantageous, the type of mass spectrometer used for each purpose, and the conditions of sample preparation, introduction and analysis.

  6. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  7. Research remote laser methods for radionuclides monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kascheev, S. V.; Elizarov, Valentin V.; Grishkanich, Alexander S.; Bespalov, V. G.; Vasil'ev, Sergey K.; Zhevlakov, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Laser sensing can serve as a highly effective method of searching and monitoring of radioactive contamination. The first method is essence consists in definition the Sr90 and Сs137 concentration by excitation and registration of fluorescence at wavelength of λ = 0.347÷7.0 μm at laser sounding. The second method experiments were carried out under the Raman-scattering circuit. Preliminary results of investigation show the real possibility to register of leakage of a radionuclide with concentration at level of 108÷109 сm-3 on a safe distance from the infected object.

  8. Leaching of accelerator-produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.; Bull, J.; Goss, D.

    1994-05-01

    Leaching of radionuclides produced in soil and rock by high energy proton-induced radiation was studied for the SCC and CEBAF sites. Comparison was made with predictions of a Monte-Carlo code CASIM and previous results for the Fermilab site. The principal long-lived radionuclides were {sup 3}H and {sup 22}Na in agreement with Fermilab results. A few other radionuclides were present at lower concentrations in a subset of the samples. For example, {sup 134}Cs was detected in a few SSC water samples and {sup 7}Be and {sup 54}Mn were present at higher concentrations in a CEBAF sample. Leaching from SSC chalk was dependent on previous weathering and on leaching time. The more soil-like marl and shale were leached more rapidly. Results of this study in conjunction with the SSC ground-water model show that adequate ground-water protection would result for loss of the entire proton beam in the SSC Collider tunnel.

  9. Exposure to airborne asbestos in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.J.; Van Orden, D.R.; Corn, M.; Crump, K.S. )

    1992-08-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings and its implication for the health of building occupants is a major public health issue. A total of 2892 air samples from 315 public, commercial, residential, school, and university buildings has been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result of exposure to the presence of asbestos containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all asbestos structures was 0.02 structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of asbestos greater than or equal to 5 microns long was 0.00013 fibers/ml (f/ml). The concentration of asbestos was higher in schools than in other buildings. In 48% of indoor samples and 75% of outdoor samples, no asbestos fibers were detected. The observed airborne concentration in 74% of the indoor samples and 96% of the outdoor samples is below the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act clearance level of 0.01 s/ml. Finally, using those fibers which could be seen optically, all indoor samples and all outdoor samples are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level of 0.1 f/ml for fibers greater than or equal to 5 microns in length. These results provide substantive verification of the findings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency public building study which found very low ambient concentrations of asbestos fibers in buildings with ACM, irrespective of the condition of the material in the buildings.

  10. Methods and systems for detection of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Jr., John T.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2010-05-25

    Disclosed are materials and systems useful in determining the existence of radionuclides in an aqueous sample. The materials provide the dual function of both extraction and scintillation to the systems. The systems can be both portable and simple to use, and as such can beneficially be utilized to determine presence and optionally concentration of radionuclide contamination in an aqueous sample at any desired location and according to a relatively simple process without the necessity of complicated sample handling techniques. The disclosed systems include a one-step process, providing simultaneous extraction and detection capability, and a two-step process, providing a first extraction step that can be carried out in a remote field location, followed by a second detection step that can be carried out in a different location.

  11. Short-term dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides off Japan: modeling efforts and model-data intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypina, I. I.; Jayne, S. R.; Yoshida, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Douglass, E.; Buesseler, K.

    2013-07-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami that caused a loss of power at the Fukushima nuclear power plants (FNPP) resulted in emission of radioactive isotopes into the atmosphere and the ocean. In June of 2011, an international survey measuring a variety of radionuclide isotopes, including 137Cs, was conducted in surface and subsurface waters off Japan. This paper presents the results of numerical simulations specifically aimed at interpreting these observations and investigating the spread of Fukushima-derived radionuclides off the coast of Japan and into the greater Pacific Ocean. Together, the simulations and observations allow us to study the dominant mechanisms governing this process, and to estimate the total amount of radionuclides in discharged coolant waters and atmospheric airborne radionuclide fallout. The numerical simulations are based on two different ocean circulation models, one inferred from AVISO altimetry and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis wind stress, and the second generated numerically by the NCOM model. Our simulations determine that > 95% of 137Cs remaining in the water within ~600 km of Fukushima, Japan in mid-June 2011 was due to the direct oceanic discharge. The estimated strength of the oceanic source is 16.2 ± 1.6 PBq, based on minimizing the model-data mismatch. We cannot make an accurate estimate for the atmospheric source strength since most of the fallout cesium had left the survey area by mid-June. The model explained several key features of the observed 137Cs distribution. First, the absence of 137Cs at the southernmost stations is attributed to the Kuroshio Current acting as a transport barrier against the southward progression of 137Cs. Second, the largest 137Cs concentrations were associated with a semi-permanent eddy that entrained 137Cs-rich waters, collecting and stirring them around the eddy perimeter. Finally, the intermediate 137Cs concentrations at the westernmost stations are attributed to younger, and therefore less Cs

  12. Airborne GLM Simulator (FEGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stewart, M. F.; Podgorny, S.; Corredor, D.

    2015-12-01

    Real time lightning observations have proven to be useful for advanced warning and now-casting of severe weather events. In anticipation of the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard GOES-R that will provide continuous real time observations of total (both cloud and ground) lightning, the Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS) is in production. FEGS is an airborne instrument designed to provide cal/val measurements for GLM from high altitude aircraft. It consists of a 5 x 5 array of telescopes each with a narrow passband filter to isolate the 777.4 nm neutral oxygen emission triplet radiated by lightning. The telescopes will measure the optical radiance emitted by lightning that is transmitted through the cloud top with a temporal resolution of 10 μs. When integrated on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the FEGS array with its 90° field-of-view will observe a cloud top area nearly equal to a single GLM pixel. This design will allow FEGS to determine the temporal and spatial variation of light that contributes to a GLM event detection. In addition to the primary telescope array, the instrument includes 5 supplementary optical channels that observe alternate spectral emission features and will enable the use of FEGS for interesting lightning physics applications. Here we present an up-to-date summary of the project and a description of its scientific applications.

  13. Airborne rescue system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The airborne rescue system includes a boom with telescoping members for extending a line and collar to a rescue victim. The boom extends beyond the tip of the helicopter rotor so that the victim may avoid the rotor downwash. The rescue line is played out and reeled in by winch. The line is temporarily retained under the boom. When the boom is extended, the rescue line passes through clips. When the victim dons the collar and the tension in the line reaches a predetermined level, the clips open and release the line from the boom. Then the rescue line can form a straight line between the victim and the winch, and the victim can be lifted to the helicopter. A translator is utilized to push out or pull in the telescoping members. The translator comprises a tape and a rope. Inside the telescoping members the tape is curled around the rope and the tape has a tube-like configuration. The tape and rope are provided from supply spools.

  14. Radionuclides in nephrology

    SciTech Connect

    Lausanne, A.B.D.

    1987-01-01

    In 47 expert contributions, this volume provides a summary of the latest research on radionuclides in nephro-urology together with current and new clinical applications especially in renovascular hypertension, kidney transplantation, and metabolic and urological diseases. In addition, attention is given to aspects of basic renal physiology and function and possible applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy in nephro-urology. New testing procedures which promise to improve diagnosis, and new radiopharmaceuticals are described. The reports are divided into eight sections, the first of which features studies on the renin-angiotensin system, cisplatin, atrial natriuretic factor and determining plasma oxalate. Four papers describe a number of new radiopharmaceuticals which have the potential to replace hippuran. In the third section, radionuclide methods for the measurement of renal function parameters are discussed. The book then focuses on the potential role of captopril in the improved diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy are demonstrated in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, kidney assessment after lithotripsy, kidney evaluation prior to transplantation, and in monitoring renal ischemia during hypotension.

  15. Control of airborne fungal spores in a university hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Streifel, A.J.; Vesley, D. ); Rhame, F.S. ); Murray, B. )

    1989-01-01

    A new university hospital was designed to maximize the air quality protection of severely compromised patients undergoing transplantation or treatment for malignant disorders. The entire hospital was designed as a sealed building with two filter systems having >95% efficiencies for 1.0 {mu}m particles. Controlled airflow and isolation of the most severely compromised patients were also design features. Air quality monitoring of particles and airborne fungi demonstrate effective control in the patient environment. The results show the areas with the greatest control of personnel and air changes have the lowest airborne concentrations of fungi and the smallest particles. Larger indoor airborne particle ranking indicate highest levels depending on local human activity, air changes rates, or filtration efficiency.

  16. Microbial stabilization and mass reduction of wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals

    DOEpatents

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1991-09-10

    A process is provided to treat wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals with Clostridium sp. BFGl to release a large fraction of the waste solids into solution and convert the radionuclides and toxic metals to a more concentrated and stable form with concurrent volume and mass reduction. The radionuclides and toxic metals being in a more stable form are available for recovery, recycling and disposal. 18 figures.

  17. Microbial stabilization and mass reduction of wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals

    DOEpatents

    Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Dodge, Cleveland J.; Gillow, Jeffrey B.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided to treat wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals with Clostridium sp. BFGl to release a large fraction of the waste solids into solutin and convert the radionuclides and toxic metals to a more concentrated and stable form with concurrent volume and mass reduction. The radionuclides and toxic metals being in a more stable form are available for recovery, recycling and disposal.

  18. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  19. Airborne Laser Polar Nephelometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Gerald W.

    1973-01-01

    A polar nephelometer has been developed at NCAR to measure the angular variation of the intensity of light scattered by air molecules and particles. The system has been designed for airborne measurements using outside air ducted through a 5-cm diameter airflow tube; the sample volume is that which is common to the intersection of a collimated source beam and the detector field of view within the airflow tube. The source is a linearly polarized helium-neon laser beam. The optical system defines a collimated field-of-view (0.5deg half-angle) through a series of diaphragms located behind a I72-mm focal length objective lens. A photomultiplier tube is located immediately behind an aperture in the focal plane of the objective lens. The laser beam is mechanically chopped (on-off) at a rate of 5 Hz; a two-channel pulse counter, synchronized to the laser output, measures the photomultiplier pulse rate with the light beam both on and off. The difference in these measured pulse rates is directly proportional to the intensity of the scattered light from the volume common to the intersection of the laser beam and the detector field-of-view. Measurements can be made at scattering angles from 15deg to 165deg with reference to the direction of propagation of the light beam. Intermediate angles are obtained by selecting the angular increments desired between these extreme angles (any multiple of 0.1deg can be selected for the angular increment; 5deg is used in normal operation). Pulses provided by digital circuits control a stepping motor which sequentially rotates the detector by pre-selected angular increments. The synchronous photon-counting system automatically begins measurement of the scattered-light intensity immediately after the rotation to a new angle has been completed. The instrument has been flown on the NASA Convair 990 airborne laboratory to obtain data on the complex index of refraction of atmospheric aerosols. A particle impaction device is operated simultaneously

  20. Potential airborne release from soil-working operations in a contaminated area

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, S.L.

    1980-08-01

    Experiments were performed to provide an indication of how much material could be made airborne during soil-working operations in a contaminated area. Approximately 50 kg of contaminated soil were collected, dried, and mixed, and particle size distribution and /sup 137/Cs content were characterized. In four experiments performed in a 2 ft x 2 ft wind tunnel at the Radioactive Aerosol Release Test Facility, soil was pumped into an airstream moving at 3.2, 10.4, 15.2, and 20 mph. These experiments were designed to maximize airborne releases by fluidizing the soil as it was pumped into the wind tunnel. Thus the airborne releases should represent upper limit values for soil-working operations. Airborne concentration and particle size samples were collected and all of the material deposited downstream was collected to calculate a mass balance. The fraction airborne was calculated using these measurements.

  1. Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site - 13038

    SciTech Connect

    Jannik, G.T.; Baker, R.A.; Lee, P.L.; Eddy, T.P.; Blount, G.C.; Whitney, G.R.

    2013-07-01

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the Hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 milli-sievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the 'effective' half-life of Cs-137 in deer (including

  2. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. But, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. Moreover, a charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify themore » particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. Our study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes.« less

  3. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. But, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. Moreover, a charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. Our study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes.

  4. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  5. Physico-chemical characteristics of visibility impairment by airborne pollen in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung W.

    The number of airborne pollen produced from plants is visible as a haze mixed with urban air pollution in an urban area when atmospheric conditions are proper for pollination of pollen from April to May in Korea. The big loading of airborne pollen can cause further visibility degradation in an urban area. In order to investigate physico-chemical characteristics of visibility impairment by airborne pollen, chemical aerosol measurements, optical aerosol monitoring, and scenic monitoring were performed during the intensive monitoring period from April 19 to May 2, 2005 in the urban area of Seoul, Korea. The particles collected on filters were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) interfaced with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis to characterize size, elemental composition, and count of airborne pollen. During the airborne pollen period, the daily averaged number concentrations of airborne pollen; P and P were calculated to be 8.4±6.9 and 113.7±91.1 m -3, respectively. The daily averaged light extinction coefficient ( bext), light scattering coefficient for open path ( bscat), light scattering coefficient for dry particle in the fine regime ( bscat,fine), and light absorption coefficient in the fine regime ( babs,fine) were measured to be 459±267, 357±214, 263±165, and 44±30 Mm -1, respectively. And mass concentration of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured to be 46.5±29.1 and 97.0±41.7 μg m -3. The average light absorption coefficient by airborne pollen was estimated to be about 30 M m -1 and the average light scattering coefficient by airborne pollen was estimated to be 67±57 Mm -1. During the airborne pollen period the average contribution of airborne pollen to visibility impairment was roughly estimated to be 19-25%.

  6. (Radiological assessments of radionuclide releases)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1990-12-28

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, data have been obtained throughout the Northern Hemisphere on the concentrations of radionuclides in air, vegetation, soil, water, and foodstuffs that could be important means of human exposure. At the IAEA's invitation, the traveler reviewed recently published data and handbook summaries. The traveler evaluated the need for revising the default values recommended in Chapter 5, Terrestrial and Aquatic Food Chain Transport,'' of IAEA Safety Series No. 57. All attempts at revision were made to keep the mathematical complexity of the models to a minimum without substantial underestimation of dose to critical population subgroups. The traveler also served as chairman of the Multiple Pathways Working Group of the Coordinated Research Program on VAMP. This group has been established to test predictions of models assessing multiple exposure pathways potentially leading to human exposure to {sup 137}Cs. Testing is carried out for major components of assessment models that predict deposition, environmental transport, food chain bioaccumulation, and subsequent uptake and retention in the human body and dose due to exposure to external gamma radiation.

  7. Airborne laser topographic mapping results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of terrain mapping experiments utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) over forested areas are presented. The flight tests were conducted as part of a joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) investigation aimed at evaluating the potential of an airborne laser ranging system to provide cross-sectional topographic data on flood plains that are difficult and expensive to survey using conventional techniques. The data described in this paper were obtained in the Wolf River Basin located near Memphis, TN. Results from surveys conducted under winter 'leaves off' and summer 'leaves on' conditions, aspects of day and night operation, and data obtained from decidous and coniferous tree types are compared. Data processing techniques are reviewed. Conclusions relative to accuracy and present limitations of the AOL, and airborne lidar systems in general, to terrain mapping over forested areas are discussed.

  8. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  9. [Airborne fungal community composition in indoor environments in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhi-guo; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Liu, Peng; Sun, Li; Wang, Xiao-yong

    2013-05-01

    Indoor environmental quality has significant effects on human health. It is reported that adults in China spent about 80%-90% of their time in indoor environments, and a number of physically handicapped people such as the elderly and infants stayed in the room even up to 95% of their total time. Moreover, air conditioner in indoor environments becomes more and more important in modern life, and a closed circulatory system can be formed among human body, room and air conditioner in indoor environments with an air conditioner, which can make the microbes such as bacteria, viruses and mold indoors propagate rapidly or abundantly. Therefore, studies on the microbial pollution in the air at places such as mall, classroom, office, and family home have been the research hotspots recently. In the present study, the community composition and concentration variation pattern of airborne fungi were investigated from Nov 2009 to Oct 2010 in 31 family homes with children in Beijing. Results showed that 24 generas of airborne fungi in family homes were identified from 225 isolates. The most common fungi were Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Phoma. The frequency of Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Monilia was much higher than those of other fungal genera in family home, and the frequency of Penicillium was more than 90%. As for the concentration percentage, airborne fungi with most high concentrations were Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, No-sporing, and Alternaria, and totally accounted for more than 65.0%. Penicillium contributed to 32.2% of the total airborne fungi in family homes. In the 31 family homes selected, the fungal concentration in the air ranged from 62-3 498 CFU x m(-3), and the mean concentration was 837 CFU x m(-3). Seasonal variation pattern of total fungi, and Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Alternaria concentration was consistent, and the highest fungal concentration was observed in summer, followed by spring and

  10. Simulation of radionuclide transport in U. S. agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, R.D.; Baes, C.F. III

    1982-01-01

    Because of the recent concern about the impact of energy technologies on man and related health effects, there has emerged a need for models to calculate or predict the effects of radionuclides on man. A general overview is presented of a model that calculates the ingrowth of radionuclides into man's food chain. The FORTRAN IV computer program TERRA, Transport of Environmentally Released Radionuclides in Agriculture, simulates the build-up of radionuclides in soil, four plant food compartments, in meat and milk from beef, and in the livestock food compartments that cause radionuclide build-up in milk and meat from beef. A large data set of spatially oriented parameters has been developed in conjunction with TERRA. This direct-access data set is called SITE, Specific Information on the Terrestrial Environment, and contains 35 parameters for each of 3525 half-degree longitude-latitude cells which define the lower 48 states. TERRA and SITE are used together as a package for determining radionuclide concentrations in man's food anywhere within the conterminous 48 states due to atmospheric releases.

  11. Exposure to airborne endotoxins among sewer workers: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duquenne, Philippe; Ambroise, Denis; Görner, Pierre; Clerc, Frédéric; Greff-Mirguet, Guylaine

    2014-04-01

    Exploratory bioaerosol sampling was performed in order to assess exposure to airborne endotoxins during sewer work. Personal samples were collected in underground sewer pipes using 37-mm closed-face cassettes containing fibreglass filters (CFC-FG method) or polycarbonate filters (CFC-PC method). Endotoxins were quantified using the limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Concentrations of airborne endotoxins at sewer workplaces (16-420 EU m(-3)) were higher than those measured outside the sewer network (0.6-122 EU m(-3)). Sewer worker exposure to airborne endotoxins depended on the workplace and on the tasks. Exposure levels were the highest for tasks involving agitation of water and matter, especially for 'chamber cleanup' and 'pipes cleanup' with a high-pressure water jet. Airborne endotoxin levels at the workplace tended to be higher when CFC-FG was used as the sampling method rather than CFC-PC. The adjusted mean of the measured concentrations for CFC-PC represents 57% of the mean observed with CFC-FG. The number of samples collected in the descriptive study was too low for drawing definitive conclusions and further exposure investigations are needed. Therefore, our exploratory study provides new exposure data for the insufficiently documented sewer working environment and it would be useful for designing larger exposures studies. PMID:24470536

  12. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. PMID:24508949

  13. Radionuclide therapy for arthritic knees

    SciTech Connect

    Doepel, L.K.

    1985-02-08

    A new radionuclide therapeutic approach for rheumatoid arthritis of the knee is described. This therapy combines a short-lived radionuclide with a carrier whose physical and chemical characteristics aid retention of the radioactive particles within the joint. Joining a radionuclide to a particulate carrier had not been explored previously as a potential method for inhibiting radiation leakage. The treatment couples the rare earth element dysprosium 165 to ferric hydroxide in macroaggregate form (size range: 3 to 10 ..mu..m). After the relatively inert iron complex penetrates the synovium, it causes cell death. Macrophages and phagocytes clear away the cellular debris, essentially eliminating the synovium.

  14. NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon ... continuing to January 1984. Transcribed from the following NASA Tech Reports: McCormick, M. P., and M. T. Osborn, Airborne lidar ...

  15. Asthmatic responses to airborne acid aerosols.

    PubMed Central

    Ostro, B D; Lipsett, M J; Wiener, M B; Selner, J C

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controlled exposure studies suggest that asthmatics may be more sensitive to the respiratory effects of acidic aerosols than individuals without asthma. This study investigates whether acidic aerosols and other air pollutants are associated with respiratory symptoms in free-living asthmatics. METHODS: Daily concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+), nitric acid, fine particulates, sulfates and nitrates were obtained during an intensive air monitoring effort in Denver, Colorado, in the winter of 1987-88. A panel of 207 asthmatics recorded respiratory symptoms, frequency of medication use, and related information in daily diaries. We used a multiple regression time-series model to analyze which air pollutants, if any, were associated with health outcomes reported by study participants. RESULTS: Airborne H+ was found to be significantly associated with several indicators of asthma status, including moderate or severe cough and shortness of breath. Cough was also associated with fine particulates, and shortness of breath with sulfates. Incorporating the participants' time spent outside and exercise intensity into the daily measure of exposure strengthened the association between these pollutants and asthmatic symptoms. Nitric acid and nitrates were not significantly associated with any respiratory symptom analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: In this population of asthmatics, several outdoor air pollutants, particularly airborne acidity, were associated with daily respiratory symptoms. PMID:1851397

  16. Asthmatic responses to airborne acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Wiener, M.B.; Selner, J.C. )

    1991-06-01

    Controlled exposure studies suggest that asthmatics may be more sensitive to the respiratory effects of acidic aerosols than individuals without asthma. This study investigates whether acidic aerosols and other air pollutants are associated with respiratory symptoms in free-living asthmatics. Daily concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+), nitric acid, fine particulates, sulfates and nitrates were obtained during an intensive air monitoring effort in Denver, Colorado, in the winter of 1987-88. A panel of 207 asthmatics recorded respiratory symptoms, frequency of medication use, and related information in daily diaries. We used a multiple regression time-series model to analyze which air pollutants, if any, were associated with health outcomes reported by study participants. Airborne H+ was found to be significantly associated with several indicators of asthma status, including moderate or severe cough and shortness of breath. Cough was also associated with fine particulates, and shortness of breath with sulfates. Incorporating the participants' time spent outside and exercise intensity into the daily measure of exposure strengthened the association between these pollutants and asthmatic symptoms. Nitric acid and nitrates were not significantly associated with any respiratory symptom analyzed. In this population of asthmatics, several outdoor air pollutants, particularly airborne acidity, were associated with daily respiratory symptoms.

  17. PATHWAY: a simulation model of radionuclide-transport through agricultural food chains

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, T.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Otis, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    PATHWAY simulates the transport of radionuclides from fallout through an agricultural ecosystem. The agro-ecosystem is subdivided into several land management units, each of which is used either for grazing animals, for growing hay, or for growing food crops. The model simulates the transport of radionuclides by both discrete events and continuous, time-dependent processes. The discrete events include tillage of soil, harvest and storage of crops,and deposition of fallout. The continuous processes include the transport of radionuclides due to resuspension, weathering, rain splash, percolation, leaching, adsorption and desorption of radionuclides in the soil, root uptake, foliar absorption, growth and senescence of vegetation, and the ingestion assimilation, and excretion of radionuclides by animals. Preliminary validation studies indicate that the model dynamics and simulated values of radionuclide concentrations in several agricultural products agree well with measured values when the model is driven with site specific data on deposition from world-wide fallout.

  18. Code System for Radionuclide Migration Calculations.

    1988-02-26

    Version: 00 IONMIG is used to calculate the far-field transport of decaying radionuclides through a porous medium by diffusion and convection. It was specifically developed in support of the U. S. Subseabed Disposal program. For user specified velocity and temperature fields the convection-diffusion equation is solved in a sorbing porous medium. The sorption may be a function of species type, concentration, vertical position and local temperature. The formulation used is applicable to two-dimensional planar ormore » axisymmetric geometries. Zero flux conditions are assumed at all but the upper boundaries.« less

  19. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS, A.J.

    2006-09-29

    Treatment of waste streams containing radionuclides, the remediation of contaminated materials, soils, and water, and the safe and economical disposal of radionuclides and toxic metals containing wastes is a major concern. Radionuclides may exist in various oxidation states and may be present as oxide, coprecipitates, inorganic, and organic complexes depending on the process and waste stream. Unlike organic contaminants, the metals cannot be destroyed, but must either be converted to a stable form or removed. Microorganisms present in the natural environment play a major role in the mobilization and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metals by direct enzymatic or indirect non-enzymatic actions and could affect the chemical nature of the radionuclides by altering the speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of microbiological transformations of various chemical forms of uranium present in wastes and contaminated soils and water has led to the development of novel bioremediation processes. One process uses anaerobic bacteria to stabilize the radionuclides by reductive precipitation from higher to lower oxidation state with a concurrent reduction in volume due to the dissolution and removal of nontoxic elements from the waste matrix. In an another process, uranium and other toxic metals are removed from contaminated surfaces, soils, and wastes by extracting with the chelating agent citric acid. Uranium is recovered from the citric acid extract after biodegradation followed by photodegradation in a concentrated form as UO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O for recycling or appropriate disposal. These processes use all naturally occurring materials, common soil bacteria, naturally occurring organic compound citric acid and sunlight.

  20. REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES IN DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8)

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.; Bannochie, C.

    2011-12-20

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that the waste producer 'shall report the curie inventory of radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115.' As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type all radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and contribute greater than 0.01 percent of the total curie inventory from the time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial list of radionuclides to be reported is based on the design-basis glass identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report. However, it is required that the list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that meet the 'greater than 0.01% of the curie inventory' criterion. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, and U-238; and Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete list of reportable radionuclides must also include these sets of U and Pu isotopes - and the U and Pu isotopic mass distributions must be identified. The DWPF receives HLW sludge slurry from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 40. For Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), the waste in Tank 40 contained a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) material transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. This sludge blend is also referred to as Macrobatch 8. Laboratory analyses of a Tank 40 sludge sample were performed to quantify the concentrations of pertinent radionuclides in the SB7a waste. Subsequently, radiological decay and in