Science.gov

Sample records for airborne real-time imaging

  1. Real-time airborne hyperspectral imaging of land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanco, Tyler; Achal, Steve; McFee, John E.; Anger, Cliff; Young, Jane

    2007-04-01

    DRDC Suffeld and Itres Research have jointly investigated the use of visible and infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for surface and buried land mine detection since 1989. These studies have demonstrated reliable passive HSI detection of surface-laid mines, based on their reflectance spectra, from airborne and ground-based platforms. Commercial HSI instruments collect and store image data at aircraft speeds, but the data are analysed off- line. This is useful for humanitarian demining, but unacceptable for military countermine operations. We have developed a hardware and software system with algorithms that can process the raw hyperspectral data in real time to detect mines. The custom algorithms perform radiometric correction of the raw data, then classify pixels of the corrected data, referencing a spectral signature library. The classification results are stored and displayed in real time, that is, within a few frame times of the data acquisition. Such real-time mine detection was demonstrated for the first time from a slowly moving land vehicle in March 2000. This paper describes an improved system which can achieve real-time detection of mines from an airborne platform, with its commensurately higher data rates. The system is presently compatible with the Itres family of visible/near infrared, short wave infrared and thermal infrared pushbroom hyperspectral imagers and its broadband thermal infrared pushbroom imager. Experiments to detect mines from an airborne platform in real time were conducted at DRDC Suffield in November 2006. Surface-laid land mines were detected in real time from a slowly moving helicopter with generally good detection rates and low false alarm rates. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that land mines have been detected from an airborne platform in real time using hyperspectral imaging.

  2. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Leifer, I.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M.; Fladeland, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Kratwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Thorpe, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of the NASA/ESA CO2 and Methane Experiment (COMEX) campaign in California during June and August/September 2014. COMEX was a multi-platform campaign to measure CH4 plumes released from anthropogenic sources including oil and gas infrastructure. We discuss principles for real-time spectral signature detection and measurement, and report performance on the NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG). AVIRIS-NG successfully detected CH4 plumes in real-time at Gb s-1 data rates, characterizing fugitive releases in concert with other in situ and remote instruments. The teams used these real-time CH4 detections to coordinate measurements across multiple platforms, including airborne in situ, airborne non-imaging remote sensing, and ground-based in situ instruments. To our knowledge this is the first reported use of real-time trace gas signature detection in an airborne science campaign, and presages many future applications.

  3. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Leifer, I.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M.; Fladeland, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Kratwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Thorpe, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of the NASA/ESA CO2 and MEthane eXperiment (COMEX) campaign in California during June and August/September 2014. COMEX was a multi-platform campaign to measure CH4 plumes released from anthropogenic sources including oil and gas infrastructure. We discuss principles for real-time spectral signature detection and measurement, and report performance on the NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG). AVIRIS-NG successfully detected CH4 plumes in real-time at Gb s-1 data rates, characterizing fugitive releases in concert with other in situ and remote instruments. The teams used these real-time CH4 detections to coordinate measurements across multiple platforms, including airborne in situ, airborne non-imaging remote sensing, and ground-based in situ instruments. To our knowledge this is the first reported use of real-time trace-gas signature detection in an airborne science campaign, and presages many future applications. Post-analysis demonstrates matched filter methods providing noise-equivalent (1σ) detection sensitivity for 1.0 % CH4 column enhancements equal to 141 ppm m.

  4. Real-time sensor mapping display for airborne imaging sensor test with the adaptive infrared imaging spectroradiometer (AIRIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Megan M.; Cruger, William E.; Gittins, Christopher; Kindle, Harry; Ricks, Timothy P.

    2005-11-01

    Captive flight testing (CFT) of sensors and seekers requires accurate data collection and display for sensor performance evaluation. The U.S. Army Redstone Technical Test Center (RTTC), in support of the U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), has developed a data collection suite to facilitate airborne test of hyperspectral chemical/biological sensors. The data collection suite combines global positioning system (GPS) tracking, inertial measurement unit (IMU) data, accurate timing streams, and other test scenario information. This data collection suite also contains an advanced real-time display of aircraft and sensor field-of-view information. The latest evolution of this system has been used in support of the Adaptive InfraRed Imaging Spectroradiometer (AIRIS), currently under development by Physical Sciences Incorporated for ECBC. For this test, images from the AIRIS sensor were overlaid on a digitized background of the test area, with latencies of 1 second or less. Detects of surrogate chemicals were displayed and geo-referenced. Video overlay was accurate and reliable. This software suite offers great versatility in the display of imaging sensor data; support of future tests with the AIRIS sensor are planned as the system evolves.

  5. Real-time tritium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, M.E.

    1981-09-15

    A real-time image of a tritium-containing titanium film has been made by detecting the secondary electrons produced by tritium ..beta.. decay with a simple two-element electrostatic lens and microchannel plate image intensifier. The obtained image indicates that a resolution of better than 100 ..mu..m is currently obtainable and suggests that image magnification to enhance resolution should be possible.

  6. An airborne real-time hyperspectral target detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauli, Torbjorn; Haavardsholm, Trym V.; Kåsen, Ingebjørg; Arisholm, Gunnar; Kavara, Amela; Opsahl, Thomas Olsvik; Skaugen, Atle

    2010-04-01

    An airborne system for hyperspectral target detection is described. The main sensor is a HySpex pushbroom hyperspectral imager for the visible and near-infrared spectral range with 1600 pixels across track, supplemented by a panchromatic line imager. An optional third sensor can be added, either a SWIR hyperspectral camera or a thermal camera. In real time, the system performs radiometric calibration and georeferencing of the images, followed by image processing for target detection and visualization. The current version of the system implements only spectral anomaly detection, based on normal mixture models. Image processing runs on a PC with a multicore Intel processor and an Nvidia graphics processing unit (GPU). The processing runs in a software framework optimized for large sustained data rates. The platform is a Cessna 172 aircraft based close to FFI, modified with a camera port in the floor.

  7. Real time cardiac radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jarkewicz, G.G.

    1986-04-29

    A data acquisition system is described for use in radionuclide cardiac imaging of a patient having been administered a myocardium specific radionuclide, comprising: (a) means for monitoring the electrical activity of the heart; (b) first temporary storage means for accumulating respective pages of data corresponding to nuclear events during each cardiac cycle; (c) means, responsive to the means for monitoring, for determining the time duration of each successive cardiac cycle; (d) means for comparing each determined duration of a cardiac cycle with a preselected time duration range; (e) second temporary storage means; and (f) means for conditionally transferring pages of data from the first temporary storage means to the second temporary storage means if the measured duration associated with each page has predetermined correspondence with the preselected duration range, whereby pages of data having the predetermined correspondence may be collated into a quasi-real time study, while pages of data having different correspondence with the preselected time duration range are discarded from the study.

  8. Real-time adaptive video image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garside, John R.; Harrison, Chris G.

    1999-07-01

    As part of a continuing collaboration between the University of Manchester and British Aerospace, a signal processing array has been constructed to demonstrate that it is feasible to compensate a video signal for the degradation caused by atmospheric haze in real-time. Previously reported work has shown good agreement between a simple physical model of light scattering by atmospheric haze and the observed loss of contrast. This model predicts a characteristic relationship between contrast loss in the image and the range from the camera to the scene. For an airborne camera, the slant-range to a point on the ground may be estimated from the airplane's pose, as reported by the inertial navigation system, and the contrast may be obtained from the camera's output. Fusing data from these two streams provides a means of estimating model parameters such as the visibility and the overall illumination of the scene. This knowledge allows the same model to be applied in reverse, thus restoring the contrast lost to atmospheric haze. An efficient approximation of range is vital for a real-time implementation of the method. Preliminary results show that an adaptive approach to fitting the model's parameters, exploiting the temporal correlation between video frames, leads to a robust implementation with a significantly accelerated throughput.

  9. Image Acquisition in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In 1995, Carlos Jorquera left NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to focus on erasing the growing void between high-performance cameras and the requisite software to capture and process the resulting digital images. Since his departure from NASA, Jorquera s efforts have not only satisfied the private industry's cravings for faster, more flexible, and more favorable software applications, but have blossomed into a successful entrepreneurship that is making its mark with improvements in fields such as medicine, weather forecasting, and X-ray inspection. Formerly a JPL engineer who constructed imaging systems for spacecraft and ground-based astronomy projects, Jorquera is the founder and president of the three-person firm, Boulder Imaging Inc., based in Louisville, Colorado. Joining Jorquera to round out the Boulder Imaging staff are Chief Operations Engineer Susan Downey, who also gained experience at JPL working on space-bound projects including Galileo and the Hubble Space Telescope, and Vice President of Engineering and Machine Vision Specialist Jie Zhu Kulbida, who has extensive industrial and research and development experience within the private sector.

  10. A Real-Time Advisory System For Airborne Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, D. B.; Cromwell, M. E.; Donnell, M. L.; Barrett, C. L.

    1987-05-01

    Decision speed and quality can be greatly enhanced by the use of decision augmentation software to assist operators in information analysis and tactical problem solving, dynamic resource allocation, and in determining strategies which optimize overall system performance. One example of such software is the real-time advisory system (RTAS) being constructed to assist in tactical decision-making for airborne early warning (AEW) aircraft, particularly the carrier-based Navy E-2C. Using a vector logic approach, the current AEW RTAS is a real-time backward chaining expert system which provides advice for both threat interception and refueling in the complex Outer Air Battle Scenario. This paper describes the current system, discusses a number of design issues for such a system, and describes ongoing modifications to the current AEW RTAS using SAIC's frame-based knowledge repre-sentation language (KRL).

  11. Real-time inspection by submarine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tascini, Guido; Zingaretti, Primo; Conte, Giuseppe

    1996-10-01

    A real-time application of computer vision concerning tracking and inspection of a submarine pipeline is described. The objective is to develop automatic procedures for supporting human operators in the real-time analysis of images acquired by means of cameras mounted on underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROV) Implementation of such procedures gives rise to a human-machine system for underwater pipeline inspection that can automatically detect and signal the presence of the pipe, of its structural or accessory elements, and of dangerous or alien objects in its neighborhood. The possibility of modifying the image acquisition rate in the simulations performed on video- recorded images is used to prove that the system performs all necessary processing with an acceptable robustness working in real-time up to a speed of about 2.5 kn, widely greater than that the actual ROVs and the security features allow.

  12. Real-time imaging of quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Fickler, Robert; Krenn, Mario; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, photonic entanglement is routinely studied in many experiments nowadays, its signature has been out of the grasp for real-time imaging. Here we show that modern technology, namely triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras are fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the effect of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To quantitatively verify the non-classicality of the measurements we determine the detected photon number and error margin from the registered intensity image within a certain region. Additionally, the use of the ICCD camera allows us to demonstrate the high flexibility of the setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, which suggests as well that visual imaging in quantum optics not only provides a better intuitive understanding of entanglement but will improve applications of quantum science.

  13. Thermal imaging with real time picture presentation.

    PubMed

    Borg, S B

    1968-09-01

    The accomplishment of thermal imaging with real-time picture presentation represents a significant advance in nondestructive testing. Described here is the AGA Thermovision, capable of producing such imaging. Operating principles, basic features, and recording techniques are reviewed, and a survey is made of the range of applications. Examples include electrical power distribution elements, a turbine blade, and a missile model in a wind tunnel.

  14. Real-time optical image processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1988-01-01

    Nonlinear real-time optical processing on spatial pulse frequency modulation has been pursued through the analysis, design, and fabrication of pulse frequency modulated halftone screens and the modification of micro-channel spatial light modulators (MSLMs). Micro-channel spatial light modulators are modified via the Fabry-Perot method to achieve the high gamma operation required for non-linear operation. Real-time nonlinear processing was performed using the halftone screen and MSLM. The experiments showed the effectiveness of the thresholding and also showed the needs of higher SBP for image processing. The Hughes LCLV has been characterized and found to yield high gamma (about 1.7) when operated in low frequency and low bias mode. Cascading of two LCLVs should also provide enough gamma for nonlinear processing. In this case, the SBP of the LCLV is sufficient but the uniformity of the LCLV needs improvement. These include image correlation, computer generation of holograms, pseudo-color image encoding for image enhancement, and associative-retrieval in neural processing. The discovery of the only known optical method for dynamic range compression of an input image in real-time by using GaAs photorefractive crystals is reported. Finally, a new architecture for non-linear multiple sensory, neural processing has been suggested.

  15. Real-time snapshot hyperspectral imaging endoscope.

    PubMed

    Kester, Robert T; Bedard, Noah; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2011-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has tremendous potential to detect important molecular biomarkers of early cancer based on their unique spectral signatures. Several drawbacks have limited its use for in vivo screening applications: most notably the poor temporal and spatial resolution, high expense, and low optical throughput of existing hyperspectral imagers. We present the development of a new real-time hyperspectral endoscope (called the image mapping spectroscopy endoscope) based on an image mapping technique capable of addressing these challenges. The parallel high throughput nature of this technique enables the device to operate at frame rates of 5.2 frames per second while collecting a (x, y, λ) datacube of 350 × 350 × 48. We have successfully imaged tissue in vivo, resolving a vasculature pattern of the lower lip while simultaneously detecting oxy-hemoglobin. PMID:21639573

  16. Near Real-Time Solar Image Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G.; Denker, C.; Wang, H.

    2001-05-01

    We use a Linux Beowulf cluster to build a system for near real-time solar image reconstruction with the goal to obtain diffraction limited solar images at a cadence of one minute. This gives us immediate access to high-level data products and enables direct visualization of dynamic processes on the Sun. Space weather warnings and flare forecasting will benefit from this project. The image processing algorithms are based on the speckle masking method combined with frame selection. The parallel programs use explicit message passing via Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM). The preliminary results are very promising. Now, we can construct a 256 by 256 pixel image out of 50 short-exposure images within one minute on a Beowulf cluster with four 500~MHz CPUs. In addition, we want to explore the possibility of applying parallel computing on Beowulf clusters to other complex data reduction and analysis problems that we encounter, e.g., in multi-dimensional spectro-polarimetry.

  17. 3D MR imaging in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttman, Michael A.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2001-05-01

    A system has been developed to produce live 3D volume renderings from an MR scanner. Whereas real-time 2D MR imaging has been demonstrated by several groups, 3D volumes are currently rendered off-line to gain greater understanding of anatomical structures. For example, surgical planning is sometimes performed by viewing 2D images or 3D renderings from previously acquired image data. A disadvantage of this approach is misregistration which could occur if the anatomy changes due to normal muscle contractions or surgical manipulation. The ability to produce volume renderings in real-time and present them in the magnet room could eliminate this problem, and enable or benefit other types of interventional procedures. The system uses the data stream generated by a fast 2D multi- slice pulse sequence to update a volume rendering immediately after a new slice is available. We demonstrate some basic types of user interaction with the rendering during imaging at a rate of up to 20 frames per second.

  18. Near-real-time Jason-1 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigor, E. M.; Bingham, A.; Case, K.

    2002-12-01

    The Jason-1 satellite mission provides sea surface height measurements in near-real-time (NRT). These operational data can be used for a variety of scientific and commercial applications, including marine meteorology, ship routing, and climate prediction. The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC), NASA's primary data center for archiving and distributing oceanographic data, is supporting the JASON-1 mission by capturing NRT data from Jason Ground System (JGS) and distributing the data to operational users. In addition, PO.DAAC will be processing the data to create value-added NRT browse images, which will be made available, along with their associated binary data, through the Near-Real-Time Image Distribution Server (NEREIDS). Two NRT data products will be processed by JGS and captured by PO.DAAC: Operational Sensor Data Records (OSDRs) and Interim Geophysical Data Records (IGDRs). OSDRs have a latency of three hours from data collection and an orbit accuracy of 30 cm; IGDRs are available seventy-two hours after collection and have an accuracy of 2.5 cm. After capturing these data, PO.DAAC will automatically create significant wave height, wind speed, and water vapor content browse images from the OSDR data. Additional parameters will be provided from the IGDR data product, such as the sea surface height anomaly, among others. In this poster, we describe the functionality of NEREIDS and demonstrate the usefulness of operational altimetric data for scientific applications.

  19. Correction of deformed images in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Jeught, Sam; Buytaert, Jan A. N.; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2011-09-01

    Optical lens systems generally contain non-linear distortion artifacts that impose important limitations on the direct interpretation of the images. Image processing can be used to correct for these artifacts, but due to the calculation-intensive nature of the required distortion correction process, this is usually performed offline. This is not an option in image-based applications that operate interactively, however, where the real-time display of distortion corrected images can be vital. To this end, we propose a new technique to correct for arbitrary geometric lens distortion that uses the parallel processing power of a commercial graphics processing unit (GPU). By offloading the distortion correction process to the GPU, we can relieve the central processing unit (CPU) of doing this computationally very demanding task. We successfully implemented the full distortion correction algorithm on the GPU, thereby achieving a display rate of over 30 frames/sec for fully processed images of size 1024 × 768 pixels without the need for any additional digital image processing hardware.

  20. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Zhang, Song

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  1. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Song

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  2. Practical Real-Time Imaging Stereo Matcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, H. K.

    1984-10-01

    A binocular-stereo-matching algorithm for making rapid visual range measurements in noisy images is described. This technique is developed for application to problems in robotics where noise tolerance, reliability, and speed are predominant issues. A high speed pipelined convolver for preprocessing images and an unstructured light technique for improving signal quality are introduced to help enhance performance to meet the demands of this task domain. These optimizations, however, are not sufficient. A closer examination of the problems encountered suggests that broader interpretations of both the objective of binocular stereo and of the zero-crossing theory of Marr and Poggio [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 204, 301 (1979)] are required. In this paper, we restrict ourselves to the problem of making a single primitive surface measurement for example, to determine whether or not a specified volume of space is occupied, to measure the range to a surface at an indicated image location, or to determine the elevation gradient at that position. In this framework we make a subtle but important shift from the explicit use of zero-crossing contours (in bandpass-filtered images) as the elements matched between left and right images, to the use of the signs between zero crossings. With this change, we obtain a simpler algorithm with a reduced sensitivity to noise and a more predictable behavior. The practical real-time imaging stereo matcher (PRISM) system incorporates this algorithm with the unstructured light technique and a high speed digital convolver. It has been used successfully by others as a sensor in a path-planning system and a bin-picking system.

  3. The Waypoint Planning Tool: Real Time Flight Planning for Airborne Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Yubin; Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Hall, John

    2010-01-01

    NASA Earth science research utilizes both spaceborne and airborne real time observations in the planning and operations of its field campaigns. The coordination of air and space components is critical to achieve the goals and objectives and ensure the success of an experiment. Spaceborne imagery provides regular and continual coverage of the Earth and it is a significant component in all NASA field experiments. Real time visible and infrared geostationary images from GOES satellites and multi-spectral data from the many elements of the NASA suite of instruments aboard the TRMM, Terra, Aqua, Aura, and other NASA satellites have become norm. Similarly, the NASA Airborne Science Program draws upon a rich pool of instrumented aircraft. The NASA McDonnell Douglas DC-8, Lockheed P3 Orion, DeHavilland Twin Otter, King Air B200, Gulfstream-III are all staples of a NASA's well-stocked, versatile hangar. A key component in many field campaigns is coordinating the aircraft with satellite overpasses, other airplanes and the constantly evolving, dynamic weather conditions. Given the variables involved, developing a good flight plan that meets the objectives of the field experiment can be a challenging and time consuming task. Planning a research aircraft mission within the context of meeting the science objectives is complex task because it is much more than flying from point A to B. Flight plans typically consist of flying a series of transects or involve dynamic path changes when "chasing" a hurricane or forest fire. These aircraft flight plans are typically designed by the mission scientists then verified and implemented by the navigator or pilot. Flight planning can be an arduous task requiring frequent sanity checks by the flight crew. This requires real time situational awareness of the weather conditions that affect the aircraft track. Scientists at the University of Alabama-Huntsville and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center developed the Waypoint Planning Tool, an

  4. Imaging of living cells in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Koufal, Georgy E.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.; Vyshenskaia, Tatiana V.; Nikandrov, Serguei L.

    1996-12-01

    Parameters of intrinsic cell motility is one of the cell activity characteristics which can be measured in real-time. For evaluation of certain organelles velocity we propose to use high sensitivity of computer-aided phase microscope airyscan to local phase changes connected with refractive index. This method is based on periodical scanning of cell profile in direction perpendicular to organelles movement. Analysis of the obtained 2-dimensional time-coordinate matrix allows us to define organelle velocity in quasi-real time and areas of cell activity. The experiments with onion cells confirm the method applicability for cell activity investigation.

  5. Real-time simulation of an airborne radar for overwater approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmarkar, J.; Clark, D.

    1982-01-01

    Software developed to provide a real time simulation of an airborne radar for overwater approaches to oil rig platforms is documented. The simulation is used to study advanced concepts for enhancement of airborne radar approaches (ARA) in order to reduce crew workload, improve approach tracking precision, and reduce weather minimums. ARA's are currently used for offshore helicopter operations to and from oil rigs.

  6. Real-time hyperspectral imaging for food safety applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral imaging systems with selected bands can commonly be used for real-time applications of food processing. Recent research has demonstrated several image processing methods including binning, noise removal filter, and appropriate morphological analysis in real-time mode can remove most fa...

  7. Vector processing enhancements for real-time image analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, S.; APS Engineering Support Division

    2008-01-01

    A real-time image analysis system was developed for beam imaging diagnostics. An Apple Power Mac G5 with an Active Silicon LFG frame grabber was used to capture video images that were processed and analyzed. Software routines were created to utilize vector-processing hardware to reduce the time to process images as compared to conventional methods. These improvements allow for more advanced image processing diagnostics to be performed in real time.

  8. The multispectral advanced volumetric real-time imaging compositor for real-time distributed scene generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Joseph W.; Ballard, Gary H.; Bunfield, Dennis H.; Peddycoart, Thomas E.; Trimble, Darian E.

    2011-06-01

    AMRDEC has developed the Multi-spectral Advanced Volumetric Real-time Imaging Compositor (MAVRIC) prototype for distributed real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) scene generation. MAVRIC is a dynamic object-based energy conserved scene compositor that can seamlessly convolve distributed scene elements into temporally aligned physicsbased scenes for enhancing existing AMRDEC scene generation codes. The volumetric compositing process accepts input independent of depth order. This real-time compositor framework is built around AMRDEC's ContinuumCore API which provides the common messaging interface leveraging the Neutral Messaging Language (NML) for local, shared memory, reflective memory, network, and remote direct memory access (RDMA) communications and the Joint Signature Image Generator (JSIG) that provides energy conserved scene component interface at each render node. This structure allows for a highly scalable real-time environment capable of rendering individual objects at high fidelity while being considerate of real-time hardware-in-the-loop concerns, such as latency. As such, this system can be scaled to handle highly complex detailed scenes such as urban environments. This architecture provides the basis for common scene generation as it provides disparate scene elements to be calculated by various phenomenology codes and integrated seamlessly into a unified composited environment. This advanced capability is the gateway to higher fidelity scene generation such as ray-tracing. The high speed interconnects using PCI Express and InfiniBand were examined to support distributed scene generation whereby the scene graph, associated phenomenology, and the scene elements can be dynamically distributed across multiple high performance computing assets to maximize system performance.

  9. Toward Real Time Uavs' Image Mosaicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrdad, S.; Satari, M.; Safdary, M.; Moallem, P.

    2016-06-01

    Anyone knows that sudden catastrophes can instantly do great damage. Fast and accurate acquisition of catastrophe information is an essential task for minimize life and property damage. Compared with other ways of catastrophe data acquisition, UAV based platforms can optimize time, cost and accuracy of the data acquisition, as a result UAVs' data has become the first choice in such condition. In this paper, a novel and fast strategy is proposed for registering and mosaicking of UAVs' image data. Firstly, imprecise image positions are used to find adjoining frames. Then matching process is done by a novel matching method. With keeping Sift in mind, this fast matching method is introduced, which uses images exposure time geometry, SIFT point detector and rBRIEF descriptor vector in order to match points efficiency, and by efficiency we mean not only time efficiency but also elimination of mismatch points. This method uses each image sequence imprecise attitude in order to use Epipolar geometry to both restricting search space of matching and eliminating mismatch points. In consideration of reaching to images imprecise attitude and positions we calibrated the UAV's sensors. After matching process, RANSAC is used to eliminate mismatched tie points. In order to obtain final mosaic, image histograms are equalized and a weighted average method is used to image composition in overlapping areas. The total RMSE over all matching points is 1.72 m.

  10. Improved real-time imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Yu, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An improved AOTF-based imaging spectrometer that offers several advantages over prior art AOTF imaging spectrometers is presented. The ability to electronically set the bandpass wavelength provides observational flexibility. Various improvements in optical architecture provide simplified magnification variability, improved image resolution and light throughput efficiency and reduced sensitivity to ambient light. Two embodiments of the invention are: (1) operation in the visible/near-infrared domain of wavelength range 0.48 to 0.76 microns; and (2) infrared configuration which operates in the wavelength range of 1.2 to 2.5 microns.

  11. Noninvasive real-time imaging of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Laxman, Bharathi; Hall, Daniel E; Bhojani, Mahaveer Swaroop; Hamstra, Daniel A; Chenevert, Thomas L; Ross, Brian D; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2002-12-24

    Strict coordination of proliferation and programmed cell death (apoptosis) is essential for normal physiology. An imbalance in these two opposing processes results in various diseases including AIDS, neurodegenerative disorders, myelodysplastic syndromes, ischemiareperfusion injury, cancer, autoimmune disease, among others. Objective and quantitative noninvasive imaging of apoptosis would be a significant advance for rapid and dynamic screening as well as validation of experimental therapeutic agents. Here, we report the development of a recombinant luciferase reporter molecule that when expressed in mammalian cells has attenuated levels of reporter activity. In cells undergoing apoptosis, a caspase-3-specific cleavage of the recombinant product occurs, resulting in the restoration of luciferase activity that can be detected in living animals with bioluminescence imaging. The ability to image apoptosis noninvasively and dynamically over time provides an opportunity for high-throughput screening of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic compounds and for target validation in vivo in both cell lines and transgenic animals. PMID:12475931

  12. Real Time Target Tracking in a Phantom Using Ultrasonic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X.; Corner, G.; Huang, Z.

    In this paper we present a real-time ultrasound image guidance method suitable for tracking the motion of tumors. A 2D ultrasound based motion tracking system was evaluated. A robot was used to control the focused ultrasound and position it at the target that has been segmented from a real-time ultrasound video. Tracking accuracy and precision were investigated using a lesion mimicking phantom. Experiments have been conducted and results show sufficient efficiency of the image guidance algorithm. This work could be developed as the foundation for combining the real time ultrasound imaging tracking and MRI thermometry monitoring non-invasive surgery.

  13. Real-time digital image enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. E.; Gonzalez, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    A programmable system for enhancing monocular and stereographic images at video rates is presented. The system provides both automatic and interactive enhancement modes based on histogram modification and intensity mapping techniques. Experimental results which illustrate enhancement capabilities under a variety of scene types and conditions are described.

  14. Real-time nondestructive imaging with THz waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, LiangLiang; Karpowicz, Nick; Zhang, CunLin; Zhao, YueJin; Zhang, XiCheng

    2008-03-01

    We present a real-time imaging measurement in the terahertz (THz) frequency region. The dynamic subtraction technique is used to reduce long-term optical background drift. The reflective images of two targets, a Nikon camera's lens cap and a plastic toy gun, are obtained. For the lens cap, the image data were processed to be false-color images. For the toy gun, we show that even under an optically opaque canvas bag, a clear terahertz image is obtained. It is shown that terahertz real-time imaging can be used to nondestructively detect concealed objects.

  15. Terahertz real-time imaging for nondestructive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, LiangLiang; Karpowicz, Nick; Zhang, CunLin; Zhao, YueJin; Zhang, XiCheng

    2008-03-01

    We present a real time imaging measurement in the terahertz (THz) frequency region. The dynamic subtraction technique is used to reduce long-term optical background drift. The reflective images of two targets, a Nikon camera's lens cap and a plastic toy gun, are obtained. For the lens cap, the image data were processed to be false color images. For the toy gun, we show that even under an optically opaque canvas bag, a clear terahertz image is obtained. It is shown that terahertz real time imaging can be used to nondestructively detect concealed objects.

  16. Integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time detection of airborne microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeongan; Kang, Miran; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time, continuous detection and quantification of airborne microorganisms. Measurements of the fluorescence and light scattering from single particles in a microfluidic channel are used to determine the total particle number concentration and the microorganism number concentration in real-time. The system performance is examined by evaluating standard particle measurements with various sample flow rates and the ratios of fluorescent to non-fluorescent particles. To apply this method to real-time detection of airborne microorganisms, airborne Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis cells were introduced into the micro-optofluidic platform via bioaerosol generation, and a liquid-type particle collection setup was used. We demonstrate successful discrimination of SYTO82-dyed fluorescent bacterial cells from other residue particles in a continuous and real-time manner. In comparison with traditional microscopy cell counting and colony culture methods, this micro-optofluidic platform is not only more accurate in terms of the detection efficiency for airborne microorganisms but it also provides additional information on the total particle number concentration. PMID:26522006

  17. Integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time detection of airborne microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeongan; Kang, Miran; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate an integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time, continuous detection and quantification of airborne microorganisms. Measurements of the fluorescence and light scattering from single particles in a microfluidic channel are used to determine the total particle number concentration and the microorganism number concentration in real-time. The system performance is examined by evaluating standard particle measurements with various sample flow rates and the ratios of fluorescent to non-fluorescent particles. To apply this method to real-time detection of airborne microorganisms, airborne Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis cells were introduced into the micro-optofluidic platform via bioaerosol generation, and a liquid-type particle collection setup was used. We demonstrate successful discrimination of SYTO82-dyed fluorescent bacterial cells from other residue particles in a continuous and real-time manner. In comparison with traditional microscopy cell counting and colony culture methods, this micro-optofluidic platform is not only more accurate in terms of the detection efficiency for airborne microorganisms but it also provides additional information on the total particle number concentration.

  18. Integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time detection of airborne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongan; Kang, Miran; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an integrated micro-optofluidic platform for real-time, continuous detection and quantification of airborne microorganisms. Measurements of the fluorescence and light scattering from single particles in a microfluidic channel are used to determine the total particle number concentration and the microorganism number concentration in real-time. The system performance is examined by evaluating standard particle measurements with various sample flow rates and the ratios of fluorescent to non-fluorescent particles. To apply this method to real-time detection of airborne microorganisms, airborne Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis cells were introduced into the micro-optofluidic platform via bioaerosol generation, and a liquid-type particle collection setup was used. We demonstrate successful discrimination of SYTO82-dyed fluorescent bacterial cells from other residue particles in a continuous and real-time manner. In comparison with traditional microscopy cell counting and colony culture methods, this micro-optofluidic platform is not only more accurate in terms of the detection efficiency for airborne microorganisms but it also provides additional information on the total particle number concentration.

  19. Real-time Avatar Animation from a Single Image

    PubMed Central

    Saragih, Jason M.; Lucey, Simon; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    A real time facial puppetry system is presented. Compared with existing systems, the proposed method requires no special hardware, runs in real time (23 frames-per-second), and requires only a single image of the avatar and user. The user’s facial expression is captured through a real-time 3D non-rigid tracking system. Expression transfer is achieved by combining a generic expression model with synthetically generated examples that better capture person specific characteristics. Performance of the system is evaluated on avatars of real people as well as masks and cartoon characters. PMID:24598812

  20. Real-time multispectral imaging application for poultry safety inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Snead, Matthew P.

    2006-02-01

    The ARS imaging research group in Athens, Georgia has developed a real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses for poultry industry. The industrial scale system includes a common aperture camera with three visible wavelength optical trim filters. This paper demonstrates calibration of common aperture multispectral imaging hardware and real-time image processing software. The software design, especially the Unified Modeling Language (UML) design approach was used to develop real-time image processing software for on-line application. The UML models including class, object, activity, sequence, and collaboration diagram were presented. Both hardware and software for a real-time fecal and ingesta contaminant detection were tested at the pilot-scale poultry processing line. The test results of industrial sacle real-time system showed that the multispectral imaging technique performed well for detecting fecal contaminants with a commercial processing speed (currently 140 birds per minute). The accuracy for the detection of fecal and ingesta contaminates was approximately 96%.

  1. Assessment of airborne microorganisms by real-time PCR: optimistic findings and research challenges.

    PubMed

    Oppliger, Anne; Masclaux, Frederic G; Niculita-Hirzel, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Most airborne microorganisms are natural components of our ecosystem. Soil, vegetation and animals, including humans, are sources for aerial release of these living or dead cells. In the past, assessment of airborne microorganisms was mainly restricted to occupational health concerns. Indeed, in several occupations, exposure to very high concentrations of non-infectious airborne bacteria and fungi, result in allergenic, toxic or irritant reactions. Recently, the threat of bioterrorism and pandemics have highlighted the urgent need to increase knowledge of bioaerosol ecology. More fundamentally, airborne bacterial and fungal communities begin to draw much more consideration from environmental microbiologists, who have neglected this area for a long time. This increased interest of scientists is to a great part due to the development and use of real-time PCR techniques to identify and quantify airborne microorganisms. Even if the advantages of the PCR technology are obvious, researchers are confronted with new problems. This review describes the methodological state of the art in bioaerosols field and emphasizes the future challenges and perspectives of the real-time PCR-based methods for airborne microorganism studies. PMID:21196388

  2. Towards real-time medical diagnostics using hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorgan, Asgeir; Randeberg, Lise L.

    2015-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging provides non-contact, high resolution spectral images which has a substantial diagnostic potential. This can be used for e.g. diagnosis and early detection of arthritis in finger joints. Processing speed is currently a limitation for clinical use of the technique. A real-time system for analysis and visualization using GPU processing and threaded CPU processing is presented. Images showing blood oxygenation, blood volume fraction and vessel enhanced images are among the data calculated in real-time. This study shows the potential of real-time processing in this context. A combination of the processing modules will be used in detection of arthritic finger joints from hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance data.

  3. Real-time two-dimensional temperature imaging using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S

    2009-01-01

    We present a system for real-time 2D imaging of temperature change in tissue media using pulse-echo ultrasound. The frontend of the system is a SonixRP ultrasound scanner with a research interface giving us the capability of controlling the beam sequence and accessing radio frequency (RF) data in real-time. The beamformed RF data is streamlined to the backend of the system, where the data is processed using a two-dimensional temperature estimation algorithm running in the graphics processing unit (GPU). The estimated temperature is displayed in real-time providing feedback that can be used for real-time control of the heating source. Currently we have verified our system with elastography tissue mimicking phantom and in vitro porcine heart tissue, excellent repeatability and sensitivity were demonstrated.

  4. Improving performance of real-time multispectral imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A real-time multispectral imaging system can be a science-based tool for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection during poultry processing. For the implementation of this imaging system at commercial poultry processing plant, false positive errors must be removed. For doing this, we tested and imp...

  5. Performance and application of real-time hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrowski, Mark S.; Willson, Paul D.; LaBaw, Clayton C.

    1998-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is the latest advent in imaging technology, providing the potential to extract information about the objects in a scene that is unavailable to panchromatic imagers. This increased utility, however, comes at the cost of tremendously increased data. The ultimate utility of hyperspectral imagery is in the information that can be gleaned from the spectral dimension, rather than in the hyperspectral imagery itself. To have the broadest range of applications, extraction of this information must occur in real-time. Attempting to produce and exploit complete cubes of hyperspectral imagery at video rates, however, present unique problems for both the imager and the processor, since data rates are scaled by the number of spectral planes in the cube. MIDIS, the Multi-band Identification and Discrimination Imaging Spectroradiometer, allows both real-time here are the major design innovations associated with producing high-speed, high-sensitivity hyperspectral imagers operating in the SWIR and LWIR, and of the electronics capable of handling data rates up to 160 megapixels per second, continuously. Discussion of real-time algorithms capable of exploiting the spectral dimension of the imagery is also included. Beyond design and performance issues associated with producing and processing hyperspectral imagery at such high speeds, this paper also discusses applications of real-time hyperspectral imaging technology. Example imagery includes such problems as detecting counterfeit money, inspecting surfaces, and countering CCD.

  6. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging.

    PubMed

    Baziljevich, M; Barness, D; Sinvani, M; Perel, E; Shaulov, A; Yeshurun, Y

    2012-08-01

    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated.

  7. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging.

    PubMed

    Baziljevich, M; Barness, D; Sinvani, M; Perel, E; Shaulov, A; Yeshurun, Y

    2012-08-01

    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated. PMID:22938303

  8. Lightweight distributed computing for intraoperative real-time image guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwelack, Stefan; Katic, Darko; Wagner, Simon; Spengler, Patrick; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; Röhl, Sebastian; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2012-02-01

    In order to provide real-time intraoperative guidance, computer assisted surgery (CAS) systems often rely on computationally expensive algorithms. The real-time constraint is especially challenging if several components such as intraoperative image processing, soft tissue registration or context aware visualization are combined in a single system. In this paper, we present a lightweight approach to distribute the workload over several workstations based on the OpenIGTLink protocol. We use XML-based message passing for remote procedure calls and native types for transferring data such as images, meshes or point coordinates. Two different, but typical scenarios are considered in order to evaluate the performance of the new system. First, we analyze a real-time soft tissue registration algorithm based on a finite element (FE) model. Here, we use the proposed approach to distribute the computational workload between a primary workstation that handles sensor data processing and visualization and a dedicated workstation that runs the real-time FE algorithm. We show that the additional overhead that is introduced by the technique is small compared to the total execution time. Furthermore, the approach is used to speed up a context aware augmented reality based navigation system for dental implant surgery. In this scenario, the additional delay for running the computationally expensive reasoning server on a separate workstation is less than a millisecond. The results show that the presented approach is a promising strategy to speed up real-time CAS systems.

  9. Real-Time Confocal Imaging Of The Living Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jester, James V.; Cavanagh, H. Dwight; Essepian, John; Shields, William J.; Lemp, Michael A.

    1989-12-01

    In 1986, we adapted the Tandem Scanning Reflected Light Microscope of Petran and Hadraysky to permit non-invasive, confocal imaging of the living eye in real-time. We were first to obtain stable, confocal optical sections in vivo, from human and animal eyes. Using confocal imaging systems we have now studied living, normal volunteers, rabbits, cats and primates sequentially, non-invasively, and in real-time. The continued development of real-time confocal imaging systems will unlock the door to a new field of cell biology involving for the first time the study of dynamic cellular processes in living organ systems. Towards this end we have concentrated our initial studies on three areas (1) evaluation of confocal microscope systems for real-time image acquisition, (2) studies of the living normal cornea (epithelium, stroma, endothelium) in human and other species; and (3) sequential wound-healing responses in the cornea in single animals to lamellar-keratectomy injury (cellular migration, inflammation, scarring). We believe that this instrument represents an important, new paradigm for research in cell biology and pathology and that it will fundamentally alter all experimental and clinical approaches in future years.

  10. Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunaga, K.; Sekine, N.; Hosako, I.; Oda, N.; Yoneyama, H.; Sudou, T.

    2008-08-01

    A new real-time terahertz imaging system has been developed by using a quantum cascade laser source and a microbolometer focal plane detector array. The application to non-invasive analyses of cultural heritage is demonstrated with an oil paint specimen. The experimental results suggested that the terahertz imaging system can identify materials based on a spectral database with a spatial resolution of about 300 μm. The transmission imaging indicated the difference between natural and artificial ultramarine pigments. Since the size of the system is similar to a common portable infrared camera, it can be used at the place where the object is located, such as museums, and can contribute to conservation activities, such as drying process monitoring. This real-time, small, non-invasive terahertz imaging system can be used in various fundamental research fields and practical industries.

  11. Real-time extended dynamic range imaging in shearography

    SciTech Connect

    Groves, Roger M.; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Osten, Wolfgang

    2008-10-20

    Extended dynamic range (EDR) imaging is a postprocessing technique commonly associated with photography. Multiple images of a scene are recorded by the camera using different shutter settings and are merged into a single higher dynamic range image. Speckle interferometry and holography techniques require a well-modulated intensity signal to extract the phase information, and of these techniques shearography is most sensitive to different object surface reflectivities as it uses self-referencing from a sheared image. In this paper the authors demonstrate real-time EDR imaging in shearography and present experimental results from a difficult surface reflectivity sample: a wooden panel painting containing gold and dark earth color paint.

  12. Real-Time Bioluminescence Imaging of Nitroreductase in Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ping; Zhang, Huateng; Deng, Quankun; Liu, Wei; Yang, Linghui; Li, Guobo; Chen, Guo; Du, Lupei; Ke, Bowen; Li, Minyong

    2016-06-01

    Nitroreductase (NTR) is an endogenous reductase overexpressed in hypoxic tumors; however, its precise detection in living cells and animals remains a considerable challenge. Herein, we developed three reaction-based probes and a related bioluminescence assay for the real-time NTR detection. The high sensitivity and selectivity of probe 3, combined with its remarkable potential of bioluminescence imaging, affords a valuable approach for in vivo imaging of NTR in a tumor model mouse.

  13. Real-time kidney ultrasound image segmentation: a prospective study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, S.; Frenoux, E.; Osorio, A.

    2009-02-01

    Segmentation of ultrasound kidney images represents a challenge due to low quality data. Speckle, shadows, signal dropout and low contrast make segmentation a harsh task. In addition, kidney ultrasound imaging presents a great variability concerning the organ's shape on the image. This characteristic makes learning methods hard to use. The aim of this study is to develop a real time kidney ultrasound image segmentation method usable during surgical operations such as punctures. To deal with real time constraints, we decided to focus on region based methods and particularly split and merge algorithm. In this prospective study, the selection of the interesting area in the initial image is made by the physician, drawing a coarse bounding box around the organ. A pre-processing phase is first performed to correct image's artefacts. This phase is composed of three major steps. First, an image specification is made between the image to segment and a reference one. Then, a Haar wavelet filtering method is applied on the resulting image and finally an anisotropic diffusion filter is applied to smooth the result. Then, a split and merge algorithm is applied on the resulting image. Both split and merge criteria are based on regions statistics. Our method has been successfully applied on a set of 22 clinical images coming from 10 different patients and presenting different points of view regarding kidney's shape. We obtained very good results, for an average computational time of 8.5 seconds per image.

  14. Real-time absorption reduced surface fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Tunnell, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We introduce a technique that limits absorption effects in fluorescence imaging and does not require extensive imaging processing, thus allowing for video rate imaging. The absorption minimization is achieved using spatial frequency domain imaging at a single high spatial frequency with standard three-phase demodulation. At a spatial frequency f=0.5  mm−1, we demonstrated in both in-vitro phantoms and ex-vivo tissue that the absorption can be significantly reduced. In the real-time implementation, we achieved a video rate of 19  frames/s. This technique has potential in cancer visualization and tumor margin detection. PMID:25250826

  15. Real-time absorption reduced surface fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Tunnell, James W

    2014-09-01

    We introduce a technique that limits absorption effects in fluorescence imaging and does not require extensive imaging processing, thus allowing for video rate imaging. The absorption minimization is achieved using spatial frequency domain imaging at a single high spatial frequency with standard three-phase demodulation. At a spatial frequency f ¼ 0.5 mm−1, we demonstrated in both in-vitro phantoms and ex-vivo tissue that the absorption can be significantly reduced. In the real-time implementation, we achieved a video rate of 19 frames∕s. This technique has potential in cancer visualization and tumor margin detection. PMID:25250826

  16. Quantification and threshold detection in real-time hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, Richard D.

    2009-05-01

    The technical challenges of applying hyperspectral imaging techniques to on-line real-time food monitoring is discussed. System optimization must be applied to the design of the hyperspectral imaging spectrograph, the choice and operation of the imaging detector, the design of the illumination system and finally the development of software algorithms to correctly quantify the hyperspectral images. The signal to noise limitation of hyperspectral detection is discussed with particular emphasis on the detection of moving objects at high measurement bandwidths. An example is given of the development of a simple but accurate algorithm for the detection and discrimination of rust particles on leaves.

  17. Near-real-time TOMS, telecommunications and meteorological support for the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, P.; Victorine, J.; Sechrist, F.; Feiner, A.; Penn, L.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment was to improve the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole. Total ozone data taken by the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) played a central role in the successful outcome of the experiment. During the experiment, the near-real-time TOMS total ozone observations were supplied within hours of real time to the operations center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The final report summarizes the role which Research and Data Systems (RDS) Corporation played in the support of the experiment. The RDS provided telecommunications to support the science and operations efforts for the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, and supplied near real-time weather information to ensure flight and crew safety; designed and installed the telecommunications network to link NASA-GSFC, the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO), Palmer Station, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to the operation at Punta Arenas; engineered and installed stations and other stand-alone systems to collect data from designated low-orbiting polar satellites and beacons; provided analyses of Nimbus-7 TOMS data and backup data products to Punta Arenas; and provided synoptic meteorological data analysis and reduction.

  18. Real-time lucky imaging in FastCam project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Ramos, L. F.; Piqueras Meseguer, J. J.; Martin Hernando, Y.; Oscoz, A.; Rebolo, R.

    2008-07-01

    Lucky imaging techniques implemented by the FastCam group (see http://www.iac.es/proyecto/fastcam/) at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias have demonstrated its ability to obtain spectacular diffraction limited images in telescopes ranging from 1 to 4.2 m in visible wavelengths (mainly in the I band), at the expense of using only a small percentage of the available images. This work presents the development of a real-time processor, FPGA-based, capable of performing all the required processing involved in the lucky imaging technique: Bias and flat-field correction, quality evaluation of images, quality threshold for image selection, image recentering and accumulation, and finally sending through Gigabit Ethernet both raw and processed images to a PC computer. Furthermore, a real time display is generated directly from FPGA showing both types of images, plus a histogram of the computed quality values and the threshold used. All processes can co-exist physically located in separated places inside the FPGA, using its natural parallel approach, and can easily handle the 512x512 pixels at 30 fps found at the sensor camera output (an Andor Ixon+ DU-897ECSO EMCCD). Flexibility and parallel processing features of the reconfigurable logic have been used to implement a novel imaging strategy for segmented-mirror telescopes, allowing separate evaluation of every segment and posterior accumulation to achieve the resolution limit of a single segment with the integration capability of the full primary mirror.

  19. UWGSP7: a real-time optical imaging workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John E.; Kim, Yongmin; Pennington, Stan D.; Alleman, Andrew P.

    1995-04-01

    With the development of UWGSP7, the University of Washington Image Computing Systems Laboratory has a real-time workstation for continuous-wave (cw) optical reflectance imaging. Recent discoveries in optical science and imaging research have suggested potential practical use of the technology as a medical imaging modality and identified the need for a machine to support these applications in real time. The UWGSP7 system was developed to provide researchers with a high-performance, versatile tool for use in optical imaging experiments with the eventual goal of bringing the technology into clinical use. One of several major applications of cw optical reflectance imaging is tumor imaging which uses a light-absorbing dye that preferentially sequesters in tumor tissue. This property could be used to locate tumors and to identify tumor margins intraoperatively. Cw optical reflectance imaging consists of illumination of a target with a band-limited light source and monitoring the light transmitted by or reflected from the target. While continuously illuminating the target, a control image is acquired and stored. A dye is injected into a subject and a sequence of data images are acquired and processed. The data images are aligned with the control image and then subtracted to obtain a signal representing the change in optical reflectance over time. This signal can be enhanced by digital image processing and displayed in pseudo-color. This type of emerging imaging technique requires a computer system that is versatile and adaptable. The UWGSP7 utilizes a VESA local bus PC as a host computer running the Windows NT operating system and includes ICSL developed add-on boards for image acquisition and processing. The image acquisition board is used to digitize and format the analog signal from the input device into digital frames and to the average frames into images. To accommodate different input devices, the camera interface circuitry is designed in a small mezzanine board

  20. Real-Time Digital Compression Of Television Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Scott P.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Digital encoding/decoding system compresses color television image data in real time for transmission at lower data rates and, consequently, lower bandwidths. Implements predictive coding process, in which each picture element (pixel) predicted from values of prior neighboring pixels, and coded transmission expresses difference between actual and predicted current values. Combines differential pulse-code modulation process with non-linear, nonadaptive predictor, nonuniform quantizer, and multilevel Huffman encoder.

  1. Real Time Fast Ultrasound Imaging Technology and Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruza, J. F.; Perez, M.; Moreno, J. M.; Fritsch, C.

    In this work, a novel hardware architecture for fast ultrasound imaging based on FPGA devices is proposed. A key difference over other approaches is the unlimited scalability in terms of active channels without performance losses. Acquisition and processing tasks share the same hardware, eliminating communication bottlenecks with smaller size and power losses. These features make this system suitable to implement the most demanding imaging applications, like 3D Phased Array, Total Focusing Method, Vector Doppler, Image Compounding, High Speed Part Scanning and advanced elastographic techniques. A single medium sized FPGA allows beamforming up to 200 scan lines simultaneously, which is enough to perform most of the above mentioned applications in strict real time.

  2. Apparatus for real-time airborne particulate radionuclide collection and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Smart, John E.; Perkins, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus for collecting and analyzing an airborne particulate radionuclide having a filter mounted in a housing, the housing having an air inlet upstream of the filter and an air outlet downstream of the filter, wherein an air stream flows therethrough. The air inlet receives the air stream, the filter collects the airborne particulate radionuclide and permits a filtered air stream to pass through the air outlet. The improvement which permits real time counting is a gamma detecting germanium diode mounted downstream of the filter in the filtered air stream. The gamma detecting germanium diode is spaced apart from a downstream side of the filter a minimum distance for a substantially maximum counting detection while permitting substantially free air flow through the filter and uniform particulate radionuclide deposition on the filter.

  3. Imaging gene expression in real-time using aptamers

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Ilchung

    2012-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways are usually activated by external stimuli and are transient. The downstream changes such as transcription of the activated genes are also transient. Real-time detection of promoter activity is useful for understanding changes in gene expression, especially during cell differentiation and in development. A simple and reliable method for viewing gene expression in real time is not yet available. Reporter proteins such as fluorescent proteins and luciferase allow for non-invasive detection of the products of gene expression in living cells. However, current reporter systems do not provide for real-time imaging of promoter activity in living cells. This is because of the long time period after transcription required for fluorescent protein synthesis and maturation. We have developed an RNA reporter system for imaging in real-time to detect changes in promoter activity as they occur. The RNA reporter uses strings of RNA aptamers that constitute IMAGEtags (Intracellular MultiAptamer GEnetic tags), which can be expressed from a promoter of choice. The tobramycin, neomycin and PDC RNA aptamers have been utilized for this system and expressed in yeast from the GAL1 promoter. The IMAGEtag RNA kinetics were quantified by RT-qPCR. In yeast precultured in raffinose containing media the GAL1 promoter responded faster than in yeast precultured in glucose containing media. IMAGEtag RNA has relatively short half-life (5.5 min) in yeast. For imaging, the yeast cells are incubated with their ligands that are labeled with fluorescent dyes. To increase signal to noise, ligands have been separately conjugated with the FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) pairs, Cy3 and Cy5. With these constructs, the transcribed aptamers can be imaged after activation of the promoter by galactose. FRET was confirmed with three different approaches, which were sensitized emission, acceptor photobleaching and donor lifetime by FLIM (fluorescence lifetime imaging

  4. Imaging gene expression in real-time using aptamers

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Il Chung

    2011-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways are usually activated by external stimuli and are transient. The downstream changes such as transcription of the activated genes are also transient. Real-time detection of promoter activity is useful for understanding changes in gene expression, especially during cell differentiation and in development. A simple and reliable method for viewing gene expression in real time is not yet available. Reporter proteins such as fluorescent proteins and luciferase allow for non-invasive detection of the products of gene expression in living cells. However, current reporter systems do not provide for real-time imaging of promoter activity in living cells. This is because of the long time period after transcription required for fluorescent protein synthesis and maturation. We have developed an RNA reporter system for imaging in real-time to detect changes in promoter activity as they occur. The RNA reporter uses strings of RNA aptamers that constitute IMAGEtags (Intracellular MultiAptamer GEnetic tags), which can be expressed from a promoter of choice. The tobramycin, neomycin and PDC RNA aptamers have been utilized for this system and expressed in yeast from the GAL1 promoter. The IMAGEtag RNA kinetics were quantified by RT-qPCR. In yeast precultured in raffinose containing media the GAL1 promoter responded faster than in yeast precultured in glucose containing media. IMAGEtag RNA has relatively short half-life (5.5 min) in yeast. For imaging, the yeast cells are incubated with their ligands that are labeled with fluorescent dyes. To increase signal to noise, ligands have been separately conjugated with the FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) pairs, Cy3 and Cy5. With these constructs, the transcribed aptamers can be imaged after activation of the promoter by galactose. FRET was confirmed with three different approaches, which were sensitized emission, acceptor photobleaching and donor lifetime by FLIM (fluorescence lifetime imaging

  5. Programmable Real-time Clinical Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeesu; Park, Sara; Jung, Yuhan; Chang, Sunyeob; Park, Jinyong; Zhang, Yumiao; Lovell, Jonathan F.; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has attracted interest for its capacity to capture functional spectral information with high spatial and temporal resolution in biological tissues. Several photoacoustic imaging systems have been commercialized recently, but they are variously limited by non-clinically relevant designs, immobility, single anatomical utility (e.g., breast only), or non-programmable interfaces. Here, we present a real-time clinical photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system which consists of an FDA-approved clinical ultrasound system integrated with a portable laser. The system is completely programmable, has an intuitive user interface, and can be adapted for different applications by switching handheld imaging probes with various transducer types. The customizable photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system is intended to meet the diverse needs of medical researchers performing both clinical and preclinical photoacoustic studies. PMID:27731357

  6. Airborne Camera System for Real-Time Applications - Support of a National Civil Protection Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gstaiger, V.; Romer, H.; Rosenbaum, D.; Henkel, F.

    2015-04-01

    In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), powerful tools are being developed to aid public authorities and organizations with security responsibilities as well as traffic authorities when dealing with disasters and large public events. One focus lies on the acquisition of high resolution aerial imagery, its fully automatic processing, analysis and near real-time provision to decision makers in emergency situations. For this purpose a camera system was developed to be operated from a helicopter with light-weight processing units and microwave link for fast data transfer. In order to meet end-users' requirements DLR works close together with the German Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance (BBK) within this project. One task of BBK is to establish, maintain and train the German Medical Task Force (MTF), which gets deployed nationwide in case of large-scale disasters. In October 2014, several units of the MTF were deployed for the first time in the framework of a national civil protection exercise in Brandenburg. The VABENE++ team joined the exercise and provided near real-time aerial imagery, videos and derived traffic information to support the direction of the MTF and to identify needs for further improvements and developments. In this contribution the authors introduce the new airborne camera system together with its near real-time processing components and share experiences gained during the national civil protection exercise.

  7. RTAP: A mobile real time analytical platform for assessment of airborne contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, U.J.; Paul, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    The Real Time Analytical Platform (RTAP) provides mobile airborne exposure level assessments for the Monitoring Branch of the US Army Operations Directorate, Chemical Support Division. In order to ensure worker safety and the protection of the environment, a variety of military compounds must be monitored during site-remediation and disposal operations. The instrumentation fielded in the RTAP incorporates an air sampling technique utilizing solid sorbent collection and thermal desorption technology combined with capillary gas chromatography and multiple gas chromatographic detectors. The mobile unit is equipped to analyze a number of surety compounds, delivering documentation to meet regulatory requirements with a high level of sensitivity and selectivity, in real time or near-real time. The system can sample continuously through a heated transfer hose for direct, on-line requirements during site monitoring projects, or easily switch to off-site sampling capability using solid sorbent cartridges for sample collection that are returned to the mobile unit or laboratory for analysis. A description of the instrumentation, screening and confirmation techniques, and instances where the units have been fielded as part of emergency response efforts at several sites will be included in the presentation.

  8. Extended VLIW processor for real-time imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Keiichi; Fujiwara, Itaru; Ae, Tadashi

    2001-04-01

    We propose EVLIW as a new processor architecture which is designed for general purpose processing and is suitable especially for real-time image processing. The processor architecture is a VLIW, but it has more functional units than the generic VLIW processor has. The EVLIW consists of the interconnection network for connecting the neighbor and of functional units, which are more primitive than in the generic VLIW processor. Some of general-purpose processors in the market includes several processing units, e.g. the same four single precision floating-point or four 16bit-word integer units for Intel processor with SSE/MMX, where the four units do the same operation with the four different data. In the image processing, the data are processed in parallel, where the operating is not complicated an only the high-speed processing is usually required. We have tried a simple image processing using Intel's processor with SSE/MMX and summarize the results. In this paper, we describe a new architecture for real-time imaging, and its design, comparing with Intel's processor with SSE/MMX.

  9. Real-time chemiluminescence imaging using nano-lantern probes.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yoshiyuki; Nagai, Takeharu

    2014-12-01

    Chemiluminescence imaging can be performed without excitation light sources at various spatial levels ranging from a single cell to the whole body. Thus far, chemiluminescence imaging has been primarily performed with long exposure times because of weak signals, resulting in low temporal resolution. Recently, the brightest-known chemiluminescent proteins--Nano-lantern and Nano-lantern-based functional indicators--have been developed. Nano-lantern probes break the limitation of temporal resolution and enable chemiluminescence imaging of living samples such as cells, plants, and small animals at video rates. This unit describes one protocol for observation of a freely moving unshaved mouse transplanted with Nano-lantern-expressing tumor cells, and another for compatible use of optogenetic tools and a Nano-lantern calcium indicator. Both protocols utilize the synchronization of illumination and camera acquisition sessions, thereby enabling real-time chemiluminescence imaging.

  10. Real-time image processing architecture for robot vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persa, Stelian; Jonker, Pieter P.

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents a study of the impact of MMX technology and PIII Streaming SIMD (Single Instruction stream, Multiple Data stream). Extensions in image processing and machine vision application, which, because of their hard real time constrains, is an undoubtedly challenging task. A comparison with traditional scalar code and with other parallel SIMD architecture (IMPA-VISION board) is discussed with emphasis of the particular programming strategies for speed optimization. More precisely we discuss the low level and intermediate level image processing algorithms, which are best suited for parallel SIMD implementation. High-level image processing algorithms are more suitable for parallel implementation on MIMD architectures. While the IMAP-VISION system performs better because of the large number of processing elements, the MMX processor and PIII (with Streaming SIMD Extensions) remains a good candidate for low-level image processing.

  11. Real-time Fluorescence Image-Guided Oncologic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Suman B.; Gao, Shengkui; Zhu, Nan; Liang, Rongguang; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging plays a critical role in cancer diagnosis and planning. Many of these patients rely on surgical intervention for curative outcomes. This requires a careful identification of the primary and microscopic tumors, and the complete removal of cancer. Although there have been efforts to adapt traditional imaging modalities for intraoperative image guidance, they suffer from several constraints such as large hardware footprint, high operation cost, and disruption of the surgical workflow. Because of the ease of image acquisition, relatively low cost devices and intuitive operation, optical imaging methods have received tremendous interests for use in real-time image-guided surgery. To improve imaging depth under low interference by tissue autofluorescence, many of these applications utilize light in the near-infra red (NIR) wavelengths, which is invisible to human eyes. With the availability of a wide selection of tumor-avid contrast agents, advancements in imaging sensors, electronic and optical designs, surgeons are able to combine different attributes of NIR optical imaging techniques to improve treatment outcomes. The emergence of diverse commercial and experimental image guidance systems, which are in various stages of clinical translation, attests to the potential high impact of intraoperative optical imaging methods to improve speed of oncologic surgery with high accuracy and minimal margin positivity. PMID:25287689

  12. A novel real time imaging platform to quantify macrophage phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kapellos, Theodore S; Taylor, Lewis; Lee, Heyne; Cowley, Sally A; James, William S; Iqbal, Asif J; Greaves, David R

    2016-09-15

    Phagocytosis of pathogens, apoptotic cells and debris is a key feature of macrophage function in host defense and tissue homeostasis. Quantification of macrophage phagocytosis in vitro has traditionally been technically challenging. Here we report the optimization and validation of the IncuCyte ZOOM® real time imaging platform for macrophage phagocytosis based on pHrodo® pathogen bioparticles, which only fluoresce when localized in the acidic environment of the phagolysosome. Image analysis and fluorescence quantification were performed with the automated IncuCyte™ Basic Software. Titration of the bioparticle number showed that the system is more sensitive than a spectrofluorometer, as it can detect phagocytosis when using 20× less E. coli bioparticles. We exemplified the power of this real time imaging platform by studying phagocytosis of murine alveolar, bone marrow and peritoneal macrophages. We further demonstrate the ability of this platform to study modulation of the phagocytic process, as pharmacological inhibitors of phagocytosis suppressed bioparticle uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas opsonins augmented phagocytosis. We also investigated the effects of macrophage polarization on E. coli phagocytosis. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) priming with M2 stimuli, such as IL-4 and IL-10 resulted in higher engulfment of bioparticles in comparison with M1 polarization. Moreover, we demonstrated that tolerization of BMDMs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in impaired E. coli bioparticle phagocytosis. This novel real time assay will enable researchers to quantify macrophage phagocytosis with a higher degree of accuracy and sensitivity and will allow investigation of limited populations of primary phagocytes in vitro.

  13. A novel real time imaging platform to quantify macrophage phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kapellos, Theodore S; Taylor, Lewis; Lee, Heyne; Cowley, Sally A; James, William S; Iqbal, Asif J; Greaves, David R

    2016-09-15

    Phagocytosis of pathogens, apoptotic cells and debris is a key feature of macrophage function in host defense and tissue homeostasis. Quantification of macrophage phagocytosis in vitro has traditionally been technically challenging. Here we report the optimization and validation of the IncuCyte ZOOM® real time imaging platform for macrophage phagocytosis based on pHrodo® pathogen bioparticles, which only fluoresce when localized in the acidic environment of the phagolysosome. Image analysis and fluorescence quantification were performed with the automated IncuCyte™ Basic Software. Titration of the bioparticle number showed that the system is more sensitive than a spectrofluorometer, as it can detect phagocytosis when using 20× less E. coli bioparticles. We exemplified the power of this real time imaging platform by studying phagocytosis of murine alveolar, bone marrow and peritoneal macrophages. We further demonstrate the ability of this platform to study modulation of the phagocytic process, as pharmacological inhibitors of phagocytosis suppressed bioparticle uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas opsonins augmented phagocytosis. We also investigated the effects of macrophage polarization on E. coli phagocytosis. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) priming with M2 stimuli, such as IL-4 and IL-10 resulted in higher engulfment of bioparticles in comparison with M1 polarization. Moreover, we demonstrated that tolerization of BMDMs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in impaired E. coli bioparticle phagocytosis. This novel real time assay will enable researchers to quantify macrophage phagocytosis with a higher degree of accuracy and sensitivity and will allow investigation of limited populations of primary phagocytes in vitro. PMID:27475716

  14. Near Real Time Review of Instrument Performance using the Airborne Data Processing and Analysis Software Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delene, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Research aircraft that conduct atmospheric measurements carry an increasing array of instrumentation. While on-board personnel constantly review instrument parameters and time series plots, there are an overwhelming number of items. Furthermore, directing the aircraft flight takes up much of the flight scientist time. Typically, a flight engineer is given the responsibility of reviewing the status of on-board instruments. While major issues like not receiving data are quickly identified during a flight, subtle issues like low but believable concentration measurements may go unnoticed. Therefore, it is critical to review data after a flight in near real time. The Airborne Data Processing and Analysis (ADPAA) software package used by the University of North Dakota automates the post-processing of aircraft flight data. Utilizing scripts to process the measurements recorded by data acquisition systems enables the generation of data files within an hour of flight completion. The ADPAA Cplot visualization program enables plots to be quickly generated that enable timely review of all recorded and processed parameters. Near real time review of aircraft flight data enables instrument problems to be identified, investigated and fixed before conducting another flight. On one flight, near real time data review resulted in the identification of unusually low measurements of cloud condensation nuclei, and rapid data visualization enabled the timely investigation of the cause. As a result, a leak was found and fixed before the next flight. Hence, with the high cost of aircraft flights, it is critical to find and fix instrument problems in a timely matter. The use of a automated processing scripts and quick visualization software enables scientists to review aircraft flight data in near real time to identify potential problems.

  15. Real time blood testing using quantitative phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hoa V; Bhaduri, Basanta; Tangella, Krishnarao; Best-Popescu, Catherine; Popescu, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a real-time blood testing system that can provide remote diagnosis with minimal human intervention in economically challenged areas. Our instrument combines novel advances in label-free optical imaging with parallel computing. Specifically, we use quantitative phase imaging for extracting red blood cell morphology with nanoscale sensitivity and NVIDIA's CUDA programming language to perform real time cellular-level analysis. While the blood smear is translated through focus, our system is able to segment and analyze all the cells in the one megapixel field of view, at a rate of 40 frames/s. The variety of diagnostic parameters measured from each cell (e.g., surface area, sphericity, and minimum cylindrical diameter) are currently not available with current state of the art clinical instruments. In addition, we show that our instrument correctly recovers the red blood cell volume distribution, as evidenced by the excellent agreement with the cell counter results obtained on normal patients and those with microcytic and macrocytic anemia. The final data outputted by our instrument represent arrays of numbers associated with these morphological parameters and not images. Thus, the memory necessary to store these data is of the order of kilobytes, which allows for their remote transmission via, for example, the cellular network. We envision that such a system will dramatically increase access for blood testing and furthermore, may pave the way to digital hematology. PMID:23405194

  16. Detection of airborne genetically modified maize pollen by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Folloni, Silvia; Kagkli, Dafni-Maria; Rajcevic, Bojan; Guimarães, Nilson C C; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Valicente, Fernando H; Van den Eede, Guy; Van den Bulcke, Marc

    2012-09-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised numerous concerns in the European Union and other parts of the world about their environmental and economic impact. Especially outcrossing of genetically modified organisms (GMO) was from the beginning a critical issue as airborne pollen has been considered an important way of GMO dispersal. Here, we investigate the use of airborne pollen sampling combined with microscopic analysis and molecular PCR analysis as an approach to monitor GM maize cultivations in a specific area. Field trial experiments in the European Union and South America demonstrated the applicability of the approach under different climate conditions, in rural and semi-urban environment, even at very low levels of airborne pollen. The study documents in detail the sampling of GM pollen, sample DNA extraction and real-time PCR analysis. Our results suggest that this 'GM pollen monitoring by bioaerosol sampling and PCR screening' approach might represent an useful aid in the surveillance of GM-free areas, centres of origin and natural reserves. PMID:22805239

  17. Detection of airborne genetically modified maize pollen by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Folloni, Silvia; Kagkli, Dafni-Maria; Rajcevic, Bojan; Guimarães, Nilson C C; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Valicente, Fernando H; Van den Eede, Guy; Van den Bulcke, Marc

    2012-09-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised numerous concerns in the European Union and other parts of the world about their environmental and economic impact. Especially outcrossing of genetically modified organisms (GMO) was from the beginning a critical issue as airborne pollen has been considered an important way of GMO dispersal. Here, we investigate the use of airborne pollen sampling combined with microscopic analysis and molecular PCR analysis as an approach to monitor GM maize cultivations in a specific area. Field trial experiments in the European Union and South America demonstrated the applicability of the approach under different climate conditions, in rural and semi-urban environment, even at very low levels of airborne pollen. The study documents in detail the sampling of GM pollen, sample DNA extraction and real-time PCR analysis. Our results suggest that this 'GM pollen monitoring by bioaerosol sampling and PCR screening' approach might represent an useful aid in the surveillance of GM-free areas, centres of origin and natural reserves.

  18. Real-Time Ellipsometry-Based Transmission Ultrasound Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kallman, J S; Poco, J F; Ashby, A E

    2007-02-14

    Ultrasonic imaging is a valuable tool for non-destructive evaluation and medical diagnosis. Reflection mode is exclusively used for medical imaging, and is most frequently used for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) because of the relative speed of acquisition. Reflection mode imaging is qualitative, yielding little information about material properties, and usually only about material interfaces. Transmission imaging can be used in 3D reconstructions to yield quantitative information: sound speed and attenuation. Unfortunately, traditional scanning methods of acquiring transmission data are very slow, requiring on the order of 20 minutes per image. The sensing of acoustic pressure fields as optical images can significantly speed data acquisition. An entire 2D acoustic pressure field can be acquired in under a second. The speed of data acquisition for a 2D view makes it feasible to obtain multiple views of an object. With multiple views, 3D reconstruction becomes possible. A fast, compact (no big magnets or accelerators), inexpensive, 3D imaging technology that uses no ionizing radiation could be a boon to the NDE and medical communities. 2D transmission images could be examined in real time to give the ultrasonic equivalent of a fluoroscope, or accumulated in such a way as to acquire phase and amplitude data over multiple views for 3D reconstruction (for breast cancer imaging, for example). Composite panels produced for the aircraft and automobile industries could be inspected in near real time, and inspection of attenuating materials such as ceramics and high explosives would be possible. There are currently three optical-readout imaging transmission ultrasound technologies available. One is based on frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) [1,2], one on Fabry-Perot interferometry [3], and another on critical angle modulation [4]. Each of these techniques has its problems. The FTIR based system cannot currently be scaled to large aperture sizes, the Fabry

  19. The Way Point Planning Tool: Real Time Flight Planning for Airborne Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Yubin; Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Hall, John

    2012-01-01

    Airborne real time observation are a major component of NASA's Earth Science research and satellite ground validation studies. For mission scientist, planning a research aircraft mission within the context of meeting the science objective is a complex task because it requires real time situational awareness of the weather conditions that affect the aircraft track. Multiple aircraft are often involved in the NASA field campaigns the coordination of the aircraft with satellite overpasses, other airplanes and the constantly evolving dynamic weather conditions often determine the success of the campaign. A flight planning tool is needed to provide situational awareness information to the mission scientist and help them plan and modify the flight tracks successfully. Scientists at the University of Alabama Huntsville and the NASA Marshal Space Flight Center developed the Waypoint Planning Tool (WPT), an interactive software tool that enables scientist to develop their own flight plans (also known as waypoints), with point and click mouse capabilities on a digital map filled with time raster and vector data. The development of this Waypoint Planning Tool demonstrates the significance of mission support in responding to the challenges presented during NASA field campaigns. Analyses during and after each campaign helped identify both issues and new requirements, initiating the next wave of development. Currently the Waypoint Planning Tool has gone through three rounds of development and analysis processes. The development of this waypoint tool is directly affected by the technology advances on GIS/Mapping technologies. From the standalone Google Earth application and simple KML functionalities to the Google Earth Plugin and Java Web Start/Applet on web platform, as well as to the rising open source GIS tools with new JavaScript frameworks, the Waypoint planning Tool has entered its third phase of technology advancement. The newly innovated, cross-platform, modular designed

  20. Development and calibration of real-time PCR for quantification of airborne microorganisms in air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hey Reoun; Mainelis, Gediminas; White, Lori

    This manuscript describes the coupling of bioaerosol collection and the use of real-time PCR (RT-PCR) to quantify the airborne bacteria. The quantity of collected bacteria determined by RT-PCR is compared with conventional quantification techniques, such as culturing, microscopy and airborne microorganism counting by using optical particle counter (OPC). Our data show that an experimental approach used to develop standard curves for use with RT-PCR is critical for accurate sample quantification. Using universal primers we generated 12 different standard curves which were used to quantify model organism Escherichia coli (Migula) Catellani from air samples. Standard curves prepared using a traditional approach, where serially diluted genomic DNA extracted from pure cultured bacteria were used in PCR reaction as a template DNA yielded significant underestimation of sample quantities compared to airborne microorganism concentration as measured by an OPC. The underestimation was especially pronounced when standard curves were built using colony forming units (CFUs). In contrast, the estimate of cell concentration in an air sample by RT-PCR was more accurate (˜60% compared to the airborne microorganism concentration) when the standard curve was built using aerosolized E. coli. The accuracy improved even further (˜100%) when air samples used to build the standard curves were diluted first, then the DNA extracted from each dilution was amplified by the RT-PCR—to mimic the handling of air samples with unknown and possibly low concentration. Therefore, our data show that standard curves used for quantification by RT-PCR needs to be prepared using the same environmental matrix and procedures as handling of the environmental sample in question. Reliance on the standard curves generated with cultured bacterial suspension (a traditional approach) may lead to substantial underestimation of microorganism quantities in environmental samples.

  1. Real-time full field laser Doppler imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutenegger, Marcel; Harbi, Pascal; Thacher, Tyler; Raffoul, Wassim; Lasser, Theo

    2012-06-01

    We present a full field laser Doppler imaging instrument that enables real-time in vivo assessment of blood flow in dermal tissue and skin. The instrument monitors the blood perfusion in an area of about 50cm2 with 480 × 480 pixels per frame at a rate of 12-14 frames per second. Smaller frames can be monitored at much higher frame rates. We recorded the microcirculation in healthy skin before, during and after arterial occlusion. In initial clinical case studies, we imaged the microcirculation in burned skin and monitored the recovery of blood flow in a skin flap during reconstructive surgery indicating the high potential of LDI for clinical applications.

  2. Assessment of bacterial pathogens in fresh rainwater and airborne particulate matter using Real-Time PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Rajni; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens in airborne particulate matter (PM) and in rainwater (RW) were detected using a robust and sensitive Real-Time PCR method. Both RW and PM were collected simultaneously in the tropical atmosphere of Singapore, which were then subjected to analysis for the presence of selected bacterial pathogens and potential pathogen of health concern ( Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila). These pathogens were found to be prevalent in both PM and RW samples with E. coli being the most prevalent potential pathogen in both types of samples. The temporal distribution of these pathogens in PM and RW was found to be similar to each other. Using the proposed microbiological technique, the atmospheric deposition (dry and wet deposition) of bacterial pathogens to lakes and reservoirs can be studied in view of growing concerns about the outbreak of waterborne diseases.

  3. Real-time detection of airborne viruses on a mass-sensitive device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joonhyung; Jang, Jaesung; Akin, Demir; Savran, Cagri A.; Bashir, Rashid

    2008-07-01

    We present real-time detection of airborne Vaccinia viruses using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in an integrated manner. Vaccinia viruses were aerosolized and neutralized using an electrospray aerosol generator, transported into the QCM chamber, and captured by a QCM crystal. The capture of the viruses on the QCM crystal resulted in frequency shifts proportional to the number of viruses. The capture rate varied linearly with the concentration of initial virus suspensions (8.5×108-8.5×1010particles/ml) at flow rates of 2.0 and 1.1l/min. This work demonstrates the general potential of mass sensitive detection of nanoscale biological entities in air.

  4. A real-time monitoring system for airborne particle shape and size analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, P. H.; Alexander-Buckley, K.; Hirst, E.; Saunders, S.; Clark, J. M.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a new instrument for the study of airborne particles. The instrument performs a rapid analysis of the transient spatial intensity distribution of laser-light scattered by individual aerosol particles drawn from an ambient environment and uses this to characterize the particles in terms of both size and shape parameters. Analyses are carried out at peak particle throughput rates of up to 10,000 particles per second, and semiquantitative data relating to the size and shape (or more correctly asymmetry) spectra of the sampled particles are provided to the user via a graphical display which is refreshed or updated at 5-s intervals. In addition to the real-time display of data, continuous data recording allows subsequent replay of measurements at either normal or high speed. Preliminary experimental results are given for aerosols of both spherical and nonspherical particle types, and these suggest the instrument may find use in environmental monitoring of aerosols or clouds where some real-time semiquantitative assessment of particulate size and shape spectra may be desirable as an aid to characterizing the aerosol and its constituent particulate species.

  5. In situ real-time measurement of physical characteristics of airborne bacterial particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun

    2013-12-01

    Bioaerosols, including aerosolized bacteria, viruses, and fungi, are associated with public health and environmental problems. One promising control method to reduce the harmful effects of bioaerosols is thermal inactivation via a continuous-flow high-temperature short-time (HTST) system. However, variations in bioaerosol physical characteristics - for example, the particle size and shape - during the continuous-flow inactivation process can change the transport properties in the air, which can affect particle deposition in the human respiratory system or the filtration efficiency of ventilation systems. Real-time particle monitoring techniques are a desirable alternative to the time-consuming process of microscopic analysis that is conventionally used in sampling and particle characterization. Here, we report in situ real-time optical scattering measurements of the physical characteristics of airborne bacteria particles following an HTST process in a continuous-flow system. Our results demonstrate that the aerodynamic diameter of bacterial aerosols decreases when exposed to a high-temperature environment, and that the shape of the bacterial cells is significantly altered. These variations in physical characteristics using optical scattering measurements were found to be in agreement with the results of scanning electron microscopy analysis.

  6. Real-time windowing in imaging radar using FPGA technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Escamilla-Hernandez, Enrique

    2005-02-01

    The imaging radar uses the high frequency electromagnetic waves reflected from different objects for estimating of its parameters. Pulse compression is a standard signal processing technique used to minimize the peak transmission power and to maximize SNR, and to get a better resolution. Usually the pulse compression can be achieved using a matched filter. The level of the side-lobes in the imaging radar can be reduced using the special weighting function processing. There are very known different weighting functions: Hamming, Hanning, Blackman, Chebyshev, Blackman-Harris, Kaiser-Bessel, etc., widely used in the signal processing applications. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) offers great benefits like instantaneous implementation, dynamic reconfiguration, design, and field programmability. This reconfiguration makes FPGAs a better solution over custom-made integrated circuits. This work aims at demonstrating a reasonably flexible implementation of FM-linear signal and pulse compression using Matlab, Simulink, and System Generator. Employing FPGA and mentioned software we have proposed the pulse compression design on FPGA using classical and novel windows technique to reduce the side-lobes level. This permits increasing the detection ability of the small or nearly placed targets in imaging radar. The advantage of FPGA that can do parallelism in real time processing permits to realize the proposed algorithms. The paper also presents the experimental results of proposed windowing procedure in the marine radar with such the parameters: signal is linear FM (Chirp); frequency deviation DF is 9.375MHz; the pulse width T is 3.2μs taps number in the matched filter is 800 taps; sampling frequency 253.125*106 MHz. It has been realized the reducing of side-lobes levels in real time permitting better resolution of the small targets.

  7. Real-time quantitative phase imaging for cell studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Hoa Vinh

    Most biological cells are not clearly visible with a bright field microscope. Several methods have been developed to improve contrast in cell imaging, including use of exogenous contrast agents such as fluorescence microscopy, as well as utilizing properties of light-specimen interaction for optics design, to reveal the endogenous contrast, such as phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. Although PCM and DIC methods significantly improve the image contrast without the need for staining agents, they only provide qualitative information about the phase change induced by the cells as light passes through them. Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) has recently emerged as an effective imaging tool which provides not only better image contrast but also cell-induced phase shifts in the optical pathlength, thus allowing nanometer-scale measurements of structures and dynamics of the cells. Other important aspects of an imaging system are its imaging speed and throughput. High-throughput, high-speed, real-time quantitative phase imaging with high spatial and temporal sensitivity is highly desirable in many applications including applied physics and biomedicine. In this dissertation, to address this need, I discuss the development of such an imaging system that includes the white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a new optical imaging method, and image reconstruction/analysis algorithms using graphics processing units (GPUs). wDPM can measure optical pathlength changes at nanometer scale both spatially and temporally with single-shot image acquisition, enabling very fast imaging. I also exploit the broadband spectrum of white light used as the light source in wDPM to develop a system called spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy (sDPM). This sDPM system allows QPI measurements at several wavelengths, which solves the problem of thickness and refractive index coupling in the phase shifts induced by the cell, and which

  8. In vivo real-time volumetric synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Rasmussen, Morten F.; Brandt, Andreas H.; Stuart, Matthias B.; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen A.

    2015-03-01

    Synthetic aperture (SA) imaging can be used to achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D array transducers. The sensitivity of SA imaging is improved by maximizing the acoustic output, but one must consider the limitations of an ultrasound system, both technical and biological. This paper investigates the in vivo applicability and sensitivity of volumetric SA imaging. Utilizing the transmit events to generate a set of virtual point sources, a frame rate of 25 Hz for a 90° × 90° field-of-view was achieved. data were obtained using a 3.5 MHz 32 × 32 elements 2-D phased array transducer connected to the experimental scanner (SARUS). Proper scaling is applied to the excitation signal such that intensity levels are in compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations for in vivo ultrasound imaging. The measured Mechanical Index and spatial-peak-temporal-average intensity for parallel beam-forming (PB) are 0.83 and 377.5mW/cm2, and for SA are 0.48 and 329.5mW/cm2. A human kidney was volumetrically imaged with SA and PB techniques simultaneously. Two radiologists for evaluation of the volumetric SA were consulted by means of a questionnaire on the level of details perceivable in the beam-formed images. The comparison was against PB based on the in vivo data. The feedback from the domain experts indicates that volumetric SA images internal body structures with a better contrast resolution compared to PB at all positions in the entire imaged volume. Furthermore, the autocovariance of a homogeneous area in the in vivo SA data, had 23.5% smaller width at the half of its maximum value compared to PB.

  9. Real-time cylindrical curvilinear 3-D ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Pua, E C; Yen, J T; Smith, S W

    2003-07-01

    In patients who are obese or exhibit signs of pulmonary disease, standard transthoracic scanning may yield poor quality cardiac images. For these conditions, two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is established as an essential diagnostic tool. Current techniques in transesophageal scanning, though, are limited by incomplete visualization of cardiac structures in close proximity to the transducer. Thus, we propose a 2D curvilinear array for 3D transesophageal echocardiography in order to widen the field of view and increase visualization close to the transducer face. In this project, a 440 channel 5 MHz two-dimensional array with a 12.6 mm aperture diameter on a flexible interconnect circuit has been molded to a 4 mm radius of curvature. A 75% element yield was achieved during fabrication and an average -6dB bandwidth of 30% was observed in pulse-echo tests. Using this transducer in conjunction with modifications to the beam former delay software and scan converter display software of the our 3D scanner, we obtained cylindrical real-time curvilinear volumetric scans of tissue phantoms, including a field of view of greater than 120 degrees in the curved, azimuth direction and 65 degrees phased array sector scans in the elevation direction. These images were achieved using a stepped subaperture across the cylindrical curvilinear direction of the transducer face and phased array sector scanning in the noncurved plane. In addition, real-time volume rendered images of a tissue mimicking phantom with holes ranging from 1 cm to less than 4 mm have been obtained. 3D color flow Doppler results have also been acquired. This configuration can theoretically achieve volumes displaying 180 degrees by 120 degrees. The transducer is also capable of obtaining images through a curvilinear stepped subaperture in azimuth in conjunction with a rectilinear stepped subaperture in elevation, further increasing the field of view close to the transducer face. Future work

  10. Real-time, Three-dimensional Aquifer Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, A.; Jones, J. W.; Mongrain, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Commonly-employed subsurface investigation techniques such as drilling and soil sampling, aquifer testing, tracer testing, groundwater sampling and analytical test work yield valuable subsurface information, yet they provide little direct information about the migration pathways followed by contaminants. Meaningful site assessment and remediation work require an accurate assessment of these migration pathways. Since these pathways generally represent a small proportion of the subsurface, accurate characterization data are key to the design of effective remediation programs on a contaminated site. Methods capable of interrogating volumetric properties of the subsurface are necessary to define migration pathways followed by contaminants, develop an accurate conceptualization of the subsurface, and to support a better understanding of contaminant conditions. Of course, to be of practical use at ‘typical’ sites, the methods must be cost-effective and work in existing conventionally-completed monitoring wells. This paper presents the results of real-time geophysical measurements in the context of a tracer test that used de-ionized water and a fluorescent tracer. The purpose of these field activities was to conduct detailed characterization of the aquifer properties to support the design of a groundwater remediation program. The geophysical approach provided real-time, 3 D measurement and images of the evolving changes in the electric conductivity (resistivity) and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in the aquifer. The de-ionized water provided strong electrochemical changes and allowed both parameters to be rapidly and cost-effectively measured in-situ. Our approach provided continuous monitoring of these diagnostic parameters using readily-deployed down-hole electrode arrays to generate detailed profiles in multiple wells and cross-hole resistivity images of groundwater conditions, prior to, during and after the tracer injection. The geophysical data clearly

  11. Bioanalytical Applications of Real-Time ATP Imaging Via Bioluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Alan Gruenhagen

    2003-12-12

    The research discussed within involves the development of novel applications of real-time imaging of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). ATP was detected via bioluminescence and the firefly luciferase-catalyzed reaction of ATP and luciferin. The use of a microscope and an imaging detector allowed for spatially resolved quantitation of ATP release. Employing this method, applications in both biological and chemical systems were developed. First, the mechanism by which the compound 48/80 induces release of ATP from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. Numerous enzyme activators and inhibitors were utilized to probe the second messenger systems involved in release. Compound 48/80 activated a G{sub q}-type protein to initiate ATP release from HUVECs. Ca{sup 2+} imaging along with ATP imaging revealed that activation of phospholipase C and induction of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} signaling were necessary for release of ATP. Furthermore, activation of protein kinase C inhibited the activity of phospholipase C and thus decreased the magnitude of ATP release. This novel release mechanism was compared to the existing theories of extracellular release of ATP. Bioluminescence imaging was also employed to examine the role of ATP in the field of neuroscience. The central nervous system (CNS) was dissected from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the neurons of the Lymnaea were not damaged by any of the components of the imaging solution. ATP was continuously released by the ganglia of the CNS for over eight hours and varied from ganglion to ganglion and within individual ganglia. Addition of the neurotransmitters K{sup +} and serotonin increased release of ATP in certain regions of the Lymnaea CNS. Finally, the ATP imaging technique was investigated for the study of drug release systems. MCM-41-type mesoporous nanospheres were loaded with ATP and end-capped with mercaptoethanol functionalized Cd

  12. Real-time atmospheric absorption spectra for in-flight tuning of an airborne dial system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dombrowski, M.; Walden, H.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Milrod, J.; Korb, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Real-time measurements of atmospheric absorption spectra are displayed and used to precisely calibrate and fix the frequency of an Alexandrite laser to specific oxygen absorption features for airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric pressure and temperature. The DIAL system used contains two narrowband tunable Alexandrite lasers: one is electronically scanned to tune to oxygen absorption features for on-line signals while the second is used to obtain off-line (nonabsorbed) atmospheric return signals. The lidar operator may select the number of shots to be averaged, the altitude, and altitude interval over which the signals are averaged using single key stroke commands. The operator also determines exactly which oxygen absorption lines are scanned by comparing the line spacings and relative strengths with known line parameters, thus calibrating the laser wavelength readout. The system was used successfully to measure the atmospheric pressure profile on the first flights of this lidar, November 20, and December 9, 1985, aboard the NASA Wallops Electra aircraft.

  13. Real-time single-molecule imaging of quantum interference.

    PubMed

    Juffmann, Thomas; Milic, Adriana; Müllneritsch, Michael; Asenbaum, Peter; Tsukernik, Alexander; Tüxen, Jens; Mayor, Marcel; Cheshnovsky, Ori; Arndt, Markus

    2012-03-25

    The observation of interference patterns in double-slit experiments with massive particles is generally regarded as the ultimate demonstration of the quantum nature of these objects. Such matter-wave interference has been observed for electrons, neutrons, atoms and molecules and, in contrast to classical physics, quantum interference can be observed when single particles arrive at the detector one by one. The build-up of such patterns in experiments with electrons has been described as the "most beautiful experiment in physics". Here, we show how a combination of nanofabrication and nano-imaging allows us to record the full two-dimensional build-up of quantum interference patterns in real time for phthalocyanine molecules and for derivatives of phthalocyanine molecules, which have masses of 514 AMU and 1,298 AMU respectively. A laser-controlled micro-evaporation source was used to produce a beam of molecules with the required intensity and coherence, and the gratings were machined in 10-nm-thick silicon nitride membranes to reduce the effect of van der Waals forces. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy detected the position of each molecule with an accuracy of 10 nm and revealed the build-up of a deterministic ensemble interference pattern from single molecules that arrived stochastically at the detector. In addition to providing this particularly clear demonstration of wave-particle duality, our approach could also be used to study larger molecules and explore the boundary between quantum and classical physics.

  14. Application of real-time PCR for total airborne bacterial assessment: Comparison with epifluorescence microscopy and culture-dependent methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinsoz, Thomas; Duquenne, Philippe; Greff-Mirguet, Guylaine; Oppliger, Anne

    Traditional culture-dependent methods to quantify and identify airborne microorganisms are limited by factors such as short-duration sampling times and inability to count non-culturable or non-viable bacteria. Consequently, the quantitative assessment of bioaerosols is often underestimated. Use of the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) to quantify bacteria in environmental samples presents an alternative method, which should overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a real-time Q-PCR assay as a simple and reliable way to quantify the airborne bacterial load within poultry houses and sewage treatment plants, in comparison with epifluorescence microscopy and culture-dependent methods. The estimates of bacterial load that we obtained from real-time PCR and epifluorescence methods, are comparable, however, our analysis of sewage treatment plants indicate these methods give values 270-290 fold greater than those obtained by the "impaction on nutrient agar" method. The culture-dependent method of air impaction on nutrient agar was also inadequate in poultry houses, as was the impinger-culture method, which gave a bacterial load estimate 32-fold lower than obtained by Q-PCR. Real-time quantitative PCR thus proves to be a reliable, discerning, and simple method that could be used to estimate airborne bacterial load in a broad variety of other environments expected to carry high numbers of airborne bacteria.

  15. Dielectrophoretic separation of airborne microbes and dust particles using a microfluidic channel for real-time bioaerosol monitoring.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hui-Sung; Nam, Yun-Woo; Park, Jae Chan; Jung, Hyo-Il

    2009-08-01

    Airborne microbes such as fungi, bacteria, and viruses are a threat to public health. Robust and real-time detection systems are necessary to prevent and control such dangerous biological particles in public places and dwellings. For direct and real-time detection of airborne microbes, samples must be collected and typically resuspended in liquid prior to detection; however, environmental particles such as dust are also trapped in such samples. Therefore, the isolation of target bacteria or a selective collection of microbes from unwanted nonbiological particles prior to detection is of great importance. Dielectrophoresis (DEP), the translational motion of charge neutral matter in nonuniform electric fields, is an emerging technique that can rapidly separate biological particles in microfluidics because low voltages produce significant and contactless forces on particles without any modification or labeling. In this paper, we propose a new method for the separation of airborne microbes using DEP with a simple and novel curved electrode design for separating bacteria in a solution containing beads or dust that are taken from an airborne environmental sample. Using this method, we successfully isolated 90% of the airborne bacterium Micrococcus luteus from a mixture of bacteria and dust using a microfluidic device, consisting of novel curved electrodes that attract bacteria and repel or leave dust particles. As there has been little research on analyzing environmental samples using microfluidics and DEP, this work describes a novel strategy for a rapid and direct bioaerosol monitoring system.

  16. Sensor for real-time determining the polarization state distribution in the object images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilosanidze, Barbara; Kakauridze, George; Kvernadze, Teimuraz; Kurkhuli, Georgi

    2015-10-01

    An innovative real-time polarimetric method is presented based on the integral polarization-holographic diffraction element developed by us. This element is suggested to be used for real time analysis of the polarization state of light, to help highlight military equipment in a scene. In the process of diffraction, the element decomposes light incoming on them onto orthogonal circular and linear basis. The simultaneous measurement of the intensities of four diffracted beams by means of photodetectors and the appropriate software enable the polarization state of an analyzable light (all the four Stokes parameters) and its change to be obtained in real time. The element with photodetectors and software is a sensor of the polarization state. Such a sensor allows the point-by-point distribution of the polarization state in the images of objects to be determined. The spectral working range of such an element is 530 - 1600 nm. This sensor is compact, lightweight and relatively cheap, and it can be easily installed on any space and airborne platforms. It has no mechanically moving or electronically controlled elements. The speed of its operation is limited only by computer processing. Such a sensor is proposed to be use for the determination of the characteristics of the surface of objects at optical remote sensing by means of the determination of the distribution of the polarization state of light in the image of recognizable object and the dispersion of this distribution, which provides additional information while identifying an object. The possibility of detection of a useful signal of the predetermined polarization on a background of statistically random noise of an underlying surface is also possible. The application of the sensor is also considered for the nondestructive determination of the distribution of stressed state in different constructions based on the determination of the distribution of the polarization state of light reflected from the object under

  17. Real-time microstructural and functional imaging and image processing in optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Volker

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique that allows high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure, achieving a spatial resolution of about 10 mum. OCT is similar to B-mode ultrasound (US) except that it uses infrared light instead of ultrasound. In contrast to US, no coupling gel is needed, simplifying the image acquisition. Furthermore, the fiber optic implementation of OCT is compatible with endoscopes. In recent years, the transition from slow imaging, bench-top systems to real-time clinical systems has been under way. This has lead to a variety of applications, namely in ophthalmology, gastroenterology, dermatology and cardiology. First, this dissertation will demonstrate that OCT is capable of imaging and differentiating clinically relevant tissue structures in the gastrointestinal tract. A careful in vitro correlation study between endoscopic OCT images and corresponding histological slides was performed. Besides structural imaging, OCT systems were further developed for functional imaging, as for example to visualize blood flow. Previously, imaging flow in small vessels in real-time was not possible. For this research, a new processing scheme similar to real-time Doppler in US was introduced. It was implemented in dedicated hardware to allow real-time acquisition and overlayed display of blood flow in vivo. A sensitivity of 0.5mm/s was achieved. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a variation of OCT, improving the resolution even further to a few micrometers. Advances made in the OCT scan engine for the Doppler setup enabled real-time imaging in vivo with OCM. In order to generate geometrical correct images for all the previous applications in real-time, extensive image processing algorithms were developed. Algorithms for correction of distortions due to non-telecentric scanning, nonlinear scan mirror movements, and refraction were developed and demonstrated. This has led to interesting new

  18. Unmanned Airborne System Deployment at Turrialba Volcano for Real Time Eruptive Cloud Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, J. A.; Pieri, D. C.; Fladeland, M. M.; Bland, G.; Corrales, E.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Kolyer, R.

    2015-12-01

    The development of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) with a variety of instrument packages enables in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes, even when the active conditions of the volcano do not allow volcanologists and emergency response personnel to get too close to the erupting crater. This has been demonstrated this year by flying a sUAS through the heavy ash driven erupting volcanic cloud of Turrialba Volcano, while conducting real time in situ measurement of gases over the crater summit. The event also achieved the collection of newly released ash samples from the erupting volcano. The interception of the Turrialba ash cloud occurred during the CARTA 2015 field campaign carried out as part of an ongoing program for remote sensing satellite calibration and validation purposes, using active volcanic plumes. These deployments are timed to support overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite on a bimonthly basis using airborne platforms such as tethered balloons, free-flying fixed wing small UAVs at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within about a 5km radius of the summit crater. The onboard instrument includes the MiniGas payload which consists of an array of single electrochemical and infrared gas detectors (SO2, H2S CO2), temperature, pressure, relative humidity and GPS sensors, all connected to an Arduino-based board, with data collected at 1Hz. Data are both stored onboard and sent by telemetry to the ground operator within a 3 km range. The UAV can also carry visible and infrared cameras as well as other payloads, such as a UAV-MS payload that is currently under development for mass spectrometer-based in situ measurements. The presentation describes the ongoing UAV- based in situ remote sensing validation program at Turrialba Volcano, the results of a fly-through the eruptive cloud, as well as future plans to continue these efforts. Work presented here was

  19. Collection, Storage and Real-Time Transmission of Housekeeping and Instrument Data Aboard Manned NASA Airborne Science Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gilst, D. P.; Sorenson, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    Multi-instrument aircraft-based science campaigns require a baseline level of housekeeping service to record and distribute real time data, including timing signals, aircraft state and air data. As campaigns have become more sophisticated with greater integration between aircraft, ground instrumentation, satellites and forecasters in locations around the world, the scope of the services provided by the facility data systems on NASA's airborne science aircraft have increased to include situational awareness displays, real-time interchange of data between instruments and aircraft, and ingest of data to assist in real-time targeting of flights. As the scope of services has expanded, it has become increasingly important to provide standardized interfaces to experimenters to minimize integration complexity, and to make services sufficiently reliable for mission operations to depend upon them. Within the NASA airborne science program in recent years this has been provided by systems based around the core of the REVEAL/NASDAT system, with additional services including satellite communications, data display and ingest of outside data being provided by a mix of custom and COTS hardware and software. With a strong emphasis on transmission of data over industry standard IP and ethernet based networks, this system has been proven on numerous highly diverse missions on the DC-8 over the last 4 years and is being replicated on other NASA Airborne Science Platforms.

  20. Real-time viewpoint image synthesis using strips of multi-camera images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, Munekazu; Takada, Hideaki; Kojima, Akira

    2015-03-01

    A real-time viewpoint image generation method is achieved. Video communications with a high sense of reality are needed to make natural connections between users at different places. One of the key technologies to achieve a sense of high reality is image generation corresponding to an individual user's viewpoint. However, generating viewpoint images requires advanced image processing, which is usually too heavy to use for real-time and low-latency purposes. In this paper we propose a real-time viewpoint image generation method using simple blending of multiple camera images taken at equal horizontal intervals and convergence obtained by using approximate information of an object's depth. An image generated from the nearest camera images is visually perceived as an intermediate viewpoint image due to the visual effect of depth-fused 3D (DFD). If the viewpoint is not on the line of the camera array, a viewpoint image could be generated by region splitting. We made a prototype viewpoint image generation system and achieved real-time full-frame operation for stereo HD videos. The users can see their individual viewpoint image for left-and-right and back-and-forth movement toward the screen. Our algorithm is very simple and promising as a means for achieving video communication with high reality.

  1. Passive, real-time millimeter wave imaging for degraded visual environment mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Thomas E.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Martin, Richard D.; Mackrides, Daniel G.; Shi, Shouyuan; Yao, Peng; Shreve, Kevin; Harrity, Charles; Prather, Dennis W.

    2015-05-01

    Degraded visual environments create dangerous conditions for aircraft pilots due to loss of situational awareness and/or ground reference, which can result in accidents during navigation or landing. Imaging in millimeter wave spectral bands offers the ability to maintain pilot's situational awareness despite DVE with a "see-through" imaging modality. Millimeter waves exhibit low atmospheric attenuation as well as low scattering loss from airborne particulates, e.g. blowing sand, dust, fog, and other visual obscurants. As such, Phase Sensitive Innovations (PSI) has developed a passive, real-time mmW imager to mitigate brownout dangers for rotorcraft. The imager consists of a distributed aperture array with conversion of detected mmW signals to optical frequencies for processing and image formation. Recently we performed operationally representative flight testing of our sensor while imaging various natural and manmade objects. Here we present imagery collected during these tests as it confirms the performance of the sensor technology and illustrates phenomenology encountered in the mmW spectrum.

  2. Demonstration of decimeter-level real-time positioning of an airborne platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armatys, M.; Muellerschoen, R.; Bar-Sever, Y.; Meyer, R.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability of the NASA Global Differential GPS System to support 10 to 20 cm accurate real-time airplane positioning, anywhere in the world, independent of local navigational aids or infrastructure.

  3. A Photoacoustic Imaging System with Optimized Real-Time Parallel Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ting; Yuan, Jie; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Xu, Guan

    2013-10-01

    Biomedical photoacoustic tomography (PAT) provides anatomical, functional, metabolic, molecular, and genetic contrasts of vasculature, hemodynamics, oxygen metabolism, biomarkers, and gene expression. These attributes bring PAT to a wide variety of applications in clinical medicine and preclinical research. We report the development of a real-time PAT imaging system, which integrates signal scanning, image reconstruction and displaying photoacoustic images in real time. An optimized back projection algorithm for PAT imaging is proposed and tested on a latest graphics process unit based card. The whole system is built and tested in an experiment for monitoring moving blood events to validate the real-time performance of this system to image moving events.

  4. Forming rotated SAR images by real-time motion compensation.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2012-12-01

    Proper waveform parameter selection allows collecting Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) phase history data on a rotated grid in the Fourier Space of the scene being imaged. Subsequent image formation preserves the rotated geometry to allow SAR images to be formed at arbitrary rotation angles without the use of computationally expensive interpolation or resampling operations. This should be useful where control of image orientation is desired such as generating squinted stripmaps and VideoSAR applications, among others.

  5. Real-Time Imaging of Fluorescent Flagellar Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Linda; Ryu, William S.; Berg, Howard C.

    2000-01-01

    Bacteria swim by rotating flagellar filaments that are several micrometers long, but only about 20 nm in diameter. The filaments can exist in different polymorphic forms, having distinct values of curvature and twist. Rotation rates are on the order of 100 Hz. In the past, the motion of individual filaments has been visualized by dark-field or differential-interference-contrast microscopy, methods hampered by intense scattering from the cell body or shallow depth of field, respectively. We have found a simple procedure for fluorescently labeling cells and filaments that allows recording their motion in real time with an inexpensive video camera and an ordinary fluorescence microscope with mercury-arc or strobed laser illumination. We report our initial findings with cells of Escherichia coli. Tumbles (events that enable swimming cells to alter course) are remarkably varied. Not every filament on a cell needs to change its direction of rotation: different filaments can change directions at different times, and a tumble can result from the change in direction of only one. Polymorphic transformations tend to occur in the sequence normal, semicoiled, curly 1, with changes in the direction of movement of the cell body correlated with transformations to the semicoiled form. PMID:10781548

  6. Real-time PCR detection of toxigenic Fusarium in airborne and settled grain dust and associations with trichothecene mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Eduard, Wijnand; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner

    2006-12-01

    Inhalation of immunomodulating mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. that are commonly found in grain dust may imply health risks for grain farmers. Airborne Fusarium and mycotoxin exposure levels are mainly unknown due to difficulties in identifying Fusarium and mycotoxins in personal aerosol samples. We used a novel real-time PCR method to quantify the fungal trichodiene synthase gene (tri5) and DNA specific to F. langsethiae and F. avenaceum in airborne and settled grain dust, determined the personal inhalant exposure level to toxigenic Fusarium during various activities, and evaluated whether quantitative measurements of Fusarium-DNA could predict trichothecene levels in grain dust. Airborne Fusarium-DNA was detected in personal samples even from short tasks (10-60 min). The median Fusarium-DNA level was significantly higher in settled than in airborne grain dust (p < 0.001), and only the F. langsethiae-DNA levels correlated significantly in settled and airborne dust (r(s) = 0.20, p = 0.003). Both F. langsethiae-DNA and tri5-DNA were associated with HT-2 and T-2 toxins (r(s) = 0.24-0.71, p < 0.05 to p < 00.01) in settled dust, and could thus be suitable as indicators for HT-2 and T-2. The median personal inhalant exposure to specific toxigenic Fusarium spp. was less than 1 genome m(-3), but the exposure ranged from 0-10(5) genomes m(-3). This study is the first to apply real-time PCR on personal samples of inhalable grain dust for the quantification of tri5 and species-specific Fusarium-DNA, which may have potential for risk assessments of inhaled trichothecenes. PMID:17133280

  7. Real-time digital signal processing for live electro-optic imaging.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Kanno, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Masahiro

    2009-08-31

    We present an imaging system that enables real-time magnitude and phase detection of modulated signals and its application to a Live Electro-optic Imaging (LEI) system, which realizes instantaneous visualization of RF electric fields. The real-time acquisition of magnitude and phase images of a modulated optical signal at 5 kHz is demonstrated by imaging with a Si-based high-speed CMOS image sensor and real-time signal processing with a digital signal processor. In the LEI system, RF electric fields are probed with light via an electro-optic crystal plate and downconverted to an intermediate frequency by parallel optical heterodyning, which can be detected with the image sensor. The artifacts caused by the optics and the image sensor characteristics are corrected by image processing. As examples, we demonstrate real-time visualization of electric fields from RF circuits.

  8. In vivo dynamic process imaging using real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Shao, Peng; Hajireza, Parsin; Forbrich, Alexander; Zemp, Roger J.

    2013-02-01

    The authors demonstrate in vivo dynamic process imaging using a label-free real-time optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope (OR-PAM). This reflection-mode system takes advantage of a 532-nm fiber laser source with a high pulse repetition rate of up to 600 kHz combined with a fast-scanning mirror system. Microvasculature in SCID mouse ears is imaged at near real-time (0.5 fps) for a 1×1 mm2 field of view (FOV) with micron-scale lateral resolution. We also demonstrate imaging of cardiac-induced microhemodynamics in murine microvasculature at real-time frame-rates (30 fps) over a 250×250 μ FOV using real-time C-scan OR-PAM with ability to provide sustained imaging with near real-time feedback for focusing and positioning.

  9. MITAS: multisensor imaging technology for airborne surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, John D.

    1991-08-01

    MITAS, a unique and low-cost solution to the problem of collecting and processing multisensor imaging data for airborne surveillance operations has been developed, MITAS results from integrating the established and proven real-time video processing, target tracking, and sensor management software of TAU with commercially available image exploitation and map processing software. The MITAS image analysis station (IAS) supports airborne day/night reconnaissance and surveillance missions involving low-altitude collection platforms employing a suite of sensors to perform reconnaissance functions against a variety of ground and sea targets. The system will detect, locate, and recognize threats likely to be encountered in support of counternarcotic operations and in low-intensity conflict areas. The IAS is capable of autonomous, near real-time target exploitation and has the appropriate communication links to remotely located IAS systems for more extended analysis of sensor data. The IAS supports the collection, fusion, and processing of three main imaging sensors: daylight imagery (DIS), forward looking infrared (FLIR), and infrared line scan (IRLS). The MITAS IAS provides support to all aspects of the airborne surveillance mission, including sensor control, real-time image enhancement, automatic target tracking, sensor fusion, freeze-frame capture, image exploitation, target data-base management, map processing, remote image transmission, and report generation.

  10. Advanced hyperspectral imaging solutions for near real-time target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherbee, Oliver; Janaskie, Justin; Hyvärinen, Timo

    2012-09-01

    AISA hyperspectral imagers have been utilized in airborne applications for various defense related Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) applications. In expanding the utility and capabilities of hyperspectral imagers for defense related applications, the implementation in a ground scanning configuration for check-point and forensic purposes has been achieved. System specifications, design, and operational considerations for a fully automated, near real-time target detection capability are presented. The system utilizes modularized software architecture, combining C++ command, capture, calibration, and messaging functions with drop-in IDL exploitation module for detection algorithm and target set flexibility. Performance capability against known defense related targets of interest have been tested, verified, and are presented utilizing full 400-2450nm spectral range provided by combined AisaEAGLE and AisaHAWK hyperspectral imagers. Initial results are also described for a new extended InGaAs system, covering 585-1630nm to provide a similar capability for integrations which have size, weight, and power restrictions.

  11. Compact wearable dual-mode imaging system for real-time fluorescence image-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Nan; Huang, Chih-Yu; Mondal, Suman; Gao, Shengkui; Huang, Chongyuan; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-09-01

    A wearable all-plastic imaging system for real-time fluorescence image-guided surgery is presented. The compact size of the system is especially suitable for applications in the operating room. The system consists of a dual-mode imaging system, see-through goggle, autofocusing, and auto-contrast tuning modules. The paper will discuss the system design and demonstrate the system performance.

  12. Compact wearable dual-mode imaging system for real-time fluorescence image-guided surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Nan; Huang, Chih-Yu; Mondal, Suman; Gao, Shengkui; Huang, Chongyuan; Gruev, Viktor; Achilefu, Samuel; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A wearable all-plastic imaging system for real-time fluorescence image-guided surgery is presented. The compact size of the system is especially suitable for applications in the operating room. The system consists of a dual-mode imaging system, see-through goggle, autofocusing, and auto-contrast tuning modules. The paper will discuss the system design and demonstrate the system performance. PMID:26358823

  13. Real-Time Airborne Gamma-Ray Background Estimation Using NASVD with MLE and Radiation Transport for Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Jordan, David V.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Kernan, Warnick J.

    2015-06-01

    Helicopter-mounted gamma-ray detectors can provide law enforcement officials the means to quickly and accurately detect, identify, and locate radiological threats over a wide geographical area. The ability to accurately distinguish radiological threat-generated gamma-ray signatures from background gamma radiation in real time is essential in order to realize this potential. This problem is non-trivial, especially in urban environments for which the background may change very rapidly during flight. This exacerbates the challenge of estimating background due to the poor counting statistics inherent in real-time airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. To address this, we have developed a new technique for real-time estimation of background gamma radiation from aerial measurements. This method is built upon on the noise-adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD) technique that was previously developed for estimating the potassium (K), uranium (U), and thorium (T) concentrations in soil post-flight. The method can be calibrated using K, U, and T spectra determined from radiation transport simulations along with basis functions, which may be determined empirically by applying maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to previously measured airborne gamma-ray spectra. The method was applied to both measured and simulated airborne gamma-ray spectra, with and without man-made radiological source injections. Compared to schemes based on simple averaging, this technique was less sensitive to background contamination from the injected man-made sources and may be particularly useful when the gamma-ray background frequently changes during the course of the flight.

  14. Cipher image damage and decisions in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-García, Victor Manuel; Flores-Carapia, Rolando; Rentería-Márquez, Carlos; Luna-Benoso, Benjamín; Jiménez-Vázquez, Cesar Antonio; González-Ramírez, Marlon David

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for constructing permutations on m position arrangements. Our objective is to encrypt color images using advanced encryption standard (AES), using variable permutations means a different one for each 128-bit block in the first round after the x-or operation is applied. Furthermore, this research offers the possibility of knowing the original image when the encrypted figure suffered a failure from either an attack or not. This is achieved by permuting the original image pixel positions before being encrypted with AES variable permutations, which means building a pseudorandom permutation of 250,000 position arrays or more. To this end, an algorithm that defines a bijective function between the nonnegative integer and permutation sets is built. From this algorithm, the way to build permutations on the 0,1,…,m-1 array, knowing m-1 constants, is presented. The transcendental numbers are used to select these m-1 constants in a pseudorandom way. The quality of the proposed encryption according to the following criteria is evaluated: the correlation coefficient, the entropy, and the discrete Fourier transform. A goodness-of-fit test for each basic color image is proposed to measure the bits randomness degree of the encrypted figure. On the other hand, cipher images are obtained in a loss-less encryption way, i.e., no JPEG file formats are used.

  15. A high-resolution, four-band SAR testbed with real-time image formation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.; Sander, G.; Thompson, M.; Burns, B.; Fellerhoff, R.; Dubbert, D.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the Twin-Otter SAR Testbed developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This SAR is a flexible, adaptable testbed capable of operation on four frequency bands: Ka, Ku, X, and VHF/UHF bands. The SAR features real-time image formation at fine resolution in spotlight and stripmap modes. High-quality images are formed in real time using the overlapped subaperture (OSA) image-formation and phase gradient autofocus (PGA) algorithms.

  16. Real-time mid-infrared imaging of living microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Haase, Katharina; Kröger-Lui, Niels; Pucci, Annemarie; Schönhals, Arthur; Petrich, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The speed and efficiency of quantum cascade laser-based mid-infrared microspectroscopy are demonstrated using two different model organisms as examples. For the slowly moving Amoeba proteus, a quantum cascade laser is tuned over the wavelength range of 7.6 µm to 8.6 µm (wavenumbers 1320 cm(-1) and 1160 cm(-1) , respectively). The recording of a hyperspectral image takes 11.3 s whereby an average signal-to-noise ratio of 29 is achieved. The limits of time resolution are tested by imaging the fast moving Caenorhabditis elegans at a discrete wavenumber of 1265 cm(-1) . Mid-infrared imaging is performed with the 640 × 480 pixel video graphics array (VGA) standard and at a full-frame time resolution of 0.02 s (i.e. well above the most common frame rate standards). An average signal-to-noise ratio of 16 is obtained. To the best of our knowledge, these findings constitute the first mid-infrared imaging of living organisms at VGA standard and video frame rate. PMID:26572683

  17. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  18. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  19. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  20. Real-time mid-infrared imaging of living microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Haase, Katharina; Kröger-Lui, Niels; Pucci, Annemarie; Schönhals, Arthur; Petrich, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The speed and efficiency of quantum cascade laser-based mid-infrared microspectroscopy are demonstrated using two different model organisms as examples. For the slowly moving Amoeba proteus, a quantum cascade laser is tuned over the wavelength range of 7.6 µm to 8.6 µm (wavenumbers 1320 cm(-1) and 1160 cm(-1) , respectively). The recording of a hyperspectral image takes 11.3 s whereby an average signal-to-noise ratio of 29 is achieved. The limits of time resolution are tested by imaging the fast moving Caenorhabditis elegans at a discrete wavenumber of 1265 cm(-1) . Mid-infrared imaging is performed with the 640 × 480 pixel video graphics array (VGA) standard and at a full-frame time resolution of 0.02 s (i.e. well above the most common frame rate standards). An average signal-to-noise ratio of 16 is obtained. To the best of our knowledge, these findings constitute the first mid-infrared imaging of living organisms at VGA standard and video frame rate.

  1. Human movement analysis with image processing in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauvet, Eric; Paindavoine, Michel; Cannard, F.

    1991-04-01

    In the field of the human sciences, a lot of applications needs to know the kinematic characteristics of the human movements Psycology is associating the characteristics with the control mechanism, sport and biomechariics are associating them with the performance of the sportman or of the patient. So the trainers or the doctors can correct the gesture of the subject to obtain a better performance if he knows the motion properties. Roherton's studies show the children motion evolution2 . Several investigations methods are able to measure the human movement But now most of the studies are based on image processing. Often the systems are working at the T.V. standard (50 frame per secund ). they permit only to study very slow gesture. A human operator analyses the digitizing sequence of the film manually giving a very expensive, especially long and unprecise operation. On these different grounds many human movement analysis systems were implemented. They consist of: - markers which are fixed to the anatomical interesting points on the subject in motion, - Image compression which is the art to coding picture data. Generally the compression Is limited to the centroid coordinates calculation tor each marker. These systems differ from one other in image acquisition and markers detection.

  2. Real time image processing with an analog vision chip system.

    PubMed

    Kameda, S; Honda, A; Yagi, T

    1999-10-01

    A linear analog network model is proposed to characterize the function of the outer retinal circuit in terms of the standard regularization theory. Inspired by the function and the architecture of the model, a vision chip has been designed using analog CMOS Very Large Scale Integrated circuit technology. In the chip, sample/hold amplifier circuits are incorporated to compensate for statistic transistor mismatches. Accordingly, extremely low noise outputs were obtained from the chip. Using the chip and a zero-crossing detector, edges of given images were effectively extracted in indoor illumination.

  3. Implementation of real-time digital endoscopic image processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chul Gyu; Lee, Young Mook; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Won Ky; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Myoung Ho

    1997-10-01

    Endoscopy has become a crucial diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in clinical areas. Over the past four years, we have developed a computerized system to record and store clinical data pertaining to endoscopic surgery of laparascopic cholecystectomy, pelviscopic endometriosis, and surgical arthroscopy. In this study, we developed a computer system, which is composed of a frame grabber, a sound board, a VCR control board, a LAN card and EDMS. Also, computer system controls peripheral instruments such as a color video printer, a video cassette recorder, and endoscopic input/output signals. Digital endoscopic data management system is based on open architecture and a set of widely available industry standards; namely Microsoft Windows as an operating system, TCP/IP as a network protocol and a time sequential database that handles both images and speech. For the purpose of data storage, we used MOD and CD- R. Digital endoscopic system was designed to be able to store, recreate, change, and compress signals and medical images. Computerized endoscopy enables us to generate and manipulate the original visual document, making it accessible to a virtually unlimited number of physicians.

  4. Aerosol-fluorescence spectrum analyzer: real-time measurement of emission spectra of airborne biological particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Steven C.; Pinnick, Ronald G.; Nachman, Paul; Chen, Gang; Chang, Richard K.; Mayo, Michael W.; Fernandez, Gilbert L.

    1995-10-01

    We have assembled an aerosol-fluorescence spectrum analyzer (AFS), which can measure the fluorescence spectra and elastic scattering of airborne particles as they flow through a laser beam. The aerosols traverse a scattering cell where they are illuminated with intense (50 kW/cm 2) light inside the cavity of an argon-ion laser operating at 488 nm. This AFS can obtain fluorescence spectra of individual dye-doped polystyrene microspheres as small as 0.5 mu m in diameter. The spectra obtained from microspheres doped with pink and green-yellow dyes are clearly different. We have also detected the fluorescence spectra of airborne particles (although not single particles) made from various

  5. Real-time airborne gamma-ray background estimation using NASVD with MLE and radiation transport for calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulisek, J. A.; Schweppe, J. E.; Stave, S. C.; Bernacki, B. E.; Jordan, D. V.; Stewart, T. N.; Seifert, C. E.; Kernan, W. J.

    2015-06-01

    Helicopter-mounted gamma-ray detectors can provide law enforcement officials the means to quickly and accurately detect, identify, and locate radiological threats over a wide geographical area. The ability to accurately distinguish radiological threat-generated gamma-ray signatures from background gamma radiation in real time is essential in order to realize this potential. This problem is non-trivial, especially in urban environments for which the background may change very rapidly during flight. This exacerbates the challenge of estimating background due to the poor counting statistics inherent in real-time airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. To address this challenge, we have developed a new technique for real-time estimation of background gamma radiation from aerial measurements without the need for human analyst intervention. The method can be calibrated using radiation transport simulations along with data from previous flights over areas for which the isotopic composition need not be known. Over the examined measured and simulated data sets, the method generated accurate background estimates even in the presence of a strong, 60Co source. The potential to track large and abrupt changes in background spectral shape and magnitude was demonstrated. The method can be implemented fairly easily in most modern computing languages and environments.

  6. The design of real time infrared image generation software based on Creator and Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui-feng; Wu, Wei-dong; Huo, Jun-xiu

    2013-09-01

    Considering the requirement of high reality and real-time quality dynamic infrared image of an infrared image simulation, a method to design real-time infrared image simulation application on the platform of VC++ is proposed. This is based on visual simulation software Creator and Vega. The functions of Creator are introduced simply, and the main features of Vega developing environment are analyzed. The methods of infrared modeling and background are offered, the designing flow chart of the developing process of IR image real-time generation software and the functions of TMM Tool and MAT Tool and sensor module are explained, at the same time, the real-time of software is designed.

  7. Noninvasive real time tomographic imaging of epileptic foci and networks.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Ji, Lijun; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Bo; Yang, Jianjun; Zhang, Qizhi; Jiang, Max S; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-02-01

    While brain imaging and electrophysiology play a central role in neuroscience research and in the evaluation of neurological disorders, a single noninvasive modality that offers both high spatial and temporal resolution is currently not available. Here we show in an acute epilepsy rat model that photoacoustic tomography (PAT) can noninvasively track seizure brain dynamics with both high spatial and temporal resolution, and at a depth that is clinically relevant. The noninvasive yet whole surface and depth capabilities of the PAT system allowed us to actually see what is happening during ictogenesis in terms of seizure onset and spread. Both seizure onset and propagation were tomographically detected at a spatial resolution of 150μm and a temporal resolution of 300ms, respectively. The current study lends support to the theory that seizure onset and spread involves a rich interplay between multiple cortical and subcortical brain areas during the onset and spread of epileptic seizures. Dynamical changes of vasculature during epileptiform events were also detected with high spatiotemporal resolution. Together, these findings suggest that PAT represents a powerful tool for noninvasively mapping seizure onset and propagation patterns, and the 'functional' connectivity within epileptic brain networks. PMID:23128072

  8. Handheld Real-Time Volumetric Imaging of The Spine: Technology Development

    PubMed Central

    Tiouririne, Mohamed; Nguyen, Sarah; Hossack, John A.; Owen, Kevin; Mauldin, F. William

    2014-01-01

    Technical difficulties, poor image quality and reliance on pattern identifications represent some of the drawbacks of two-dimensional ultrasound imaging of spinal bone anatomy. To overcome these limitations, we sought to develop real-time volumetric imaging of the spine using a portable handheld device. The device measured 19.2 cm x 9.2 cm x 9.0 cm and imaged at 5 MHz center frequency. 2D imaging under conventional ultrasound and volumetric (3D) imaging in real time was achieved and verified by inspection using a custom spine phantom. Further device performance was assessed and revealed a 75-minute battery life and average frame rate of 17.7 Hz in volumetric imaging mode. Our results suggest that real-time volumetric imaging of the spine is a feasible technique for more intuitive visualization of the spine. These results may have important ramifications for a large array of neuraxial procedures. PMID:24446802

  9. Real-time maximum a-posteriori image reconstruction for fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbar, Anwar A.; Dilipkumar, Shilpa; C K, Rasmi; Rajan, K.; Mondal, Partha P.

    2015-08-01

    Rapid reconstruction of multidimensional image is crucial for enabling real-time 3D fluorescence imaging. This becomes a key factor for imaging rapidly occurring events in the cellular environment. To facilitate real-time imaging, we have developed a graphics processing unit (GPU) based real-time maximum a-posteriori (MAP) image reconstruction system. The parallel processing capability of GPU device that consists of a large number of tiny processing cores and the adaptability of image reconstruction algorithm to parallel processing (that employ multiple independent computing modules called threads) results in high temporal resolution. Moreover, the proposed quadratic potential based MAP algorithm effectively deconvolves the images as well as suppresses the noise. The multi-node multi-threaded GPU and the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) efficiently execute the iterative image reconstruction algorithm that is ≈200-fold faster (for large dataset) when compared to existing CPU based systems.

  10. Real-time integral imaging system with handheld light field camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Youngmo; Kim, Jonghyun; Yeom, Jiwoon; Lee, Byoungho

    2014-11-01

    Our objective is to construct real-time pickup and display in integral imaging system with handheld light field camera. A micro lens array and high frame rate charge-coupled device (CCD) are used to implement handheld light field camera, and a simple lens array and a liquid crystal (LC) display panel are used to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) images in real-time. Handheld light field camera is implemented by adding the micro lens array on CCD sensor. Main lens, which is mounted on CCD sensor, is used to capture the scene. To make the elemental image in real-time, pixel mapping algorithm is applied. With this algorithm, not only pseudoscopic problem can be solved, but also user can change the depth plane of the displayed 3D images in real-time. For real-time high quality 3D video generation, a high resolution and high frame rate CCD and LC display panel are used in proposed system. Experiment and simulation results are presented to verify our proposed system. As a result, 3D image is captured and reconstructed in real-time through integral imaging system.

  11. Real Time Quantitative 3-D Imaging of Diffusion Flame Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, Daniel J.; Silver, Joel A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-gravity environment, in space or ground-based facilities such as drop towers, provides a unique setting for study of combustion mechanisms. Understanding the physical phenomena controlling the ignition and spread of flames in microgravity has importance for space safety as well as better characterization of dynamical and chemical combustion processes which are normally masked by buoyancy and other gravity-related effects. Even the use of so-called 'limiting cases' or the construction of 1-D or 2-D models and experiments fail to make the analysis of combustion simultaneously simple and accurate. Ideally, to bridge the gap between chemistry and fluid mechanics in microgravity combustion, species concentrations and temperature profiles are needed throughout the flame. However, restrictions associated with performing measurements in reduced gravity, especially size and weight considerations, have generally limited microgravity combustion studies to the capture of flame emissions on film or video laser Schlieren imaging and (intrusive) temperature measurements using thermocouples. Given the development of detailed theoretical models, more sophisticated studies are needed to provide the kind of quantitative data necessary to characterize the properties of microgravity combustion processes as well as provide accurate feedback to improve the predictive capabilities of the computational models. While there have been a myriad of fluid mechanical visualization studies in microgravity combustion, little experimental work has been completed to obtain reactant and product concentrations within a microgravity flame. This is largely due to the fact that traditional sampling methods (quenching microprobes using GC and/or mass spec analysis) are too heavy, slow, and cumbersome for microgravity experiments. Non-intrusive optical spectroscopic techniques have - up until now - also required excessively bulky, power hungry equipment. However, with the advent of near-IR diode

  12. Subcellular real-time in vivo imaging of intralymphatic and intravascular cancer-cell trafficking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, M.; Hayashi, K.; Kaushal, S.; Bouvet, M.; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2008-02-01

    With the use of fluorescent cells labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus and red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm and a highly sensitive small animal imaging system with both macro-optics and micro-optics, we have developed subcellular real-time imaging of cancer cell trafficking in live mice. Dual-color cancer cells were injected by a vascular route in an abdominal skin flap in nude mice. The mice were imaged with an Olympus OV100 small animal imaging system with a sensitive CCD camera and four objective lenses, parcentered and parfocal, enabling imaging from macrocellular to subcellular. We observed the nuclear and cytoplasmic behavior of cancer cells in real time in blood vessels as they moved by various means or adhered to the vessel surface in the abdominal skin flap. During extravasation, real-time dual-color imaging showed that cytoplasmic processes of the cancer cells exited the vessels first, with nuclei following along the cytoplasmic projections. Both cytoplasm and nuclei underwent deformation during extravasation. Different cancer cell lines seemed to strongly vary in their ability to extravasate. We have also developed real-time imaging of cancer cell trafficking in lymphatic vessels. Cancer cells labeled with GFP and/or RFP were injected into the inguinal lymph node of nude mice. The labeled cancer cells trafficked through lymphatic vessels where they were imaged via a skin flap in real-time at the cellular level until they entered the axillary lymph node. The bright dual-color fluorescence of the cancer cells and the real-time microscopic imaging capability of the Olympus OV100 enabled imaging the trafficking cancer cells in both blood vessels and lymphatics. With the dual-color cancer cells and the highly sensitive imaging system described here, the subcellular dynamics of cancer metastasis can now be observed in live mice in real time.

  13. Real-time measurement of sub-PPM concentrations of airborne chemicals in semiconductor manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Corn, M; Cohen, R

    1993-01-01

    Real-time mass spectroscopy (ICAMS) can provide hourly or daily estimates of employee exposure. Field calibration of the unit indicated essentially linear response from 0.01 (Cellosolve Acetate) and 0.03 ppm (Diglyme) to 1 ppm in semiconductor cleanrooms. The instrument can be programmed for 4 minute readings on a single compound, or for rotation among several chemicals, each requiring 4 minute dwell times for analysis. In contrast to full shift personal sampling methods to measure exposure, ICAMS offers insights into the occurrence of peak exposures. In addition, in the occupational environment ICAMS results can be integrated to estimate full-shift within a zone exposures. Thus, the ICAMS extends measurement sensitivities below those currently available and offers a viable alternative to personal sampling in the semiconductor industry. PMID:9857292

  14. Scene data fusion: Real-time standoff volumetric gamma-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnowski, Ross; Haefner, Andrew; Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai

    2015-11-01

    An approach to gamma-ray imaging has been developed that enables near real-time volumetric (3D) imaging of unknown environments thus improving the utility of gamma-ray imaging for source-search and radiation mapping applications. The approach, herein dubbed scene data fusion (SDF), is based on integrating mobile radiation imagers with real-time tracking and scene reconstruction algorithms to enable a mobile mode of operation and 3D localization of gamma-ray sources. A 3D model of the scene, provided in real-time by a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm, is incorporated into the image reconstruction reducing the reconstruction time and improving imaging performance. The SDF concept is demonstrated in this work with a Microsoft Kinect RGB-D sensor, a real-time SLAM solver, and a cart-based Compton imaging platform comprised of two 3D position-sensitive high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. An iterative algorithm based on Compton kinematics is used to reconstruct the gamma-ray source distribution in all three spatial dimensions. SDF advances the real-world applicability of gamma-ray imaging for many search, mapping, and verification scenarios by improving the tractiblity of the gamma-ray image reconstruction and providing context for the 3D localization of gamma-ray sources within the environment in real-time.

  15. Off-axis quantitative phase imaging processing using CUDA: toward real-time applications

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Hoa; Ding, Huafeng; Sobh, Nahil; Do, Minh; Patel, Sanjay; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate real time off-axis Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) using a phase reconstruction algorithm based on NVIDIA’s CUDA programming model. The phase unwrapping component is based on Goldstein’s algorithm. By mapping the process of extracting phase information and unwrapping to GPU, we are able to speed up the whole procedure by more than 18.8× with respect to CPU processing and ultimately achieve video rate for mega-pixel images. Our CUDA implementation also supports processing of multiple images simultaneously. This enables our imaging system to support high speed, high throughput, and real-time image acquisition and visualization. PMID:21750757

  16. Design of multi-spectral images real-time segmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Bo; Qu, Youshan; Han, Yameng; Zhou, Jiang

    2015-02-01

    In order to realize the real-time segmentation processing of multi spectral images in practice, a real-time multi-spectral images segmentation system composed of four TMS320C6455 DSPs, two Virtex-4 - V4 XC4VLX80 - FPGAs and one Virtex-2 Pro - V2 Pro20 - FPGA is designed. Through the optimization of the cooperation processing of the multi DSP and multi FPGA, the parallel multitask processing ability of the DSPs and the effective interface coordination ability of the FPGAs in the built system are used fully. In order to display the processing ability, the segmentation test experiments of 10 spectra visible images, with 1024×1024, segmented by the Multi-scale Image Segmentation Method, was done in the built multi spectral images segment system. The experiment results prove that the multi DSP and multi FPGA multi spectral images processing system designed in this paper satisfies the real-time processing requirement in engineering practice.

  17. FPGA-based real-time anisotropic diffusion filtering of 3D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Pareja, Carlos R.; Dandekar, Omkar S.; Shekhar, Raj

    2005-02-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasonic imaging, especially the emerging real-time version of it, is particularly valuable in medical applications such as echocardiography, obstetrics and surgical navigation. A known problem with ultrasound images is their high level of speckle noise. Anisotropic diffusion filtering has been shown to be effective in enhancing the visual quality of 3D ultrasound images and as preprocessing prior to advanced image processing. However, due to its arithmetic complexity and the sheer size of 3D ultrasound images, it is not possible to perform online, real-time anisotropic diffusion filtering using standard software implementations. We present an FPGA-based architecture that allows performing anisotropic diffusion filtering of 3D images at acquisition rates, thus enabling the use of this filtering technique in real-time applications, such as visualization, registration and volume rendering.

  18. Real Time Data/Video/Voice Uplink and Downlink for Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Doyal A.

    1997-01-01

    LFS was an educational outreach adventure which brought the excitement of astronomical exploration on NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) to a nationwide audience of children, parents and children through live, interactive television, broadcast from the KAO at an altitude of 41,000 feet during an actual scientific observing mission. The project encompassed three KAO flights during the fall of 1995, including a short practice mission, a daytime observing flight between Moffett Field, California to Houston, Texas, and a nighttime mission from Houston back to Moffett Field. The University of Chicago infrared research team participated in planning the program, developing auxiliary materials including background information and lesson plans, developing software which allowed students on the ground to control the telescope and on-board cameras via the Internet from the Adler Planetarium in Chicago, and acting as on-camera correspondents to explain and answer questions about the scientific research conducted during the flights.

  19. High-resolution imaging with a real-time synthetic aperture ultrasound system: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianjie; Labyed, Yassin; Simonetti, Francesco; Williamson, Michael; Rosenberg, Robert; Heintz, Philip; Sandoval, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    It is difficult for ultrasound to image small targets such as breast microcalcifications. Synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging has recently developed as a promising tool to improve the capabilities of medical ultrasound. We use two different tissueequivalent phantoms to study the imaging capabilities of a real-time synthetic aperture ultrasound system for imaging small targets. The InnerVision ultrasound system DAS009 is an investigational system for real-time synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging. We use the system to image the two phantoms, and compare the images with those obtained from clinical scanners Acuson Sequoia 512 and Siemens S2000. Our results show that synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging produces images with higher resolution and less image artifacts than Acuson Sequoia 512 and Siemens S2000. In addition, we study the effects of sound speed on synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging and demonstrate that an accurate sound speed is very important for imaging small targets.

  20. SIMD massively parallel processing system for real-time image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaochu; Zhang, Ming; Yao, Qingdong; Liu, Jilin; Ye, Hong; Wu, Song; Li, Dongxiao; Zhang, Yong; Ding, Lei; Yao, Zhongyang; Yang, Weijian; Pan, Qiaohai

    1998-09-01

    This paper will describe the embedded SIMD massively parallel processor that we have developed for real-time image processing applications, such as real-time small target detection and tracking and video processing. The processor array is based on SIMD chip BAP-128 designed by our own, and uses high performance DSP TMS320C31, which can effectively perform serial and floating point calculations, as the host of the SIMD processor array. As a result, the system is able to perform a variety of image processing tasks in real-time. Furthermore, the processor will be connected with a MIMD parallel processor to construct a heterogeneously parallel processor for more complex real- time ATR (Automatic Target Recognition) and computer vision applications.

  1. Digital processing to improve image quality in real-time neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujine, Shigenori; Yoneda, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji

    1985-01-01

    Real-time neutron radiography (NTV) has been used for practical applications at the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). At present, however, the direct image from the TV system is still poor in resolution and low in contrast. In this paper several image improvements are demonstrated, such as a frame summing technique, which are effective in increasing image quality in neutron radiography. Image integration before the A/D converter has a beneficial effect on image quality and the high quality image reveals details invisible in direct images, such as: small holes by a reversed image, defects in a neutron converter screen through a high quality image, a moving object in a contoured image, a slight difference between two low-contrast images by a subtraction technique, and so on. For the real-time application a contouring operation and an averaging approach can also be utilized effectively.

  2. Real-time Imaging Orientation Determination System to Verify Imaging Polarization Navigation Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Zhao, Kaichun; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Huang, Kaoli

    2016-01-01

    Bio-inspired imaging polarization navigation which can provide navigation information and is capable of sensing polarization information has advantages of high-precision and anti-interference over polarization navigation sensors that use photodiodes. Although all types of imaging polarimeters exist, they may not qualify for the research on the imaging polarization navigation algorithm. To verify the algorithm, a real-time imaging orientation determination system was designed and implemented. Essential calibration procedures for the type of system that contained camera parameter calibration and the inconsistency of complementary metal oxide semiconductor calibration were discussed, designed, and implemented. Calibration results were used to undistort and rectify the multi-camera system. An orientation determination experiment was conducted. The results indicated that the system could acquire and compute the polarized skylight images throughout the calibrations and resolve orientation by the algorithm to verify in real-time. An orientation determination algorithm based on image processing was tested on the system. The performance and properties of the algorithm were evaluated. The rate of the algorithm was over 1 Hz, the error was over 0.313°, and the population standard deviation was 0.148° without any data filter. PMID:26805851

  3. Real-time endoscopic oxygenation imaging using single snapshot of optical properties (SSOP) imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelo, Joseph P.; van de Giessen, Martijn; Gioux, Sylvain

    2016-03-01

    With 50% of all interventional procedures in the US being minimally invasive, there is a need for objective tools to help guide surgeons in this challenging environment. Tissue oxygenation is a useful biomarker of tissue viability and suitable for surgical guidance. Here we present our efforts to perform real-time quantitative optical imaging through a rigid endoscope using Single Snapshot of Optical Properties (SSOP) imaging. In particular, in this work we introduce for the first time 3 dimensionally-corrected dual wavelength optical properties imaging using SSOP through an endoscope, allowing accurate oxygenation maps to be obtained on tissue simulating phantoms and in vivo samples. We compared the results with state-of-the-art wide-field spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI). Overall, results from the novel endoscopic imaging system agreed within 10% in absorption, reduced scattering, and oxygenation. Moreover, we introduce here real-time, video-rate quantitative optical imaging with 3D profile correction through an endoscope. These results demonstrate the potential of endoscopic SSOP as an objective surgical guidance tool for the clinic.

  4. Real-time Imaging Orientation Determination System to Verify Imaging Polarization Navigation Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hao; Zhao, Kaichun; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Huang, Kaoli

    2016-01-01

    Bio-inspired imaging polarization navigation which can provide navigation information and is capable of sensing polarization information has advantages of high-precision and anti-interference over polarization navigation sensors that use photodiodes. Although all types of imaging polarimeters exist, they may not qualify for the research on the imaging polarization navigation algorithm. To verify the algorithm, a real-time imaging orientation determination system was designed and implemented. Essential calibration procedures for the type of system that contained camera parameter calibration and the inconsistency of complementary metal oxide semiconductor calibration were discussed, designed, and implemented. Calibration results were used to undistort and rectify the multi-camera system. An orientation determination experiment was conducted. The results indicated that the system could acquire and compute the polarized skylight images throughout the calibrations and resolve orientation by the algorithm to verify in real-time. An orientation determination algorithm based on image processing was tested on the system. The performance and properties of the algorithm were evaluated. The rate of the algorithm was over 1 Hz, the error was over 0.313°, and the population standard deviation was 0.148° without any data filter. PMID:26805851

  5. Real-time monitoring of non-viable airborne particles correlates with airborne colonies and represents an acceptable surrogate for daily assessment of cell-processing cleanroom performance

    PubMed Central

    RAVAL, JAY S.; KOCH, EILEEN; DONNENBERG, ALBERT D.

    2014-01-01

    Background aims Airborne particulate monitoring is mandated as a component of good manufacturing practice. We present a procedure developed to monitor and interpret airborne particulates in an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 7 cleanroom used for the cell processing of Section 351 and Section 361 products. Methods We collected paired viable and non-viable airborne particle data over a period of 1 year in locations chosen to provide a range of air quality. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine empirically the relationship between non-viable and viable airborne particle counts. Results Viable and non-viable particles were well-correlated (r 2 = 0.78), with outlier observations at the low end of the scale (non-viable particles without detectable airborne colonies). ROC analysis predicted viable counts ≥0.5/feet 3 (a limit set by the United States Pharmacopeia) at an action limit of ≥32 000 particles (≥0.5 μ)/feet 3 , with 95.6% sensitivity and 50% specificity. This limit was exceeded 2.6 times during 18 months of retrospective daily cleanroom data (an expected false alarm rate of 1.3 times/year). After implementing this action limit, we were alerted in real time to an air-handling failure undetected by our hospital facilities management. Conclusions A rational action limit for non-viable particles was determined based on the correlation with airborne colonies. Reaching or exceeding the action limit of 32 000 non-viable particles/feet 3 triggers suspension of cleanroom cell-processing activities, deep cleaning, investigation of air handling, and a deviation management process. Our full procedure for particle monitoring is available as an online supplement. PMID:22746538

  6. Real-time intraoperative fluorescence imaging system using light-absorption correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themelis, George; Yoo, Jung Sun; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Schulz, Ralf; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2009-11-01

    We present a novel fluorescence imaging system developed for real-time interventional imaging applications. The system implements a correction scheme that improves the accuracy of epi-illumination fluorescence images for light intensity variation in tissues. The implementation is based on the use of three cameras operating in parallel, utilizing a common lens, which allows for the concurrent collection of color, fluorescence, and light attenuation images at the excitation wavelength from the same field of view. The correction is based on a ratio approach of fluorescence over light attenuation images. Color images and video is used for surgical guidance and for registration with the corrected fluorescence images. We showcase the performance metrics of this system on phantoms and animals, and discuss the advantages over conventional epi-illumination systems developed for real-time applications and the limits of validity of corrected epi-illumination fluorescence imaging.

  7. Real-time transmission of panoramic images for a telepresence wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Ha, Van Kha Ly; Nguyen, Tuan Nghia; Nguyen, Hung T

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes an approach to transmit panoramic images in real-time for a telepresence wheelchair. The system can provide remote monitoring and assistive assistance for people with disabilities. This study exploits technological advancement in image processing, wireless communication networks, and healthcare systems. High resolution panoramic images are extracted from the camera which is mounted on the wheelchair. The panoramic images are streamed in real-time via a wireless network. The experimental results show that streaming speed is up to 250 KBps. The subjective quality assessments show that the received images are smooth during the streaming period. In addition, in terms of the objective image quality evaluation the average peak signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed images is measured to be 39.19 dB which reveals high quality of images. PMID:26737063

  8. Real-time image processing for rapid contaminant detection on broiler carcasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Snead, M. Preston

    2004-11-01

    Recently, the imaging research group at Russell Research Center, ARS in Athens, Georgia has developed a real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses. The prototype system includes a common aperture camera with three optical trim filters (515.4, 566.4 and 631-nm wavelength), which were selected by visible/NIR spectroscopy and validated by a hyperspectral imaging system. The preliminary results showed that the multispectral imaging technique can be used effectively for detecting feces (from duodenum, ceca, and colon) and ingesta on the surface of poultry carcasses with a processing speed of 140 birds per minute. The accuracy for the detection of fecal and ingesta contaminates was 96%. However, the system contains many false positives including scabs, feathers, and boundaries. This paper demonstrates calibration of common aperture multispectral imaging hardware and real-time multispectral image processing software. The software design, especially the Unified Modeling Language (UML) design approach was used to develop real-time image processing software for on-line application. The UML models including class, object, activity, sequence, and collaboration diagram were discussed. Both hardware and software for a real-time fecal and ingesta contaminant detection were tested at the pilot-scale poultry processing line.

  9. Real-time computer treatment of THz passive device images with the high image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate real-time computer code improving significantly the quality of images captured by the passive THz imaging system. The code is not only designed for a THz passive device: it can be applied to any kind of such devices and active THz imaging systems as well. We applied our code for computer processing of images captured by four passive THz imaging devices manufactured by different companies. It should be stressed that computer processing of images produced by different companies requires using the different spatial filters usually. The performance of current version of the computer code is greater than one image per second for a THz image having more than 5000 pixels and 24 bit number representation. Processing of THz single image produces about 20 images simultaneously corresponding to various spatial filters. The computer code allows increasing the number of pixels for processed images without noticeable reduction of image quality. The performance of the computer code can be increased many times using parallel algorithms for processing the image. We develop original spatial filters which allow one to see objects with sizes less than 2 cm. The imagery is produced by passive THz imaging devices which captured the images of objects hidden under opaque clothes. For images with high noise we develop an approach which results in suppression of the noise after using the computer processing and we obtain the good quality image. With the aim of illustrating the efficiency of the developed approach we demonstrate the detection of the liquid explosive, ordinary explosive, knife, pistol, metal plate, CD, ceramics, chocolate and other objects hidden under opaque clothes. The results demonstrate the high efficiency of our approach for the detection of hidden objects and they are a very promising solution for the security problem.

  10. Image corruption detection in diffusion tensor imaging for post-processing and real-time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Shea, Steven M; Lorenz, Christine H; Jiang, Hangyi; Chou, Ming-Chung; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high sensitivity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to physiological motion, clinical DTI scans often suffer a significant amount of artifacts. Tensor-fitting-based, post-processing outlier rejection is often used to reduce the influence of motion artifacts. Although it is an effective approach, when there are multiple corrupted data, this method may no longer correctly identify and reject the corrupted data. In this paper, we introduce a new criterion called "corrected Inter-Slice Intensity Discontinuity" (cISID) to detect motion-induced artifacts. We compared the performance of algorithms using cISID and other existing methods with regard to artifact detection. The experimental results show that the integration of cISID into fitting-based methods significantly improves the retrospective detection performance at post-processing analysis. The performance of the cISID criterion, if used alone, was inferior to the fitting-based methods, but cISID could effectively identify severely corrupted images with a rapid calculation time. In the second part of this paper, an outlier rejection scheme was implemented on a scanner for real-time monitoring of image quality and reacquisition of the corrupted data. The real-time monitoring, based on cISID and followed by post-processing, fitting-based outlier rejection, could provide a robust environment for routine DTI studies.

  11. On the physiology of normal swallowing as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging in real time.

    PubMed

    Olthoff, Arno; Zhang, Shuo; Schweizer, Renate; Frahm, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the physiology of normal swallowing using recent advances in real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore ten young healthy subjects underwent real-time MRI and flexible endoscopic evaluations of swallowing (FEES) with thickened pineapple juice as oral contrast bolus. MRI movies were recorded in sagittal, coronal, and axial orientations during successive swallows at about 25 frames per second. Intermeasurement variation was analyzed and comparisons between real-time MRI and FEES were performed. Twelve distinct swallowing events could be quantified by real-time MRI (start time, end time, and duration). These included five valve functions: oro-velar opening, velo-pharyngeal closure, glottal closure, epiglottic retroflexion, and esophageal opening; three bolus transports: oro-velar transit, pharyngeal delay, pharyngeal transit; and four additional events: laryngeal ascent, laryngeal descent, vallecular, and piriform sinus filling and pharyngeal constriction. Repetitive measurements confirmed the general reliability of the MRI method with only two significant differences for the start times of the velo-pharyngeal closure (t(8) = -2.4, P ≤ 0.046) and laryngeal ascent (t(8) = -2.6, P ≤ 0.031). The duration of the velo-pharyngeal closure was significantly longer in real-time MRI compared to FEES (t(8) = -3.3, P ≤ 0.011). Real-time MRI emerges as a simple, robust, and reliable tool for obtaining comprehensive functional and anatomical information about the swallowing process. PMID:24693283

  12. Real-time, T-ray imaging using a sub-terahertz gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seong-Tae; Torrezan, Antonio C.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrated real-time, active, T-ray imaging using a 0.46 THz gyrotron capable of producing 16 W in continuous wave operation and a pyroelectric array camera with 124-by-124 pixels. An expanded Gaussian beam from the gyrotron was used to maintain the power density above the detection level of the pyroelectric array over the area of the irradiated object. Real-time imaging at a video rate of 48 Hz was achieved through the use of the built-in chopper of the camera. Potential applications include fast scanning for security purposes and for quality control of dry or frozen foods.

  13. Real-time multispectral imaging system for online poultry fecal inspection using UML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Kise, Michio; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Smith, Douglas P.; Thai, Chi N.

    2006-10-01

    A prototype real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection on broiler carcasses has been developed. The prototype system includes a common aperture camera with three optical trim filters (517, 565 and 802-nm wavelength), which were selected by visible/NIR spectroscopy and validated by a hyperspectral imaging system with decision tree algorithm. The on-line testing results showed that the multispectral imaging technique can be used effectively for detecting feces (from duodenum, ceca, and colon) and ingesta on the surface of poultry carcasses with a processing speed of 140 birds per minute. This paper demonstrated both multispectral imaging hardware and real-time image processing software. For the software development, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) design approach was used for on-line application. The UML models included class, object, activity, sequence, and collaboration diagram. User interface model included seventeen inputs and six outputs. A window based real-time image processing software composed of eleven components, which represented class, architecture, and activity. Both hardware and software for a real-time fecal detection were tested at the pilot-scale poultry processing plant. The run-time of the software including online calibration was fast enough to inspect carcasses on-line with an industry requirement. Based on the preliminary test at the pilot-scale processing line, the system was able to acquire poultry images in real-time. According to the test results, the imaging system is reliable for the harsh environments and UML based image processing software is flexible and easy to be updated when additional parameters are needed for in-plant trials.

  14. Optical imaging system-based real-time image saliency extraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jufeng; Gao, Xiumin; Chen, Yueting; Feng, Huajun

    2015-04-01

    Saliency extraction has become a popular topic in imaging science. One of the challenges in image saliency extraction is to detect the saliency content efficiently with a full-resolution saliency map. Traditional methods only involve computer calculation and thus result in limitations in computational speed. An optical imaging system-based visual saliency extraction method is developed to solve this problem. The optical system is built by effectively implementing an optical Fourier process with a Fourier lens to form two frequency planes for further operation. The proposed method combines optical components and computer calculations and mainly relies on frequency selection with precise pinholes on the frequency planes to efficiently produce a saliency map. Comparison shows that the method is suitable for extracting salient information and operates in real time to generate a full-resolution saliency map with good boundaries.

  15. Real-time molecular imaging of organelles in living cell by multifocus excitation CARS microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Araki, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Mamoru

    2010-02-01

    We demonstrated real-time imaging of organelles in a living HeLa cell using a multi-focus excitation CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) microscope. Chemical selective CARS imaging of lipids and proteins was demonstrated by observing CH2 and CH3 vibrations. Real-time imaging of lipid rich organelles such as the plasma membrane, mitochondria, and lipid rich vesicles was achieved by observing CH2 stretching vibrations of lipids. The image acquisition rate of 5 frames per second was achieved without any staining. We also demonstrated real-time CARS imaging of laser-induced disruption and reaction of organelles in a living HeLa cell. A near-infrared pulsed laser beam tightly focused on an organelle in a living cell produces ablation at the focal point, causing local disruption of the organelle. We visualized the spatial and temporal distributions of a lipid rich organelles in the cytoplasm of a living HeLa cell in laser-induced dissection. We also demonstrated real-time CARS imaging of disruption of a plasma membrane and its repair.

  16. A high frequency amplitude-steered array for real-time volumetric imaging.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Catherine H; Hughes, W Jack; O'Brien, William D

    2002-12-01

    Real-time three-dimensional acoustic imaging is difficult in water or tissue because of the slow speed of sound in these media. Conventional pulse-echo data collection, which uses at least one transmit pulse per line in the image, does not allow for the real-time update of a volume of data at practical ranges. Recently, a linear amplitude-steered array was presented that allows the collection of a plane of data with a single transmit pulse by spatially separating frequencies in the lateral direction. Later, by using a linear array with frequency separation in the vertical direction and rotating the array in the horizontal direction, volumetric data were collected with a small number of transmit pulses. By expanding the linear array to a two-dimensional array, data can now be collected for volumetric imaging in real time. In this study, the amplitude-steered array at the heart of a real-time volumetric sonar imaging system is described, giving the design of the array and describing how data are collected and processed to form images. An analysis of lateral resolution in the vertical and horizontal directions shows that resolution is improved in the direction of frequency separation over systems that use a broad transmit beam. Images from simulated data are presented.

  17. Ultrasound contrast agent imaging: Real-time imaging of the superharmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Peruzzini, D.; Viti, J.; Tortoli, P.; Verweij, M. D.; Jong, N. de; Vos, H. J.

    2015-10-28

    Currently, in medical ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) imaging the second harmonic scattering of the microbubbles is regularly used. This scattering is in competition with the signal that is caused by nonlinear wave propagation in tissue. It was reported that UCA imaging based on the third or higher harmonics, i.e. “superharmonic” imaging, shows better contrast. However, the superharmonic scattering has a lower signal level compared to e.g. second harmonic signals. This study investigates the contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of superharmonic UCA scattering in a tissue/vessel mimicking phantom using a real-time clinical scanner. Numerical simulations were performed to estimate the level of harmonics generated by the microbubbles. Data were acquired with a custom built dual-frequency cardiac phased array probe. Fundamental real-time images were produced while beam formed radiofrequency (RF) data was stored for further offline processing. The phantom consisted of a cavity filled with UCA surrounded by tissue mimicking material. The acoustic pressure in the cavity of the phantom was 110 kPa (MI = 0.11) ensuring non-destructivity of UCA. After processing of the acquired data from the phantom, the UCA-filled cavity could be clearly observed in the images, while tissue signals were suppressed at or below the noise floor. The measured CTR values were 36 dB, >38 dB, and >32 dB, for the second, third, and fourth harmonic respectively, which were in agreement with those reported earlier for preliminary contrast superharmonic imaging. The single frame SNR values (in which ‘signal’ denotes the signal level from the UCA area) were 23 dB, 18 dB, and 11 dB, respectively. This indicates that noise, and not the tissue signal, is the limiting factor for the UCA detection when using the superharmonics in nondestructive mode.

  18. Ultrasound contrast agent imaging: Real-time imaging of the superharmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruzzini, D.; Viti, J.; Tortoli, P.; Verweij, M. D.; de Jong, N.; Vos, H. J.

    2015-10-01

    Currently, in medical ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) imaging the second harmonic scattering of the microbubbles is regularly used. This scattering is in competition with the signal that is caused by nonlinear wave propagation in tissue. It was reported that UCA imaging based on the third or higher harmonics, i.e. "superharmonic" imaging, shows better contrast. However, the superharmonic scattering has a lower signal level compared to e.g. second harmonic signals. This study investigates the contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of superharmonic UCA scattering in a tissue/vessel mimicking phantom using a real-time clinical scanner. Numerical simulations were performed to estimate the level of harmonics generated by the microbubbles. Data were acquired with a custom built dual-frequency cardiac phased array probe. Fundamental real-time images were produced while beam formed radiofrequency (RF) data was stored for further offline processing. The phantom consisted of a cavity filled with UCA surrounded by tissue mimicking material. The acoustic pressure in the cavity of the phantom was 110 kPa (MI = 0.11) ensuring non-destructivity of UCA. After processing of the acquired data from the phantom, the UCA-filled cavity could be clearly observed in the images, while tissue signals were suppressed at or below the noise floor. The measured CTR values were 36 dB, >38 dB, and >32 dB, for the second, third, and fourth harmonic respectively, which were in agreement with those reported earlier for preliminary contrast superharmonic imaging. The single frame SNR values (in which `signal' denotes the signal level from the UCA area) were 23 dB, 18 dB, and 11 dB, respectively. This indicates that noise, and not the tissue signal, is the limiting factor for the UCA detection when using the superharmonics in nondestructive mode.

  19. Real-time optical imaging and tracking of micron-sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Feng; Song, Qi; Tien, En-kuang; Kalyoncu, Salih K.; Boyraz, Ozdal

    2009-12-01

    We report real-time imaging and dynamics monitoring of micrometer predefined and random sized particles by time-space-wavelength mapping technology using a single-detector. Experimentally, we demonstrate real-time line imaging of a 5 μm polystyrene microsphere, glass powder particles and patterns such as fingerprints with up to 5 μm resolution at 1 line/50 ns capture rate. By using the same setup, real-time displacement tracking of micrometer-size glass particles with 50 ns temporal resolution and up to 5 μm spatial resolution is achieved. We also show that existing correlation spectroscopy algorithms can be adopted to extract dynamic information in a complex environment.

  20. A computational approach to real-time image processing for serial time-encoded amplified microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, Minoru; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hasegawa, Satoki; Endo, Yutaka; Sugie, Takahisa; Tsumura, Norimichi; Kuroshima, Mai; Maki, Masanori; Okada, Genki; Lei, Cheng; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi

    2016-03-01

    High-speed imaging is an indispensable technique, particularly for identifying or analyzing fast-moving objects. The serial time-encoded amplified microscopy (STEAM) technique was proposed to enable us to capture images with a frame rate 1,000 times faster than using conventional methods such as CCD (charge-coupled device) cameras. The application of this high-speed STEAM imaging technique to a real-time system, such as flow cytometry for a cell-sorting system, requires successively processing a large number of captured images with high throughput in real time. We are now developing a high-speed flow cytometer system including a STEAM camera. In this paper, we describe our approach to processing these large amounts of image data in real time. We use an analog-to-digital converter that has up to 7.0G samples/s and 8-bit resolution for capturing the output voltage signal that involves grayscale images from the STEAM camera. Therefore the direct data output from the STEAM camera generates 7.0G byte/s continuously. We provided a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device as a digital signal pre-processor for image reconstruction and finding objects in a microfluidic channel with high data rates in real time. We also utilized graphics processing unit (GPU) devices for accelerating the calculation speed of identification of the reconstructed images. We built our prototype system, which including a STEAM camera, a FPGA device and a GPU device, and evaluated its performance in real-time identification of small particles (beads), as virtual biological cells, owing through a microfluidic channel.

  1. Real-time image fusion: a vision aid for helicopter pilotage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Moira I.; Ball, Adrian N.; Hooper, David

    2002-07-01

    This paper reports on the development of a real-time image fusion demonstration system using COTS technology. The system is designed to operate in a highly dynamic helicopter environment and across a challenging variety of operational conditions. The targeted application for the demonstrator system is low-level helicopter nap-of-the-earth flight, with particular emphasis being placed on providing improved pilot vision for an increased situation awareness capability. This work provides key technology assessment for the UK Ministry of Defense's Day/Night All Weather helicopter program. The current operation requirement is to fuse imagery from two sensors - one a thermal imagery, the other an image intensifier or visible band camera. However, provision has been made within the software and hardware architectures to support scaling to different cameras and further processors. Over the past two years the research has matured from algorithmic development and analysis using pre-registered recorded imagery to the current real-time image fusion demonstrator system which performs registration and warping prior to an adaptive image processing control scheme. This paper concentrates on the design and hardware implementation issues associated with the process of moving from experimental non real-time algorithms to a real-time image fusion demonstrator. Background information about the program is provided to help put the current system in context, and a brief overview of the algorithm set is also given. The design and hardware implementation issues associated with this scheme are discussed and results from initial field trials are presented.

  2. Real-time optical gating for three-dimensional beating heart imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jonathan M.; Saunter, Christopher D.; Love, Gordon D.; Girkin, John M.; Henderson, Deborah J.; Chaudhry, Bill

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate real-time microscope image gating to an arbitrary position in the cycle of the beating heart of a zebrafish embryo. We show how this can be used for high-precision prospective gating of fluorescence image slices of the moving heart. We also present initial results demonstrating the application of this technique to 3-D structural imaging of the beating embryonic heart.

  3. Method and apparatus for real time imaging and monitoring of radiotherapy beams

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James; Macey, Daniel J.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2011-11-01

    A method and apparatus for real time imaging and monitoring of radiation therapy beams is designed to preferentially distinguish and image low energy radiation from high energy secondary radiation emitted from a target as the result of therapeutic beam deposition. A detector having low sensitivity to high energy photons combined with a collimator designed to dynamically image in the region of the therapeutic beam target is used.

  4. Dental Implant Placement using C-arm CT Real Time Imaging System: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, B; Boruah, Lalit C; Thind, Amandeep; Jain, Gaurav; Gupta, Shilpi

    2014-12-01

    C-arm computed tomography (CT) is a new and innovative imaging technique. In combination with two-dimensional fluoroscopic or radiographic imaging, information provided by three-dimensional C-arm real time imaging can be valuable for therapy planning, guidance and outcome assessment in dental implant placement. This paper reports a case of two dental implant placement using Artis zee C-arm CT system first time in field of implantology.

  5. Digital Image Support in the ROADNet Real-time Monitoring Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, K. G.; Hansen, T. S.; Newman, R. L.; Vernon, F. L.; Nayak, A.; Foley, S.; Fricke, T.; Orcutt, J.; Rajasekar, A.

    2004-12-01

    The ROADNet real-time monitoring infrastructure has allowed researchers to integrate geophysical monitoring data from a wide variety of signal domains. Antelope-based data transport, relational-database buffering and archiving, backup/replication/archiving through the Storage Resource Broker, and a variety of web-based distribution tools create a powerful monitoring platform. In this work we discuss our use of the ROADNet system for the collection and processing of digital image data. Remote cameras have been deployed at approximately 32 locations as of September 2004, including the SDSU Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve, the Imperial Beach pier, and the Pinon Flats geophysical observatory. Fire monitoring imagery has been obtained through a connection to the HPWREN project. Near-real-time images obtained from the R/V Roger Revelle include records of seafloor operations by the JASON submersible, as part of a maintenance mission for the H2O underwater seismic observatory. We discuss acquisition mechanisms and the packet architecture for image transport via Antelope orbservers, including multi-packet support for arbitrarily large images. Relational database storage supports archiving of timestamped images, image-processing operations, grouping of related images and cameras, support for motion-detect triggers, thumbnail images, pre-computed video frames, support for time-lapse movie generation and storage of time-lapse movies. Available ROADNet monitoring tools include both orbserver-based display of incoming real-time images and web-accessible searching and distribution of images and movies driven by the relational database (http://mercali.ucsd.edu/rtapps/rtimbank.php). An extension to the Kepler Scientific Workflow System also allows real-time image display via the Ptolemy project. Custom time-lapse movies may be made from the ROADNet web pages.

  6. Real-time depth controllable integral imaging pickup and reconstruction method with a light field camera.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Youngmo; Kim, Jonghyun; Yeom, Jiwoon; Lee, Chang-Kun; Lee, Byoungho

    2015-12-10

    In this paper, we develop a real-time depth controllable integral imaging system. With a high-frame-rate camera and a focus controllable lens, light fields from various depth ranges can be captured. According to the image plane of the light field camera, the objects in virtual and real space are recorded simultaneously. The captured light field information is converted to the elemental image in real time without pseudoscopic problems. In addition, we derive characteristics and limitations of the light field camera as a 3D broadcasting capturing device with precise geometry optics. With further analysis, the implemented system provides more accurate light fields than existing devices without depth distortion. We adapt an f-number matching method at the capture and display stage to record a more exact light field and solve depth distortion, respectively. The algorithm allows the users to adjust the pixel mapping structure of the reconstructed 3D image in real time. The proposed method presents a possibility of a handheld real-time 3D broadcasting system in a cheaper and more applicable way as compared to the previous methods.

  7. Imaging multicellular specimens with real-time optimized tiling light-sheet selective plane illumination microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qinyi; Martin, Benjamin L; Matus, David Q; Gao, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the progress made in selective plane illumination microscopy, high-resolution 3D live imaging of multicellular specimens remains challenging. Tiling light-sheet selective plane illumination microscopy (TLS-SPIM) with real-time light-sheet optimization was developed to respond to the challenge. It improves the 3D imaging ability of SPIM in resolving complex structures and optimizes SPIM live imaging performance by using a real-time adjustable tiling light sheet and creating a flexible compromise between spatial and temporal resolution. We demonstrate the 3D live imaging ability of TLS-SPIM by imaging cellular and subcellular behaviours in live C. elegans and zebrafish embryos, and show how TLS-SPIM can facilitate cell biology research in multicellular specimens by studying left-right symmetry breaking behaviour of C. elegans embryos. PMID:27004937

  8. Real-time optical imaging using quantum dot and related nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Kosaka, Nobuyuki; McCann, Thomas E; Mitsunaga, Makoto; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2012-01-01

    Biomedical optical imaging is rapidly evolving because of its desirable features of rapid frame rates, high sensitivity, low cost, portability and lack of radiation. Quantum dots are attractive as imaging agents owing to their high brightness, and photo- and bio-stability. Here, the current status of in vitro and in vivo real-time optical imaging with quantum dots is reviewed. In addition, we consider related nanocrystals based on solid-state semiconductors, including upconverting nanoparticles and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer quantum dots. These particles can improve the signal-to-background ratio for real-time imaging largely by suppressing background signal. Although toxicity and biodistribution of quantum dots and their close relatives remain prime concerns for translation to human imaging, these agents have many desirable features that should be explored for medical purposes. PMID:20662647

  9. Imaging multicellular specimens with real-time optimized tiling light-sheet selective plane illumination microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qinyi; Martin, Benjamin L.; Matus, David Q.; Gao, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the progress made in selective plane illumination microscopy, high-resolution 3D live imaging of multicellular specimens remains challenging. Tiling light-sheet selective plane illumination microscopy (TLS-SPIM) with real-time light-sheet optimization was developed to respond to the challenge. It improves the 3D imaging ability of SPIM in resolving complex structures and optimizes SPIM live imaging performance by using a real-time adjustable tiling light sheet and creating a flexible compromise between spatial and temporal resolution. We demonstrate the 3D live imaging ability of TLS-SPIM by imaging cellular and subcellular behaviours in live C. elegans and zebrafish embryos, and show how TLS-SPIM can facilitate cell biology research in multicellular specimens by studying left-right symmetry breaking behaviour of C. elegans embryos. PMID:27004937

  10. A real-time infrared imaging simulation method with physical effects modeling of infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ni; Huai, Wenqing; Wang, Shaodan; Ren, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Infrared imaging simulation technology can provide infrared data sources for the development, improvement and evaluation of infrared imaging systems under different environment, status and weather conditions, which is reusable and more economic than physical experiments. A real-time infrared imaging simulation process is established to reproduce a complete physical imaging process. Our emphasis is put on the modeling of infrared sensors, involving physical effects of both spatial domain and frequency domain. An improved image convolution method is proposed based on GPU parallel processing to enhance the real-time simulation ability with ensuring its simulation accuracy at the same time. Finally the effectiveness of the above methods is validated by simulation analysis and result comparison.

  11. Real-time image processing for non-contact monitoring of dynamic displacements using smartphone technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Jae-Hong; Gelo, Nikolas J.; Jo, Hongki

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed smartphone application, named RINO, in this study allows measuring absolute dynamic displacements and processing them in real time using state-of-the-art smartphone technologies, such as high-performance graphics processing unit (GPU), in addition to already powerful CPU and memories, embedded high-speed/ resolution camera, and open-source computer vision libraries. A carefully designed color-patterned target and user-adjustable crop filter enable accurate and fast image processing, allowing up to 240fps for complete displacement calculation and real-time display. The performances of the developed smartphone application are experimentally validated, showing comparable accuracy with those of conventional laser displacement sensor.

  12. Real-time stereographic rendering and display of medical images with programmable GPUs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Hui; Good, Walter F

    2008-03-01

    The study was to explore the power and feasibility of using programmable graphics processing units (GPUs) for real-time rendering and displaying large 3D medical datasets for stereoscopic display workstation. Lung cancer screening CT images were used for developing GPU-based stereo rendering and displaying. The study was run on a personal computer with a 128 MB NVIDIA Quadro FX 1100 graphics card. The performance of rendering and displaying was measured and compared between GPU-based and central processing unit (CPU)-based programming. The results indicate that GPU-based programming was capable of rendering large 3D datasets at real-time interactive rates with stereographic displays.

  13. Real-time geometric scene estimation for RGBD images using a 3D box shape grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Andrew R.; Brink, Kevin M.

    2016-06-01

    This article describes a novel real-time algorithm for the purpose of extracting box-like structures from RGBD image data. In contrast to conventional approaches, the proposed algorithm includes two novel attributes: (1) it divides the geometric estimation procedure into subroutines having atomic incremental computational costs, and (2) it uses a generative "Block World" perceptual model that infers both concave and convex box elements from detection of primitive box substructures. The end result is an efficient geometry processing engine suitable for use in real-time embedded systems such as those on an UAVs where it is intended to be an integral component for robotic navigation and mapping applications.

  14. Real-time optical image subtraction by a holographic shear lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, V. Venkateswara; Joenathan, C.; Sirohi, R. S.

    1985-08-01

    A new optical method of image subtraction by employing a holographic shear lens is proposed. The principle underlying this technique is that of optical interference between two sheared fields produced by the holographic shear lens (HSL). Two dissimilar inputs with some common characters are subtracted in real time while keeping the HSL at the Fourier plane of a well corrected lens. The difference is detectable only when zero fringe is obtained in the interferogram. Experimental verification is presented with the results. The basic advantages of this technique are the simplicity in aligning the input transparencies and the real time operation.

  15. Clinical real-time photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging system at POSTECH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeesu; Park, Sara; Jung, Yuhan; Zhang, Yumiao; Lovell, Jonathan F.; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    We have successfully developed a clinical real-time photoacoustic/ultrasound (PA/US) imaging system. The PA/US imaging system was adapted with a FDA approved commercial US imaging system and a portable pulsed laser system. All image processing and display tasks were performed in real-time by using a graphical processing unit of the US imaging system. We have tested performances of the system by measuring maximum penetration depth, noise equivalent sensitivity, and axial resolution of contrast agent deposited microtubes under chicken breast tissues. By adapting various US transducers (i.e., linear, convex, phased, and endocavity), adaptable capability of the system was verified. In addition, volumetric PA/US imaging was performed by applying a linear scanning along an elevational direction. We have successfully acquired volumetric PA/US images of human forearms in vivo. We believe that the developed clinical real-time PA/US imaging system can be utilized in various preclinical and clinical studies in the near future.

  16. Comparison of Three Real-Time Measurement Methods for Airborne Ultrafine Particles in the Silicon Alloy Industry.

    PubMed

    Kero, Ida Teresia; Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the applicability and the correlation between three commercially available instruments capable of detection, quantification, and characterization of ultrafine airborne particulate matter in the industrial setting of a tapping area in a silicon alloy production plant. The number concentration of ultrafine particles was evaluated using an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(TM)), a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS(TM)), and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The results are discussed in terms of particle size distribution and temporal variations linked to process operations. The instruments show excellent temporal covariation and the correlation between the FMPS and ELPI is good. The advantage of the FMPS is the excellent time- and size resolution of the results. The main advantage of the ELPI is the possibility to collect size-fractionated samples of the dust for subsequent analysis by, for example, electron microscopy. The CPC does not provide information about the particle size distribution and its correlation to the other two instruments is somewhat poor. Nonetheless, the CPC gives basic, real-time information about the ultrafine particle concentration and can therefore be used for source identification.

  17. Comparison of Three Real-Time Measurement Methods for Airborne Ultrafine Particles in the Silicon Alloy Industry

    PubMed Central

    Kero, Ida Teresia; Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the applicability and the correlation between three commercially available instruments capable of detection, quantification, and characterization of ultrafine airborne particulate matter in the industrial setting of a tapping area in a silicon alloy production plant. The number concentration of ultrafine particles was evaluated using an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPITM), a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPSTM), and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The results are discussed in terms of particle size distribution and temporal variations linked to process operations. The instruments show excellent temporal covariation and the correlation between the FMPS and ELPI is good. The advantage of the FMPS is the excellent time- and size resolution of the results. The main advantage of the ELPI is the possibility to collect size-fractionated samples of the dust for subsequent analysis by, for example, electron microscopy. The CPC does not provide information about the particle size distribution and its correlation to the other two instruments is somewhat poor. Nonetheless, the CPC gives basic, real-time information about the ultrafine particle concentration and can therefore be used for source identification. PMID:27598180

  18. Comparison of Three Real-Time Measurement Methods for Airborne Ultrafine Particles in the Silicon Alloy Industry.

    PubMed

    Kero, Ida Teresia; Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the applicability and the correlation between three commercially available instruments capable of detection, quantification, and characterization of ultrafine airborne particulate matter in the industrial setting of a tapping area in a silicon alloy production plant. The number concentration of ultrafine particles was evaluated using an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(TM)), a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS(TM)), and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The results are discussed in terms of particle size distribution and temporal variations linked to process operations. The instruments show excellent temporal covariation and the correlation between the FMPS and ELPI is good. The advantage of the FMPS is the excellent time- and size resolution of the results. The main advantage of the ELPI is the possibility to collect size-fractionated samples of the dust for subsequent analysis by, for example, electron microscopy. The CPC does not provide information about the particle size distribution and its correlation to the other two instruments is somewhat poor. Nonetheless, the CPC gives basic, real-time information about the ultrafine particle concentration and can therefore be used for source identification. PMID:27598180

  19. Interlaced photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system with real-time coregistration for ovarian tissue characterization

    PubMed Central

    Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Yuan, Guangqian; Kumavor, Patrick; Zanganeh, Saeid; Zhu, Quing

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Coregistered ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic imaging are emerging techniques for mapping the echogenic anatomical structure of tissue and its corresponding optical absorption. We report a 128-channel imaging system with real-time coregistration of the two modalities, which provides up to 15 coregistered frames per second limited by the laser pulse repetition rate. In addition, the system integrates a compact transvaginal imaging probe with a custom-designed fiber optic assembly for in vivo detection and characterization of human ovarian tissue. We present the coregistered US and photoacoustic imaging system structure, the optimal design of the PC interfacing software, and the reconfigurable field programmable gate array operation and optimization. Phantom experiments of system lateral resolution and axial sensitivity evaluation, examples of the real-time scanning of a tumor-bearing mouse, and ex vivo human ovaries studies are demonstrated. PMID:25069009

  20. The near real time image navigation of pictures returned by Voyager 2 at Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Ian M.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Taber, William L.; Wang, Tseng-Chan; Acton, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a process for performing image navigation in near real time is described. The process was used to accurately determine the camera pointing for pictures returned by the Voyager 2 spacecraft at Neptune Encounter. Image navigation improves knowledge of the pointing of an imaging instrument at a particular epoch by correlating the spacecraft-relative locations of target bodies in inertial space with the locations of their images in a picture taken at that epoch. More than 8,500 pictures returned by Voyager 2 at Neptune were processed in near real time. The results were used in several applications, including improving pointing knowledge for nonimaging instruments ('C-smithing'), making 'Neptune, the Movie', and providing immediate access to geometrical quantities similar to those traditionally supplied in the Supplementary Experiment Data Record.

  1. Real time polarization sensor image processing on an embedded FPGA/multi-core DSP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednara, Marcus; Chuchacz-Kowalczyk, Katarzyna

    2015-05-01

    Most embedded image processing SoCs available on the market are highly optimized for typical consumer applications like video encoding/decoding, motion estimation or several image enhancement processes as used in DSLR or digital video cameras. For non-consumer applications, on the other hand, optimized embedded hardware is rarely available, so often PC based image processing systems are used. We show how a real time capable image processing system for a non-consumer application - namely polarization image data processing - can be efficiently implemented on an FPGA and multi-core DSP based embedded hardware platform.

  2. Real-time image equalization for coronary X-ray angiography.

    PubMed

    Robert, Normand; Komljenovic, Philip T; Fort, Stephen; Rowlands, J A

    2005-06-01

    Coronary angiograms, which provide detailed images of contrast-filled coronary arteries, also show other large structures such as the diaphragm, spine and adjacent lung field. A real-time image processing method to attenuate these unwanted features is presented. Side-by-side comparisons of images selected from cine runs before and after processing show that the arteries in the processed images can be visualized more easily due to their higher contrast as other structures are made less prominent. It is also shown experimentally that this method allows more quantitative comparisons of the contrast of vessels in different parts of an image. PMID:15791604

  3. Mixed lagrange time delay estimation autoregressive Wiener filter application for real-time SEM image enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sim, K S; Law, K K; Tso, C P

    2007-11-01

    A new filter is developed for the enhancement of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. A mixed Lagrange time delay estimation auto-regression (MLTDEAR)-based interpolator is used to provide an estimate of noise variance to a standard Wiener filter. A variety of images are captured and the performance of the filter is shown to surpass the conventional noise filters. As all the information required for processing is extracted from a single image, this method is not constrained by image registration requirements and thus can be applied in real-time in cases where specimen drift is presented in the SEM image.

  4. Real-time image analysis for nondestructive detection of metal sliver in packed food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Jing, Hansong; Tao, Yang; Cheng, Xuemei

    2005-11-01

    Foreign materials such as metal slivers and stones in packed food are listed safety hazards, which could lead to severe health problems. In this paper, a real time X-ray imaging inspection method is investigated for foreign material detection in chili packages. A new image segmentation method combining edge detection and region growing was successfully applied to address the challenges due to the uneven thickness of chili package.

  5. Real-time heterodyne speckle pattern interferometry using the correlation image sensor.

    PubMed

    Kimachi, Akira

    2010-12-10

    A real-time method for heterodyne speckle pattern interferometry using the correlation image sensor (CIS) is proposed. The CIS demodulates the interference phase of heterodyned speckle wavefronts pixelwise at an ordinary video frame rate. The proposed method neither suffers loss of spatial resolution nor requires a high frame rate. Interferometers for out-of-plane and in-plane deformation are developed with a 200 × 200 pixel CIS camera. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method realizes real-time imaging of a rough-surfaced object under deformation. The average standard deviations of demodulated phase-difference images for the out-of-plane and in-plane interferometers are 0.33 and 0.13 rad, respectively.

  6. Internet Teleprescence by Real-Time View-Dependent Image Generation with Omnidirectional Video Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Shinji; Yamazawa, Kazumasa; Yokoya, Naokazu

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new networked telepresence system which realizes virtual tours into a visualized dynamic real world without significant time delay. Our system is realized by the following three steps: (1) video-rate omnidirectional image acquisition, (2) transportation of an omnidirectional video stream via internet, and (3) real-time view-dependent perspective image generation from the omnidirectional video stream. Our system is applicable to real-time telepresence in the situation where the real world to be seen is far from an observation site, because the time delay from the change of user"s viewing direction to the change of displayed image is small and does not depend on the actual distance between both sites. Moreover, multiple users can look around from a single viewpoint in a visualized dynamic real world in different directions at the same time. In experiments, we have proved that the proposed system is useful for internet telepresence.

  7. Development of a Wireless and Near Real-Time 3D Ultrasound Strain Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaohong; Chen, Yongdong; Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an important medical imaging tool for characterization of lesions. In this paper, we present a wireless and near real-time 3D ultrasound strain imaging system. It uses a 3D translating device to control a commercial linear ultrasound transducer to collect pre-compression and post-compression radio-frequency (RF) echo signal frames. The RF frames are wirelessly transferred to a high-performance server via a local area network (LAN). A dynamic programming strain estimation algorithm is implemented with the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) on the graphic processing unit (GPU) in the server to calculate the strain image after receiving a pre-compression RF frame and a post-compression RF frame at the same position. Each strain image is inserted into a strain volume which can be rendered in near real-time. We take full advantage of the translating device to precisely control the probe movement and compression. The GPU-based parallel computing techniques are designed to reduce the computation time. Phantom and in vivo experimental results demonstrate that our system can generate strain volumes with good quality and display an incrementally reconstructed volume image in near real-time. PMID:26954841

  8. Real-time residue and powder analysis with laser-assisted infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weida, Miles; Mock, Patrick; Buerki, Peter; Henson, Michael; Day, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    First responders have the need to quickly assess a situation; Understanding if there are biological or explosive hazards present can influence a plan of action. The need for real-time information, however, precludes most laboratory analysis techniques. The requirement of not disturbing a sample until it is understood makes the problem even more challenging. Visual identification can go a long way in assessing a threat, and now technologies in the mid-infrared (2 to 20 μm) spectral region allow extending that "vision" into a spectral region known for its chemical identification capabilities. This paper considers the fusion of tunable quantum cascade lasers with infrared focal plane arrays to create a true chemical imager. Instrumentation is developed that allows real-time chemical analysis of residues and powders in a noncontact fashion. Identification of explosive residues and biological powders are considered as examples of use of this new technology for first responders. As opposed to many fielded technologies that allow only point detection of substances, and often require many seconds to analyze a sample, mid-infrared chemical imagers provide context in addition to sample analysis in real time. They are also ideal for image fusion techniques combining visual images with chemical images from an infrared multispectral analysis. This type of chemical overlay on live video provides first responders with a powerful tool for rapid threat assessment.

  9. Real-time histology in liver disease using multiphoton microscopy with fluorescence lifetime imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haolu; Liang, Xiaowen; Mohammed, Yousuf H.; Thomas, James A.; Bridle, Kim R.; Thorling, Camilla A.; Grice, Jeffrey E.; Xu, Zhi Ping; Liu, Xin; Crawford, Darrell H. G.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional histology with light microscopy is essential in the diagnosis of most liver diseases. Recently, a concept of real-time histology with optical biopsy has been advocated. In this study, live mice livers (normal, with fibrosis, steatosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and ischemia-reperfusion injury) were imaged by MPM-FLIM for stain-free real-time histology. The acquired MPM-FLIM images were compared with conventional histological images. MPM-FLIM imaged subsurface cellular and subcellular histopathological hallmarks of live liver in mice models at high resolution. Additional information such as distribution of stellate cell associated autofluorescence and fluorescence lifetime changes was also gathered by MPM-FLIM simultaneously, which cannot be obtained from conventional histology. MPM-FLIM could simultaneously image and quantify the cellular morphology and microenvironment of live livers without conventional biopsy or fluorescent dyes. We anticipate that in the near future MPM-FLIM will be evaluated from bench to bedside, leading to real-time histology and dynamic monitoring of human liver diseases. PMID:25798303

  10. Real-time image fusion: a vision aid for helicopter pilotage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Moira I.; Ball, Andrew; Hooper, David

    2002-03-01

    This paper reports on the development of a real-time image fusion demonstration system using COTS technology. The system is designed to operate in a highly dynamic helicopter environment and across a challenging variety of operational conditions. The targeted application for the demonstrator system is low-level helicopter nap-of-the-earth flight, with particular emphasis being placed on providing improved pilot vision for an increased situational awareness capability. This work provides key technology assessment for the UK Ministry of Defence's Day/Night All Weather (D/NAW) helicopter program. The current operational requirement is to fuse imagery from two sensors - one a thermal imager, the other an image intensifier or visible band camera. However, provision has been made within the software and hardware architectures to support scaling to different cameras and further processors. Over the past two years the research has matured from algorithmic development and analysis using pre-registered recorded imagery to the current real-time image fusion demonstrator system which performs registration and warping prior to an adaptive image processing control scheme. This paper concentrates on the design and hardware implementation issues associated with the process of moving from experimental non real-time algorithms to a real-time image fusion demonstrator. Background information about the program is provided to help put the current system in context, and a brief overview of the algorithm set is also given. The design and hardware implementation issues associated with this scheme are discussed and results from initial field trials are presented.

  11. A system for the real-time display of radar and video images of targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, W. W.; Burnside, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    Described here is a software and hardware system for the real-time display of radar and video images for use in a measurement range. The main purpose is to give the reader a clear idea of the software and hardware design and its functions. This system is designed around a Tektronix XD88-30 graphics workstation, used to display radar images superimposed on video images of the actual target. The system's purpose is to provide a platform for tha analysis and documentation of radar images and their associated targets in a menu-driven, user oriented environment.

  12. High-resolution, near-real-time x-ray video imaging without image intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengers, Paul

    1993-12-01

    This paper discusses a type of x-ray camera designed to generate standard RS-170 video output that does not use x-ray or optical image intensifiers. Instead, it employs a very sensitive, very high resolution CCD sensor which views an x-ray-to-light conversion screen directly through a high speed imaging lens. This new solid state TV camera, which is described later, has very low readout noise plus unusually high gain which enables it to generate real-time video with incident flux levels typical of many inspection applications. Perhaps more important is an ability to integrate for multiple frame intervals on the chip followed by the output of a standard, RS-170 format video frame containing two balanced interlaced fields. In this integrating mode excellent quality images of low contrast objects can be obtained with only a few tenths of a second integration intervals. The basic elements of this type of camera are described and applications discussed where this approach appears to have important advantages over other methods in common use.

  13. Real-time equalization of region-of-interest fluoroscopic images using binary masks.

    PubMed

    Rudin, S; Bednarek, D R; Yang, C Y

    1999-07-01

    In region-of-interest (ROI) radiologic imaging, the x-ray beam is attenuated peripherally to the region of interest to reduce patient exposure. This attenuation reduces the peripheral image brightness which may cause contrast in the periphery to also be reduced due to video chain nonlinearity. For optimal viewing, it is necessary that the image brightness and contrast in the periphery be brought back to the levels in the ROI. Previously, digital subtraction angiography roadmapping equipment has been used for this equalization; however, the procedure is not independent of patient and gantry motion. A new motion independent method to achieve this equalization involves dividing the real-time video signal into two digital streams one of which is brightness and contrast enhanced. A pre-acquired binary mask image is created by thresholding the image of a uniform object obtained with the ROI filter in place. This binary mask is used to control the recombination of the two image streams in a digital pipeline processor in order to select the ROI from the unprocessed stream and the periphery from the enhanced stream. This system provides image equalization at 30 frame/s for real-time ROI imaging display. Images from this method demonstrate excellent image quality even for peripheral exposure reduction factors exceeding 10. PMID:10435538

  14. A cell-based biosensor for real-time detection of cardiotoxicity using lensfree imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Bok; Bae, Hojae; Cha, Jae Min; Moon, Sang Jun; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Cropek, Donald M; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-05-21

    A portable and cost-effective real-time cardiotoxicity biosensor was developed using a CMOS imaging module extracted from a commercially available webcam. The detection system consists of a CMOS imaging module, a white LED and a pinhole. Real-time image processing was conducted by comparing reference and live frame images. To evaluate the engineered system, the effects of two different drugs, isoprenaline and doxorubicin, on the beating rate and beat-to-beat variations of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes were measured. The detection system was used to conclude that the beat-to-beat variability increased under treatment with both isoprenaline and doxorubicin. However, the beating rates increased upon the addition of isoprenaline but decreased for cultures supplemented with doxorubicin. Moreover, the response time for both the beating rates and the beat-to-beat variability of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes under treatment of isoprenaline was shorter than for doxorubicin, although the amount of isoprenaline used in the measurement was three orders of magnitude lower than that of doxorubicin. Given its ability to perform real-time cell monitoring in a simple and inexpensive manner, the proposed system may be useful for a range of cell-based biosensing applications. PMID:21483937

  15. A cell-based biosensor for real-time detection of cardiotoxicity using lensfree imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Bok; Bae, Hojae; Cha, Jae Min; Moon, Sang Jun; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Cropek, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    A portable and cost-effective real-time cardiotoxicity biosensor was developed using a CMOS imaging module extracted from a commercially available webcam. The detection system consists of a CMOS imaging module, a white LED and a pinhole. Real-time image processing was conducted by comparing reference and live frame images. To evaluate the engineered system, the effects of two different drugs, isoprenaline and doxorubicin, on the beating rate and beat-to-beat variations of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes were measured. The detection system was used to conclude that the beat-to-beat variability increased under treatment with both isoprenaline and doxorubicin. However, the beating rates increased upon the addition of isoprenaline but decreased for cultures supplemented with doxorubicin. Moreover, the response time for both the beating rates and the beat-to-beat variability of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes under treatment of isoprenaline was shorter than doxorubicin, although the amount of isoprenaline used in the measurement was three orders of magnitude lower than that of doxorubicin. Given its ability to perform real-time cell monitoring in a simple and inexpensive manner, the proposed system may be useful for a range of cell-based biosensing applications. PMID:21483937

  16. Auto-associative segmentation for real-time object recognition in realistic outdoor images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevez, Leonardo W.; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser D.

    1998-04-01

    As digital signal processors (DSPs) become more advanced, many real-time recognition problems will be solved with completely integrated solutions. In this paper a methodology which is designed for today's DSP architectures and is capable of addressing applications in real-time color object recognition is presented. The methodology is integrated into a processing structure called raster scan video processing which requires a small amount of memory. The small amount of memory required enables the entire recognition system to be implemented on a single DSP. This auto-associative segmentation approach provides a means for desaturated color images to be segmented. The system is applied to the problem of stop sign recognition is realistically captured outdoor images.

  17. Real-time 3D imaging of Haines jumps in porous media flow

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Steffen; Ott, Holger; Klapp, Stephan A.; Schwing, Alex; Neiteler, Rob; Brussee, Niels; Makurat, Axel; Leu, Leon; Enzmann, Frieder; Schwarz, Jens-Oliver; Kersten, Michael; Irvine, Sarah; Stampanoni, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Newly developed high-speed, synchrotron-based X-ray computed microtomography enabled us to directly image pore-scale displacement events in porous rock in real time. Common approaches to modeling macroscopic fluid behavior are phenomenological, have many shortcomings, and lack consistent links to elementary pore-scale displacement processes, such as Haines jumps and snap-off. Unlike the common singular pore jump paradigm based on observations of restricted artificial capillaries, we found that Haines jumps typically cascade through 10–20 geometrically defined pores per event, accounting for 64% of the energy dissipation. Real-time imaging provided a more detailed fundamental understanding of the elementary processes in porous media, such as hysteresis, snap-off, and nonwetting phase entrapment, and it opens the way for a rigorous process for upscaling based on thermodynamic models. PMID:23431151

  18. Real-time FPGA-based radar imaging for smart mobility systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio; Neri, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents an X-band FMCW (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave) Radar Imaging system, called X-FRI, for surveillance in smart mobility applications. X-FRI allows for detecting the presence of targets (e.g. obstacles in a railway crossing or urban road crossing, or ships in a small harbor), as well as their speed and their position. With respect to alternative solutions based on LIDAR or camera systems, X-FRI operates in real-time also in bad lighting and weather conditions, night and day. The radio-frequency transceiver is realized through COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf) components on a single-board. An FPGA-based baseband platform allows for real-time Radar image processing.

  19. Preliminary work of real-time ultrasound imaging system for 2-D array transducer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Yang, Jiali; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has emerged as a non-invasive imaging modality that can provide anatomical structure information in real time. To enable the experimental analysis of new 2-D array ultrasound beamforming methods, a pre-beamformed parallel raw data acquisition system was developed for 3-D data capture of 2D array transducer. The transducer interconnection adopted the row-column addressing (RCA) scheme, where the columns and rows were active in sequential for transmit and receive events, respectively. The DAQ system captured the raw data in parallel and the digitized data were fed through the field programmable gate array (FPGA) to implement the pre-beamforming. Finally, 3-D images were reconstructed through the devised platform in real-time. PMID:26405923

  20. Real-time Fourier transform spectrometry for fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Buican, T.N.

    1990-01-01

    We present a Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer that is suitable for real-time spectral analysis in fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. The instrument consists of a novel type of interferometer that can be modulated at frequencies of up to 100 kHz and has a high light throughput; and a dedicated, parallel array processor for the real-time computation of spectral parameters. The data acquisition array processor can be programmed by a host computer to perform any desired linear transform on the interferogram and can thus separate contributions from multiple fluorescence microscopy. The integration of a flow cytometer and a spectral imaging fluorescence microscope is discussed, and the concepts of direct and reversed virtual sorting'' are introduced. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Real-time optical processor for synthetic aperture radar image formation

    SciTech Connect

    Stalker, K.T.; Molley, P.A.; Dickey, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    An acousto-optic processor which forms synthetic aperture radar images in real-time is described. It employs a space and time integrating architecture to perform the required two dimensional matched filtering operation as a sequence of one dimensional processes. The matched filtering in range is performed on each radar return pulse using the acousto-optic device. The azimuthal matched filtering is performed using a fixed reference mask and a charge-coupled device operating in the time delay and integrate mode. This fixed mask architecture has been modified to include a background subtraction capability to reduce the effects of unwanted bias terms on image quality. The effectiveness of this technique will be analyzed for two different time bandwidth product cases. SAR imagery formed using the real-time optical processor is also presented.

  2. Functionality Based Detection of Airborne Engineered Nanoparticles in Quasi Real Time: A New Type of Detector and a New Metric

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    A new type of detector which we call the Catalytic Activity Aerosol Monitor (CAAM) was investigated towards its capability to detect traces of commonly used industrial catalysts in ambient air in quasi real time. Its metric is defined as the catalytic activity concentration (CAC) expressed per volume of sampled workplace air. We thus propose a new metric which expresses the presence of nanoparticles in terms of their functionality - in this case a functionality of potential relevance for damaging effects - rather than their number, surface, or mass concentration in workplace air. The CAAM samples a few micrograms of known or anticipated airborne catalyst material onto a filter first and then initiates a chemical reaction which is specific to that catalyst. The concentration of specific gases is recorded using an IR sensor, thereby giving the desired catalytic activity. Due to a miniaturization effort, the laboratory prototype is compact and portable. Sensitivity and linearity of the CAAM response were investigated with catalytically active palladium and nickel nano-aerosols of known mass concentration and precisely adjustable primary particle size in the range of 3–30nm. With the miniature IR sensor, the smallest detectable particle mass was found to be in the range of a few micrograms, giving estimated sampling times on the order of minutes for workplace aerosol concentrations typically reported in the literature. Tests were also performed in the presence of inert background aerosols of SiO2, TiO2, and Al2O3. It was found that the active material is detectable via its catalytic activity even when the particles are attached to a non-active background aerosol. PMID:23504803

  3. Real-time Data Processing and Visualization for the Airborne Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. K.; Revercomb, H. E.; Hoese, D.; Garcia, R. K.; Smith, W. L.; Weisz, E.; Tobin, D. C.; Best, F. A.; Knuteson, R. O.; Sullivan, D. V.; Barnes, C. M.; Van Gilst, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) is a five-year NASA mission targeted to enhance the understanding of the formation and evolution of hurricanes in the Atlantic basin. Measurements were made from two NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) during the 2012 through 2014 hurricane seasons, with flights conducted from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. The Global Hawk aircraft are capable of high altitude flights with durations of up to 30 hours, which allow extensive observations over distant storms, not typically possible with manned aircraft. The two NASA Global Hawks were equipped with instrument suites to study the storm environment, and inner core structure and processes, respectively. The Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS), designed and built by the University of Wisconsin (UW) Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC), measures emitted thermal radiation at high spectral resolution between 3.3 and 18 microns. The radiance measurements are used to obtain temperature and water vapor profiles of the Earth's atmosphere. The S-HIS spatial resolution is 2 km at nadir, across a 40 km ground swath from a nominal altitude of 20 kilometers. Since 1998, the S-HIS has participated in 33 field campaigns and has proven to be extremely dependable, effective, and highly accurate. It has flown on the NASA ER-2, DC-8, Proteus, WB-57, and Global Hawk airborne platforms. The UW S-HIS infrared sounder instrument is equipped with a real-time ground data processing system capable of delivering atmospheric profiles, radiance data, and engineering status to mission support scientists - all within less than one minute from the time of observation. This ground data processing system was assembled by a small team using existing software and proven practical techniques similar to a satellite ground system architecture. This summary outlines the design overview for the system and illustrates the data path, content, and outcomes.

  4. A flexible software architecture for scalable real-time image and video processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Molleda, Julio; García, Daniel F.; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2012-06-01

    Real-time image and video processing applications require skilled architects, and recent trends in the hardware platform make the design and implementation of these applications increasingly complex. Many frameworks and libraries have been proposed or commercialized to simplify the design and tuning of real-time image processing applications. However, they tend to lack flexibility because they are normally oriented towards particular types of applications, or they impose specific data processing models such as the pipeline. Other issues include large memory footprints, difficulty for reuse and inefficient execution on multicore processors. This paper presents a novel software architecture for real-time image and video processing applications which addresses these issues. The architecture is divided into three layers: the platform abstraction layer, the messaging layer, and the application layer. The platform abstraction layer provides a high level application programming interface for the rest of the architecture. The messaging layer provides a message passing interface based on a dynamic publish/subscribe pattern. A topic-based filtering in which messages are published to topics is used to route the messages from the publishers to the subscribers interested in a particular type of messages. The application layer provides a repository for reusable application modules designed for real-time image and video processing applications. These modules, which include acquisition, visualization, communication, user interface and data processing modules, take advantage of the power of other well-known libraries such as OpenCV, Intel IPP, or CUDA. Finally, we present different prototypes and applications to show the possibilities of the proposed architecture.

  5. Viola-Jones based hybrid framework for real-time object detection in multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, E.; Shvets, E.; Nikolaev, D.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a method for real-time object detection based on a hybrid of a Viola-Jones cascade with a convolutional neural network. This scheme allows flexible trade-offs between detection quality and computational performance. We also propose a generalization of this method to multispectral images that effectively and efficiently utilizes information from each spectral channel. The new scheme is experimentally compared to traditional Viola-Jones, showing improved detection quality with adjustable performance.

  6. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging investigation of resonance tuning in soprano singing

    PubMed Central

    Bresch, Erik; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates using real-time magnetic resonance imaging the vocal tract shaping of 5 soprano singers during the production of two-octave scales of sung vowels. A systematic shift of the first vocal tract resonance frequency with respect to the fundamental is shown to exist for high vowels across all subjects. No consistent systematic effect on the vocal tract resonance could be shown across all of the subjects for other vowels or for the second vocal tract resonance. PMID:21110548

  7. A Novel, Real-Time, In Vivo Mouse Retinal Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Mark C.; Sullivan, Jack M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop an efficient, low-cost instrument for robust real-time imaging of the mouse retina in vivo, and assess system capabilities by evaluating various animal models. Methods Following multiple disappointing attempts to visualize the mouse retina during a subretinal injection using commercially available systems, we identified the key limitation to be inadequate illumination due to off axis illumination and poor optical train optimization. Therefore, we designed a paraxial illumination system for Greenough-type stereo dissecting microscope incorporating an optimized optical launch and an efficiently coupled fiber optic delivery system. Excitation and emission filters control spectral bandwidth. A color coupled-charged device (CCD) camera is coupled to the microscope for image capture. Although, field of view (FOV) is constrained by the small pupil aperture, the high optical power of the mouse eye, and the long working distance (needed for surgical manipulations), these limitations can be compensated by eye positioning in order to observe the entire retina. Results The retinal imaging system delivers an adjustable narrow beam to the dilated pupil with minimal vignetting. The optic nerve, vasculature, and posterior pole are crisply visualized and the entire retina can be observed through eye positioning. Normal and degenerative retinal phenotypes can be followed over time. Subretinal or intraocular injection procedures are followed in real time. Real-time, intravenous fluorescein angiography for the live mouse has been achieved. Conclusions A novel device is established for real-time viewing and image capture of the small animal retina during subretinal injections for preclinical gene therapy studies. PMID:26551329

  8. Real-time terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum-cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienold, M.; Hagelschuer, T.; Rothbart, N.; Schrottke, L.; Biermann, K.; Grahn, H. T.; Hübers, H.-W.

    2016-07-01

    We report on a fast self-mixing approach for real-time, coherent terahertz imaging based on a quantum-cascade laser and a scanning mirror. Due to a fast deflection of the terahertz beam, images with frame rates up to several Hz are obtained, eventually limited by the mechanical inertia of the employed scanning mirror. A phase modulation technique allows for the separation of the amplitude and phase information without the necessity of parameter fitting routines. We further demonstrate the potential for transmission imaging.

  9. Real-time dispersion-compensated image reconstruction for compressive sensing spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we propose a novel dispersion compensation method that enables real-time compressive sensing (CS) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) image reconstruction. We show that dispersion compensation can be incorporated into CS SD OCT by multiplying the dispersion-correcting terms by the undersampled spectral data before CS reconstruction. High-quality SD OCT imaging with dispersion compensation was demonstrated at a speed in excess of 70 frames per s using 40% of the spectral measurements required by the well-known Shannon/Nyquist theory. The data processing and image display were performed on a conventional workstation having three graphics processing units.

  10. Real-time image processing of TOF range images using a reconfigurable processor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussmann, S.; Knoll, F.; Edeler, T.

    2011-07-01

    During the last years, Time-of-Flight sensors achieved a significant impact onto research fields in machine vision. In comparison to stereo vision system and laser range scanners they combine the advantages of active sensors providing accurate distance measurements and camera-based systems recording a 2D matrix at a high frame rate. Moreover low cost 3D imaging has the potential to open a wide field of additional applications and solutions in markets like consumer electronics, multimedia, digital photography, robotics and medical technologies. This paper focuses on the currently implemented 4-phase-shift algorithm in this type of sensors. The most time critical operation of the phase-shift algorithm is the arctangent function. In this paper a novel hardware implementation of the arctangent function using a reconfigurable processor system is presented and benchmarked against the state-of-the-art CORDIC arctangent algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is well suited for real-time processing of the range images of TOF cameras.

  11. Redox-initiated hydrogel system for detection and real-time imaging of cellulolytic enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Klara H; Verdorfer, Tobias; Meinhold, Aylin; Milles, Lukas F; Funk, Victor; Gaub, Hermann E; Nash, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the process of biomass degradation by cellulolytic enzymes is of urgent importance for biofuel and chemical production. Optimizing pretreatment conditions and improving enzyme formulations both require assays to quantify saccharification products on solid substrates. Typically, such assays are performed using freely diffusing fluorophores or dyes that measure reducing polysaccharide chain ends. These methods have thus far not allowed spatial localization of hydrolysis activity to specific substrate locations with identifiable morphological features. Here we describe a hydrogel reagent signaling (HyReS) system that amplifies saccharification products and initiates crosslinking of a hydrogel that localizes to locations of cellulose hydrolysis, allowing for imaging of the degradation process in real time. Optical detection of the gel in a rapid parallel format on synthetic and natural pretreated solid substrates was used to quantify activity of T. emersonii and T. reesei enzyme cocktails. When combined with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and AFM imaging, the reagent system provided a means to visualize enzyme activity in real-time with high spatial resolution (<2 μm). These results demonstrate the versatility of the HyReS system in detecting cellulolytic enzyme activity and suggest new opportunities in real-time chemical imaging of biomass depolymerization. PMID:25116339

  12. A real-time electronic imaging system for solar X-ray observations from sounding rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. M.; Ting, J. W.; Gerassimenko, M.

    1979-01-01

    A real-time imaging system for displaying the solar coronal soft X-ray emission, focussed by a grazing incidence telescope, is described. The design parameters of the system, which is to be used primarily as part of a real-time control system for a sounding rocket experiment, are identified. Their achievement with a system consisting of a microchannel plate, for the conversion of X-rays into visible light, and a slow-scan vidicon, for recording and transmission of the integrated images, is described in detail. The system has a quantum efficiency better than 8 deg above 8 A, a dynamic range of 1000 coupled with a sensitivity to single photoelectrons, and provides a spatial resolution of 15 arc seconds over a field of view of 40 x 40 square arc minutes. The incident radiation is filtered to eliminate wavelengths longer than 100 A. Each image contains 3.93 x 10 to the 5th bits of information and is transmitted to the ground where it is processed by a mini-computer and displayed in real-time on a standard TV monitor.

  13. Thresholding for biological material detection in real-time multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seung Chul; Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.

    2005-09-01

    Recently, hyperspectral image analysis has proved successful for a target detection problem encountered in remote sensing as well as near sensing utilizing in situ instrumentation. The conventional global bi-level thresholding for target detection, such as the clustering-based Otsu's method, has been inadequate for the detection of biologically harmful material on foods that has a large degree of variability in size, location, color, shape, texture, and occurrence time. This paper presents multistep-like thresholding based on kernel density estimation for the real-time detection of harmful contaminants on a food product presented in multispectral images. We are particularly concerned with the detection of fecal contaminants on poultry carcasses in real-time. In the past, we identified 2 optimal wavelength bands and developed a real-time multispectral imaging system using a common aperture camera and a globally optimized thresholding method from a ratio of the optimal bands. This work extends our previous study by introducing a new decision rule to detect fecal contaminants on a single bird level. The underlying idea is to search for statistical separability along the two directions defined by the global optimal threshold vector and its orthogonal vector. Experimental results with real birds and fecal samples in different amounts are provided.

  14. Real-time imaging systems' combination of methods to achieve automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraviglia, Carlos G.; Williams, Elmer F.; Pezzulich, Alan Z.

    1998-03-01

    Using a combination of strategies real time imaging weapons systems are achieving their goals of detecting their intended targets. The demands of acquiring a target in a cluttered environment in a timely manner with a high degree of confidence demands compromise be made as to having a truly automatic system. A combination of techniques such as dedicated image processing hardware, real time operating systems, mixes of algorithmic methods, and multi-sensor detectors are a forbearance of the unleashed potential of future weapons system and their incorporation in truly autonomous target acquisition. Elements such as position information, sensor gain controls, way marks for mid course correction, and augmentation with different imaging spectrums as well as future capabilities such as neural net expert systems and decision processors over seeing a fusion matrix architecture may be considered tools for a weapon system's achievement of its ultimate goal. Currently, acquiring a target in a cluttered environment in a timely manner with a high degree of confidence demands compromises be made as to having a truly automatic system. It is now necessary to include a human in the track decision loop, a system feature that may be long lived. Automatic Track Recognition will still be the desired goal in future systems due to the variability of military missions and desirability of an expendable asset. Furthermore, with the increasing incorporation of multi-sensor information into the track decision the human element's real time contribution must be carefully engineered.

  15. Nonlinear Estimation Approach to Real-Time Georegistration from Aerial Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Padgett, Curtis W.

    2012-01-01

    When taking aerial images, it is important to know locations of specific points of interest in an Earth-centered coordinate system (latitude, longitude, height). The correspondence between a pixel location in the image and its Earth coordinate is known as georegistration. There are two main technical challenges arising in the intended application. The first is that no known features are assumed to be available in any of the images. The second is that the intended applications are real time. Here, images are taken at regular intervals (i.e. once per second), and it is desired to make decisions in real time based on the geolocation of specific objects seen in the images as they arrive. This is in sharp contrast to most current methods for geolocation that operate "after-the-fact" by processing, on the ground, a database of stored images using computationally intensive methods. The solution is a nonlinear estimation algorithm that combines processed realtime camera images with vehicle position and attitude information ob tained from an onboard GPS receiver. This approach provides accurate georegistration estimates (latitude, longitude, height) of arbitrary features and/or points of interest seen in the camera images. This solves the georegistration problem at the modest cost of augmenting the camera information with a GPS receiver carried onboard the vehicle.

  16. A scalable beamforming architecture for real-time 3D ultrasonic imaging using nonuniform sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandekar, Omkar; Castro-Pareja, Carlos R.; Shekhar, Raj

    2006-03-01

    Real-time acquisition of 3D volumes is an emerging trend in medical imaging. True real-time 3D ultrasonic imaging is particularly valuable for echocardiography and trauma imaging as well as an intraoperative imaging technique for surgical navigation. Since the frame rate of ultrasonic imaging is fundamentally limited by the speed of sound, many schemes of forming multiple receive beams with a single transmit event have been proposed. With the advent of parallel receive beamforming, several architectures to form multiple (4-8) scan lines at a time have been suggested. Most of these architectures employ uniform sampling and input memory banks to store the samples acquired from all the channels. Some recent developments like crossed electrode array, coded excitation, and synthetic aperture imaging facilitate forming an entire 2D plane with a single transmit event. These techniques are speeding up frame rate to eventually accomplish true real-time 3D ultrasonic imaging. We present an FPGA-based scalable architecture capable of forming a complete scan plane in the time it usually takes to form a single scan line. Our current implementation supports 32 input channels per FPGA and up to 128 dynamically focused beam outputs. The desired focusing delay resolution is achieved using a hybrid scheme, with a combination of nonuniform sampling of the analog channels and linear interpolation for nonsparse delays within a user-specified minimum sampling interval. Overall, our pipelined architecture is capable of processing the input RF data in an online fashion, thereby reducing the input storage requirements and potentially providing better image quality.

  17. Real-time dynamic PC image generation techniques for high performance and high dynamic range fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunfield, Dennis H.; Trimble, Darian E.; Fronckowiak, Thomas, Jr.; Ballard, Gary; Morris, Joesph

    2008-04-01

    AMRDEC has developed and implemented new techniques for rendering real-time 32-bit floating point energy-conserved dynamic scenes using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Personal Computer (PC) based hardware and high performance nVidia Graphics Processing Units (GPU). The AMRDEC IGStudio rendering framework with the real-time Joint Scientific Image Generator (JSIG) core has been integrated into numerous AMRDEC Hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) facilities, successfully replacing the lower fidelity legacy SGI hardware and software. JSIG uses high dynamic range unnormalized radiometric 32-bit floating point rendering through the use of GPU frame buffer objects (FBOs). A high performance nested zoom anti-aliasing (NZAA) technique was developed to address performance and geometric errors of past zoom anti-aliasing (ZAA) implementations. The NZAA capability for multi-object and occluded object representations includes: cluster ZAA, object ZAA, sub-object ZAA, and point source generation for unresolved objects. This technique has an optimal 128x128 pixel asymmetrical field-of-view zoom. The current NZAA capability supports up to 8 objects in real-time with a near future capability of increasing to a theoretical 128 objects in real-time. JSIG performs other dynamic entity effects which are applied in vertex and fragment shaders. These effects include floating point dynamic signature application, dynamic model ablation heating models, and per-material thermal emissivity rolloff interpolated on a per-pixel zoomed window basis. JSIG additionally performs full scene per-pixel effects in a post render process. These effects include real-time convolutions, optical scene corrections, per-frame calibrations, and energy distribution blur used to compensate for projector element energy limitations.

  18. Imaging the eye fundus with real-time en-face spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-04-01

    Real-time display of processed en-face spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images is important for diagnosis. However, due to many steps of data processing requirements, such as Fast Fourier transformation (FFT), data re-sampling, spectral shaping, apodization, zero padding, followed by software cut of the 3D volume acquired to produce an en-face slice, conventional high-speed SD-OCT cannot render an en-face OCT image in real time. Recently we demonstrated a Master/Slave (MS)-OCT method that is highly parallelizable, as it provides reflectivity values of points at depth within an A-scan in parallel. This allows direct production of en-face images. In addition, the MS-OCT method does not require data linearization, which further simplifies the processing. The computation in our previous paper was however time consuming. In this paper we present an optimized algorithm that can be used to provide en-face MS-OCT images much quicker. Using such an algorithm we demonstrate around 10 times faster production of sets of en-face OCT images than previously obtained as well as simultaneous real-time display of up to 4 en-face OCT images of 200 × 200 pixels(2) from the fovea and the optic nerve of a volunteer. We also demonstrate 3D and B-scan OCT images obtained from sets of MS-OCT C-scans, i.e. with no FFT and no intermediate step of generation of A-scans.

  19. Imaging the eye fundus with real-time en-face spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-04-01

    Real-time display of processed en-face spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images is important for diagnosis. However, due to many steps of data processing requirements, such as Fast Fourier transformation (FFT), data re-sampling, spectral shaping, apodization, zero padding, followed by software cut of the 3D volume acquired to produce an en-face slice, conventional high-speed SD-OCT cannot render an en-face OCT image in real time. Recently we demonstrated a Master/Slave (MS)-OCT method that is highly parallelizable, as it provides reflectivity values of points at depth within an A-scan in parallel. This allows direct production of en-face images. In addition, the MS-OCT method does not require data linearization, which further simplifies the processing. The computation in our previous paper was however time consuming. In this paper we present an optimized algorithm that can be used to provide en-face MS-OCT images much quicker. Using such an algorithm we demonstrate around 10 times faster production of sets of en-face OCT images than previously obtained as well as simultaneous real-time display of up to 4 en-face OCT images of 200 × 200 pixels(2) from the fovea and the optic nerve of a volunteer. We also demonstrate 3D and B-scan OCT images obtained from sets of MS-OCT C-scans, i.e. with no FFT and no intermediate step of generation of A-scans. PMID:24761303

  20. Imaging the eye fundus with real-time en-face spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time display of processed en-face spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images is important for diagnosis. However, due to many steps of data processing requirements, such as Fast Fourier transformation (FFT), data re-sampling, spectral shaping, apodization, zero padding, followed by software cut of the 3D volume acquired to produce an en-face slice, conventional high-speed SD-OCT cannot render an en-face OCT image in real time. Recently we demonstrated a Master/Slave (MS)-OCT method that is highly parallelizable, as it provides reflectivity values of points at depth within an A-scan in parallel. This allows direct production of en-face images. In addition, the MS-OCT method does not require data linearization, which further simplifies the processing. The computation in our previous paper was however time consuming. In this paper we present an optimized algorithm that can be used to provide en-face MS-OCT images much quicker. Using such an algorithm we demonstrate around 10 times faster production of sets of en-face OCT images than previously obtained as well as simultaneous real-time display of up to 4 en-face OCT images of 200 × 200 pixels2 from the fovea and the optic nerve of a volunteer. We also demonstrate 3D and B-scan OCT images obtained from sets of MS-OCT C-scans, i.e. with no FFT and no intermediate step of generation of A-scans. PMID:24761303

  1. Combined kV and MV imaging for real-time tracking of implanted fiducial markers.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, R D; Mao, Weihua; Xing, L

    2008-04-01

    In the presence of intrafraction organ motion, target localization uncertainty can greatly hamper the advantage of highly conformal dose techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). To minimize the adverse dosimetric effect caused by tumor motion, a real-time knowledge of the tumor position is required throughout the beam delivery process. The recent integration of onboard kV diagnostic imaging together with MV electronic portal imaging devices on linear accelerators can allow for real-time three-dimensional (3D) tumor position monitoring during a treatment delivery. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a near real-time 3D internal fiducial tracking system based on the combined use of kV and MV imaging. A commercially available radiotherapy system equipped with both kV and MV imaging systems was used in this work. A hardware video frame grabber was used to capture both kV and MV video streams simultaneously through independent video channels at 30 frames per second. The fiducial locations were extracted from the kV and MV images using a software tool. The geometric tracking capabilities of the system were evaluated using a pelvic phantom with embedded fiducials placed on a moveable stage. The maximum tracking speed of the kV/MV system is approximately 9 Hz, which is primarily limited by the frame rate of the MV imager. The geometric accuracy of the system is found to be on the order of less than 1 mm in all three spatial dimensions. The technique requires minimal hardware modification and is potentially useful for image-guided radiation therapy systems.

  2. First clinical results with a real time, electronic imager as an aid to colonoscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, B P; Bell, G D; Williams, C B; Bladen, J S; Anderson, A P

    1995-01-01

    The early clinical results are described of a real time, electromagnetic imaging system as an aid to colonoscopy. After gaining experience with the use of the system, one experienced endoscopist was randomised to perform consecutive colonoscopies either with (n = 29) or without (n = 26) the imager view. All procedures were recorded on computer disk and replayed for retrospective analysis. Total colonoscopy was achieved in all patients except one (imager view not available). Comparing intubation time and duration of loop formation per patient, there was no significant difference between the two study groups. The number of attempts taken to straighten the colonoscope pre patient, however, was less when the endoscopist was able to see the imager view, p = 0.03. Hand pressure was also more effective when the endoscopist and endoscopy assistant could see the imager display, p = 0.02. Preliminary experience suggests that real time, electronic imaging of colonoscopy is safe, effective, and will improve the accuracy of the procedure. Images Figure 1 PMID:7615283

  3. Approaching real-time terahertz imaging using photo-induced reconfigurable aperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Md. Itrat Bin; Jiang, Zhenguo; Rahman, Syed; Qayyum, Jubaid; Hesler, Jeffrey L.; Cheng, Li-Jing; Xing, Huili Grace; Fay, Patrick; Liu, Lei

    2014-05-01

    We report a technique using photo-induced coded-aperture arrays for potential real-time THz imaging at roomtemperature. The coded apertures (based on Hadamard coding) were implemented using programmable illumination on semi-insulating Silicon wafer by a commercial digital-light processing (DLP) projector. Initial imaging experiments were performed in the 500-750 GHz band using a WR-1.5 vector network analyzer (VNA) as the source and receiver. Over the entire band, each array pixel can be optically turned on and off with an average modulation depth of ~20 dB and ~35 dB, for ~4 cm2 and ~0.5 cm2 imaging areas respectively. The modulation speed is ~1.3 kHz using the current DLP system and data acquisition software. Prototype imaging demonstrations have shown that a 256-pixel image can be obtained in the order of 10 seconds using compressed sensing (CS), and this speed can be improved greatly for potential real-time or video-rate THz imaging. This photo-induced coded-aperture imaging (PI-CAI) technique has been successfully applied to characterize THz beams in quasi-optical systems and THz horn antennas.

  4. The first clinical treatment with kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM): A real-time image guidance method

    SciTech Connect

    Keall, Paul J. O’Brien, Ricky; Huang, Chen-Yu; Aun Ng, Jin; Colvill, Emma; Rugaard Poulsen, Per; Fledelius, Walther; Juneja, Prabhjot; Booth, Jeremy T.; Simpson, Emma; Bell, Linda; Alfieri, Florencia; Eade, Thomas; Kneebone, Andrew

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) is a real-time image guidance method that uses widely available radiotherapy technology, i.e., a gantry-mounted x-ray imager. The authors report on the geometric and dosimetric results of the first patient treatment using KIM which occurred on September 16, 2014. Methods: KIM uses current and prior 2D x-ray images to estimate the 3D target position during cancer radiotherapy treatment delivery. KIM software was written to process kilovoltage (kV) images streamed from a standard C-arm linear accelerator with a gantry-mounted kV x-ray imaging system. A 120° pretreatment kV imaging arc was acquired to build the patient-specific 2D to 3D motion correlation. The kV imager was activated during the megavoltage (MV) treatment, a dual arc VMAT prostate treatment, to estimate the 3D prostate position in real-time. All necessary ethics, legal, and regulatory requirements were met for this clinical study. The quality assurance processes were completed and peer reviewed. Results: During treatment, a prostate position offset of nearly 3 mm in the posterior direction was observed with KIM. This position offset did not trigger a gating event. After the treatment, the prostate motion was independently measured using kV/MV triangulation, resulting in a mean difference of less than 0.6 mm and standard deviation of less than 0.6 mm in each direction. The accuracy of the marker segmentation was visually assessed during and after treatment and found to be performing well. During treatment, there were no interruptions due to performance of the KIM software. Conclusions: For the first time, KIM has been used for real-time image guidance during cancer radiotherapy. The measured accuracy and precision were both submillimeter for the first treatment fraction. This clinical translational research milestone paves the way for the broad implementation of real-time image guidance to facilitate the detection and correction of geometric and

  5. Real-time optical diagnosis of gastric cancer with serosal invasion using multiphoton imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Zheng, Yu; Zheng, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhangyuanzhu; Liu, Wenju; Chen, Dexin; Dong, Xiaoyu; Li, Kai; Liu, Xiumin; Chen, Gang; Lu, Jianping; Chen, Jianxin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Li, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    A real-time optical biopsy, which could determine tissue histopathology, would be of extraordinary benefit to staging laparoscopy for gastric cancer with serosal invasion (T4) that requires downstage treatment. We investigated the feasibility of using multiphoton imaging to perform a real-time optical diagnosis of gastric cancer with or without serosal invasion. First, a pilot study was performed to establish the optical diagnostic features of gastric cancer with or without serosal invasion using multiphoton imaging compared with hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome staining. Second, a blinded study was performed to compare the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of multiphoton imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for T4 gastric cancer. In the pilot study, multiphoton imaging revealed collagen loss and degradation and cellular and nuclear pleomorphism in gastric cancer with serosal invasion. The collagen content in gastric cancer with or without serosal invasion was 0.36 ± 0.18 and 0.79 ± 0.16 (p < 0.001), respectively. In the blinded study, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of EUS and multiphoton imaging for T4 gastric cancer were 70% and 90% (p = 0.029), 66.67% and 96.67% (p = 0.003), and 68.33% and 93.33% (p = 0.001), respectively. It is feasible to use multiphoton imaging to make a real-time optical diagnosis of gastric cancer with or without serosal invasion. PMID:27499365

  6. Real-time color image fusion for infrared and low-light-level cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junju; Han, Yiyong; Chang, Benkang; Yuan, Yihui; Qian, Yunsheng; Qiu, Yafeng

    2009-07-01

    A real-time color image fusion system has been presented for the infrared thermal camera and the low-light-level camera, which provides more complete spectral image information. The statistical transform method based on the YCRCBcolor model transfers the first order statistics of the color distribution of a representative natural color daytime reference image to the false color dual -band images. This mapping is usually performed in a perceptually decorrelated color space. The colors in the resulting colorized dual-band images closely resemble the colors in the daytime color reference image. Also, object colors remain invariant under panning operations and are independent of the scene content. Preliminary field trials demonstrate the potential of these systems for applications like surveillance, security and target detection.

  7. Real-time super-resolution imaging by high-speed fluorescence emission difference microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Zihao; Li, Shuai; Kuang, Cuifang; Xu, Yingke; Liu, Xu

    2014-09-01

    The recently proposed fluorescence emission difference (FED) microscopy has been demonstrated to be capable of breaking the diffraction barrier, which restricts the spatial resolution of far-field fluorescence microscopy. In this paper, we report a novel high-speed FED system that can realize real-time super-resolution imaging. By replacing the conventional nanopositioning stage with a galvo mirror, the temporal resolution of FED is improved to nearly one frame per second, which is 100 times faster than that of best existing FED, while the system maintains a super-high spatial resolution of 150 nm, which is far beyond the diffraction barrier. Therefore, the high-speed FED is suitable for large-area observations while avoiding photobleaching. Detailed theoretical analysis, simulations, and experimental real-time resolution tests on 100 nm nanoparticles and biological cells are reported.

  8. Real-time imaging of type III secretion: Salmonella SipA injection into host cells.

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, Markus C; Müller, Andreas J; Ehrbar, Kristin; Winnen, Brit; Duss, Iwan; Stecher, Bärbel; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2005-08-30

    Many pathogenic and symbiotic Gram-negative bacteria employ type III secretion systems to inject "effector" proteins into eukaryotic host cells. These effectors manipulate signaling pathways to initiate symbiosis or disease. By using time-lapse microscopy, we have imaged delivery of the Salmonella type III effector protein SipA/SspA into animal cells in real time. SipA delivery mostly began 10-90 sec after docking and proceeded for 100-600 sec until the bacterial SipA pool (6 +/- 3 x 10(3) molecules) was exhausted. Similar observations were made for the effector protein SopE. This visualization of type III secretion in real time explains the efficiency of host cell manipulation by means of this virulence system. PMID:16107539

  9. Intraoperative brain hemodynamic response assessment with real-time hyperspectral optical imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurence, Audrey; Pichette, Julien; Angulo-Rodríguez, Leticia M.; Saint Pierre, Catherine; Lesage, Frédéric; Bouthillier, Alain; Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Leblond, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Following normal neuronal activity, there is an increase in cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume to provide oxygenated hemoglobin to active neurons. For abnormal activity such as epileptiform discharges, this hemodynamic response may be inadequate to meet the high metabolic demands. To verify this hypothesis, we developed a novel hyperspectral imaging system able to monitor real-time cortical hemodynamic changes during brain surgery. The imaging system is directly integrated into a surgical microscope, using the white-light source for illumination. A snapshot hyperspectral camera is used for detection (4x4 mosaic filter array detecting 16 wavelengths simultaneously). We present calibration experiments where phantoms made of intralipid and food dyes were imaged. Relative concentrations of three dyes were recovered at a video rate of 30 frames per second. We also present hyperspectral recordings during brain surgery of epileptic patients with concurrent electrocorticography recordings. Relative concentration maps of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin were extracted from the data, allowing real-time studies of hemodynamic changes with a good spatial resolution. Finally, we present preliminary results on phantoms obtained with an integrated spatial frequency domain imaging system to recover tissue optical properties. This additional module, used together with the hyperspectral imaging system, will allow quantification of hemoglobin concentrations maps. Our hyperspectral imaging system offers a new tool to analyze hemodynamic changes, especially in the case of epileptiform discharges. It also offers an opportunity to study brain connectivity by analyzing correlations between hemodynamic responses of different tissue regions.

  10. Mid-level image representations for real-time heart view plane classification of echocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Penatti, Otávio A B; Werneck, Rafael de O; de Almeida, Waldir R; Stein, Bernardo V; Pazinato, Daniel V; Mendes Júnior, Pedro R; Torres, Ricardo da S; Rocha, Anderson

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we explore mid-level image representations for real-time heart view plane classification of 2D echocardiogram ultrasound images. The proposed representations rely on bags of visual words, successfully used by the computer vision community in visual recognition problems. An important element of the proposed representations is the image sampling with large regions, drastically reducing the execution time of the image characterization procedure. Throughout an extensive set of experiments, we evaluate the proposed approach against different image descriptors for classifying four heart view planes. The results show that our approach is effective and efficient for the target problem, making it suitable for use in real-time setups. The proposed representations are also robust to different image transformations, e.g., downsampling, noise filtering, and different machine learning classifiers, keeping classification accuracy above 90%. Feature extraction can be performed in 30 fps or 60 fps in some cases. This paper also includes an in-depth review of the literature in the area of automatic echocardiogram view classification giving the reader a through comprehension of this field of study.

  11. Mid-level image representations for real-time heart view plane classification of echocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Penatti, Otávio A B; Werneck, Rafael de O; de Almeida, Waldir R; Stein, Bernardo V; Pazinato, Daniel V; Mendes Júnior, Pedro R; Torres, Ricardo da S; Rocha, Anderson

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we explore mid-level image representations for real-time heart view plane classification of 2D echocardiogram ultrasound images. The proposed representations rely on bags of visual words, successfully used by the computer vision community in visual recognition problems. An important element of the proposed representations is the image sampling with large regions, drastically reducing the execution time of the image characterization procedure. Throughout an extensive set of experiments, we evaluate the proposed approach against different image descriptors for classifying four heart view planes. The results show that our approach is effective and efficient for the target problem, making it suitable for use in real-time setups. The proposed representations are also robust to different image transformations, e.g., downsampling, noise filtering, and different machine learning classifiers, keeping classification accuracy above 90%. Feature extraction can be performed in 30 fps or 60 fps in some cases. This paper also includes an in-depth review of the literature in the area of automatic echocardiogram view classification giving the reader a through comprehension of this field of study. PMID:26386547

  12. A Real-Time Image Acquisition And Processing System For A RISC-Based Microcomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckman, Adrian J.; Allinson, Nigel M.

    1989-03-01

    A low cost image acquisition and processing system has been developed for the Acorn Archimedes microcomputer. Using a Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture, the ARM (Acorn Risc Machine) processor provides instruction speeds suitable for image processing applications. The associated improvement in data transfer rate has allowed real-time video image acquisition without the need for frame-store memory external to the microcomputer. The system is comprised of real-time video digitising hardware which interfaces directly to the Archimedes memory, and software to provide an integrated image acquisition and processing environment. The hardware can digitise a video signal at up to 640 samples per video line with programmable parameters such as sampling rate and gain. Software support includes a work environment for image capture and processing with pixel, neighbourhood and global operators. A friendly user interface is provided with the help of the Archimedes Operating System WIMP (Windows, Icons, Mouse and Pointer) Manager. Windows provide a convenient way of handling images on the screen and program control is directed mostly by pop-up menus.

  13. Real-time synthetic aperture sonar imaging using a parallel architecture.

    PubMed

    Riyait, V S; Lawlor, M A; Adams, A E; Hinton, O; Sharif, B

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a parallel architecture that has been developed to perform real-time synthetic aperture sonar imaging as part of the Acoustical Imaging Development (ACID) project. The project has successfully developed a synthetic aperture sonar system for producing high resolution images of the sea floor and that has been tested during a series of sea trials in May 1993 off the south coast of France. This paper describes the synthetic aperture processing system developed by the University of Newcastle upon Tyne and its use of transputer modules and associated devices in order to obtain real-time imaging performance, the software structure of the processing system and the load balancing techniques that have been developed in order to provide efficient processing. The use of a parallel distributed architecture has also allowed a processing system that can readily be extended to deliver greater computational power in the future. Images produced by the synthetic aperture processor from data collected from around the Toulon coastal region are presented. These images highlight the improvement in azimuth resolution that can be obtained from synthetic aperture processing over conventional sidescan sonars.

  14. Real-time control of lesion size based on reflectance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerath, Maya R.; Kaisig, Danielle; Rylander, Henry G., III; Welch, Ashley J.

    1992-08-01

    Laser-induced lesion size is controlled in real time based on a two dimensional reflectance image recorded by a CCD array during lesion formation. A feedback system using components of the reflectance image achieves uniform lesions by compensating for light absorption variability in biological media. Lesions are formed in a phantom using an argon laser to simulate retinal photocoagulation. The tissue model consists of an absorptive high temperature black paint layer and an egg white protein layer. Reflectance images are acquired as the lesion forms at a standard frame rate using a 512 X 512 CCD camera attached to an ITI 151 series image processor and a Sun 3/260 computer. A shutter controlled by the computer is closed when certain preset conditions are met in the images. Results show a low variance in the sizes of the lesions (diameter or depth) produced under different irradiation conditions and the ability to produce lesions of a predefined size under varying illumination conditions. Real time control from reflectance images based on certain parameters is demonstrated as a feasible method of controlling lesion size.

  15. Real-time in vivo imaging of dental tissue by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, Roland; Haller, Bernd; Hauger, Christoph

    2003-11-01

    We have carried out real-time in vivo and in vitro imaging of human dental tissue in a clinical setting by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT). We have used a compact, commercial prototype OCT system applying for the first time a surgical microscope as a beam delivery system for investigations of dental tissue. We have imaged demineralised tissue, caries lesions, restored teeth and oral mucosa and demonstrate the detection of changes in tissue microstructure. We discuss the details of this system and its potential and limitations with respect to dental applications.

  16. Apparatus for real-time acoustic imaging of Rayleigh-Benard convection.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Kerry; Polfer, Jonathan; Furno, Joanna; Finke, Nathan

    2007-11-01

    We have designed and built an apparatus for real-time acoustic imaging of convective flow patterns in optically opaque fluids. This apparatus takes advantage of recent advances in two-dimensional ultrasound transducer array technology; it employs a modified version of a commercially available ultrasound camera, similar to those employed in nondestructive testing of solids. Images of convection patterns are generated by observing the lateral variation of the temperature dependent speed of sound via refraction of acoustic plane waves passing vertically through the fluid layer. The apparatus has been validated by observing convection rolls in both silicone oil and ferrofluid. PMID:18052477

  17. Real-time fluorescence imaging with 20 nm axial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Stabley, Daniel R.; Oh, Thomas; Simon, Sanford M.; Mattheyses, Alexa L.; Salaita, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the nanoscale organization of protein structures near the plasma membrane of live cells is challenging, especially when the structure is dynamic. Here we present the development of a two-wavelength total internal reflection fluorescence method capable of real-time imaging of cellular structure height with nanometre resolution. The method employs a protein of interest tagged with two different fluorophores and imaged to obtain the ratio of emission in the two channels. We use this approach to visualize the nanoscale organization of microtubules and endocytosis of the epidermal growth factor receptor. PMID:26392382

  18. Parallel algorithm of real-time infrared image restoration based on total variation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ran; Li, Miao; Long, Yunli; Zeng, Yaoyuan; An, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Image restoration is a necessary preprocessing step for infrared remote sensing applications. Traditional methods allow us to remove the noise but penalize too much the gradients corresponding to edges. Image restoration techniques based on variational approaches can solve this over-smoothing problem for the merits of their well-defined mathematical modeling of the restore procedure. The total variation (TV) of infrared image is introduced as a L1 regularization term added to the objective energy functional. It converts the restoration process to an optimization problem of functional involving a fidelity term to the image data plus a regularization term. Infrared image restoration technology with TV-L1 model exploits the remote sensing data obtained sufficiently and preserves information at edges caused by clouds. Numerical implementation algorithm is presented in detail. Analysis indicates that the structure of this algorithm can be easily implemented in parallelization. Therefore a parallel implementation of the TV-L1 filter based on multicore architecture with shared memory is proposed for infrared real-time remote sensing systems. Massive computation of image data is performed in parallel by cooperating threads running simultaneously on multiple cores. Several groups of synthetic infrared image data are used to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed parallel algorithm. Quantitative analysis of measuring the restored image quality compared to input image is presented. Experiment results show that the TV-L1 filter can restore the varying background image reasonably, and that its performance can achieve the requirement of real-time image processing.

  19. Real-time imaging through strongly scattering media: seeing through turbid media, instantly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudarsanam, Sriram; Mathew, James; Panigrahi, Swapnesh; Fade, Julien; Alouini, Mehdi; Ramachandran, Hema

    2016-04-01

    Numerous everyday situations like navigation, medical imaging and rescue operations require viewing through optically inhomogeneous media. This is a challenging task as photons propagate predominantly diffusively (rather than ballistically) due to random multiple scattering off the inhomogenieties. Real-time imaging with ballistic light under continuous-wave illumination is even more challenging due to the extremely weak signal, necessitating voluminous data-processing. Here we report imaging through strongly scattering media in real-time and at rates several times the critical flicker frequency of the eye, so that motion is perceived as continuous. Two factors contributed to the speedup of more than three orders of magnitude over conventional techniques - the use of a simplified algorithm enabling processing of data on the fly, and the utilisation of task and data parallelization capabilities of typical desktop computers. The extreme simplicity of the technique, and its implementation with present day low-cost technology promises its utility in a variety of devices in maritime, aerospace, rail and road transport, in medical imaging and defence. It is of equal interest to the common man and adventure sportsperson like hikers, divers, mountaineers, who frequently encounter situations requiring realtime imaging through obscuring media. As a specific example, navigation under poor visibility is examined.

  20. Real-time imaging through strongly scattering media: seeing through turbid media, instantly.

    PubMed

    Sudarsanam, Sriram; Mathew, James; Panigrahi, Swapnesh; Fade, Julien; Alouini, Mehdi; Ramachandran, Hema

    2016-01-01

    Numerous everyday situations like navigation, medical imaging and rescue operations require viewing through optically inhomogeneous media. This is a challenging task as photons propagate predominantly diffusively (rather than ballistically) due to random multiple scattering off the inhomogenieties. Real-time imaging with ballistic light under continuous-wave illumination is even more challenging due to the extremely weak signal, necessitating voluminous data-processing. Here we report imaging through strongly scattering media in real-time and at rates several times the critical flicker frequency of the eye, so that motion is perceived as continuous. Two factors contributed to the speedup of more than three orders of magnitude over conventional techniques - the use of a simplified algorithm enabling processing of data on the fly, and the utilisation of task and data parallelization capabilities of typical desktop computers. The extreme simplicity of the technique, and its implementation with present day low-cost technology promises its utility in a variety of devices in maritime, aerospace, rail and road transport, in medical imaging and defence. It is of equal interest to the common man and adventure sportsperson like hikers, divers, mountaineers, who frequently encounter situations requiring realtime imaging through obscuring media. As a specific example, navigation under poor visibility is examined.

  1. Real-time imaging through strongly scattering media: seeing through turbid media, instantly

    PubMed Central

    Sudarsanam, Sriram; Mathew, James; Panigrahi, Swapnesh; Fade, Julien; Alouini, Mehdi; Ramachandran, Hema

    2016-01-01

    Numerous everyday situations like navigation, medical imaging and rescue operations require viewing through optically inhomogeneous media. This is a challenging task as photons propagate predominantly diffusively (rather than ballistically) due to random multiple scattering off the inhomogenieties. Real-time imaging with ballistic light under continuous-wave illumination is even more challenging due to the extremely weak signal, necessitating voluminous data-processing. Here we report imaging through strongly scattering media in real-time and at rates several times the critical flicker frequency of the eye, so that motion is perceived as continuous. Two factors contributed to the speedup of more than three orders of magnitude over conventional techniques - the use of a simplified algorithm enabling processing of data on the fly, and the utilisation of task and data parallelization capabilities of typical desktop computers. The extreme simplicity of the technique, and its implementation with present day low-cost technology promises its utility in a variety of devices in maritime, aerospace, rail and road transport, in medical imaging and defence. It is of equal interest to the common man and adventure sportsperson like hikers, divers, mountaineers, who frequently encounter situations requiring realtime imaging through obscuring media. As a specific example, navigation under poor visibility is examined. PMID:27114106

  2. Image projection clues for improved real-time vehicle tracking in tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelaca, Vedran; Niño Castaneda, Jorge Oswaldo; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle tracking is of great importance for tunnel safety. To detect incidents or disturbances in traffic flow it is necessary to reliably track vehicles in real-time. The tracking is a challenging task due to poor lighting conditions in tunnels and frequent light reflections from tunnel walls, the road and the vehicles themselves. In this paper we propose a multi-clue tracking approach combining foreground blobs, optical flow of Shi-Tomasi features and image projection profiles in a Kalman filter with a constant velocity model. The main novelty of our approach lies in using vertical and horizontal image projection profiles (so-called vehicle signatures) as additional measurements to overcome the problems of inconsistent foreground and optical flow clues in cases of severe lighting changes. These signatures consist of Radon-transform like projections along each image column and row. We compare the signatures from two successive video frames to align them and to correct the predicted vehicle position and size. We tested our approach on a real tunnel video sequence. The results show an improvement in the accuracy of the tracker and less target losses when image projection clues are used. Furthermore, calculation and comparison of image projections is computationally efficient so the tracker keeps real-time performance (25 fps, on a single 1.86 GHz processor).

  3. Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jin U.; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Kang; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Cha, Jaepyeong; Lee, W. P. Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Gehlbach, Peter L.

    2012-08-01

    The authors describe the development of an ultrafast three-dimensional (3D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system that provides real-time intraoperative video images of the surgical site to assist surgeons during microsurgical procedures. This system is based on a full-range complex conjugate free Fourier-domain OCT (FD-OCT). The system was built in a CPU-GPU heterogeneous computing architecture capable of video OCT image processing. The system displays at a maximum speed of 10 volume/s for an image volume size of 160×80×1024 (X×Y×Z) pixels. We have used this system to visualize and guide two prototypical microsurgical maneuvers: microvascular anastomosis of the rat femoral artery and ultramicrovascular isolation of the retinal arterioles of the bovine retina. Our preliminary experiments using 3D-OCT-guided microvascular anastomosis showed optimal visualization of the rat femoral artery (diameter<0.8 mm), instruments, and suture material. Real-time intraoperative guidance helped facilitate precise suture placement due to optimized views of the vessel wall during anastomosis. Using the bovine retina as a model system, we have performed "ultra microvascular" feasibility studies by guiding handheld surgical micro-instruments to isolate retinal arterioles (diameter˜0.1 mm). Isolation of the microvessels was confirmed by successfully passing a suture beneath the vessel in the 3D imaging environment.

  4. Cherenkov Video Imaging Allows for the First Visualization of Radiation Therapy in Real Time

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, Lesley A.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Gladstone, David J.; Jiang, Shudong; Hitchcock, Whitney; Friedman, Oscar D.; Glaser, Adam K.; Jermyn, Michael; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To determine whether Cherenkov light imaging can visualize radiation therapy in real time during breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: An intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was synchronized to the 3.25-μs radiation pulses of the clinical linear accelerator with the intensifier set × 100. Cherenkov images were acquired continuously (2.8 frames/s) during fractionated whole breast irradiation with each frame an accumulation of 100 radiation pulses (approximately 5 monitor units). Results: The first patient images ever created are used to illustrate that Cherenkov emission can be visualized as a video during conditions typical for breast radiation therapy, even with complex treatment plans, mixed energies, and modulated treatment fields. Images were generated correlating to the superficial dose received by the patient and potentially the location of the resulting skin reactions. Major blood vessels are visible in the image, providing the potential to use these as biological landmarks for improved geometric accuracy. The potential for this system to detect radiation therapy misadministrations, which can result from hardware malfunction or patient positioning setup errors during individual fractions, is shown. Conclusions: Cherenkoscopy is a unique method for visualizing surface dose resulting in real-time quality control. We propose that this system could detect radiation therapy errors in everyday clinical practice at a time when these errors can be corrected to result in improved safety and quality of radiation therapy.

  5. Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Kang; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Cha, Jaepyeong; Lee, W. P. Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald; Gehlbach, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. The authors describe the development of an ultrafast three-dimensional (3D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system that provides real-time intraoperative video images of the surgical site to assist surgeons during microsurgical procedures. This system is based on a full-range complex conjugate free Fourier-domain OCT (FD-OCT). The system was built in a CPU-GPU heterogeneous computing architecture capable of video OCT image processing. The system displays at a maximum speed of 10  volume/s for an image volume size of 160×80×1024 (X×Y×Z) pixels. We have used this system to visualize and guide two prototypical microsurgical maneuvers: microvascular anastomosis of the rat femoral artery and ultramicrovascular isolation of the retinal arterioles of the bovine retina. Our preliminary experiments using 3D-OCT-guided microvascular anastomosis showed optimal visualization of the rat femoral artery (diameter<0.8  mm), instruments, and suture material. Real-time intraoperative guidance helped facilitate precise suture placement due to optimized views of the vessel wall during anastomosis. Using the bovine retina as a model system, we have performed “ultra microvascular” feasibility studies by guiding handheld surgical micro-instruments to isolate retinal arterioles (diameter∼0.1  mm). Isolation of the microvessels was confirmed by successfully passing a suture beneath the vessel in the 3D imaging environment. PMID:23224164

  6. Real time quantitative imaging for semiconductor crystal growth, control and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargo, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative real time image processing system has been developed which can be software-reconfigured for semiconductor processing and characterization tasks. In thermal imager mode, 2D temperature distributions of semiconductor melt surfaces (900-1600 C) can be obtained with temperature and spatial resolutions better than 0.5 C and 0.5 mm, respectively, as demonstrated by analysis of melt surface thermal distributions. Temporal and spatial image processing techniques and multitasking computational capabilities convert such thermal imaging into a multimode sensor for crystal growth control. A second configuration of the image processing engine in conjunction with bright and dark field transmission optics is used to nonintrusively determine the microdistribution of free charge carriers and submicron sized crystalline defects in semiconductors. The IR absorption characteristics of wafers are determined with 10-micron spatial resolution and, after calibration, are converted into charge carrier density.

  7. Real-time outdoor concealed-object detection with passive millimeter wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Seokwon; Lee, Dong-Su; Son, Jung-Young; Jung, Min-Kyoo; Jang, YuShin; Jung, Sang-Won; Lee, Seok-Jae

    2011-01-31

    Millimeter wave imaging is finding rapid adoption in security applications such as the detection of objects concealed under clothing. A passive imaging system can be realized as a stand-off type sensor that can operate in open spaces, both indoors and outdoors. In this paper, we address real-time outdoor concealed-object detection and segmentation with a radiometric imaging system operating in the W-band. The imaging system is equipped with a dielectric lens and a receiver array operating at around 94 GHz. Images are analyzed by multilevel segmentation to identify a concealed object. Each level of segmentation comprises vector quantization, expectation-maximization, and Bayesian decision making to cluster pixels on the basis of a Gaussian mixture model. In addition, we describe a faster process that adopts only vector quantization for the first level segmentation. Experiments confirm that the proposed methods provide fast and reliable detection and segmentation for a moving human subject carrying a concealed gun.

  8. Real-time Strehl and image quality performance estimator at Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawet, Dimitri; Smette, Alain; Sarazin, Marc S.; Kuntschner, Harald; Girard, Julien H.

    2014-08-01

    Here we describe a prototype Strehl and image quality performance estimator and its integration into Paranal operations, starting with UT4 and its suite of three infrared instruments: adaptive optics-fed imager/spectrograph NACO (temporarily out of operations) and integral field unit SINFONI, as well as wide-field imager HAWK-I. The real-time estimator processes the ambient conditions (seeing, coherence time, airmass, etc.) from the DIMM, and telescope Shack-Hartmann image analyzer to produce estimates of image quality and Strehl ratio every ~ 30 seconds. The estimate is using ad-hoc instrumental models, based in part on the PAOLA adaptive optics simulator. We discuss the current performance of the estimator vs real IQ and Strehl measurements, its impact on service mode efficiency, prospects for full deployment at other UTs, its use for the adaptive optics facility (AOF), and inclusion of the SLODAR-measured fine turbulence characteristics.

  9. Applications of Near Real-Time Image and Fire Products from MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Ilavajhala, S.; Teague, M.; Ye, G.; Masuoka, E.; Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.; Michael, K.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s MODIS Rapid Response Project (http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/) has been providing MODIS fire detections and imagery in near real-time since 2001. The Rapid Response system is part of the Land and Atmospheres Near-real time Capability for EOS (LANCE-MODIS) system. Current capabilities include providing MODIS imagery in true color and false color band combinations, a vegetation index, and temperature - in both uncorrected swath format and geographically corrected subset regions. The geographically-corrected subsets images cover the world's land areas and adjoining waters, as well as the entire Arctic and Antarctic. These data are available within a few hours of data acquisition. The images are accessed by large number of user communities to obtain a rapid, 250 meter-resolution overview of ground conditions for fire management, crop and famine monitoring and forecasting, disaster response (fires, oil spills, floods, storms), dust and aerosol monitoring, aviation (tracking volcanic ash), monitoring sea ice conditions, environmental monitoring, and more. In addition, the scientific community uses imagery to locate phenomena of interest prior to ordering and processing data and to support the day-to-day planning of field campaigns. The MODIS Rapid Response project has also been providing a near real-time data feed on fire locations and MODIS imagery subsets to the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) project (http://maps.geog.umd.edu/firms). FIRMS provides timely availability of fire location information, which is essential in preventing and fighting large forest/wild fires. Products are available through a WebGIS for visualizing MODIS hotspots and MCD45 Burned Area images, an email alerting tool to deliver fire data on daily/weekly/near real-time basis, active data downloads in formats such as shape, KML, CSV, WMS, etc., along with MODIS imagery subsets. FIRMS’ user base covers more than 100 countries and territories. A recent user

  10. Real-time automatic fiducial marker tracking in low contrast cine-MV images

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wei-Yang; Lin, Shu-Fang; Yang, Sheng-Chang; Liou, Shu-Cheng; Nath, Ravinder; Liu Wu

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To develop a real-time automatic method for tracking implanted radiographic markers in low-contrast cine-MV patient images used in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Methods: Intrafraction motion tracking using radiotherapy beam-line MV images have gained some attention recently in IGRT because no additional imaging dose is introduced. However, MV images have much lower contrast than kV images, therefore a robust and automatic algorithm for marker detection in MV images is a prerequisite. Previous marker detection methods are all based on template matching or its derivatives. Template matching needs to match object shape that changes significantly for different implantation and projection angle. While these methods require a large number of templates to cover various situations, they are often forced to use a smaller number of templates to reduce the computation load because their methods all require exhaustive search in the region of interest. The authors solve this problem by synergetic use of modern but well-tested computer vision and artificial intelligence techniques; specifically the authors detect implanted markers utilizing discriminant analysis for initialization and use mean-shift feature space analysis for sequential tracking. This novel approach avoids exhaustive search by exploiting the temporal correlation between consecutive frames and makes it possible to perform more sophisticated detection at the beginning to improve the accuracy, followed by ultrafast sequential tracking after the initialization. The method was evaluated and validated using 1149 cine-MV images from two prostate IGRT patients and compared with manual marker detection results from six researchers. The average of the manual detection results is considered as the ground truth for comparisons. Results: The average root-mean-square errors of our real-time automatic tracking method from the ground truth are 1.9 and 2.1 pixels for the two patients (0.26 mm/pixel). The

  11. Detection of hidden objects using a real-time 3-D millimeter-wave imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozban, Daniel; Aharon, Avihai; Levanon, Assaf; Abramovich, Amir; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Kopeika, N. S.

    2014-10-01

    Millimeter (mm)and sub-mm wavelengths or terahertz (THz) band have several properties that motivate their use in imaging for security applications such as recognition of hidden objects, dangerous materials, aerosols, imaging through walls as in hostage situations, and also in bad weather conditions. There is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric degradation of THz radiation is relatively low for practical imaging distances. We recently developed a new technology for the detection of THz radiation. This technology is based on very inexpensive plasma neon indicator lamps, also known as Glow Discharge Detector (GDD), that can be used as very sensitive THz radiation detectors. Using them, we designed and constructed a Focal Plane Array (FPA) and obtained recognizable2-dimensional THz images of both dielectric and metallic objects. Using THz wave it is shown here that even concealed weapons made of dielectric material can be detected. An example is an image of a knife concealed inside a leather bag and also under heavy clothing. Three-dimensional imaging using radar methods can enhance those images since it can allow the isolation of the concealed objects from the body and environmental clutter such as nearby furniture or other people. The GDDs enable direct heterodyning between the electric field of the target signal and the reference signal eliminating the requirement for expensive mixers, sources, and Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs).We expanded the ability of the FPA so that we are able to obtain recognizable 2-dimensional THz images in real time. We show here that the THz detection of objects in three dimensions, using FMCW principles is also applicable in real time. This imaging system is also shown here to be capable of imaging objects from distances allowing standoff detection of suspicious objects and humans from large distances.

  12. Electrochemical Sensor Array and Its Application to Real Time Imaging of a Brain Slice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Nahoko; Shimada, Akiyoshi; Nyberg, Tobias; Torimitsu, Keiichi

    An electrochemical sensing system using a planar microelectrode array has been developed to monitor biological molecules with relatively high special and temporal resolutions. This enables us a real time imaging of the biological molecules release from a tissue invasively. In this study, we have established a multichannel hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensing system to monitor the real time H2O2 distribution in a tissue using a planar sensor array. H2O2 has been recognized in association with the pathology of neurological diseases because it is a by-product of a degenerative reaction of reactive oxygen species, one of the major causes of oxidative stress in mammalian cells. The sensor array is based on a 64-channel ITO electrode array of 50x50 μm electrodes modified with an enzyme, horseradish peroxidase, and an electron transfer mediator. Then we place a cultured rat hippocampal slice on the array and measure the current at each sensor using a multipotentiostat. When we introduce bicuculline into the solution as a stimulant, in the presence of a catalase inhibitor, we can observe a distinct increase in the H2O2 concentration. This real-time H2O2 distribution monitoring system will be a powerful tool with which to explore the neuronal cell death mechanism in biological systems.

  13. A design of real time image capturing and processing system using Texas Instrument's processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Toon-Joo; Chaisorn, Lekha; Rahardja, Susanto; Gan, Woon-Seng

    2007-09-01

    In this work, we developed and implemented an image capturing and processing system that equipped with capability of capturing images from an input video in real time. The input video can be a video from a PC, video camcorder or DVD player. We developed two modes of operation in the system. In the first mode, an input image from the PC is processed on the processing board (development platform with a digital signal processor) and is displayed on the PC. In the second mode, current captured image from the video camcorder (or from DVD player) is processed on the board but is displayed on the LCD monitor. The major difference between our system and other existing conventional systems is that image-processing functions are performed on the board instead of the PC (so that the functions can be used for further developments on the board). The user can control the operations of the board through the Graphic User Interface (GUI) provided on the PC. In order to have a smooth image data transfer between the PC and the board, we employed Real Time Data Transfer (RTDX TM) technology to create a link between them. For image processing functions, we developed three main groups of function: (1) Point Processing; (2) Filtering and; (3) 'Others'. Point Processing includes rotation, negation and mirroring. Filter category provides median, adaptive, smooth and sharpen filtering in the time domain. In 'Others' category, auto-contrast adjustment, edge detection, segmentation and sepia color are provided, these functions either add effect on the image or enhance the image. We have developed and implemented our system using C/C# programming language on TMS320DM642 (or DM642) board from Texas Instruments (TI). The system was showcased in College of Engineering (CoE) exhibition 2006 at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and have more than 40 users tried our system. It is demonstrated that our system is adequate for real time image capturing. Our system can be used or applied for

  14. Telerobotic system concept for real-time soft-tissue imaging during radiotherapy beam delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dimitre

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: The curative potential of external beam radiation therapy is critically dependent on having the ability to accurately aim radiation beams at intended targets while avoiding surrounding healthy tissues. However, existing technologies are incapable of real-time, volumetric, soft-tissue imaging during radiation beam delivery, when accurate target tracking is most critical. The authors address this challenge in the development and evaluation of a novel, minimally interfering, telerobotic ultrasound (U.S.) imaging system that can be integrated with existing medical linear accelerators (LINACs) for therapy guidance. Methods: A customized human-safe robotic manipulator was designed and built to control the pressure and pitch of an abdominal U.S. transducer while avoiding LINAC gantry collisions. A haptic device was integrated to remotely control the robotic manipulator motion and U.S. image acquisition outside the LINAC room. The ability of the system to continuously maintain high quality prostate images was evaluated in volunteers over extended time periods. Treatment feasibility was assessed by comparing a clinically deployed prostate treatment plan to an alternative plan in which beam directions were restricted to sectors that did not interfere with the transabdominal U.S. transducer. To demonstrate imaging capability concurrent with delivery, robot performance and U.S. target tracking in a phantom were tested with a 15 MV radiation beam active. Results: Remote image acquisition and maintenance of image quality with the haptic interface was successfully demonstrated over 10 min periods in representative treatment setups of volunteers. Furthermore, the robot's ability to maintain a constant probe force and desired pitch angle was unaffected by the LINAC beam. For a representative prostate patient, the dose-volume histogram (DVH) for a plan with restricted sectors remained virtually identical to the DVH of a clinically deployed plan. With reduced margins, as

  15. Real-time imaging required for optimal echocardiographic assessment of aortic valve calcification

    PubMed Central

    Yousry, Mohamed; Rickenlund, Anette; Petrini, Johan; Gustavsson, Tomas; Prahl, Ulrica; Liska, Jan; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Eriksson, Maria J; Caidahl, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Aortic valve calcification (AVC), even without haemodynamic significance, may be prognostically import as an expression of generalized atherosclerosis, but techniques for echocardiographic assessment are essentially unexplored. Methods Two-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic recordings (Philips IE33) of the aortic valve in short-axis and long-axis views were performed in 185 consecutive patients within 1 week before surgery for aortic stenosis (n = 109, AS), aortic regurgitation (n = 61, AR), their combination (n = 8) or dilation of the ascending aorta (n = 7). The grey scale mean (GSMn) of the aortic valve in an end-diastolic short-axis still frame was measured. The same frame was scored visually 1–5 as indicating that the aortic valve was normal, thick, or had mild, moderate or severe calcification. The visual echodensity of each leaflet was determined real time applying the same 5-grade scoring system for each leaflet, and the average for the whole valve was calculated. Finally, a similar calcification score for the whole valve based on inspection and palpation by the surgeon was noted. Results Visual assessment of real-time images using the proposed scoring system showed better correlation with the surgical evaluation of the degree of valve calcification (r = 0·83, P<0·001) compared to evaluation of stop frames by visual assessment (r = 0·66, P<0·001) or the GSMn score (r = 0·64, P<0·001). High inter- and intra-observer correlations were observed for real-time visual score (both intraclass correlation coefficient = 0·93). Conclusion Real-time evaluation of the level of AVC is superior to using stop frames assessed either visually or by dedicated computer grey scale measurement software. PMID:23031068

  16. Real-Time On-Board Processing Validation of MSPI Ground Camera Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Bekker, Dmitriy L.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Decadal Survey identifies a multiangle, multispectral, high-accuracy polarization imager as one requirement for the Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission. JPL has been developing a Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) as a candidate to fill this need. A key technology development needed for MSPI is on-board signal processing to calculate polarimetry data as imaged by each of the 9 cameras forming the instrument. With funding from NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program, JPL is solving the real-time data processing requirements to demonstrate, for the first time, how signal data at 95 Mbytes/sec over 16-channels for each of the 9 multiangle cameras in the spaceborne instrument can be reduced on-board to 0.45 Mbytes/sec. This will produce the intensity and polarization data needed to characterize aerosol and cloud microphysical properties. Using the Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA including PowerPC440 processors we have implemented a least squares fitting algorithm that extracts intensity and polarimetric parameters in real-time, thereby substantially reducing the image data volume for spacecraft downlink without loss of science information.

  17. Visual detectability of elastic contrast in real-time ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Naomi R.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Doyley, Marvin M.; Leach, Martin O.

    1997-04-01

    Elasticity imaging (EI) has recently been proposed as a technique for imaging the mechanical properties of soft tissue. However, dynamic features, known as compressibility and mobility, are already employed to distinguish between different tissue types in ultrasound breast examination. This method, which involves the subjective interpretation of tissue motion seen in real-time B-mode images during palpation, is hereafter referred to as differential motion imaging (DMI). The purpose of this study was to develop the methodology required to perform a series of perception experiments to measure elastic lesion detectability by means of DMI and to obtain preliminary results for elastic contrast thresholds for different lesion sizes. Simulated sequences of real-time B-scans of tissue moving in response to an applied force were generated. A two-alternative forced choice (2-AFC) experiment was conducted and the measured contrast thresholds were compared with published results for lesions detected by EI. Although the trained observer was found to be quite skilled at the task of differential motion perception, it would appear that lesion detectability is improved when motion information is detected by computer processing and converted to gray scale before presentation to the observer. In particular, for lesions containing fewer than eight speckle cells, a signal detection rate of 100% could not be achieved even when the elastic contrast was very high.

  18. Functional Real-Time Optoacoustic Imaging of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Sandro M.; Lehmberg, Jens; Lindauer, Ute; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Longitudinal functional imaging studies of stroke are key in identifying the disease progression and possible therapeutic interventions. Here we investigate the applicability of real-time functional optoacoustic imaging for monitoring of stroke progression in the whole brain of living animals. Materials and Methods The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to model stroke in mice, which were imaged preoperatively and the occlusion was kept in place for 60 minutes, after which optoacoustic scans were taken at several time points. Results Post ischemia an asymmetry of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the brain was observed as a region of hypoxia in the hemisphere affected by the ischemic event. Furthermore, we were able to visualize the penumbra in-vivo as a localized hemodynamically-compromised area adjacent to the region of stroke-induced perfusion deficit. Conclusion The intrinsic sensitivity of the new imaging approach to functional blood parameters, in combination with real time operation and high spatial resolution in deep living tissues, may see it become a valuable and unique tool in the development and monitoring of treatments aimed at suspending the spread of an infarct area. PMID:24776997

  19. A real-time noise filtering strategy for photon counting 3D imaging lidar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zijing; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Long; Su, Jianzhong

    2013-04-22

    For a direct-detection 3D imaging lidar, the use of Geiger mode avalanche photodiode (Gm-APD) could greatly enhance the detection sensitivity of the lidar system since each range measurement requires a single detected photon. Furthermore, Gm-APD offers significant advantages in reducing the size, mass, power and complexity of the system. However the inevitable noise, including the background noise, the dark count noise and so on, remains a significant challenge to obtain a clear 3D image of the target of interest. This paper presents a smart strategy, which can filter out false alarms in the stage of acquisition of raw time of flight (TOF) data and obtain a clear 3D image in real time. As a result, a clear 3D image is taken from the experimental system despite the background noise of the sunny day.

  20. Real-time image registration and fusion in a FPGA architecture (Ad-FIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, T.; Swan, L.; Rickman, R.

    2011-06-01

    Real-time Image Registration is a key processing requirement of Waterfall Solutions' image fusion system, Ad-FIRE, which combines the attributes of high resolution visible imagery with the spectral response of low resolution thermal sensors in a single composite image. Implementing image fusion at video frame rates typically requires a high bandwidth video processing capability which, within a standard CPU-type processing architecture, necessitates bulky, high power components. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) offer the prospect of low power/heat dissipation combined with highly efficient processing architectures for use in portable, battery-powered, passively cooled applications, such as Waterfall Solutions' hand-held or helmet-mounted Ad-FIRE system.

  1. More advances in real-time millimeter-wave imaging radiometers for avionic synthetic vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Ri-Chee; Lovberg, John A.; Martin, Christopher A.

    1997-06-01

    Millimeter-wave thermal imaging provides a unique autonomous capability for aircraft landing in adverse weather, giving a pilot a comprehensive view of runway location and availability in real time with high fidelity. ThermoTrex Corporation has reported previous results from a passive millimeter-wave camera demonstration device. The addition of W-band low-noise amplifiers into the front end of this sparse phased-array thermal imaging camera has improved system thermal sensitivity by 5 dB over that previously reported. Processing upgrades have increased system frame update rate to about 1 Hz, and remote site field testing has established phenomenology relevant to aircraft landing guidance applications. Next-generation hardware design has addressed the issue of aircraft integration using an innovative lightweight, X-band antenna for 89 GHz thermal imaging. A flightworthy demonstration imager using this antenna is currently under construction for 10 Hz operation.

  2. A real-time noise filtering strategy for photon counting 3D imaging lidar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zijing; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Long; Su, Jianzhong

    2013-04-22

    For a direct-detection 3D imaging lidar, the use of Geiger mode avalanche photodiode (Gm-APD) could greatly enhance the detection sensitivity of the lidar system since each range measurement requires a single detected photon. Furthermore, Gm-APD offers significant advantages in reducing the size, mass, power and complexity of the system. However the inevitable noise, including the background noise, the dark count noise and so on, remains a significant challenge to obtain a clear 3D image of the target of interest. This paper presents a smart strategy, which can filter out false alarms in the stage of acquisition of raw time of flight (TOF) data and obtain a clear 3D image in real time. As a result, a clear 3D image is taken from the experimental system despite the background noise of the sunny day. PMID:23609635

  3. Computer Evaluation Of Real-Time X-Ray And Acoustic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, M. H.; Loe, R. S.; Dondes, P. A.

    1983-03-01

    The weakest link in the inspection process is the subjective interpretation of data by inspectors. To overcome this troublesome fact computer based analysis systems have been developed. In the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) there is a large class of inspections that can benefit from computer analysis. X-ray images (both film and fluoroscopic) and acoustic images lend themselves to automatic analysis as do the one-dimensional signals associated with ultrasonic, eddy current and acoustic emission testing. Computer analysis can enhance and evaluate subtle details. Flaws can be located and measured, and accept-ance decisions made by computer in a consistent and objective manner. This paper describes the interactive, computer-based analysis of real-time x-ray images and acoustic images of graphite/epoxy adhesively bonded structures.

  4. Real-time and static in vivo ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtkowski, Maciej; Bajraszewski, Tomasz; Targowski, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Andrzej

    2004-07-01

    Fast Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) technique is used to perform cross sectional and three-dimensional ophthalmic images. Static, real-time and 3-D in vivo images of the human cornea, lens, iris, corneo-scleral junction, retinal layers, optic disc and macula lutea are presented. The ophthalmic application of SOCT is promising because this technique ensures fast acquisition with relatively low optical power of incident light. All demonstrated images are obtained with the aid of SOCT instrument, which was constructed in the optical laboratory of medical physics group at Nicolaus Copernicus University (Torun, Poland). What is to our knowledge there are the first good quality (>90dB sensitivity) ophthalmic OCT images obtained by technique, which is different than time domain OCT.

  5. Real-time photoacoustic imaging of rat deep brain: hemodynamic responses to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Iwazaki, Hideaki; Ida, Taiichiro; Hosaka, Tomoya; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Sato, Shunichi

    2013-03-01

    Hemodynamic responses of the brain to hypoxia or ischemia are one of the major interests in neurosurgery and neuroscience. In this study, we performed real-time transcutaneous PA imaging of the rat brain that was exposed to a hypoxic stress and investigated depth-resolved responses of the brain, including the hippocampus. A linear-array 8ch 10-MHz ultrasonic sensor (measurement length, 10 mm) was placed on the shaved scalp. Nanosecond, 570-nm and 595- nm light pulses were used to excite PA signals indicating cerebral blood volume (CBV) and blood deoxygenation, respectively. Under spontaneous respiration, inhalation gas was switched from air to nitrogen, and then reswitched to oxygen, during which real-time PA imaging was performed continuously. High-contrast PA signals were observed from the depth regions corresponding to the scalp, skull, cortex and hippocampus. After starting hypoxia, PA signals at 595 nm increased immediately in both the cortex and hippocampus for about 1.5 min, showing hemoglobin deoxygenation. On the other hand, PA signals at 570 nm coming from these regions did not increase in the early phase but started to increase at about 1.5 min after starting hypoxia, indicating reactive hyperemia to hypoxia. During hypoxia, PA signals coming from the scalp decreased transiently, which is presumably due to compensatory response in the peripheral tissue to preserve blood perfusion in the brain. The reoxygenation caused a gradual recovery of these PA signals. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of PA imaging for real-time, depth-resolved observation of cerebral hemodynamics.

  6. Large field of view real-time three-dimensional imaging for ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Meijing; Wu, Weilong; Gu, Haihua; Bi, Weihong

    2011-06-01

    With the acceleration of globalization and regionalization of the world economy, port is playing an increasingly important role for that it is an international transportation hub port interface and the support of the international trade platform. How to effectively reduce labor costs, improve the working environment, stable productivity, reduce the production cuts caused by human intervention and improve the management of real-time monitoring of all the major ports has become a common issue faced. In order to achieve the automatically stacking and reclaiming process of Stacker-Reclaimer in the bulk material yard, the source of its control is expected to identify the stockpile in the bulk yard, including length, width, height, the starting address, destination address, as well as Three-dimensional shape of the stockpile, since in the operation process, stockpile changes the shape dynamically. As a result, the real-time three-dimensional shape and coordinate of piles should be achieved. Based on the existing Stacker-Reclaimer in Qinhuangdao Port coal, we study the large field of view real-time three-dimensional laser scanning imaging theory and technology. The overall system design to achieving the three-dimensional laser scanning image is presented. The working principle of the three-dimensional laser scanning imaging system is analysised. Moreover, the parameter designation, the technical parameters and the composition of the whole system are all given. The research of the thesis is also used for other large-scale three-dimensional modeling of piles and the volume computing. In a world, the method has wide application prospect.

  7. Multithreaded real-time 3D image processing software architecture and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, Vikas; Atanassov, Kalin; Aleksic, Milivoje; Goma, Sergio R.

    2011-03-01

    Recently, 3D displays and videos have generated a lot of interest in the consumer electronics industry. To make 3D capture and playback popular and practical, a user friendly playback interface is desirable. Towards this end, we built a real time software 3D video player. The 3D video player displays user captured 3D videos, provides for various 3D specific image processing functions and ensures a pleasant viewing experience. Moreover, the player enables user interactivity by providing digital zoom and pan functionalities. This real time 3D player was implemented on the GPU using CUDA and OpenGL. The player provides user interactive 3D video playback. Stereo images are first read by the player from a fast drive and rectified. Further processing of the images determines the optimal convergence point in the 3D scene to reduce eye strain. The rationale for this convergence point selection takes into account scene depth and display geometry. The first step in this processing chain is identifying keypoints by detecting vertical edges within the left image. Regions surrounding reliable keypoints are then located on the right image through the use of block matching. The difference in the positions between the corresponding regions in the left and right images are then used to calculate disparity. The extrema of the disparity histogram gives the scene disparity range. The left and right images are shifted based upon the calculated range, in order to place the desired region of the 3D scene at convergence. All the above computations are performed on one CPU thread which calls CUDA functions. Image upsampling and shifting is performed in response to user zoom and pan. The player also consists of a CPU display thread, which uses OpenGL rendering (quad buffers). This also gathers user input for digital zoom and pan and sends them to the processing thread.

  8. Study on airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Na; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Juan; Gao, Meng; Gao, Fei; Fan, Zhe; Sun, Kefeng; Wu, Jun; Li, Junna; Gao, Zedong; Cheng, Gang

    2014-11-01

    The airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology is proposed in this paper. In this design scheme, the airborne multispectral imaging system consists of the multispectral camera, the image processing unit, and the stabilized platform. The multispectral camera can operate in the spectral region from visible to near infrared waveband (0.4-1.0um), it has four same and independent imaging channels, and sixteen different typical wavelengths to be selected based on the different typical targets and background. The related experiments were tested by the airborne multispectral imaging system. In particularly, the camouflage targets were fused and detected in the different complex environment, such as the land vegetation background, the desert hot background and underwater. In the spectral region from 0.4 um to 1.0um, the three different characteristic wave from sixteen typical spectral are selected and combined according to different backgrounds and targets. The spectral image corresponding to the three characteristic wavelengths is resisted and fused by the image processing technology in real time, and the fusion video with typical target property is outputted. In these fusion images, the contrast of target and background is greatly increased. Experimental results confirm that the airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology can acquire multispectral fusion image with high contrast in real time, and has the ability of detecting and identification camouflage objects from complex background to targets underwater.

  9. A design approach to real-time formatting of high speed multispectral image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.; Kelly, W. L., IV

    1981-01-01

    A design approach to formatting multispectral image data in real time at very high data rates is presented for future onboard processing applications. The approach employs a microprocessor-based alternating buffer memory configuration whose formatting function is completely programmable. Data are read from an output buffer in the desired format by applying the proper sequence of addresses to the buffer via a lookup table memory. Sensor data can be processed using this approach at rates limited by the buffer memory access time and the buffer switching process delay time. This design offers flexible high speed data processing and benefits from continuing increases in the performance of digital memories.

  10. Enhancing Sensitivity of a Miniature Spectrometer Using a Real-Time Image Processing Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Sabarish; Avrutsky, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    A real-time image processing algorithm is developed to enhance the sensitivity of a planar single-mode waveguide miniature spectrometer with integrated waveguide gratings. A novel approach of averaging along the arcs in a curved coordinate system is introduced which allows for collecting more light, thereby enhancing the sensitivity. The algorithm is tested using CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots drop casted on the surface of a single-mode waveguide. Measurements indicate that a monolayer of quantum dots is expected to produce guided mode attenuation approximately 11 times above the noise level.

  11. Application of linear array imaging techniques to the real-time inspection of airframe structures and substructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1995-01-01

    Development and application of linear array imaging technologies to address specific aging-aircraft inspection issues is described. Real-time video-taped images were obtained from an unmodified commercial linear-array medical scanner of specimens constructed to simulate typical types of flaws encountered in the inspection of aircraft structures. Results suggest that information regarding the characteristics, location, and interface properties of specific types of flaws in materials and structures may be obtained from the images acquired with a linear array. Furthermore, linear array imaging may offer the advantage of being able to compare 'good' regions with 'flawed' regions simultaneously, and in real time. Real-time imaging permits the inspector to obtain image information from various views and provides the opportunity for observing the effects of introducing specific interventions. Observation of an image in real-time can offer the operator the ability to 'interact' with the inspection process, thus providing new capabilities, and perhaps, new approaches to nondestructive inspections.

  12. Processing, Cataloguing and Distribution of Uas Images in Near Real Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkel, I.

    2013-08-01

    can be checked and interpreted in near real-time. For sensible areas it gives you the possibility to inform remote decision makers or interpretation experts in order to provide them situations awareness, wherever they are. For monitoring and inspection tasks it speeds up the process of data capture and data interpretation. The fully automated workflow of data pre-processing, data georeferencing, data cataloguing and data dissemination in near real time was developed based on the Intergraph products ERDAS IMAGINE, ERDAS APOLLO and GEOSYSTEMS METAmorph!IT. It is offered as adaptable solution by GEOSYSTEMS GmbH.

  13. Real-Time X-Ray μ-IMAGING of Living Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammer, Jiri; Holy, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jakubek, Martin; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vavrik, Daniel; Hanus, Robert; Weyda, Frantisek

    2008-06-01

    We present an X-ray μ-radiographic system developed for dynamic high spatial resolution imaging of living small animals. Our system is based on a micro-focus X-ray tube and the hybrid single photon counting silicon pixel detector Medipix2 (matrix 256 × 256 sq. pixels of 55 μm pitch). As soft tissue exhibits low contrast in classical absorption radiography, we exploit a new method of phase-enhanced imaging. Picture quality is further improved by statistical data analysis and extended calibration of individual pixel's response. Computing tomography provides 3D images of studied samples from radiographic projections. For 3D reconstruction of measured objects we use iterative algorithms which are advantageous for low statistics data, low or incomplete number of projections and complex physical model. This diagnostic system allows real-time observation of inner processes in living organisms and dynamic diagnose of living animals for biological studies. The obtained results and real-time stream video capability is demonstrated on samples of a mouse and living worm, caterpillar, etc.

  14. Development of a real-time imaging system for hypoxic cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kagiya, Go; Ogawa, Ryohei; Hyodo, Fuminori; Yamashita, Kei; Nakamura, Mizuki; Ishii, Ayumi; Sejimo, Yukihiko; Tominaga, Shintaro; Murata, Masaharu; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Hatashita, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic regions within the tumor form due to imbalances between cell proliferation and angiogenesis; specifically, temporary closure or a reduced flow due to abnormal vasculature. They create environments where cancer cells acquire resistance to therapies. Therefore, the development of therapeutic approaches targeting the hypoxic cells is one of the most crucial challenges for cancer regression. Screening potential candidates for effective diagnostic modalities even under a hypoxic environment would be an important first step. In this study, we describe the development of a real-time imaging system to monitor hypoxic cell apoptosis for such screening. The imaging system is composed of a cyclic luciferase (luc) gene under the control of an improved hypoxic-responsive promoter. The cyclic luc gene product works as a caspase-3 (cas-3) monitor as it gains luc activity in response to cas-3 activation. The promoter composed of six hypoxic responsible elements and the CMV IE1 core promoter drives the effective expression of the cyclic luc gene in hypoxic conditions, enhancing hypoxic cell apoptosis visualization. We also confirmed real-time imaging of hypoxic cell apoptosis in the spheroid, which shares properties with the tumor. Thus, this constructed system could be a powerful tool for the development of effective anticancer diagnostic modalities. PMID:26966700

  15. Real-time volume rendering of 4D image using 3D texture mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jinwoo; Kim, June-Sic; Kim, Jae Seok; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun Il

    2001-05-01

    Four dimensional image is 3D volume data that varies with time. It is used to express deforming or moving object in virtual surgery of 4D ultrasound. It is difficult to render 4D image by conventional ray-casting or shear-warp factorization methods because of their time-consuming rendering time or pre-processing stage whenever the volume data are changed. Even 3D texture mapping is used, repeated volume loading is also time-consuming in 4D image rendering. In this study, we propose a method to reduce data loading time using coherence between currently loaded volume and previously loaded volume in order to achieve real time rendering based on 3D texture mapping. Volume data are divided into small bricks and each brick being loaded is tested for similarity to one which was already loaded in memory. If the brick passed the test, it is defined as 3D texture by OpenGL functions. Later, the texture slices of the brick are mapped into polygons and blended by OpenGL blending functions. All bricks undergo this test. Continuously deforming fifty volumes are rendered in interactive time with SGI ONYX. Real-time volume rendering based on 3D texture mapping is currently available on PC.

  16. Development of a real-time imaging system for hypoxic cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kagiya, Go; Ogawa, Ryohei; Hyodo, Fuminori; Yamashita, Kei; Nakamura, Mizuki; Ishii, Ayumi; Sejimo, Yukihiko; Tominaga, Shintaro; Murata, Masaharu; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Hatashita, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic regions within the tumor form due to imbalances between cell proliferation and angiogenesis; specifically, temporary closure or a reduced flow due to abnormal vasculature. They create environments where cancer cells acquire resistance to therapies. Therefore, the development of therapeutic approaches targeting the hypoxic cells is one of the most crucial challenges for cancer regression. Screening potential candidates for effective diagnostic modalities even under a hypoxic environment would be an important first step. In this study, we describe the development of a real-time imaging system to monitor hypoxic cell apoptosis for such screening. The imaging system is composed of a cyclic luciferase (luc) gene under the control of an improved hypoxic-responsive promoter. The cyclic luc gene product works as a caspase-3 (cas-3) monitor as it gains luc activity in response to cas-3 activation. The promoter composed of six hypoxic responsible elements and the CMV IE1 core promoter drives the effective expression of the cyclic luc gene in hypoxic conditions, enhancing hypoxic cell apoptosis visualization. We also confirmed real-time imaging of hypoxic cell apoptosis in the spheroid, which shares properties with the tumor. Thus, this constructed system could be a powerful tool for the development of effective anticancer diagnostic modalities. PMID:26966700

  17. Real-time image processing for passive mmW imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozacik, Stephen; Paolini, Aaron; Bonnett, James; Harrity, Charles; Mackrides, Daniel; Dillon, Thomas E.; Martin, Richard D.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Kelmelis, Eric; Prather, Dennis W.

    2015-05-01

    The transmission characteristics of millimeter waves (mmWs) make them suitable for many applications in defense and security, from airport preflight scanning to penetrating degraded visual environments such as brownout or heavy fog. While the cold sky provides sufficient illumination for these images to be taken passively in outdoor scenarios, this utility comes at a cost; the diffraction limit of the longer wavelengths involved leads to lower resolution imagery compared to the visible or IR regimes, and the low power levels inherent to passive imagery allow the data to be more easily degraded by noise. Recent techniques leveraging optical upconversion have shown significant promise, but are still subject to fundamental limits in resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. To address these issues we have applied techniques developed for visible and IR imagery to decrease noise and increase resolution in mmW imagery. We have developed these techniques into fieldable software, making use of GPU platforms for real-time operation of computationally complex image processing algorithms. We present data from a passive, 77 GHz, distributed aperture, video-rate imaging platform captured during field tests at full video rate. These videos demonstrate the increase in situational awareness that can be gained through applying computational techniques in real-time without needing changes in detection hardware.

  18. Advances in real-time millimeter-wave imaging radiometers for avionic synthetic vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovberg, John A.; Chou, Ri-Chee; Martin, Christopher A.; Galliano, Joseph A., Jr.

    1995-06-01

    Millimeter-wave imaging has advantages over conventional visible or infrared imaging for many applications because millimeter-wave signals can travel through fog, snow, dust, and clouds with much less attenuation than infrared or visible light waves. Additionally, passive imaging systems avoid many problems associated with active radar imaging systems, such as radar clutter, glint, and multi-path return. ThermoTrex Corporation previously reported on its development of a passive imaging radiometer that uses an array of frequency-scanned antennas coupled to a multichannel acousto-optic spectrum analyzer (Bragg-cell) to form visible images of a scene through the acquisition of thermal blackbody radiation in the millimeter-wave spectrum. The output from the Bragg cell is imaged by a standard video camera and passed to a computer for normalization and display at real-time frame rates. An application of this system is its incorporation as part of an enhanced vision system to provide pilots with a synthetic view of a runway in fog and during other adverse weather conditions. Ongoing improvements to a 94 GHz imaging system and examples of recent images taken with this system will be presented. Additionally, the development of dielectric antennas and an electro- optic-based processor for improved system performance, and the development of an `ultra- compact' 220 GHz imaging system will be discussed.

  19. FPGA based image processing for optical surface inspection with real time constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasani, Ylber; Bodenstorfer, Ernst; Brodersen, Jörg; Mayer, Konrad J.

    2015-02-01

    Today, high-quality printing products like banknotes, stamps, or vouchers, are automatically checked by optical surface inspection systems. In a typical optical surface inspection system, several digital cameras acquire the printing products with fine resolution from different viewing angles and at multiple wavelengths of the visible and also near infrared spectrum of light. The cameras deliver data streams with a huge amount of image data that have to be processed by an image processing system in real time. Due to the printing industry's demand for higher throughput together with the necessity to check finer details of the print and its security features, the data rates to be processed tend to explode. In this contribution, a solution is proposed, where the image processing load is distributed between FPGAs and digital signal processors (DSPs) in such a way that the strengths of both technologies can be exploited. The focus lies upon the implementation of image processing algorithms in an FPGA and its advantages. In the presented application, FPGAbased image-preprocessing enables real-time implementation of an optical color surface inspection system with a spatial resolution of 100 μm and for object speeds over 10 m/s. For the implementation of image processing algorithms in the FPGA, pipeline parallelism with clock frequencies up to 150 MHz together with spatial parallelism based on multiple instantiations of modules for parallel processing of multiple data streams are exploited for the processing of image data of two cameras and three color channels. Due to their flexibility and their fast response times, it is shown that FPGAs are ideally suited for realizing a configurable all-digital PLL for the processing of camera line-trigger signals with frequencies about 100 kHz, using pure synchronous digital circuit design.

  20. Aqueous Angiography: Real-Time and Physiologic Aqueous Humor Outflow Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saraswathy, Sindhu; Tan, James C. H.; Yu, Fei; Francis, Brian A.; Hinton, David R.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Huang, Alex S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Trabecular meshwork (TM) bypass surgeries attempt to enhance aqueous humor outflow (AHO) to lower intraocular pressure (IOP). While TM bypass results are promising, inconsistent success is seen. One hypothesis for this variability rests upon segmental (non-360 degrees uniform) AHO. We describe aqueous angiography as a real-time and physiologic AHO imaging technique in model eyes as a way to simulate live AHO imaging. Methods Pig (n = 46) and human (n = 6) enucleated eyes were obtained, orientated based upon inferior oblique insertion, and pre-perfused with balanced salt solution via a Lewicky AC maintainer through a 1mm side-port. Fluorescein (2.5%) was introduced intracamerally at 10 or 30 mm Hg. With an angiographer, infrared and fluorescent (486 nm) images were acquired. Image processing allowed for collection of pixel information based on intensity or location for statistical analyses. Concurrent OCT was performed, and fixable fluorescent dextrans were introduced into the eye for histological analysis of angiographically active areas. Results Aqueous angiography yielded high quality images with segmental patterns (p<0.0001; Kruskal-Wallis test). No single quadrant was consistently identified as the primary quadrant of angiographic signal (p = 0.06–0.86; Kruskal-Wallis test). Regions of high proximal signal did not necessarily correlate with regions of high distal signal. Angiographically positive but not negative areas demonstrated intrascleral lumens on OCT images. Aqueous angiography with fluorescent dextrans led to their trapping in AHO pathways. Conclusions Aqueous angiography is a real-time and physiologic AHO imaging technique in model eyes. PMID:26807586

  1. Evaluation of real-time acoustical holography for breast imaging and biopsy guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Constance D.; Andre, Michael P.; Fecht, Barbara A.; Johansen, Jennifer M.; Shelby, Ronald L.; Shelby, Jerod O.

    1999-05-01

    Ultrasound is an attractive modality for adjunctive characterization of certain breast lesions, but it is not considered specific for cancer and it is not recommended for screening. An imaging technique remarkably different from pulse-echo ultrasound, termed Optical SonographyTM (Advanced Diagnostics, Inc.), uses the through-transmission signal. The method was applied to breast examinations in 41 asymptomatic and symptomatic women ranging in age from 18 to 83 years to evaluate this imaging modality for detection and characterization of breast disease and normal tissue. This approach uses coherent sound and coherent light to produce real-time, large field-of-view images with pronounced edge definition in soft tissues of the body. The system patient interface was modified to improve coupling to the breast and bring the chest wall to within 3 cm of the sound beam. System resolution (full width half maximum of the line-spread function) was 0.5 mm for a swept-frequency beam centered at 2.7 MHz. Resolution degrades slightly in the periphery of the very large 15.2-cm field of view. Dynamic range of the reconstructed 'raw' images (no post processing) was 3000:1. Included in the study population were women with dense parenchyma, palpable ductal carcinoma in situ with negative mammography, superficial and deep fibroadenomas, and calcifications. Successful breast imaging was performed in 40 of 41 women. These images were then compared with images generated using conventional X-ray mammography and pulse-echo ultrasound. Margins of lesions and internal textures were particularly well defined and provided substantial contrast to fatty and dense parenchyma. In two malignant lesions, Optical SonographyTM appeared to approximate more closely tumor extent compared to mammography than pulse-echo sonography. These preliminary studies indicate the method has unique potential for detecting, differentiating, and guiding the biopsy of breast lesions using real-time acoustical holography.

  2. Real-time dynamic display of registered 4D cardiac MR and ultrasound images using a GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Huang, X.; Eagleson, R.; Guiraudon, G.; Peters, T. M.

    2007-03-01

    In minimally invasive image-guided surgical interventions, different imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and real-time three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US), can provide complementary, multi-spectral image information. Multimodality dynamic image registration is a well-established approach that permits real-time diagnostic information to be enhanced by placing lower-quality real-time images within a high quality anatomical context. For the guidance of cardiac procedures, it would be valuable to register dynamic MRI or CT with intraoperative US. However, in practice, either the high computational cost prohibits such real-time visualization of volumetric multimodal images in a real-world medical environment, or else the resulting image quality is not satisfactory for accurate guidance during the intervention. Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) provide the programmability, parallelism and increased computational precision to begin to address this problem. In this work, we first outline our research on dynamic 3D cardiac MR and US image acquisition, real-time dual-modality registration and US tracking. Then we describe image processing and optimization techniques for 4D (3D + time) cardiac image real-time rendering. We also present our multimodality 4D medical image visualization engine, which directly runs on a GPU in real-time by exploiting the advantages of the graphics hardware. In addition, techniques such as multiple transfer functions for different imaging modalities, dynamic texture binding, advanced texture sampling and multimodality image compositing are employed to facilitate the real-time display and manipulation of the registered dual-modality dynamic 3D MR and US cardiac datasets.

  3. Hardware implementation of LOTRRP compression for real-time image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crooks, Marc W.; Capps, Charles; Hawkins, Eric; Wesley, Michael

    1996-03-01

    Lapped Orthogonal Transforms (LOT) are becoming more widely used in image coding applications for image transmission and archival schemes. Previously sponsored U.S. Army Missile Command research has developed a LOT Recursive Residual Projection (RRP) that uses the following multiple bases functions: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Discrete Walsh Transform (DWT), and Discrete Slant Transform (DST). For high compression ratios the LOTRRP was shown no outperform the single bases transforms at the cost increased computations. The work presented in this paper describes a VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) design of the LOTDCT, LOTDWT, and LOTDST targeted for implementation on Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This hardware solution was chosen to compress RS-170 standard video for real-time image transmission on a very low bandwidth packetized data link.

  4. First demonstration of a vehicle mounted 250GHz real time passive imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Chris

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a ruggedized passive Terahertz imager, the frequency of operation is a 40GHz band centred around 250GHz. This system has been specifically targeted at vehicle mounted operation, outdoors in extreme environments. The unit incorporates temperature stabilization along with an anti-vibration chassis and is sealed to allow it to be used in a dusty environment. Within the system, a 250GHz heterodyne detector array is mated with optics and scanner to allow real time imaging out to 100 meters. First applications are envisaged to be stand-off, person borne IED detection to 30 meters but the unique properties in this frequency band present other potential uses such as seeing through smoke and fog. The possibility for use as a landing aid is discussed. A detailed description of the system design and video examples of typical imaging output will be presented.

  5. Real-time contrast-enhanced holographic imaging using phase coherent photorefractive quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Dongol, A; Thompson, J; Schmitzer, H; Tierney, D; Wagner, H P

    2015-05-18

    We demonstrate wide-field real-time and depth-resolved contrast enhanced holographic imaging (CEHI) using the all-optical phase coherent photorefractive effect in ZnSe quantum wells. Moving objects are imaged at large depth-of-field by the local enhancement of a static reference hologram. The high refresh rate of the holographic films enables direct-to-video monitoring of floating glass beads and of living Paramecium and Euglena cells moving in water. Depth resolution is achieved by tilting the incident laser beam with respect to the normal of the cuvette. This creates double images of the objects, which are analyzed geometrically and with Fresnel diffraction theory. A two-color CEHI set-up further enables the visualization of a concealed 95 µm thick wire behind a thin layer of chicken skin. PMID:26074534

  6. Hands-on molecular imaging: real-time visualization tools bridge gaps in translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Vanderheyden, Jean-Luc

    2008-08-01

    Molecular imaging tools such as CT, MRI, PET and SPECT, as well as various combinations of these instrument systems, continue to improve and evolve, offering increasingly sensitive and high-resolution images of biological processes in real time. The optimal use of these tools across the continuum of biomedical research and clinical medicine can generate the information that is needed to bridge the gaps that currently exist in drug discovery and development. These gaps negatively affect the promise and potential of translational medicine, in which the knowledge gained from multidisciplinary efforts encompassing genomics, proteomics, biomarker discovery, systems biology and bioinformatics are used to drive R&D, design experiments, predict outcomes, guide patient selection for clinical trials, and define pharmacogenomic parameters for optimizing the safety and efficacy of drug compounds. Thus, molecular imaging tools serve an important role in optimizing the drug discovery and development process.

  7. Real-time contrast-enhanced holographic imaging using phase coherent photorefractive quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Dongol, A; Thompson, J; Schmitzer, H; Tierney, D; Wagner, H P

    2015-05-18

    We demonstrate wide-field real-time and depth-resolved contrast enhanced holographic imaging (CEHI) using the all-optical phase coherent photorefractive effect in ZnSe quantum wells. Moving objects are imaged at large depth-of-field by the local enhancement of a static reference hologram. The high refresh rate of the holographic films enables direct-to-video monitoring of floating glass beads and of living Paramecium and Euglena cells moving in water. Depth resolution is achieved by tilting the incident laser beam with respect to the normal of the cuvette. This creates double images of the objects, which are analyzed geometrically and with Fresnel diffraction theory. A two-color CEHI set-up further enables the visualization of a concealed 95 µm thick wire behind a thin layer of chicken skin.

  8. Toward Real-time quantum imaging with a single pixel camera

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrie, Benjamin J; Pooser, Raphael C

    2013-01-01

    We present a workbench for the study of real-time quantum imaging by measuring the frame-by-frame quantum noise reduction of multi-spatial-mode twin beams generated by four wave mixing in Rb vapor. Exploiting the multiple spatial modes of this squeezed light source, we utilize spatial light modulators to selectively transmit macropixels of quantum correlated modes from each of the twin beams to a high quantum efficiency balanced detector. In low-light-level imaging applications, the ability to measure the quantum correlations between individual spatial modes and macropixels of spatial modes with a single pixel camera will facilitate compressive quantum imaging with sensitivity below the photon shot noise limit.

  9. Real-time imaging of action potentials in nerves using changes in birefringence

    PubMed Central

    Badreddine, Ali H.; Jordan, Tomas; Bigio, Irving J.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light can be used to measure the electrical activity associated with action potential propagation in nerves, as manifested in simultaneous dynamic changes in their intrinsic optical birefringence. These signals may serve as a tool for minimally invasive neuroimaging in various types of neuroscience research, including the study of neuronal activation patterns with high spatiotemporal resolution. A fast linear photodiode array was used to image propagating action potentials in an excised portion of the lobster walking leg nerve. We show that the crossed-polarized signal (XPS) can be reliably imaged over a ≥2 cm span in our custom nerve chamber, by averaging multiple-stimulation signals, and also in single-scan real-time “movies”. This demonstration paves the way toward utilizing changes in the optical birefringence to image more complex neuronal activity in nerve fibers and other organized neuronal tissue. PMID:27231635

  10. Real-time imaging of action potentials in nerves using changes in birefringence.

    PubMed

    Badreddine, Ali H; Jordan, Tomas; Bigio, Irving J

    2016-05-01

    Polarized light can be used to measure the electrical activity associated with action potential propagation in nerves, as manifested in simultaneous dynamic changes in their intrinsic optical birefringence. These signals may serve as a tool for minimally invasive neuroimaging in various types of neuroscience research, including the study of neuronal activation patterns with high spatiotemporal resolution. A fast linear photodiode array was used to image propagating action potentials in an excised portion of the lobster walking leg nerve. We show that the crossed-polarized signal (XPS) can be reliably imaged over a ≥2 cm span in our custom nerve chamber, by averaging multiple-stimulation signals, and also in single-scan real-time "movies". This demonstration paves the way toward utilizing changes in the optical birefringence to image more complex neuronal activity in nerve fibers and other organized neuronal tissue. PMID:27231635

  11. Gradient-index lens-array method based on real-time integral photography for three-dimensional images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Jun; Okano, Fumio; Hoshino, Haruo; Yuyama, Ichiro

    1998-04-01

    Because a three-dimensional (3-D) autostereoscopic image can be seen from a desired viewpoint without the aid of special viewing glasses, integral photography (IP) is an ideal way to create 3-D autostereoscopic images. We have already proposed a real-time IP method that offers 3-D autostereoscopic images of moving objects in real time by use of a microlens array and a high-definition television camera. But there are two problems yet to be resolved: One is pseudoscopic images that show a reversed depth representation. The other is interference between the element images that constitute a 3-D autostereoscopic image. We describe a new gradient-index lense-array method based on real-time IP to overcome these two problems. Experimental results indicating the advantages of this method are shown. These results suggest the possibility of using a gradient-index lens array for real-time IP.

  12. The study of real-time denoising algorithm based on parallel computing for the MEMS IR imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Cheng; Hui, Mei; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin

    2011-11-01

    Recent years, the MEMS-based optical readout infrared imaging technology is becoming a research hotspot. Studies show that the MEMS-based optical readout infrared imager features a high frame rate. Considering the high data Throughput and computing complexity of denoising algorithm It's difficult to ensure real-time of the image processing. In order to improve processing speed and achieve real-time, we conducted a study of denoising algorithm based on parallel computing using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). In the paper, we analyze the imaging characteristics of MEMS-based optical readout infrared imager and design parallel computing methods for real-time denoising using the hardware description language. The experiment shows that the parallel computing denoising algorithm can improve infrared image processing speed to meet real-time requirement.

  13. Computationally efficient image restoration and super-resolution algorithns for real-time implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundareshan, Malur K.

    2002-07-01

    Computational complexity is a major impediment to the real- time implementation of image restoration and super- resolution algorithms. Although powerful restoration algorithms have been developed within the last few years utilizing sophisticated mathematical machinery (based on statistical optimization and convex set theory), these algorithms are typically iterative in nature and require enough number of iterations to be executed to achieve desired resolution gains in order to meaningfully perform detection and recognition tasks in practice. Additionally, recent technological breakthroughs have facilitated novel sensor designs (focal plane arrays, for instance) that make it possible to capture mega-pixel imagery data at video frame rates. A major challenge in the processing of these large format images is to complete the execution of the image processing steps within the frame capture times and to keep up with the output rate of the sensor so that all data captured by the sensor can be efficiently utilized. Consequently, development of novel methods that facilitate real-time implementation of image restoration and super- resolution algorithms is of significant practical interest and will be the primary focus of this paper. The key to designing computationally efficient processing schemes lies in strategically introducing appropriate pre-processing and post-processing steps together with the super-resolution iterations in order to tailor optimized overall processing sequences for imagery data of specific formats. Three distinct methods for tailoring a pre-processing filter and integrating it with the super-resolution processing steps will be outlined in this paper. These methods consist of a Region-of-Interest (ROI) extraction scheme, a background- detail separation procedure, and a scene-derived information extraction step for implementing a set-theoretic restoration of the image that is less demanding in computation compared to the super-resolution iterations. A

  14. Investigation of therapy improvement using real-time photoacoustic imaging guided high intensity focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Huizhong

    There are a lot of risks in cancer treatment by invasive surgery, such as bleeding, wound infection, and long recovery time, etc. Therefore, there is great need for minimally- or non-invasive treatment. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a rapidly growing and truly non-invasive technology. It has been widely used in therapeutic applications, such as rapid tissue heating and tissue ablation. With proper imaging guidance, HIFU treatment can be performed totally noninvasively. Currently, ultrasound imaging-guided HIFU has been extensively studied. However, ultrasound imaging guidance is less precise because of the relatively low imaging contrast, sensitivity, and specificity for noninvasive detection. In this study, we employed photoacoustic imaging (PAI) technique, which has been developed a novel promising imaging technique for early cancer detection, to guide HIFU treatment. The goal of this study is to investigate the feasibility of PAI to guide, monitor in real time and enhance the HIFU therapy. In this dissertation, as the first step, the integrated PAI and HIFU system had been shown to have the feasibility to guide HIFU both ex vivo and in vivo. Then, the system was improved and developed to a real-time PAI-guided HIFU system. It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of PA detection for HIFU lesion is very high and the saturation of PA signals can be used as the indicator for tissue coagulation. During the temperature measurement using this system, laser-enhanced HIFU heating was found. Thus, we further investigated the laser enhanced technique in both HIFU heating and pulsed HIFU thrombolysis. In the HIFU therapy, laser light was employed to illuminate the sample concurrently with HIFU radiation. The resulting cavitation was detected with a passive cavitation detector. We demonstrated that concurrent light illumination during HIFU has the potential to significantly enhance HIFU by reducing cavitation threshold.

  15. Real-time near-IR imaging of laser-ablation crater evolution in dental enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2007-02-01

    We have shown that the enamel of the tooth is almost completely transparent near 1310-nm in the near-infrared and that near-IR (NIR) imaging has considerable potential for the optical discrimination of sound and demineralized tissue and for observing defects in the interior of the tooth. Lasers are now routinely used for many applications in dentistry including the ablation of dental caries. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that real-time NIR imaging can be used to monitor laser-ablation under varying conditions to assess peripheral thermal and transient-stress induced damage and to measure the rate and efficiency of ablation. Moreover, NIR imaging may have considerable potential for monitoring the removal of demineralized areas of the tooth during cavity preparations. Sound human tooth sections of approximately 3-mm thickness were irradiated by a CO II laser under varying conditions with and without a water spray. The incision area in the interior of each sample was imaged using a tungsten-halogen lamp with band-pass filter centered at 131--nm combined with an InGaAs focal plane array with a NIR zoom microscope in transillumination. Due to the high transparency of enamel at 1310-nm, laser-incisions were clearly visible to the dentin-enamel junction and crack formation, dehydration and irreversible thermal changes were observed during ablation. This study showed that there is great potential for near-IR imaging to monitor laser-ablation events in real-time to: assess safe laser operating parameters by imaging thermal and stress-induced damage, elaborate the mechanisms involved in ablation such as dehydration, and monitor the removal of demineralized enamel.

  16. Making Sense of Real-Time Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rtfMRI) and rtfMRI Neurofeedback

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This review explains the mechanism of functional magnetic resonance imaging in general and specifically introduces real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging as a method for training self-regulation of brain activity. Using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback, participants can acquire control over their own brain activity. In patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, this control can potentially have therapeutic implications. In this review, the technical requirements are presented and potential applications and limitations are discussed. PMID:25716778

  17. Making sense of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) and rtfMRI neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Brühl, Annette B

    2015-02-25

    This review explains the mechanism of functional magnetic resonance imaging in general and specifically introduces real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging as a method for training self-regulation of brain activity. Using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback, participants can acquire control over their own brain activity. In patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, this control can potentially have therapeutic implications. In this review, the technical requirements are presented and potential applications and limitations are discussed.

  18. Real-time DNA Amplification and Detection System Based on a CMOS Image Sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiantian; Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Lee, Do Young; Kim, Sanghyo

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we developed a polypropylene well-integrated complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) platform to perform the loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique for real-time DNA amplification and detection simultaneously. An amplification-coupled detection system directly measures the photon number changes based on the generation of magnesium pyrophosphate and color changes. The photon number decreases during the amplification process. The CMOS image sensor observes the photons and converts into digital units with the aid of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). In addition, UV-spectral studies, optical color intensity detection, pH analysis, and electrophoresis detection were carried out to prove the efficiency of the CMOS sensor based the LAMP system. Moreover, Clostridium perfringens was utilized as proof-of-concept detection for the new system. We anticipate that this CMOS image sensor-based LAMP method will enable the creation of cost-effective, label-free, optical, real-time and portable molecular diagnostic devices. PMID:27302586

  19. A simulation method of aircraft plumes for real-time imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ni; Lv, Zhenhua; Huai, Wenqin; Gong, Guanghong

    2016-07-01

    Real-time infrared simulation technology can provide a large number of infrared images under different conditions to support the design, test and evaluation of a system having infrared imaging equipment with very low costs. By synthesizing heat transfer, infrared physics, fluid mechanics and computer graphics, a real-time infrared simulation method is proposed based on the method of characteristics to predict the infrared feature of aircraft plumes, which tries to obtain a good balance between simulation precision and computation efficiency. The temperature and pressure distribution in the under-expansion status can be rapidly solved with dynamically changing flight statuses and engine working states. And a modified C-G (Curtis-Godson) spectral band model that combines the plume streamlines with the conventional C-G spectral band model was implemented to calculate the non-uniformly distributed radiation parameters inside a plume field. The simulation result was analyzed and compared with the CFD++, which validates the credibility and efficiency of the proposed simulation method.

  20. Real-time monitoring of carbonarius DNA structured biochip by surface plasmon resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manera, M. G.; Rella, R.; Spadavecchia, J.; Moreau, J.; Canva, M.

    2008-06-01

    Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) studies, performed on a specially designed system exploiting the Kretschmann configuration, have been carried out to develop a DNA sensor for the detection of gene mutations accounting for the analysis of a fungin species which can proliferate especially in cereals, producing toxic compounds such as mycotoxins. The SPRI system has been used in order to study the hybridization process of ssDNA carbonarius probes immobilized onto a bio-functionalized Au surface in order to detect in real time the mutations in a DNA fragment. The SPRI system is a good choice for real-time monitoring of hybridization dynamics on an array of immobilized oligonucleotide probes because of the high sensitivity in characterization of ultra-thin films adsorbed onto gold or other noble metal surfaces. Using this technique, local changes in the reflectivity of a thin metal film describe the hybridization process between the molecules tethered to the surface and those sent in solution in the test chamber. The increase in the greyscale levels of the images (representing the functionalized gold traps) during the hybridization process demonstrated the occurrence of the binding event. The process has been proven to be reversible and specific for the investigated probes, since no signal has been detected in the presence of a negative control which is a non-complementary target.

  1. Computing the total atmospheric refraction for real-time optical imaging sensor simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Richard F.

    2015-05-01

    Fast and accurate computation of light path deviation due to atmospheric refraction is an important requirement for real-time simulation of optical imaging sensor systems. A large body of existing literature covers various methods for application of Snell's Law to the light path ray tracing problem. This paper provides a discussion of the adaptation to real time simulation of atmospheric refraction ray tracing techniques used in mid-1980's LOWTRAN releases. The refraction ray trace algorithm published in a LOWTRAN-6 technical report by Kneizys (et. al.) has been coded in MATLAB for development, and in C-language for simulation use. To this published algorithm we have added tuning parameters for variable path segment lengths, and extensions for Earth grazing and exoatmospheric "near Earth" ray paths. Model atmosphere properties used to exercise the refraction algorithm were obtained from tables published in another LOWTRAN-6 related report. The LOWTRAN-6 based refraction model is applicable to atmospheric propagation at wavelengths in the IR and visible bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. It has been used during the past two years by engineers at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) in support of several advanced imaging sensor simulations. Recently, a faster (but sufficiently accurate) method using Gauss-Chebyshev Quadrature integration for evaluating the refraction integral was adopted.

  2. Real-time two-dimensional electronic image filtering and live TV restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhterov, Boris; Kopeika, Norman S.

    1997-10-01

    We describe novel architecture for a real-time image restoration system of live TV signals. No DSP is involved. The spatial filtering is obtained from two electronic analog filters, one for the raster lines and one for the columns. The very fast response of analog filters is the key for truly real-time video frame rate performance. The digital part of the system serves the purpose of pipe-lined parallel data conversion and flow, but not that of image processing at all. Despite the lack of DSP, this architecture exhibits some very important advantages. It does not need any computational source, it is very fast, and it is much cheaper. Also our 'parallel analog computer' can be easily incorporated in any complex system with video signal data as a simple 'plug-in' between the camera and monitor. An important aspect is that the system carries lower digitalization noise than DSP, thus yielding better SNR characteristics at a lower price. The system is not bound to nay specific kind of spatial frequency filtering and can be electronically tuned to obtain exact performance parameters. Because of these advantages, this architecture is promising for a wide variety of system such as supermarket multicamera security, military and aerospace vision systems, and medical diagnostics.

  3. Real-time image processing for label-free enrichment of Actinobacteria cultivated in picolitre droplets.

    PubMed

    Zang, Emerson; Brandes, Susanne; Tovar, Miguel; Martin, Karin; Mech, Franziska; Horbert, Peter; Henkel, Thomas; Figge, Marc Thilo; Roth, Martin

    2013-09-21

    The majority of today's antimicrobial therapeutics is derived from secondary metabolites produced by Actinobacteria. While it is generally assumed that less than 1% of Actinobacteria species from soil habitats have been cultivated so far, classic screening approaches fail to supply new substances, often due to limited throughput and frequent rediscovery of already known strains. To overcome these restrictions, we implement high-throughput cultivation of soil-derived Actinobacteria in microfluidic pL-droplets by generating more than 600,000 pure cultures per hour from a spore suspension that can subsequently be incubated for days to weeks. Moreover, we introduce triggered imaging with real-time image-based droplet classification as a novel universal method for pL-droplet sorting. Growth-dependent droplet sorting at frequencies above 100 Hz is performed for label-free enrichment and extraction of microcultures. The combination of both cultivation of Actinobacteria in pL-droplets and real-time detection of growing Actinobacteria has great potential in screening for yet unknown species as well as their undiscovered natural products.

  4. Real-Time 3d Reconstruction from Images Taken from AN Uav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingoni, A.; Diani, M.; Corsini, G.; Masini, A.

    2015-08-01

    We designed a method for creating 3D models of objects and areas from two aerial images acquired from an UAV. The models are generated automatically and in real-time, and consist in dense and true-colour reconstructions of the considered areas, which give the impression to the operator to be physically present within the scene. The proposed method only needs a cheap compact camera, mounted on a small UAV. No additional instrumentation is necessary, so that the costs are very limited. The method consists of two main parts: the design of the acquisition system and the 3D reconstruction algorithm. In the first part, the choices for the acquisition geometry and for the camera parameters are optimized, in order to yield the best performance. In the second part, a reconstruction algorithm extracts the 3D model from the two acquired images, maximizing the accuracy under the real-time constraint. A test was performed in monitoring a construction yard, obtaining very promising results. Highly realistic and easy-to-interpret 3D models of objects and areas of interest were produced in less than one second, with an accuracy of about 0.5m. For its characteristics, the designed method is suitable for video-surveillance, remote sensing and monitoring, especially in those applications that require intuitive and reliable information quickly, as disasters monitoring, search and rescue and area surveillance.

  5. Dynamic real-time 4D cardiac MDCT image display using GPU-accelerated volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Eagleson, Roy; Peters, Terry M

    2009-09-01

    Intraoperative cardiac monitoring, accurate preoperative diagnosis, and surgical planning are important components of minimally-invasive cardiac therapy. Retrospective, electrocardiographically (ECG) gated, multidetector computed tomographical (MDCT), four-dimensional (3D + time), real-time, cardiac image visualization is an important tool for the surgeon in such procedure, particularly if the dynamic volumetric image can be registered to, and fused with the actual patient anatomy. The addition of stereoscopic imaging provides a more intuitive environment by adding binocular vision and depth cues to structures within the beating heart. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a comprehensive stereoscopic 4D cardiac image visualization and manipulation platform, based on the opacity density radiation model, which exploits the power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) in the rendering pipeline. In addition, we present a new algorithm to synchronize the phases of the dynamic heart to clinical ECG signals, and to calculate and compensate for latencies in the visualization pipeline. A dynamic multiresolution display is implemented to enable the interactive selection and emphasis of volume of interest (VOI) within the entire contextual cardiac volume and to enhance performance, and a novel color and opacity adjustment algorithm is designed to increase the uniformity of the rendered multiresolution image of heart. Our system provides a visualization environment superior to noninteractive software-based implementations, but with a rendering speed that is comparable to traditional, but inferior quality, volume rendering approaches based on texture mapping. This retrospective ECG-gated dynamic cardiac display system can provide real-time feedback regarding the suspected pathology, function, and structural defects, as well as anatomical information such as chamber volume and morphology.

  6. Limited-memory scaled gradient projection methods for real-time image deconvolution in microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porta, F.; Zanella, R.; Zanghirati, G.; Zanni, L.

    2015-04-01

    Gradient projection methods have given rise to effective tools for image deconvolution in several relevant areas, such as microscopy, medical imaging and astronomy. Due to the large scale of the optimization problems arising in nowadays imaging applications and to the growing request of real-time reconstructions, an interesting challenge to be faced consists in designing new acceleration techniques for the gradient schemes, able to preserve their simplicity and low computational cost of each iteration. In this work we propose an acceleration strategy for a state-of-the-art scaled gradient projection method for image deconvolution in microscopy. The acceleration idea is derived by adapting a step-length selection rule, recently introduced for limited-memory steepest descent methods in unconstrained optimization, to the special constrained optimization framework arising in image reconstruction. We describe how important issues related to the generalization of the step-length rule to the imaging optimization problem have been faced and we evaluate the improvements due to the acceleration strategy by numerical experiments on large-scale image deconvolution problems.

  7. FIR filters for hardware-based real-time multi-band image blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Vladan; Leblebici, Yusuf

    2015-02-01

    Creating panoramic images has become a popular feature in modern smart phones, tablets, and digital cameras. A user can create a 360 degree field-of-view photograph from only several images. Quality of the resulting image is related to the number of source images, their brightness, and the used algorithm for their stitching and blending. One of the algorithms that provides excellent results in terms of background color uniformity and reduction of ghosting artifacts is the multi-band blending. The algorithm relies on decomposition of image into multiple frequency bands using dyadic filter bank. Hence, the results are also highly dependant on the used filter bank. In this paper we analyze performance of the FIR filters used for multi-band blending. We present a set of five filters that showed the best results in both literature and our experiments. The set includes Gaussian filter, biorthogonal wavelets, and custom-designed maximally flat and equiripple FIR filters. The presented results of filter comparison are based on several no-reference metrics for image quality. We conclude that 5/3 biorthogonal wavelet produces the best result in average, especially when its short length is considered. Furthermore, we propose a real-time FPGA implementation of the blending algorithm, using 2D non-separable systolic filtering scheme. Its pipeline architecture does not require hardware multipliers and it is able to achieve very high operating frequencies. The implemented system is able to process 91 fps for 1080p (1920×1080) image resolution.

  8. Technique for real-time frontal face image acquisition using stereo system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, Vladimir A.; Vizilter, Yuri V.; Kudryashov, Yuri I.

    2013-04-01

    Most part of existing systems for face recognition is usually based on two-dimensional images. And the quality of recognition is rather high for frontal images of face. But for other kind of images the quality decreases significantly. It is necessary to compensate for the effect of a change in the posture of a person (the camera angle) for correct operation of such systems. There are methods of transformation of 2D image of the person to the canonical orientation. The efficiency of these methods depends on the accuracy of determination of specific anthropometric points. Problems can arise for cases of partly occlusion of the person`s face. Another approach is to have a set of person images for different view angles for the further processing. But a need for storing and processing a large number of two-dimensional images makes this method considerably time-consuming. The proposed technique uses stereo system for fast generation of person face 3D model and obtaining face image in given orientation using this 3D model. Real-time performance is provided by implementing and graph cut methods for face surface 3D reconstruction and applying CUDA software library for parallel calculation.

  9. Counting People and Recognizing Wheelchairs at Elevator Lobby by Real-Time Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchidate, Hikaru; Inoda, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Abe, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a real-time image processing system for wheelchair recognition at elevator lobby. This system extracts objects with frame difference method. From the image of extracted objects, heads of people are detected by the Hough transform. Vertical shooting from ceiling improves the performance of people counting since the detected head has high roundness and occlusion of people is prevented. Two feature quantities are introduced to recognize wheelchairs. They are the area value and the ratio of traveling length to vertical length. Since these quantities require a method for drawing the contour line. This paper proposes a new simple method to draw a contour line. The effectiveness of this system is confirmed through experiments.

  10. Towards real-time image deconvolution: application to confocal and STED microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, R.; Zanghirati, G.; Cavicchioli, R.; Zanni, L.; Boccacci, P.; Bertero, M.; Vicidomini, G.

    2013-01-01

    Although deconvolution can improve the quality of any type of microscope, the high computational time required has so far limited its massive spreading. Here we demonstrate the ability of the scaled-gradient-projection (SGP) method to provide accelerated versions of the most used algorithms in microscopy. To achieve further increases in efficiency, we also consider implementations on graphic processing units (GPUs). We test the proposed algorithms both on synthetic and real data of confocal and STED microscopy. Combining the SGP method with the GPU implementation we achieve a speed-up factor from about a factor 25 to 690 (with respect the conventional algorithm). The excellent results obtained on STED microscopy images demonstrate the synergy between super-resolution techniques and image-deconvolution. Further, the real-time processing allows conserving one of the most important property of STED microscopy, i.e the ability to provide fast sub-diffraction resolution recordings. PMID:23982127

  11. WE-G-BRF-04: Robust Real-Time Volumetric Imaging Based On One Single Projection

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y; Yan, H; Ouyang, L; Wang, J; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Zhou, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Real-time volumetric imaging is highly desirable to provide instantaneous image guidance for lung radiation therapy. This study proposes a scheme to achieve this goal using one single projection by utilizing sparse learning and a principal component analysis (PCA) based lung motion model. Methods: A patient-specific PCA-based lung motion model is first constructed by analyzing deformable vector fields (DVFs) between a reference image and 4DCT images at each phase. At the training stage, we “learn” the relationship between the DVFs and the projection using sparse learning. Specifically, we first partition the projections into patches, and then apply sparse learning to automatically identify patches that best correlate with the principal components of the DVFs. Once the relationship is established, at the application stage, we first employ a patchbased intensity correction method to overcome the problem of different intensity scale between the calculated projection in the training stage and the measured projection in the application stage. The corrected projection image is then fed to the trained model to derive a DVF, which is applied to the reference image, yielding a volumetric image corresponding to the projection. We have validated our method through a NCAT phantom simulation case and one experiment case. Results: Sparse learning can automatically select those patches containing motion information, such as those around diaphragm. For the simulation case, over 98% of the lung region pass the generalized gamma test (10HU/1mm), indicating combined accuracy in both intensity and spatial domain. For the experimental case, the average tumor localization errors projected to the imager are 0.68 mm and 0.4 mm on the axial and tangential direction, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed method is capable of accurately generating a volumetric image using one single projection. It will potentially offer real-time volumetric image guidance to facilitate lung

  12. Real-time UV imaging of drug diffusion and release from Pluronic F127 hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fengbin; Yaghmur, Anan; Jensen, Henrik; Larsen, Susan W; Larsen, Claus; Østergaard, Jesper

    2011-07-17

    The objective of this study was to introduce and evaluate UV imaging technology for real-time characterization of drug diffusion in and release from hydrogels. Piroxicam and human serum albumin diffusion in Pluronic F127 hydrogel was monitored by measuring the absorbance of light passing through the diffusion cell at 26°C, thus providing real-time concentration maps (7×3 mm imaging area) within the gel as a function of time. Apparent diffusion coefficients were obtained on the basis of Fick's second law. Piroxicam and human serum albumin diffusivities in 20% (w/w) F127 gel were 8 and 24 times lower than those determined in the phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The effect of increasing polymer concentration (20%, 25% and 30% (w/w)) on piroxicam diffusion was further investigated. The decreasing diffusion rate with increasing F127 concentration agreed well with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements. UV imaging was also successfully applied to monitor piroxicam release from 30% (w/w) F127 gel into a stirred aqueous buffer solution, providing simultaneous information on gel dissolution rate, change in thickness of gel-aqueous boundary layer as well as the release of piroxicam into bulk aqueous phase. The current study indicates that UV imaging has great potential for measuring drug diffusion in and release from gel matrices. Compared to the currently used conventional techniques, this technology has several advantages including high information content, non-intrusive measurements without the need for labeling, flexibility with respect to experimental design and simplicity of operation. PMID:21550399

  13. Aqueous arrayed imaging reflectometry as a sensitive platform for real-time biomolecular interaction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Amrita R.; Mace, Charles R.; Miller, Benjamin L.

    2011-03-01

    Arrayed imaging reflectometry (AIR) has been previously demonstrated as a highly sensitive biosensing technique, with picomolar limits of detection observed for certain cytokines and growth factors. However, the implementation of AIR has so far been on dry chip surfaces in an end-point sensor format that precludes real-time monitoring of interactions. The simple substrate format used for dry AIR (a thermally grown oxide film on silicon) is unsuitable for imaging in an aqueous medium due to near grazing angles of incidence required to achieve total destructive interference of reflected light, the foundation of AIR. Hence, a new substrate was identified that would allow practically realizable incidence angles. Here, the substrate proposed for AIR imaging under an aqueous environment has been described, and its ability to detect Angstrom level thickness differences has been demonstrated. This substrate consisted of a two-layer stack on silicon: a silicon nitride film followed by a sputtered oxide film, which produced the total destructive interference condition required for AIR for an operating wavelength of 632.8 nm and an angle of incidence of ~52°. The apparatus used for imaging substrates in an aqueous environment was essentially the same as that used for dry AIR, modified by the incorporation of a flow cell. Several chips were patterned with oxide posts such that the background yielded minimum reflectance while the post heights were varied to test the thickness sensitivity of the new sensor configuration. Detectable contrast from substrates bearing oxide posts with a 0.2 nm thickness was observed using pure water or aqueous solutions of sucrose. This substrate can thus be used to monitor biomolecular interactions in real time with a high sensitivity.

  14. Endothelial cell adhesion in real time. Measurements in vitro by tandem scanning confocal image analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, P F; Robotewskyj, A; Griem, M L

    1993-01-01

    Real time measurements of cell-substratum adhesion in endothelial cells were obtained by tandem scanning confocal microscopy of sites of focal contact (focal adhesions) at the abluminal cell surface. Focal contact sites were sharply defined (low radiance levels) in the living cell such that the images could be enhanced, digitized, and isolated from other cellular detail. Sites of focal contact are the principal determinant of cell-substratum adhesion. Measurements of (a) the focal contact area and (b) the closeness of contact (inverse radiance) were used to nominally define the adhesion of a single cell or field of cells, and to record spontaneous and induced changes of cell adhesion in real time. The topography of focal contacts was estimated by calculating separation distances from radiance values using a calibration technique based on interference ring optics. While slightly closer contact was noted between the cell membrane and substratum at or near the center of each focal contact, separation distances throughout the adhesion regions were always < 50 nm. Subtraction of consecutive images revealed continuous spontaneous remodeling of individual focal adhesions in unperturbed cells during periods of < 1 min. Despite extensive remodeling of focal contact sites, however, cell adhesion calculated for an entire cell over extended periods varied by < 10%. When cytoskeletal stability was impaired by exposure to cytochalasin or when cells were exposed to proteolytic enzyme, endothelial adhesion declined rapidly. Such changes were recorded at the level of single cells, groups of cells, and at single focal adhesions. In both unperturbed and manipulated cells, the dynamics of remodeling and cell adhesion characteristics varied greatly between individual sites within the same cell; disappearance of existing sites and appearance of new ones often occurred within minutes while adjacent sites underwent minimal remodelling. Tandem scanning confocal microscopy image analysis of

  15. Camera selection for real-time in vivo radiation treatment verification systems using Cherenkov imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Andreozzi, Jacqueline M. Glaser, Adam K.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Gladstone, David J.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To identify achievable camera performance and hardware needs in a clinical Cherenkov imaging system for real-time, in vivo monitoring of the surface beam profile on patients, as novel visual information, documentation, and possible treatment verification for clinicians. Methods: Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), charge-coupled device (CCD), intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), and electron multiplying-intensified charge coupled device (EM-ICCD) cameras were investigated to determine Cherenkov imaging performance in a clinical radiotherapy setting, with one emphasis on the maximum supportable frame rate. Where possible, the image intensifier was synchronized using a pulse signal from the Linac in order to image with room lighting conditions comparable to patient treatment scenarios. A solid water phantom irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam was imaged by the cameras to evaluate the maximum frame rate for adequate Cherenkov detection. Adequate detection was defined as an average electron count in the background-subtracted Cherenkov image region of interest in excess of 0.5% (327 counts) of the 16-bit maximum electron count value. Additionally, an ICCD and an EM-ICCD were each used clinically to image two patients undergoing whole-breast radiotherapy to compare clinical advantages and limitations of each system. Results: Intensifier-coupled cameras were required for imaging Cherenkov emission on the phantom surface with ambient room lighting; standalone CMOS and CCD cameras were not viable. The EM-ICCD was able to collect images from a single Linac pulse delivering less than 0.05 cGy of dose at 30 frames/s (fps) and pixel resolution of 512 × 512, compared to an ICCD which was limited to 4.7 fps at 1024 × 1024 resolution. An intensifier with higher quantum efficiency at the entrance photocathode in the red wavelengths [30% quantum efficiency (QE) vs previous 19%] promises at least 8.6 fps at a resolution of 1024 × 1024 and lower monetary

  16. Camera selection for real-time in vivo radiation treatment verification systems using Cherenkov imaging

    PubMed Central

    Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Glaser, Adam K.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Pogue, Brian W.; Gladstone, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify achievable camera performance and hardware needs in a clinical Cherenkov imaging system for real-time, in vivo monitoring of the surface beam profile on patients, as novel visual information, documentation, and possible treatment verification for clinicians. Methods: Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), charge-coupled device (CCD), intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), and electron multiplying-intensified charge coupled device (EM-ICCD) cameras were investigated to determine Cherenkov imaging performance in a clinical radiotherapy setting, with one emphasis on the maximum supportable frame rate. Where possible, the image intensifier was synchronized using a pulse signal from the Linac in order to image with room lighting conditions comparable to patient treatment scenarios. A solid water phantom irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam was imaged by the cameras to evaluate the maximum frame rate for adequate Cherenkov detection. Adequate detection was defined as an average electron count in the background-subtracted Cherenkov image region of interest in excess of 0.5% (327 counts) of the 16-bit maximum electron count value. Additionally, an ICCD and an EM-ICCD were each used clinically to image two patients undergoing whole-breast radiotherapy to compare clinical advantages and limitations of each system. Results: Intensifier-coupled cameras were required for imaging Cherenkov emission on the phantom surface with ambient room lighting; standalone CMOS and CCD cameras were not viable. The EM-ICCD was able to collect images from a single Linac pulse delivering less than 0.05 cGy of dose at 30 frames/s (fps) and pixel resolution of 512 × 512, compared to an ICCD which was limited to 4.7 fps at 1024 × 1024 resolution. An intensifier with higher quantum efficiency at the entrance photocathode in the red wavelengths [30% quantum efficiency (QE) vs previous 19%] promises at least 8.6 fps at a resolution of 1024 × 1024 and lower monetary

  17. Real-time concealed-object detection and recognition with passive millimeter wave imaging.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Seokwon; Lee, Dong-Su; Jang, Yushin; Lee, Mun-Kyo; Jung, Sang-Won

    2012-04-23

    Millimeter wave (MMW) imaging is finding rapid adoption in security applications such as concealed object detection under clothing. A passive MMW imaging system can operate as a stand-off type sensor that scans people in both indoors and outdoors. However, the imaging system often suffers from the diffraction limit and the low signal level. Therefore, suitable intelligent image processing algorithms would be required for automatic detection and recognition of the concealed objects. This paper proposes real-time outdoor concealed-object detection and recognition with a radiometric imaging system. The concealed object region is extracted by the multi-level segmentation. A novel approach is proposed to measure similarity between two binary images. Principal component analysis (PCA) regularizes the shape in terms of translation and rotation. A geometric-based feature vector is composed of shape descriptors, which can achieve scale and orientation-invariant and distortion-tolerant property. Class is decided by minimum Euclidean distance between normalized feature vectors. Experiments confirm that the proposed methods provide fast and reliable recognition of the concealed object carried by a moving human subject.

  18. Radioluminescent gold nanocages with controlled radioactivity for real-time in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yucai; Liu, Yongjian; Luehmann, Hannah; Xia, Xiaohu; Wan, Dehui; Cutler, Cathy; Xia, Younan

    2013-02-13

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging based on light emission from the decay of radionuclides has recently drawn great interest in molecular imaging. In this paper, we report for the first time the Cerenkov luminescence phenomenon of (198)Au isotope, as well as a facile route to the preparation of radioluminescent Au nanocages without additional radiolabeling or dye conjugation. The specific radioactivity of the Au nanocages could be easily and precisely controlled by varying the concentration of H(198)AuCl(4) precursor used for the galvanic replacement reaction. The direct incorporation of (198)Au atoms into the structure of Au nanocages enabled the ability of accurate analysis and real-time imaging in vivo. Furthermore, under biological conditions the radioactive Au nanocages were shown to emit light with wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared regions, enabling luminescence imaging of the whole mice in vivo, as well as the organs ex vivo. When combined with their favorable scattering and absorption properties in the near-infrared region, the radioactive Au nanocages can serve as a new platform for multimodality imaging and will have a significant impact on both small animal and clinical imaging.

  19. The analysis of complex mixed-radiation fields using near real-time imaging.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Jonathan; Mellor, Matthew P; Joyce, Malcolm J

    2014-10-01

    A new mixed-field imaging system has been constructed at Lancaster University using the principles of collimation and back projection to passively locate and assess sources of neutron and gamma-ray radiation. The system was set up at the University of Manchester where three radiation sources: (252)Cf, a lead-shielded (241)Am/Be and a (22)Na source were imaged. Real-time discrimination was used to find the respective components of the neutron and gamma-ray fields detected by a single EJ-301 liquid scintillator, allowing separate images of neutron and gamma-ray emitters to be formed. (252)Cf and (22)Na were successfully observed and located in the gamma-ray image; however, the (241)Am/Be was not seen owing to surrounding lead shielding. The (252)Cf and (241)Am/Be neutron sources were seen clearly in the neutron image, demonstrating the advantage of this mixed-field technique over a gamma-ray-only image where the (241)Am/Be source would have gone undetected.

  20. Real-time imaging of glutamate clearance reveals normal striatal uptake in Huntington disease mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Matthew P.; Vanni, Matthieu P.; Woodard, Cameron L.; Kang, Rujun; Murphy, Timothy H.; Raymond, Lynn A.

    2016-01-01

    It has become well accepted that Huntington disease (HD) is associated with impaired glutamate uptake, resulting in a prolonged time-course of extracellular glutamate that contributes to excitotoxicity. However, the data supporting this view come largely from work in synaptosomes, which may overrepresent nerve-terminal uptake over astrocytic uptake. Here, we quantify real-time glutamate dynamics in HD mouse models by high-speed imaging of an intensity-based glutamate-sensing fluorescent reporter (iGluSnFR) and electrophysiological recordings of synaptically activated transporter currents in astrocytes. These techniques reveal a disconnect between the results obtained in synaptosomes and those in situ. Exogenous glutamate uptake is impaired in synaptosomes, whereas real-time measures of glutamate clearance in the HD striatum are normal or even accelerated, particularly in the aggressive R6/2 model. Our results highlight the importance of quantifying glutamate dynamics under endogenous release conditions, and suggest that the widely cited uptake impairment in HD does not contribute to pathogenesis. PMID:27052848

  1. A remote real-time PACS-based platform for medical imaging telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maani, Rouzbeh; Camorlinga, Sergio; Eskicioglu, Rasit

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes a remote real-time PACS-based telemedicine platform for clinical and diagnostic services delivered at different care settings where the physicians, specialists and scientists may attend. In fact, the platform aims to provide a PACS-based telemedicine framework for different medical image services such as segmentation, registration and specifically high-quality 3D visualization. The proposed approach offers services which are not only widely accessible and real-time, but are also secure and cost-effective. In addition, the proposed platform has the ability to bring in a realtime, ubiquitous, collaborative, interactive meeting environment supporting 3D visualization for consultations, which has not been well addressed with the current PACS-based applications. Using this ability, physicians and specialists can consult with each other at separate places and it is especially helpful for settings, where there is no specialist or the number of specialists is not enough to handle all the available cases. Furthermore, the proposed platform can be used as a rich resource for clinical research studies as well as for academic purposes.

  2. Real-time imaging of glutamate clearance reveals normal striatal uptake in Huntington disease mouse models.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Matthew P; Vanni, Matthieu P; Woodard, Cameron L; Kang, Rujun; Murphy, Timothy H; Raymond, Lynn A

    2016-01-01

    It has become well accepted that Huntington disease (HD) is associated with impaired glutamate uptake, resulting in a prolonged time-course of extracellular glutamate that contributes to excitotoxicity. However, the data supporting this view come largely from work in synaptosomes, which may overrepresent nerve-terminal uptake over astrocytic uptake. Here, we quantify real-time glutamate dynamics in HD mouse models by high-speed imaging of an intensity-based glutamate-sensing fluorescent reporter (iGluSnFR) and electrophysiological recordings of synaptically activated transporter currents in astrocytes. These techniques reveal a disconnect between the results obtained in synaptosomes and those in situ. Exogenous glutamate uptake is impaired in synaptosomes, whereas real-time measures of glutamate clearance in the HD striatum are normal or even accelerated, particularly in the aggressive R6/2 model. Our results highlight the importance of quantifying glutamate dynamics under endogenous release conditions, and suggest that the widely cited uptake impairment in HD does not contribute to pathogenesis. PMID:27052848

  3. Collaborative real-time motion video analysis by human observer and image exploitation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Brüstle, Stefan; Trantelle, Patrick; Unmüßig, Gabriel; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    Motion video analysis is a challenging task, especially in real-time applications. In most safety and security critical applications, a human observer is an obligatory part of the overall analysis system. Over the last years, substantial progress has been made in the development of automated image exploitation algorithms. Hence, we investigate how the benefits of automated video analysis can be integrated suitably into the current video exploitation systems. In this paper, a system design is introduced which strives to combine both the qualities of the human observer's perception and the automated algorithms, thus aiming to improve the overall performance of a real-time video analysis system. The system design builds on prior work where we showed the benefits for the human observer by means of a user interface which utilizes the human visual focus of attention revealed by the eye gaze direction for interaction with the image exploitation system; eye tracker-based interaction allows much faster, more convenient, and equally precise moving target acquisition in video images than traditional computer mouse selection. The system design also builds on prior work we did on automated target detection, segmentation, and tracking algorithms. Beside the system design, a first pilot study is presented, where we investigated how the participants (all non-experts in video analysis) performed in initializing an object tracking subsystem by selecting a target for tracking. Preliminary results show that the gaze + key press technique is an effective, efficient, and easy to use interaction technique when performing selection operations on moving targets in videos in order to initialize an object tracking function.

  4. Underwater partial polarization signatures from the shallow water real-time imaging polarimeter (SHRIMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, James S., Jr.; Davis, P. S.; Wolff, Lawrence B.

    2003-09-01

    Research has shown that naturally occurring light outdoors and underwater is partially linearly polarized. The polarized components can be combined to form an image that describes the polarization of the light in the scene. This image is known as the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) image or partial polarization image. These naturally occurring polarization signatures can provide a diver or an unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) with more information to detect, classify, and identify threats such as obstacles and/or mines in the shallow water environment. The SHallow water Real-time IMaging Polarimeter (SHRIMP), recently developed under sponsorship of Dr. Tom Swean at the Office of Naval Research (Code 321OE), can measure underwater partial polarization imagery. This sensor is a passive, three-channel device that simultaneously measures the three components of the Stokes vector needed to determine the partial linear polarization of the scene. The testing of this sensor has been completed and the data has been analyzed. This paper presents performance results from the field-testing and quantifies the gain provided by the partial polarization signature of targets in the Very Shallow Water (VSW) and Surf Zone (SZ) regions.

  5. Real-time image processing system for automated visual inspection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando D.; Pais, Cassiano P.; Freitas, Jose C. A.; Rodrigues, Fernando C.

    1993-01-01

    In many potential machine vision applications, the biggest constraint to its industrial use is the cost of the image processing hardware. In fact, there are many visual tasks performed by human operators that could be easily automated. However, it is very difficult to find in the market a vision system with the adequate relation between cost and performance. Most of the image processing systems need too much time to process one image, or have a very high cost. We present an architecture that was developed for surveillance purposes and that we are applying to several applications, namely to the semi-conductor industry and to flexible manufacture. The hardware was conceived in a modular approach with real time performance in each module. Cascading of several modules can produce different image processing functions with an image or data, being generated in every frame of video. The low cost of the hardware together with its very high performance, allow many different industrial applications in particular in the field of industrial automation. The results obtained with the industrial prototypes are presented in two applications and other possible applications are in progress.

  6. CMOS detector arrays in a virtual 10-kilopixel camera for coherent terahertz real-time imaging.

    PubMed

    Boppel, Sebastian; Lisauskas, Alvydas; Max, Alexander; Krozer, Viktor; Roskos, Hartmut G

    2012-02-15

    We demonstrate the principle applicability of antenna-coupled complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect transistor arrays as cameras for real-time coherent imaging at 591.4 GHz. By scanning a few detectors across the image plane, we synthesize a focal-plane array of 100×100 pixels with an active area of 20×20 mm2, which is applied to imaging in transmission and reflection geometries. Individual detector pixels exhibit a voltage conversion loss of 24 dB and a noise figure of 41 dB for 16 μW of the local oscillator (LO) drive. For object illumination, we use a radio-frequency (RF) source with 432 μW at 590 GHz. Coherent detection is realized by quasioptical superposition of the image and the LO beam with 247 μW. At an effective frame rate of 17 Hz, we achieve a maximum dynamic range of 30 dB in the center of the image and more than 20 dB within a disk of 18 mm diameter. The system has been used for surface reconstruction resolving a height difference in the μm range.

  7. Rapid Synthesis of Near Infrared Polymeric Micelles for Real-time Sentinal Lymphnode Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dipanjan; Cai, Xin; Kim, Benjamin; Stacy, Allen J; Wang, Lihong V.; Lanza, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript a synthetic methodology for developing sub 20 nm sized polymeric micellar nanoparticle designed for extravascular imaging and therapy is revealed. A simple, one-pot method is followed, which involved a rapid co-self assembly of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer (PS-b-PAA) and polyoxyethylene (80) sorbitan monooleate in water. Sorbitan monooleate imparts stability to the micelles and helps to drive down the particle size below 20 nm. The particles were incorporated with a water soluble dye ADS832WS, which absorbs in the near infrared range (λex= 832nm) for sensitive detection with optical and photoacoustic imaging techniques. A candidate lipophilic antiangiogenic therapeutic agent fumagillin was also incorporated with high entrapment (>95%) efficiency. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this theranostic platform for real-time high-resolution intraoperative photoacoustic imaging for facilitating direct assessment of the sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) in breast cancer staging. The technique offers huge potential providing faster resection of SLN and may minimize complications caused by axillary exploration due to mismarking with dyes or low resolution imaging techniques. Finally, the biodistribution and organ accumulation of the intravenously and intradermally injected particles were studied in rodent model by optical imaging. Data suggest that intraveneously injected NIR-polymeric nanoparticles follow a typical bio-distribution clearance path through the reticuloendothelial (RES) system. For the intradermally injected particles, a slower mechanism of clearance was noticed. PMID:23184793

  8. Lysosome triggered near-infrared fluorescence imaging of cellular trafficking processes in real time

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, Marco; Morgunova, Marina; Cheung, Shane; Scholz, Dimitri; Conroy, Emer; Terrile, Marta; Panarella, Angela; Simpson, Jeremy C.; Gallagher, William M.; O'Shea, Donal F.

    2016-01-01

    Bioresponsive NIR-fluorophores offer the possibility for continual visualization of dynamic cellular processes with added potential for direct translation to in vivo imaging. Here we show the design, synthesis and lysosome-responsive emission properties of a new NIR fluorophore. The NIR fluorescent probe design differs from typical amine functionalized lysosomotropic stains with off/on fluorescence switching controlled by a reversible phenol/phenolate interconversion. Emission from the probe is shown to be highly selective for the lysosomes in co-imaging experiments using a HeLa cell line expressing the lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 fused to green fluorescent protein. The responsive probe is capable of real-time continuous imaging of fundamental cellular processes such as endocytosis, lysosomal trafficking and efflux in 3D and 4D. The advantage of the NIR emission allows for direct translation to in vivo tumour imaging, which is successfully demonstrated using an MDA-MB-231 subcutaneous tumour model. This bioresponsive NIR fluorophore offers significant potential for use in live cellular and in vivo imaging, for which currently there is a deficit of suitable molecular fluorescent tools. PMID:26927507

  9. Optical coherence tomography imaging of retinal damage in real time under a stimulus electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Ethan; Agrawal, Anant; Connors, Megan; Hansen, Barry; Charkhkar, Hamid; Pfefer, Joshua

    2011-10-01

    We have developed a novel method to study the effects of electrical stimulation of the local retina directly under an epiretinal stimulus electrode in real time. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and a superfused retinal eyecup preparation, we obtained high-resolution images of the rabbit retina directly under an optically transparent saline-filled fluoropolymer stimulation tube electrode. During OCT imaging, 50 Hz trains of biphasic current pulses 1 ms/phase (23-749 µC cm-2 ph-1) were applied to the retinal surface for 5 min. After imaging, the stimulated regions were stained with the dye propidium iodide (PI) to reveal cytotoxic damage. Pulse train stimulation at 44-133 µC cm-2 ph-1 had little effect on the retina; however, trains >=442 µC cm-2 ph-1 caused increases in the reflectance of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and edema. The damage seen in retinal OCT images matched the pattern observed in histological sections, and in the PI staining. With pulse trains >=442 µC cm-2 ph-1, rapid increases in the reflectivity of the IPL could be observed under the stimulus electrode. Below the electrode, we observed a ring-like pattern of retinal detachment in the subretinal space. The OCT imaging method may be useful for analyzing overstimulation of neuronal tissue by electrodes in many brain regions. This paper was originally submitted for the special issue containing contributions from the Sixth Biennial Research Congress of The Eye and the Chip.

  10. A Green Synthesis of Carbon Nanoparticle from Honey for Real-Time Photoacoustic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lina; Cai, Xin; Nelson, Kate; Xing, Wenxin; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Ruiying; Stacy, Allen J.; Luderer, Micah; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-01-01

    Imaging sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) could provide us with critical information about the progression of a cancerous disease. Real-time high-resolution intraoperative photoacoustic imaging (PAI) in conjunction with a near infrared (NIR) probe may offer the opportunities for the immediate imaging for direct identification and resection of SLN or collecting tissue samples. In this work a commercially amenable synthetic methodology is revealed for developing luminescent carbon nanoparticles with rapid clearance properties. A one-pot “green” technique is pursued, which involved rapid surface passivation of carbon nanoparticles with organic macromolecules (e.g. polysorbate, polyethyleneglycol) in a solvent free condition. Interestingly, the naked carbon nanoparticles are derived for the first time, from commercial food grade honey. Surface coated particles are markedly smaller (~7 nm) than the previously explored particles (gold, SWNT, copper) for SLN imaging. Results indicate an exceptionally rapid signal enhancement (~2 min) of the SLN. Owing to their strong optical absorption in the near infrared region, tiny size and rapid lymphatic transport, this platform offers great potential for faster resection of SLN and may lower complications caused by axillary investigation for mismarking with dyes or low-resolution imaging techniques. PMID:23824757

  11. A fiducial detection algorithm for real-time image guided IMRT based on simultaneous MV and kV imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Weihua; Riaz, Nadeem; Lee, Louis; Wiersma, Rodney; Xing Lei

    2008-08-15

    The advantage of highly conformal dose techniques such as 3DCRT and IMRT is limited by intrafraction organ motion. A new approach to gain near real-time 3D positions of internally implanted fiducial markers is to analyze simultaneous onboard kV beam and treatment MV beam images (from fluoroscopic or electronic portal image devices). Before we can use this real-time image guidance for clinical 3DCRT and IMRT treatments, four outstanding issues need to be addressed. (1) How will fiducial motion blur the image and hinder tracking fiducials? kV and MV images are acquired while the tumor is moving at various speeds. We find that a fiducial can be successfully detected at a maximum linear speed of 1.6 cm/s. (2) How does MV beam scattering affect kV imaging? We investigate this by varying MV field size and kV source to imager distance, and find that common treatment MV beams do not hinder fiducial detection in simultaneous kV images. (3) How can one detect fiducials on images from 3DCRT and IMRT treatment beams when the MV fields are modified by a multileaf collimator (MLC)? The presented analysis is capable of segmenting a MV field from the blocking MLC and detecting visible fiducials. This enables the calculation of nearly real-time 3D positions of markers during a real treatment. (4) Is the analysis fast enough to track fiducials in nearly real time? Multiple methods are adopted to predict marker positions and reduce search regions. The average detection time per frame for three markers in a 1024x768 image was reduced to 0.1 s or less. Solving these four issues paves the way to tracking moving fiducial markers throughout a 3DCRT or IMRT treatment. Altogether, these four studies demonstrate that our algorithm can track fiducials in real time, on degraded kV images (MV scatter), in rapidly moving tumors (fiducial blurring), and even provide useful information in the case when some fiducials are blocked from view by the MLC. This technique can provide a gating signal or

  12. A fiducial detection algorithm for real-time image guided IMRT based on simultaneous MV and kV imaging.

    PubMed

    Mao, Weihua; Riaz, Nadeem; Lee, Louis; Wiersma, Rodney; Xing, Lei

    2008-08-01

    The advantage of highly conformal dose techniques such as 3DCRT and IMRT is limited by intrafraction organ motion. A new approach to gain near real-time 3D positions of internally implanted fiducial markers is to analyze simultaneous onboard kV beam and treatment MV beam images (from fluoroscopic or electronic portal image devices). Before we can use this real-time image guidance for clinical 3DCRT and IMRT treatments, four outstanding issues need to be addressed. (1) How will fiducial motion blur the image and hinder tracking fiducials? kV and MV images are acquired while the tumor is moving at various speeds. We find that a fiducial can be successfully detected at a maximum linear speed of 1.6 cm/s. (2) How does MV beam scattering affect kV imaging? We investigate this by varying MV field size and kV source to imager distance, and find that common treatment MV beams do not hinder fiducial detection in simultaneous kV images. (3) How can one detect fiducials on images from 3DCRT and IMRT treatment beams when the MV fields are modified by a multileaf collimator (MLC)? The presented analysis is capable of segmenting a MV field from the blocking MLC and detecting visible fiducials. This enables the calculation of nearly real-time 3D positions of markers during a real treatment. (4) Is the analysis fast enough to track fiducials in nearly real time? Multiple methods are adopted to predict marker positions and reduce search regions. The average detection time per frame for three markers in a 1024 x 768 image was reduced to 0.1 s or less. Solving these four issues paves the way to tracking moving fiducial markers throughout a 3DCRT or IMRT treatment. Altogether, these four studies demonstrate that our algorithm can track fiducials in real time, on degraded kV images (MV scatter), in rapidly moving tumors (fiducial blurring), and even provide useful information in the case when some fiducials are blocked from view by the MLC. This technique can provide a gating signal or

  13. A fiducial detection algorithm for real-time image guided IMRT based on simultaneous MV and kV imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Weihua; Riaz, Nadeem; Lee, Louis; Wiersma, Rodney; Xing, Lei

    2008-01-01

    The advantage of highly conformal dose techniques such as 3DCRT and IMRT is limited by intrafraction organ motion. A new approach to gain near real-time 3D positions of internally implanted fiducial markers is to analyze simultaneous onboard kV beam and treatment MV beam images (from fluoroscopic or electronic portal image devices). Before we can use this real-time image guidance for clinical 3DCRT and IMRT treatments, four outstanding issues need to be addressed. (1) How will fiducial motion blur the image and hinder tracking fiducials? kV and MV images are acquired while the tumor is moving at various speeds. We find that a fiducial can be successfully detected at a maximum linear speed of 1.6 cm∕s. (2) How does MV beam scattering affect kV imaging? We investigate this by varying MV field size and kV source to imager distance, and find that common treatment MV beams do not hinder fiducial detection in simultaneous kV images. (3) How can one detect fiducials on images from 3DCRT and IMRT treatment beams when the MV fields are modified by a multileaf collimator (MLC)? The presented analysis is capable of segmenting a MV field from the blocking MLC and detecting visible fiducials. This enables the calculation of nearly real-time 3D positions of markers during a real treatment. (4) Is the analysis fast enough to track fiducials in nearly real time? Multiple methods are adopted to predict marker positions and reduce search regions. The average detection time per frame for three markers in a 1024×768 image was reduced to 0.1 s or less. Solving these four issues paves the way to tracking moving fiducial markers throughout a 3DCRT or IMRT treatment. Altogether, these four studies demonstrate that our algorithm can track fiducials in real time, on degraded kV images (MV scatter), in rapidly moving tumors (fiducial blurring), and even provide useful information in the case when some fiducials are blocked from view by the MLC. This technique can provide a gating signal

  14. A fiducial detection algorithm for real-time image guided IMRT based on simultaneous MV and kV imaging.

    PubMed

    Mao, Weihua; Riaz, Nadeem; Lee, Louis; Wiersma, Rodney; Xing, Lei

    2008-08-01

    The advantage of highly conformal dose techniques such as 3DCRT and IMRT is limited by intrafraction organ motion. A new approach to gain near real-time 3D positions of internally implanted fiducial markers is to analyze simultaneous onboard kV beam and treatment MV beam images (from fluoroscopic or electronic portal image devices). Before we can use this real-time image guidance for clinical 3DCRT and IMRT treatments, four outstanding issues need to be addressed. (1) How will fiducial motion blur the image and hinder tracking fiducials? kV and MV images are acquired while the tumor is moving at various speeds. We find that a fiducial can be successfully detected at a maximum linear speed of 1.6 cm/s. (2) How does MV beam scattering affect kV imaging? We investigate this by varying MV field size and kV source to imager distance, and find that common treatment MV beams do not hinder fiducial detection in simultaneous kV images. (3) How can one detect fiducials on images from 3DCRT and IMRT treatment beams when the MV fields are modified by a multileaf collimator (MLC)? The presented analysis is capable of segmenting a MV field from the blocking MLC and detecting visible fiducials. This enables the calculation of nearly real-time 3D positions of markers during a real treatment. (4) Is the analysis fast enough to track fiducials in nearly real time? Multiple methods are adopted to predict marker positions and reduce search regions. The average detection time per frame for three markers in a 1024 x 768 image was reduced to 0.1 s or less. Solving these four issues paves the way to tracking moving fiducial markers throughout a 3DCRT or IMRT treatment. Altogether, these four studies demonstrate that our algorithm can track fiducials in real time, on degraded kV images (MV scatter), in rapidly moving tumors (fiducial blurring), and even provide useful information in the case when some fiducials are blocked from view by the MLC. This technique can provide a gating signal or

  15. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging and electromagnetic articulography database for speech production research (TC)

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Toutios, Asterios; Ramanarayanan, Vikram; Lammert, Adam; Kim, Jangwon; Lee, Sungbok; Nayak, Krishna; Kim, Yoon-Chul; Zhu, Yinghua; Goldstein, Louis; Byrd, Dani; Bresch, Erik; Ghosh, Prasanta; Katsamanis, Athanasios; Proctor, Michael

    2014-01-01

    USC-TIMIT is an extensive database of multimodal speech production data, developed to complement existing resources available to the speech research community and with the intention of being continuously refined and augmented. The database currently includes real-time magnetic resonance imaging data from five male and five female speakers of American English. Electromagnetic articulography data have also been presently collected from four of these speakers. The two modalities were recorded in two independent sessions while the subjects produced the same 460 sentence corpus used previously in the MOCHA-TIMIT database. In both cases the audio signal was recorded and synchronized with the articulatory data. The database and companion software are freely available to the research community. PMID:25190403

  16. Resolving dynamics of cell signaling via real-time imaging of the immunological synapse.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Mark A.; Pfeiffer, Janet R.; Wilson, Bridget S.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Thomas, James L.; Lidke, Keith A.; Spendier, Kathrin; Oliver, Janet M.; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Aaron, Jesse S.; Mirijanian, Dina T.; Carson, Bryan D.; Burns, Alan Richard; Rebeil, Roberto

    2009-10-01

    This highly interdisciplinary team has developed dual-color, total internal reflection microscopy (TIRF-M) methods that enable us to optically detect and track in real time protein migration and clustering at membrane interfaces. By coupling TIRF-M with advanced analysis techniques (image correlation spectroscopy, single particle tracking) we have captured subtle changes in membrane organization that characterize immune responses. We have used this approach to elucidate the initial stages of cell activation in the IgE signaling network of mast cells and the Toll-like receptor (TLR-4) response in macrophages stimulated by bacteria. To help interpret these measurements, we have undertaken a computational modeling effort to connect the protein motion and lipid interactions. This work provides a deeper understanding of the initial stages of cellular response to external agents, including dynamics of interaction of key components in the signaling network at the 'immunological synapse,' the contact region of the cell and its adversary.

  17. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging and electromagnetic articulography database for speech production research (TC).

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Toutios, Asterios; Ramanarayanan, Vikram; Lammert, Adam; Kim, Jangwon; Lee, Sungbok; Nayak, Krishna; Kim, Yoon-Chul; Zhu, Yinghua; Goldstein, Louis; Byrd, Dani; Bresch, Erik; Ghosh, Prasanta; Katsamanis, Athanasios; Proctor, Michael

    2014-09-01

    USC-TIMIT is an extensive database of multimodal speech production data, developed to complement existing resources available to the speech research community and with the intention of being continuously refined and augmented. The database currently includes real-time magnetic resonance imaging data from five male and five female speakers of American English. Electromagnetic articulography data have also been presently collected from four of these speakers. The two modalities were recorded in two independent sessions while the subjects produced the same 460 sentence corpus used previously in the MOCHA-TIMIT database. In both cases the audio signal was recorded and synchronized with the articulatory data. The database and companion software are freely available to the research community. PMID:25190403

  18. Real-Time Local Range On-Demand and Dynamic Regional Range Images

    SciTech Connect

    Tsap, L.V.

    2000-02-22

    This paper presents a new approach to a gesture tracking system using real-time range on-demand. The system represents a gesture-controlled interface for interactive visual exploration of large data sets. The paper describes a method performing range processing only when necessary and where necessary. Range data is processed only for non-static regions of interest. This is accomplished by a set of filters on the color, motion, and range data. The speedup achieved is between 41% and 54%. The algorithm also includes a robust skin color segmentation insensitive to illumination changes. Selective range processing results in dynamic regional range images (DRRIs). This development is also placed in a broader context of a biological visual system emulation, specifically redundancies and attention mechanisms.

  19. Real-Time Local Range On-Demand for Tracking Gestures and Dynamic Regional Range Images

    SciTech Connect

    Tsap, L.V.

    2000-05-30

    This paper presents a new approach to a gesture-tracking system using real-time range on-demand. The system represents a gesture-controlled interface for interactive visual exploration of large data sets. The paper describes a method performing range processing only when necessary and where necessary. Range data is processed only for non-static regions of interest. This is accomplished by a set of filters on the color, motion, and range data. The speedup achieved is between 41% and 54%. The algorithm also includes a robust skin-color segmentation insensitive to illumination changes. Selective range processing results in dynamic regional range images (DRRIs). This development is also placed in a broader context of a biological visual system emulation, specifically redundancies and attention mechanisms.

  20. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging and electromagnetic articulography database for speech production research (TC).

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Toutios, Asterios; Ramanarayanan, Vikram; Lammert, Adam; Kim, Jangwon; Lee, Sungbok; Nayak, Krishna; Kim, Yoon-Chul; Zhu, Yinghua; Goldstein, Louis; Byrd, Dani; Bresch, Erik; Ghosh, Prasanta; Katsamanis, Athanasios; Proctor, Michael

    2014-09-01

    USC-TIMIT is an extensive database of multimodal speech production data, developed to complement existing resources available to the speech research community and with the intention of being continuously refined and augmented. The database currently includes real-time magnetic resonance imaging data from five male and five female speakers of American English. Electromagnetic articulography data have also been presently collected from four of these speakers. The two modalities were recorded in two independent sessions while the subjects produced the same 460 sentence corpus used previously in the MOCHA-TIMIT database. In both cases the audio signal was recorded and synchronized with the articulatory data. The database and companion software are freely available to the research community.

  1. Dynamics of supersonic microparticle impact on elastomers revealed by real-time multi-frame imaging.

    PubMed

    Veysset, David; Hsieh, Alex J; Kooi, Steven; Maznev, Alexei A; Masser, Kevin A; Nelson, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding high-velocity microparticle impact is essential for many fields, from space exploration to medicine and biology. Investigations of microscale impact have hitherto been limited to post-mortem analysis of impacted specimens, which does not provide direct information on the impact dynamics. Here we report real-time multi-frame imaging studies of the impact of 7 μm diameter glass spheres traveling at 700-900 m/s on elastomer polymers. With a poly(urethane urea) (PUU) sample, we observe a hyperelastic impact phenomenon not seen on the macroscale: a microsphere undergoes a full conformal penetration into the specimen followed by a rebound which leaves the specimen unscathed. The results challenge the established interpretation of the behaviour of elastomers under high-velocity impact. PMID:27156501

  2. Parasitic antenna effect in terahertz plasmon detector array for real-time imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jong-Ryul; Lee, Woo-Jae; Ryu, Min Woo; Rok Kim, Kyung; Han, Seong-Tae

    2015-10-01

    The performance uniformity of each pixel integrated with a patch antenna in a terahertz plasmon detector array is very important in building the large array necessary for a real-time imaging system. We found a parasitic antenna effect in the terahertz plasmon detector whose response is dependent on the position of the detector pixel in the illumination area of the terahertz beam. It was also demonstrated that the parasitic antenna effect is attributed to the physical structure consisting of signal pads, bonding wires, and interconnection lines on a chip and a printed circuit board. Experimental results show that the performance of the detector pixel is determined by the sum of the effects of each parasitic antenna and the on-chip integrated antenna designed to detect signals at the operating frequency. The parasitic antenna effect can be minimized by blocking the interconnections with a metallic shield.

  3. Dynamics of supersonic microparticle impact on elastomers revealed by real-time multi-frame imaging.

    PubMed

    Veysset, David; Hsieh, Alex J; Kooi, Steven; Maznev, Alexei A; Masser, Kevin A; Nelson, Keith A

    2016-05-09

    Understanding high-velocity microparticle impact is essential for many fields, from space exploration to medicine and biology. Investigations of microscale impact have hitherto been limited to post-mortem analysis of impacted specimens, which does not provide direct information on the impact dynamics. Here we report real-time multi-frame imaging studies of the impact of 7 μm diameter glass spheres traveling at 700-900 m/s on elastomer polymers. With a poly(urethane urea) (PUU) sample, we observe a hyperelastic impact phenomenon not seen on the macroscale: a microsphere undergoes a full conformal penetration into the specimen followed by a rebound which leaves the specimen unscathed. The results challenge the established interpretation of the behaviour of elastomers under high-velocity impact.

  4. Teaching real-time ultrasonic imaging with a 4-channel sonar array, TI C6711 DSK and MATLAB.

    PubMed

    York, George W P; Welch, Thad B; Wright, Cameron H G

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic medical imaging courses often stop at the theory or MATLAB simulation level, since professors find it challenging to give the students the experience of designing a real-time ultrasonic system. Some of the practical problems of working with real-time data from the ultrasonic transducers can be avoided by working at lower frequencies (sonar to low ultrasound) range. To facilitate this, we have created a platform using the ease of MATLAB programming with the real-time processing capability of the low-cost Texas Instruments C6711 DSP starter kit and a 4-channel sonar array. With this platform students can design a B-mode or Color-Mode sonar system in the MATLAB environment. This paper will demonstrate how the platform can be used in the classroom to demonstrate the real-time signal processing stages including beamforming, multi-rate sampling, demodulation, filtering, image processing, echo imaging, and Doppler frequency estimation. PMID:15850134

  5. Teaching real-time ultrasonic imaging with a 4-channel sonar array, TI C6711 DSK and MATLAB.

    PubMed

    York, George W P; Welch, Thad B; Wright, Cameron H G

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic medical imaging courses often stop at the theory or MATLAB simulation level, since professors find it challenging to give the students the experience of designing a real-time ultrasonic system. Some of the practical problems of working with real-time data from the ultrasonic transducers can be avoided by working at lower frequencies (sonar to low ultrasound) range. To facilitate this, we have created a platform using the ease of MATLAB programming with the real-time processing capability of the low-cost Texas Instruments C6711 DSP starter kit and a 4-channel sonar array. With this platform students can design a B-mode or Color-Mode sonar system in the MATLAB environment. This paper will demonstrate how the platform can be used in the classroom to demonstrate the real-time signal processing stages including beamforming, multi-rate sampling, demodulation, filtering, image processing, echo imaging, and Doppler frequency estimation.

  6. Portable real-time optical coherence tomography system for intraoperative imaging and staging of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Freddy T.; Zysk, Adam M.; Kotynek, Jan G.; Bellafiore, Frank J.; Rowland, Kendrith M.; Johnson, Patricia A.; Chaney, J. Eric; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2007-02-01

    Breast cancer continues to be one of the most widely diagnosed forms of cancer amongst women and the second leading type of cancer deaths amongst women. The recurrence rate of breast cancer is highly dependent on several factors including the complete removal of the primary tumor and the presence of cancer cells in involved lymph nodes. The metastatic spread and staging of breast cancer is also evaluated through the nodal assessment of the regional lymphatic system. A portable real-time spectral domain optical coherence tomography system is being presented as a clinical diagnostic tool in the intraoperative delineation of tumor margins as well as for real time lymph node assessment. The system employs a super luminescent diode centered at 1310 nm with a bandwidth of 92 nm. Using a spectral domain detection system, the data is acquired at a rate of 5 KHz / axial scan. The sample arm is a galvanometer scanning telecentric probe with an objective lens (f = 60 mm, confocal parameter = 1.5 mm) yielding an axial resolution of 8.3 μm and a transverse resolution of 35.0 μm. Images of tumor margins are acquired in the operating room ex vivo on freshly excised human tissue specimen. This data shows the potential of the use of OCT in defining the structural tumor margins in breast cancer. Images taken from ex-vivo samples on the bench system clearly delineate the differences between clusters of tumor cells and nearby adipose cells. In addition, the data shows the potential for OCT as a diagnostic tool in the staging of cancer metastasis through locoregional lymph node assessment.

  7. The L_infinity constrained global optimal histogram equalization technique for real time imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Qiongwei; Niu, Yi; Liu, Lin; Jiao, Yang; Shi, Guangming

    2015-08-01

    Although the current imaging sensors can achieve 12 or higher precision, the current display devices and the commonly used digital image formats are still only 8 bits. This mismatch causes significant waste of the sensor precision and loss of information when storing and displaying the images. For better usage of the precision-budget, tone mapping operators have to be used to map the high-precision data into low-precision digital images adaptively. In this paper, the classic histogram equalization tone mapping operator is reexamined in the sense of optimization. We point out that the traditional histogram equalization technique and its variants are fundamentally improper by suffering from local optimum problems. To overcome this drawback, we remodel the histogram equalization tone mapping task based on graphic theory which achieves the global optimal solutions. Another advantage of the graphic-based modeling is that the tone-continuity is also modeled as a vital constraint in our approach which suppress the annoying boundary artifacts of the traditional approaches. In addition, we propose a novel dynamic programming technique to solve the histogram equalization problem in real time. Experimental results shows that the proposed tone-preserved global optimal histogram equalization technique outperforms the traditional approaches by exhibiting more subtle details in the foreground while preserving the smoothness of the background.

  8. Real-time framework for tensor-based image enhancement for object classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyganek, Bogusław; Smołka, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    In many practical situations visual pattern recognition is vastly burdened by low quality of input images due to noise, geometrical distortions, as well as low quality of the acquisition hardware. However, although there are techniques of image quality improvements, such as nonlinear filtering, there are only few attempts reported in the literature that try to build these enhancement methods into a complete chain for multi-dimensional object recognition such as color video or hyperspectral images. In this work we propose a joint multilinear signal filtering and classification system built upon the multi-dimensional (tensor) approach. Tensor filtering is performed by the multi-dimensional input signal projection into the tensor subspace spanned by the best-rank tensor decomposition method. On the other hand, object classification is done by construction of the tensor sub-space constructed based on the Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition method applied to the prototype patters. In the experiments we show that the proposed chain allows high object recognition accuracy in the real-time even from the poor quality prototypes. Even more importantly, the proposed framework allows unified classification of signals of any dimensions, such as color images or video sequences which are exemplars of 3D and 4D tensors, respectively. The paper discussed also some practical issues related to implementation of the key components of the proposed system.

  9. Developing handheld real time multispectral imager to clinically detect erythema in darkly pigmented skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Linghua; Sprigle, Stephen; Yi, Dingrong; Wang, Fengtao; Wang, Chao; Liu, Fuhan

    2010-02-01

    Pressure ulcers have been identified as a public health concern by the US government through the Healthy People 2010 initiative and the National Quality Forum (NQF). Currently, no tools are available to assist clinicians in erythema, i.e. the early stage pressure ulcer detection. The results from our previous research (supported by NIH grant) indicate that erythema in different skin tones can be identified using a set of wavelengths 540, 577, 650 and 970nm. This paper will report our recent work which is developing a handheld, point-of-care, clinicallyviable and affordable, real time multispectral imager to detect erythema in persons with darkly pigmented skin. Instead of using traditional filters, e.g. filter wheels, generalized Lyot filter, electrical tunable filter or the methods of dispersing light, e.g. optic-acoustic crystal, a novel custom filter mosaic has been successfully designed and fabricated using lithography and vacuum multi layer film technologies. The filter has been integrated with CMOS and CCD sensors. The filter incorporates four or more different wavelengths within the visual to nearinfrared range each having a narrow bandwidth of 30nm or less. Single wavelength area is chosen as 20.8μx 20.8μ. The filter can be deposited on regular optical glass as substrate or directly on a CMOS and CCD imaging sensor. This design permits a multi-spectral image to be acquired in a single exposure, thereby providing overwhelming convenience in multi spectral imaging acquisition.

  10. Real-time X-ray Imaging of Lung Fluid Volumes in Neonatal Mouse Lung.

    PubMed

    Van Avermaete, Ashley E; Trac, Phi T; Gauthier, Theresa W; Helms, My N

    2016-01-01

    At birth, the lung undergoes a profound phenotypic switch from secretion to absorption, which allows for adaptation to breathing independently. Promoting and sustaining this phenotype is critically important in normal alveolar growth and gas exchange throughout life. Several in vitro studies have characterized the role of key regulatory proteins, signaling molecules, and steroid hormones that can influence the rate of lung fluid clearance. However, in vivo examinations must be performed to evaluate whether these regulatory factors play important physiological roles in regulating perinatal lung liquid absorption. As such, the utilization of real time X-ray imaging to determine perinatal lung fluid clearance, or pulmonary edema, represents a technological advancement in the field. Herein, we explain and illustrate an approach to assess the rate of alveolar lung fluid clearance and alveolar flooding in C57BL/6 mice at post natal day 10 using X-ray imaging and analysis. Successful implementation of this protocol requires prior approval from institutional animal care and use committees (IACUC), an in vivo small animal X-ray imaging system, and compatible molecular imaging software. PMID:27500410

  11. Real-time 3D surface-image-guided beam setup in radiotherapy of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Djajaputra, David; Li Shidong

    2005-01-01

    We describe an approach for external beam radiotherapy of breast cancer that utilizes the three-dimensional (3D) surface information of the breast. The surface data of the breast are obtained from a 3D optical camera that is rigidly mounted on the ceiling of the treatment vault. This 3D camera utilizes light in the visible range therefore it introduces no ionization radiation to the patient. In addition to the surface topographical information of the treated area, the camera also captures gray-scale information that is overlaid on the 3D surface image. This allows us to visualize the skin markers and automatically determine the isocenter position and the beam angles in the breast tangential fields. The field sizes and shapes of the tangential, supraclavicular, and internal mammary gland fields can all be determined according to the 3D surface image of the target. A least-squares method is first introduced for the tangential-field setup that is useful for compensation of the target shape changes. The entire process of capturing the 3D surface data and subsequent calculation of beam parameters typically requires less than 1 min. Our tests on phantom experiments and patient images have achieved the accuracy of 1 mm in shift and 0.5 deg. in rotation. Importantly, the target shape and position changes in each treatment session can both be corrected through this real-time image-guided system.

  12. New generation of magnetic and luminescent nanoparticles for in vivo real-time imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Lise-Marie; Delpech, Fabien; Nayral, Céline; Lachaize, Sébastien; Chaudret, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    A new generation of optimized contrast agents is emerging, based on metallic nanoparticles (NPs) and semiconductor nanocrystals for, respectively, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging techniques. Compared with established contrast agents, such as iron oxide NPs or organic dyes, these NPs benefit from several advantages: their magnetic and optical properties can be tuned through size, shape and composition engineering, their efficiency can exceed by several orders of magnitude that of contrast agents clinically used, their surface can be modified to incorporate specific targeting agents and antifolding polymers to increase blood circulation time and tumour recognition, and they can possibly be integrated in complex architecture to yield multi-modal imaging agents. In this review, we will report the materials of choice based on the understanding of the basic physics of NIR and MRI techniques and their corresponding syntheses as NPs. Surface engineering, water transfer and specific targeting will be highlighted prior to their first use for in vivo real-time imaging. Highly efficient NPs that are safer and target specific are likely to enter clinical application in a near future. PMID:24427542

  13. Real-time millimeter-wave imaging radiometer for avionic synthetic vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovberg, John A.; Chou, Ri-Chee; Martin, Christopher A.

    1994-07-01

    ThermoTrex Corporation (TTC) has developed an imaging radiometer, the passive microwave camera (PMC), that uses an array of frequency-scanned antennas coupled to a multi-channel acousto-optic (Bragg cell) spectrum analyzer to form visible images of a scene through acquisition of thermal blackbody radiation in the millimeter-wave spectrum. The output of the Bragg cell is imaged by a standard video camera and passed to a computer for normalization and display at real-time frame rates. One application of this system could be its incorporation into an enhanced vision system to provide pilots with a clear view of the runway during fog and other adverse weather conditions. The unique PMC system architecture will allow compact large-aperture implementations because of its flat antenna sensor. Other potential applications include air traffic control, all-weather area surveillance, fire detection, and security. This paper describes the architecture of the TTC PMC and shows examples of images acquired with the system.

  14. Real-time X-ray Imaging of Lung Fluid Volumes in Neonatal Mouse Lung.

    PubMed

    Van Avermaete, Ashley E; Trac, Phi T; Gauthier, Theresa W; Helms, My N

    2016-01-01

    At birth, the lung undergoes a profound phenotypic switch from secretion to absorption, which allows for adaptation to breathing independently. Promoting and sustaining this phenotype is critically important in normal alveolar growth and gas exchange throughout life. Several in vitro studies have characterized the role of key regulatory proteins, signaling molecules, and steroid hormones that can influence the rate of lung fluid clearance. However, in vivo examinations must be performed to evaluate whether these regulatory factors play important physiological roles in regulating perinatal lung liquid absorption. As such, the utilization of real time X-ray imaging to determine perinatal lung fluid clearance, or pulmonary edema, represents a technological advancement in the field. Herein, we explain and illustrate an approach to assess the rate of alveolar lung fluid clearance and alveolar flooding in C57BL/6 mice at post natal day 10 using X-ray imaging and analysis. Successful implementation of this protocol requires prior approval from institutional animal care and use committees (IACUC), an in vivo small animal X-ray imaging system, and compatible molecular imaging software.

  15. Real-time and Sub-wavelength Ultrafast Coherent Diffraction Imaging in the Extreme Ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Zürch, M.; Rothhardt, J.; Hädrich, S.; Demmler, S.; Krebs, M.; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.; Guggenmos, A.; Kleineberg, U.; Spielmann, C.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent Diffraction Imaging is a technique to study matter with nanometer-scale spatial resolution based on coherent illumination of the sample with hard X-ray, soft X-ray or extreme ultraviolet light delivered from synchrotrons or more recently X-ray Free-Electron Lasers. This robust technique simultaneously allows quantitative amplitude and phase contrast imaging. Laser-driven high harmonic generation XUV-sources allow table-top realizations. However, the low conversion efficiency of lab-based sources imposes either a large scale laser system or long exposure times, preventing many applications. Here we present a lensless imaging experiment combining a high numerical aperture (NA = 0.8) setup with a high average power fibre laser driven high harmonic source. The high flux and narrow-band harmonic line at 33.2 nm enables either sub-wavelength spatial resolution close to the Abbe limit (Δr = 0.8λ) for long exposure time, or sub-70 nm imaging in less than one second. The unprecedented high spatial resolution, compactness of the setup together with the real-time capability paves the way for a plethora of applications in fundamental and life sciences. PMID:25483626

  16. A real-time processor for imaging through turbulence and other sub-optimal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, John A.; Collier, Steve; Mitchell, Nigel; Shadforth, Jon

    2012-10-01

    A real time processor package called IT4 is described, which has been developed to improve the quality of Imaging Through the 4 artefacts of sub-optimal surveillance (jitter, shimmer, contrast and noise). The package is able to operate on a wide range of video standards and can process imagery from the camera sensor directly or from previously recorded (movie file) sequences. The platform is currently a PC or a laptop but no other requirements such as special optics or camera hardware are necessary. IT4 removes both translational and rotational camera movement using a de-jitter algorithm and the image frames are analyzed to discriminate atmospheric shimmer from real image motion. The frames are then de-shimmered but any scene motion is accurately rendered. Sharpening and contrast options are available to the user to further improve visual quality and the contrast can be enhanced locally if so desired. IT4 improves fixed pattern noise in the image at all light levels and also reduces random noise, which is particularly useful during low light level image capture leading to better processing of both static and dynamic scenes.

  17. Real-time detection and characterization of individual flowing airborne biological particles: fluorescence spectra and elastic scattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yongle; Holler, Stephen; Chang, Richard K.; Hill, Steven C.; Pinnick, Ronald G.; Niles, Stanley; Bottiger, Jerold R.; Bronk, Burt V.

    1999-11-01

    Real-time methods which is reagentless and could detect and partially characterize bioaerosols are of current interest. We present a technique for real-time measurement of UV-excited fluorescence spectra and two-dimensional angular optical scattering (TAOS) from individual flowing biological aerosol particles. The fluorescence spectra have been observed from more than 20 samples including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Erwinia herbicola, allergens, dust, and smoke. The S/N and resolution of the spectra are sufficient for observing small lineshape differences among the same type of bioaerosol prepared under different conditions. The additional information from TAOS regarding particle size, shape, and granularity has the potential of aiding in distinguishing bacterial aerosols from other aerosols, such as diesel and cigarette smoke.

  18. Comparison of mosaicking techniques for airborne images from consumer-grade cameras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images captured from airborne imaging systems have the advantages of relatively low cost, high spatial resolution, and real/near-real-time availability. Multiple images taken from one or more flight lines could be used to generate a high-resolution mosaic image, which could be useful for diverse rem...

  19. Rapid Data Assimilation in the Indoor Environment: Theory and Examples from Real-Time Interpretation of Indoor Plumes of Airborne Chemical

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, Ashok; Gadgil, Ashok; Sohn, Michael; Sreedharan, Priya

    2007-08-01

    Releases of acutely toxic airborne contaminants in or near a building can lead to significant human exposures unless prompt response measures are identified and implemented. Possible responses include conflicting options, such as shutting the ventilation system off versus running it in a purge (100 percent outside air) mode, or having occupants evacuate versus sheltering in place. The right choice depends in part on quickly identifying the source location, the amount released, and the likely future dispersion of the pollutant. This paper summarizes recent developments to provide such estimates in real time using an approach called Bayesian Monte Carlo updating. This approach rapidly interprets measurements of airborne pollutant concentrations from multiple sensors placed in the building, and computes best estimates and uncertainties of the release conditions. The algorithm is fast, and can continuously update the estimates as measurements stream in from sensors. As an illustration, two specific applications of the approach are described.

  20. Rapid Data Assimilation in the Indoor Environment: theory and examples from real-time interpretation of indoor plumes of airborne chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, Ashok; Sohn, Michael; Sreedharan, Priya

    2008-09-01

    Releases of acutely toxic airborne contaminants in or near a building can lead to significant human exposures unless prompt response measures are identified and implemented. Commonly, possible responses include conflicting strategies, such as shutting the ventilation system off versus running it in a purge (100percent outside air) mode, or having occupants evacuate versus sheltering in place. The right choice depends in part on quickly identifying the source locations, the amounts released, and the likely future dispersion routes of the pollutants. This paper summarizes recent developments to provide such estimates in real time using an approach called Bayesian Monte Carlo updating. This approach rapidly interprets measurements of airborne pollutant concentrations from multiple sensors placed in the building and computes best estimates and uncertainties of the release conditions. The algorithm is fast, capable of continuously updating the estimates as measurements stream in from sensors. The approach is employed, as illustration, to conduct two specific investigations under different situations.

  1. Investigation of an acoustical holography system for real-time imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecht, Barbara A.; Andre, Michael P.; Garlick, George F.; Shelby, Ronald L.; Shelby, Jerod O.; Lehman, Constance D.

    1998-07-01

    A new prototype imaging system based on ultrasound transmission through the object of interest -- acoustical holography -- was developed which incorporates significant improvements in acoustical and optical design. This system is being evaluated for potential clinical application in the musculoskeletal system, interventional radiology, pediatrics, monitoring of tumor ablation, vascular imaging and breast imaging. System limiting resolution was estimated using a line-pair target with decreasing line thickness and equal separation. For a swept frequency beam from 2.6 - 3.0 MHz, the minimum resolution was 0.5 lp/mm. Apatite crystals were suspended in castor oil to approximate breast microcalcifications. Crystals from 0.425 - 1.18 mm in diameter were well resolved in the acoustic zoom mode. Needle visibility was examined with both a 14-gauge biopsy needle and a 0.6 mm needle. The needle tip was clearly visible throughout the dynamic imaging sequence as it was slowly inserted into a RMI tissue-equivalent breast biopsy phantom. A selection of human images was acquired in several volunteers: a 25 year-old female volunteer with normal breast tissue, a lateral view of the elbow joint showing muscle fascia and tendon insertions, and the superficial vessels in the forearm. Real-time video images of these studies will be presented. In all of these studies, conventional sonography was used for comparison. These preliminary investigations with the new prototype acoustical holography system showed favorable results in comparison to state-of-the-art pulse-echo ultrasound and demonstrate it to be suitable for further clinical study. The new patient interfaces will facilitate orthopedic soft tissue evaluation, study of superficial vascular structures and potentially breast imaging.

  2. Real-time Cherenkov emission portal imaging during CyberKnife® radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussakis, Yiannis; Zhang, Rongxiao; Heyes, Geoff; Webster, Gareth; Mason, Suzannah; Green, Stuart; Pogue, Brian; Dehghani, Hamid

    2015-11-01

    The feasibility of real-time portal imaging during radiation therapy, through the Cherenkov emission (CE) effect is investigated via a medical linear accelerator (CyberKnife®) irradiating a partially-filled water tank with a 60 mm circular beam. A graticule of lead/plywood and a number of tissue equivalent materials were alternatively placed at the beam entrance face while the induced CE at the exit face was imaged using a gated electron-multiplying-intensified-charged-coupled device (emICCD) for both stationary and dynamic scenarios. This was replicated on an Elekta Synergy® linear accelerator with portal images acquired using the iViewGT™ system. Profiles across the acquired portal images were analysed to reveal the potential resolution and contrast limits of this novel CE based portal imaging technique and compared against the current standard. The CE resolution study revealed that using the lead/plywood graticule, separations down to 3.4  ±  0.5 mm can be resolved. A 28 mm thick tissue-equivalent rod with electron density of 1.69 relative to water demonstrated a CE contrast of 15% through air and 14% through water sections, as compared to a corresponding contrast of 19% and 12% using the iViewGT™ system. For dynamic scenarios, video rate imaging with 30 frames per second was achieved. It is demonstrated that CE-based portal imaging is feasible to identify both stationary and dynamic objects within a CyberKnife® radiotherapy treatment field.

  3. Real-time Cherenkov emission portal imaging during CyberKnife® radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Roussakis, Yiannis; Zhang, Rongxiao; Heyes, Geoff; Webster, Gareth; Mason, Suzannah; Green, Stuart; Pogue, Brian; Dehghani, Hamid

    2015-11-21

    The feasibility of real-time portal imaging during radiation therapy, through the Cherenkov emission (CE) effect is investigated via a medical linear accelerator (CyberKnife(®)) irradiating a partially-filled water tank with a 60 mm circular beam. A graticule of lead/plywood and a number of tissue equivalent materials were alternatively placed at the beam entrance face while the induced CE at the exit face was imaged using a gated electron-multiplying-intensified-charged-coupled device (emICCD) for both stationary and dynamic scenarios. This was replicated on an Elekta Synergy(®) linear accelerator with portal images acquired using the iViewGT(™) system. Profiles across the acquired portal images were analysed to reveal the potential resolution and contrast limits of this novel CE based portal imaging technique and compared against the current standard. The CE resolution study revealed that using the lead/plywood graticule, separations down to 3.4  ±  0.5 mm can be resolved. A 28 mm thick tissue-equivalent rod with electron density of 1.69 relative to water demonstrated a CE contrast of 15% through air and 14% through water sections, as compared to a corresponding contrast of 19% and 12% using the iViewGT(™) system. For dynamic scenarios, video rate imaging with 30 frames per second was achieved. It is demonstrated that CE-based portal imaging is feasible to identify both stationary and dynamic objects within a CyberKnife(®) radiotherapy treatment field. PMID:26513015

  4. Registration of clinical volumes to beams-eye-view images for real-time tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Jonathan H.; Rottmann, Joerg; Lewis, John H.; Mishra, Pankaj; Berbeco, Ross I.; Keall, Paul J.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The authors combine the registration of 2D beam’s eye view (BEV) images and 3D planning computed tomography (CT) images, with relative, markerless tumor tracking to provide automatic absolute tracking of physician defined volumes such as the gross tumor volume (GTV). Methods: During treatment of lung SBRT cases, BEV images were continuously acquired with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) operating in cine mode. For absolute registration of physician-defined volumes, an intensity based 2D/3D registration to the planning CT was performed using the end-of-exhale (EoE) phase of the four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). The volume was converted from Hounsfield units into electron density by a calibration curve and digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated for each beam geometry. Using normalized cross correlation between the DRR and an EoE BEV image, the best in-plane rigid transformation was found. The transformation was applied to physician-defined contours in the planning CT, mapping them into the EPID image domain. A robust multiregion method of relative markerless lung tumor tracking quantified deviations from the EoE position. Results: The success of 2D/3D registration was demonstrated at the EoE breathing phase. By registering at this phase and then employing a separate technique for relative tracking, the authors are able to successfully track target volumes in the BEV images throughout the entire treatment delivery. Conclusions: Through the combination of EPID/4DCT registration and relative tracking, a necessary step toward the clinical implementation of BEV tracking has been completed. The knowledge of tumor volumes relative to the treatment field is important for future applications like real-time motion management, adaptive radiotherapy, and delivered dose calculations.

  5. A real time sorbent based air monitoring system for determining low level airborne exposure levels to Lewisite

    SciTech Connect

    Lattin, F.G.; Paul, D.G.; Jakubowski, E.M.

    1994-12-31

    The Real Time Analytical Platform (RTAP) is designed to provide mobile, real-time monitoring support to ensure protection of worker safety in areas where military unique compounds are used and stored, and at disposal sites. Quantitative analysis of low-level vapor concentrations in air is accomplished through sorbent-based collection with subsequent thermal desorption into a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a variety of detectors. The monitoring system is characterized by its sensitivity (ability to measure at low concentrations), selectivity (ability to filter out interferences), dynamic range and linearity, real time mode (versus methods requiring extensive sample preparation procedures), and ability to interface with complimentary GC detectors. This presentation describes an RTAP analytical method for analyzing lewisite, an arsenical compound, that consists of a GC screening technique with an Electron Capture Detector (ECD), and a confirmation technique using an Atomic Emission Detector (AED). Included in the presentation is a description of quality assurance objectives in the monitoring system, and an assessment of method accuracy, precision and detection levels.

  6. Real-Time Image Reconstruction and Display System for MRI Using a High-Speed Personal Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haishi, Tomoyuki; Kose, Katsumi

    1998-09-01

    A real-time NMR image reconstruction and display system was developed using a high-speed personal computer and optimized for the 32-bit multitasking Microsoft Windows 95 operating system. The system was operated at various CPU clock frequencies by changing the motherboard clock frequency and the processor/bus frequency ratio. When the Pentium CPU was used at the 200 MHz clock frequency, the reconstruction time for one 128 × 128 pixel image was 48 ms and that for the image display on the enlarged 256 × 256 pixel window was about 8 ms. NMR imaging experiments were performed with three fast imaging sequences (FLASH, multishot EPI, and one-shot EPI) to demonstrate the ability of the real-time system. It was concluded that in most cases, high-speed PC would be the best choice for the image reconstruction and display system for real-time MRI.

  7. Real-time image reconstruction and display system for MRI using a high-speed personal computer.

    PubMed

    Haishi, T; Kose, K

    1998-09-01

    A real-time NMR image reconstruction and display system was developed using a high-speed personal computer and optimized for the 32-bit multitasking Microsoft Windows 95 operating system. The system was operated at various CPU clock frequencies by changing the motherboard clock frequency and the processor/bus frequency ratio. When the Pentium CPU was used at the 200 MHz clock frequency, the reconstruction time for one 128 x 128 pixel image was 48 ms and that for the image display on the enlarged 256 x 256 pixel window was about 8 ms. NMR imaging experiments were performed with three fast imaging sequences (FLASH, multishot EPI, and one-shot EPI) to demonstrate the ability of the real-time system. It was concluded that in most cases, high-speed PC would be the best choice for the image reconstruction and display system for real-time MRI. PMID:9740739

  8. Real-time auto-stereoscopic visualization of 3D medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portoni, Luisa; Patak, Alexandre; Noirard, Pierre; Grossetie, Jean-Claude; van Berkel, Cees

    2000-04-01

    The work here described regards multi-viewer auto- stereoscopic visualization of 3D models of anatomical structures and organs of the human body. High-quality 3D models of more than 1600 anatomical structures have been reconstructed using the Visualization Toolkit, a freely available C++ class library for 3D graphics and visualization. 2D images used for 3D reconstruction comes from the Visible Human Data Set. Auto-stereoscopic 3D image visualization is obtained using a prototype monitor developed at Philips Research Labs, UK. This special multiview 3D-LCD screen has been connected directly to a SGI workstation, where 3D reconstruction and medical imaging applications are executed. Dedicated software has been developed to implement multiview capability. A number of static or animated contemporary views of the same object can simultaneously be seen on the 3D-LCD screen by several observers, having a real 3D perception of the visualized scene without the use of extra media as dedicated glasses or head-mounted displays. Developed software applications allow real-time interaction with visualized 3D models, didactical animations and movies have been realized as well.

  9. Real-time Focused Ultrasound Surgery (FUS) Monitoring Using Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI)

    SciTech Connect

    Maleke, Caroline; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2009-04-14

    Monitoring changes in tissue mechanical properties to optimally control thermal exposure is important in thermal therapies. The amplitude-modulated (AM) harmonic motion imaging (HMI) for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) technique is a radiation force technique, which has the capability of tracking tissue stiffness during application of an oscillatory force. The feasibility of HMIFU for assessing mechanical tissue properties has been previously demonstrated. In this paper, a confocal transducer, combining a 4.5 MHz FUS transducer and a 3.3 MHz phased array imaging transducer, was used. The FUS transducer was driven by AM wave at 15 Hz with an acoustic intensity (I{sub spta}) was equal to 1050 W/cm{sup 2}. A lowpass digital filter was used to remove the spectrum of the higher power beam prior to displacement estimation. The resulting axial tissue displacement was estimated using 1D cross-correlation with a correlation window of 2 mm and a 92.5% overlap. A thermocouple was also used to measure the temperature near the ablated region. 2D HMI-images from six-bovine-liver specimens indicated the onset of coagulation necrosis through changes in amplitude displacement after coagulation due to its simultaneous probing and heating capability. The HMI technique can thus be used to monitor temperature-related stiffness changes of tissues during thermal therapies in real-time, i.e., without interrupting or modifying the treatment protocol.

  10. Real time imaging of peripheral nerve vasculature using optical coherence angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Srikanth; Kumsa, Doe; Takmakov, Pavel; Welle, Cristin G.; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2016-03-01

    The peripheral nervous system (PNS) carries bidirectional information between the central nervous system and distal organs. PNS stimulation has been widely used in medical devices for therapeutic indications, such as bladder control and seizure cessation. Investigational uses of PNS stimulation include providing sensory feedback for improved control of prosthetic limbs. While nerve safety has been well documented for stimulation parameters used in marketed devices, novel PNS stimulation devices may require alternative stimulation paradigms to achieve maximum therapeutic benefit. Improved testing paradigms to assess the safety of stimulation will expedite the development process for novel PNS stimulation devices. The objective of this research is to assess peripheral nerve vascular changes in real-time with optical coherence angiography (OCA). A 1300-nm OCA system was used to image vasculature changes in the rat sciatic nerve in the region around a surface contacting single electrode. Nerves and vasculature were imaged without stimulation for 180 minutes to quantify resting blood vessel diameter. Walking track analysis was used to assess motor function before and 6 days following experiments. There was no significant change in vessel diameter between baseline and other time points in all animals. Motor function tests indicated the experiments did not impair functionality. We also evaluated the capabilities to image the nerve during electrical stimulation in a pilot study. Combining OCA with established nerve assessment methods can be used to study the effects of electrical stimulation safety on neural and vascular tissue in the periphery.

  11. Multiphoton Microscopy Applied for Real-Time Intravital Imaging of Bacterial Infections In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Ferdinand X.; Sandoval, Ruben M.; Molitoris, Bruce A.; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    To understand the underlying mechanisms of bacterial infections, researchers have for long addressed the molecular interactions occurring when the bacterium interacts with host target cells. In these studies, primarily based on in vitro systems, molecular details have been revealed along with increased knowledge regarding the general infection process. With the recent advancements in in vivo imaging techniques, we are now in a position to bridge a transition from classical minimalistic in vitro approaches to allow infections to be studied in its native complexity—the live organ. Techniques such as multiphoton microscopy (MPM) allow cellular-level visualization of the dynamic infection process in real time within the living host. Studies in which all interplaying factors, such as the influences of the immune, lymphatic, and vascular systems can be accounted for, are likely to provide new insights to our current understanding of the infection process. MPM imaging becomes extra powerful when combined with advanced surgical procedure, allowing studies of the illusive early hours of infection. In this chapter, our intention is to provide a general view on how to design and carry out intravital imaging of a bacterial infection. While exemplifying this using a spatiotemporally well-controlled uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infection in rat kidneys, we hope to provide the reader with general considerations that can be adapted to other bacterial infections in organs other than the kidney. PMID:22341218

  12. In situ real-time imaging of self-sorted supramolecular nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onogi, Shoji; Shigemitsu, Hajime; Yoshii, Tatsuyuki; Tanida, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Masato; Kubota, Ryou; Hamachi, Itaru

    2016-08-01

    Self-sorted supramolecular nanofibres—a multicomponent system that consists of several types of fibre, each composed of distinct building units—play a crucial role in complex, well-organized systems with sophisticated functions, such as living cells. Designing and controlling self-sorting events in synthetic materials and understanding their structures and dynamics in detail are important elements in developing functional artificial systems. Here, we describe the in situ real-time imaging of self-sorted supramolecular nanofibre hydrogels consisting of a peptide gelator and an amphiphilic phosphate. The use of appropriate fluorescent probes enabled the visualization of self-sorted fibres entangled in two and three dimensions through confocal laser scanning microscopy and super-resolution imaging, with 80 nm resolution. In situ time-lapse imaging showed that the two types of fibre have different formation rates and that their respective physicochemical properties remain intact in the gel. Moreover, we directly visualized stochastic non-synchronous fibre formation and observed a cooperative mechanism.

  13. In situ real-time imaging of self-sorted supramolecular nanofibres.

    PubMed

    Onogi, Shoji; Shigemitsu, Hajime; Yoshii, Tatsuyuki; Tanida, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Masato; Kubota, Ryou; Hamachi, Itaru

    2016-08-01

    Self-sorted supramolecular nanofibres-a multicomponent system that consists of several types of fibre, each composed of distinct building units-play a crucial role in complex, well-organized systems with sophisticated functions, such as living cells. Designing and controlling self-sorting events in synthetic materials and understanding their structures and dynamics in detail are important elements in developing functional artificial systems. Here, we describe the in situ real-time imaging of self-sorted supramolecular nanofibre hydrogels consisting of a peptide gelator and an amphiphilic phosphate. The use of appropriate fluorescent probes enabled the visualization of self-sorted fibres entangled in two and three dimensions through confocal laser scanning microscopy and super-resolution imaging, with 80 nm resolution. In situ time-lapse imaging showed that the two types of fibre have different formation rates and that their respective physicochemical properties remain intact in the gel. Moreover, we directly visualized stochastic non-synchronous fibre formation and observed a cooperative mechanism. PMID:27442279

  14. Image analysis for maintenance of coating quality in nickel electroplating baths--real time control.

    PubMed

    Vidal, M; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; van den Berg, F; Ostra, M; Ubide, C

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how it is possible to extract analytical information from images acquired with a flatbed scanner and make use of this information for real time control of a nickel plating process. Digital images of plated steel sheets in a nickel bath are used to follow the process under degradation of specific additives. Dedicated software has been developed for making the obtained results accessible to process operators. This includes obtaining the RGB image, to select the red channel data exclusively, to calculate the histogram of the red channel data and to calculate the mean colour value (MCV) and the standard deviation of the red channel data. MCV is then used by the software to determine the concentration of the additives Supreme Plus Brightner (SPB) and SA-1 (for confidentiality reasons, the chemical contents cannot be further detailed) present in the bath (these two additives degrade and their concentration changes during the process). Finally, the software informs the operator when the bath is generating unsuitable quality plating and suggests the amount of SPB and SA-1 to be added in order to recover the original plating quality.

  15. Real-time fluorescence imaging of the DNA damage repair response during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Shinji; Yano, Shuya; Yamamoto, Mako; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Uehara, Fuminari; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Toneri, Makoto; Murakami, Takashi; Kimura, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Norio; Efimova, Elena V; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    The response to DNA damage during mitosis was visualized using real-time fluorescence imaging of focus formation by the DNA-damage repair (DDR) response protein 53BP1 linked to green fluorescent protein (GFP) (53BP1-GFP) in the MiaPaCa-2(Tet-On) pancreatic cancer cell line. To observe 53BP1-GFP foci during mitosis, MiaPaCa-2(Tet-On) 53BP1-GFP cells were imaged every 30 min by confocal microscopy. Time-lapse imaging demonstrated that 11.4 ± 2.1% of the mitotic MiaPaCa-2(Tet-On) 53BP1-GFP cells had increased focus formation over time. Non-mitotic cells did not have an increase in 53BP1-GFP focus formation over time. Some of the mitotic MiaPaCa-2(Tet-On) 53BP1-GFP cells with focus formation became apoptotic. The results of the present report suggest that DNA strand breaks occur during mitosis and undergo repair, which may cause some of the mitotic cells to enter apoptosis in a phenomenon possibly related to mitotic catastrophe.

  16. Real-time Imaging of Single Engineered RNA Transcripts in Living Cells Using Ratiometric Bimolecular Beacons

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lingyan; Behlke, Mark A.; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The growing realization that both the temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression can have important consequences on cell function has led to the development of diverse techniques to visualize individual RNA transcripts in single living cells. One promising technique that has recently been described utilizes an oligonucleotide-based optical probe, ratiometric bimolecular beacon (RBMB), to detect RNA transcripts that were engineered to contain at least four tandem repeats of the RBMB target sequence in the 3’-untranslated region. RBMBs are specifically designed to emit a bright fluorescent signal upon hybridization to complementary RNA, but otherwise remain quenched. The use of a synthetic probe in this approach allows photostable, red-shifted, and highly emissive organic dyes to be used for imaging. Binding of multiple RBMBs to the engineered RNA transcripts results in discrete fluorescence spots when viewed under a wide-field fluorescent microscope. Consequently, the movement of individual RNA transcripts can be readily visualized in real-time by taking a time series of fluorescent images. Here we describe the preparation and purification of RBMBs, delivery into cells by microporation and live-cell imaging of single RNA transcripts. PMID:25146531

  17. A high dynamic range acousto-optic image correlator for real-time pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Molley, P.A.; Stalker, K.T.

    1988-01-01

    The architecture and experimental results for an incoherent acousto-optic image correlator suitable for real-time applications are presented. In the basic architecture, each time a line of the raster scanned input image is fed into the acousto-optic device (AOD), all rows of a digitally stored reference image are read into the system using an array of light emitting diodes (LED's). Thus, the required two-dimensional correltaion is performed as a series of multi-channel 1-D time-integrations in x (performed in the AOD) combined with a multi-channel correlation in y (perpendicular to the AOD axis) using a modified CCD. The LED array and detector modifications which markedly increase the dynamic range are discussed as well as correlator design. Further, a novel memory for storing the reference object is described for rapidly changing templates. Experimental results indicate the architecture is useful for applications in the areas of character recognition and target identification. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Real-time imaging of single engineered RNA transcripts in living cells using ratiometric bimolecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Zhang, Xuemei; Huang, Lingyan; Behlke, Mark A; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The growing realization that both the temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression can have important consequences on cell function has led to the development of diverse techniques to visualize individual RNA transcripts in single living cells. One promising technique that has recently been described utilizes an oligonucleotide-based optical probe, ratiometric bimolecular beacon (RBMB), to detect RNA transcripts that were engineered to contain at least four tandem repeats of the RBMB target sequence in the 3'-untranslated region. RBMBs are specifically designed to emit a bright fluorescent signal upon hybridization to complementary RNA, but otherwise remain quenched. The use of a synthetic probe in this approach allows photostable, red-shifted, and highly emissive organic dyes to be used for imaging. Binding of multiple RBMBs to the engineered RNA transcripts results in discrete fluorescence spots when viewed under a wide-field fluorescent microscope. Consequently, the movement of individual RNA transcripts can be readily visualized in real-time by taking a time series of fluorescent images. Here we describe the preparation and purification of RBMBs, delivery into cells by microporation and live-cell imaging of single RNA transcripts.

  19. Rapidly-steered single-element ultrasound for real-time volumetric imaging and guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauber, Mark; Western, Craig; Solek, Roman; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dmitre; Schlosser, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Volumetric ultrasound (US) imaging has the potential to provide real-time anatomical imaging with high soft-tissue contrast in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic guidance applications. However, existing volumetric US machines utilize "wobbling" linear phased array or matrix phased array transducers which are costly to manufacture and necessitate bulky external processing units. To drastically reduce cost, improve portability, and reduce footprint, we propose a rapidly-steered single-element volumetric US imaging system. In this paper we explore the feasibility of this system with a proof-of-concept single-element volumetric US imaging device. The device uses a multi-directional raster-scan technique to generate a series of two-dimensional (2D) slices that were reconstructed into three-dimensional (3D) volumes. At 15 cm depth, 90° lateral field of view (FOV), and 20° elevation FOV, the device produced 20-slice volumes at a rate of 0.8 Hz. Imaging performance was evaluated using an US phantom. Spatial resolution was 2.0 mm, 4.7 mm, and 5.0 mm in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions at 7.5 cm. Relative motion of phantom targets were automatically tracked within US volumes with a mean error of -0.3+/-0.3 mm, -0.3+/-0.3 mm, and -0.1+/-0.5 mm in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions, respectively. The device exhibited a mean spatial distortion error of 0.3+/-0.9 mm, 0.4+/-0.7 mm, and -0.3+/-1.9 in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions. With a production cost near $1000, the performance characteristics of the proposed system make it an ideal candidate for diagnostic and image-guided therapy applications where form factor and low cost are paramount.

  20. Dynamic Adjustment of Stimuli in Real Time Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Feng, I. Jung; Jack, Anthony I.; Tatsuoka, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    The conventional fMRI image analysis approach to associating stimuli to brain activation is performed by carrying out a massive number of parallel univariate regression analyses. fMRI blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal, the basis of these analyses, is known for its low signal-noise-ratio and high spatial and temporal signal correlation. In order to ensure accurate localization of brain activity, stimulus administration in an fMRI session is often lengthy and repetitive. Real-time fMRI BOLD signal analysis is carried out as the signal is observed. This method allows for dynamic, real-time adjustment of stimuli through sequential experimental designs. We have developed a voxel-wise sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) approach for dynamically determining localization, as well as decision rules for stopping stimulus administration. SPRT methods and general linear model (GLM) approaches are combined to identify brain regions that are activated by specific elements of stimuli. Stimulus administration is dynamically stopped when sufficient statistical evidence is collected to determine activation status across regions of interest, following predetermined statistical error thresholds. Simulation experiments and an example based on real fMRI data show that scan volumes can be substantially reduced when compared with pre-determined, fixed designs while achieving similar or better accuracy in detecting activated voxels. Moreover, the proposed approach is also able to accurately detect differentially activated areas, and other comparisons between task-related GLM parameters that can be formulated in a hypothesis-testing framework. Finally, we give a demonstration of SPRT being employed in conjunction with a halving algorithm to dynamically adjust stimuli. PMID:25785856

  1. Low-cost real-time infrared scene generation for image projection and signal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; King, David E.; Bowden, Mark H.

    1997-07-01

    As cost becomes an increasingly important factor in the development and testing of infrared (IR) sensors and flight computer/processors, the need for accurate hardware-in-the- loop simulations is critical. In the past, expensive and complex dedicated scene generation hardware was needed to attain the fidelity necessary for accurately testing systems under test (SUT). Recent technological advances and innovative applications of established technologies are beginning to allow development of cost effective replacements for dedicated scene generators. These new scene generators are mainly constructed from commercial off-the- shelf (COTS) hardware and software components. At the U.S. Army Missile Command (MICOM) researchers have developed such a dynamic IR scene generator (IRSG) built around COTS hardware and software. The IRSG is being used to provide inputs to an IR scene projector for in-band sensor testing and for direct signal injection into the sensor or processor electronics. Using this `baseline' IRSG, up to 120 frames per second (Hz) of 12-bit intensity images are being generated at 640 by 640 pixel resolution. The IRSG SUT-to- target viewpoint is dynamically updated in real time by a six-degree-of-freedom SUT simulation executing on a facility simulation computer, synchronized with an external signal from the SUT hardware, and compensates for system latency using a special purpose hardware component implemented on a single VME card. Multiple dynamic targets, terrain/backgrounds, countermeasures, and atmospheric effects in real time by the facility simulation computer via a shared memory interface to the IRSG. The `next generation' IRSG is currently under development at MICOM using `next generation' COTS hardware and software. `Next generation' performance specifications are estimated to yield 16-bit intensity, 250 - 300 Hz frame rate, at 1024 X 1024 pixel resolution.

  2. A HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) approach for bio-digestate real time monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Fabbri, Andrea; Serranti, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    One of the key issues in developing Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) is represented by the optimal utilisation of fertilisers and herbicidal to reduce the impact of Nitrates in soils and the environment. In traditional agriculture practises, these substances were provided to the soils through the use of chemical products (inorganic/organic fertilizers, soil improvers/conditioners, etc.), usually associated to several major environmental problems, such as: water pollution and contamination, fertilizer dependency, soil acidification, trace mineral depletion, over-fertilization, high energy consumption, contribution to climate change, impacts on mycorrhizas, lack of long-term sustainability, etc. For this reason, the agricultural market is more and more interested in the utilisation of organic fertilisers and soil improvers. Among organic fertilizers, there is an emerging interest for the digestate, a sub-product resulting from anaerobic digestion (AD) processes. Several studies confirm the high properties of digestate if used as organic fertilizer and soil improver/conditioner. Digestate, in fact, is somehow similar to compost: AD converts a major part of organic nitrogen to ammonia, which is then directly available to plants as nitrogen. In this paper, new analytical tools, based on HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) sensing devices, and related detection architectures, is presented and discussed in order to define and apply simple to use, reliable, robust and low cost strategies finalised to define and implement innovative smart detection engines for digestate characterization and monitoring. This approach is finalized to utilize this "waste product" as a valuable organic fertilizer and soil conditioner, in a reduced impact and an "ad hoc" soil fertilisation perspective. Furthermore, the possibility to contemporary utilize the HSI approach to realize a real time physicalchemical characterisation of agricultural soils (i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus, etc., detection) could

  3. Wide-field near-infrared fluorescence endoscope for real-time in vivo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongyao; Miller, Sharon J.; Joshi, Bishnu P.; Wang, Thomas D.

    2012-02-01

    A diode-pumped solid state laser is used to deliver excitation at λex = 671 nm. The beam is expanded by a pair of relay lenses (f1 = 30 and f2 = 50 mm) to 3 mm diameter, filling the aperture of a fluid light cable that is coupled to a Hopkins II rigid endoscope. Near-infrared fluorescence images are collected by the endoscope and transmitted by another set of relay lenses onto a CCD detector that has dimensions of 8.7x6.9 mm2 (1388x1040 pixels). A zoom lens system (F#1.6-16 aperture) with a tunable focal length (20-100 mm) magnifies the image to fill the dimensions of the CCD. A band pass filter allows fluorescence with spectral range λem = 696 to 736 nm to be collected. The system achieves a resolution of 9.8 μm and field-of-view of 3.6 mm at a distance of 2.5 mm between the distal end of the endoscope and the tissue. Images are collected at a rate of 10 frames per second. A filter wheel is incorporated into the handle of the instrument housing to rapidly switch between reflectance and fluorescence images. Cy5.5-labeled peptides were delivered through the 1 mm diameter instrument channel in the endoscope. Near-infrared fluorescence images demonstrated specific peptide binding to spontaneous adenomas that developed beginning at 2 months of age in a genetically-engineered mouse with mutation of one allele in the APC gene. This integrated methodology represents a powerful tool that can achieve real time detection of disease in the colon and other hollow organs.

  4. Economical LED based, real-time, in vivo imaging of murine corneal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ghoghawala, S Y; Mannis, M J; Murphy, C J; Rosenblatt, M I; Isseroff, R R

    2007-06-01

    An optimal system for monitoring in vivo corneal wound healing is inexpensive, has utility for wounding and imaging, and is able to provide previews before photography. We outline such an imaging system that takes advantage of a consumer digital camera and an LED-based light source for fluorescein excitation. Using FVB/NJ mice, 2mm diameter, circular, axial corneal epithelial defects were created using a crescent blade. The corneal wounds were imaged every four hours until healed using a Nikon Coolpix 5400 camera attached to a Nikon SMZ-10A stereomicroscope, using the illumination from a 16 LED 464nm flashlight. The wound area was calculated, and the linear regressions of the linear phase of wound healing were compared using the F-test. The slopes of the linear regressions for the 6 trials of 4 mice/trial had an average of -52.95microm/h (SEM=0.55microm/h) and were statistically equivalent (p>0.05). The mean of the R(2) values for the linear regressions was 0.9546 (SEM=0.0121). The equivalent linear regressions and R(2)>0.90 suggest that the imaging system could precisely monitor the wound healing of multiple trials and of animals within each trial, respectively. Using a consumer digital camera and LED-based illumination, we have established a system that is economical, is used in both wounding and imaging, is operated by a single person, and is able to provide real-time previews to monitor corneal wound healing precisely.

  5. Development and calibration of a real-time airborne radioactivity monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, R; Morant, J J; Salvadó, M

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry in an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network can help to identify and characterize abnormal radioactivity increases quickly. For this reason, a Real-time Airborne Radioactivity Monitor using direct gamma-ray spectrometry with two scintillation detectors (RARM-D2) was developed. The two scintillation detectors in the RARM-D2 are strategically shielded with Pb to permit the separate measurement of the airborne isotopes with respect to the deposited isotopes.In this paper, we describe the main aspects of the development and calibration of the RARM-D2 when using NaI(Tl) or LaBr3(Ce) detectors. The calibration of the monitor was performed experimentally with the exception of the efficiency curve, which was set using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the EGS5 code system. Prior to setting the efficiency curve, the effect of the radioactive source term size on the efficiency calculations was studied for the gamma-rays from (137)Cs. Finally, to study the measurement capabilities of the RARM-D2, the minimum detectable activity concentrations for (131)I and (137)Cs were calculated for typical spectra at different integration times. PMID:24607535

  6. Hummingbird: monitoring and analyzing flash X-ray imaging experiments in real time1

    PubMed Central

    Daurer, Benedikt J.; Hantke, Max F.; Nettelblad, Carl; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in X-ray detectors and increases in the brightness of X-ray sources combined with more efficient sample delivery techniques have brought about tremendous increases in the speed of data collection in diffraction experiments. Using X-ray free-electron lasers such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), more than 100 diffraction patterns can be collected in a second. These high data rates are invaluable for flash X-ray imaging (FXI), where aerosolized samples are exposed to the X-ray beam and the resulting diffraction patterns are used to reconstruct a three-dimensional image of the sample. Such experiments require immediate feedback on the quality of the data collected to adjust or validate experimental parameters, such as aerosol injector settings, beamline geometry or sample composition. The scarcity of available beamtime at the laser facilities makes any delay extremely costly. This paper presents Hummingbird, an open-source scalable Python-based software tool for real-time analysis of diffraction data with the purpose of giving users immediate feedback during their experiments. Hummingbird provides a fast, flexible and easy-to-use framework. It has already proven to be of great value in numerous FXI experiments at the LCLS. PMID:27275147

  7. Real-time imaging of microparticles and living cells with CMOS nanocapacitor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborde, C.; Pittino, F.; Verhoeven, H. A.; Lemay, S. G.; Selmi, L.; Jongsma, M. A.; Widdershoven, F. P.

    2015-09-01

    Platforms that offer massively parallel, label-free biosensing can, in principle, be created by combining all-electrical detection with low-cost integrated circuits. Examples include field-effect transistor arrays, which are used for mapping neuronal signals and sequencing DNA. Despite these successes, however, bioelectronics has so far failed to deliver a broadly applicable biosensing platform. This is due, in part, to the fact that d.c. or low-frequency signals cannot be used to probe beyond the electrical double layer formed by screening salt ions, which means that under physiological conditions the sensing of a target analyte located even a short distance from the sensor (∼1 nm) is severely hampered. Here, we show that high-frequency impedance spectroscopy can be used to detect and image microparticles and living cells under physiological salt conditions. Our assay employs a large-scale, high-density array of nanoelectrodes integrated with CMOS electronics on a single chip and the sensor response depends on the electrical properties of the analyte, allowing impedance-based fingerprinting. With our platform, we image the dynamic attachment and micromotion of BEAS, THP1 and MCF7 cancer cell lines in real time at submicrometre resolution in growth medium, demonstrating the potential of the platform for label/tracer-free high-throughput screening of anti-tumour drug candidates.

  8. Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leininger, Brian; Edwards, Jonathan; Antoniades, John; Chester, David; Haas, Dan; Liu, Eric; Stevens, Mark; Gershfield, Charlie; Braun, Mike; Targove, James D.; Wein, Steve; Brewer, Paul; Madden, Donald G.; Shafique, Khurram Hassan

    2008-04-01

    Finding, tracking and monitoring events and activities of interest on a continuous basis remains one of our highest Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) requirements. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) serve as one of the warfighter's primary and most responsive means for surveillance and gathering intelligence information and are becoming vital assets in military operations. This is demonstrated by their significant use in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom and in Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Lessons learned from these operations indicate that UAVs provide critical capabilities for enhancing situational awareness, intelligence gathering and force protection for our military forces. Current UAS high resolution electro-optics offers a small high resolution field of view (FOV). This narrow FOV is a limiting factor on the utility of the EO system. The UAS that are available offer persistence; however, the effectiveness of the EO system is limited by the sensors and available processing. DARPA is addressing this developing the next generation of persistent, very wide area surveillance with the Autonomous Real-time Ground Ubiquitous Surveillance - Imaging System (ARGUS-IS). The system will be capable of imaging an area of greater than 40 square kilometers with a Ground Space Distance (GSD) of 15 cm at video rates of greater than 12 Hz. This paper will discuss the elements of the ARGUS-IS program.

  9. Development and validation of real-time simulation of X-ray imaging with respiratory motion.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Franck P; Villard, Pierre-Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    We present a framework that combines evolutionary optimisation, soft tissue modelling and ray tracing on GPU to simultaneously compute the respiratory motion and X-ray imaging in real-time. Our aim is to provide validated building blocks with high fidelity to closely match both the human physiology and the physics of X-rays. A CPU-based set of algorithms is presented to model organ behaviours during respiration. Soft tissue deformation is computed with an extension of the Chain Mail method. Rigid elements move according to kinematic laws. A GPU-based surface rendering method is proposed to compute the X-ray image using the Beer-Lambert law. It is provided as an open-source library. A quantitative validation study is provided to objectively assess the accuracy of both components: (i) the respiration against anatomical data, and (ii) the X-ray against the Beer-Lambert law and the results of Monte Carlo simulations. Our implementation can be used in various applications, such as interactive medical virtual environment to train percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography in interventional radiology, 2D/3D registration, computation of digitally reconstructed radiograph, simulation of 4D sinograms to test tomography reconstruction tools. PMID:26773644

  10. Direct spectral imaging of plasmonic nanohole arrays for real-time sensing.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Spencer T; Rich, Isabel S; Lindquist, Nathan C

    2016-05-01

    Plasmon-enhanced optical transmission through arrays of nano-structured holes has led to the development of a new generation of optical sensors. In this paper, to dramatically simplify the standard optical setups of these sensors, we position the nanoholes, an LED illumination source and a spacer layer directly on top of a CMOS imager chip. Transmitted light diffracts from the nanohole array, spreading into a spectrum over the space of a millimeter to land on the imager as a full spectrum. Our chip is used as a sensor in both a liquid and a gas environment. The spectrum is monitored in real-time and the plasmon-enhanced transmission peaks shift upon exposure to different concentrations of glycerol-in-water solutions or ethanol vapors in nitrogen. While liquids provide good refractive index contrast for sensing, to enhance sensitivity to solvent vapors, we filled the nanoholes with solvatochromic dyes. This on-chip solution circumvents the bulky components (e.g. microscopes, coupling optics, and spectrometers) needed for traditional plasmonic sensing setups, uses the nanohole array as both the sensing surface and a diffraction grating, and maintains good sensitivity. Finally, we show simultaneous sensing from two side-by-side locations, demonstrating potential for multiplexing and lab on a chip integration. PMID:27010077

  11. Real-time bicycle detection at signalized intersections using thermal imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collaert, Robin

    2013-02-01

    More and more governments and authorities around the world are promoting the use of bicycles in cities, as this is healthy for the bicyclist and improves the quality of life in general. Safety and efficiency of bicyclists has become a major focus. To achieve this, there is a need for a smarter approach towards the control of signalized intersections. Various traditional detection technologies, such as video, microwave radar and electromagnetic loops, can be used to detect vehicles at signalized intersections, but none of these can consistently separate bikes from other traffic, day and night and in various weather conditions. As bikes should get a higher priority and also require longer green time to safely cross the signalized intersection, traffic managers are looking for alternative detection systems that can make the distinction between bicycles and other vehicles near the stop bar. In this paper, the drawbacks of a video-based approach are presented, next to the benefits of a thermal-video-based approach for vehicle presence detection with separation of bicycles. Also, the specific technical challenges are highlighted in developing a system that combines thermal image capturing, image processing and output triggering to the traffic light controller in near real-time and in a single housing.

  12. Enhancement of Real-Time THz Imaging System Based on 320 × 240 Uncooled Microbolometer Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xing; Wu, Zhiming; Gou, Jun; Liu, Ziji; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Jie; Luo, Zhenfei; Chen, Weiqing; Que, Longcheng; Jiang, Yadong

    2016-10-01

    A real-time terahertz (THz) imaging system was demonstrated based on a 320 × 240 uncooled microbolometer detector combined with a 2.52 THz far-infrared CO2 laser. On the top of micro-bridge structure (35 × 35 μm2), a 10 nm nickel-chromium (NiCr) thin film was deposited to enhance THz absorption, which was fabricated by a combined process of magnetron sputtering and reactive ion etching (RIE). By mechanical simulation using design of experiment (DOE) method, the minimum deformation was optimized to 0.0385 μm, and a measured deformation of 0.097 μm was achieved in the fabrication. The fabricated micro-bridge pixel was used for THz detection, and a responsivity of 1235 V/W was achieved with a noise equivalent power (NEP) of 87.4 pW/Hz1/2. THz imaging of metal gasket covered by label paper, paper clip in an envelope, and watermark of a banknote was demonstrated by a combination of histogram equalization (HE) and linear enhancement algorithm.

  13. Real-time intermembrane force measurements and imaging of lipid domain morphology during hemifusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Woog; Kristiansen, Kai; Donaldson, Stephen H., Jr.; Cadirov, Nicholas; Banquy, Xavier; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2015-05-01

    Membrane fusion is the core process in membrane trafficking and is essential for cellular transport of proteins and other biomacromolecules. During protein-mediated membrane fusion, membrane proteins are often excluded from the membrane-membrane contact, indicating that local structural transformations in lipid domains play a major role. However, the rearrangements of lipid domains during fusion have not been thoroughly examined. Here using a newly developed Fluorescence Surface Forces Apparatus (FL-SFA), migration of liquid-disordered clusters and depletion of liquid-ordered domains at the membrane-membrane contact are imaged in real time during hemifusion of model lipid membranes, together with simultaneous force-distance and lipid membrane thickness measurements. The load and contact time-dependent hemifusion results show that the domain rearrangements decrease the energy barrier to fusion, illustrating the significance of dynamic domain transformations in membrane fusion processes. Importantly, the FL-SFA can unambiguously correlate interaction forces and in situ imaging in many dynamic interfacial systems.

  14. Real-time intermembrane force measurements and imaging of lipid domain morphology during hemifusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Woog; Kristiansen, Kai; Donaldson, Jr., Stephen H.; Cadirov, Nicholas; Banquy, Xavier; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is the core process in membrane trafficking and is essential for cellular transport of proteins and other biomacromolecules. During protein-mediated membrane fusion, membrane proteins are often excluded from the membrane–membrane contact, indicating that local structural transformations in lipid domains play a major role. However, the rearrangements of lipid domains during fusion have not been thoroughly examined. Here using a newly developed Fluorescence Surface Forces Apparatus (FL-SFA), migration of liquid-disordered clusters and depletion of liquid-ordered domains at the membrane–membrane contact are imaged in real time during hemifusion of model lipid membranes, together with simultaneous force–distance and lipid membrane thickness measurements. The load and contact time-dependent hemifusion results show that the domain rearrangements decrease the energy barrier to fusion, illustrating the significance of dynamic domain transformations in membrane fusion processes. Importantly, the FL-SFA can unambiguously correlate interaction forces and in situ imaging in many dynamic interfacial systems. PMID:26006266

  15. Extended Time-lapse Intravital Imaging of Real-time Multicellular Dynamics in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Harney, Allison S; Wang, Yarong; Condeelis, John S; Entenberg, David

    2016-01-01

    In the tumor microenvironment, host stromal cells interact with tumor cells to promote tumor progression, angiogenesis, tumor cell dissemination and metastasis. Multicellular interactions in the tumor microenvironment can lead to transient events including directional tumor cell motility and vascular permeability. Quantification of tumor vascular permeability has frequently used end-point experiments to measure extravasation of vascular dyes. However, due to the transient nature of multicellular interactions and vascular permeability, the kinetics of these dynamic events cannot be discerned. By labeling cells and vasculature with injectable dyes or fluorescent proteins, high-resolution time-lapse intravital microscopy has allowed the direct, real-time visualization of transient events in the tumor microenvironment. Here we describe a method for using multiphoton microscopy to perform extended intravital imaging in live mice to directly visualize multicellular dynamics in the tumor microenvironment. This method details cellular labeling strategies, the surgical preparation of a mammary skin flap, the administration of injectable dyes or proteins by tail vein catheter and the acquisition of time-lapse images. The time-lapse sequences obtained from this method facilitate the visualization and quantitation of the kinetics of cellular events of motility and vascular permeability in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27341448

  16. Real-time volume rendering of digital medical images on an iOS device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noon, Christian; Holub, Joseph; Winer, Eliot

    2013-03-01

    Performing high quality 3D visualizations on mobile devices, while tantalizingly close in many areas, is still a quite difficult task. This is especially true for 3D volume rendering of digital medical images. Allowing this would empower medical personnel a powerful tool to diagnose and treat patients and train the next generation of physicians. This research focuses on performing real time volume rendering of digital medical images on iOS devices using custom developed GPU shaders for orthogonal texture slicing. An interactive volume renderer was designed and developed with several new features including dynamic modification of render resolutions, an incremental render loop, a shader-based clipping algorithm to support OpenGL ES 2.0, and an internal backface culling algorithm for properly sorting rendered geometry with alpha blending. The application was developed using several application programming interfaces (APIs) such as OpenSceneGraph (OSG) as the primary graphics renderer coupled with iOS Cocoa Touch for user interaction, and DCMTK for DICOM I/O. The developed application rendered volume datasets over 450 slices up to 50-60 frames per second, depending on the specific model of the iOS device. All rendering is done locally on the device so no Internet connection is required.

  17. Extended Time-lapse Intravital Imaging of Real-time Multicellular Dynamics in the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Harney, Allison S.; Wang, Yarong; Condeelis, John S.; Entenberg, David

    2016-01-01

    In the tumor microenvironment, host stromal cells interact with tumor cells to promote tumor progression, angiogenesis, tumor cell dissemination and metastasis. Multicellular interactions in the tumor microenvironment can lead to transient events including directional tumor cell motility and vascular permeability. Quantification of tumor vascular permeability has frequently used end-point experiments to measure extravasation of vascular dyes. However, due to the transient nature of multicellular interactions and vascular permeability, the kinetics of these dynamic events cannot be discerned. By labeling cells and vasculature with injectable dyes or fluorescent proteins, high-resolution time-lapse intravital microscopy has allowed the direct, real-time visualization of transient events in the tumor microenvironment. Here we describe a method for using multiphoton microscopy to perform extended intravital imaging in live mice to directly visualize multicellular dynamics in the tumor microenvironment. This method details cellular labeling strategies, the surgical preparation of a mammary skin flap, the administration of injectable dyes or proteins by tail vein catheter and the acquisition of time-lapse images. The time-lapse sequences obtained from this method facilitate the visualization and quantitation of the kinetics of cellular events of motility and vascular permeability in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27341448

  18. Direct spectral imaging of plasmonic nanohole arrays for real-time sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, Spencer T.; Rich, Isabel S.; Lindquist, Nathan C.

    2016-05-01

    Plasmon-enhanced optical transmission through arrays of nano-structured holes has led to the development of a new generation of optical sensors. In this paper, to dramatically simplify the standard optical setups of these sensors, we position the nanoholes, an LED illumination source and a spacer layer directly on top of a CMOS imager chip. Transmitted light diffracts from the nanohole array, spreading into a spectrum over the space of a millimeter to land on the imager as a full spectrum. Our chip is used as a sensor in both a liquid and a gas environment. The spectrum is monitored in real-time and the plasmon-enhanced transmission peaks shift upon exposure to different concentrations of glycerol-in-water solutions or ethanol vapors in nitrogen. While liquids provide good refractive index contrast for sensing, to enhance sensitivity to solvent vapors, we filled the nanoholes with solvatochromic dyes. This on-chip solution circumvents the bulky components (e.g. microscopes, coupling optics, and spectrometers) needed for traditional plasmonic sensing setups, uses the nanohole array as both the sensing surface and a diffraction grating, and maintains good sensitivity. Finally, we show simultaneous sensing from two side-by-side locations, demonstrating potential for multiplexing and lab on a chip integration.

  19. Terahertz real-time imaging uncooled array based on antenna- and cavity-coupled bolometers.

    PubMed

    Simoens, François; Meilhan, Jérôme

    2014-03-28

    The development of terahertz (THz) applications is slowed down by the availability of affordable, easy-to-use and highly sensitive detectors. CEA-Leti took up this challenge by tailoring the mature infrared (IR) bolometer technology for optimized THz sensing. The key feature of these detectors relies on the separation between electromagnetic absorption and the thermometer. For each pixel, specific structures of antennas and a resonant quarter-wavelength cavity couple efficiently the THz radiation on a broadband range, while a central silicon microbridge bolometer resistance is read out by a complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuit. 320×240 pixel arrays have been designed and manufactured: a better than 30 pW power direct detection threshold per pixel has been demonstrated in the 2-4 THz range. Such performance is expected on the whole THz range by proper tailoring of the antennas while keeping the technological stack largely unchanged. This paper gives an overview of the developed bolometer-based technology. First, it describes the technology and reports the latest performance characterizations. Then imaging demonstrations are presented, such as real-time reflectance imaging of a large surface of hidden objects and THz time-domain spectroscopy beam two-dimensional profiling. Finally, perspectives of camera integration for scientific and industrial applications are discussed. PMID:24567477

  20. Enhancement of Real-Time THz Imaging System Based on 320 × 240 Uncooled Microbolometer Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xing; Wu, Zhiming; Gou, Jun; Liu, Ziji; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Jie; Luo, Zhenfei; Chen, Weiqing; Que, Longcheng; Jiang, Yadong

    2016-05-01

    A real-time terahertz (THz) imaging system was demonstrated based on a 320 × 240 uncooled microbolometer detector combined with a 2.52 THz far-infrared CO2 laser. On the top of micro-bridge structure (35 × 35 μm2), a 10 nm nickel-chromium (NiCr) thin film was deposited to enhance THz absorption, which was fabricated by a combined process of magnetron sputtering and reactive ion etching (RIE). By mechanical simulation using design of experiment (DOE) method, the minimum deformation was optimized to 0.0385 μm, and a measured deformation of 0.097 μm was achieved in the fabrication. The fabricated micro-bridge pixel was used for THz detection, and a responsivity of 1235 V/W was achieved with a noise equivalent power (NEP) of 87.4 pW/Hz1/2. THz imaging of metal gasket covered by label paper, paper clip in an envelope, and watermark of a banknote was demonstrated by a combination of histogram equalization (HE) and linear enhancement algorithm.

  1. Development and validation of real-time simulation of X-ray imaging with respiratory motion.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Franck P; Villard, Pierre-Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    We present a framework that combines evolutionary optimisation, soft tissue modelling and ray tracing on GPU to simultaneously compute the respiratory motion and X-ray imaging in real-time. Our aim is to provide validated building blocks with high fidelity to closely match both the human physiology and the physics of X-rays. A CPU-based set of algorithms is presented to model organ behaviours during respiration. Soft tissue deformation is computed with an extension of the Chain Mail method. Rigid elements move according to kinematic laws. A GPU-based surface rendering method is proposed to compute the X-ray image using the Beer-Lambert law. It is provided as an open-source library. A quantitative validation study is provided to objectively assess the accuracy of both components: (i) the respiration against anatomical data, and (ii) the X-ray against the Beer-Lambert law and the results of Monte Carlo simulations. Our implementation can be used in various applications, such as interactive medical virtual environment to train percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography in interventional radiology, 2D/3D registration, computation of digitally reconstructed radiograph, simulation of 4D sinograms to test tomography reconstruction tools.

  2. Clinical development of BLZ-100 for real-time optical imaging of tumors during resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Heather L.; Miller, Dennis M.; Hedges, Teresa; Perry, Jeff; Parrish-Novak, Julia

    2016-03-01

    Complete initial resection can give cancer patients the best opportunity for long-term survival. There is unmet need in surgical oncology for optical imaging that enables simple and precise visualization of tumors and consistent contrast with surrounding normal tissues. Near-infrared (NIR) contrast agents and camera systems that can detect them represent an area of active research and development. The investigational Tumor Paint agent BLZ-100 is a conjugate of a chlorotoxin peptide and the NIR dye indocyanine green (ICG) that has been shown to specifically bind to a broad range of solid tumors. Clinical efficacy studies with BLZ-100 are in progress, a necessary step in bringing the product into clinical practice. To ensure a product that will be useful for and accepted by surgeons, the early clinical development of BLZ- 100 incorporates multiple tumor types and imaging devices so that surgeon feedback covers the range of anticipated clinical uses. Key contrast agent characteristics include safety, specificity, flexibility in timing between dose and surgery, and breadth of tumor types recognized. Imaging devices should use wavelengths that are optimal for the contrast agent, be sensitive enough that contrast agent dosing can be adjusted for optimal contrast, include real-time video display of fluorescence and white light image, and be simple for surgeons to use with minimal disruption of surgical flow. Rapid entry into clinical studies provides the best opportunity for early surgeon feedback, enabling development of agents and devices that will gain broad acceptance and provide information that helps surgeons achieve more complete and precise resections.

  3. Miniature stereoscopic video system provides real-time 3D registration and image fusion for minimally invasive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaron, Avi; Bar-Zohar, Meir; Horesh, Nadav

    2007-02-01

    Sophisticated surgeries require the integration of several medical imaging modalities, like MRI and CT, which are three-dimensional. Many efforts are invested in providing the surgeon with this information in an intuitive & easy to use manner. A notable development, made by Visionsense, enables the surgeon to visualize the scene in 3D using a miniature stereoscopic camera. It also provides real-time 3D measurements that allow registration of navigation systems as well as 3D imaging modalities, overlaying these images on the stereoscopic video image in real-time. The real-time MIS 'see through tissue' fusion solutions enable the development of new MIS procedures in various surgical segments, such as spine, abdomen, cardio-thoracic and brain. This paper describes 3D surface reconstruction and registration methods using Visionsense camera, as a step toward fully automated multi-modality 3D registration.

  4. Development of single-channel stereoscopic video imaging modality for real-time retinal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radfar, Edalat; Park, Jihoon; Lee, Sangyeob; Ha, Myungjin; Yu, Sungkon; Jang, Seulki; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    Stereoscopic retinal image can effectively help doctors. Most of stereo imaging surgical microscopes are based on dual optical channels and benefit from dual cameras in which left and right cameras capture corresponding left and right eye views. This study developed a single-channel stereoscopic retinal imaging modality based on a transparent rotating deflector (TRD). Two different viewing angles are generated by imaging through the TRD which is mounted on a motor synchronized with a camera and is placed in single optical channel. Because of the function of objective lens in the imaging modality which generate stereo-image from an object at its focal point, and according to eye structure, the optical set up of the imaging modality can compatible for retinal imaging when the cornea and eye lens are engaged in objective lens.

  5. Real-time optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer using an interleaved two laser imaging system coregistered with ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermilov, Sergey A.; Fronheiser, Matthew P.; Nadvoretsky, Vyacheslav; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, André; Mehta, Ketan; Otto, Pamela; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2010-02-01

    We present results from a clinical case study on imaging breast cancer using a real-time interleaved two laser optoacoustic imaging system co-registered with ultrasound. The present version of Laser Optoacoustic Ultrasonic Imaging System (LOUIS) utilizes a commercial linear ultrasonic transducer array, which has been modified to include two parallel rectangular optical bundles, to operate in both ultrasonic (US) and optoacoustic (OA) modes. In OA mode, the images from two optical wavelengths (755 nm and 1064 nm) that provide opposite contrasts for optical absorption of oxygenated vs deoxygenated blood can be displayed simultaneously at a maximum rate of 20 Hz. The real-time aspect of the system permits probe manipulations that can assist in the detection of the lesion. The results show the ability of LOUIS to co-register regions of high absorption seen in OA images with US images collected at the same location with the dual modality probe. The dual wavelength results demonstrate that LOUIS can potentially provide breast cancer diagnostics based on different intensities of OA images of the lesion obtained at 755 nm and 1064 nm. We also present new data processing based on deconvolution of the LOUIS impulse response that helps recover original optoacoustic pressure profiles. Finally, we demonstrate the image analysis tool that provides automatic detection of the tumor boundary and quantitative metrics of the optoacoustic image quality. Using a blood vessel phantom submerged in a tissue-like milky background solution we show that the image contrast is minimally affected by the phantom distance from the LOUIS probe until about 60-65 mm. We suggest using the image contrast for quantitative assessment of an OA image of a breast lesion, as a part of the breast cancer diagnostics procedure.

  6. Real-time GMAW quality classification using an artificial neural network with airborne acoustic signals as inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Matteson, A.; Morris, R.; Tate, R.

    1993-12-31

    The acoustic signal produced by the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) arc contains information about the behavior of the arc column, the molten pool and droplet transfer. It is possible to detect some defect producing conditions from the acoustic signal from the GMAW arc. An intelligent sensor, called the Weld Acoustic Monitor (WAM) has been developed to take advantage of this acoustic information in order to provide real-time quality assessment information for process control. The WAM makes use of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to classify the characteristic arc acoustic signals of acceptable and unacceptable welds. The ANN used in the Weld Acoustic Monitor developed its own set of rules for this classification problem by learning a data base of known GMAW acoustic signals.

  7. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV.

  8. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV. PMID:26773821

  9. Bioluminescence imaging to track real-time armadillo promoter activity in live Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Akiyoshi, Ryutaro; Kaneuch, Taro; Aigaki, Toshiro; Suzuki, Hirobumi

    2014-09-01

    We established a method for bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to track real-time gene expression in live Drosophila embryos. We constructed a transgenesis vector containing multiple cloning sites and enhanced green-emitting luciferase (ELuc; Emerald Luc), a brighter and pH-insensitive luciferase for promoter analysis. To evaluate the utility of BLI using an ELuc reporter together with an optimized microscope system, we visualized the expression pattern of armadillo (arm), a member of the Wnt pathway in Drosophila, throughout embryogenesis. We generated transgenic flies carrying the arm:: ELuc fusion gene, and successfully performed BLI continuously for 22 h in the same embryos. Our study showed, for the first time, that arm::Eluc expression was dramatically increased in the anterior midgut rudiment, myoblasts of the dorsal/lateral musculature, and the posterior spiracle after stage 13, and the cephalic region at stage 17. To further demonstrate the application of our BLI system, we revealed that arm transcriptional activity in embryos was modulated inversely by treatment with ionomycin or 6-bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO), an inhibitor and activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, respectively. Therefore, our microscopic BLI system is useful for monitoring gene expression in live Drosophila embryos, and for investigating regulatory mechanisms by using chemicals and mutations that might affect expression. PMID:25023969

  10. Real-time imaging of anti-biofilm effects using CP-OCT.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Karin; Reilly, Cavan; Li, Yuping; Jones, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method to reliably and reproducibly assess the physical properties of in vitro multi-species plaque derived biofilms. A custom flow cell (FC) was designed to model oral cavity shear stresses on biofilms grown on hydroxyapatite (HA) discs. A finite-element program (ANSYS 13) modeled flow velocities and wall shear stresses on the interior 3D dimensions. For the experiment, 1% chlorhexidine (CHX), 5 M urea, and a 1× phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were flown through the FC simulating oral rinsing. Near infrared cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) non-destructively imaged the fluid immersed biofilms in real time (20 frames/s). During low flow, the swell of the biofilm caused from 5 M urea was quite pronounced increase in vertical dimension. Biofilms exposed to 1% CHX showed a slight collapse in the vertical dimension of the biofilm during low flow. During high flow/high sheer stress, the 5 M urea solution effectively removed the biofilm, while both 1% CHX and 1× PBS did not remove biofilms even under high velocity/shear stress conditions.

  11. Active imaging lens with real-time variable resolution and constant field of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parent, Jocelyn; Thibault, Simon

    2010-08-01

    We present a lens with a constant total field of view and real-time variable resolution in certain zones of interest. This smart imaging lens uses an active optical element to modify as desired the local distortion. This way, while keeping the total field of view constant, the resolution can be increased in a zone of interest, at the expense of decreasing it somewhere in the remaining part of the field of view. We first present the concept of this lens, using a deformable mirror as the active surface. Computer simulations are done with Zemax in which a magnifying power of 2 in a zone of interest representing 10% of the full field of view is achieved, using a f=12.5 mm lens and a F/# of 18. Different combinations of theses parameters would allow different performances and results. We then present experimental results of this lens with a prototype built using a ferrofluidic deformable mirror as the active element. Experimental results of a zone of increased resolution with a magnification of 1.32 and a zone of decreased resolution with a magnification of 0.80 are obtained.

  12. Registration of Real-Time 3-D Ultrasound to Tomographic Images of the Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Brekken, Reidar; Iversen, Daniel Høyer; Tangen, Geir Arne; Dahl, Torbjørn

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an image-based method for registration of real-time 3-D ultrasound to computed tomography (CT) of the abdominal aorta, targeting future use in ultrasound-guided endovascular intervention. We proposed a method in which a surface model of the aortic wall was segmented from CT, and the approximate initial location of this model relative to the ultrasound volume was manually indicated. The model was iteratively transformed to automatically optimize correspondence to the ultrasound data. Feasibility was studied using data from a silicon phantom and in vivo data from a volunteer with previously acquired CT. Through visual evaluation, the ultrasound and CT data were seen to correspond well after registration. Both aortic lumen and branching arteries were well aligned. The processing was done offline, and the registration took approximately 0.2 s per ultrasound volume. The results encourage further patient studies to investigate accuracy, robustness and clinical value of the approach. PMID:27156015

  13. Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback in motor neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Linden, David E.J.; Turner, Duncan L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent developments in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have catalyzed a new field of translational neuroscience. Using fMRI to monitor the aspects of task-related changes in neural activation or brain connectivity, investigators can offer feedback of simple or complex neural signals/patterns back to the participant on a quasireal-time basis [real-time-fMRI-based neurofeedback (rt-fMRI-NF)]. Here, we introduce some background methodology of the new developments in this field and give a perspective on how they may be used in neurorehabilitation in the future. Recent findings The development of rt-fMRI-NF has been used to promote self-regulation of activity in several brain regions and networks. In addition, and unlike other noninvasive techniques, rt-fMRI-NF can access specific subcortical regions and in principle any region that can be monitored using fMRI including the cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord. In Parkinson's disease and stroke, rt-fMRI-NF has been demonstrated to alter neural activity after the self-regulation training was completed and to modify specific behaviours. Summary Future exploitation of rt-fMRI-NF could be used to induce neuroplasticity in brain networks that are involved in certain neurological conditions. However, currently, the use of rt-fMRI-NF in randomized, controlled clinical trials is in its infancy. PMID:27213774

  14. MIMD (multiple instruction multiple data) multiprocessor system for real-time image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirsch, Peter; Jeschke, Hartwig

    1991-06-01

    Anovel MIMD (Multiple Instruction Multiple Data) based architecture consisting of multiple processing elements (PE) has been developed. This architecture is adapted to real-time processing of sequences of different tasks for local image segments. Each PE contains an arithmetic processing unit (APU), adapted to parallel processing of low level operations, and a high level and control processor (HLCP) for medium and high level operations and control of the PE. This HLCP can be a standard signal processor or a RISC processor. Because of the local control of each PE by the HLCP and a SIMD structure of the APU, the overall system architecture is characterized as MIMD based with a local SIMD structure for low level processing. Due to an overlapped computation and communication the multiprocessor system achieves a linear speedup compared to a single processing element. Main parts of the PE have been realized as two ASICs in a 1.5 jim CMOS-Process. With a system clock rate of 25MHz, each PE provides a peak performance of 400 Mega operations per second (MOPS).

  15. Real-time Imaging of Rabies Virus Entry into Living Vero cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haijiao; Hao, Xian; Wang, Shaowen; Wang, Zhiyong; Cai, Mingjun; Jiang, Junguang; Qin, Qiwei; Zhang, Maolin; Wang, Hongda

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of rabies virus (RABV) infection is vital for prevention and therapy of virulent rabies. However, the infection mechanism remains largely uncharacterized due to the limited methods and viral models. Herein, we utilized a powerful single-virus tracking technique to dynamically and globally visualize the infection process of the live attenuated rabies vaccine strain-SRV9 in living Vero cells. Firstly, it was found that the actin-enriched filopodia is in favor of virus reaching to the cell body. Furthermore, by carrying out drug perturbation experiments, we confirmed that RABV internalization into Vero cells proceeds via classical dynamin-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis with requirement for intact actin, but caveolae-dependent endocytosis is not involved. Then, our real-time imaging results unambiguously uncover the characteristics of viral internalization and cellular transport dynamics. In addition, our results directly and quantitatively reveal that the intracellular motility of internalized RABV particles is largely microtubule-dependent. Collectively, our work is crucial for understanding the initial steps of RABV infection, and elucidating the mechanisms of post-infection. Significantly, the results provide profound insight into development of novel and effective antiviral targets. PMID:26148807

  16. MALDI mass spectrometry imaging analysis of pituitary adenomas for near-real-time tumor delineation

    PubMed Central

    Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R.; Norton, Isaiah; Olubiyi, Olutayo; Changelian, Armen N.; Machaidze, Revaz; Vestal, Matthew L.; Laws, Edward R.; Dunn, Ian F.; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.

    2015-01-01

    We present a proof of concept study designed to support the clinical development of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) for the detection of pituitary tumors during surgery. We analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI six nonpathological (NP) human pituitary glands and 45 hormone secreting and nonsecreting (NS) human pituitary adenomas. We show that the distribution of pituitary hormones such as prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in both normal and tumor tissues can be assessed by using this approach. The presence of most of the pituitary hormones was confirmed by using MS/MS and pseudo-MS/MS methods, and subtyping of pituitary adenomas was performed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM). Our proof of concept study demonstrates that MALDI MSI could be used to directly detect excessive hormonal production from functional pituitary adenomas and generally classify pituitary adenomas by using statistical and machine learning analyses. The tissue characterization can be completed in fewer than 30 min and could therefore be applied for the near-real-time detection and delineation of pituitary tumors for intraoperative surgical decision-making. PMID:26216958

  17. Real-time GPU implementation of transverse oscillation vector velocity flow imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradway, David Pierson; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Krebs, Andreas; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Kjær, Carsten Straso; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-03-01

    Rapid estimation of blood velocity and visualization of complex flow patterns are important for clinical use of diagnostic ultrasound. This paper presents real-time processing for two-dimensional (2-D) vector flow imaging which utilizes an off-the-shelf graphics processing unit (GPU). In this work, Open Computing Language (OpenCL) is used to estimate 2-D vector velocity flow in vivo in the carotid artery. Data are streamed live from a BK Medical 2202 Pro Focus UltraView Scanner to a workstation running a research interface software platform. Processing data from a 50 millisecond frame of a duplex vector flow acquisition takes 2.3 milliseconds seconds on an Advanced Micro Devices Radeon HD 7850 GPU card. The detected velocities are accurate to within the precision limit of the output format of the display routine. Because this tool was developed as a module external to the scanner's built-in processing, it enables new opportunities for prototyping novel algorithms, optimizing processing parameters, and accelerating the path from development lab to clinic.

  18. Paralinguistic mechanisms of production in human "beatboxing": a real-time magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Michael; Bresch, Erik; Byrd, Dani; Nayak, Krishna; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2013-02-01

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (rtMRI) was used to examine mechanisms of sound production by an American male beatbox artist. rtMRI was found to be a useful modality with which to study this form of sound production, providing a global dynamic view of the midsagittal vocal tract at frame rates sufficient to observe the movement and coordination of critical articulators. The subject's repertoire included percussion elements generated using a wide range of articulatory and airstream mechanisms. Many of the same mechanisms observed in human speech production were exploited for musical effect, including patterns of articulation that do not occur in the phonologies of the artist's native languages: ejectives and clicks. The data offer insights into the paralinguistic use of phonetic primitives and the ways in which they are coordinated in this style of musical performance. A unified formalism for describing both musical and phonetic dimensions of human vocal percussion performance is proposed. Audio and video data illustrating production and orchestration of beatboxing sound effects are provided in a companion annotated corpus.

  19. Sensitivity of hepatobiliary imaging and real-time ultrasonography in the detection of acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.; Freitas, J.E.; Ripley, S.D.; Bree, R.L.

    1985-08-01

    To determine the sensitivity of hepatobiliary imaging (HBI) and strict- and liberal-criteria real-time ultrasonography (RTUS), the authors retrospectively analyzed 100 cases of pathologically proved acute cholecystitis (AC). A positive HBI was one in which there was nonvisualization of the gallbladder up to four hours after the administration of technetium 99m-disofenin. In the absence of hypoalbuminemia, cirrhosis, or ascites, pathognomonic RTUS findings (strict criteria) for AC were wall edema and/or pericholecystic fluid. Findings indicative of AC (liberal criteria) included the demonstration of stones, a thick gallbladder wall, nonshadowing echoes, or the ultrasonographic Murphy's sign. Of the 100 cases of AC, 91 were calculous, and nine were acalculous. Four of 100 patients had associated choledocholithiasis. The sensitivities in detecting calculous AC were as follows: HBI, 97%; liberal-criteria RTUS, 86%; and strict-criteria RTUS, 24%. The sensitivities in detecting acalculous AC were as follows: HBI, 100%; liberal-criteria RTUS, 89%; and strict-criteria RTUS, 44%.

  20. Quantitative Analysis Of Sperm Motion Kinematics From Real-Time Video-Edge Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Russell O...; Katz, David F.

    1988-02-01

    A new model of sperm swimming kinematics, which uses signal processing methods and multivariate statistical techniques to identify individual cell-motion parameters and unique cell populations, is presented. Swimming paths of individual cells are obtained using real-time, video-edge digitization. Raw paths are adaptively filtered to identify average paths, and measurements of space-time oscillations about average paths are made. Time-dependent frequency information is extracted from spatial variations about average paths using harmonic analysis. Raw-path and average-path measures such as curvature, curve length, and straight-line length, and measures of oscillations about average paths such as time-dependent amplitude and frequency variations, are used in a multivariate, cluster analysis to identify unique cell populations. The entire process, including digitization of sperm video images, is computer-automated. Preliminary results indicate that this method of tracking, digitization, and kinematic analysis accurately identifies unique cell subpopulations, including: the relative numbers of cells in each subpopulation, how subpopulations differ, and the extent and significance of such differences. With appropriate work, this approach may be useful for clinical discrimination between normal and abnormal semen specimens.

  1. Real-time imaging, spectroscopy, and structural investigation of cathodic plasma electrolytic oxidation of molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojadinović, Stevan; Tadić, Nenad; Šišović, Nikola M.; Vasilić, Rastko

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the results of the investigation of cathodic plasma electrolytic oxidation (CPEO) of molybdenum at 160 V in a mixed solution of borax, water, and ethylene glycol are presented. Real-time imaging and optical emission spectroscopy were used for the characterization of the CPEO. During the process, vapor envelope is formed around the cathode and strong electric field within the envelope caused the generation of plasma discharges. The spectral line shape analysis of hydrogen Balmer line Hβ (486.13 nm) shows that plasma discharges are characterized by the electron number density of about 1.4 × 1021 m-3. The electron temperature of 15 000 K was estimated by measuring molybdenum atomic lines intensity. Surface morphology, chemical, and phase composition of coatings formed by CPEO were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The elemental components of CPEO coatings are Mo and O and the predominant crystalline form is MoO3.

  2. Real-time imaging, spectroscopy, and structural investigation of cathodic plasma electrolytic oxidation of molybdenum

    SciTech Connect

    Stojadinović, Stevan Tadić, Nenad; Šišović, Nikola M.; Vasilić, Rastko

    2015-06-21

    In this paper, the results of the investigation of cathodic plasma electrolytic oxidation (CPEO) of molybdenum at 160 V in a mixed solution of borax, water, and ethylene glycol are presented. Real-time imaging and optical emission spectroscopy were used for the characterization of the CPEO. During the process, vapor envelope is formed around the cathode and strong electric field within the envelope caused the generation of plasma discharges. The spectral line shape analysis of hydrogen Balmer line H{sub β} (486.13 nm) shows that plasma discharges are characterized by the electron number density of about 1.4 × 10{sup 21 }m{sup −3}. The electron temperature of 15 000 K was estimated by measuring molybdenum atomic lines intensity. Surface morphology, chemical, and phase composition of coatings formed by CPEO were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The elemental components of CPEO coatings are Mo and O and the predominant crystalline form is MoO{sub 3}.

  3. Real-time Imaging of Rabies Virus Entry into Living Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haijiao; Hao, Xian; Wang, Shaowen; Wang, Zhiyong; Cai, Mingjun; Jiang, Junguang; Qin, Qiwei; Zhang, Maolin; Wang, Hongda

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of rabies virus (RABV) infection is vital for prevention and therapy of virulent rabies. However, the infection mechanism remains largely uncharacterized due to the limited methods and viral models. Herein, we utilized a powerful single-virus tracking technique to dynamically and globally visualize the infection process of the live attenuated rabies vaccine strain-SRV9 in living Vero cells. Firstly, it was found that the actin-enriched filopodia is in favor of virus reaching to the cell body. Furthermore, by carrying out drug perturbation experiments, we confirmed that RABV internalization into Vero cells proceeds via classical dynamin-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis with requirement for intact actin, but caveolae-dependent endocytosis is not involved. Then, our real-time imaging results unambiguously uncover the characteristics of viral internalization and cellular transport dynamics. In addition, our results directly and quantitatively reveal that the intracellular motility of internalized RABV particles is largely microtubule-dependent. Collectively, our work is crucial for understanding the initial steps of RABV infection, and elucidating the mechanisms of post-infection. Significantly, the results provide profound insight into development of novel and effective antiviral targets.

  4. Laser-induced radiation microbeam technology and simultaneous real-time fluorescence imaging in live cells.

    PubMed

    Botchway, Stanley W; Reynolds, Pamela; Parker, Anthony W; O'Neill, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The use of nano- and microbeam techniques to induce and identify subcellular localized energy deposition within a region of a living cell provides a means to investigate the effects of low radiation doses. Particularly within the nucleus where the propagation and processing of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage (and repair) in both targeted and nontargeted cells, the latter being able to study cell-cell (bystander) effects. We have pioneered a near infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser microbeam to mimic ionizing radiation through multiphoton absorption within a 3D femtoliter volume of a highly focused Gaussian laser beam. The novel optical microbeam mimics both complex ionizing and UV-radiation-type cell damage including double strand breaks (DSBs). Using the microbeam technology, we have been able to investigate the formation of DNA DSB and subsequent recruitment of repair proteins to the submicrometer size site of damage introduced in viable cells. The use of a phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX a marker for DSBs, visualized by immunofluorescent staining) and real-time imaging of fluorescently labeling proteins, the dynamics of recruitment of repair proteins in viable mammalian cells can be observed. Here we show the recruitment of ATM, p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), and RAD51, an integral protein of the homologous recombination process in the DNA repair pathway and Ku-80-GFP involved in the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway as exemplar repair process to show differences in the repair kinetics of DNA DSBs. The laser NIR multiphoton microbeam technology shows persistent DSBs at later times post laser irradiation which are indicative of DSBs arising at replication presumably from UV photoproducts or clustered damage containing single strand breaks (SSBs) that are also observed. Effects of the cell cycle may also be investigated in real time. Postirradiation and fixed cells studies show that in G1 cells a fraction of multiphoton laser-induced DSBs is persistent for >6h

  5. Real-Time Analysis of Individual Airborne Microparticles Using Laser Ablation Mass Spectroscopy and Genetically Trained Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, E.P.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1999-01-22

    We are developing a method for analysis of airborne microparticles based on laser ablation of individual molecules in an ion trap mass spectrometer. Airborne particles enter the spectrometer through a differentially-pumped inlet, are detected by light scattered from two CW laser beams, and sampled by a pulsed excimer laser as they pass through the center of the ion trap electrodes. After the laser pulse, the stored ions are separated by conventional ion trap methods. The mass spectra are then analyzed using genetically-trained neural networks (NNs). A number of mass spectra are averaged to obtain training cases which contain a recognizable spectral signature. Averaged spectra for a bacteria and a non-bacteria are shown to the NNs, the response evaluated, and the weights of the connections between neurodes adjusted by a Genetic Algorithm (GA) such that the output from the NN ranges from 0 for non-bacteria to 1 for bacteria. This process is iterated until the population of the GA converges or satisfies predetermined stopping criteria. Using this type of bipolar training we have obtained generalizing NNs able to distinguish five new bacteria from five new non-bacteria, none of which were used in training the NN.

  6. Development of real-time line-scan hyperspectral imaging system for online agricultural and food product inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seung Chul; Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports a recent development of a line-scan hyperspectral imaging system for real-time multispectral imaging applications in agricultural and food industries. The hyperspectral imaging system consisted of a spectrograph, an EMCCD camera, and application software. The real-time multispectral imaging with the developed system was possible due to (1) data binning, especially a unique feature of the EMCCD sensor allowing the access to non-contiguous multispectral bands, (2) an image processing algorithm designed for real-time multispectral imaging, and (3) the design and implementation of the real-time application software. The imaging system was developed as a poultry inspection instrument determining the presence of surface feces on poultry carcasses moving at commercial poultry processing line speeds up to 180 birds per minute. The imaging system can be easily modifiable to solve other real-time inspection/sorting problems. Three wavelengths at 517 nm, 565 nm and 802 nm were selected for real-time fecal detection imaging. The fecal detection algorithm was based on dual band ratios of 565nm/517nm and 802nm/517nm followed by thresholding. The software architecture was based on a ping pong memory and a circular buffer for the multitasking of image grabbing and processing. The software was written in Microsoft Visual C++. An image-based internal triggering (i.e. polling) algorithm was developed to determine the start and end positions of birds. Twelve chickens were used for testing the imaging system at two different speeds (140 birds per minute and 180 bird per minute) in a pilot-scale processing line. Four types of fecal materials (duodenum, ceca, colon and ingesta) were used for the evaluation of the detection algorithm. The software grabbed and processed multispectral images of the dimension 118 (line scans) x 512 (height) x 3 (bands) pixels obtained from chicken carcasses moving at the speed up to 180 birds per minute (a frame rate 286 Hz). Intensity

  7. Accessible high performance computing solutions for near real-time image processing for time critical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielski, Conrad; Lemoine, Guido; Syryczynski, Jacek

    2009-09-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) hardware solutions such as grid computing and General Processing on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) are now accessible to users with general computing needs. Grid computing infrastructures in the form of computing clusters or blades are becoming common place and GPGPU solutions that leverage the processing power of the video card are quickly being integrated into personal workstations. Our interest in these HPC technologies stems from the need to produce near real-time maps from a combination of pre- and post-event satellite imagery in support of post-disaster management. Faster processing provides a twofold gain in this situation: 1. critical information can be provided faster and 2. more elaborate automated processing can be performed prior to providing the critical information. In our particular case, we test the use of the PANTEX index which is based on analysis of image textural measures extracted using anisotropic, rotation-invariant GLCM statistics. The use of this index, applied in a moving window, has been shown to successfully identify built-up areas in remotely sensed imagery. Built-up index image masks are important input to the structuring of damage assessment interpretation because they help optimise the workload. The performance of computing the PANTEX workflow is compared on two different HPC hardware architectures: (1) a blade server with 4 blades, each having dual quad-core CPUs and (2) a CUDA enabled GPU workstation. The reference platform is a dual CPU-quad core workstation and the PANTEX workflow total computing time is measured. Furthermore, as part of a qualitative evaluation, the differences in setting up and configuring various hardware solutions and the related software coding effort is presented.

  8. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some remote-sensing applications require advanced airborne multi-sensor systems to provide high performance reflective and emissive spectral imaging measurement rapidly over large areas. The key or unique problem of characteristics is associated with a black box back-end system that operates a suite of cutting-edge imaging sensors to collect simultaneously the high throughput reflective and emissive spectral imaging data with precision georeference. This back-end system needs to be portable, easy-to-use, and reliable with advanced onboard processing. The innovation of the black box backend is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS integrates a complex embedded system of systems with dedicated power and signal electronic circuits inside to serve a suite of configurable cutting-edge electro- optical (EO), long-wave infrared (LWIR), and medium-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras, a hyperspectral imaging scanner, and a GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for atmospheric and surface remote sensing. Its compatible sensor packages include NASA s 1,024 1,024 pixel LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) imager; a 60.5 megapixel BuckEye EO camera; and a fast (e.g. 200+ scanlines/s) and wide swath-width (e.g., 1,920+ pixels) CCD/InGaAs imager-based visible/near infrared reflectance (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer. MAICSS records continuous precision georeferenced and time-tagged multisensor throughputs to mass storage devices at a high aggregate rate, typically 60 MB/s for its LWIR/EO payload. MAICSS is a complete stand-alone imaging server instrument with an easy-to-use software package for either autonomous data collection or interactive airborne operation. Advanced multisensor data acquisition and onboard processing software features have been implemented for MAICSS. With the onboard processing for real time image development, correction, histogram-equalization, compression, georeference, and

  9. Study of real-time image denoising and hole-filling for micro-cantilever IR FPA imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yun; Zhao, Yuejin; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiaohua; Li, Xiaomeng; Zhao, Zhu; Yu, Xiaomei; Hui, Mei; Wu, Hong

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes and experimentally demonstrates a new denoising and hole-filling algorithm through discrete points removal and bilinear interpolation based on the bi-material cantilever FPA infrared imaging system. In practice, because of the limitation of FPA manufacturing process and optical readout system, the quality of obtained images is always not satisfying. A lot of noise and holes appear in the images, which restrict the application of the infrared imaging system. After analyzing the causes of noise and holes, an algorithm is presented to improve the quality of infrared images. Firstly, the statistic characteristics such as probability histograms of images with noise are analyzed in great detail. Then, IR images are denoised by the method of discrete points removal. Second, the holes are filled by bilinear interpolation. In this step, the reference points are found through partial derivative method instead of using the edge points of the holes simply. It can detect the real points effectively and enable the holes much closer to the true values. Finally, the algorithm is applied to different infrared images successfully. Experimental results show that the IR images can be denoised effectively and the SNRs are improved substantially. Meanwhile, the filling ratios of target holes reach as high as 95% and the visual quality is achieved well. It proves that the algorithm has the advantages of high speed, great precision and easy implement. It is a highly efficient real-time image processing algorithm for bi-material micro-cantilever FPA infrared imaging system.

  10. Sono-photoacoustic imaging of gold nanoemulsions: Part II. Real time imaging

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Bastien; Wei, Chen-Wei; Perez, Camilo; Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Lombardo, Michael; Pelivanov, Ivan; Pozzo, Lilo D.; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging using exogenous agents can be limited by degraded specificity due to strong background signals. This paper introduces a technique called sono-photoacoustics (SPA) applied to perfluorohexane nanodroplets coated with gold nanospheres. Pulsed laser and ultrasound (US) excitations are applied simultaneously to the contrast agent to induce a phase-transition ultimately creating a transient microbubble. The US field present during the phase transition combined with the large thermal expansion of the bubble leads to 20–30 dB signal enhancement. Aqueous solutions and phantoms with very low concentrations of this agent were probed using pulsed laser radiation at diagnostic exposures and a conventional US array used both for excitation and imaging. Contrast specificity of the agent was demonstrated with a coherent differential scheme to suppress US and linear PA background signals. SPA shows great potential for molecular imaging with ultrasensitive detection of targeted gold coated nanoemulsions and cavitation-assisted theranostic approaches. PMID:25893170

  11. Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Cooper, Moogega; Adler, John; Jacobson, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a hyperspectral imaging instrument package designed to be carried aboard a helicopter. It was developed to map the depths of Greenland's supraglacial lakes. The instrument is capable of telescoping to twice its original length, allowing it to be retracted with the door closed during takeoff and landing, and manually extended in mid-flight. While extended, the instrument platform provides the attached hyperspectral imager a nadir-centered and unobstructed view of the ground. Before flight, the instrument mount is retracted and securely strapped down to existing anchor points on the floor of the helicopter. When the helicopter reaches the destination lake, the door is opened and the instrument mount is manually extended. Power to the instrument package is turned on, and the data acquisition computer is commanded via a serial cable from an onboard user-operated laptop to begin data collection. After data collection is complete, the instrument package is powered down and the mount retracted, allowing the door to be closed in preparation for landing. The present design for the instrument mount consists of a three-segment telescoping cantilever to allow for a sufficient extended length to see around the landing struts and provide a nadir-centered and unobstructed field of view for the hyperspectral imager. This instrument works on the premise that water preferentially absorbs light with longer wavelengths on the red side of the visible spectrum. This property can be exploited in order to remotely determine the depths of bodies of pure freshwater. An imager flying over such a lake receives light scattered from the surface, the bulk of the water column, and from the lake bottom. The strength of absorption of longer-wavelength light depends on the depth of the water column. Through calibration with in situ measurements of the water depths, a depth-determining algorithm may be developed to determine lake depth from these spectral properties of the

  12. High throughput web inspection system using time-stretch real-time imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanju

    Photonic time-stretch is a novel technology that enables capturing of fast, rare and non-repetitive events. Therefore, it operates in real-time with ability to record over long period of time while having fine temporal resolution. The powerful property of photonic time-stretch has already been employed in various fields of application such as analog-to-digital conversion, spectroscopy, laser scanner and microscopy. Further expanding the scope, we fully exploit the time-stretch technology to demonstrate a high throughput web inspection system. Web inspection, namely surface inspection is a nondestructive evaluation method which is crucial for semiconductor wafer and thin film production. We successfully report a dark-field web inspection system with line scan speed of 90.9 MHz which is up to 1000 times faster than conventional inspection instruments. The manufacturing of high quality semiconductor wafer and thin film may directly benefit from this technology as it can easily locate defects with area of less than 10 microm x 10 microm where it allows maximum web flow speed of 1.8 km/s. The thesis provides an overview of our web inspection technique, followed by description of the photonic time-stretch technique which is the keystone in our system. A detailed explanation of each component is covered to provide quantitative understanding of the system. Finally, imaging results from a hard-disk sample and flexible films are presented along with performance analysis of the system. This project was the first application of time-stretch to industrial inspection, and was conducted under financial support and with close involvement by Hitachi, Ltd.

  13. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging guidance improves the diagnostic yield of endomyocardial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Toby; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Karmarkar, Parag; Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E.; Schenke, William H.; Mazal, Jonathan R.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnostic yield of endomyocardial biopsy is low, particularly in disease that affects the myocardium in a non-uniform distribution. We hypothesized that real-time MRI guidance could improve the yield through targeted biopsy of focal myocardial pathology. Methods An animal model of focal myocardial pathology was created by infusing 3mL of fluorescent microspheres (NuFlow Hydrocoat, 15μm diameter, 5 million spheres/mL) followed by 2mL of 100% ethanol to a branch coronary artery. Animals were survived for minimum 14days, before undergoing MRI guided endomyocardial biopsy using a custom 6.5Fr active visualization MRI-conditional bioptome and X-ray guided biopsy using a commercial bioptome. Specimens were analyzed using a dissecting microscope under ultraviolet light to determine the proportion of ‘on-target’ specimens containing fluorescent microspheres. Results A total of 77 specimens were obtained using real-time MRI guidance and 87 using X-ray guidance, in five animals. Specimens obtained with the MRI-conditional bioptome were smaller compared with the commercial X-ray bioptome. Real-time MRI guidance significantly increased the diagnostic yield of endomyocardial biopsy (82% vs. 56% on-target biopsy specimens with real-time MRI vs. X-ray guidance, p<0.01). Conclusions Endomyocardial biopsy performed using real-time MRI guidance is feasible and significantly improves the diagnostic yield compared with X-ray fluoroscopy guidance. PMID:27631028

  14. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging guidance improves the diagnostic yield of endomyocardial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Toby; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Karmarkar, Parag; Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E.; Schenke, William H.; Mazal, Jonathan R.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnostic yield of endomyocardial biopsy is low, particularly in disease that affects the myocardium in a non-uniform distribution. We hypothesized that real-time MRI guidance could improve the yield through targeted biopsy of focal myocardial pathology. Methods An animal model of focal myocardial pathology was created by infusing 3mL of fluorescent microspheres (NuFlow Hydrocoat, 15μm diameter, 5 million spheres/mL) followed by 2mL of 100% ethanol to a branch coronary artery. Animals were survived for minimum 14days, before undergoing MRI guided endomyocardial biopsy using a custom 6.5Fr active visualization MRI-conditional bioptome and X-ray guided biopsy using a commercial bioptome. Specimens were analyzed using a dissecting microscope under ultraviolet light to determine the proportion of ‘on-target’ specimens containing fluorescent microspheres. Results A total of 77 specimens were obtained using real-time MRI guidance and 87 using X-ray guidance, in five animals. Specimens obtained with the MRI-conditional bioptome were smaller compared with the commercial X-ray bioptome. Real-time MRI guidance significantly increased the diagnostic yield of endomyocardial biopsy (82% vs. 56% on-target biopsy specimens with real-time MRI vs. X-ray guidance, p<0.01). Conclusions Endomyocardial biopsy performed using real-time MRI guidance is feasible and significantly improves the diagnostic yield compared with X-ray fluoroscopy guidance.

  15. Simple Image Processing Techniques For The Contrast Enhancement Of Real-Time Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry Fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, A. R.; Kothiyal, M. P.; Sirohi, Rajpal S.

    1989-09-01

    Some simple image processing techniques are suggested that can be used for enhancing the contrast of real-time digital speckle pattern interferometry fringes. The techniques have been developed for the commercial Intellect 100 image processing system interfaced to a PDP-1 1 /23+ microcomputer, but they can be adapted to any commercial image processing system with slight modifications, if necessary, depending on the hardware configuration of the system.

  16. Real-time three-dimensional optical coherence tomography image-guided core-needle biopsy system

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Kim, Jongsik; Shemonski, Nathan D.; Chaney, Eric J.; Spillman, Darold R.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in optical imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), enable us to observe tissue microstructure at high resolution and in real time. Currently, core-needle biopsies are guided by external imaging modalities such as ultrasound imaging and x-ray computed tomography (CT) for breast and lung masses, respectively. These image-guided procedures are frequently limited by spatial resolution when using ultrasound imaging, or by temporal resolution (rapid real-time feedback capabilities) when using x-ray CT. One feasible approach is to perform OCT within small gauge needles to optically image tissue microstructure. However, to date, no system or core-needle device has been developed that incorporates both three-dimensional OCT imaging and tissue biopsy within the same needle for true OCT-guided core-needle biopsy. We have developed and demonstrate an integrated core-needle biopsy system that utilizes catheter-based 3-D OCT for real-time image-guidance for target tissue localization, imaging of tissue immediately prior to physical biopsy, and subsequent OCT imaging of the biopsied specimen for immediate assessment at the point-of-care. OCT images of biopsied ex vivo tumor specimens acquired during core-needle placement are correlated with corresponding histology, and computational visualization of arbitrary planes within the 3-D OCT volumes enables feedback on specimen tissue type and biopsy quality. These results demonstrate the potential for using real-time 3-D OCT for needle biopsy guidance by imaging within the needle and tissue during biopsy procedures. PMID:22741064

  17. Real-time computer-generated integral imaging and 3D image calibration for augmented reality surgical navigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junchen; Suenaga, Hideyuki; Liao, Hongen; Hoshi, Kazuto; Yang, Liangjing; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    Autostereoscopic 3D image overlay for augmented reality (AR) based surgical navigation has been studied and reported many times. For the purpose of surgical overlay, the 3D image is expected to have the same geometric shape as the original organ, and can be transformed to a specified location for image overlay. However, how to generate a 3D image with high geometric fidelity and quantitative evaluation of 3D image's geometric accuracy have not been addressed. This paper proposes a graphics processing unit (GPU) based computer-generated integral imaging pipeline for real-time autostereoscopic 3D display, and an automatic closed-loop 3D image calibration paradigm for displaying undistorted 3D images. Based on the proposed methods, a novel AR device for 3D image surgical overlay is presented, which mainly consists of a 3D display, an AR window, a stereo camera for 3D measurement, and a workstation for information processing. The evaluation on the 3D image rendering performance with 2560×1600 elemental image resolution shows the rendering speeds of 50-60 frames per second (fps) for surface models, and 5-8 fps for large medical volumes. The evaluation of the undistorted 3D image after the calibration yields sub-millimeter geometric accuracy. A phantom experiment simulating oral and maxillofacial surgery was also performed to evaluate the proposed AR overlay device in terms of the image registration accuracy, 3D image overlay accuracy, and the visual effects of the overlay. The experimental results show satisfactory image registration and image overlay accuracy, and confirm the system usability.

  18. Development and evaluation of a method for the quantification of airborne Thermoactinomyces vulgaris by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Betelli, Laetitia; Duquenne, Philippe; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Simon, Xavier; Scherer, Emeline; Géhin, Evelyne; Hartmann, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Actinomycetes are ubiquitous and some can be potentially pathogenic for humans when present in the air of some working areas. It's notably the case for Thermoactinomyces vulgaris in composting facilities where aerial concentrations can reach high values of more than 10(7) CFU·m(-3). Workers exposure to these inhalable bioaerosols can be the source of various diseases. The literature reveals a lack of knowledge about risk assessment: there is neither dose-effects relationship for most agents, or threshold limit value. The objectives of this study were to develop and standardize a method to quantify workers exposure to bioaerosols. We have developed and evaluated a method to quantify airborne T. vulgaris based on DNA extraction of aerial microbial communities and qPCR. Four DNA extraction protocols were compared, and primers and a hydrolysis probe were designed for specific amplification of the target species (gyrB gene). This method was compared to traditional methods based on viable or cultivable counting by epifluorescence microscopy or plating on selective media. The method was applied on environmental bioaerosols sampled under real exposure conditions in composting plants. We demonstrate that the method to quantify T. vulgaris in bioaerosols is specific, sensitive and repeatable. We demonstrate the occurrence and quantified T. vulgaris in the atmosphere of composting facilities with concentrations ranging from 3×10(2) to 3×10(6)×m(-3). PMID:23103956

  19. Technology trend in real-time, uncooled image sensors for sub-THz and THz wave detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki

    2016-05-01

    The author summarizes development of uncooled microbolometer terahertz (THz) focal plane arrays (FPAs) and real-time cameras for sub-THz and THz wave detection. The array formats are 320x240 and 640x480, and the cameras have several functions, such as lock-in imaging, external-trigger imaging, image processing (pixel binning and frame integration), beam profiling and so on. The FPAs themselves are sensitive to sub-THz, THz and infrared radiations. Active imaging systems based on the imagers are described. One of them is a real-time transmission-type THz microscope which contains a THz camera and a quantum cascade laser (QCL). The other one is an active sub-THz imaging system, where a transmission imaging mode and a reflection imaging mode can be switched with one-touch operation. Strong THz emitters, such as far-infrared gas lasers and QCLs, are strongly coherent and often produce interference fringes in an image. A method of reducing the interference fringes (beam homogenizing) is described. Microbolometer FPAs developed by other groups, antenna-coupled CMOS FPA, array detectors based on GaAs high-mobility heterostructure and so on are also summarized, which operate in real-time and at room temperature. A fair method of evaluating performance of detectors with different sizes and at different wavelengths is explained and the performances of the detectors are compared.

  20. Magnetic particle imaging: advancements and perspectives for real-time in vivo monitoring and image-guided therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablico-Lansigan, Michele H.; Situ, Shu F.; Samia, Anna Cristina S.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging biomedical imaging technology that allows the direct quantitative mapping of the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. MPI's increased sensitivity and short image acquisition times foster the creation of tomographic images with high temporal and spatial resolution. The contrast and sensitivity of MPI is envisioned to transcend those of other medical imaging modalities presently used, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray scans, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this review, we present an overview of the recent advances in the rapidly developing field of MPI. We begin with a basic introduction of the fundamentals of MPI, followed by some highlights over the past decade of the evolution of strategies and approaches used to improve this new imaging technique. We also examine the optimization of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers used for imaging, underscoring the importance of size homogeneity and surface engineering. Finally, we present some future research directions for MPI, emphasizing the novel and exciting opportunities that it offers as an important tool for real-time in vivo monitoring. All these opportunities and capabilities that MPI presents are now seen as potential breakthrough innovations in timely disease diagnosis, implant monitoring, and image-guided therapeutics.

  1. A Real-Time Imaging System for Stereo Atomic Microscopy at SPring-8's BL25SU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Tomohiro; Guo, Fang Zhun; Muro, Takayuki; Matsui, Fumihiko; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a real-time photoelectron angular distribution (PEAD) and Auger-electron angular distribution (AEAD) imaging system at SPring-8 BL25SU, Japan. In addition, a real-time imaging system for circular dichroism (CD) studies of PEAD/AEAD has been newly developed. Two PEAD images recorded with left- and right-circularly polarized light can be regarded as a stereo image of the atomic arrangement. A two-dimensional display type mirror analyzer (DIANA) has been installed at the beamline, making it possible to record PEAD/AEAD patterns with an acceptance angle of ±60° in real-time. The twin-helical undulators at BL25SU enable helicity switching of the circularly polarized light at 10Hz, 1Hz or 0.1Hz. In order to realize real-time measurements of the CD of the PEAD/AEAD, the CCD camera must be synchronized to the switching frequency. The VME computer that controls the ID is connected to the measurement computer with two BNC cables, and the helicity information is sent using TTL signals. For maximum flexibility, rather than using a hardware shutter synchronizing with the TTL signal we have developed software to synchronize the CCD shutter with the TTL signal. We have succeeded in synchronizing the CCD camera in both the 1Hz and 0.1Hz modes.

  2. On-chip image-processing algorithm for real-time CCD-based star trackers and wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielowski, Marek

    1994-05-01

    In this paper, we describe on-chip and off-chip image-processing algorithms utilizing the internal architecture of recently developed CCD sensors to provide high-speed readout of selected portions of the imager or accelerated scanning of an entire CCD frame. Image-processing time comparable to the star-tracker sensor exposure time and to the characteristic time of the atmospheric fluctuations (10 ms) has been achieved. On-chip image processing is particularly suitable for space or ground-based real-time applications (position determination, tip-tilt correctors, wavefront sensing for adaptive optics systems) where the speed of acquisition and processing data from the 'regions of interest' is critical. An example of a star tracker (based on the Texas Instruments TC217 CCD image sensor) for space applications capable of providing real-time multiple position updates with high angular resolution is given and achieved performance is discussed.

  3. Real-time augmentation of USDA yield grade application to beef carcasses using video image analysis.

    PubMed

    Steiner, R; Wyle, A M; Vote, D J; Belk, K E; Scanga, J A; Wise, J W; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C

    2003-09-01

    In two phases, this study assessed the ability of two video image analysis (VIA) instruments, VIASCAN and Computer Vision System (CVS), to augment assignment of yield grades (YG) to beef carcasses to 0.1 of a YG at commercial packing plant speeds and to test cutout prediction accuracy of a YG augmentation system that used a prototype augmentation touchpanel grading display (designed to operate commercially in real-time). In Phase I, beef carcasses (n = 505) were circulated twice at commercial chain speeds (340 carcasses per hour) by 12 on-line USDA graders. During the first pass, on-line graders assigned a whole-number YG and a quality grade (QG) to carcasses as they would normally. During the second pass, on-line graders assigned only adjusted preliminary yield grades (APYG) and QG to carcasses, whereas the two VIA instruments measured the longissimus muscle area (LMA) of each carcass. Kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (KPH) was removed and weighed to allow computation of actual KPH percentage. Those traits were compared to the expert YG and expert YG factors. On-line USDA graders' APYG were closely related (r = 0.83) to expert APYG. Instrument-measured LMA were closely related (r = 0.88 and 0.94; mean absolute error = 0.3 and 0.2 YG units, for VIASCAN and CVS, respectively) to expert LMA. When YG were augmented using instrument-measured LMA and computed either including or neglecting actual KPH percentage, YG were closely related (r = 0.93 and 0.92, mean absolute error = 0.32 and 0.40 YG units, respectively, using VIASCAN-measured LMA; r = 0.95 and 0.94, mean absolute error = 0.24 and 0.34 YG units, respectively, using CVS-measured LMA) to expert YG. In Phase II, augmented YG were assigned (0.1 of a YG) to beef carcasses (n = 290) at commercial chain speeds using VIASCAN and CVS to determine LMA, whereas APYG and QG were determined by online graders via a touch-panel display. On-line grader YG (whole-number), expert grader YG (to the nearest 0.1 of a YG), and VIASCAN

  4. Implementation of real-time nonuniformity correction with multiple NUC tables using FPGA in an uncooled imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Gyong Jin; Kim, Lyang-June; Sheen, Sue-Ho; Koo, Gyou-Phyo; Jin, Sang-Hun; Yeo, Bo-Yeon; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a real time implementation of Non Uniformity Correction (NUC). Two point correction and one point correction with shutter were carried out in an uncooled imaging system which will be applied to a missile application. To design a small, light weight and high speed imaging system for a missile system, SoPC (System On a Programmable Chip) which comprises of FPGA and soft core (Micro-blaze) was used. Real time NUC and generation of control signals are implemented using FPGA. Also, three different NUC tables were made to make the operating time shorter and to reduce the power consumption in a large range of environment temperature. The imaging system consists of optics and four electronics boards which are detector interface board, Analog to Digital converter board, Detector signal generation board and Power supply board. To evaluate the imaging system, NETD was measured. The NETD was less than 160mK in three different environment temperatures.

  5. Real-time image-content-based beamline control for smart 4D X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Vogelgesang, Matthias; Farago, Tomas; Morgeneyer, Thilo F; Helfen, Lukas; Dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Myagotin, Anton; Baumbach, Tilo

    2016-09-01

    Real-time processing of X-ray image data acquired at synchrotron radiation facilities allows for smart high-speed experiments. This includes workflows covering parameterized and image-based feedback-driven control up to the final storage of raw and processed data. Nevertheless, there is presently no system that supports an efficient construction of such experiment workflows in a scalable way. Thus, here an architecture based on a high-level control system that manages low-level data acquisition, data processing and device changes is described. This system is suitable for routine as well as prototypical experiments, and provides specialized building blocks to conduct four-dimensional in situ, in vivo and operando tomography and laminography. PMID:27577784

  6. Dynamic keyhole: A novel method to improve MR images in the presence of respiratory motion for real-time MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Danny; Pollock, Sean; Whelan, Brendan; Keall, Paul; Kim, Taeho

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors present a novel magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction method to improve the quality of MR images in the presence of respiratory motion for real-time thoracic image-guided radiotherapy. Methods: This new reconstruction method is called dynamic keyhole and utilizes a library of previously acquired, peripheral k-space datasets from the same (or similar) respiratory state in conjunction with central k-space datasets acquired in real-time. Internal or external respiratory signals are utilized to sort, match, and combine the two separate peripheral and central k-space datasets with respect to respiratory displacement, thereby reducing acquisition time and improving image quality without respiratory-related artifacts. In this study, the dynamic keyhole, conventional keyhole, and zero-filling methods were compared to full k-space acquisition (ground truth) for 60 coronal datasets acquired from 15 healthy human subjects. Results: For the same image-quality difference from the ground-truth image, the dynamic keyhole method reused 79% of the prior peripheral phase-encoding lines, while the conventional keyhole reused 73% and zero-filling 63% (p-value < 0.0001), corresponding to faster acquisition speed of dynamic keyhole for real-time imaging applications. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the dynamic keyhole method is a promising technique for clinical applications such as image-guided radiotherapy requiring real-time MR monitoring of the thoracic region. Based on the results from this study, the dynamic keyhole method could increase the temporal resolution by a factor of five compared with full k-space methods.

  7. Cancer cell-targeted two-photon fluorescence probe for the real-time ratiometric imaging of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Kui; Xuan, Xiaopeng; Lv, Qingzhang; Nie, Yamin; Guo, Haiming

    2016-05-01

    Real-time imaging of DNA damage in cancer cells could provide valuable information on the formation and development of cancer. Herein, a two-photon fluorescence probe was discovered. Through sequential ICT processes, it allows successful in vivo visualization of DNA damage in cancer cells by one/two-photon microscopic imaging or by the unaided eye and a hand-held ultraviolet lamp. PMID:27087314

  8. Ultrabright organic dots with aggregation-induced emission characteristics for real-time two-photon intravital vasculature imaging.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dan; Goh, Chi Ching; Feng, Guangxue; Zhao, Zujin; Liu, Jie; Liu, Rongrong; Tomczak, Nikodem; Geng, Junlong; Tang, Ben Zhong; Ng, Lai Guan; Liu, Bin

    2013-11-13

    Ultrabright organic dots with aggregation-induced emission characteristics (AIE dots) are prepared and shown to exhibit a high quantum yield, a, large two-photon absorption cross-section, and low in vivo toxicity. Real-time two-photon intravital blood vascular imaging in various tissues substantiates that the AIE dots are effective probes for in vivo vasculature imaging in a deep and high-contrast manner.

  9. Real-time implementation of frequency-modulated continuous-wave synthetic aperture radar imaging using field programmable gate array.

    PubMed

    Quan, Yinghui; Li, Yachao; Hu, Guibin; Xing, Mengdao

    2015-06-01

    A new miniature linear frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar which mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle is presented. It allows the accomplishment of high resolution synthetic aperture radar imaging in real-time. Only a Kintex-7 field programmable gate array from Xilinx is utilized for whole signal processing of sophisticated radar imaging algorithms. The proposed hardware architecture achieves remarkable improvement in integration, power consumption, volume, and computing performance over its predecessor designs. The realized design is verified by flight campaigns.

  10. Coarse-grained and fine-grained parallel optimization for real-time en-face OCT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapinchev, Konstantin; Bradu, Adrian; Barnes, Frederick; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents parallel optimizations in the en-face (C-scan) optical coherence tomography (OCT) display. Compared with the cross-sectional (B-scan) imagery, the production of en-face images is more computationally demanding, due to the increased size of the data handled by the digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms. A sequential implementation of the DSP leads to a limited number of real-time generated en-face images. There are OCT applications, where simultaneous production of large number of en-face images from multiple depths is required, such as real-time diagnostics and monitoring of surgery and ablation. In sequential computing, this requirement leads to a significant increase of the time to process the data and to generate the images. As a result, the processing time exceeds the acquisition time and the image generation is not in real-time. In these cases, not producing en-face images in real-time makes the OCT system ineffective. Parallel optimization of the DSP algorithms provides a solution to this problem. Coarse-grained central processing unit (CPU) based and fine-grained graphics processing unit (GPU) based parallel implementations of the conventional Fourier domain (CFD) OCT method and the Master-Slave Interferometry (MSI) OCT method are studied. In the coarse-grained CPU implementation, each parallel thread processes the whole OCT frame and generates a single en-face image. The corresponding fine-grained GPU implementation launches one parallel thread for every data point from the OCT frame and thus achieves maximum parallelism. The performance and scalability of the CPU-based and GPU-based parallel approaches are analyzed and compared. The quality and the resolution of the images generated by the CFD method and the MSI method are also discussed and compared.

  11. Multihit two-dimensional charged-particle imaging system with real-time image processing at 1000 frames/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horio, Takuya; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2009-01-01

    A high-speed imaging system developed for two-dimensional counting of charged particles is presented. Microchannel plates coupled with a phosphor screen of a short emission lifetime (<1 μs) are used to visualize the two-dimensional positions of charged-particle impacts, and the image on the phosphor screen is captured with a 1 kHz complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor (512×512 pixels). A multistage image intensifier consisting of the first and second generation devices was used to compensate for the low sensitivity of CMOS. The centers of gravity (COG) of individual light spots in each image frame are calculated in real time by a field programmable gate array circuit. The performance of this system is tested by time-resolved photoelectron imaging (TR-PEI) of NO using (1+1') resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization via the A Σ2+ state with a femtosecond laser operated at 1 kHz. The new system enabled COG detection for more than ten particles in each frame at 1 kHz and achieved an extremely high degree of accuracy in the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions in TR-PEI.

  12. Flexible imaging payload for real-time fluorescent biological imaging in parabolic, suborbital and space analog environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, Matthew T.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Graham, Thomas; Ferl, Robert J.

    2014-10-01

    utilized to assess, in real-time, the response of plants to novel environments including various spaceflight analogs, including several parabolic flight environments as well as hypobaric plant growth chambers. Basic performance results obtained under these operational environments, as well as laboratory-based tests are described. The Flex Imager has also been designed to be compatible with emerging suborbital platforms.

  13. A Miniature Forward-imaging B-scan Optical Coherence Tomography Probe to Guide Real-time Laser Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuoyan; Shen, Jin H.; Kozub, John A.; Prasad, Ratna; Lu, Pengcheng; Joos, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Investigations have shown that pulsed lasers tuned to 6.1 μm in wavelength are capable of ablating ocular and neural tissue with minimal collateral damage. This study investigated whether a miniature B-scan forward-imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe can be combined with the laser to provide real-time visual feedback during laser incisions. Study Design/Methods and Materials A miniature 25-gauge B-scan forward-imaging OCT probe was developed and combined with a 250 μm hollow-glass waveguide to permit delivery of 6.1 μm laser energy. A gelatin mixture and both porcine corneal and retinal tissues were simultaneously imaged and lased (6.1 μm, 10 Hz, 0.4-0.7 mJ) through air. The ablation studies were observed and recorded in real time. The crater dimensions were measured using OCT imaging software (Bioptigen, Durham, NC). Histological analysis was performed on the ocular tissues. Results The combined miniature forward-imaging OCT and mid-infrared laser-delivery probe successfully imaged real-time tissue ablation in gelatin, corneal tissue, and retinal tissue. Application of a constant number of 60 pulses at 0.5 mJ/pulse to the gelatin resulted in a mean crater depth of 123 ± 15 μm. For the corneal tissue, there was a significant correlation between the number of pulses used and depth of the lased hole (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.82; P = 0.0002). Histological analysis of the cornea and retina tissues showed discrete holes with minimal thermal damage. Conclusions A combined miniature OCT and laser -delivery probe can monitor real-time tissue laser ablation. With additional testing and improvements, this novel instrument has the future possibility of effectively guiding surgeries by simultaneously imaging and ablating tissue. PMID:24648326

  14. Real-time photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging system facilitated with graphics processing unit and code parallel optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jie; Xu, Guan; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding; Liu, Xiaojun

    2013-08-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers structural and functional imaging of living biological tissue with highly sensitive optical absorption contrast and excellent spatial resolution comparable to medical ultrasound (US) imaging. We report the development of a fully integrated PAT and US dual-modality imaging system, which performs signal scanning, image reconstruction, and display for both photoacoustic (PA) and US imaging all in a truly real-time manner. The back-projection (BP) algorithm for PA image reconstruction is optimized to reduce the computational cost and facilitate parallel computation on a state of the art graphics processing unit (GPU) card. For the first time, PAT and US imaging of the same object can be conducted simultaneously and continuously, at a real-time frame rate, presently limited by the laser repetition rate of 10 Hz. Noninvasive PAT and US imaging of human peripheral joints in vivo were achieved, demonstrating the satisfactory image quality realized with this system. Another experiment, simultaneous PAT and US imaging of contrast agent flowing through an artificial vessel, was conducted to verify the performance of this system for imaging fast biological events. The GPU-based image reconstruction software code for this dual-modality system is open source and available for download from http://sourceforge.net/projects/patrealtime.

  15. A real-time photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging system facilitated with GPU and code parallel optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jie; Xu, Guan; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding; Liu, Xiaojun

    2014-03-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers structural and functional imaging of living biological tissue with highly sensitive optical absorption contrast and excellent spatial resolution comparable to medical ultrasound (US) imaging. We report the development of a fully integrated PAT and US dual-modality imaging system, which performs signal scanning, image reconstruction and display for both photoacoustic (PA) and US imaging all in a truly real-time manner. The backprojection (BP) algorithm for PA image reconstruction is optimized to reduce the computational cost and facilitate parallel computation on a state of the art graphics processing unit (GPU) card. For the first time, PAT and US imaging of the same object can be conducted simultaneously and continuously, at a real time frame rate, presently limited by the laser repetition rate of 10 Hz. Noninvasive PAT and US imaging of human peripheral joints in vivo were achieved, demonstrating the satisfactory image quality realized with this system. Another experiment, simultaneous PAT and US imaging of contrast agent flowing through an artificial vessel was conducted to verify the performance of this system for imaging fast biological events. The GPU based image reconstruction software code for this dual-modality system is open source and available for download from http://sourceforge.net/projects/pat realtime .

  16. Real time facial expression recognition from image sequences using support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsia, I.; Pitas, I.

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, a real-time method is proposed as a solution to the problem of facial expression classi cation in video sequences. The user manually places some of the Candide grid nodes to the face depicted at the rst frame. The grid adaptation system, based on deformable models, tracks the entire Candide grid as the facial expression evolves through time, thus producing a grid that corresponds to the greatest intensity of the facial expression, as shown at the last frame. Certain points that are involved into creating the Facial Action Units movements are selected. Their geometrical displacement information, de ned as the coordinates' dierence between the last and the rst frame, is extracted to be the input to a six class Support Vector Machine system. The output of the system is the facial expression recognized. The proposed real-time system, recognizes the 6 basic facial expressions with an approximately 98% accuracy.

  17. On-loom, real-time, noncontact detection of fabric defects by ultrasonic imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, H. T.

    1998-09-08

    A noncontact, on-loom ultrasonic inspection technique was developed for real-time 100% defect inspection of fabrics. A prototype was built and tested successfully on loom. The system is compact, rugged, low cost, requires minimal maintenance, is not sensitive to fabric color and vibration, and can easily be adapted to current loom configurations. Moreover, it can detect defects in both the pick and warp directions. The system is capable of determining the size, location, and orientation of each defect. To further improve the system, air-coupled transducers with higher efficiency and sensitivity need to be developed. Advanced detection algorithms also need to be developed for better classification and categorization of defects in real-time.

  18. Imaging the Ocular Anterior Segment With Real-Time, Full-Range Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Sarunic, Marinko V.; Asrani, Sanjay; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    We have demonstrated a novel Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system and signal-processing algorithm for full-range, real-time, artifact-free quantitative imaging of the anterior chamber. Cross-sectional full-range images comprising 1024×800 pixels (axial×lateral) were acquired and displayed at 6.7 images/s. Volumetric data comprising 1024×400×60 pixels (axial×lateral×elevation) were acquired in 4.5 seconds with real-time visualization of individual slices and 3-dimensional reconstruction performed in postprocessing. Details of the cornea, limbus, iris, anterior lens capsule, trabecular meshwork, and Schlemm’s canal were visualized. Quantitative surface height maps of the corneal epithelium and endothelium were obtained from the volumetric data and used to generate corneal thickness maps. PMID:18413525

  19. Real-time navigation in transoral robotic nasopharyngectomy utilizing on table fluoroscopy and image overlay software: a cadaveric feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Raymond K; Sorger, Jonathan M; Azizian, Mahdi; Holsinger, Christopher F

    2015-12-01

    Inability to integrate surgical navigation systems into current surgical robot is one of the reasons for the lack of development of robotic endoscopic skull base surgery. We describe an experiment to adapt current technologies for real-time navigation during transoral robotic nasopharyngectomy. A cone-beam CT was performed with a robotic C-arm after the injecting contrast into common carotid artery. 3D reconstruction of the skull images with the internal carotid artery (ICA) highlighted red was projected on the console. Robotic nasopharyngectomy was then performed. Fluoroscopy was performed with the C-arm. Fluoroscopic image was then overlaid on the reconstructed skull image. The relationship of the robotic instruments with the bony landmarks and ICA could then been viewed in real-time, acting as a surgical navigation system. Navigation during robotic skull base surgery is feasible with available technologies and can increase the safety of robotic skull base surgery.

  20. Using dual-energy x-ray imaging to enhance automated lung tumor tracking during real-time adaptive radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Menten, Martin J. Fast, Martin F.; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Real-time, markerless localization of lung tumors with kV imaging is often inhibited by ribs obscuring the tumor and poor soft-tissue contrast. This study investigates the use of dual-energy imaging, which can generate radiographs with reduced bone visibility, to enhance automated lung tumor tracking for real-time adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: kV images of an anthropomorphic breathing chest phantom were experimentally acquired and radiographs of actual lung cancer patients were Monte-Carlo-simulated at three imaging settings: low-energy (70 kVp, 1.5 mAs), high-energy (140 kVp, 2.5 mAs, 1 mm additional tin filtration), and clinical (120 kVp, 0.25 mAs). Regular dual-energy images were calculated by weighted logarithmic subtraction of high- and low-energy images and filter-free dual-energy images were generated from clinical and low-energy radiographs. The weighting factor to calculate the dual-energy images was determined by means of a novel objective score. The usefulness of dual-energy imaging for real-time tracking with an automated template matching algorithm was investigated. Results: Regular dual-energy imaging was able to increase tracking accuracy in left–right images of the anthropomorphic phantom as well as in 7 out of 24 investigated patient cases. Tracking accuracy remained comparable in three cases and decreased in five cases. Filter-free dual-energy imaging was only able to increase accuracy in 2 out of 24 cases. In four cases no change in accuracy was observed and tracking accuracy worsened in nine cases. In 9 out of 24 cases, it was not possible to define a tracking template due to poor soft-tissue contrast regardless of input images. The mean localization errors using clinical, regular dual-energy, and filter-free dual-energy radiographs were 3.85, 3.32, and 5.24 mm, respectively. Tracking success was dependent on tumor position, tumor size, imaging beam angle, and patient size. Conclusions: This study has highlighted the influence of

  1. Ocean variability around Cape Verde Archipelago from near real time satellite altimetry and SST images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lázaro, C.; Fernandes, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    In this work, the synergy of data acquired by the radar altimeter (RA) and the infrared radiometer (ATSR-2/IRR) aboard the ERS-2 satellite, presently available in near real time, is exploited. The aim is to extract valid oceanographic information for the characterisation of ocean circulation around the Cape Verde Archipelago (North Atlantic Ocean) and its seasonal variability. For the data acquisition period (June 2001 to May 2002, ERS-2 cycles 64 to 73), synoptic maps representing sea surface temperature (SST) and absolute dynamic topography (ADT) values for each cycle were created. The methodology adopted for the near real time data processing is described. As the accuracy of the orbit and geophysical corrections is a fundamental issue in the evaluation of altimetric data, the near real time products were compared with the OPR products, which have several months of latency. Based upon the ADT values, intensity and direction of surface geostrophic currents were calculated. The SST variability was investigated and compared with the absolute dynamic topography variability. The seasonal cycle of the oceanographic characteristics, as extracted from the combined analysis of the two variables, is perfectly visible along the year of study.

  2. Real-Time Variable-Resolution Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Image Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Yang; Wang, Jian-Jie; Lin, Chrong-Jung; King, Ya-Chin

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, a new, efficient and simple complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect transistors (FETs) image sensor (CIS) readout architecture providing both real-time variable-resolution image sensing and dynamic range boosting functions is presented. The proposed correlated-double-sampling (CDS) circuit can not only reduce fixed-pattern noise (FPN) but also output the lower resolution image by real-time averaging of four pixels' signals in square 2 ×2 pixels in variable-resolution mode. Variable-resolution imaging can effectively reduce the complexity of the signal process, release the loading of processing units, and accelerate the data processing in motion detection and object tracking operations. In addition, the new CDS circuit can extend dynamic range of a sensor array by analog combining the signals from different integration lengths. The new designed circuits can replace typical CDS readout circuits in typical CIS arrays to provide real-time, accurate resolution-variable imaging and dynamic range boosting without additional overhead on digital circuits.

  3. Real-time short-wave infrared hyperspectral conformal imaging sensor for the detection of threat materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Matthew P.; Shi, Lei; Zbur, Lucas; Priore, Ryan J.; Treado, Patrick J.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems can provide sensitive and specific detection and identification of high value targets in the presence of complex backgrounds. However, current generation sensors are typically large and costly to field, and do not usually operate in real-time. Sensors that are capable of real-time operation have to compromise on the number of spectral bands, image definition, and/or the number of targets being detected. Additionally, these systems command a high cost and are typically designed and configured for specific mission profiles, making them unable to adapt to multiple threats within often rapidly evolving and dynamic missions. Despite these shortcomings, HSI-based sensors have proven to be valuable tools, thus resulting in increased demand for HSI technology. A cost-effective sensor system that can easily and quickly adapt to accomplish significantly different tasks in a changing environment is highly desirable. The capability to detect and identify user-defined targets in complex backgrounds under a range of varying conditions with an easily reconfigured, automated, real-time, portable HSI sensor is a critical need. ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISSTM) is developing a novel real-time, adaptable, compressive sensing short-wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging technology called the Reconfigurable Conformal Imaging Sensor (RCIS). RCIS will address many shortcomings of current generation systems and offer improvements in operational agility and detection performance, while addressing sensor weight, form factor and cost needs. This paper discusses the development of the RCIS system, and considers its application in various use scenarios.

  4. Apparatus for real-time acoustic imaging of Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, Kerry, K.

    2008-10-28

    We have successfully designed, built and tested an experimental apparatus which is capable of providing the first real-time ultrasound images of Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection in optically opaque fluids confined to large aspect ratio experimental cells. The apparatus employs a modified version of a commercially available ultrasound camera to capture images (30 frames per second) of flow patterns in a fluid undergoing Rayleigh Bénard convection. The apparatus was validated by observing convection rolls in 5cSt polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer fluid. Our first objective, after having built the apparatus, was to use it to study the sequence of transitions from diffusive to time--dependent heat transport in liquid mercury. The aim was to provide important information on pattern formation in the largely unexplored regime of very low Prandtl number fluids. Based on the theoretical stability diagram for liquid mercury, we anticipated that straight rolls should be stable over a range of Rayleigh numbers, between 1708 and approximately 1900. Though some of our power spectral densities were suggestive of the existence of weak convection, we have been unable to unambiguously visualize stable convection rolls above the theoretical onset of convection in liquid mercury. Currently, we are seeking ways to increase the sensitivity of our apparatus, such as (i) improving the acoustic impedance matching between our materials in the ultrasound path and (ii) reducing the noise level in our acoustic images due to turbulence and cavitation in the cooling fluids circulating above and below our experimental cell. If we are able to convincingly improve the sensitivity of our apparatus, and we still do not observe stable convection rolls in liquid mercury, then it may be the case that the theoretical stability diagram requires revision. In that case, either (i) straight rolls are not stable in a large aspect ratio cell at the Prandtl numbers associated with liquid mercury, or (ii) they

  5. Real-time target detection technology of large view-field infrared image based on multicore DSP parallel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gang; Liu, Songlin; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Zengping

    2013-10-01

    In order to implement real-time detection of hedgehopping target in large view-field infrared (LVIR) image, the paper proposes a fast algorithm flow to extract the target region of interest (ROI). The ground building region was rejected quickly and target ROI was segmented roughly through the background classification. Then the background image containing target ROI was matched with previous frame based on a mean removal normalized product correlation (MRNPC) similarity measure function. Finally, the target motion area was extracted by inter-frame difference in time domain. According to the proposed algorithm flow, this paper designs the high-speed real-time signal processing hardware platform based on FPGA + DSP, and also presents a new parallel processing strategy that called function-level and task-level, which could parallel process LVIR image by multi-core and multi-task. Experimental results show that the algorithm can extract low altitude aero target with complex background in large view effectively, and the new design hardware platform could implement real time processing of the IR image with 50000x288 pixels per second in large view-field infrared search system (LVIRSS).

  6. Real-time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  7. Implementation of a real-time software-only image smoothing filter for a block-transform video codec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miaw, Wesley F.; Rowe, Lawrence A.

    2003-05-01

    The JPEG compression standard is a popular image format. However, at high compression ratios JPEG compression, which uses block-transform coding, can produce blocking artifacts, or artificially introduced edges within the image. Several post-processing algorithms have been developed to remove these artifacts. This paper describes an implementation of a post-processing algorithm developed by Ramchandran, Chou, and Crouse (RCC) which is fast enough for real-time software-only video applications. The original implementation of the RCC algorithm involved calculating thresholds to identify artificial edges. These calculations proved too expensive for use in real-time software-only applications. We replaced these calculations with a linear scale approximating ideal threshold values based on a combination of peak signal-to-noise ratio calculations and subjective visual quality. The resulting filter implementation is available in the widely-deployed Open Mash streaming media toolkit.

  8. Breast Filariasis Diagnosed by Real Time Sonographic Imaging: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sherwani, Poonam; Singhal, Shweta; Kumar, Nidhi; Narula, Mahender Kaur; Anand, Rama; Pathania, Om Prakash

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presented with a palpable subcutaneous nodule in the areolar region of the left breast. Sonomammographic examination revealed 2 cystic lesions showing typical "filarial dance" as vigorous twirling movement of multiple curvilinear echoes with mixed red blue color Doppler signals that was non-rhythmic, nonpulsatile, and the characteristic pulse Doppler trace due to irregular worm movement. Real time sonographic demonstration of these typical features is pathognomonic for filariasis, especially in endemic areas and treatment should be initiated without delay on the basis of ultrasound. PMID:27110331

  9. Incorporation of thermal shadows into real-time infrared three-dimensional image generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Andreas; Nischwitz, Alfred; Schätz, Peter; Obermeier, Paul

    2014-05-01

    In the infrared spectrum, two contributions to shadows exist: one part is reflective shadows resulting from occlusion of instantly reflected infrared rays, and the other part is thermal (IR) shadows occurring through occlusion of irradiance in the past. The realization of thermal shadows requires a thermal balance calculation in four-dimensions (three-dimensional geometry in one-dimensional time), which is computationally expensive, and therefore mostly used for nonreal-time simulations. We present an approximation of thermal shadows resulting from the occlusion of direct rays from IR emitters. Our approach uses programmable graphics cards to achieve real-time frame rates in scenes with dynamic geometry.

  10. Real-time functional magnetic imaging-brain-computer interface and virtual reality promising tools for the treatment of pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Patrice; Joyal, Christian; Stoleru, Serge; Goyette, Mathieu; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Birbaumer, Niels

    2011-01-01

    This chapter proposes a prospective view on using a real-time functional magnetic imaging (rt-fMRI) brain-computer interface (BCI) application as a new treatment for pedophilia. Neurofeedback mediated by interactive virtual stimuli is presented as the key process in this new BCI application. Results on the diagnostic discriminant power of virtual characters depicting sexual stimuli relevant to pedophilia are given. Finally, practical and ethical implications are briefly addressed.

  11. Medical applications of fast 3D cameras in real-time image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shidong; Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Dynamic volumetric medical imaging (4DMI) has reduced motion artifacts, increased early diagnosis of small mobile tumors, and improved target definition for treatment planning. High speed cameras for video, X-ray, or other forms of sequential imaging allow a live tracking of external or internal movement useful for real-time image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). However, none of 4DMI can track real-time organ motion and no camera has correlated with 4DMI to show volumetric changes. With a brief review of various IGRT techniques, we propose a fast 3D camera for live-video stereovision, an automatic surface-motion identifier to classify body or respiratory motion, a mechanical model for synchronizing the external surface movement with the internal target displacement by combination use of the real-time stereovision and pre-treatment 4DMI, and dynamic multi-leaf collimation for adaptive aiming the moving target. Our preliminary results demonstrate that the technique is feasible and efficient in IGRT of mobile targets. A clinical trial has been initiated for validation of its spatial and temporal accuracies and dosimetric impact for intensity-modulated RT (IMRT), volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of any mobile tumors. The technique can be extended for surface-guided stereotactic needle insertion in biopsy of small lung nodules.

  12. Solid-State Multi-Sensor Array System for Real Time Imaging of Magnetic Fields and Ferrous Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, D.; Gaydecki, P.; Quek, S.; Torres, V.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper the development of a solid-state sensors based system for real-time imaging of magnetic fields and ferrous objects is described. The system comprises 1089 magneto inductive solid state sensors arranged in a 2D array matrix of 33×33 files and columns, equally spaced in order to cover an approximate area of 300 by 300 mm. The sensor array is located within a large current-carrying coil. Data is sampled from the sensors by several DSP controlling units and finally streamed to a host computer via a USB 2.0 interface and the image generated and displayed at a rate of 20 frames per minute. The development of the instrumentation has been complemented by extensive numerical modeling of field distribution patterns using boundary element methods. The system was originally intended for deployment in the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of reinforced concrete. Nevertheless, the system is not only capable of producing real-time, live video images of the metal target embedded within any opaque medium, it also allows the real-time visualization and determination of the magnetic field distribution emitted by either permanent magnets or geometries carrying current. Although this system was initially developed for the NDE arena, it could also have many potential applications in many other fields, including medicine, security, manufacturing, quality assurance and design involving magnetic fields.

  13. Real time three-dimensional space video rate sensors for millimeter waves imaging based very inexpensive plasma LED lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanon, Assaf; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Kopeika, Natan S.; Rozban, Daniel; Abramovich, Amir

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, much effort has been invested to develop inexpensive but sensitive Millimeter Wave (MMW) detectors that can be used in focal plane arrays (FPAs), in order to implement real time MMW imaging. Real time MMW imaging systems are required for many varied applications in many fields as homeland security, medicine, communications, military products and space technology. It is mainly because this radiation has high penetration and good navigability through dust storm, fog, heavy rain, dielectric materials, biological tissue, and diverse materials. Moreover, the atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is relatively low and the scattering is also low compared to NIR and VIS. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging systems makes it difficult to provide a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. In last few years we advanced in research and development of sensors using very inexpensive (30-50 cents) Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) plasma indicator lamps as MMW detectors. This paper presents three kinds of GDD sensor based lamp Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). Those three kinds of cameras are different in the number of detectors, scanning operation, and detection method. The 1st and 2nd generations are 8 × 8 pixel array and an 18 × 2 mono-rail scanner array respectively, both of them for direct detection and limited to fixed imaging. The last designed sensor is a multiplexing frame rate of 16x16 GDD FPA. It permits real time video rate imaging of 30 frames/ sec and comprehensive 3D MMW imaging. The principle of detection in this sensor is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system while each of the 16 GDD pixel lines is sampled simultaneously. Direct detection is also possible and can be done with a friendly user interface. This FPA sensor is built over 256 commercial GDD lamps with 3 mm diameter International Light, Inc., Peabody, MA model 527 Ne indicator lamps as pixel detectors. All three sensors are fully supported

  14. Implementation of a near-real time cross-border web-mapping platform on airborne particulate matter (PM) concentration with open-source software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knörchen, Achim; Ketzler, Gunnar; Schneider, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Although Europe has been growing together for the past decades, cross-border information platforms on environmental issues are still scarce. With regard to the establishment of a web-mapping tool on airborne particulate matter (PM) concentration for the Euregio Meuse-Rhine located in the border region of Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands, this article describes the research on methodical and technical backgrounds implementing such a platform. An open-source solution was selected for presenting the data in a Web GIS (OpenLayers/GeoExt; both JavaScript-based), applying other free tools for data handling (Python), data management (PostgreSQL), geo-statistical modelling (Octave), geoprocessing (GRASS GIS/GDAL) and web mapping (MapServer). The multilingual, made-to-order online platform provides access to near-real time data on PM concentration as well as additional background information. In an open data section, commented configuration files for the Web GIS client are being made available for download. Furthermore, all geodata generated by the project is being published under public domain and can be retrieved in various formats or integrated into Desktop GIS as Web Map Services (WMS).

  15. Combined kV and MV imaging for real-time tracking of implanted fiducial markers1

    PubMed Central

    Wiersma, R. D.; Mao, Weihua; Xing, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the presence of intrafraction organ motion, target localization uncertainty can greatly hamper the advantage of highly conformal dose techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). To minimize the adverse dosimetric effect caused by tumor motion, a real-time knowledge of the tumor position is required throughout the beam delivery process. The recent integration of onboard kV diagnostic imaging together with MV electronic portal imaging devices on linear accelerators can allow for real-time three-dimensional (3D) tumor position monitoring during a treatment delivery. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a near real-time 3D internal fiducial tracking system based on the combined use of kV and MV imaging. A commercially available radiotherapy system equipped with both kV and MV imaging systems was used in this work. A hardware video frame grabber was used to capture both kV and MV video streams simultaneously through independent video channels at 30 frames per second. The fiducial locations were extracted from the kV and MV images using a software tool. The geometric tracking capabilities of the system were evaluated using a pelvic phantom with embedded fiducials placed on a moveable stage. The maximum tracking speed of the kV∕MV system is approximately 9 Hz, which is primarily limited by the frame rate of the MV imager. The geometric accuracy of the system is found to be on the order of less than 1 mm in all three spatial dimensions. The technique requires minimal hardware modification and is potentially useful for image-guided radiation therapy systems. PMID:18491510

  16. Application of the Karhunen-Loeve transform temporal image filter to reduce noise in real-time cardiac cine MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yu; Chung, Yiu-Cho; Raman, Subha V.; Simonetti, Orlando P.

    2009-06-01

    Real-time dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically sacrifices the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to achieve higher spatial and temporal resolution. Spatial and/or temporal filtering (e.g., low-pass filtering or averaging) of dynamic images improves the SNR at the expense of edge sharpness. We describe the application of a temporal filter for dynamic MR image series based on the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) to remove random noise without blurring stationary or moving edges and requiring no training data. In this paper, we present several properties of this filter and their effects on filter performance, and propose an automatic way to find the filter cutoff based on the autocorrelation of the eigenimages. Numerical simulation and in vivo real-time cardiac cine MR image series spanning multiple cardiac cycles acquired using multi-channel sensitivity-encoded MRI, i.e., parallel imaging, are used to validate and demonstrate these properties. We found that in this application, the noise standard deviation was reduced to 42% of the original with no apparent image blurring by using the proposed filter cutoff. Greater noise reduction can be achieved by increasing the length of the image series. This advantage of KLT filtering provides flexibility in the form of another scan parameter to trade for SNR.

  17. Real-time atmospheric imaging and processing with hybrid adaptive optics and hardware accelerated lucky-region fusion (LRF) algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jony Jiang; Carhart, Gary W.; Beresnev, Leonid A.; Aubailly, Mathieu; Jackson, Christopher R.; Ejzak, Garrett; Kiamilev, Fouad E.

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric turbulences can significantly deteriorate the performance of long-range conventional imaging systems and create difficulties for target identification and recognition. Our in-house developed adaptive optics (AO) system, which contains high-performance deformable mirrors (DMs) and the fast stochastic parallel gradient decent (SPGD) control mechanism, allows effective compensation of such turbulence-induced wavefront aberrations and result in significant improvement on the image quality. In addition, we developed advanced digital synthetic imaging and processing technique, "lucky-region" fusion (LRF), to mitigate the image degradation over large field-of-view (FOV). The LRF algorithm extracts sharp regions from each image obtained from a series of short exposure frames and fuses them into a final improved image. We further implemented such algorithm into a VIRTEX-7 field programmable gate array (FPGA) and achieved real-time video processing. Experiments were performed by combining both AO and hardware implemented LRF processing technique over a near-horizontal 2.3km atmospheric propagation path. Our approach can also generate a universal real-time imaging and processing system with a general camera link input, a user controller interface, and a DVI video output.

  18. Low-cost real-time infrared scene generation for image projection and signal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; King, David E.; Bowden, Mark H.

    1998-07-01

    As cost becomes an increasingly important factor in the development and testing of Infrared sensors and flight computer/processors, the need for accurate hardware-in-the- loop (HWIL) simulations is critical. In the past, expensive and complex dedicated scene generation hardware was needed to attain the fidelity necessary for accurate testing. Recent technological advances and innovative applications of established technologies are beginning to allow development of cost-effective replacements for dedicated scene generators. These new scene generators are mainly constructed from commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components. At the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (MRDEC), researchers have developed such a dynamic IR scene generator (IRSG) built around COTS hardware and software. The IRSG is used to provide dynamic inputs to an IR scene projector for in-band seeker testing and for direct signal injection into the seeker or processor electronics. AMCOM MRDEC has developed a second generation IRSG, namely IRSG2, using the latest Silicon Graphics Incorporated (SGI) Onyx2 with Infinite Reality graphics. As reported in previous papers, the SGI Onyx Reality Engine 2 is the platform of the original IRSG that is now referred to as IRSG1. IRSG1 has been in operation and used daily for the past three years on several IR projection and signal injection HWIL programs. Using this second generation IRSG, frame rates have increased from 120 Hz to 400 Hz and intensity resolution from 12 bits to 16 bits. The key features of the IRSGs are real time missile frame rates and frame sizes, dynamic missile-to-target(s) viewpoint updated each frame in real-time by a six-degree-of- freedom (6DOF) system under test (SUT) simulation, multiple dynamic objects (e.g. targets, terrain/background, countermeasures, and atmospheric effects), latency compensation, point-to-extended source anti-aliased targets, and

  19. Real-time three-dimensional imaging of epidermal splitting and removal by high-definition optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Boone, Marc; Draye, Jean Pierre; Verween, Gunther; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Verbeken, Gilbert; De Vos, Daniel; Rose, Thomas; Jennes, Serge; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, Véronique

    2014-10-01

    While real-time 3-D evaluation of human skin constructs is needed, only 2-D non-invasive imaging techniques are available. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the potential of high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) for real-time 3-D assessment of the epidermal splitting and decellularization. Human skin samples were incubated with four different agents: Dispase II, NaCl 1 M, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and Triton X-100. Epidermal splitting, dermo-epidermal junction, acellularity and 3-D architecture of dermal matrices were evaluated by High-definition optical coherence tomography before and after incubation. Real-time 3-D HD-OCT assessment was compared with 2-D en face assessment by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). (Immuno) histopathology was used as control. HD-OCT imaging allowed real-time 3-D visualization of the impact of selected agents on epidermal splitting, dermo-epidermal junction, dermal architecture, vascular spaces and cellularity. RCM has a better resolution (1 μm) than HD-OCT (3 μm), permitting differentiation of different collagen fibres, but HD-OCT imaging has deeper penetration (570 μm) than RCM imaging (200 μm). Dispase II and NaCl treatments were found to be equally efficient in the removal of the epidermis from human split-thickness skin allografts. However, a different epidermal splitting level at the dermo-epidermal junction could be observed and confirmed by immunolabelling of collagen type IV and type VII. Epidermal splitting occurred at the level of the lamina densa with dispase II and above the lamina densa (in the lamina lucida) with NaCl. The 3-D architecture of dermal papillae and dermis was more affected by Dispase II on HD-OCT which corresponded with histopathologic (orcein staining) fragmentation of elastic fibres. With SDS treatment, the epidermal removal was incomplete as remnants of the epidermal basal cell layer remained attached to the basement membrane on the dermis. With Triton X-100 treatment

  20. Investigating IL-1β Secretion Using Real-Time Single-Cell Imaging.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Catherine; Bagnall, James; Spiller, David G; White, Michael R; Mortellaro, Alessandra; Paszek, Pawel; Brough, David

    2016-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β is an important mediator of the inflammatory response. In order to perform its role in the inflammatory cascade, IL-1β must be secreted from the cell, yet it lacks a signal peptide that is required for conventional secretion, and the exact mechanism of release remains undefined. Conventional biochemical methods have limited the investigation into the processes involved in IL-1β secretion to population dynamics, yet heterogeneity between cells has been observed at a single-cell level. Here, greater sensitivity is achieved with the use of a newly developed vector that codes for a fluorescently labelled version of IL-1β. Combining this with real-time single-cell confocal microscopy using the methods described here, we have developed an effective protocol for investigating the mechanisms of IL-1β secretion and the testing of the hypothesis that IL-1β secretion requires membrane permeabilisation. PMID:27221482

  1. Design for the correction system of the real time nonuniformity of large area-array CCD image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Chunmei; Lei, Ning

    2012-10-01

    With the robust thriving of aviation cameras and remote sensing technology, the linear-array CCD (charge-coupled device) and area CCD have developed toward large area CCD, which has a broad coverage and avoids the difficulty in jointing small area CCDs in addition to improving time resolution. However, due to the high amount of pixels and channels of large area CCD, photo-response non-uniformity (PRNU) is severe. In this paper, a real time non-uniformity correction system is introduced for a sort of large area full frame transfer CCD. First, the correction algorithm is elaborated according to CCD's working principle. Secondly, due to the high number of pixels and correction coefficient, ordinary chip memory cannot meet the requirement. The combination of external flash memory and DDR described in the paper satisfies large capacity memory and rapid real time correction. The methods and measurement steps for obtaining correction factors are provided simultaneously. At the end, an imaging test is made. The non-uniformity of the image is reduced to 0.38 % from the pre-correction 2.96 %, achieving an obvious reduction of non-uniformity. The result shows that the real time non-uniformity correction system can meet the demands of large area-array CCD.

  2. Real-time Flare Detection in Ground-Based Hα Imaging at Kanzelhöhe Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pötzi, W.; Veronig, A. M.; Riegler, G.; Amerstorfer, U.; Pock, T.; Temmer, M.; Polanec, W.; Baumgartner, D. J.

    2015-03-01

    Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO) regularly performs high-cadence full-disk imaging of the solar chromosphere in the Hα and Ca ii K spectral lines as well as in the solar photosphere in white light. In the frame of ESA's (European Space Agency) Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program, a new system for real-time Hα data provision and automatic flare detection was developed at KSO. The data and events detected are published in near real-time at ESA's SSA Space Weather portal (http://swe.ssa.esa.int/web/guest/kso-federated). In this article, we describe the Hα instrument, the image-recognition algorithms we developed, and the implementation into the KSO Hα observing system. We also present the evaluation results of the real-time data provision and flare detection for a period of five months. The Hα data provision worked in 99.96 % of the images, with a mean time lag of four seconds between image recording and online provision. Within the given criteria for the automatic image-recognition system (at least three Hα images are needed for a positive detection), all flares with an area ≥ 50 micro-hemispheres that were located within 60° of the solar center and occurred during the KSO observing times were detected, a number of 87 events in total. The automatically determined flare importance and brightness classes were correct in ˜ 85 %. The mean flare positions in heliographic longitude and latitude were correct to within ˜ 1°. The median of the absolute differences for the flare start and peak times from the automatic detections in comparison with the official NOAA (and KSO) visual flare reports were 3 min (1 min).

  3. Real-Time Single-Molecule Imaging of the Infection Pathway of an Adeno-Associated Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seisenberger, Georg; Ried, Martin U.; Endreß, Thomas; Büning, Hildegard; Hallek, Michael; Bräuchle, Christoph

    2001-11-01

    We describe a method, based on single-molecule imaging, that allows the real-time visualization of the infection pathway of single viruses in living cells, each labeled with only one fluorescent dye molecule. The tracking of single viruses removes ensemble averaging. Diffusion trajectories with high spatial and time resolution show various modes of motion of adeno-associated viruses (AAV) during their infection pathway into living HeLa cells: (i) consecutive virus touching at the cell surface and fast endocytosis; (ii) free and anomalous diffusion of the endosome and the virus in the cytoplasm and the nucleus; and (iii) directed motion by motor proteins in the cytoplasm and in nuclear tubular structures. The real-time visualization of the infection pathway of single AAVs shows a much faster infection than was generally observed so far.

  4. Real-time imaging with radial GRAPPA: Implementation on a Heterogeneous Architecture for Low-Latency Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Saybasili, Haris; Herzka, Daniel A.; Seiberlich, Nicole; A.Griswold, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Combination of non-Cartesian trajectories with parallel MRI permits to attain unmatched acceleration rates when compared to traditional Cartesian MRI during real-time imaging.However, computationally demanding reconstructions of such imaging techniques, such as k-space domain radial generalized auto-calibrating partially parallel acquisitions (radial GRAPPA) and image domain conjugate gradient sensitivity encoding (CG-SENSE), lead to longer reconstruction times and unacceptable latency for online real-time MRI on conventional computational hardware. Though CG-SENSE has been shown to work with low-latency using a general purpose graphics processing unit (GPU), to the best of our knowledge, no such effort has been made for radial GRAPPA. radial GRAPPA reconstruction, which is robust even with highly undersampled acquisitions, is not iterative, requiring only significant computation during initial calibration while achieving good image quality for low-latency imaging applications. In this work, we present a very fast, low-latency, reconstruction framework based on a heterogeneous system using multi-core CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate an implementation of radial GRAPPA that permits reconstruction times on par with or faster than acquisition of highly accelerated datasets in both cardiac and dynamic musculoskeletal imaging scenarios. Acquisition and reconstructions times are reported. PMID:24690453

  5. Noninvasive real-time fluorescence imaging of the lymphatic uptake of BSA-IRDye 680 conjugate administered subcutaneously in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Bhansali, Suraj G; Tamhane, Mitalee; Kumar, Rajiv; Vathy, Lisa A; Ding, Hong; Yong, Ken-Tye; Bergey, Earl J; Prasad, Paras N; Morris, Marilyn E

    2012-05-01

    The goal of our studies was to determine lymphatic uptake of bovine serum albumin (BSA) using real-time noninvasive fluorescence imaging. BSA labeled with near-infrared dye (IRDye) 680 was used as a model protein-dye conjugate. The conjugation of BSA with IRDye 680 was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography and SDS-PAGE demonstrated that the IRDye 680-labeled BSA conjugate in the lymph node (LN) homogenate samples was stable at physiological temperature (37°C) for at least 5 days. Whole-body noninvasive optical imaging of hairless SKH-1 mice was performed after subcutaneous (s.c.) injection (dose = 0.1 mg/kg) into the front footpad. Noninvasive fluorescence imaging demonstrated that BSA-IRDye 680 conjugates were dynamically taken up by the lymphatic system, accumulated in the axillary LNs and then cleared, indicating that lymphatic transport plays a role in the absorption of BSA. Ex vivo tissue imaging of LN homogenates provided confirmatory data with respect to the uptake of fluorescent-labeled BSA determined by in vivo imaging. Noninvasive real-time imaging of LNs provides a novel tool for evaluating uptake and accumulation of fluorescent-labeled proteins by the lymphatic system after s.c. injection in a mouse model.

  6. Real-time imaging with radial GRAPPA: Implementation on a heterogeneous architecture for low-latency reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Saybasili, Haris; Herzka, Daniel A; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A

    2014-07-01

    Combination of non-Cartesian trajectories with parallel MRI permits to attain unmatched acceleration rates when compared to traditional Cartesian MRI during real-time imaging. However, computationally demanding reconstructions of such imaging techniques, such as k-space domain radial generalized auto-calibrating partially parallel acquisitions (radial GRAPPA) and image domain conjugate gradient sensitivity encoding (CG-SENSE), lead to longer reconstruction times and unacceptable latency for online real-time MRI on conventional computational hardware. Though CG-SENSE has been shown to work with low-latency using a general purpose graphics processing unit (GPU), to the best of our knowledge, no such effort has been made for radial GRAPPA. Radial GRAPPA reconstruction, which is robust even with highly undersampled acquisitions, is not iterative, requiring only significant computation during initial calibration while achieving good image quality for low-latency imaging applications. In this work, we present a very fast, low-latency, reconstruction framework based on a heterogeneous system using multi-core CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate an implementation of radial GRAPPA that permits reconstruction times on par with or faster than acquisition of highly accelerated datasets in both cardiac and dynamic musculoskeletal imaging scenarios. Acquisition and reconstruction times are reported.

  7. Real-Time Integrated Photoacoustic and Ultrasound (PAUS) Imaging System to Guide Interventional Procedures: Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chen-Wei; Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Xia, Jinjun; Arnal, Bastien; Wong, Emily Y.; Pelivanov, Ivan M.; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Because of depth-dependent light attenuation, bulky, low-repetition-rate lasers are usually used in most photoacoustic (PA) systems to provide sufficient pulse energies to image at depth within the body. However, integrating these lasers with real-time clinical ultrasound (US) scanners has been problematic because of their size and cost. In this paper, an integrated PA/US (PAUS) imaging system is presented operating at frame rates >30 Hz. By employing a portable, low-cost, low-pulse-energy (~2 mJ/pulse), high-repetition-rate (~1 kHz), 1053-nm laser, and a rotating galvo-mirror system enabling rapid laser beam scanning over the imaging area, the approach is demonstrated for potential applications requiring a few centimeters of penetration. In particular, we demonstrate here real-time (30 Hz frame rate) imaging (by combining multiple single-shot sub-images covering the scan region) of an 18-gauge needle inserted into a piece of chicken breast with subsequent delivery of an absorptive agent at more than 1-cm depth to mimic PAUS guidance of an interventional procedure. A signal-to-noise ratio of more than 35 dB is obtained for the needle in an imaging area 2.8 × 2.8 cm (depth × lateral). Higher frame rate operation is envisioned with an optimized scanning scheme. PMID:25643081

  8. A new solution for camera calibration and real-time image distortion correction in medical endoscopy-initial technical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Melo, Rui; Barreto, João P; Falcão, Gabriel

    2012-03-01

    Medical endoscopy is used in a wide variety of diagnostic and surgical procedures. These procedures are renowned for the difficulty of orienting the camera and instruments inside the human body cavities. The small size of the lens causes radial distortion of the image, which hinders the navigation process and leads to errors in depth perception and object morphology. This article presents a complete software-based system to calibrate and correct the radial distortion in clinical endoscopy in real time. Our system can be used with any type of medical endoscopic technology, including oblique-viewing endoscopes and HD image acquisition. The initial camera calibration is performed in an unsupervised manner from a single checkerboard pattern image. For oblique-viewing endoscopes the changes in calibration during operation are handled by a new adaptive camera projection model and an algorithm that infer the rotation of the probe lens using only image information. The workload is distributed across the CPU and GPU through an optimized CPU+GPU hybrid solution. This enables real-time performance, even for HD video inputs. The system is evaluated for different technical aspects, including accuracy of modeling and calibration, overall robustness, and runtime profile. The contributions are highly relevant for applications in computer-aided surgery and image-guided intervention such as improved visualization by image warping, 3-D modeling, and visual SLAM. PMID:22127990

  9. A new solution for camera calibration and real-time image distortion correction in medical endoscopy-initial technical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Melo, Rui; Barreto, João P; Falcão, Gabriel

    2012-03-01

    Medical endoscopy is used in a wide variety of diagnostic and surgical procedures. These procedures are renowned for the difficulty of orienting the camera and instruments inside the human body cavities. The small size of the lens causes radial distortion of the image, which hinders the navigation process and leads to errors in depth perception and object morphology. This article presents a complete software-based system to calibrate and correct the radial distortion in clinical endoscopy in real time. Our system can be used with any type of medical endoscopic technology, including oblique-viewing endoscopes and HD image acquisition. The initial camera calibration is performed in an unsupervised manner from a single checkerboard pattern image. For oblique-viewing endoscopes the changes in calibration during operation are handled by a new adaptive camera projection model and an algorithm that infer the rotation of the probe lens using only image information. The workload is distributed across the CPU and GPU through an optimized CPU+GPU hybrid solution. This enables real-time performance, even for HD video inputs. The system is evaluated for different technical aspects, including accuracy of modeling and calibration, overall robustness, and runtime profile. The contributions are highly relevant for applications in computer-aided surgery and image-guided intervention such as improved visualization by image warping, 3-D modeling, and visual SLAM.

  10. Real-time sonography

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischey, A.C.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook acquaints the reader with normal and pathologic anatomy as depicted on dynamic or real-time scanning. Chapters are organized by specialty, such as abdominal, urologic, or pediatric. The text is illustrated with still-frame images and line drawings. The drawings show important areas of interest and provide graphic notation as to where and in what orientation the scan was obtained.

  11. Real-time system for imaging and object detection with a multistatic GPR array

    DOEpatents

    Paglieroni, David W; Beer, N Reginald; Bond, Steven W; Top, Philip L; Chambers, David H; Mast, Jeffrey E; Donetti, John G; Mason, Blake C; Jones, Steven M

    2014-10-07

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  12. Signal-Conditioning Block of a 1 × 200 CMOS Detector Array for a Terahertz Real-Time Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jong-Ryul; Lee, Woo-Jae; Han, Seong-Tae

    2016-01-01

    A signal conditioning block of a 1 × 200 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) detector array is proposed to be employed with a real-time 0.2 THz imaging system for inspecting large areas. The plasmonic CMOS detector array whose pixel size including an integrated antenna is comparable to the wavelength of the THz wave for the imaging system, inevitably carries wide pixel-to-pixel variation. To make the variant outputs from the array uniform, the proposed signal conditioning block calibrates the responsivity of each pixel by controlling the gate bias of each detector and the voltage gain of the lock-in amplifiers in the block. The gate bias of each detector is modulated to 1 MHz to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the imaging system via the electrical modulation by the conditioning block. In addition, direct current (DC) offsets of the detectors in the array are cancelled by initializing the output voltage level from the block. Real-time imaging using the proposed signal conditioning block is demonstrated by obtaining images at the rate of 19.2 frame-per-sec of an object moving on the conveyor belt with a scan width of 20 cm and a scan speed of 25 cm/s. PMID:26950128

  13. Real-time Full-spectral Imaging and Affinity Measurements from 50 Microfluidic Channels using Nanohole Surface Plasmon Resonance†

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si Hoon; Lindquist, Nathan C.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Jordan, Luke R.; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    With recent advances in high-throughput proteomics and systems biology, there is a growing demand for new instruments that can precisely quan