Science.gov

Sample records for airborne regional experiment

  1. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles: airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouche, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Bourianne, T.; Gomes, L.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2014-02-01

    yields, we were able to predict ~50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the formation of OA and have an impact on aerosol composition on a regional scale.

  2. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles; airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouch, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2013-09-01

    The MEGAPOLI experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) giving detailed information of the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of BC, measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP), was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA), black carbon and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ΔOA / ΔBC and ΔOA / ΔCO increase with increasing photochemical age (-log(NOx / NOy). Plotting the equivalent ratios for the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resolved species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA) illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Within Paris the changes in the ΔOA / ΔCO are similar to those observed during other studies in Mexico city, Mexico and in New England, USA. Using the measured VOCs species together with recent organic aerosol formation yields we predicted ~ 50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the formation of OA

  3. Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Alan; Wert, Bryan P.; Henry, Bruce E.; Drummond, James R.; Frost, Gregory J.; Lee, Yin-Nan

    1999-10-01

    Accurate measurements of formaldehyde (CH2O), a trace gas found throughout the atmosphere, are important for furthering our understanding of hydrocarbon oxidation processes in the atmosphere. During the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment numerous trace gases, including CH2O, were measured onboard a WP3 aircraft operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to study continental transport and photochemistry over remote regions of the North Atlantic Ocean. A highly sensitive tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer was employed in acquiring ambient CH2O measurements on 10 different flights during this campaign. A second instrument, based on chemical derivatization of ambient CH2O with DNPH, was also operated on the WP3 aircraft. This paper will briefly summarize the aircraft TDLAS system employed and discuss the level of agreement obtained between both instruments. This will be followed by a brief discussion of the results, and concludes with a preliminary comparison of the measurements with a 0-dimensional box model constrained by the measurements of other species during the campaign.

  4. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  5. Airborne Relay-Based Regional Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyuman; Noh, Hongjun; Lim, Jaesung

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based pseudolite systems have some limitations, such as low vertical accuracy, multipath effects and near-far problems. These problems are not significant in airborne-based pseudolite systems. However, the monitoring of pseudolite positions is required because of the mobility of the platforms on which the pseudolites are mounted, and this causes performance degradation. To address these pseudolite system limitations, we propose an airborne relay-based regional positioning system that consists of a master station, reference stations, airborne relays and a user. In the proposed system, navigation signals are generated from the reference stations located on the ground and are relayed via the airborne relays. Unlike in conventional airborne-based systems, the user in the proposed system sequentially estimates both the locations of airborne relays and his/her own position. Therefore, a delay due to monitoring does not occur, and the accuracy is not affected by the movement of airborne relays. We conducted several simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. Based on the simulation results, we demonstrated that the proposed system guarantees a higher accuracy than airborne-based pseudolite systems, and it is feasible despite the existence of clock offsets among reference stations. PMID:26029953

  6. Airborne space laser communication system and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-Xin

    2015-11-01

    Airborne space laser communication is characterized by its high speed, anti-electromagnetic interference, security, easy to assign. It has broad application in the areas of integrated space-ground communication networking, military communication, anti-electromagnetic communication. This paper introduce the component and APT system of the airborne laser communication system design by Changchun university of science and technology base on characteristic of airborne laser communication and Y12 plan, especially introduce the high communication speed and long distance communication experiment of the system that among two Y12 plans. In the experiment got the aim that the max communication distance 144Km, error 10-6 2.5Gbps - 10-7 1.5Gbps capture probability 97%, average capture time 20s. The experiment proving the adaptability of the APT and the high speed long distance communication.

  7. Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.

    1998-01-01

    Scanning holographic lidar receivers are currently in use in two operational lidar systems, PHASERS (Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing) and now HARLIE (Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment). These systems are based on volume phase holograms made in dichromated gelatin (DCG) sandwiched between 2 layers of high quality float glass. They have demonstrated the practical application of this technology to compact scanning lidar systems at 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths, the ability to withstand moderately high laser power and energy loading, sufficient optical quality for most direct detection systems, overall efficiencies rivaling conventional receivers, and the stability to last several years under typical lidar system environments. Their size and weight are approximately half of similar performing scanning systems using reflective optics. The cost of holographic systems will eventually be lower than the reflective optical systems depending on their degree of commercialization. There are a number of applications that require or can greatly benefit from a scanning capability. Several of these are airborne systems, which either use focal plane scanning, as in the Laser Vegetation Imaging System or use primary aperture scanning, as in the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar or the Large Aperture Scanning Airborne Lidar. The latter class requires a large clear aperture opening or window in the aircraft. This type of system can greatly benefit from the use of scanning transmission holograms of the HARLIE type because the clear aperture required is only about 25% larger than the collecting aperture as opposed to 200-300% larger for scan angles of 45 degrees off nadir.

  8. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Itten, Klaus I.; Dell'Endice, Francesco; Hueni, Andreas; Kneubühler, Mathias; Schläpfer, Daniel; Odermatt, Daniel; Seidel, Felix; Huber, Silvia; Schopfer, Jürg; Kellenberger, Tobias; Bühler, Yves; D'Odorico, Petra; Nieke, Jens; Alberti, Edoardo; Meuleman, Koen

    2008-01-01

    The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB) by using the Control Test Master (CTM), the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC), quality flagging (QF) and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF), and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output) introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a) satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b) helping the understanding of the Earth's complex mechanisms.

  9. CALIOPE and TAISIR airborne experiment platform

    SciTech Connect

    Chocol, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    Between 1950 and 1970, scientific ballooning achieved many new objectives and made a substantial contribution to understanding near-earth and space environments. In 1986, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began development of ballooning technology capable of addressing issues associated with precision tracking of ballistic missiles. In 1993, the Radar Ocean Imaging Project identified the need for a low altitude (1 km) airborne platform for its Radar system. These two technologies and experience base have been merged with the acquisition of government surplus Aerostats by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The CALIOPE and TAISIR Programs can benefit directly from this technology by using the Aerostat as an experiment platform for measurements of the spill facility at NTS.

  10. Airborne lidar experiments at the Savannah River Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    The results of remote sensing experiments at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Nuclear Facility utilizing the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are presented. The flights were conducted in support of the numerous environmental monitoring requirements associated with the operation of the facility and for the purpose of furthering research and development of airborne lidar technology. Areas of application include airborne laser topographic mapping, hydrologic studies using fluorescent tracer dye, timber volume estimation, baseline characterization of wetlands, and aquatic chlorophyll and photopigment measurements. Conclusions relative to the usability of airborne lidar technology for the DOE for each of these remote sensing applications are discussed.

  11. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: The National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE’06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation i...

  12. Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) 2014 Western Pacific Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E.; Pfister, L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATTREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide), reactive chemical compounds (ozone, bromine, nitrous oxide), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. During January-March, 2014, the Global Hawk was deployed to Guam for ATTREX flights. Six science flights were conducted from Guam (in addition to the transits across the Pacific), resulting in over 100 hours of Western Pacific TTL sampling and about 180 vertical profiles through the TTL. I will provide an overview of the dataset, with examples of the measurements including meteorological parameters, clouds and water vapor, and chemical tracers.

  13. Airborne Trace Gas Mapping During the GOSAT-COMEX Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tratt, D. M.; Leifer, I.; Buckland, K. N.; Johnson, P. D.; Van Damme, M.; Pierre-Francois, C.; Clarisse, L.

    2015-12-01

    The GOSAT-COMEX-IASI (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite - CO2 and Methane EXperiment - Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) experiment acquired data on 24-27 April 2015 with two aircraft, a mobile ground-based sampling suite, and the GOSAT and IASI platforms. Collections comprised the Kern Front and Kern River oil fields north of Bakersfield, Calif. and the Chino stockyard complex in the eastern Los Angeles Basin. The nested-grid experiment examined the convergence of multiple approaches to total trace gas flux estimation from the experimental area on multiple length-scales, which entailed the integrated analysis of ground-based, airborne, and space-based measurements. Airborne remote sensing was employed to map the spatial distribution of discrete emission sites - crucial information to understanding their relative aggregate contribution to the overall flux estimation. This contribution discusses the methodology in the context of the airborne GHG source mapping component of the GOSAT-COMEX experiment and its application to satellite validation.

  14. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    Airborne research management and shuttle sortie planning at the Ames Research Center are reported. Topics discussed include: basic criteria and procedures for the formulation and approval of airborne missions; ASO management structure and procedures; experiment design, development, and testing aircraft characteristics and experiment interfaces; information handling for airborne science missions; mission documentation requirements; and airborne science methods and shuttle sortie planning.

  15. Inversion of Airborne Contaminants in a Regional Model

    SciTech Connect

    Akcelik, V.; Biros, G.; Draganescu, A.; Ghattas, O.; Hill, J.; van Bloemen Waanders, B.; /SLAC /Pennsylvania U. /Texas U. /Sandia

    2007-01-10

    We are interested in a DDDAS problem of localization of airborne contaminant releases in regional atmospheric transport models from sparse observations. Given measurements of the contaminant over an observation window at a small number of points in space, and a velocity field as predicted for example by a mesoscopic weather model, we seek an estimate of the state of the contaminant at the beginning of the observation interval that minimizes the least squares misfit between measured and predicted contaminant field, subject to the convection-diffusion equation for the contaminant. Once the ''initial'' conditions are estimated by solution of the inverse problem, we issue predictions of the evolution of the contaminant, the observation window is advanced in time, and the process repeated to issue a new prediction, in the style of 4D-Var. We design an appropriate numerical strategy that exploits the spectral structure of the inverse operator, and leads to efficient and accurate resolution of the inverse problem. Numerical experiments verify that high resolution inversion can be carried out rapidly for a well-resolved terrain model of the greater Los Angeles area.

  16. Airborne laser ranging system for monitoring regional crustal deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Alternate approaches for making the atmospheric correction without benefit of a ground-based meteorological network are discussed. These include (1) a two-color channel that determines the atmospheric correction by measuring the time delay induced by dispersion between pulses at two optical frequencies; (2) single-color range measurements supported by an onboard temperature sounder, pressure altimeter readings, and surface measurements by a few existing meteorological facilities; and (3) inclusion of the quadratic polynomial coefficients as variables to be solved for along with target coordinates in the reduction of the single-color range data. It is anticipated that the initial Airborne Laser Ranging System (ALRS) experiments will be carried out in Southern California in a region bounded by Santa Barbara on the norht and the Mexican border on the south. The target area will be bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and will extend eastward for approximately 400 km. The unique ability of the ALRS to provide a geodetic 'snapshot' of such a large area will make it a valuable geophysical tool.

  17. Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communications (AVLOC) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A series of optical communication experiments between a high altitude aircraft at 18.3 km (60,000 ft) and a ground station were conducted by NASA from summer 1972 through winter 1973. The basic system was an optical tracker and transmitter located in each terminal. The aircraft transceiver consisted of a 5-mW HeNe laser transmitter with a 30-megabit modulator. The ground station beacon was an argon laser operating at 488 nm. A separate pulsed laser radar was used for initial acquisition. The objective of the experiment was to obtain engineering data on the precision tracking and communication system performance at both terminals. Atmospheric effects on the system performance was also an experiment objective. The system description, engineering analysis, testing, and flight results are discussed.

  18. Automated alexandrite transmitter for airborne DIAL experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the performance characteristics and development status of an automated dual alexandrite laser transmitter that is to be carried aloft by NASA's ER-2 research aircraft for water vapor DIAL experiments; these efforts are part of NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE). The LASE transmitter encompasses control unit, thermal unit, and two lamp driver unit subsystems. Major reductions in system size and weight relative to commercially available alexandrite lasers were necessary; a total weight of only 330 lbs has been achieved. Attention is given to subsystem flight test results.

  19. Airborne visible laser optical communication experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A series of optical communication experiments between a high altitude aircraft at 18.3 km (60,000 ft) and a ground station are planned by NASA in the summer of 1972. The basic concept is that an optical tracker and transmitter will be located in each terminal. The aircraft transceiver consists of a 5-mW HeNe laser transmitter with a 30-megabit modulator. The ground station beacon is an argon laser operating at 488 nm. A separate pulsed laser radar is used for initial acquisition. The objective of the experiment is to obtain engineering data on the precision tracking and communication system performance at both terminals. Atmospheric effects on the system performance are of prime importance.

  20. Overview of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATTREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, clouds, multiple gaseous tracers (CO, CO2, CH4, NMHC, SF6, CFCs, N2O), reactive chemical compounds (O3, BrO, NO2), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. ATTREX flight series have been conducted in the fall of 2011 from Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in California, in the winter of 2013 from AFRC, and in the winter/spring of 2014 from Guam. The first two flight series provided extensive sampling of the central and eastern Pacific, whereas the last flight series permitted sampling in the western Pacific. The sampling strategy has primarily involved repeated ascents and descents through the depth of the TTL (about 13-19 km). Over 100 TTL profiles were obtained on each flight series. The ATTREX dataset includes TTL water vapor measurements with unprecedented accuracy, ice crystal size distributions and habits. The cloud and water measurements provide unique information about TTL cloud formation, the persistence of super-saturation with respect to ice, and dehydration. The plethora of tracers measured on the Global Hawk flights are providing unique information about TTL transport pathways and time scales. The meteorological measurements are revealing dynamical phenomena controlling the TTL thermal structure, and the radiation measurements are providing information about heating rates associated with TTL clouds and water vapor. This presentation

  1. Overview of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H. B.; Jensen, E. J.; Pfister, L.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATTREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, clouds, multiple gaseous tracers (CO, CO2, CH4, NMHC, SF6, CFCs, N2O), reactive chemical compounds (O3, BrO, NO2), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes.ATTREX flight series have been conducted in the fall of 2011 from Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in California, in the winter of 2013 from AFRC, and in the winter/spring of 2014 from Guam. The first two flight series provided extensive sampling of the central and eastern Pacific, whereas the last flight series permitted sampling in the western Pacific. The sampling strategy has primarily involved repeated ascents and descents through the depth of the TTL (about 13-19 km). Over 100 TTL profiles were obtained on each flight series. The ATTREX dataset includes TTL water vapor measurements with unprecedented accuracy, ice crystal size distributions and habits. The cloud and water measurements provide unique information about TTL cloud formation, the persistence of supersaturation with respect to ice, and dehydration. The plethora of tracers measured on the Global Hawk flights are providing unique information about TTL transport pathways and time scales. The meteorological measurements are revealing dynamical phenomena controlling the TTL thermal structure, and the radiation measurements are providing information about heating rates associated with TTL clouds and water vapor.This presentation will

  2. Study on automatic airborne image positioning model and its application in FY-3A airborne experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Yang, Zhongdong; Guan, Min; Zhang, Liyang; Wang, Tiantian

    2009-08-01

    This paper addresses the issue on airborne image positioning model and its application in FY-3A experiment. First, the FY-3A Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI)'s viewing vector is derived from MERSI's imaging pattern. Then, the image positioning model is analyzed mathematically in detail which is based on Earth-aircraft geometry. The model parameters are mainly determined by both the sensor - aircraft alignment and the onboard discrete measurements of the positioning and orientation. Flight trials are flown at an altitude of 8300 m over the Qinghai Lake China. It is shown that the image positioning accuracy (about 1~4 pixels) is better than previous methods (more than 7 pixels, [G. J. Jedlovec et al. NASA Technical Memorandum TM - 100352 (1989) and D. P. Roy et al. Int. J. Rem. Sens. 18(9), 1865 - 1887 (1997)]). It is also shown that the model has the potential to hold the image positioning errors within one pixel. The model can operate automatically, and does not need ground control points data. Since our algorithm get the image positioning results through an observation geometric perspective which is in computing the point at which the sensor viewing vector intersects the earth surface, our algorithm assumes the airborne data are from the plain area.

  3. Radiative effects of polar stratospheric clouds during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of the radiative effects of polar stratospheric clouds during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) in which daily 3D Type I nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and Type II water ice polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) were generated in the polar regions during AAOE and the AASE aircraft missions. Mission data on particular composition and size, together with NMC-analyzed temperatures, are used. For AAOE, both Type I and Type II clouds were formed for the time period August 23 to September 17, after which only Type I clouds formed. During AASE, while Type I clouds were formed for each day between January 3 and February 10, Type II clouds formed on only two days, January 24 and 31. Mie theory and a radiative transfer model are used to compute the radiative heating rates during the mission periods, for clear and cloudy lower sky cases. Only the Type II water ice clouds have a significant radiative effect, with the Type I NATO PSCs generating a net heating or cooling of 0.1 K/d or less.

  4. Airborne experiment results for spaceborne atmospheric synchronous correction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wenyu; Yi, Weining; Du, Lili; Liu, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    The image quality of optical remote sensing satellite is affected by the atmosphere, thus the image needs to be corrected. Due to the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric conditions, correction by using synchronous atmospheric parameters can effectively improve the remote sensing image quality. For this reason, a small light spaceborne instrument, the atmospheric synchronous correction device (airborne prototype), is developed by AIOFM of CAS(Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics of Chinese Academy of Sciences). With this instrument, of which the detection mode is timing synchronization and spatial coverage, the atmospheric parameters consistent with the images to be corrected in time and space can be obtained, and then the correction is achieved by radiative transfer model. To verify the technical process and treatment effect of spaceborne atmospheric correction system, the first airborne experiment is designed and completed. The experiment is implemented by the "satellite-airborne-ground" synchronous measuring method. A high resolution(0.4 m) camera and the atmospheric correction device are equipped on the aircraft, which photograph the ground with the satellite observation over the top simultaneously. And aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) in the imagery area are also acquired, which are used for the atmospheric correction for satellite and aerial images. Experimental results show that using the AOD and CWV of imagery area retrieved by the data obtained by the device to correct aviation and satellite images, can improve image definition and contrast by more than 30%, and increase MTF by more than 1 time, which means atmospheric correction for satellite images by using the data of spaceborne atmospheric synchronous correction device is accurate and effective.

  5. Regional Scaling of Airborne Eddy Covariance Flux Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, T.; Serafimovich, A.; Metzger, S.; Kohnert, K.; Hartmann, J.

    2014-12-01

    The earth's surface is tightly coupled to the global climate system by the vertical exchange of energy and matter. Thus, to better understand and potentially predict changes to our climate system, it is critical to quantify the surface-atmosphere exchange of heat, water vapor, and greenhouse gases on climate-relevant spatial and temporal scales. Currently, most flux observations consist of ground-based, continuous but local measurements. These provide a good basis for temporal integration, but may not be representative of the larger regional context. This is particularly true for the Arctic, where site selection is additionally bound by logistical constraints, among others. Airborne measurements can overcome this limitation by covering distances of hundreds of kilometers over time periods of a few hours. The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) campaigns are designed to quantitatively and spatially explicitly address this issue: The research aircraft POLAR 5 is used to acquire thousands of kilometers of eddy-covariance flux data. During the AIRMETH-2012 and AIRMETH-2013 campaigns we measured the turbulent exchange of energy, methane, and (in 2013) carbon dioxide over the North Slope of Alaska, USA, and the Mackenzie Delta, Canada. Here, we present the potential of environmental response functions (ERFs) for quantitatively linking flux observations to meteorological and biophysical drivers in the flux footprints. We use wavelet transforms of the original high-frequency data to improve spatial discretization of the flux observations. This also enables the quantification of continuous and biophysically relevant land cover properties in the flux footprint of each observation. A machine learning technique is then employed to extract and quantify the functional relationships between flux observations and the meteorological and biophysical drivers. The resulting ERFs are used to extrapolate fluxes over spatio-temporally explicit grids of the study area. The

  6. Subsurface Characterization of Shallow Water Regions using Airborne Bathymetric Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, B.; Neuenschwander, A. L.; Magruder, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the complex interactions between air, land, and water in shallow water regions is becoming increasingly critical in the age of climate change. To effectively monitor and manage these zones, scientific data focused on changing water levels, quality, and subsurface topography are needed. Airborne remote sensing using light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is naturally suited to address this need as it can simultaneously provide detailed three-dimensional spatial data for both topographic and bathymetric applications in an efficient and effective manner. The key to useful data, however, is the correct interpretation of the incoming laser returns to distinguish between land, water, and objects. The full waveform lidar receiver captures the complete returning signal reflected from the Earth, which contains detailed information about the structure of the objects and surfaces illuminated by the beam. This study examines the characterization of this full waveform with respect to water surface depth penetration and subsurface classification, including sand, rock, and vegetation. Three assessments are performed to help characterize the laser interaction within the shallow water zone: evaluation of water surface backscatter as a function of depth and location, effects from water bottom surface roughness and reflectivity, and detection and classification of subsurface structure. Using the Chiroptera dual-laser lidar mapping system from Airborne Hydrography AB (AHAB), both bathymetric and topographic mapping are possible. The Chiroptera system combines a 1064nm near infrared topographic laser with a 515nm green bathymetric laser to seamlessly map the land/water interface in coastal areas. Two survey sites are examined: Lake Travis in Austin, Texas, USA, and Lake Vättern in Jönköping, Sweden. Water quality conditions were found to impact depth penetration of the lidar, as a maximum depth of 5.5m was recorded at Lake Travis and 11m at Lake Vättern.

  7. Theoretical support for the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, D.L.

    1992-03-01

    This investigation was to provide theoretical support during and after the deployment of NASA research aircraft to Punta Arenas, Chile during August and September of 1987 to conduct the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The experiment was very successful in demonstrating the role of anthropogenic chlorine in producing the ozone hole over Antarctica during September and October of 1987. The PI worked primarily on using tracer data from the ER-2 aircraft to show that transport could not have caused the ozone hole in 1987, and that transport of chemical species into the polar vortex was very weak during the period of the experiment. The presence of gravity waves was also very apparent in the ER-2 data, and papers were published on this analysis and on the use of meteorological analyses to position the aircraft within the vortex.

  8. Theoretical support for the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Dennis L.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation was to provide theoretical support during and after the deployment of NASA research aircraft to Punta Arenas, Chile during August and September of 1987 to conduct the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The experiment was very successful in demonstrating the role of anthropogenic chlorine in producing the ozone hole over Antarctica during September and October of 1987. The PI worked primarily on using tracer data from the ER-2 aircraft to show that transport could not have caused the ozone hole in 1987, and that transport of chemical species into the polar vortex was very weak during the period of the experiment. The presence of gravity waves was also very apparent in the ER-2 data, and papers were published on this analysis and on the use of meteorological analyses to position the aircraft within the vortex.

  9. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar results. Spring removal experiments, April 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hoge, F.

    1985-06-21

    This document contains the preliminary results from the analysis of data acquired with the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) during the recent Spring Removal Experiment (SPREX). A total of four flights were made with the NASA P-3A aircraft in direct support of the SPREX studies. In addition, a single pass extending from the Sargasso Sea, across the Gulf Stream, and into Savannah was flown as the final leg of the ONR sponsored BIOWATT experiment. The relative distribution of surface temperature and the concentration of chlorophyll and phycoerythrin photopigments across the study area are provided. Also included are along track profiles of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll and phycoerythrin fluorescence emission for each of the individual flight lines. Both the chlorophyll and phycoerythrin laser induced fluorescence signals have been normalized by the water Raman backscatter signal and are each expressed as relative ratio's.

  10. Direct and airborne contact dermatitis in a beekeeper from the Małopolska region.

    PubMed

    Basista, Katarzyna

    2012-09-01

    The paper describes an atypical case of simultaneous airborne and direct contact dermatitis in a beekeeper from the Małopolska region. This is the third such case described in a beekeeper in the world and the first in Poland. I suggest that propolis should be regarded as both a direct and airborne contact allergen in beekeepers. PMID:23055230

  11. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    The management concepts and operating procedures are documented as they apply to the planning of shuttle spacelab operations. Areas discussed include: airborne missions; formulation of missions; management procedures; experimenter involvement; experiment development and performance; data handling; safety procedures; and applications to shuttle spacelab planning. Characteristics of the airborne science experience are listed, and references and figures are included.

  12. Airborne Tunable Laser Absorption Spectrometer (ATLAS) instrument characterization: Accuracy of the AASE (Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition) and AAOE (Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment) nitrous oxide data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J.R. ); Strahan, S.E. )

    1990-03-01

    ATLAS, the Airborne Tunable Laser Absorption Spectrometer, was used to measure nitrous oxide in the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) and in the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE). After the AASE, a detailed study of the ATLAS characteristics was undertaken to quantify the error inherent in the in situ measurement of atmospheric N{sub 2}O. Using the latest calibration of the ATLAS (June 1989) and incorporating the recognized errors arising in the flight environment of ATLAS, the authors have established that for both the AASE and the AAOE most of the acquired N{sub 2}O data sets are accurate to {plus minus}10% (2 sigma). Data from two of the earlier AAOE flights had a larger uncertainty.

  13. The 1994 TIMS airborne calibration experiment: Castaic Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Hook, Simon J.; Vandenbosch, Jeannette

    1995-01-01

    This summary describes the 9 March 1994 Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) airborne calibration experiment conducted at Castaic Lake, California. This experiment was a collaborative effort between the TIMS and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) science teams at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). TIMS was flown on the NASA/Ames Research Center C130 with the new retractable air fence installed in the TIMS instrument bay. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the fence would reduce the air turbulence in the TIMS instrument bay, thereby reducing the errors in calibration caused by wind-blast cooling of the blackbody reference sources internal to TIMS. Previous experiments have indicated that the wind blast effect could cause TIMS to over-estimate surface temperatures by more than 10 C. We have examined the TIMS data from twelve lines flown over Castaic Lake. Four of the lines were flown at an altitude of approximately 2.5 km (MSL), four at an altitude of approximately 6.7 km, and four at approximately 8.3 km. At each altitude there were flights with northern and southern headings, with the aircraft level and at a positive pitch (nose-up attitude). The suite of twelve flights was designed to subject the TIMS/air fence system to different wind conditions and air temperatures. The TIMS flights were supported by a ground-truth team, who measured lake surface temperatures from a boat, and an atmosphere characterization team, who launched an airsonde and measured solar irradiance with a Reagan Sun Photometer. The Reagan measurements were used to construct a time-series of estimates of the total abundance of water vapor in the atmospheric column. These estimates were used to constrain modifications of the airsonde water vapor profile measurements made when processing the TIMS data with a customized version of the MODTRAN radiative transfer code.

  14. Nitrous oxide as a dynamical tracer in the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Chan, K. R.; Strahan, S. E.

    1989-08-01

    In situ N2O measurements were made using an airborne tunable laser absorption spectrometer (ATLAS) on 12 flights into the Antarctic vortex, as well as on five transit flights outside the vortex region in August and September 1987, as part of the Airborne Antartic Ozone Experiment. Vertical profiles of N2O were obtained within the vortex on most of these flights and were obtained outside the vortex on several occasions. Flights into the vortex region show N2O decreasing southward between 53 and 72 S latitude on constant potential temperature surfaces in the lower stratosphere. The data lead to two important conclusions about the vortex region: (1) the lower stratosphere in August/September 1987 was occupied by 'old' air, which had subsided several kilometers during polar winter; (2) the N2O profile in the vortex was in an approximately steady state in August/September 1987, which indicates that the spring upwelling, suggested by several theories, did not occur.

  15. The Sunphotometer Airborne Validation Experiment 2012: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estellés, Victor; Marenco, Franco; Ryder, Claire L.; Campanelli, Monica; Expósito, Francisco; Solá, Yolanda; Segura, Sara; Marcos, Carlos; Toledano, Carlos; Berjón, Alberto; Guirado, Carmen; Claxton, Bernard; Todd, Martin

    2013-04-01

    With the aim of validating columnar integrated aerosol properties retrieved by AERONET and SKYNET from ground sunphotometric measurements, with the integrated vertical profiles of airborne in-situ aerosol measurements, the "Sunphotometer Airborne Validation Experiment" field campaign was held in the Tenerife (Canary Islands) and western Sahara areas, during June 2012. The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) and the Skyrad Network (SKYNET) (http://atmos.cr.chiba-u.ac.jp/) are two different international ground based networks that provide global aerosol properties. AERONET is an operative network run by NASA that makes use of an improved inversion methodology to derive the aerosol properties from measurements of the Cimel CE318 sunphotometer and its data is extensively used worldwide and archived in climate data records. In turn, SKYNET is a research network lead by the Universities of Chiba and Tokyo (Japan) and is present in Europe through the new European Skynet Radiometers network (ESR). SKYNET adopts the Prede POM sky radiometer as the standard instrument and an alternative inversion algorithm called SKYRAD. Previous research has shown important discrepancies between the AERONET and SKYRAD inversion algorithms (Campanelli et al., 2010; Estellés et al., 2012) even in the case of applying these algorithms to the same instrument datasets and with the same calibration coefficients. Still no explanation is provided for these discrepancies, although it is crucial to state the responsible processes and address them so as to provide more accurate aerosol retrievals for climate recordings. The SAVEX experiment took place alongside the FENNEC aircraft campaigns of June 2011 and 2012. The UK BAe146 was equipped with in-situ aerosol instrumentation to measure size distributions from 0.1 to 300 microns diameter, scattering and absorption properties, and aerosol composition. Vertical profiles and horizontal legs were performed over ground sites

  16. Observational results of microwave temperature profile measurements from the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.

    1988-01-01

    The Microwave Temperature Profiler, MTP, is installed on NASA's ER-2 aircraft. MTP measures profiles of air temperature versus altitude. Temperatures are obtained every 13.7 seconds for 15 altitudes in an altitude region that is approximately 5 km thick (at high flight levels). MTP is a passive microwave radiometer, operating at the frequencies 57.3 and 58.8 GHz. Thermal emission from oxygen molecules provides the signal that is converted to air temperature. MTP is unique in that it is the only airborne instrument of its kind. The MTP instrument was used during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, AAOE, to enable potential vorticity to be measured along the flight track. Other uses for the MTP data have become apparent. The most intriguing unexpected use is the detection and characterization of mountain waves that were encountered during flights over the Palmer Peninsula. Mountain waves that propagate into the polar vortex may have implications for the formation of the ozone hole. Upward excursions of air parcels lead to a brief cooling. This can begin the process of cloud formation. It is important to determine how much additional formation of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) material is possible by the passage of air parcels through a mountain wave pattern that endures for long periods. Other mountain wave effects have been suggested, such as a speeding up of the vortex, and a consequent cooling of large air volumes (which in turn might add to PSC production).

  17. Airborne ROWS data report for the high resolution experiment, June 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, D.; Hines, D.; Bailey, S.; Stewart, K.

    1994-01-01

    Airborne radar ocean wave spectrometer (ROWS) data collected during the Office of Naval Research's High Resolution Remote Sensing Experiment of June 1993 are presented. This data summary covers six flights made using NASA's T-39 aircraft over a region of the North Atlantic off the coast of North Carolina and includes multiple crossings of the gulf stream. The Ku-band ROWS was operated in a configuration which continuously switched between an altimeter and a spectrometer channel. Data derived from the two channels include altimeter radar cross section, altimeter-derived sea surface mean square slope and wind speed, and directional and nondirectional longwave spectra. Discussion is provided for several events of particular interest.

  18. Airborne lidar experiments at the Savannah River Plant, June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Krabill, W.B.; Swift, R.N.

    1987-09-01

    Results are presented from a series of studies conducted at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Plant (SRP) with the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL). These studies included a topographic survey of a {approximately}1000 acre lake basin (presently designated L Lake) which had been excavated for use as a cooling pond for L Reactor; a study of the movement of discharged cooling water in Pond C and the warm arm of Par Pond using Rhodamine WT dye as a tag; initial baseline studies of the vegetation cover of the Steel Creek corridor (through which the outflow of L Lake is carried to the Savannah River); and a demonstration of potential forestry applications of the AOL. These investigations were conducted over a 3-day period in June 1985. The AOL is an advanced airborne laser system capable of making temporal or time history measurements of laser backscatter (bathymetry mode) or spectral measurements of laser induced fluorescence from waterborne constituents (fluorosensing mode). The AOL is flown together with auxiliary instruments and camera systems on board a four engine P-3A aircraft. Recent modifications to the AOL allow in-flight changes between the two basic operational modes of the instrument which permitted the topographic study to be conducted on the same flights as the fluorescent dye study. The L Lake topographic survey represents a state-of-the-art demonstration of airborne laser surveying capability.

  19. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  20. Initial Retrieval Validation from the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Smith, WIlliam L.; Larar, Allen M.; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Mango, Stephen A.; Schluessel, Peter; Calbet, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx) was conducted during April 2007 mainly for validation of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp satellite, but also included a strong component focusing on validation of the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard the AQUA satellite. The cross validation of IASI and AIRS is important for the joint use of their data in the global Numerical Weather Prediction process. Initial inter-comparisons of geophysical products have been conducted from different aspects, such as using different measurements from airborne ultraspectral Fourier transform spectrometers (specifically, the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST-I) and the Scanning-High resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) aboard the NASA WB-57 aircraft), UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe146-301 aircraft insitu instruments, dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and ground based Raman Lidar. An overview of the JAIVEx retrieval validation plan and some initial results of this field campaign are presented.

  1. Airborne boundary layer flux measurements of trace species over Canadian boreal forest and northern wetland regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, John A.; Barrick, John D. W.; Watson, Catherine E.; Sachse, Glen W.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Woerner, Mary A.; Collins, James E., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Airborne heat, moisture, O3, CO, and CH4 flux measurements were obtained over the Hudson Bay lowlands (HBL) and northern boreal forest regions of Canada during July - August 1990. The airborne flux measurements were an integral part of the NASA/Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B field experiment executed in collaboration with the Canadian Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES). Airborne CH4 flux measurements were taken over a large portion of the HBL. The surface level flux of CH4 was obtained from downward extrapolations of multiple-level CH4 flux measurements. Methane source strengths ranged from -1 to 31 mg m(exp -2)/d, with the higher values occurring in relatively small, isolated areas. Similar measurements of the CH4 source strength in the boreal forest region of Schefferville, Quebec, ranged from 6 to 27 mg m(exp -2)/d and exhibited a diurnal dependence. The CH4 source strengths found during the ABLE 3B expedition were much lower than the seasonally averaged source strength of 51 mg m(exp -2)/d found for the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska during the previous ABLE 3A study. Large positive CO fluxes (0.31 to 0.53 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) m/s) were observed over the inland, forested regions of the HBL study area, although the mechanism for the generation of these fluxes was not identified. Repetitive measurements along the same ground track at various times of day near the Schefferville site also suggested a diurnal dependence for CO emissions. Measurements of surface resistance to the uptake of O3 (1.91 to 0.80 s/cm) for the HBL areas investigated were comparable to those observed near the Schefferville site (3.40 to 1.10 s/cm). Surface resistance values for the ABLE 3B study area were somewhat less than those observed over the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta during the previous ABLE 3A study. The budgets for heat, moisture, O3, CO, and CH4 were evaluated. The residuals from these budget studies indicated, for the cases selected, a moderate net

  2. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  3. Vegetation water content mapping in a diverse agricultural landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Tao, Jing; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2010-05-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE'06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE'06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/m2. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy.

  4. Laboratory experiments on membrane filter sampling of airborne mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys atra corda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Nikulin, M.; Tuomainen, M.; Berg, S.; Parikka, P.; Hintikka, E.-L.

    A membrane filter method for sampling of airborne stachybotrystoxins was studied in the laboratory. Toxigenic strains of Stachybotrys atra on wallpaper, grain, hay and straw were used as toxin sources in the experiments. Air samples were collected on cellulose nitrate and polycarbonate membrane filters at air flow rates of 10-20 ℓ min -1. After the filter sampling, the air was passed through methanol. The results showed that stachybotrystoxins (trichothecenes) were concentrated in airborne fungal propagules, and thus can be collected on filters. Polycarbonate filters with a pore size of 0.2 μm collected the highest percentage of toxic samples. The laboratory experiments indicated that polycarbonate filter sampling for the collection of airborne mycotoxins is a promising method for extension to field measurements.

  5. Tropospheric ozone and aerosols measured by airborne lidar during the 1988 Arctic boundary layer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Ozone (O3) and aerosol distributions were measured from an aircraft using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system as part of the 1988 NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment - Arctic Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE-3A) to study the sources and sinks of gases and aerosols over the tundra regions of Alaska during the summer. The tropospheric O3 budget over the Arctic was found to be strongly influenced by stratospheric intrusions. Regions of low aerosol scattering and enhanced O3 mixing ratios were usually correlated with descending air from the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere. Several cases of continental polar air masses were examined during the experiment. The aerosol scattering associated with these air masses was very low, and the atmospheric distribution of aerosols was quite homogeneous for those air masses that had been transported over the ice for greater than or = 3 days. The transition in O3 and aerosol distributions from tundra to marine conditions was examined several times. The aerosol data clearly show an abrupt change in aerosol scattering properties within the mixed layer from lower values over the tundra to generally higher values over the water. The distinct differences in the heights of the mixed layers in the two regions was also readily apparent. Several cases of enhanced O3 were observed during ABLE-3 in conjunction with enhanced aerosol scattering in layers in the free atmosphere. Examples are presented of the large scale variations of O3 and aerosols observed with the airborne lidar system from near the surface to above the tropopause over the Arctic during ABLE-3.

  6. Multiparametric airborne radar observations of the melting layer during the Wakasa Bay experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanelli, S.; Meagher, J.; Durden, S. L.; Im, E.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/JPL airborne precipitation radar APR-2 (cross-track scanning, dual-frequency - 14 and 35 GHz, Doppler and dual polarization, see Sadowy et al. (2003) for detailed description of the instrument) was operated on the NASA P-3 aircraft during the Wakasa Bay experiment.

  7. Oil spill experiment using airborne DLR ESAR off the coast of Diu, India.

    PubMed

    Sasamal, S K; Rao, M V

    2015-05-15

    Oil spill experiment results in the coastal waters of Diu, India, with an airborne DLR ESAR sensor are discussed with reference to the SAR frequency, polarization and viewing angle. The SAR data acquired in the quad polarization of the L band and dual polarization of the C band over two spills are studied. A higher oil and water contrast is observed in the L-VV polarization than in the C-HH mode. Oil spill discrimination is possible over a wider view angle of the airborne SAR sensor data in L band than in C band. This study has also analyzed the spread and drift of oil in coastal waters. PMID:25813716

  8. Analysis of satellite and airborne wind measurements during the SEMAPHORE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tournadre, J.; Hauser, D.

    1994-12-31

    During the SEMAPHORE experiment Intensive Observation Period (IOP), held in October and November 1993 in the Azores-Madeira region, two airplanes, instrumented for atmospheric research, and two oceanographic research vessels have conducted in situ measurements in a 500km x 500km domain. Within the framework of SEMAPHORE, the SOFIA program is dedicated to the study of the air-sea fluxes and interactions from local scale up to mesoscale. The analysis of the structure of the wind and wave fields and their relations to the surface fluxes (especially near oceanic fronts) and the validation of the satellite data are two of the main goals of the SOFIA program. During the IOP, the experiment domain was regularly overflown by the ERS-1 and Topex-Poseidon (TP) satellites. This study presents a preliminary analysis of the ERS-1 and TP altimeter wind and wave measurement and ERS-1 scatterometer wind fields. The data from the airborne RESSAC (a radar ocean wave spectrometer) are also presented.

  9. Dust Transport Across the Atlantic Studied by Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar During the Saltrace Experiment in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Rahm, Stephan; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-06-01

    During the SALTRACE field experiment, conducted during June/July 2013, the Saharan dust transport across the Atlantic was analyzed by a set of ground based, in-situ and airborne instruments, including a 2-μm coherent DWL (Doppler wind lidar) mounted onboard the DLR Falcon 20 research aircraft. An overview of the measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction, horizontal and vertical winds retrieved from the DWL are presented together with a brief description of the applied methods. The retrieved measurements provide direct observation of Saharan dust transport mechanisms across the Atlantic as well as island induced lee waves in the Barbados region.

  10. Development of a high-altitude airborne dial system: The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Vaughan, W. R.; Hall, W. M.; Degnan, J. J.; Averill, R. D.; Wells, J. G.; Hinton, D. E.; Goad, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system to measure vertical profiles of H2O in the lower atmosphere was demonstrated both in ground-based and airborne experiments. In these experiments, tunable lasers were used that required real-time experimenter control to locate and lock onto the atmospheric H2O absorption line for the DIAL measurements. The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) is the first step in a long-range effort to develop and demonstrate an autonomous DIAL system for airborne and spaceborne flight experiments. The LASE instrument is being developed to measure H2O, aerosol, and cloud profiles from a high-altitude ER-2 (extended range U-2) aircraft. The science of the LASE program, the LASE system design, and the expected measurement capability of the system are discussed.

  11. Similarity and Complementarity of Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR Data in High Mountain Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamp, Nicole; Glira, Philipp; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2013-04-01

    Glacier melt and a consequential increased sediment transport (erosion, transportation and accumulation) in high mountain regions are causing a frequent occurrence of geomorphic processes such as landslides and other natural hazards. These effects are investigated at the Gepatschferner (Kaunertal, Oetztal Alps, Tyrol), the second largest glacier in Austria, in the PROSA project (Catholic University Eichstätt - Ingolstadt, Vienna University of Technology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, University of Innsbruck, Munich University of Technology). To monitor these geomorphic processes, data with a very high spatial and very high temporally accuracy and resolution are needed. For this purpose multi-temporal terrestrial and aerial laser scanning data are acquired, processed and analysed. Airborne LiDAR data are collected with a density of 10 points/m² over the whole study area of the glacier and its foreland. Terrestrial LiDAR data are gathered to complement and improve the airborne LiDAR data. The different viewing geometry results in differences between airborne and terrestrial data. Very steep slopes and rock faces (around 90°, depending on the viewing direction) are not visible from the airborne view point. On the other hand, terrestrial viewpoints exhibit shadows for areas above the scanner position and in viewing direction behind vertical or steep faces. In addition, the density of terrestrial data is varying strongly, but has for most of the covered area a much higher level of detail than the airborne dataset. A small temporal baseline is also inevitable and may cause differences between acquisition of airborne and terrestrial data. The goal of this research work is to develop a method for merging airborne and terrestrial LiDAR data. One prerequisite for merging is the identification of areas which are measurements of the same physical surface in either data set. This allows a transformation of the

  12. The manned hydrogen balloon - an appropriate platform for airborne Lagrange experiments in atmospheric research

    SciTech Connect

    Rabl, P.F.H.; Euskirchen, J.

    1996-10-01

    During the last decade hydrogen ballooning provided a reliable basis for special airborne measurements especially for experiments that give evidence about atmospheric chemistry and structure. Although the balloon is not quite a small particle without inertia, Lagrange-like movements of atmospheric mass can be simulated. During two experiments, the vertical gradients of ozone concentration were measured in the downwind area of Munich. The results show remarkable differences in ozone concentration and production, dependent of the daytime. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region, Kern, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1952-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region Kern, Riverside, and Bernardino counties were made in five areas recommended as favorable for the occurrence of radioactive raw materials: (1) Rock Corral area, San Bernardino County. (2) Searles Station area, Kern county. (3) Soledad area, Kern County. (4) White Tank area, Riverside and San Bernardino counties. (5) Harvard Hills area, San Bernardino County. Anomalous radiation was detected in all but the Harvard Hills area. The radioactivity anomalies detected in the Rock Corral area are of the greatest amplitude yet recorded by the airborne equipment over natural sources. The activity is apparently attributable to the thorium-beating mineral associated with roof pendants of crystalline metamorphic rocks in a granitic intrusive. In the Searles Station, Soledad, and White Tank area, several radioactivity anomalies of medium amplitude were recorded, suggesting possible local concentrations of radioactive minerals.

  14. Overview of the first Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) experiment: conversion of a ground-based lidar for airborne applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, James N.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Rothermel, Jeffrey; Menzies, Robert T.

    1996-11-01

    The first Multi center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) field experiment demonstrated an airborne high energy TEA CO2 Doppler lidar system for measurement of atmospheric wind fields and aerosol structure. The system was deployed on the NASA DC-8 during September 1995 in a series of checkout flights to observe several important atmospheric phenomena, including upper level winds in a Pacific hurricane, marine boundary layer winds, cirrus cloud properties, and land-sea breeze structure. The instrument, with its capability to measure 3D winds and backscatter fields, promises to be a valuable tool for climate and global change, severe weather, and air quality research. In this paper, we describe the airborne instrument, assess its performance, discuss future improvements, and show some preliminary results from the September experiments.

  15. The 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment: the Nimbus-7 TOMS Data Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Ardanuy, Philip E.; Sechrist, Frank S.; Penn, Lanning M.; Larko, David E.; Doiron, Scott D.; Galimore, Reginald N.

    1988-01-01

    Total ozone data taken by the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) played a central role in the successful outcome of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The near-real-time TOMS total ozone observations were suppled within hours of real time to the operations center in Punta Arenas, Chile, over a telecommunications network designed specifically for this purpose. The TOMS data preparation and method of transfer over the telecommunications links are reviewed. This atlas includes a complete set of the near-real-time TOMS orbital overpass data over regions around the Palmer Peninsula of Antarctica for the period of August 8 through September 29, 1987. Also provided are daily polar orthographic projections of TOMS total ozone measurements over the Southern Hemisphere from August through November 1987. In addition, a chronology of the salient points of the experiment, along with some latitudinal cross sections and time series at locations of interest of the TOMS total ozone observations are presented. The TOMS total ozone measurements are evaluated along the flight tracks of each of the ER-2 and DC-8 missions during the experiment. The ozone hole is shown here to develop in a monotonic progression throughout late August and September. The minimum total ozone amount was found on 5 October, when its all-time lowest value of 109 DU is recorded. The hole remains well defined, but fills gradually from mid-October through mid-November. The hole's dissolution is observed here to begin in mid-November, when it elongates and begins to rotate. By the end of November, the south pole is no longer located within the ozone hole.

  16. Assessment of chemical and mineralogical characteristics of airborne dust in the Sistan region, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rashki, A; Eriksson, P G; Rautenbach, C J de W; Kaskaoutis, D G; Grote, W; Dykstra, J

    2013-01-01

    Windblown transport and deposition of dust is widely recognized as an important physical and chemical concern to climate, human health and ecosystems. Sistan is a region located in southeast Iran with extensive wind erosion, severe desertification and intense dust storms, which cause adverse effects in regional air quality and human health. To mitigate the impact of these phenomena, it is vital to ascertain the physical and chemical characteristics of airborne and soil dust. This paper examines for the first time, the mineralogical and chemical properties of dust over Sistan by collecting aerosol samples at two stations established close to a dry-bed lake dust source region, from August 2009 to August 2010. Furthermore, soil samples were collected from topsoil (0-5 cm depth) at several locations in the dry-bed Hamoun lakes and downwind areas. These data were analyzed to investigate the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of dust, relevance of inferred sources and contributions to air pollution. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of airborne and soil dust samples shows that the dust mineralogy is dominated mainly by quartz (30-40%), calcite (18-23%), muscovite (10-17%), plagioclase (9-12%), chlorite (~6%) and enstatite (~3%), with minor components of dolomite, microcline, halite and gypsum. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses of all the samples indicate that the most important oxide compositions of the airborne and soil dust are SiO(2), CaO, Al(2)O(3), Na(2)O, MgO and Fe(2)O(3), exhibiting similar percentages for both stations and soil samples. Estimates of Enrichment Factors (EFs) for all studied elements show that all of them have very low EF values, suggesting natural origin from local materials. The results suggest that a common dust source region can be inferred, which is the eroded sedimentary environment in the extensive Hamoun dry lakes lying to the north of Sistan. PMID:22835867

  17. Field experiment on spray drift: deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop.

    PubMed

    Wolters, André; Linnemann, Volker; van de Zande, Jan C; Vereecken, Harry

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done according to good agricultural practice. Deposition was measured by horizontal collectors in various arrangements in and outside the treated area. Airborne spray drift was measured both with a passive and an active air collecting system. Spray deposits on top of the treated canopy ranged between 68 and 71% of the applied dose and showed only small differences for various arrangements of the collectors. Furthermore, only small variations were measured within the various groups of collectors used for these arrangements. Generally, the highest spray deposition outside the treated area was measured close to the sprayed plot and was accompanied by a high variability of values, while a rapid decline of deposits was detected in more remote areas. Estimations of spray deposits with the IMAG Drift Calculator were in accordance with experimental findings only for areas located at a distance of 0.5-4.5 m from the last nozzle, while there was an overestimation of a factor of 4 at a distance of 2.0-3.0 m, thus revealing a high level of uncertainty of the estimation of deposition for short distances. Airborne spray drift measured by passive and active air collecting systems was approximately at the same level, when taking into consideration the collector efficiency of the woven nylon wire used as sampling material for the passive collecting system. The maximum value of total airborne spray drift for both spray applications (0.79% of the applied dose) was determined by the active collecting system. However, the comparatively high variability of measurements at various heights above the soil by active and passive collecting systems revealed need for further studies to elucidate the spatial

  18. Filter measurements of chemical composition during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandrud, B. W.; Sperry, P. D.; Sanford, L.

    1988-01-01

    During the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment campaign, a filter sampler was flown to measure the bulk composition of aerosol and gas phases. The background sulfate aerosol was measured in regions inside and outside of the chemically perturbed region (CPR) of the polar vortex. The mass ratio of sulfate outside to inside was 2.8. This is indicative of a cleansing mechanism effecting the CPR or of a different air mass inside versus outside. The absolute value of the sulfate mixing ratio shows that the background aerosol has not been influenced by recent volcanic eruptions. The sulfate measured on the ferry flight returning to NASA Ames shows a decrease towards the equator with increasing concentrations in the northern hemisphere. Nitrate in the aerosol phase was observed on two flights. The largest amount of nitrate measured in the aerosol was 44 percent of the total amount of nitrate observed. Other samples on the same flights show no nitrate in the aerosol phase. The presence of nitrate in the aerosol is correlated with the coldest temperatures observed on a given flight. Total nitrate (aerosol plus acidic vapor nitrate) concentrations were observed to increase at flight altitude with increasing latitude north and south of the equator. Total nitrate was lower inside the CPR than outside. Chloride and flouride were not detected in the aerosol phase. From the concentrations of acidic chloride vapor, the ratio of acidic vapor Cl to acidic vapor F and a summing of the individual chloride containing species to yield a total chloride concentration, there is a suggestion that some of the air sampled was dechlorinated. Acidic vapor phase fluoride was observed to increase at flight altitude with increasing latitude both north and south of the equator. The acidic vapor phase fluoride was the only compound measured with the filter technique that exhibited larger concentrations inside the CPR than outside.

  19. Airborne measurements of NOx, tracer species, and small particles during the European Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntrieser, H.; Feigl, C.; Schlager, H.; Schröder, F.; Gerbig, C.; van Velthoven, P.; Flatøy, F.; Théry, C.; Petzold, A.; Höller, H.; Schumann, U.

    2002-06-01

    Airborne in situ measurements of NO, NO2, NOy, CO, CO2, O3, J(NO2), and CN were performed in European thunderstorms during the field experiment EULINOX in July 1998. The measurements in the upper troposphere show enhanced NOx (= NO + NO2) concentrations within thunderstorms and their outflow at horizontal scales from 300 m to several 100 km. The maximum NO mixing ratio measured inside a thundercloud close to lightning (the aircraft was also hit by a small lightning strike) was 25 ppbv. A regional NOx enhancement of 0.5 ppbv over central Europe could be traced back to a thunderstorm event starting ~24 hours earlier over Spain. The fractions of NOx in thunderclouds which are produced by lightning and convectively transported from the polluted boundary layer are determined by using CO2 and CO as tracers for boundary layer air. The analyses show that on average about 70% of the NOx increase measured in the anvil region was found to result from production by lightning and about 30% from NOx in the boundary layer. Thunderstorms are also strong sources of small particles. The peak CN concentrations measured within thunderstorm outflows (>30,000 particles STP cm-3) were distinctly higher than in the polluted boundary layer. The amount of NOx produced per thunderstorm and NO produced per lightning flash was estimated. The results imply that the annual mean NOx budget in the upper troposphere over Europe is dominated by aircraft emissions (0.1 TgN yr-1) in comparison to lightning production (~0.03 TgN yr-1). On the global scale, NOx produced by lightning (mean 3 TgN yr-1) prevails over aircraft-produced NOx (0.6 TgN yr-1).

  20. Airborne Observations and Satellite Validation: INTEX-A Experience and INTEX-B Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, James H.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Brune, William H.; Jacob, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX; http://cloudl.arc.nasa.gov) is an ongoing two-phase integrated atmospheric field experiment being performed over North America (NA). Its first phase (INTEX-A) was performed in the summer of 2004 and the second phase (INTEX-B) is planned for the early spring of 2006. The main goal of INTEX-NA is to understand the transport and transformation of gases and aerosols on transcontinental/intercontinental scales and to assess their impact on air quality and climate. Central to achieving this goal is the need to relate space-based observations with those from airborne and surface platforms. During INTEX-A, NASA s DC-8 was joined by some dozen other aircraft from a large number of European and North American partners to focus on the outflow of pollution from NA to the Atlantic. Several instances of Asian pollution over NA were also encountered. INTEX-A flight planning extensively relied on satellite observations and in turn Satellite validation (Terra, Aqua, and Envisat) was given high priority. Over 20 validation profiles were successfully carried out. DC-8 sampling of smoke from Alaskan fires and formaldehyde over forested regions, and simultaneous satellite observations of these provided excellent opportunities for the interplay of these platforms. The planning for INTEX-5 is currently underway, and a vast majority of "standard" and "research" products to be retrieved from Aura instruments will be measured during INTEX-B throughout the troposphere. INTEX-B will focus on the inflow of pollution from Asia to North America and validation of satellite observations with emphasis on Aura. Several national and international partners are expected to coordinate activities with INTEX-B, and we expect its scope to expand in the coming months. An important new development involves partnership with an NSF-sponsored campaign called MIRAGE (Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments- Mexico City Pollution Outflow Field

  1. Designing an in-flight airborne calibration site using experience from vicarious radiometric satellite calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livens, Stefan; Debruyn, Walter; Sterckx, Sindy; Reusen, Ils

    2011-11-01

    Laboratory calibration of electro-optical sensors is preferably complemented by regular in-flight verification. This checks whether the lab calibration parameters remain valid or recalibration is necessary. In-flight verification can be achieved by vicarious calibration using in-flight measurements of calibration targets. We intend to identify and design a set of suitable radiometric calibration targets. For this, we borrow from expertise gained with the PROBA-V satellite calibration system, which uses multiple vicarious methods relying on diverse natural on-ground targets. Besides reflectance based calibration using ground measurements, the PROBA-V calibration methods are unproven for use in airborne calibration. The selected targets should be suitable for the calibration of both multispectral and hyperspectral imagers. We start from general requirements for radiometric targets and investigate their applicability to airborne calibration. From this we identify two possible sets of natural calibration sites in Belgium. One set, located in the Campine region, contains small water bodies and sandy lakesides. Another set is located in the Westhoek region near the Belgian coast. It offers better suitable water bodies, as well as sandy areas, grass fields and dark targets. Airborne calibration lends itself to the use of smaller artifical targets. We propose to complement the natural targets with a portable target consisting of agricultural nets with different densities. The definition of sets of calibration targets, both natural and artificial can facilitate the investigation of the usability of vicarious targets and method for inflight radiometric verification.

  2. Correlation of N2O and ozone in the Southern Polar vortex during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahan, S. E.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Starr, Walter L.; Proffitt, M. H.; Kelly, K. K.; Chan, K. Roland

    1988-01-01

    In situ N20 mixing ratios, measured by an airborne laser spectrometer (ATLAS), have been used along with in situ ozone measurements to determine the correlation of N2O and ozone in the Antarctic stratosphere during the late austral winter. During the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE), N2O data were collected by a laser absorption spectrometer on board the ER-2 on five ferry flights between Ames Research Center (37 deg N) and Punta Arenas, Chile (53 deg S), and on twelve flights over Antarctica (53 S to 72 S). Of all the trace gas species measured by instruments on board the ER-2, only one showed a relationship to the N2O/O3 correlations in the vortex. With few exceptions, positive N20/O3 correlations coincided with total water mixing ratios of greater than 2.9 ppmv, and total water mixing ratios of less than 2.9 ppmv corresponded to negative correlations. The lower water mixing ratios, or dehydrated regions, are colocated with the negative correlations within the vortex, while the wetter regions always occur near the vortex edge.

  3. Development of an Airborne System for Direct Validation of Regional Carbon Flux Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, G.; Kawa, S. R.; Hanisco, T. F.; Newman, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Global distributions of greenhouse gas (GHG) sources and sinks, principally CO2 and CH4, and characterization of the processes that control them, comprise a key uncertainty in projections of future climate. A broad spectrum of tools is currently used to characterize these processes. Top-down inversions of orbital GHG column observations (e.g. ACOS/GOSAT and OCO-2) provide a global perspective, but little information is available to validate these estimates. Indirect (boundary-layer budget) or direct (tower-based eddy covariance) surface flux measurements can provide bottom-up constraints, but the former is typically focused on large point and area emission sources while the latter relies on sparse networks with limited spatial coverage. Aircraft are an ideal platform to bridge the flux representation scale from kilometers (as measured from towers) to the tens or hundreds of kilometers relevant to satellite observations and global models. In light of current measurement gaps and the emerging need for direct validation of GHG surface flux estimates, NASA is developing a sophisticated facility for airborne eddy covariance observations of carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor and other trace gases. Three components comprise the core measurement system: i) the NASA Wallops Sherpa, which is ideal for airborne eddy covariance due to its substantial payload and the ability to fly low and slow, ii) commercial GHG sensors optimized for airborne flux measurements, and iii) a custom gust-probe system for high-fidelity measurements of vertical wind velocity. These systems will be discussed in detail, along with future plans for deployment and application of measurements to improving GHG flux estimates on local, regional and global scales.

  4. Airborne methane remote measurements reveal heavy-tail flux distribution in Four Corners region.

    PubMed

    Frankenberg, Christian; Thorpe, Andrew K; Thompson, David R; Hulley, Glynn; Kort, Eric Adam; Vance, Nick; Borchardt, Jakob; Krings, Thomas; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Sweeney, Colm; Conley, Stephen; Bue, Brian D; Aubrey, Andrew D; Hook, Simon; Green, Robert O

    2016-08-30

    Methane (CH4) impacts climate as the second strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air quality by influencing tropospheric ozone levels. Space-based observations have identified the Four Corners region in the Southwest United States as an area of large CH4 enhancements. We conducted an airborne campaign in Four Corners during April 2015 with the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (near-infrared) and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (thermal infrared) imaging spectrometers to better understand the source of methane by measuring methane plumes at 1- to 3-m spatial resolution. Our analysis detected more than 250 individual methane plumes from fossil fuel harvesting, processing, and distributing infrastructures, spanning an emission range from the detection limit [Formula: see text] 2 kg/h to 5 kg/h through [Formula: see text] 5,000 kg/h. Observed sources include gas processing facilities, storage tanks, pipeline leaks, and well pads, as well as a coal mine venting shaft. Overall, plume enhancements and inferred fluxes follow a lognormal distribution, with the top 10% emitters contributing 49 to 66% to the inferred total point source flux of 0.23 Tg/y to 0.39 Tg/y. With the observed confirmation of a lognormal emission distribution, this airborne observing strategy and its ability to locate previously unknown point sources in real time provides an efficient and effective method to identify and mitigate major emissions contributors over a wide geographic area. With improved instrumentation, this capability scales to spaceborne applications [Thompson DR, et al. (2016) Geophys Res Lett 43(12):6571-6578]. Further illustration of this potential is demonstrated with two detected, confirmed, and repaired pipeline leaks during the campaign. PMID:27528660

  5. Near-real-time TOMS, telecommunications and meteorological support for the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardanuy, P.; Victorine, J.; Sechrist, F.; Feiner, A.; Penn, L.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment was to improve the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole. Total ozone data taken by the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) played a central role in the successful outcome of the experiment. During the experiment, the near-real-time TOMS total ozone observations were supplied within hours of real time to the operations center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The final report summarizes the role which Research and Data Systems (RDS) Corporation played in the support of the experiment. The RDS provided telecommunications to support the science and operations efforts for the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, and supplied near real-time weather information to ensure flight and crew safety; designed and installed the telecommunications network to link NASA-GSFC, the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO), Palmer Station, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to the operation at Punta Arenas; engineered and installed stations and other stand-alone systems to collect data from designated low-orbiting polar satellites and beacons; provided analyses of Nimbus-7 TOMS data and backup data products to Punta Arenas; and provided synoptic meteorological data analysis and reduction.

  6. The Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE): The first geology multisensor airborne campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L.; Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE) is to acquire relevant data for geological sites that can be used to test models for extraction of surface property information from remote sensing data for earth, Mars and Venus in support of the Earth Observing System (EOS), Mars Observer, and Magellan, respectively. Over forty scientists from eight universities and three NASA centers are participating in GRSFE which is co-sponsored by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program and the NASA Geology Program. Highlights of the airborne campaign included the first simultaneous acquisition of Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVRIS) and Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data on September 29, 1989, and acquisition of Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS), Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), and Airborne Terrain Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) data all within three months of each other. The sites covered were Lunar Crater Volcanic Field and Fish Lake Valley in Nevada; and Cima Volcanic Field, Death Valley, and Ubehebe Crater in California. Coincident field measurements included meteorological and atmospheric measurements, visible/near-infrared and thermal spectra, and characterization of geology and vegetation cover. The GRSFE airborne and field data will be reduced to a suite of standard products and submitted, along with appropriate documentation, to the Planetary Data System (PDS) and the Pilot Land Data System (PLDS). These data will be used for a variety of investigations including paleoclimatic studies in the arid southwestern United States, and analysis of Magellan data. GRSFE data will also be used to support Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) simulation studies.

  7. Airborne laser topographic mapping results from initial joint NASA/US Army Corps of Engineers experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Initial results from a series of joint NASA/US Army Corps of Engineers experiments are presented. The NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) was exercised over various terrain conditions, collecting both profile and scan data from which river basin cross sections are extracted. Comparisons of the laser data with both photogrammetry and ground surveys are made, with 12 to 27 cm agreement observed over open ground. Foliage penetration tests, utilizing the unique time-waveform sampling capability of the AOL, indicate 50 cm agreement with photogrammetry (known to have difficulty in foliage covered terrain).

  8. Experiment of monitoring thermal discharge drained from nuclear plant through airborne infrared remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Li, Ning

    2009-07-01

    The State Development and Planning Commission has approved nuclear power projects with the total capacity of 23,000 MW. The plants will be built in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong, Liaoning and Fujian Province before 2020. However, along with the nuclear power policy of accelerated development in our country, the quantity of nuclear plants and machine sets increases quickly. As a result the environment influence of thermal discharge will be a problem that can't be slid over. So evaluation of the environment influence and engineering simulation must be performed before station design and construction. Further more real-time monitoring of water temperature need to be arranged after fulfillment, reflecting variety of water temperature in time and provided to related managing department. Which will help to ensure the operation of nuclear plant would not result in excess environment breakage. At the end of 2007, an airborne thermal discharge monitoring experiment has been carried out by making use of MAMS, a marine multi-spectral scanner equipped on the China Marine Surveillance Force airplane. And experimental subject was sea area near Qin Shan nuclear plant. This paper introduces the related specification and function of MAMS instrument, and decrypts design and process of the airborne remote sensing experiment. Experiment showed that applying MAMS to monitoring thermal discharge is viable. The remote sensing on a base of thermal infrared monitoring technique told us that thermal discharge of Qin Shan nuclear plant was controlled in a small scope, never breaching national water quality standard.

  9. Airborne/Space-Based Doppler Lidar Wind Sounders Sampling the PBL and Other Regions of Significant Beta and U Inhomogeneities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmitt, Dave

    1998-01-01

    This final report covers the period from April 1994 through March 1998. The proposed research was organized under four main tasks. Those tasks were: (1) Investigate the vertical and horizontal velocity structures within and adjacent to thin and subvisual cirrus; (2) Investigate the lowest 1 km of the PBL and develop algorithms for processing pulsed Doppler lidar data obtained from single shots into regions of significant inhomogeneities in Beta and U; (3) Participate in OSSEs including those designed to establish shot density requirements for meso-gamma scale phenomena with quasi-persistent locations (e.g., jets, leewaves, tropical storms); and (4) Participate in the planning and execution of an airborne mission to measure winds with a pulsed CO2 Doppler lidar. Over the four year period of this research contract, work on all four tasks has yielded significant results which have led to 38 professional presentations (conferences and publications) and have been folded into the science justification for an approved NASA space mission, SPARCLE (SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment), in 2001. Also this research has, through Task 4, led to a funded proposal to work directly on a NASA field campaign, CAMEX III, in which an airborne Doppler wind lidar will be used to investigate the cloud-free circulations near tropical storms. Monthly progress reports required under this contract are on file. This final report will highlight major accomplishments, including some that were not foreseen in the original proposal. The presentation of this final report includes this written document as well as material that is better presented via the internet (web pages). There is heavy reference to appended papers and documents. Thus, the main body of the report will serve to summarize the key efforts and findings.

  10. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Airborne Particulate Metals and Metalloids in a Populated Arid Region

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Gouri; Sorooshian, Armin; Toffol, Emily; Arellano, Avelino F.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    A statistical analysis of data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network of aerosol samplers has been used to study the spatial and temporal concentration trends in airborne particulate metals and metalloids for southern Arizona. The study region is a rapidly growing area in southwestern North America characterized by high fine soil concentrations (among the highest in the United States), anthropogenic emissions from an area within the fastest growing region in the United States, and a high density of active and abandoned mining sites. Crustal tracers in the region are most abundant in the summer (April – June) followed by fall (October – November) as a result of dry meteorological conditions which favor dust emissions from natural and anthropogenic activity. A distinct day-of-week cycle is evident for crustal tracer mass concentrations, with the greatest amplitude evident in urban areas. There have been significant reductions since 1988 in the concentrations of toxic species that are typically associated with smelting and mining. Periods with high fine soil concentrations coincide with higher concentrations of metals and metalloids in the atmosphere, with the enhancement being higher at urban sites. PMID:24955017

  11. Modeling Airborne Gravity Data with Local Functions for Regional Geoid Enhancement ---- A Case Study in Puerto Rico Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaopeng

    2016-04-01

    Airborne gravimetry has been used as the primary method to quickly and economically obtain updated gravity field information over a region, targeted specifically. Thus, unlike the satellite missions that provide global or near global data coverage, the observables from airborne campaigns are apparently space limited. Moreover, they are also band limited in the frequency domain, considering that various filter banks and/or de-noising techniques have to be applied to overcome the low signal to noise ratio problem that are presented in the airborne systems due to mechanical and mathematical limitations in computing the accelerations, both the kinematic one and the dynamic one. As a result, in this study, a band-limited local function system based on the point mass model is used to process these airborne gravity data that have both a limited frequency domain and a limited space domain in the target area: Puerto Rico Island and its nearby ocean areas. The resulting geoid model show obvious middle to short wavelength geoid changes due to airborne gravity data contribution. In the land area, these changes improved the geoid precision from 3.27cm to 2.09cm at the local GNSS/Leveling bench marks. More importantly, the error trend in the geoid models is largely reduced if not completely removed. Various oceanographic models will be used to validate the geoid changes in the nearby open sea areas.

  12. Three decades of BGR airborne geophysical surveys over the polar regions - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaske, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) has been conducting geological polar research since 1979. A few years later BGR engaged in airborne geophysical projects. Investigation of the lithosphere of the continent and the continental margins was one of the key issues for BGR. Right from the beginning geophysical research was closely associated with the geological activities. The GANOVEX (German Antarctic North Victoria Land Expedition) program combined geological research with geophysical (mainly airborne) investigations. This proved to be a fruitful approach to many of the open questions regarding the tectonic development of the Ross Sea region. Aeromagnetic surveys evolved into a powerful tool for identifying geological structures and following them underneath the ice covered areas - not accessible to direct geological investigations. To achieve this aim it was essential to lay out these surveys with a relatively closely spaced line separation on the expense of covering large areas at the same time. Nevertheless, over many years of continues research areas of more than a just regional extent could be covered. This was, however, only possible through international collaboration. During the first years, working in the Ross Sea area, the cooperation with the US and Italian programs played a significant role, especially the GITARA (German-Italian Aeromagnetic Research in Antarctica) program has to be mentioned. GEOMAUD (Geoscientific Expedition to Dronning Maud Land) and the German-Australian joint venture PCMEGA (Prince Charles Mountains Expedition of Germany & Australia) expanded research activities to the East Antarctic shield area. In the International Polar Year (IPY), BGR played a leading role in the international project AGAP (Antarctica's GAmburtsev Province) as part of the main topic "Venture into Unknown Regions". AGAP was jointly conducted by the USA, Great Britain, Australia, China and Germany. While in the Ross Sea area even

  13. Mapping methane concentrations from a controlled release experiment using the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Roberts, D. A.; Aubrey, A. D.; Green, R. O.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometers like the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRISng) are well suited for monitoring local methane sources by covering large regions with the high spatial resolution necessary to resolve emissions. As part of a field campaign with controlled methane releases at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC), a number of methane plumes were clearly visible at multiple flux rates and flight altitudes. Images of plumes appeared consistent with wind directions measured at ground stations and were present for fluxes as low as 14.2 cubic meters of methane per hour, equivalent to 0.09 kt/year. Direct comparison of results from AVIRISng and plume dispersion models is ongoing and will be used to assess the potential of constraining emission fluxes using AVIRISng. Methane plumes observed at RMOTC with the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) will also be presented. This controlled release experiment was used to determine the methane sensitivity of AVIRISng and inform sensor design for future imaging spectrometers that could constrain natural and anthropogenic methane emissions on local and regional scales. Imaging spectrometers permit direct attribution of emissions to individual point sources which is particularly useful given the large uncertainties associated with anthropogenic emissions, including industrial point source emissions and fugitive methane from the oil and gas industry. Figure caption: a. AVIRISng true color image indicating tube trailer (TT), meteorological tower (MT), and release point (RP). b. Prominent methane plume and measured enhancements for 70.8 cubic meters per hour methane flux is consistent with wind speed and direction (see arrow) measured by meteorological tower. A linear transect is shown in red and corresponds to enhancements shown in c. d. True color image showing release point (RP). e. Smaller methane plume for 14.2 cubic meters per hour flux. f. Methane

  14. Airborne Measurements of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in the Oil Sands Region of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Hayden, K.; Liu, P.; Leithead, A.; Moussa, S. G.; Staebler, R. M.; Gordon, M.; O'brien, J.; Li, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Alberta oil sands (OS) region represents a strategic natural resource and is a key driver of economic development. Its rapid expansion has led to a need for a more comprehensive understanding of the associated potential cumulative environmental impacts. In summer 2013, airborne measurements of various gaseous and particulate substances were made in the Athabasca oil sands region between August 13 and Sept 7, 2013. In particular, organic aerosol mass and composition measurements were performed with a High Resolution Time of flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) supported by gaseous measurements of organic aerosol precursors with Proton Transfer Reaction (PTR) and Chemical Ionization (CI) mass spectrometers. These measurement data on selected flights were used to estimate the potential for local anthropogenic OS emissions to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) downwind of precursor sources, and to investigate the importance of the surrounding biogenic emissions to the overall SOA burden in the region. The results of several flights conducted to investigate these transformations demonstrate that multiple distinct plumes were present downwind of OS industrial sources, each with differing abilities to form SOA depending upon factors such as NOx level, precursor VOC composition, and oxidant concentration. The results indicate that approximately 100 km downwind of an OS industrial source most of the measured organic aerosol (OA) was secondary in nature, forming at rates of ~6.4 to 13.6 μgm-3hr-1. Positive matrix factor (PMF) analysis of the HR-ToF-AMS data suggests that the SOA was highly oxidized (O/C~0.6) resulting in a measured ΔOA (difference above regional background OA) of approximately 2.5 - 3 despite being 100 km away from sources. The relative contribution of biogenic SOA to the total SOA and the factors affecting SOA formation during a number of flights in the OS region will be described.

  15. Radiative flux measurements during the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) Guam Deployment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindel, B. C.; Pilewskie, P.; Schmidt, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment was a field program utilizing the NASA Global Hawk aircraft, to make extensive measurements of tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over the Pacific Ocean. In February and March of 2014, the NASA Global Hawk was deployed to Guam and flew six long duration science flights. The aircraft was outfitted with a suite of instruments to study the composition of the TTL. Measurements included: water vapor amount, cloud particle size and shape, various gaseous species (e.g. CO, CH4, CO2, O3), and radiation measurements. The radiation measurements were comprised of the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) that made spectrally resolved measurements of upwelling and downwelling solar irradiance from 350 to 2200 nm and thermal broadband (4μm to 42 μm) upwelling and downwelling irradiance. Once airborne, the Global Hawk made numerous vertical profiles (14 - 18 km) through the TTL. In this work we present results of combined solar spectral irradiance and broadband thermal irradiance measurements. Solar spectral measurements are correlated, wavelength-by-wavelength, with broadband thermal measurements. The radiative impact in the TTL of water vapor and cirrus clouds are examined both in the solar and thermal wavelengths from both upwelling and downwelling irradiances. The spectral measurements are used in an attempt to attribute physical mechanisms to the thermal (spectrally integrated) measurements. Measurements of heating rates are also presented, highlighting the difficultly in obtaining reliable results from aircraft measurements.

  16. Airborne Observations of Regional Variations in Fluorescent Aerosol Across the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Baumgardner, D.; Hernandez, M.; Spracklen, D. V.; Heald, C. L.; Gao, R. S.; Kok, G. L.; McMeeking, G.; McQuaid, J. B.; Fahey, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne observations of fluorescent aerosol were made aboard an airship during CloudLab, a series of flights that took place in September and October of 2013 and covered a wide band of longitude across the continental US between Florida and California between 28 and 37N latitude. Sampling occurred from near the surface to 1000 m above the ground. A Wide-band Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4) measured concentrations of supermicron fluorescent particles with average regional concentrations ranging from 1.4±0.7 to 6.8±1.4 x 104 particles m-3 and representing up to 24% of total supermicron particle number. We observed distinct variations in size distributions and fluorescent characteristics in different regions, and attribute these to geographically diverse bioaerosol populations. Fluorescent aerosol signatures detected in the east is largely consistent with those of mold spores observed in a laboratory setting. A shift to larger sizes associated with different fluorescent patterns is observed in the west. Loadings in the desert west were nearly as high as those near the Gulf of Mexico, indicating that bioaerosol is a substantial component of supermicron aerosol both of these humid and arid environments. The observations are compared to simulated fungal and bacterial loadings. Good agreement in both particle size and concentrations is observed in the east. In the west the model underestimates observed concentrations by a factor of 2 to 3 and the prescribed particle sizes are smaller than the observed bioaerosol.

  17. Airborne black carbon concentrations over an urban region in western India-temporal variability, effects of meteorology, and source regions.

    PubMed

    Bapna, Mukund; Sunder Raman, Ramya; Ramachandran, S; Rajesh, T A

    2013-03-01

    This study characterizes over 5 years of high time resolution (5 min), airborne black carbon (BC) concentrations (July 2003 to December 2008) measured over Ahmedabad, an urban region in western India. The data were used to obtain different time averages of BC concentrations, and these averages were then used to assess the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variability of BC over the study region. Assessment of diurnal variations revealed a strong association between BC concentrations and vehicular traffic. Peaks in BC concentration were co-incident with the morning (0730 to 0830, LST) and late evening (1930 to 2030, LST) rush hour traffic. Additionally, diurnal variability in BC concentrations during major festivals (Diwali and Dushera during the months of October/November) revealed an increase in BC concentrations due to fireworks displays. Maximum half hourly BC concentrations during the festival days were as high as 79.8 μg m(-3). However, the high concentrations rapidly decayed suggesting that local meteorology during the festive season was favorable for aerosol dispersion. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model with BC as the dependent variable and meteorological parameters as independent variables was fitted. The variability in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction accounted for about 49% of the variability in measured BC concentrations. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis was used to identify the geographical location of local source regions contributing to the effective BC measured (at 880 nm) at the receptor site. The east north-east (ENE) direction to the receptor was identified as a major source region. National highway (NH8) and two coal-fired thermal power stations (at Gandhinagar and Sabarmati) were located in the identified direction, suggesting that local traffic and power plant emissions were likely contributors to the measured BC. PMID:22777610

  18. Observations of condensation nuclei in the 1987 airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Smith, S. D.; Ferry, G. V.; Loewenstein, M.

    1988-01-01

    The condensation nucleus counter (CNC) flown of the NASA ER-2 in the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment provides a measurement of the number mixing ratio of particles which can be grown by exposure to supersaturated n-butyl alcohol vapor to diameters of a few microns. Such particles are referred to as condensation nuclei (CN). The ER-2 CNC was calibrated with aerosols of known size and concentration and was found to provide an accurate measure of the number concentration of particles larger than about 0.02 micron. Since the number distribution of stratospheric aerosols is usually dominated by particles less than a few tenths of micron in diameter, the upper cutoff of the ER-2 CNC has not been determined experimentally. However, theory suggests that the sampling and counting efficiency should remain near one for particles as large as 1 micron in diameter. Thus, the CN mixing ratio is usually a good measure of the mixing ratio of submicron particles.

  19. Observational results using the microwave temperature profiler during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.

    1989-01-01

    The Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) measures profiles of air temperature versus altitude. The altitude coverage is about 5 km at a flight altitude of 20 km (66,000 feet), and the profiles are obtained every 14 s. The MTP instrument is installed on NASA's ER-2 aircraft, which flew 13 missions over Antarctica during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. Altitude temperature profiles were used to derive potential temperature cross sections. These cross sections have been useful in detecting atmospheric waves. Many wave encounters have been identified as 'mountain waves'. The mountain waves are found to extend from the lowest altitudes measured to the highest (about 24 km). The southern part of the Palmer Peninsula was found to be associated with mountain waves more than half the time. Altitude temperature profiles were also used to measure the lapse rate along the flight track. Lapse rate versus latitude plots do not show significant changes at the ozone hole boundary.

  20. Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas (BASE-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Setzer, A.; Ward, D.; Tanre, D.; Holben, B. N.; Menzel, P.; Pereira, M. C.; Rasmussen, R.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented on measurements of the trace gas and particulate matter emissions due to biomass burning during deforestation and grassland fires in South America, conducted as part of the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas in September 1989. Field observations by an instrumented aircraft were used to estimate concentrations of O3, CO2, CO, CH4, and particulate matter. Fires were observed from satellite imagery, and the smoke optical thickness, particle size, and profiles of the extinction coefficient were measured from the aircraft and from the ground. Four smoke plumes were sampled, three vertical profiles were measured, and extensive ground measurements of smoke optical characteristics were carried out for different smoke types. The simultaneous measurements of the trace gases, smoke particles, and the distribution of fires were used to correlate biomass burning with the elevated levels of ozone.

  1. Characterizing arid region alluvial fan surface roughness with airborne laser swath mapping digital topographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Kurt L.; Dolan, James F.

    2007-06-01

    Range-front alluvial fan deposition in arid environments is episodic and results in multiple fan surfaces and ages. These distinct landforms are often defined by descriptions of their surface morphology, desert varnish accumulation, clast rubification, desert pavement formation, soil development, and stratigraphy. Although quantifying surface roughness differences between alluvial fan units has proven to be difficult in the past, high-resolution airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) digital topographic data are now providing researchers with an opportunity to study topography in unprecedented detail. Here we use ALSM data to calculate surface roughness on two alluvial fans in northern Death Valley, California. We define surface roughness as the standard deviation of slope in a 5-m by 5-m moving window. Comparison of surface roughness values between mapped fan surfaces shows that each unit is statistically unique at the 99% confidence level. Furthermore, there is an obvious smoothing trend from the presently active channel to a deposit with cosmogenic 10Be and 36Cl surface exposure ages of ˜70 ka. Beyond 70 ka, alluvial landforms become progressively rougher with age. These data suggest that alluvial fans in arid regions smooth out with time until a threshold is crossed where roughness increases at greater wavelength with age as a result of surface runoff and headward tributary incision into the oldest surfaces.

  2. Regional prediction of soil organic carbon content over croplands using airborne hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Bel, Liliane; Lefebvre, Josias; Chehdi, Kacem

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out in the framework of the Prostock-Gessol3 and the BASC-SOCSENSIT projects, dedicated to the spatial monitoring of the effects of exogenous organic matter land application on soil organic carbon storage. It aims at identifying the potential of airborne hyperspectral AISA-Eagle data for predicting the topsoil organic carbon (SOC) content of bare cultivated soils over a large peri-urban area (221 km2) with both contrasted soils and SOC contents, located in the western region of Paris, France. Soils comprise hortic or glossic luvisols, calcaric, rendzic cambisols and colluvic cambisols. Airborne AISA-Eagle data (400-1000 nm, 126 bands) with 1 m-resolution were acquired on 17 April 2013 over 13 tracks which were georeferenced. Tracks were atmospherically corrected using a set of 22 synchronous field spectra of both bare soils, black and white targets and impervious surfaces. Atmospherically corrected track tiles were mosaicked at a 2 m-resolution resulting in a 66 Gb image. A SPOT4 satellite image was acquired the same day in the framework of the SPOT4-Take Five program of the French Space Agency (CNES) which provided it with atmospheric correction. The land use identification system layer (RPG) of 2012 was used to mask non-agricultural areas, then NDVI calculation and thresholding enabled to map agricultural fields with bare soil. All 18 sampled sites known to be bare at this very date were correctly included in this map. A total of 85 sites sampled in 2013 or in the 3 previous years were identified as bare by means of this map. Predictions were made from the mosaic spectra which were related to topsoil SOC contents by means of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Regression robustness was evaluated through a series of 1000 bootstrap data sets of calibration-validation samples. The use of the total sample including 27 sites under cloud shadows led to non-significant results. Considering 43 sites outside cloud shadows only, median

  3. Evaluation of Airborne Precision Spacing in a Human-in-the-Loop Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.

    2005-01-01

    A significant bottleneck in the current air traffic system occurs at the runway. Expanding airports and adding new runways will help solve this problem; however, this comes with significant costs: financially, politically and environmentally. A complementary solution is to safely increase the capacity of current runways. This can be achieved by precisely spacing aircraft at the runway threshold, with a resulting reduction in the spacing bu er required under today s operations. At NASA's Langley Research Center, the Airspace Systems program has been investigating airborne technologies and procedures that will assist the flight crew in achieving precise spacing behind another aircraft. A new spacing clearance allows the pilot to follow speed cues from a new on-board guidance system called Airborne Merging and Spacing for Terminal Arrivals (AMSTAR). AMSTAR receives Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) reports from an assigned, leading aircraft and calculates the appropriate speed for the ownship to fly to achieve the desired spacing interval, time- or distance-based, at the runway threshold. Since the goal is overall system capacity, the speed guidance algorithm is designed to provide system-wide benefits and stability to a string of arriving aircraft. An experiment was recently performed at the NASA Langley Air Traffic Operations Laboratory (ATOL) to test the flexibility of Airborne Precision Spacing operations under a variety of operational conditions. These included several types of merge and approach geometries along with the complementary merging and in-trail operations. Twelve airline pilots and four controllers participated in this simulation. Performance and questionnaire data were collected from a total of eighty-four individual arrivals. The pilots were able to achieve precise spacing with a mean error of 0.5 seconds and a standard deviation of 4.7 seconds. No statistically significant di erences in spacing performance were found between in

  4. NASA's Student Airborne Research Program as a model for effective professional development experience in Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, S. L.; Kudela, R. M.; Clinton, N. E.; Atkins, N.; Austerberry, D.; Johnson, M.; McGonigle, J.; McIntosh, K.; O'Shea, J. J.; Shirshikova, Z.; Singer, N.; Snow, A.; Woods, R.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    With over half of the current earth and space science workforce expected to retire within the next 15 years, NASA has responded by cultivating young minds through programs such as the Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). SARP is a competitive internship that introduces upper-level undergraduates and early graduate students to Earth System Science research and NASA's Airborne Science Program. The program serves as a model for recruitment of very high caliber students into the scientific workforce. Its uniqueness derives from total vertical integration of hands-on experience at every stage of airborne science: aircraft instrumentation, flight planning, mission participation, field-work, analysis, and reporting of results in a competitive environment. At the conclusion of the program, students presented their work to NASA administrators, faculty, mentors, and the other participants with the incentive of being selected as best talk and earning a trip to the fall AGU meeting to present their work at the NASA booth. We hope lessons learned can inform the decisions of scientists at the highest levels seeking to broaden the appeal of research. In 2011, SARP was divided into three disciplinary themes: Oceanography, Land Use, and Atmospheric Chemistry. Each research group was mentored by an upper-level graduate student who was supervised by an expert faculty member. A coordinator managed the program and was supervised by a senior research scientist/administrator. The program is a model of knowledge transfer among the several levels of research: agency administration to the program coordinator, established scientific experts to the research mentors, and the research mentors to the pre-career student participants. The outcomes from this program include mission planning and institutional knowledge transfer from administrators and expert scientists to the coordinator and research mentors; personnel and project management from the coordinator and expert scientists to the

  5. Study on the Adsorption Capacities for Airborne Particulates of Landscape Plants in Different Polluted Regions in Beijing (China)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Kang; Wang, Bing; Niu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Urban landscape plants are an important component of the urban ecosystem, playing a significant role in the adsorption of airborne particulates and air purification. In this study, six common landscape plants in Beijing were chosen as research subjects, and the adsorption capacities for each different plant leaf and the effects of the leaf structures for the adsorption capacities for particulates were determined. Preliminary results show that needle-leaved tree species adsorbed more airborne particulates than broad-leaved tree species for the same leaf area. Pinus tabuliformis exhibits the highest adsorption capacity, at 3.89 ± 0.026 μg·cm−2, almost two times as much as that of Populus tomentosa (2.00 ± 0.118 μg·cm−2). The adsorption capacities for PM10 of the same tree species leaves, in different polluted regions had significant differences, and the adsorption capacities for PM10 of the tree species leaf beside the Fifth Ring Road were higher than those of the tree species leaves in the Botanical Garden, although the adsorption capacities for PM2.5 of the same tree species in different polluted regions had no significant differences. By determining the soluble ion concentrations of the airborne particulates in two regions, it is suggested that the soluble ion concentrations of PM10 in the atmosphere in the Botanical Garden and beside the Fifth Ring Road have significant differences, while those of PM2.5 in the atmosphere had no significant differences. In different polluted regions there are significant adaptive changes to the leaf structures, and when compared with slightly polluted region, in the seriously polluted region the epidermis cells of the plant leaves shrinked, the surface textures of the leaves became rougher, and the stomas’ frequency and the pubescence length increased. Even though the plant leaves exposed to the seriously polluted region changed significantly, these plants can still grow normally and healthily. PMID:26287227

  6. Airborne observations of regional variation in fluorescent aerosol across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Baumgardner, D.; Hernandez, M. T.; Spracklen, D. V.; Heald, C. L.; Gao, R. S.; Kok, G.; McMeeking, G. R.; McQuaid, J. B.; Fahey, D. W.

    2015-02-01

    Airborne observations of fluorescent aerosol were made aboard an airship during CloudLab, a series of flights that took place in September and October of 2013 and covered a wideband of longitude across the continental U.S. between Florida and California and between 28 and 37 N latitudes. Sampling occurred from near the surface to 1000 m above the ground. A Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4) measured average concentrations of supermicron fluorescent particles aloft (1 µm to 10 µm), revealing number concentrations ranging from 2.1 ± 0.8 to 8.7 ± 2.2 × 104 particles m-3 and representing up to 24% of total supermicron particle number. We observed distinct variations in size distributions and fluorescent characteristics in different regions, and attribute these to geographically diverse bioaerosol. Fluorescent aerosol detected in the east is largely consistent with mold spores observed in a laboratory setting, while a shift to larger sizes associated with different fluorescent patterns is observed in the west. Fluorescent bioaerosol loadings in the desert west were as high as those near the Gulf of Mexico, suggesting that bioaerosol is a substantial component of supermicron aerosol both in humid and arid environments. The observations are compared to model fungal and bacterial loading predictions, and good agreement in both particle size and concentrations is observed in the east. In the west, the model underestimated observed concentrations by a factor between 2 and 4 and the prescribed particle sizes are smaller than the observed fluorescent aerosol. A classification scheme for use with WIBS data is also presented.

  7. Tropospheric ozone in the vicinity of the ozone hole - 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Warren, Linda S.; Hypes, Warren D.; Tuck, Adrian F.; Kelly, Kenneth K.; Krueger, Arlin J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on ozone measurements in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere over Antarctica, obtained by NASA DC-8 aircraft during the August/September 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The ozone mixing ratios as high as several hundred ppbv were measured, but in all cases these ratios were observed in pockets of upper atmospheric air, both in the vicinity of and away from the location of the ozone hole. The background ozone values in the surrounding troposphere were typically in the range of 20-50 ppbv. Correlation of tropospheric ozone observations with the boundaries of the ozone hole differed in the course of the experiment. During the August 28 - September 2 flights, encounters with ozone-rich air were limited, and the background tropospheric ozone appeared to decrease beneath the hole. For the later flights, and as the ozone hole deepened, the ozone-rich air was frequently observed in the vicinity of the hole, and the average ozone values at the flight altitude were frequently higher than the background values.

  8. Spread of Coxiella burnetii between dairy cattle herds in an enzootic region: modelling contributions of airborne transmission and trade.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Pranav; Hoch, Thierry; Ezanno, Pauline; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2016-01-01

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a looming concern for livestock and public health. Epidemiological features of inter-herd transmission of C. burnetii in cattle herds by wind and trade of cows are poorly understood. We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds, quantifying the ability of airborne transmission and animal trade in C. burnetii propagation in an enzootic region. Among all the new herd infections, 92% were attributed to airborne transmission and the rest to cattle trade. Infections acquired following airborne transmission were shown to cause relatively small and ephemeral intra-herd outbreaks. On the contrary, disease-free herds purchasing an infectious cow experienced significantly higher intra-herd prevalence. The results also indicated that, for short duration, both transmission routes were independent from each other without any synergistic effect. The model outputs applied to the Finistère department in western France showed satisfactory sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.80) in predicting herd infection statuses at the end of one year in a neighbourhood of 3 km around expected incident herds, when compared with data. The model developed here thus provides important insights into the spread of C. burnetii between dairy cattle herds and paves the way for implementation and assessment of control strategies. PMID:27048416

  9. Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements from the DC-8 aircraft during the 1987 airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahner, A.; Jakoubek, R. O.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Mount, G. H.; Schmeltekopf, A. L.

    1988-01-01

    During the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment from 28 August to 30 September 1987 near UV zenith scattered sky measurements were made over Antarctic from the NASA DC-8 aircraft using a one third m spectrograph equipped with a diode-array detector. Scattered sky light data in the wavelength range 348 nm to 388 nm was spectrally analyzed for O3, NO2, OClO, and BrO column abundances. Slant column abudances of O3, NO2, OClO and BrO were determined, using a computer algorithm of non-linear and linear least square correlation of Antarctic scattered sky spectra to laboratory absorption cross section data. Using measured vertical electrochemical sonde ozone profiles from Palmer, Halley Bay, and the South Pole Stations the slant columns of O3 were converted into vertical column abundances. The vertical column amounts of NO2, OClO, and BrO were derived using vertical profiles calculated by a chemical model appropriate for Antarctica. NO2 vertical column abundances show steep latitudinal decrease with increasing latitude for all 13 flights carried out during the mission. In the regions where NO2 abudances are low, OClO and BrO were observed. The spatial and temporal vertical column abundances of these species are discussed in the context of the chemistry and dynamics in the antarctic polar vortex during the austral spring.

  10. Airborne Measurements of Earth Surface Temperature (Ocean and Land) in the 10-12-micro and 8-14-micro Regions.

    PubMed

    Weiss, M

    1971-06-01

    Field experience using infrared radiometers for making airborne measurements of land and ocean surface temperature show that an atmospheric induced error and a surface reflectivity error are present when the 8-14-micro atmospheric window is used. It is generally accepted that the error can be minimized by working in a narrow region of the atmospheric window centered about 10.5 micro. In order to evaluate the improvement in performance using the narrow band filter region, simultaneous airborne measurements were made with two Barnes model PRT-5 infrared radiometers flown side by side over land and water areas for a range of altitudes up to 8000 ft (2440 m). One radiometer contained an 8-14-micro (standard) filter, and the second contained a 10-12-micro filter. Comparison of the data shows the narrow band filter to reduce the measured error 1.5-2.0 times compared with the wide band filter. The data also show that the error increases approximately linearly with altitude, and therefore by taking measurement at two altitudes and linearly extrapolating to ground level, an accuracy of measurement of a few tenths of a degree Celsius is possible. PMID:20111106

  11. Using mosaicked airborne imagery to assess cotton root rot infection on a regional basis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a serious and destructive disease in many of the cotton production areas in Texas. Since 2012, many cotton growers in Texas have used the Topguard fungicide to control this disease in their fields under Section 18 emergency exemptions. Airborne images have been used to monitor the...

  12. Airborne multiangle spectropolarimetric imager (AirMSPI) observations over California during NASA's polarimeter definition experiment (PODEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diner, David J.; Garay, Michael J.; Kalashnikova, Olga V.; Rheingans, Brian E.; Geier, Sven; Bull, Michael A.; Jovanovic, Veljko M.; Xu, Feng; Bruegge, Carol J.; Davis, Ab; Crabtree, Karlton; Chipman, Russell A.

    2013-09-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) is an ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared pushbroom camera mounted on a single-axis gimbal to acquire multiangle imagery over a +/-67° along-track range. The instrument flies aboard NASA's high-altitude ER-2 aircraft, and acquires Earth imagery with ~10 m spatial resolution across an 11- km wide swath. Radiance data are obtained in eight spectral bands (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, 935 nm). Dual photoelastic modulators (PEMs), achromatic quarter-wave plates, and wire-grid polarizers also enable imagery of the linear polarization Stokes components Q and U at 470, 660, and 865 nm. During January-February 2013, AirMSPI data were acquired over California as part of NASA's Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX), a field campaign designed to refine requirements for the future Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) satellite mission. Observations of aerosols, low- and mid-level cloud fields, cirrus, aircraft contrails, and clear skies were obtained over the San Joaquin Valley and the Pacific Ocean during PODEX. Example radiance and polarization images are presented to illustrate some of the instrument's capabilities.

  13. The Tropical Forest and fire emissions experiment: overview and airborne fire emission factor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Karl, T.; Artaxo, P.; Blake, D. R.; Christian, T. J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Guenther, A.; Hao, W. M.

    2007-05-01

    The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE) used laboratory measurements followed by airborne and ground based field campaigns during the 2004 Amazon dry season to quantify the emissions from pristine tropical forest and several plantations as well as the emissions, fuel consumption, and fire ecology of tropical deforestation fires. The airborne campaign used an Embraer 110B aircraft outfitted with whole air sampling in canisters, mass-calibrated nephelometry, ozone by uv absorbance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and proton-transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to measure PM10, O3, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, HONO, HCN, NH3, OCS, DMS, CH4, and up to 48 non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). The Brazilian smoke/haze layers extended to 2-3 km altitude, which is much lower than the 5-6 km observed at the same latitude, time of year, and local time in Africa in 2000. Emission factors (EF) were computed for the 19 tropical deforestation fires sampled and they largely compare well to previous work. However, the TROFFEE EF are mostly based on a much larger number of samples than previously available and they also include results for significant emissions not previously reported such as: nitrous acid, acrylonitrile, pyrrole, methylvinylketone, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde, methylethylketone, methylpropanal, "acetol plus methylacetate," furaldehydes, dimethylsulfide, and C1-C4 alkyl nitrates. Thus, we recommend these EF for all tropical deforestation fires. The NMOC emissions were ~80% reactive, oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC). Our EF for PM10 (17.8±4 g/kg) is ~25% higher than previously reported for tropical forest fires and may reflect a trend towards, and sampling of, larger fires than in earlier studies. A large fraction of the total burning for 2004 likely occurred during a two-week period of very low humidity. The combined output of these fires created a massive "mega-plume" >500 km across that we sampled on September 8. The mega

  14. Horizontal variability of aerosol optical properties observed during the ARCTAS airborne experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Y.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Clarke, A. D.; Podolske, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The properties of tropospheric aerosol and gas vary within a satellite grid cell and between ground-based instruments. This hinders comparison between satellite and suborbital measurements of different spatial scales as well as their applications to climate and air quality studies. This paper quantifies the realistic range of the variability in aerosol optical depth (AOD), its Angstrom exponent, in-situ extinction coefficient and carbon monoxide mixing ratio over horizontal distances of 1-30 km, using measurements from the ARCTAS airborne experiment. The Canada phase in June and July 2008, in which smoke from local forest fires was sampled, likely represents the most heterogeneous of the ambient aerosol environments common over the globe. The relative standard deviation (stdrel) of AOD measured with the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) has median 19.4% (at 499 nm) among thousands of horizontal 20 km segments. For 6 km segments the analogous median is 9.1%. Another measure of horizontal variability, the autocorrelation (r) of AOD499 across 20 km and 6 km segments is 0.37 and 0.71, respectively. In contrast, the Alaska phase in April 2008, which sampled particles transported from Asia, is presumably among the most homogeneous environments. The median stdrel is 3.0% and r is 0.90, both over 30 km, only slightly different from those for 1 km (stdrel=0.4% and r=1.00). r in the Canada phase is ~0.2 less for in situ extinction coefficient (from a nephelometer and a particle soot absorption photometer) than for the AOD. It is ~0.1 less than for the carbon monoxide mixing ratio. The trends of horizontal variability with distance and aerosol environment are different for the wavelength dependence and the humidity response of light scattering. We discuss challenges in estimating aerosol optical properties, particle size and chemical composition from measurements at a distant location. The statistical parameters thus help interpret existing remote

  15. Tropospheric ozone in the vicinity of the ozone hole: 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, G.L.; Warren, L.S. ); Hypes, W.D. ); Tuck, A.F.; Kelly, K.K. ); Krueger, A.J. )

    1989-11-30

    Tropospheric ozone measurements over Antarctica aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft are summarized. As part of the August/September 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, the aircraft flew 13 missions covering a latitude of 53{degree}-90{degree}S, at altitudes to 13 km. Ozone mixing ratios as high as several hundred parts per billion by volume (ppbv) were measured, but in all cases these ratios were observed in pockets or patches of upper atmospheric air. These pockets were observed both in the vicinity of and away from the location of the ozone hole. At times, and as a result of these pockets, the ozone levels at the flight altitude of the aircraft, as averaged beneath the boundaries of the stratospheric ozone hole, were 2-3 times higher than background tropospheric values. The data suggest that the ozone-rich air seldom penetrated below about 9-km altitude. Background ozone values in the surrounding troposphere were typically in the range of 20-50 ppbv. Correlation of tropospheric ozone observations with the boundaries of the ozone hole differed during the experiment. During the early flights (August 28 through September 2), encounters with ozone-rich air were limited and background tropospheric ozone (at the flight altitude) appeared to decrease beneath the hole. For many of the later flights, and as the hole deepened, the reverse was noted, in that ozone-rich air was frequently observed in the vicinity of the hole and, as noted earlier, average ozone at the flight altitude was frequently higher than background values.

  16. An airborne perfluorocarbon tracer system and its first application for a Lagrangian experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Baumann, R.; Schlager, H.

    2015-01-01

    A perfluorocarbon tracer system (PERTRAS), specifically designed for Lagrangian aircraft experiments, has been developed by the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center, DLR). It consists of three main parts: a tracer release unit (RU), an adsorption tube sampler (ATS), and a tracer analytical system. The RU was designed for airborne tracer release experiments; meanwhile, it can be used on various platforms for different experimental purposes (here research vessel). PERTRAS was for the first time applied in the field campaign Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere (SHIVA) in November 2011. An amount of 8.8 kg perfluoromethylcyclopentane (PMCP) was released aboard the research vessel Sonne (RV Sonne) near the operational site of this campaign, Miri, Malaysia, on 21 November. The tracer samples collected using the ATS onboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon were analyzed in the laboratory using a thermal desorber-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) system. Guided by forecasts calculated with the Lagrangian model Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT), 64 tracer samples were collected onboard the Falcon approximately 5 and 25 h after the release, mostly with a time resolution of 1 min. Enhanced PMCP concentrations relative to ambient PMCP background values (mean: 6.62 fmol mol-1) were detected during three intersects of the fresh tracer plume (age 5 h), with a maximum value of 301.33 fmol mol-1. This indicates that the fresh tracer plume was successfully intercepted at the forecast position. During the second flight, 25 h after the release, the center of tracer plume was not detected by the sampling system due to a faster advection of the plume than forecast. The newly developed PERTRAS system has been successfully deployed for the first time. The instrumental setup and comparisons between the measurements and HYSPLIT simulations are presented in this study.

  17. An airborne perfluorocarbon tracer system and its first application for a Lagrangian experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Baumann, R.; Schlager, H.

    2014-07-01

    A perfluorocarbon tracer system (PERTRAS), specifically designed for Lagrangian aircraft experiments, has been developed by the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center, DLR). It consists of three main parts: a tracer release unit (RU), an adsorption tube sampler (ATS) and a tracer analytical system. The RU was designed for airborne tracer release experiments; meanwhile, it can be used on various platforms for different experimental purpose (here research vessel). PERTRAS was for the first time applied in the field campaign Stratospheric ozone: halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere (SHIVA) in November 2011. An amount of 8.8 kg perfluoromethylcyclopentane (PMCP) was released aboard the research vessel Sonne (RV Sonne) near the operational site of this campaign, Miri, Malaysia, on 21 November. The tracer samples collected using the ATS on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon were analyzed in the laboratory using a thermal desorber/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) system. Guided by forecasts calculated with the Lagrangian model, Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT), 64 tracer samples were collected onboard the Falcon approximately 5 and 25 h after the release, respectively, mostly with a time resolution of 1 min. Enhanced PMCP concentrations relative to ambient PMCP background values (mean: 6.62 fmol mol-1) were detected during three intersects of the fresh tracer plume (age 5 h), with a maximum value of 301.33 fmol mol-1. This indicates that the fresh tracer plume was successfully intercepted at the forecasted position. During the second flight, 25 h after the release, the center of tracer plume was not detected by the sampling system due to a faster advection of the plume than forecasted. The newly developed PERTRAS system has been successfully deployed for the first time. The instrumental set-up and comparisons between the measurements and HYSPLIT simulations are presented in this study.

  18. Vaccinia virus recombinants encoding the truncated structural gene region of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) give solid protection against peripheral challenge but only partial protection against airborne challenge with virulent VEEV.

    PubMed

    Phillpotts, R J; Lescott, T L; Jacobs, S C

    2000-10-01

    Vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants that contain the genes encoding the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) structural gene region (C-E3-E2-6 K-E1) solidly protect mice against peripheral challenge with virulent VEEV, but provide only partial protection against airborne challenge. To improve upon these results we focussed on the principal antigens involved in protection. VV recombinants encoding the structural genes E3-E2-6 K-E1, E3-E2-6 K or 6 K-E1 were prepared and evaluated for their ability to protect Balb/c mice after a single dorsal scarification with 10(8) PFU against peripheral or airborne challenge with virulent VEEV. The antibody response was also examined. Our experiments provide new evidence that truncates of the VEEV structural region (E3-E2-6 K-E1, E3-E2-6 K), cloned and expressed in VV, protect against challenge with virulent virus. They also confirm the important role of E2 in protection. However, we were unable to improve upon previously reported levels of protection against airborne challenge. A substantial level of circulating antibodies and the presence of local IgA (not always induced by mucosal immunization) (Greenway et al., 1992) appear essential for protection against the airborne virus. Current VV-VEEV recombinants seem unable to elicit this level of immune response and further improvements are therefore required to increase the immunogenicity of VV-VEEV vaccines. PMID:11252667

  19. The EAB: An Experiment in Regional Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brain, John

    1995-01-01

    The origins, function, and projects of the Executive Advisory Board on Higher Education (EAB) in Baltimore County (Maryland) are described. The board brings together local government leaders, business executives, and higher education administrators to address issues of mutual concern. Lessons learned in this experiment in regional cooperation are…

  20. Development of the APEX experiment, preparatory activities for an airborne system supporting future space-borne imaging spectrometers in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaepman, M.

    2002-06-01

    APEX is an airborne imaging spectrometer built in the framework of ESA PRODEX (Programme développement d'expériences scientifiques) with the support of ESA EO-EP. It is based on a Swiss/Belgian initiative and designed to be an airborne simulator for the support and development of future spaceborne systems for the study of land surface processes. It will be able to contribute to the simulation, calibration, and validation of planned ESA imaging spectrometer missions (e.g., MERIS/ENVISAT, SPECTRA, etc.) in the 400 - 2500 nm region of the spectrum. APEX will foster the use of imaging spectrometer data in Europe and will support the application development for imaging spectroscopy products. The industrial consortium building the instrument is composed out of joint Swiss/Belgian industries with the support of ESA EO-EP (e.g., detectors, calibration, technical management).

  1. The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX):High-Altitude Aircraft Measurements in the Tropical Western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E. J.; Pfister, L.; Jordan, D. E.; Bui, T. V.; Ueyama, R.; Singh, H. B.; Lawson, P.; Thornberry, T.; Diskin, G.; McGill, M.; Pittman, J.; Atlas, E.; Kim, J.

    2016-01-01

    The February through March 2014 deployment of the NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) provided unique in situ measurements in the western Pacific Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). Six flights were conducted from Guam with the long-range, high-altitude, unmanned Global Hawk aircraft. The ATTREX Global Hawk payload provided measurements of water vapor, meteorological conditions, cloud properties, tracer and chemical radical concentrations, and radiative fluxes. The campaign was partially coincident with the CONTRAST and CAST airborne campaigns based in Guam using lower-altitude aircraft The ATTREX dataset is being used for investigations of TTL cloud, transport, dynamical, and chemical processes as well as for evaluation and improvement of global-model representations of TTL processes.

  2. Ku band airborne radar altimeter observations of marginal sea ice during the 1984 Marginal Ice Zone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Mark R.

    1991-01-01

    Pulse-limited, airborne radar data taken in June and July 1984 with a 13.8-GHz altimeter over the Fram Strait marginal ice zone are analyzed with the aid of large-format aerial photography, airborne synthetic aperture radar data, and surface observations. Variations in the radar return pulse waveforms are quantified and correlated with ice properties recorded during the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment. Results indicate that the wide-beam altimeter is a flexible instrument, capable of identifying the ice edge with a high degree of accuracy, calculating the ice concentration, and discriminating a number of different ice classes. This suggests that microwave radar altimeters have a sensitivity to sea ice which has not yet been fully exploited. When fused with SSM/I, AVHRR and ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar imagery, future ERS-1 altimeter data are expected to provide some missing pieces to the sea ice geophysics puzzle.

  3. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle. Volume 3: Appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    Detailed information is presented concerning specific airborne missions in support of the ASSESS program. These missions are the AIDJEX expeditions, meteor shower expeditions, CAT and atmospheric sampling missions, ocean color expeditions, and the Lear Jet missions. For Vol. 2, see N73-31729.

  4. A comparison of airborne and ground-based radar observations with rain gages during the CaPE experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satake, Makoto; Short, David A.; Iguchi, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    The vicinity of KSC, where the primary ground truth site of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) program is located, was the focal point of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment in Jul. and Aug. 1991. In addition to several specialized radars, local coverage was provided by the C-band (5 cm) radar at Patrick AFB. Point measurements of rain rate were provided by tipping bucket rain gage networks. Besides these ground-based activities, airborne radar measurements with X- and Ka-band nadir-looking radars on board an aircraft were also recorded. A unique combination data set of airborne radar observations with ground-based observations was obtained in the summer convective rain regime of central Florida. We present a comparison of these data intending a preliminary validation. A convective rain event was observed simultaneously by all three instrument types on the evening of 27 Jul. 1991. The high resolution aircraft radar was flown over convective cells with tops exceeding 10 km and observed reflectivities of 40 to 50 dBZ at 4 to 5 km altitude, while the low resolution surface radar observed 35 to 55 dBZ echoes and a rain gage indicated maximum surface rain rates exceeding 100 mm/hr. The height profile of reflectivity measured with the airborne radar show an attenuation of 6.5 dB/km (two way) for X-band, corresponding to a rainfall rate of 95 mm/hr.

  5. A comparison of airborne and ground-based radar observations with rain gages during the CaPE experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satake, Makoto; Short, David A.; Iguchi, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    The vicinity of KSC, where the primary ground truth site of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) program is located, was the focal point of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment in July and Aug. 1991. In addition to several specialized radars, local coverage was provided by the C-band (5 cm) radar at Patrick AFB. Point measurements of rain rate were provided by tipping bucket rain gage networks. Besides these ground-based activities, airborne radar measurements with X- and Ka-band nadir-looking radars on board an aircraft were also recorded. A unique combination data set of airborne radar observations with ground-based observations was obtained in the summer convective rain regime of central Florida. We present a comparison of these data intending a preliminary validation. A convective rain event was observed simultaneously by all three instrument types on the evening of 27 July 1991. The high resolution aircraft radar was flown over convective cells with tops exceeding 10 km and observed reflectivities of 40 to 50 dBZ at 4 to 5 km altitude, while the low resolution surface radar observed 35 to 55 dBZ echoes and a rain gage indicated maximum surface rain rates exceeding 100 mm/hr. The height profile of reflectivity measured with the airborne radar show an attenuation of 6.5 dB/km (two way) for X-band, corresponding to a rainfall rate of 95 mm/hr.

  6. Airborne and Grain Dust Fungal Community Compositions Are Shaped Regionally by Plant Genotypes and Farming Practices.

    PubMed

    Pellissier, Loïc; Oppliger, Anne; Hirzel, Alexandre H; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Mbayo, Guilain; Mascher, Fabio; Kellenberger, Stefan; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène

    2016-04-01

    Chronic exposure to airborne fungi has been associated with different respiratory symptoms and pathologies in occupational populations, such as grain workers. However, the homogeneity in the fungal species composition of these bioaerosols on a large geographical scale and the different drivers that shape these fungal communities remain unclear. In this study, the diversity of fungi in grain dust and in the aerosols released during harvesting was determined across 96 sites at a geographical scale of 560 km(2) along an elevation gradient of 500 m by tag-encoded 454 pyrosequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Associations between the structure of fungal communities in the grain dust and different abiotic (farming system, soil characteristics, and geographic and climatic parameters) and biotic (wheat cultivar and previous crop culture) factors were explored. These analyses revealed a strong relationship between the airborne and grain dust fungal communities and showed the presence of allergenic and mycotoxigenic species in most samples, which highlights the potential contribution of these fungal species to work-related respiratory symptoms of grain workers. The farming system was the major driver of the alpha and beta phylogenetic diversity values of fungal communities. In addition, elevation and soil CaCO3 concentrations shaped the alpha diversity, whereas wheat cultivar, cropping history, and the number of freezing days per year shaped the taxonomic beta diversity of these communities. PMID:26826229

  7. Characterization of shallow marine convection in subtropical regions by airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Silke; Gutleben, Manuel; Schäfler, Andreas; Kiemle, Christoph; Wirth, Martin; Hirsch, Lutz; Ament, Felix

    2016-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges in present day climate research is still the quantification of cloud feedbacks in climate models. Especially the feedback from marine cumulus clouds in the boundary layer with maximum cloud top heights of 4 km introduces large uncertainties in climate sensitivity. Therefore a better understanding of these shallow marine clouds, as well as of their interaction with aerosols and the Earth's energy budget is demanded. To improve our knowledge of shallow marine cumulus convection, measurements onboard the German research aircraft HALO were performed during the NARVAL (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-sensing for Validation studies) mission in December 2013. During NARVAL an EarthCARE equivalent remote sensing payload, with the DLR airborne high spectral resolution and differential absorption lidar system WALES and the cloud radar of the HAMP (HALO Microwave Package) as its core instrumentation, was deployed. To investigate the capability of spaceborne lidar measurements for this kind of study several CALIOP underflights were performed. We will present a comparison of airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements, and we will present the vertical and horizontal distribution of the clouds during NARVAL based on lidar measurements. In particular we investigate the cloud top distribution and the horizontal cloud and cloud gap length. Furthermore we study the representativeness of the NARVAL data by comparing them to and analysing a longer time series and measurements at different years and seasons.

  8. Analysis of ALOPE data from Superflux. [airborne lidar sensing of phytoplankton color groups in the Chesapeake Bay and shelf regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, O., Jr.; Esaias, W. E.; Brown, C. A., Jr.; Pritchard, E. B.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing data collected with the airborne lidar oceanographic probing experiment (ALOPE) laser fluorosensor during the Superflux 1 and Superflux 2 experiments were analyzed using two techniques. A qualitative technique which requires no supplementary data provided a near-real-time estimate of relative abundance of the golden-brown and green phytoplankton color groups. Contour plots developed for the later mission are used to demonstrate the utility of this technique. A quantitative technique which requires supplementary data to define the attenuation coefficient provides chlorophyll a concentration by color group. The sum of the golden-brown and green chlorophyll a data yields total chlorophyll a values which may be compared with in situ data. As expected, the golden-brown population was dominant in the Chesapeake Bay and the Bay plume whereas the green population was dominant in shelf waters.

  9. Experiences in evaluating regional air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mei-Kao; Greenfield, Stanley M.

    Any area of the world concerned with the health and welfare of its people and the viability of its ecological system must eventually address the question of the control of air pollution. This is true in developed countries as well as countries that are undergoing a considerable degree of industrialization. The control or limitation of the emissions of a pollutant can be very costly. To avoid ineffective or unnecessary control, the nature of the problem must be fully understood and the relationship between source emissions and ambient concentrations must be established. Mathematical models, while admittedly containing large uncertainties, can be used to examine alternatives of emission restrictions for achieving safe ambient concentrations. The focus of this paper is to summarize our experiences with modeling regional air quality in the United States and Western Europe. The following modeling experiences have been used: future SO 2 and sulfate distributions and projected acidic deposition as related to coal development in the northern Great Plains in the U.S.; analysis of regional ozone and sulfate episodes in the northeastern U.S.; analysis of the regional ozone problem in western Europe in support of alternative emission control strategies; analysis of distributions of toxic chemicals in the Southeast Ohio River Valley in support of the design of a monitoring network human exposure. Collectively, these prior modeling analyses can be invaluable in examining a similar problem in other parts of the world as well, such as the Pacific rim in Asia.

  10. Airborne Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Temperature Using the Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) Radiometer With A Discussion of the 2013 Marginal Ice Zone Observation Processes EXperiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooth, M.; Emery, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne remote sensing has opened up new possibilities for scientists to study oceanic and atmospheric problems that are relevant to industry, environmental groups, and the scientific community as a whole. Data obtained from these platforms can provide much higher resolution imagery in comparison to satellite observations that allow for more detailed analyses of important regions. Sea surface temperature (SST) data obtained from instruments like the BESST radiometer can be used to provide more insight into issues like natural disasters and oceanographic problems of interest; such as the influence of melting sea ice on SST. During the 2013 Marginal Ice Zone Observation Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX), BESST was flown on a Scan Eagle UAS in the Alaskan Marginal Ice Zone to acquire SST data. These observations will be discussed, along with possible future uses for the BESST radiometer.

  11. Extracting Tree Height from Repeat-Pass PolInSAR Data : Experiments with JPL and ESA Airborne Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi; Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our latest developments and experiments with the random-motion-over-ground (RMoG) model used to extract canopy height and other important forest parameters from repeat-pass polarimetricinterferometric SAR (Pol-InSAR) data. More specifically, we summarize the key features of the RMoG model in contrast with the random-volume-over-ground (RVoG) model, describe in detail a possible inversion scheme for the RMoG model and illustrate the results of the RMoG inversion using airborne data collected by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  12. Sources of methane and nitrous oxide in California's Central Valley estimated through direct airborne flux and positive matrix factorization source apportionment of groundbased and regional tall tower measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Abhinav

    -San Joaquin River Delta in the Central Valley. Through analysis of these field measurements, this dissertation presents the apportionment of observed CH4 and N2O concentration enhancements into major source categories along with direct emissions estimates from airborne observations. We perform high-precision measurements of greenhouse gases using gas analyzers based on absorption spectroscopy, and other source marker volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using state of the art VOC measurement systems (e.g. proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry). We combine these measurements with a statistical source apportionment technique called positive matrix factorization (PMF) to evaluate and investigate the major local sources of CH4 and N2O during CalNex and Walnut Grove campaigns. In the CABERNET study, we combine measurements with an airborne approach to a well-established micrometeorological technique (eddy-covariance method) to derive CH4 fluxes over different source regions in the Central Valley. In the CalNex experiments, we demonstrate that dairy and livestock remains the largest source sector of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in the San Joaquin Valley contributing most of the CH4 and much of the measured N2O at Bakersfield. Agriculture is observed to provide another major source of N2O, while vehicle emissions are found to be an insignificant source of N2O, contrary to the current statewide greenhouse gas inventory which includes vehicles as a major source. Our PMF source apportionment also produces an evaporative/fugitive factor but its relative lack of CH4 contributions points to removal processes from vented emissions in the surrounding O&G industry and the overwhelming dominance of the dairy CH4 source. In the CABERNET experiments, we report enhancements of CH4 from a number of sources spread across the spatial domain of the Central Valley that improves our understanding of their distribution and relative strengths. We observe large enhancements of CH4 mixing ratios over the

  13. Southeast regional experiment station. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-05

    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  14. The contribution of the GRAV-D airborne gravity to geoid determination in the Great Lakes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Crowley, John W.; Holmes, Simon A.; Wang, Yan-Ming

    2016-05-01

    The current official North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) and the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 (IGLD 85) will be replaced by a new geoid-based vertical datum in 2022. The Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) project collects high-quality airborne gravity data to improve the quality of the gravitational model that underpins the geoid model. This paper validates the contribution of GRAV-D data in the Great Lakes region. Using the lake surface height measured by satellite altimetry as an independent data set, Global Gravity Models (GGMs) with/without the GRAV-D data are compared. The comparisons show that the improvement reaches decimeters over Lake Michigan where the historic gravity data have significant errors. Over all lakes, except Lake Erie, the GRAV-D data improve the accuracy of the gravitational model to 1-3 cm.

  15. Airborne flux measurements of methane and volatile organic compounds over the Haynesville and Marcellus shale gas production regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bin; Kaser, Lisa; Karl, Thomas; Graus, Martin; Peischl, Jeff; Campos, Teresa L.; Shertz, Steve; Apel, Eric C.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Hills, Alan; Gilman, Jessica B.; Lerner, Brian M.; Warneke, Carsten; Flocke, Frank M.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Guenther, Alex B.; Gouw, Joost A.

    2015-06-01

    Emissions of methane (CH4) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oil and gas production may have large impacts on air quality and climate change. Methane and VOCs were measured over the Haynesville and Marcellus shale gas plays on board the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and NOAA WP-3D research aircraft in June-July of 2013. We used an eddy covariance technique to measure in situ fluxes of CH4 and benzene from both C-130 flights with high-resolution data (10 Hz) and WP-3D flights with low-resolution data (1 Hz). Correlation (R = 0.65) between CH4 and benzene fluxes was observed when flying over shale gas operations, and the enhancement ratio of fluxes was consistent with the corresponding concentration observations. Fluxes calculated by the eddy covariance method show agreement with a mass balance approach within their combined uncertainties. In general, CH4 fluxes in the shale gas regions follow a lognormal distribution, with some deviations for relatively large fluxes (>10 µg m-2 s-1). Statistical analysis of the fluxes shows that a small number of facilities (i.e., ~10%) are responsible for up to ~40% of the total CH4 emissions in the two regions. We show that the airborne eddy covariance method can also be applied in some circumstances when meteorological conditions do not favor application of the mass balance method. We suggest that the airborne eddy covariance method is a reliable alternative and complementary analysis method to estimate emissions from oil and gas extraction.

  16. Application of Spatial Continuous Wavelet Transforms to Identify Noise in Regional Airborne Electromagnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenna, V.; Pidlisecky, A.

    2012-12-01

    As mapping of groundwater resources with airborne electromagnetics expands into more urban areas, it is increasingly important to identify sources of cultural noise in acquired data sets. A number of methods have been proposed to reduce the impact of cultural coupling on acquired data. While intense local calibration to increase the signal to noise ratio has been used, most often in practice, the transients associated with these noise sources are manually identified and filtered out during data processing. This can be a challenging task, particularly as datasets grow large (e.g. up to terabytes of data). In response to this, we propose a method for identifying noise in airborne electromagnetic data based on a spatial application of the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). We apply a continuous wavelet transform to three airborne electromagnetic surveys collected in the Edmonton-Calgary Corridor as part of a groundwater inventory sponsored by the Alberta Geological Survey and Environment Alberta. The three surveys consist of 210 flightlines covering approximately 18 000 linear kilometers with roughly 13 m sounding spacing. B-field and dB/dt data from a three-component 20-channel GeoTEM multicoil system, were recorded at 5 on-time and 15 off-time channels with a total measurement time of 16.664 ms per sounding. The nominal height of vertical axis transmitter was 120 m; the current pulse was 670 A, and the pulse-width was 4.045 ms. Wavelet transforms are localized in time and frequency, similar to a windowed Fourier transform, and are used to identify dominant frequencies within a signal as a function of time or space. While there are a number of options for wavelet functions, we convolve a Morlet wavelet with the data signal at 120 distance scales on a logarithmic scale from 0.1 to 30 km. We calculate the CWT along each flightline for all off-time channels. We then calculate the wavelet power normalized by the data variance, and bin results into 4 bins of spatial

  17. Observation simulation experiments with regional prediction models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diak, George; Perkey, Donald J.; Kalb, Michael; Robertson, Franklin R.; Jedlovec, Gary

    1990-01-01

    Research efforts in FY 1990 included studies employing regional scale numerical models as aids in evaluating potential contributions of specific satellite observing systems (current and future) to numerical prediction. One study involves Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) which mimic operational initialization/forecast cycles but incorporate simulated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) radiances as input data. The objective of this and related studies is to anticipate the potential value of data from these satellite systems, and develop applications of remotely sensed data for the benefit of short range forecasts. Techniques are also being used that rely on numerical model-based synthetic satellite radiances to interpret the information content of various types of remotely sensed image and sounding products. With this approach, evolution of simulated channel radiance image features can be directly interpreted in terms of the atmospheric dynamical processes depicted by a model. Progress is being made in a study using the internal consistency of a regional prediction model to simplify the assessment of forced diabatic heating and moisture initialization in reducing model spinup times. Techniques for model initialization are being examined, with focus on implications for potential applications of remote microwave observations, including AMSU and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), in shortening model spinup time for regional prediction.

  18. Airborne viable fungi in school environments in different climatic regions - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-03-01

    Elevated levels of fungi in indoor environments have been linked with mould/moisture damage in building structures. However, there is a lack of information about "normal" concentrations and flora as well as guidelines of viable fungi in the school environment in different climatic conditions. We have reviewed existing guidelines for indoor fungi and the current knowledge of the concentrations and flora of viable fungi in different climatic areas, the impact of the local factors on concentrations and flora of viable fungi in school environments. Meta-regression was performed to estimate the average behaviour for each analysis of interest, showing wide variation in the mean concentrations in outdoor and indoor school environments (range: 101-103 cfu/m3). These concentrations were significantly higher for both outdoors and indoors in the moderate than in the continental climatic area, showing that the climatic condition was a determinant for the concentrations of airborne viable fungi. The most common fungal species both in the moderate and continental area were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. The suggested few quantitative guidelines for indoor air viable fungi for school buildings are much lower than for residential areas. This review provides a synthesis, which can be used to guide the interpretation of the fungi measurements results and help to find indications of mould/moisture in school building structures.

  19. Wind barriers suppress fugitive dust and soil-derived airborne particles in arid regions

    SciTech Connect

    Grantz, D.A.; Vaughn, D.L.; Farber, R.J.; Kim, B.; Ashbaugh, L.; Van Curen, T.; Campbell, R.

    1998-07-01

    Areas of abandoned agricultural land in the Antelope Valley, western Mojave (high) desert of California have proven in the previous studies to be recalcitrant to conventional tillage and revegetation strategies designed to suppress wind erosion of soil and transport of sediment and fugitive dust. These areas represented a continuing source of drifting sand and of coarse and respirable suspended particulate matter. The traditional techniques failed because furrows collapsed and the water holding capacity of the overburden was too low to support seed germination and transplant survival. In this study a variety of wind barriers were evaluated for suppression of sediment transport. Airborne particles were measured with an array of coarse particle samplers at heights of 0.2, 1.0, and 2.0 m above the soil surface. Discrete artificial wind barriers, consisting of widely spaced roughness elements were effective in suppressing fugitive emissions. Wind fences established along the leeward edge of an area of blowing sand, perpendicular to the prevailing wind, significantly decreased fugitive emissions. Control was greatest and precision of the measurements was highest under high wind conditions. These techniques provide rapid and effective suppression of fugitive emissions of soil-derived particles under conditions that resist conventional tillage and revegetation techniques. A simple, indirect procedure for determining local wind velocity erosion thresholds requiring only sampling of wind run and suspended particulate mass compared favorably with direct measurement of saltation as a function of wind velocity.

  20. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE): An Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Instrument Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Global measurement of tropospheric winds is a key measurement for understanding atmospheric dynamics and improving numerical weather prediction. Global wind profiles remain a high priority for the operational weather community and also for a variety of research applications including studies of the global hydrologic cycle and transport studies of aerosols and trace species. In addition to space based winds, a high altitude airborne system flown on UAV or other advanced platforms would be of great interest for studying mesoscale dynamics and hurricanes. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE) project was selected in 2005 by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office as part of the Instrument Incubator Program. TWiLiTE will leverage significant research and development investments in key technologies made in the past several years. The primary focus will be on integrating these sub-systems into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57, so that the nadir viewing lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. TWiLiTE is a collaboration involving scientists and technologists from NASA Goddard, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab and industry partners Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. NASA Goddard and it's partners have been at the forefront in the development of key lidar technologies (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a fixture spaceborne tropospheric wind system. The completed system will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 h to the surface with 250 m vertical

  1. Observations of TTL water vapor and cirrus properties from the NASA Global Hawk during the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornberry, Troy; Rollins, Andrew; Gao, Ru-Shan; Woods, Sarah; Lawson, Paul; Bui, Thaopaul; Pfister, Leonhard; Fahey, David

    2015-04-01

    Despite its very low mixing ratios relative to the troposphere, water vapor in the lower stratosphere (LS) plays a significant role in Earth's radiative balance and climate system and is an important constituent in stratospheric chemistry. The low H2O content of air entering the LS is established to first order by dehydration processes controlled by the cold temperatures of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), especially over the western Pacific. Cirrus clouds occur with high frequency and large spatial extent in the TTL, and those occurring near the thermal tropopause facilitate the final dehydration of stratosphere-bound air parcels. Uncertainties in aspects of the nucleation and growth of cirrus cloud particles and the sparseness of in situ water vapor and cirrus cloud observations with sufficient spatial resolution limit our ability to fully describe the final stages of the dehydration process before air enters the LS in the tropics. The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) measurement campaign has yielded more than 140 hours of sampling from the Global Hawk UAS in the Pacific TTL during deployments in winter 2013 and 2014, including more than 30 hours sampling TTL cirrus. Cirrus clouds were encountered throughout the TTL, up to the tropopause (17-18 km), with ice water contents (IWC) down to the detection limit of 3 μg m-3 and water vapor mixing ratios as low as 1.5 ppm. Most TTL cirrus sampled had particle number concentrations of less than 100 L-1, but some had concentrations ranging up to more than 1000 L-1. The mean value for relative humidity with respect to ice within cirrus was near 100%, but encompassed a range from < 50% to higher than 150%. The high spatial and temporal resolution in situ measurements of water vapor and cirrus cloud properties made during ATTREX provide an outstanding dataset by which to characterize the Pacific TTL environment and evaluate our current understanding of the dynamical and microphysical processes that

  2. COCA: deriving urban emissions and the carbon exchange of a forested region using airborne CO2 and CO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiss, H.; Schmitgen, S.; Ciais, P.; Neininger, B.; Baeumle, M.; Brunet, Y.; Kley, D.

    2002-05-01

    A crucial challenge in measuring the partitioning of sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 is the separation of regional anthropogenic CO2 sources from biogenic activity. The aim of the COCA project is to quantify the fossil fuel and biogenic CO2 fractions using continuous airborne CO2 and CO measurements, where CO acts as a tracer for anthropogenic CO2. At first part of the project COCA an attempt was made to measure daytime biogenic CO2 fluxes over a forest area (about 15 by 30 km size). The campaign took place around the CARBOEUROFLUX site ``Le Bray'' (Pinus pinaster) close to Bordeaux in France end of June 2001 Based on continuous airborne CO2, H2O and CO flux and concentration measurements a Lagrangian budgeting approach was chosen to measure regional CO2 deposition fluxes. The objective is to determine the CO2 uptake of the extended forest area from the CO2/CO gradients up- and downwind of the ecosystem, using CO as air mass tracer and such estimating the influence of anthropogenic CO2 advected into the area First results of the summer flight on June 23rd will be shown, where fair wind speeds (~5 m/s) and a low CBL height led to the observation of a clear decrease in CO2 at the downwind flight stacks with basically constant CO concentrations. For other summer flights with very low wind speeds, local effects dominate the observations leading to a larger variability in the observations. Both, correlations and anti-correlations of CO2 with the anthropogenic tracer CO have been observed. Positive correlations indicate fresh plumes of anthropogenic CO2. Negative correlations are indicative of entrainment of free tropospheric air, that was marked by relatively higher CO2 and lower CO concentrations than the average CBL concentrations. During a second campaign the variance of anthropogenic CO and CO2 emissions of a large city unaffected by biogenic processes has been studied. This campaign was carried out on February 16 and 17, 2002 over the Paris metropolitan area

  3. Changing regional emissions of airborne pollutants reflected in the chemistry of snowpacks and wetfall in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, 1993–2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, George P.; Miller, Debra C.; Morris, Kristi H.; McMurray, Jill A.; Port, Garrett M.; Caruso, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Wintertime precipitation sample data from 55 Snowpack sites and 17 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network Wetfall sites in the Rocky Mountain region were examined to identify long-term trends in chemical concentration, deposition, and precipitation using Regional and Seasonal Kendall tests. The Natural Resources Conservation Service snow-telemetry (SNOTEL) network provided snow-water-equivalent data from 33 sites located near Snowpack- and NADP Wetfall-sampling sites for further comparisons. Concentration and deposition of ammonium, calcium, nitrate, and sulfate were tested for trends for the period 1993–2012. Precipitation trends were compared between the three monitoring networks for the winter seasons and downward trends were observed for both Snowpack and SNOTEL networks, but not for the NADP Wetfall network. The dry-deposition fraction of total atmospheric deposition, relative to wet deposition, was shown to be considerable in the region. Potential sources of regional airborne pollutant emissions were identified from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2011 National Emissions Inventory, and from long-term emissions data for the period 1996–2013. Changes in the emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide were reflected in significant trends in snowpack and wetfall chemistry. In general, ammonia emissions in the western USA showed a gradual increase over the past decade, while ammonium concentrations and deposition in snowpacks and wetfall showed upward trends. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide declined while regional trends in snowpack and wetfall concentrations and deposition of nitrate and sulfate were downward.

  4. Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkeson, T. D.

    2003-12-01

    The Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) was formed in 1991 to assist in developing a comprehensive plan to restore and protect Tampa Bay in Florida, USA. An ecological indicator of the health of the Bay is the coverage of seagrasses, historically in decline, which are important to the aquatic habitat and food web of the bay. Seagrass decline is linked to excess of plant-stimulating forms of nitrogen to the bay, promoting algae growth, which shades out light needed to sustain seagrasses. One element of the TBEP is a private-local-state, multi-agency Nitrogen Management Consortium that seeks to limit nitrogen loading to the Bay to the 1992-1994 average. Present estimates suggest atmospheric deposition comprises ~ 30% of the nitrogen budget of the Bay. This estimate was based, however, on limited ambient monitoring data and simple models, typical of such national estuary program efforts nationwide. In the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Florida DEP joined with TBEP to increase the intensity, sophistication and spatial scope of monitoring and modeling and provide better information on air quality in the Tampa Bay area. The result will be improved estimates of the effects of local and regional emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) on the Bay and the benefits to be gained from implementation of emissions reduction strategies.

  5. Predicting the cropland soil organic carbon (SOC) distribution on a regional scale using airborne spectroscopy and topographic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doetterl, S.; Stevens, S.; Van Wesemael, B.; Quine, T. A.; Van Oost, K.

    2012-04-01

    The effects of soil redistribution on the carbon cycle have recently been receiving growing attention. In eroding agricultural landscapes, carbon gets transported from erosional to depositional landscape features forming a heterogeneous pattern in quantity and quality of the distributed carbon. At present, methods and research to characterize this horizontal (across the earth surface) and vertical (with depth) variability are focused on local slope scales. Approaches linking detailed local assessments to larger scales are limited. This significantly hampers our ability to understand the impact of soil redistribution processes on the global C cycle that occur at larger spatial and temporal scales. Here, we present a method to predict the SOC distribution on a regional scale for high-input cropping systems using a combination of airborne spectroscopy, GIS-based analysis of a digital elevation model (DEM) and calibration with empirical data. For a North/South transect in Luxembourg, spatial modeling is used to integrate soil surface SOC data from airborne image spectroscopy (2m resolution), vertical SOC gradients from high resolution (0.10m) soil sampling and derivates of a high-res elevation model (5m resolution). This allows the prediction of the 3D distribution of cropland soil C to be interpolated over an area of c. 150 km2 in Luxemburg which is characterized by intensive agricultural land use, a high variability in soils and a complex topography. The model is able to predict patterns of C stock distribution for cropland on a regional scale using simple hydrologic and geomorphologic parameters and provides new insights into the spatial heterogeneity of soil carbon storage covering a large area. Eroding positions have a sharper decline of carbon content with depth than stable and especially depositional sites, which in contrast store high amounts of carbon in greater depths. Relative root mean square errors range between 23-49 % and the model is in good agreement

  6. Active Extensional Structures Discovered by the Airborne LiDAR Mapping in the Tatun Volcanic Region, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Y.; Chang, K.; Chen, R.; Lee, J.; Hsieh, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Complex tectonic deformation is present in northern Taiwan where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting under the Eurasian plate and the Okinawa trough is opening to the east. The Tatun volcanic region and the Taipei metropolitan basin are considered the products resulted from such complex tectonic environment. Furthermore, contractional deformation was prevailed in the earlier stage, as evidenced by several major thrust faults truncating the Tertiary strata. However, the expected nowadays extensional deformation is not fully characterized, for example, the Shanchiao fault bounding the western Taipei basin and its northern extension into the Tatun volcanic region. Based on industrial seismic profiles, it appeared that several well developed normal faults reactivated pre-existing thrust faults offshore northern Taiwan. These normal faults likely extend into the land where the Tatun volcanics erupted through and covered on the Tertiary strata. It is our intentions to better inspect the deformational pattern existing within the Tatun volcanic region where forests dominate on the surface making field investigation difficult. In this study we apply high-resolution airborne LiDAR-derived digital terrain model to characterize possible joints, fractures, and faults in the Tatun volcanic region. The LiDAR-derived DTM was processed so that bare ground is revealed using virtual removal of forests. The derived 2-m DTM was then examined to map out topographic features possibly resulted from the linear geologic structures. We discovered clear distribution and pattern of the joints and fractures in the Tatun volcanic region for the first time. The mapped structural patterns reveal strong evidence for regional extensional deformation in northern Taiwan, especially within the Tatun volcanic region. We also uncovered branches of normal faults extending possibly from the Shanchiao fault into the Tatun volcanic region. The discovered normal fault, perhaps active, cut across flat

  7. Using remote sensing and ancillary data to extend airborne electromagnetic resistivity surveys for regional permafrost interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastick, N.; Wylie, B. K.; Minsley, B. J.; Jorgenson, T. T.; Ji, L.; Walvoord, M. A.; Smith, B. D.; Abraham, J. D.; Rose, J.

    2011-12-01

    Permafrost has a significant impact on high latitude ecosystems and is spatially heterogeneous. However, only generalized maps of permafrost extent are available. Due to its impacts on subsurface hydrology, lake water levels, vegetation communities, and surface soil deformations, understanding the spatial extents and depth of permafrost are critical. Electrical resistivity increases dramatically as a soil freezes and can be used as a proxy for permafrost presence particularly if the underlying soils and geologic characteristics are understood. An airborne electromagnetic survey (AEM) was conducted over a portion of the Yukon Flats ecoregion in central Alaska with measurements taken in both reconnaissance lines and contiguous block area coverage. The AEM was flown in June 2010 and subsurface resistivity models were derived by inverting the AEM data. Landsat TM at-sensor reflectance, thermal, and spectral index data from late August to early September 2008, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and derivatives, and other ancillary data were used in a regression tree model to predict near surface electrical resistivity at the 0-1m and the 0-2.6m depth intervals. AEM locations from homogenous landsat 90 m by 90 m windows were randomly separated into a training set for model development (n = 8,848) and an impendent test data set (n = 988) for model accuracy assessment. Model development and independent test accuracies for 0-1 m electric resistivity had training and test R2 values of 0.90 and 0.87, respectively, and for the 0-2.6m electric resistivity training and test R2 values were also 0.90 and 0.87, respectively, which indicated accurate prediction models. Important variables for stratifying the various piecewise regressions were elevation and averaged 2000-2008 ecosystem performance anomalies. Important independent variables used in the multiple regression equations were the Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII), NDII7 (NDII using band 7), soil moisture mapped from

  8. Emergency medical training in the 82d Airborne Division. The Gulf War experience.

    PubMed

    Cancio, L C; Goforth, G A

    1993-01-01

    The 82d Airborne Division, as the Army's worldwide contingency division, places unique demands on its medical personnel. This was true particularly during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm in 1990-1991. An unprecedented emergency medical training program was carried out in preparation for the Gulf War. All levels of expertise were involved: non-medical Combat Lifesavers, medics, physician assistants, and physicians. Courses provided included Combat Lifesaver provider and refresher training, Basic Trauma Life Support (BTLS) provider and instructor training, Chemical Casualty courses, and a Combat Surgical Skills course. Approximately 736 personnel, including 80 Saudi and allied physicians and medics, participated in these courses. Confidence and competence in handling war casualties at all levels was enhanced greatly. Prepackaged courses such as BTLS enabled the rapid training of large numbers of medical personnel under challenging conditions. PMID:10155478

  9. MODIS airborne simulator visible and near-infrared calibration, 1992 ASTEX field experiment. Calibration version: ASTEX King 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael; Grant, Patrick S.; King, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of the visible and near-infrared (near-IR) channels of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) is derived from observations of a calibrated light source. For the 1992 Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) field deployment, the calibrated light source was the NASA Goddard 48-inch integrating hemisphere. Tests during the ASTEX deployment were conducted to calibrate the hemisphere and then the MAS. This report summarizes the ASTEX hemisphere calibration, and then describes how the MAS was calibrated from the hemisphere data. All MAS calibration measurements are presented and determination of the MAS calibration coefficients (raw counts to radiance conversion) is discussed. In addition, comparisons to an independent MAS calibration by Ames personnel using their 30-inch integrating sphere is discussed.

  10. Airborne Active and Passive L-Band Observations in Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Yueh, S. H.; Chazanoff, S.; Jackson, T. J.; McNairn, H.; Bullock, P.; Wiseman, G.; Berg, A. A.; Magagi, R.; Njoku, E. G.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in October 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. For pre-launch algorithm development and validation the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a field campaign named as SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June-July, 2012. The main objective of SMAPVEX12 was acquisition of data record that features long-time series with varying soil moisture and vegetation conditions (for testing the application of time-series approach) over aerial domain of multiple parallel lines (for spatial disaggregation studies). The coincident active and passive L-band data were acquired using the Passive Active L-band System (PALS), which is an airborne radiometer and radar developed for testing L-band retrieval algorithms. For SMAPVEX12 PALS was installed on a Twin Otter aircraft. The flight plan included flights at two altitudes. The higher altitude was used to map the whole experiment domain and the lower altitude was used to obtain measurements over a specific set of field sites. The spatial resolution (and swath) of the radar and radiometer from low altitude was about 600 m and from high altitude about 1500 m. The PALS acquisitions were complemented with high resolution (~10 m) L-band SAR measurements carried out by UAVSAR instrument on-board G-III aircraft. The campaign ran from June 7 until July 19. The PALS instrument conducted 17 brightness temperature and backscatter measurement flights and the UAVSAR conducted 14 backscatter measurement flights. The airborne data acquisition was supported by

  11. The Australian National Airborne Field Experiment 2005: Soil Moisture Remote Sensing at 60 Meter Resolution and Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, E. J.; Walker, J. P.; Panciera, R.; Kalma, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    truth collection over a range of grid spacings, to provide a basis for examining the effects of subpixel variability. However, the native footprint size of the airborne L-band radiometers was always a few hundred meters. During the recently completed (November, 2005) National Airborne Field Experiment (NAFE) campaign in Australia, a compact L-band radiometer was deployed on a small aircraft. This new combination permitted routine observations at native resolutions as high as 60 meters, substantially finer than in previous airborne soil moisture campaigns, as well as satellite footprint areal coverage. The radiometer, the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR) performed extremely well and operations included extensive calibration-related observations. Thus, along with the extensive fine-scale ground truth, the NAFE dataset includes all the ingredients for the first scaling studies involving very-high-native resolution soil moisture observations and the effects of vegetation, roughness, etc. A brief overview of the NAFE will be presented, then examples of the airborne observations with resolutions from 60 m to 1 km will be shown, and early results from scaling studies will be discussed.

  12. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY: EFFECTS OF AIRBORNE SULFUR POLLUTANTS ON MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of galvanized steel, weathering steel, A1 2014 and 7079 stress samples, silver, marble, nylon and two types of house paint were exposed at nine sites of the Regional Air Monitoring System in the St. Louis area. Wind speed and direction, temperature, dew point, total sulfu...

  13. Development of the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE): An Advanced Airborne DIAL Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alvah S., Jr.; Brown, Kevin E.; Hall, William M.; Barnes, James C.; Edwards, William C.; Petway, Larry B.; Little, Alan D.; Luck, William S., Jr.; Jones, Irby W.; Antill, Charles W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) Instrument is the first fully-engineered, autonomous Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) System for the measurement of water vapor in the troposphere (aerosol and cloud measurements are included). LASE uses a double-pulsed Ti:Sapphire laser for the transmitter with a 30 ns pulse length and 150 mJ/pulse. The laser beam is "seeded" to operate on a selected water vapor absorption line in the 815-nm region using a laser diode and an onboard absorption reference cell. A 40 cm diameter telescope collects the backscattered signals and directs them onto two detectors. LASE collects DIAL data at 5 Hz while onboard a NASA/Ames ER-2 aircraft flying at altitudes from 16-21 km. LASE was designed to operate autonomously within the environment and physical constraints of the ER-2 aircraft and to make water vapor profile measurements across the troposphere to better than 10% accuracy. LASE has flown 19 times during the development of the instrument and the validation of the science data. This paper describes the design, operation, and reliability of the LASE Instrument.

  14. Southwest Region Experiment Station 1988 report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The highlights of tasks performed during 1988 by staff members at the Southwest Region Experiment Station (SWRES) are summarized in this report. During 1988, our staff tested and evaluated photovoltaic systems, designed hardware for data acquisition systems, developed software for data analysis, and demonstrated the uses of Photovoltaics (PVs) to the public. Field evaluations of stand-alone and grid-connected systems were a major project for the SWRES in 1988. The goal was to determine the reliability of PV systems, to identify degradation trends, and to recommend solutions to problems. In 1988, the SWRES staff visited 7 sites and tested and evaluated 11 PV systems. Four of the seven tests were paid for under the DOE contract, the balance paid for by private companies or agencies. They were about 7200 crystalline and 2200 amorphous silicon (a-Si) modules tested in 1988. Forty-eight crystalline modules were nonproducing; thirty-nine of them in the Georgetown array. Some problems with the a-Si modules were found. However, the significance of these various failures is hard to determine. The failures are hard to categorize because of the differences in this newer technology. The system ratings determined by the SWRES continue to be lower than the commonly referenced number. Georgetown is the worst example--being rated at 210 kW compared to the 300kW value used to describe the system. Testing results from other systems show system rating 5 to 15 percent below nameplate. The system testing performed by the SWRES show that module failures rates for crystalline modules is lower than 2/10,000 per year including the high number of failures at Georgetown. For systems that have been operating over seven years, it is still difficult to pinpoint any degradation trend in year to year performance. 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  16. Experience with a prototype of the Test Ban Treaty monitoring system for air-borne radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Measday, David F.; Ho, Ernest C. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring of air-borne radioactivity has been tested on behalf of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization. A prototype system was installed at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC in April 1996 and has been operating successfully since then. The air is drawn through a glass-fibre filter for a period of 24 h. A cooling period eliminates products of 222Rn in the uranium series. A germanium detector then counts the γ-rays. Several anthropogenic nuclides such as 123I and 99mTc have been observed from local medical facilities. In addition many natural nuclides have been detected and the most abundant are the products of thoron viz 220Rn, which is in the thorium series. The 239 keV γ-ray from 212Pb has been studied to investigate the reason for significant fluctuations in its intensity. It was found that rain, wind, low temperature and maritime air all decrease the observed activity. A model was created which mimics the variation reasonably well.

  17. Analysis of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) Data From California Forestland Using Regional Shape Descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Zehra

    Global warming is on the rise, and the importance of forest ecosystems for sustaining the planet has never before been felt more acutely. Management and monitoring of this resource is critical. This thesis presents a novel method of efficiently analyzing remotely sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data from a forest, with the goal of identifying patterns of interest in the forest structure as well as for estimating forest parameters like biomass. LiDAR technology provides a cost-effective means of collecting three-dimensional point data representing large study areas. The method described in this work focuses on analyzing regional point neighborhoods within the LiDAR data by summarizing the neighborhood into a two dimensional shape descriptor histogram. This representation, along with a suitable distance metric, allows for direct comparison between different regions within the data. Its applicability is demonstrated in two ways: clustering, to identify underlying forest structure, and regression, to estimate forest parameters like biomass. Results indicate this is a credible approach that can be explored further within the context of forest monitoring.

  18. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Pollution above the Oil Sands Region in Northern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Monika; Whiteway, James; Seabrook, Jeffrey; Gray, Lawrence; Strawbridge, Kevin B.

    2016-06-01

    Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol were conducted from a Twin Otter aircraft above the oil sands region of northern Alberta. For the majority of the flights, significant amounts of aerosol were observed within the boundary layer, up to an altitude of 2.0 km above sea level (ASL), while the ozone concentration remained at background levels (30-45 ppb) downwind of the industry. On August 24th the lidar measured a separated layer of aerosol above the boundary layer, at a height of 2.0 km ASL, in which the ozone mixing ratio increased to 70 ppb. Backward trajectory calculations revealed that the air containing this separated aerosol layer had passed over an area of forest fires. Directly below the layer of forest fire smoke, pollution from the oil sands industry was observed. Measurements of the backscatter linear depolarization ratio were obtained with a ground based lidar operated by Environment Canada within the oil sands region. The depolarization measurements aided in discriminating between the separate sources of pollution from industry and forest fires. The depolarization ratio was 5-6% in forest fire smoke and 7-10% in the industrial pollution.

  19. Southwest Region Experiment Station - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A

    2011-08-19

    Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), an independent, university-based research institute, has been the operator of the Southwest Region Photovoltaic Experiment Station (SWRES) for almost 30 years. The overarching mission of SWTDI is to position PV systems and solar technologies to become cost-effective, major sources of energy for the United States. Embedded in SWTDI's general mission has been the more-focused mission of the SWRES: to provide value added technical support to the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) to effectively and efficiently meet the R&D needs and targets specified in the SETP Multi-Year Technical Plan. : The DOE/SETP goals of growing U.S. PV manufacturing into giga-watt capacities and seeing tera-watt-hours of solar energy production in the U.S. require an infrastructure that is under development. The staff of the SWRES has supported DOE/SETP through a coherent, integrated program to address infrastructural needs inhibiting wide-scale PV deployment in three major technical categories: specialized engineering services, workforce development, and deployment facilitation. The SWRES contract underwent three major revisions during its five year period-of- performance, but all tasks and deliverables fell within the following task areas: Task 1: PV Systems Assistance Center 1. Develop a Comprehensive multi-year plan 2. Provide technical workforce development materials and workshops for PV stakeholder groups including university, professional installers, inspectors, state energy offices, Federal agencies 3. Serve on the NABCEP exam committee 4. Provide on-demand technical PV system design reviews for U.S. PV stakeholders 5. Provide PV system field testing and instrumentation, technical outreach (including extensive support for the DOE Market Transformation program) Task 2: Design-for-Manufacture PV Systems 1. Develop and install 18 kW parking carport (cost share) and PV-thermal carport (Albuquerque) deriving and publishing

  20. Airborne mineral components and trace metals in Paris region: spatial and temporal variability.

    PubMed

    Poulakis, E; Theodosi, C; Bressi, M; Sciare, J; Ghersi, V; Mihalopoulos, N

    2015-10-01

    A variety of mineral components (Al, Fe) and trace metals (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were simultaneously measured in PM2.5 and PM10 fractions at three different locations (traffic, urban, and suburban) in the Greater Paris Area (GPA) on a daily basis throughout a year. Mineral species and trace metal levels measured in both fractions are in agreement with those reported in the literature and below the thresholds defined by the European guidelines for toxic metals (Cd, Ni, Pb). Size distribution between PM2.5 and PM10 fractions revealed that mineral components prevail in the coarse mode, while trace metals are mainly confined in the fine one. Enrichment factor analysis, statistical analysis, and seasonal variability suggest that elements such as Mn, Cr, Zn, Fe, and Cu are attributed to traffic, V and Ni to oil combustion while Cd and Pb to industrial activities with regional origin. Meteorological parameters such as rain, boundary layer height (BLH), and air mass origin were found to significantly influence element concentrations. Periods with high frequency of northern and eastern air masses (from high populated and industrialized areas) are characterized by high metal concentrations. Finally, inner city and traffic emissions were also evaluated in PM2.5 fraction. Significant contributions (>50 %) were measured in the traffic site for Mn, Fe, Cr, Zn, and Cu, confirming that vehicle emissions contribute significantly to their levels, while in the urban site, the lower contributions (18 to 33 %) for all measured metals highlight the influence of regional sources on their levels. PMID:25982986

  1. Southern Hemispheric nitrous oxide measurements obtained during 1987 airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolske, J. R.; Loewenstein, M.; Strahan, S. E.; Chan, K. Roland

    1988-01-01

    The chemical lifetime of N2O is about 150 years, which makes it an excellent dynamical tracer of air motion on the time scale of the ozone depletion event. For these reasons it was chosen to help test whether dynamical theories of ozone loss over Antarctica were plausible, particularly the theory that upwelling ozone-poor air from the troposphere was replacing ozone-rich stratospheric air. The N2O measurements were made with the Airborne Tunable Laser Absorption Spectrometer (ATLAS) aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. The detection technique involves measuring the diffential absorption of the IR laser radiation as it is rapidly scanned over an N2O absorption feature. For the AAOE mission, the instrument was capable of making measurements with a 1 ppb sensitivity, 1 second response time, over an altitude range of 10 to 20 kilometers. The AAOE mission consisted of a series of 12 flights from Punta Arenas (53S) into the polar vortex (approximately 72S) at which time a vertical profile from 65 to 45 km and back was performed. Comparison of the observed profiles inside the vortex with N2O profiles obtained by balloon flights during the austral summer showed that an overall subsidence had occurred during the winter of about 5 to 6 km. Also, over the course of the mission (mid-August to late September), no trend in the N2O vertical profile, either upward or downward, was discernible, eliminating the possibility that upwelling was the cause of the observed ozone decrease.

  2. Relating Hyperspectral Airborne Data to Ground Measurements in a Complex and Discontinuous Canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calleja, Javier F.; Hellmann, Christine; Mendiguren, Gorka; Punalekar, Suvarna; Peón, Juanjo; MacArthur, Alasdair; Alonso, Luis

    2015-12-01

    The work described in this paper is aimed at validating hyperspectral airborne reflectance data collected during the Regional Experiments For Land-atmosphere EXchanges (REFLEX) campaign. Ground reflectance data measured in a vineyard were compared with airborne reflectance data. A sampling strategy and subsequent ground data processing had to be devised so as to capture a representative spectral sample of this complex crop. A linear model between airborne and ground data was tried and statistically tested. Results reveal a sound correspondence between ground and airborne reflectance data (R2 > 0.97), validating the atmospheric correction of the latter.

  3. Regional program for acquisition of medical experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannordstrand, P. C.

    1978-01-01

    A U.S. company was contracted to cover different regions of the country. A moderately detailed description of the highlights of the company activities along with some conclusions and recommendations are reported. In summary, the regional program effectively: (1) informed segments of the medical community of research opportunities; (2) validated formats for regional workshops; (3) assisted potential investigators with follow-up consultations and proposal preparations; and (4) identified a latent intersect requiring continual dialog at the scientist/engineer interface for successful cultivation and integration.

  4. 3D Airborne Electromagnetic Inversion: A case study from the Musgrave Region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, L. H.; Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Sunwall, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysicists know and accept that geology is inherently 3D, and is resultant from complex, overlapping processes related to genesis, metamorphism, deformation, alteration, weathering, and/or hydrogeology. Yet, the geophysics community has long relied on qualitative analysis, conductivity depth imaging (CDIs), 1D inversion, and/or plate modeling. There are many reasons for this deficiency, not the least of which has been the lack of capacity for historic 3D AEM inversion algorithms to invert entire surveys so as to practically affect exploration decisions. Our recent introduction of a moving sensitivity domain (footprint) methodology has been a paradigm shift in AEM interpretation. The basis of this method is that one needs only to calculate the responses and sensitivities for that part of the 3D earth model that is within the AEM system's sensitivity domain (footprint), and then superimpose all sensitivity domains into a single, sparse sensitivity matrix for the entire 3D earth model which is then updated in a regularized inversion scheme. This has made it practical to rigorously invert entire surveys with thousands of line kilometers of AEM data to mega-cell 3D models in hours using multi-processor workstations. Since 2010, over eighty individual projects have been completed for Aerodat, AEROTEM, DIGHEM, GEOTEM, HELITEM, HoisTEM, MEGATEM, RepTEM, RESOLVE, SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPEST, and VTEM data from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Finland, Ghana, Peru, Tanzania, the US, and Zambia. Examples of 3D AEM inversion have been published for a variety of applications, including mineral exploration, oil sands exploration, salinity, permafrost, and bathymetry mapping. In this paper, we present a comparison of 3D inversions for SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPET and VTEM data acquired over the same area in the Musgrave region of South Australia for exploration under cover.

  5. Temperature and horizontal wind measurements on the ER-2 aircraft during the 1987 airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. Roland; Scott, Stan G.; Bui, T. Paul; Bowen, Stuart W.; Day, Jon

    1988-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 aircraft is equipped with special instrumentation to provide accurate in situ measurement of the atmospheric state variables during flight. The Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) on the ER-2 aircraft is described. Since the meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure, and wind vector) are extensively used by other ER-2 experimenters for data processing and interpretation, the accuracy and resolution of each of these parameters are assessed and discussed. During the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) mission, the ER-2 aircraft was stationed at Punta Arenas, Chile (53 S, 72 W), and successfully flew over Antarctica on 12 occasions between August 17 and September 22, 1987. On each of the 12 flights, the ER-2 aircraft flight plan was to take off at approximately the same local time, fly southward at a near constant potential temperature surface, descend and ascend at the southernmost terminus at about 72 S over Antarctica and return northward at either the same or a different constant potential temperature surface. The measurements of the MMS experiment during the AAOE mission are presented. MMS data are organized to provide a composite view of the polar atmosphere, which is characterized by frigid temperatures and high zonal winds. Altitudinal variations of the temperature measurement (during takeoff/landing at Punta Arenas and during descent/ascent at the southern terminus) and latitudinal variations of the zonal wind (on near constant potential temperature surfaces) are emphasized and discussed.

  6. Ozone and aerosol distributions measured by airborne lidar during the 1988 Arctic Boundary Layer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to O3 and aerosol distributions measured from an aircraft using a DIAL system in order to study the sources and sinks of gases and aerosols over the tundra regions of Alaska during summer 1988. The tropospheric O3 budget over the Arctic was found to be strongly influenced by stratospheric intrusions. Regions of low aerosol scattering and enhanced O3 mixing ratios were usually correlated with descending air from the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere.

  7. Airborne Sunphotometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth and Columnar Water Vapor During the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment, and Comparison with Land, Aircraft, and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.; Russell, Philip B.; Reid, Jeffrey; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Allen, Duane A.; Torres, Omar; Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Holben, Brent N.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) measurements obtained with the six-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) mounted on a twin-engine aircraft during the summer 2000 Puerto Rico Dust Experiment are presented. In general, aerosol extinction values calculated from AATS-6 AOD measurements acquired during aircraft profiles up to 5 km ASL reproduce the vertical structure measured by coincident aircraft in-situ measurements of total aerosol number and surface area concentration. Calculations show that the spectral dependence of AOD was small (mean Angstrom wavelength exponents of approximately 0.20) within three atmospheric layers defined as the total column beneath the top of each aircraft profile, the region beneath the trade wind inversion, and the region within the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) above the trade inversion. This spectral behavior is consistent with attenuation of incoming solar radiation by large dust particles or by dust plus sea salt. Values of CWV calculated from profile measurements by AATS-6 at 941.9 nm and from aircraft in-situ measurements by a chilled mirror dewpoint hygrometer agree to within approximately 4% (0.13 g/sq cm). AATS-6 AOD values measured on the ground at Roosevelt Roads Naval Air Station and during low altitude aircraft runs over the adjacent Cabras Island aerosol/radiation ground site agree to within 0.004 to 0.030 with coincident data obtained with an AERONET Sun/sky Cimel radiometer located at Cabras Island. For the same observation times, AERONET retrievals of CWV exceed AATS-6 values by a mean of 0.74 g/sq cm (approximately 21 %) for the 2.9-3.9 g/sq cm measured by AATS-6. Comparison of AATS-6 aerosol extinction values obtained during four aircraft ascents over Cabras Island with corresponding values calculated from coincident aerosol backscatter measurements by a ground-based micro-pulse lidar (MPL-Net) located at Cabras yields a similar vertical structure above the trade

  8. A laser communication experiment utilizing the ACT satellite and an airborne laser transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provencher, Charles E., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.

    1988-01-01

    The launch of a laser communication transmitter package into geosynchronous Earth orbit onboard the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) will present an excellent opportunity for the experimental reception of laser communication signals transmitted from a space orbit. The ACTS laser package includes both a heterodyne transmitter (Lincoln Labs design) and a direct detection transmitter (Goddard Space Flight Center design) with both sharing some common optical components. NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Electronics Division is planning to perform a space communication experiment utilizing the GSFC direct detection laser transceiver. The laser receiver will be installed within an aircraft provided with a glass port for the reception of the signal. This paper describes the experiment and the approach to performing such an experiment. Described are the constraints placed on the NASA Lewis experiment by the performance parameters of the laser transmitter and by the ACTS spacecraft operations. The conceptual design of the receiving terminal is given; also included is the anticipated capability of the detector.

  9. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  10. Technology and politics: The regional airport experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starling, J. D.; Brown, J.; Gerhardt, J. M.; Dominus, M. I.

    1976-01-01

    The findings of a comparative study of the following six regional airports were presented: Dallas/Fort Worth, Kansas City, Washington, D.C., Montreal, Tampa, and St. Louis. Each case was approached as a unique historical entity, in order to investigate common elements such as: the use of predictive models in planning, the role of symbolism to heighten dramatic effects, the roles of community and professional elites, and design flexibility. Some of the factors considered were: site selection, consolidation of airline service, accessibility, land availability and cost, safety, nuisance, and pollution constraints, economic growth, expectation of regional growth, the demand forecasting conundrum, and design decisions. The hypotheses developed include the following: the effect of political, social, and economic conflicts, the stress on large capacity and dramatic, high-technology design, projections of rapid growth to explain the need for large capital outlays.

  11. Sources of methane and nitrous oxide in California's Central Valley estimated through direct airborne flux and positive matrix factorization source apportionment of groundbased and regional tall tower measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Abhinav

    -San Joaquin River Delta in the Central Valley. Through analysis of these field measurements, this dissertation presents the apportionment of observed CH4 and N2O concentration enhancements into major source categories along with direct emissions estimates from airborne observations. We perform high-precision measurements of greenhouse gases using gas analyzers based on absorption spectroscopy, and other source marker volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using state of the art VOC measurement systems (e.g. proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry). We combine these measurements with a statistical source apportionment technique called positive matrix factorization (PMF) to evaluate and investigate the major local sources of CH4 and N2O during CalNex and Walnut Grove campaigns. In the CABERNET study, we combine measurements with an airborne approach to a well-established micrometeorological technique (eddy-covariance method) to derive CH4 fluxes over different source regions in the Central Valley. In the CalNex experiments, we demonstrate that dairy and livestock remains the largest source sector of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in the San Joaquin Valley contributing most of the CH4 and much of the measured N2O at Bakersfield. Agriculture is observed to provide another major source of N2O, while vehicle emissions are found to be an insignificant source of N2O, contrary to the current statewide greenhouse gas inventory which includes vehicles as a major source. Our PMF source apportionment also produces an evaporative/fugitive factor but its relative lack of CH4 contributions points to removal processes from vented emissions in the surrounding O&G industry and the overwhelming dominance of the dairy CH4 source. In the CABERNET experiments, we report enhancements of CH4 from a number of sources spread across the spatial domain of the Central Valley that improves our understanding of their distribution and relative strengths. We observe large enhancements of CH4 mixing ratios over the

  12. MSFC Doppler Lidar Science experiments and operations plans for 1981 airborne test flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.; Bilbro, J. W.; Kaufman, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The flight experiment and operations plans for the Doppler Lidar System (DLS) are provided. Application of DLS to the study of severe storms and local weather penomena is addressed. Test plans involve 66 hours of flight time. Plans also include ground based severe storm and local weather data acquisition.

  13. Preliminary results from an airborne experiment using along-track interferometry for ground moving target indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, Elaine; Chen, Curtis W.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) along track interferometry (ATI) has been used extensively to measure ocean surface currents. Given its ability to measure small velocities of relatively radar-dark water surfaces, there is great potential that this technique can be adapted for ground moving target indication (GMTI) applications, particularly as a method for detecting very slwo targets with small radar cross sections. In this paper we describe preliminary results from an ATI GMTI experiment.

  14. New insights into the properties of contrail cirrus and their impact on climate from airborne experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Christiane; Schumann, Ulrich; Minikin, Andreas; Schlager, Hans; Anderson, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Current growth rates in aviation demand a profound scientific data base of contrail cirrus properties in order to accurately assess their climate impact. In particular, the differentiation of contrail cirrus in natural cirrus fields is challenging. Direct observations of contrail cirrus throughout their life cycle are scarce and therefore limit our understanding of the climate effects from contrail cirrus. Here, we give new insights into the growth, life-cycle and climate impact from contrail cirrus based on results from suite of aircraft experiments. NASA's ACCESSII mission focused on the detection of aircraft emissions and initial contrail stages. Nascent contrails were detected at cruise altitudes at 100 m distance to the engine exit. Contrail growth to 10-min contrail age was investigated during DLR's CONCERT campaigns. Finally, the objective of the ML-CIRRUS experiment was to study the life cycle and climate impact of contrail cirrus. The contrail measurements are related to previous observations and discussed in the context of recent developments in contrail modeling. Highlights include the quantification of the effects of aircraft type on contrail microphysics, the analysis of ice particle shapes and the quantitative distinction of contrail cirrus and natural cirrus.

  15. Prediction of soil stability and erosion in semiarid regions using numerical hydrological model (MCAT) and airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Long-term environmental monitoring is addressed to identify physical and biological changes and progresses taking place in the ecosystem. This basic action of landscape monitoring is an essential part of the systematic long-term surveillance, aiming to evaluate, assess and predict the spatial change and progresses. Indeed, it provides a context for wide range of diverse studies and research frameworks from regional or global scale. Spatial-temporal trends and changes at various scales (massive to less certain) require establishing consistent baseline data over time. One of the spatial cases of landscape monitoring is dedicated to soil formation and pedological progresses. It is previously acknowledged that changes in soil affect the functionality of the environment, so monitoring changes recently become important cause considerable resources in areas such as environmental management, sustainability services, and protecting the environment healthy. Given the above, it can be concluded that monitoring changes in the base for sustainable development. The hydrological response of bare soils and watersheds in semiarid regions to intense rainfall events is known to be complex due to multiply physical and structural impacts and feedbacks. As a result, the comprehensive evaluations of mathematical models including detailed consideration of uncertainties in the modeling of hydrological and environmental systems are of increasing importance. The presented method incorporates means of remote sensing data, hydrological and climate data and implementing dedicated and integrative Monte Carlo Analysis Toolbox (MCAT) model for semiarid region. Complexity of practical models to represent spatial systems requires an extensive understanding of the spatial phenomena, while providing realistic balance of sensitivity and corresponding uncertainty levels. Nowadays a large number of dedicated mathematical models applied to assess environmental hydrological process. Among the most

  16. Preliminary airborne measurements for the SR-71 sonic boom propagation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1995-01-01

    SR-71 sonic boom signatures were measured to validate sonic boom propagation prediction codes. An SR-71 aircraft generated sonic booms from Mach 1.25 to Mach 1.6, at altitudes of 31,000 to 48,000 ft, and at various gross weights. An F-16XL aircraft measured the SR-71 near-field shock waves from close to the aircraft to more than 8,000 ft below, gathering 105 signatures. A YO-3A aircraft measured the SR-71 sonic booms from 21,000 to 38,000 feet below, recording 17 passes. The sonic booms at ground level and atmospheric data were recorded for each flight. Data analysis is underway. Preliminary results show that shock wave patterns and coalescence vary with SR-71 gross weight, Mach number, and altitude. For example, noncoalesced shock wave signatures were measured by the YO-3A at 21,000 ft below the SR-71 aircraft while at a low gross weight, Mach 1.25, and 31,000-ft altitude. This paper describes the design and execution of the flight research experiment. Instrumentation and flight maneuvers of the SR-71, F-16XL, and YO-3A aircraft and sample sonic boom signatures are included.

  17. Application of airborne laser scanner measurements of ocean roughness to the calibration and validation of a satellite bistatic radar experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrin, J.; Garrison, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    A high-resolution airborne laser scanner, from the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) was used to profile the ocean surface in an attempt to experimentally measure the ocean height spectrum down to wavelengths as small as a few centimetres. In October of 2005, three data collections were scheduled, during overpasses of the UK-DMC satellite, off the coast of Virginia. UK-DMC carries an experimental bistatic radar receiver, which uses Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals as illumination sources. Most models for reflected GNSS signals relate the shape of the signal correlation waveforms to the ocean roughness, parameterized as a probability distribution (PDF) of surface slopes. This statistical description of the ocean surface must first be filtered to wavelengths greater than some fraction of the GNSS wavelength of 19 cm. Past experimental campaigns have used more common in-situ measurements, such as wind speed, for comparison with GNSS waveforms. These types of measurements will require the assumption of some empirical model for the ocean height spectrum, allowing the computation of the filtered slope statistics. Proposed applications of reflected GNSS signals include the correction of ocean roughness effects in passive microwave radiometry. To evaluate the feasibility of GNSS reflections for this measurement, it is important to make a more direct measurement of the ocean surface slope statistics, without the assumption of a spectrum model. In these experiments, a direct measurement of this spectrum was attempted, using the NCALM system. The laser scanner was operated on a low altitude (500 m) aircraft, at the highest sample rate (33KHz), generating ocean height measurements with an along-track separation of a few millimetres. The laser illuminates a spot on the ocean surface that is smaller than 10 cm, however, limiting the smallest resolvable wavelength to something on that order. Laser data were collected along multiple flight lines

  18. Forest Inventory Attribute Estimation Using Airborne Laser Scanning, Aerial Stereo Imagery, Radargrammetry and Interferometry-Finnish Experiences of the 3d Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holopainen, M.; Vastaranta, M.; Karjalainen, M.; Karila, K.; Kaasalainen, S.; Honkavaara, E.; Hyyppä, J.

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) remote sensing has enabled detailed mapping of terrain and vegetation heights. Consequently, forest inventory attributes are estimated more and more using point clouds and normalized surface models. In practical applications, mainly airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been used in forest resource mapping. The current status is that ALS-based forest inventories are widespread, and the popularity of ALS has also raised interest toward alternative 3D techniques, including airborne and spaceborne techniques. Point clouds can be generated using photogrammetry, radargrammetry and interferometry. Airborne stereo imagery can be used in deriving photogrammetric point clouds, as very-high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are used in radargrammetry and interferometry. ALS is capable of mapping both the terrain and tree heights in mixed forest conditions, which is an advantage over aerial images or SAR data. However, in many jurisdictions, a detailed ALS-based digital terrain model is already available, and that enables linking photogrammetric or SAR-derived heights to heights above the ground. In other words, in forest conditions, the height of single trees, height of the canopy and/or density of the canopy can be measured and used in estimation of forest inventory attributes. In this paper, first we review experiences of the use of digital stereo imagery and spaceborne SAR in estimation of forest inventory attributes in Finland, and we compare techniques to ALS. In addition, we aim to present new implications based on our experiences.

  19. Airborne atmospheric electricity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    During the 1984 U2 spring flight program, lightning spectra were measured in the wavelengths from 380 nm to 900 nm with a temporal resolution of 5 ms. With this capability, researchers simultaneously acquired both visible near-infrared lightning spectra on a pulse to pulse basis, so that the spectral variability within a flash, as well as flash to flash variations, can be studied. Preliminary results suggest that important variations do occur, particularly in the strengths of the hydrogen and singly ionized nitrogen emission lines. Also, the results have revealed significant differences in the integrated energy distributions between the lightning spectra measured above clouds and the spectral measurements of cloud-to-ground lightning made at the ground. In particular, the ratio of the energy in the near-IR to that in the visible is around 1 to 2 for cloud top spectra versus about 1/3 for surface observations. Detailed analyses of the 1984 lightning spectral data is being conducted. This data should provide improved understanding about the optical transmission properties of thunderclouds and the physics of the lightning discharge process. Efforts continue on developing and testing background signal removal algorithms using U2 spectometer and optical array sensor day-flight data sets. The goal of this research is to develop an algorithm satisfying Lightning Mapper Sensor requirements.

  20. Assessment of Superflux relative to remote sensing. [airborne remote sensing of the Chesapeake Bay plume and shelf regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The state-of-the-art advancements in remote sensor technology due to the Superflux program are examined. Three major individual sensor technologies benefitted from the program: laser fluorosensors, optical-range scanners, and passive microwave sensors. Under Superflux, convincing evidence was obtained that the airborne oceanographic lidar fluorosensor can map chlorophyll, i.e., is linear, over a wide range from less than 0.5 to 5.0 mg/cu m. The lidar oceanographic probe dual-excitation concept for addressing phytoplankton color group composition was also demonstrated convincingly. Algorithm development, real time capabilities, and multisensor integration are also addressed.

  1. Mapping and profile of emission sources for airborne volatile organic compounds from process regions at a petrochemical plant in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Liang; Fang, Hung-Yuan; Shu, Chi-Min

    2006-06-01

    This work surveyed five process regions inside a petrochemical plant in Taiwan to characterize the profiles of airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and locate emission sources. Samples, taken with canisters, were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry according to the TO-14 method. Each region was deployed with 24 sampling sites, sampled twice, and 240 samples in total were measured during the survey period. All of the data were consolidated into a database on Excel to facilitate retrieval, statistical analysis, and presentation in the form of a table or graph, and, subsequently, the profile of VOCs was elucidated. Emission sources were located by mapping the concentration distribution of either an individual or a type of species in terms of contour maps on Surfer. Through the cross-analysis of data, the abundant VOCs included alkenes, dienes, alkanes, and aromatics. A total of 19 emission sources were located from these five regions. The sources for alkanes stood inside first, third aromatic, and fourth naphtha cracking regions, whereas the ones for alkenes were inside two naphtha cracking regions. The sources for dienes were found inside the third naphtha cracking region alone; in contrast, the sources for aromatics were universally traced except inside the third naphtha cracking region. The measured intensity for sources mostly ranged from 1000 to 7000 ppb. PMID:16805407

  2. Orientation of Oblique Airborne Image Sets - Experiences from the Isprs/eurosdr Benchmark on Multi-Platform Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, M.; Nex, F.; Remondino, F.; Jacobsen, K.; Kremer, J.; Karel, W.; Hu, H.; Ostrowski, W.

    2016-06-01

    During the last decade the use of airborne multi camera systems increased significantly. The development in digital camera technology allows mounting several mid- or small-format cameras efficiently onto one platform and thus enables image capture under different angles. Those oblique images turn out to be interesting for a number of applications since lateral parts of elevated objects, like buildings or trees, are visible. However, occlusion or illumination differences might challenge image processing. From an image orientation point of view those multi-camera systems bring the advantage of a better ray intersection geometry compared to nadir-only image blocks. On the other hand, varying scale, occlusion and atmospheric influences which are difficult to model impose problems to the image matching and bundle adjustment tasks. In order to understand current limitations of image orientation approaches and the influence of different parameters such as image overlap or GCP distribution, a commonly available dataset was released. The originally captured data comprises of a state-of-the-art image block with very high overlap, but in the first stage of the so-called ISPRS/EUROSDR benchmark on multi-platform photogrammetry only a reduced set of images was released. In this paper some first results obtained with this dataset are presented. They refer to different aspects like tie point matching across the viewing directions, influence of the oblique images onto the bundle adjustment, the role of image overlap and GCP distribution. As far as the tie point matching is concerned we observed that matching of overlapping images pointing to the same cardinal direction, or between nadir and oblique views in general is quite successful. Due to the quite different perspective between images of different viewing directions the standard tie point matching, for instance based on interest points does not work well. How to address occlusion and ambiguities due to different views onto

  3. Water-soluble inorganic ions in airborne particulates from the nano to coarse mode: a case study of aerosol episodes in southern region of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li-Peng; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Kai-Lun; Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-06-01

    In 2004, airborne particulate matter (PM) was collected for several aerosol episodes occurring in the southern region of Taiwan. The particulate samples were taken using both a MOUDI (Micro-orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) and a nano-MOUDI sampler. These particulate samples were analyzed for major water-soluble ionic species with an emphasis to characterize the mass concentrations and distributions of these ions in the ambient ultrafine (PM0.1, diameter <0.1 microm) and nano mode (PMnano, diameter <0.056 microm) particles. Particles collected at the sampling site (the Da-Liao station) on the whole exhibited a typical tri-modal size distribution on mass concentration. The mass concentration ratios of PMnano/PM2.5, PM0.1/PM2.5, and PM1/PM2.5 on average were 1.8, 2.9, and 71.0%, respectively. The peak mass concentration appeared in the submicron particle mode (0.1 microm < diameter <1.0 microm). Mass fractions (percentages) of the three major water-soluble ions (nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium) as a group in PMnano, PM0.1, PM1, and PM2.5 were 18.4, 21.7, 50.0, and 50.7%, respectively. Overall, results from this study supported the notion that secondary aerosols played a significant role in the formation of ambient submicron particulates (PM0.1-1). Particles smaller than 0.1 microm were essentially basic, whereas those greater than 2.5 microm were neutral or slightly acidic. The neutralization ratio (NR) was close to unity for airborne particles with diameters ranging from 0.18 to 1 microm. The NRs of these airborne particles were found strongly correlated with their sizes, at least for samples taken during the aerosol episodes under study. Insofar as this study is exploratory in nature, as only a small number of particulate samples were used, there appears to be a need for further research into the chemical composition, source contribution, and formation of the nano and ultrafine mode airborne particulates. PMID:17874279

  4. A Cryogenic, Insulating Suspension System for the High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC)and Submillemeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George M.; Jackson, Michael L.; Shirron, Peter J.; Tuttle, James G.

    2002-01-01

    The High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) will use identical Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) to cool their detectors to 200mK and 100mK, respectively. In order to minimize thermal loads on the salt pill, a Kevlar suspension system is used to hold it in place. An innovative, kinematic suspension system is presented. The suspension system is unique in that it consists of two parts that can be assembled and tensioned offline, and later bolted onto the salt pill.

  5. Operational overview of NASA GTE/CITE 1 airborne instrument intercomparisons - Carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl instrumentation. [Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Sherwin M.; Bendura, Richard J.; Mcdougal, David S.; Hoell, James M., Jr.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, Gerald F.; Curfman, Howard J., Jr.; Torres, Arnold L.; Condon, Estelle P.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the airborne intercomparisons of CO, NO, and OH instrumentation is presented in this first paper of the series on the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 1). This paper provides the reader with background information about several important characteristics of the project. These include the overall objectives and approach, the measurements taken, the intercomparison protocol, aircraft platform, profiles of each aircraft flight, and the participants. A synopsis of the overall results of the CO, NO, and OH instrument intercomparisons is also included. Companion papers discuss the detailed results of the CO and NO intercomparison tests as well as pertinent scientific findings.

  6. Remote sensing observations of daytime column NO sub 2 during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, August 22 to October 2, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, A.; Jakoubek, R.O.; Mount, G.H.; Ravishankara, A.R.; Schmeltekopf, A.L. )

    1989-11-30

    A sensitive absorption spectrograph was flown on the NASA DC-8 aircraft as part of the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment to measure column abundances of O{sub 3}, NO{sub 2}, OClO, and BrO inside the Antarctic polar vortex. The instrument functioned successfully on all flights. Slant column NO{sub 2} measurements were made every 300 s whenever light levels permitted observation with an absolute accuracy better than 20% and with a detection limit of 3.4 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2} slant column. These measurements are presented and compared with TOMS total ozone along the flight track.

  7. Airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven E.

    2002-06-01

    The US Air Force Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the risk reduction approach being utilized to ensure program success.

  8. Characteristics of smoke emissions from biomass fires of the Amazon region - BASE-A experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Darold E.; Setzer, Alberto W.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Rasmussen, Rei A.

    1991-01-01

    The Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment-Amazonia was designed for study of both aerosol and gaseous emissions from fires using an airborne sampling platform. The emission factors for combustion products from four fires suggest that the proportion of carbon released in the form of CO2 is higher than for fires of logging which has been burned in the western U.S. Combustion efficiency was of the order of 97 percent for the Amazonian test fire and 86-94 percent for deforestation fires. The inorganic content of particles from tropical fires are noted to be different from those of fires in the U.S.

  9. Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): a new research initiative focused on the Northern Pan-Eurasian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Lappalainen, Hanna; Zaytseva, Nina; Shvidenko, Anatoli; Kujansuu, Joni; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolai; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennadi; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    The increasing human activities are changing the environment and the humanity is we are pushing the safe boundaries of the globe. It is of utmost importance to gauge with a comprehensive research program on the current status of the environment, particularly in the most vulnerable locations. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions. The PEEX program aims (i) to understand the Earth system and the influence of environmental and societal changes in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments, (ii) to establish and sustain long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based airborne and seaborne research infrastructures, and to utilize satellite data and multi-scale model frameworks, (iii) to contribute to regional climate scenarios in the northern Pan-Eurasia and determine the relevant factors and interactions influencing human and societal wellbeing (iv) to promote the dissemination of PEEX scientific results and strategies in scientific and stake-holder communities and policy making, (v) to educate the next generation of multidisciplinary global change experts and scientists, and (vi) to increase the public awareness of climate change impacts in the Pan-Eurasian region. The development of PEEX research infrastructure will be one of the first activities of PEEX. PEEX will find synergies with the major European land-atmosphere observation infrastructures such as ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions, ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project), and ANAEE (The experimentation in terrestrial ecosystem research) networks and with the flag ship stations like the SMEARs (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) when design, re-organizing and networking existing

  10. The Makana Regional Centre of Expertise: Experiments in Social Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; O'Donoghue, Rob; Wilmot, Di

    2010-01-01

    This article deliberates the possibilities for Regional Centres of Expertise (RCEs) to become "experiments" in social learning. The purpose of the article is to advance the broader research agenda of RCEs through reflection on the empirical research agenda of one RCE, Makana RCE in South Africa. As such it opens questions on how we might see RCE's…

  11. MISR Browse Images: Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-02

    ... MISR Browse Images: Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) These MISR Browse images provide a ... over the region observed during the NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX). CLPX involved ground, airborne, and satellite measurements ...

  12. Column Closure Studies of Lower Tropospheric Aerosol and Water Vapor During ACE-Asia Using Airborne Sunphotometer, Airborne In-Situ and Ship-Based Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Hegg, A.; Wang, J.; Bates, D.; Redemann, J.; Russells, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Jonsson, H. H.; Welton, E. J.; Seinfield, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    We assess the consistency (closure) between solar beam attenuation by aerosols and water vapor measured by airborne sunphotometry and derived from airborne in-situ, and ship-based lidar measurements during the April 2001 Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia). The airborne data presented here were obtained aboard the Twin Otter aircraft. Comparing aerosol extinction o(550 nm) from four different techniques shows good agreement for the vertical distribution of aerosol layers. However, the level of agreement in absolute magnitude of the derived aerosol extinction varied among the aerosol layers sampled. The sigma(550 nm) computed from airborne in-situ size distribution and composition measurements shows good agreement with airborne sunphotometry in the marine boundary layer but is considerably lower in layers dominated by dust if the particles are assumed to be spherical. The sigma(550 nm) from airborne in-situ scattering and absorption measurements are about approx. 13% lower than those obtained from airborne sunphotometry during 14 vertical profiles. Combining lidar and the airborne sunphotometer measurements reveals the prevalence of dust layers at altitudes up to 10 km with layer aerosol optical depth (from 3.5 to 10 km altitude) of approx. 0.1 to 0.2 (500 nm) and extinction-to-backscatter ratios of 59-71 sr (523 nm). The airborne sunphotometer aboard the Twin Otter reveals a relatively dry atmosphere during ACE- Asia with all water vapor columns less than 1.5 cm and water vapor densities w less than 12 g/cu m. Comparing layer water vapor amounts and w from the airborne sunphotometer to the same quantities measured with aircraft in-situ sensors leads to a high correlation (r(sup 3)=0.96) but the sunphotometer tends to underestimate w by 7%.

  13. Daytime CO2 Urban-Regional Scale Surface Fluxes from Airborne Measurements, Eddy-Covariance Observations and Emissions Inventories in Greater London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, A. M.; Grimmond, S. B.; Morgui, J. A.; Kotthaus, S.; Priestman, M.; Barratt, B.

    2014-12-01

    As the global population becomes increasingly urbanized, spatially concentrated centres of anthropogenic CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG) arise. While mitigation measures exist at national and international scales, their implementation will be more effective if linked to the urban-scale of the sources. Routine top-down approaches that quantify emissions of GHG from cities and megacities are needed to understand the dynamics of the urban carbon cycle to eventually define relevant policy decisions. London is the biggest urban conurbation in Western Europe with more than 8 million inhabitants. It emitted roughly 45000 ktn CO2 in 20101. To understand the carbon dynamics and quantify anthropogenic emissions from London, airborne surveys of atmospheric CO2, O3, particles and meteorological variables were carried out over the city, onboard the NERC-ARSF Dornier-228 UK research aircraft. We applied an Integrative Mass Boundary Layer method (IMBL) using airborne CO2 observations obtained in horizontal transects crossing London at 360 m at different times of the day and by sampling upwind-downwind profiles. IMBL CO2 fluxes were compared to an emissions inventory and neighbourhood-scale eddy-covariance fluxes in central London. Daytime fluxes in October 2011 from the IMBL calculations ranged from 46 to 104 μmolCO2 m-2 s-1 and covered 30-70% of the urban region. The IMBL CO2 fluxes were the same order of magnitude as observed eddy-covariance fluxes and were statistically comparable to the emission inventory for the same footprint area. A sensitivity analysis suggested that horizontal variability of the CO2 field in the urban mixing layer is the most critical factor affecting IMBL fluxes. The determination of the boundary height and vertical wind speed had more impact on fluxes calculated from upwind-downwind profiles. Furthermore, low-altitude airborne measurements of CO2 provide the advantage of direct observation of the CO2 urban dome of a megacity and relate the

  14. Observation of tropospheric NO2 by airborne multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy in the Pearl River Delta region, south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin; Xie, Pin-Hua; Si, Fu-Qi; Li, Ang; Wu, Feng-Cheng; Wang, Yang; Liu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Wen-Qing; Andreas, Hartl; Chan, Ka Lok

    2014-09-01

    An airborne multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopic (AMAX-DOAS) instrument was developed and applied to measure tropospheric NO2 in the Pearl River Delta region in the south of China. By combining the measurements in nadir and zenith directions and analyzing the UV and visible spectral region using the DOAS method, information about tropospheric NO2 vertical columns was obtained. Strong tropospheric NO2 signals were detected when flying over heavilly polluted regions and point sources like plants. The AMAX-DOAS results were compared with ground-based MAX-DOAS observations in the southwest of Zhuhai city using the same parameters for radiative transport calculations. The difference in vertical column data between the two instruments is about 8%. Our data were also compared with those from OMI and fair agreement was obtained with a correlation coefficient R of 0.61. The difference between the two instruments can be attributed to the different spatial resolution and the temporal mismatch during the measurements.

  15. Airborne Lidar measurements of aerosols, mixed layer heights, and ozone during the 1980 PEPE/NEROS summer field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Shipley, S. T.; Butler, C. F.; Ismail, S.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed summary of the NASA Ultraviolet Differential Absorption Lidar (UV DIAL) data archive obtained during the EPA Persistent Elevated Pollution Episode/Northeast Regional Oxidant Study (PEPE/NEROS) Summer Field Experiment Program (July through August 1980) is presented. The UV dial data set consists of remote measurements of mixed layer heights, aerosol backscatter cross sections, and sequential ozone profiles taken during 14 long-range flights onboard the NASA Wallops Flight Center Electra aircraft. These data are presented in graphic and tabular form, and they have been submitted to the PEPE/NEROS data archive on digital magnetic tape. The derivation of mixing heights and ozone profiles from UV Dial signals is discussed, and detailed intercomparisons with measurements obtained by in situ sensors are presented.

  16. Column-integrated aerosol optical properties from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements at Barrax (Spain) during the Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Experiment (DAISEX) campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrós, Roberto; Martinez-Lozano, Jose A.; Utrillas, Maria P.; Gómez-Amo, José L.; Tena, Fernando

    2003-09-01

    The Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Experiment (DAISEX) was carried out for the European Space Agency (ESA) in order to develop the potential of spaceborne imaging spectroscopy for a range of different scientific applications. DAISEX involved simultaneous data acquisitions using different airborne imaging spectrometers over test sites in southeast Spain (Barrax) and the Upper Rhine valley (Colmar, France, and Hartheim, Germany). This paper presents the results corresponding to the column-integrated aerosol optical properties from ground-based spectroradiometer measurements over the Barrax area during the DAISEX campaign days in the years 1998, 1999, and 2000. The instruments used for spectral irradiance measurements were two Licor 1800 and one Optronic OL-754 spectroradiometers. The analysis of the spectral aerosol optical depth in the visible range shows in all cases the predominance of the coarse-particle mode over the fine-particle mode. The analysis of the back trajectories of the air masses indicates a predominance of marine-type aerosols in the lower atmospheric layers in all cases. Overall, the results obtained show that during the DAISEX there was a combination of maritime aerosols with smaller continental aerosols.

  17. A high resolution regional paleoclimate experiment over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Navarro, J. J.; Montavez, J. P.; Jerez, S.; Jimenez-Guerrero, P.; Garcia-Valero, J. A.; Gonzalez-Rouco, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    During the last years the use of paleoclimate simulations with models of different complexity has become an usual tool in paleoclimate studies. Progress in understanding climate variability leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant for both the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. Most of paleoclimate integrations available in the literature covering the last millennium have been performed with relative rough resolution which does not allow to analyze regional climate features that can be of interest in the context of proxies evidence. In this work we present a new high resolution (30 km) regional climate simulation over the Iberian Peninsula of the last five centuries and two extensions to the future for the A2 and B2 SRES scenarios. The regional simulations were performed with a climate version of the MM5 model coupled to the Noah LSM. The driving conditions used follow the Erik1 experiment, performed with the ECHO-G global circulation model. The results indicate that the seasonal modes of variation for near surface air temperature and precipitation obtained within the regional paleoclimate experiment are consistent with the obtained using the observational databases and equivalent to regional climate integrations driven by reanalysis data. On the other hand, the main modes of variation show strong signals in historical periods such as the Maunder and Dalton Minimum. Finally, some preliminary comparisons between the global and the regional model against tree ring temperature reconstructions are also reported in this contribution.

  18. Airborne polar experiment (APE): tests and qualification of the scientific instrumentation installed on the stratospheric platform M-55 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rossi, Giuseppe; Puccini, Massimo; Puccetti, Giuseppe

    1995-12-01

    The paper describes the environmental tests to be carried out on the scientific instrumentation to be flown on the M-55 Geophysika in the frame of the APE Program. The instruments, developed by different European research institutes, are for remote sensing and in situ measurements of the major components of the Earth's stratosphere. The paper presents the technological activities that ENEA (Ente Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie l'Energia e l'Ambiente) is carrying out in its laboratories to verify the correspondence of the various instruments to meet the requirements for airborne application. The reference documents used have been the RTCA/DO-160C and the MDB (Myasishchev Design Bureau) specifications.

  19. Modeling air quality during the California Regional PM 10/PM 2.5 Air Quality Study (CPRAQS) using the UCD/CIT Source Oriented Air Quality Model - Part II. Regional source apportionment of primary airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Qi; Lu, Jin; Kaduwela, Ajith; Kleeman, Michael

    A comprehensive air quality modeling project was carried out to simulate regional source contributions to primary airborne particle concentrations in California's central Valley. A 3-week stagnation episode lasting from December 15, 2000 to January 7, 2001, was chosen for study using the air quality and meteorological data collected during the California Regional PM 10/PM 2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS). The UCD/CIT source oriented air quality model was applied to this episode using both the source-oriented external mixture configuration and an internal mixture with artificial tracers so that source contribution information could be retrieved in less time. The majority of the predicted and measured primary airborne particulate matter mass was composed of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Previous work has shown that base case EC and OC predictions made by the UCD/CIT model are in good agreement with observations. Model results from the current study show that the highest EC and OC concentrations occur in urban areas and along transportation corridors where primary emissions are largest. Lower concentrations of primary EC and OC are predicted at rural locations in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Source contributions predicted by the UCD/CIT air quality model were compared to receptor-oriented source apportionment results produced by the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model at Fresno and Angiola. The relative contributions from major sources predicted by the UCD/CIT model agree with the CMB model results, building confidence in the accuracy of the UCD/CIT model predictions at locations where the CMB results are not available. Wood smoke was identified as the major regional source of primary OC in airborne particles in the winter SJV episode, accounting for approximately 50% of the total PM 2.5. Diesel engines were also found to be a significant contributor to primary PM 2.5 OC and the largest contributor to the predicted PM 2.5 EC averaged over a typical day

  20. Extending airborne electromagnetic surveys for regional active layer and permafrost mapping with remote sensing and ancillary data, Yukon Flats ecoregion, central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pastick, Neal J.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Wylie, Bruce K.; Minsley, Burke J.; Ji, Lei; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Smith, Bruce D.; Abraham, Jared D.; Rose, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    Machine-learning regression tree models were used to extrapolate airborne electromagnetic resistivity data collected along flight lines in the Yukon Flats Ecoregion, central Alaska, for regional mapping of permafrost. This method of extrapolation (r = 0.86) used subsurface resistivity, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) at-sensor reflectance, thermal, TM-derived spectral indices, digital elevation models and other relevant spatial data to estimate near-surface (0–2.6-m depth) resistivity at 30-m resolution. A piecewise regression model (r = 0.82) and a presence/absence decision tree classification (accuracy of 87%) were used to estimate active-layer thickness (ALT) (< 101 cm) and the probability of near-surface (up to 123-cm depth) permafrost occurrence from field data, modelled near-surface (0–2.6 m) resistivity, and other relevant remote sensing and map data. At site scale, the predicted ALTs were similar to those previously observed for different vegetation types. At the landscape scale, the predicted ALTs tended to be thinner on higher-elevation loess deposits than on low-lying alluvial and sand sheet deposits of the Yukon Flats. The ALT and permafrost maps provide a baseline for future permafrost monitoring, serve as inputs for modelling hydrological and carbon cycles at local to regional scales, and offer insight into the ALT response to fire and thaw processes.

  1. A multivariate receptor modeling study of air-borne particulate PAHs: Regional contributions in a roadside environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong Mann; Lee, Seung-Bok; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Sunwha; Seo, Jihoon; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Lee, Ji Yi

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the geographic source contributions by particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is important for the Korean peninsula due to its downwind location from source areas. Regional influence of particulate PAHs was previously identified using diagnostic ratios applied to mobile source dominated roadside sampling data (Kim et al., 2012b). However, no study has yet been conducted to quantify the regional source contributions. We applied a multivariate receptor modeling tool to identify and quantify the regional source contributions to particulate PAHs in Seoul. Sampling of roadside particulate PAHs was conducted in Seoul, Korea for four years between May 2005 and April 2009, and data analysis was performed with a new multivariate receptor model, Solver for Mixture Problem (SMP). The SMP model identified two sources, local mobile source and transported regional source, and quantified their source contributions. Analysis of the particulate PAHs data reveals three types of episodic periods: a high regional source contribution period with one case, a high mobile source contribution period with three cases, and a normal contribution period with eight cases. Four-year average particulate PAHs source contributions from the two sources are 4.6 ng m(-3) and 10.7 ng m(-3) for regional and mobile sources, respectively and equivalent to 30% and 70% of the total estimated contribution from each of these sources. PMID:26473551

  2. Latest Advancement In Airborne Relative Gravity Instrumentation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2011-12-01

    Airborne gravity surveying has been performed with widely varying degrees of success since early experimentation with the Lacoste and Romberg dynamic meter in the 1950s. There are a number of different survey systems currently in operation including relative gravity meters and gradiometers. Airborne gravity is ideally suited to rapid, wide coverage surveying and is not significantly more expensive in more remote and inhospitable terrain which makes airborne measurements one of the few viable options available for cost effective exploration. As improved instrumentation has become available, scientific applications have also been able to take advantage for use in determining sub surface geologic structures, for example under ice sheets in Antarctica, and more recently direct measurement of the geoid to improve the vertical datum in the United States. In 2004, Lacoste and Romberg (now Micro-g Lacoste) decided to build on their success with the newly developed AirSea II dynamic meter and use that system as the basis for a dedicated airborne gravity instrument. Advances in electronics, timing and positioning technology created the opportunity to refine both the hardware and software, and to develop a truly turnkey system that would work well for users with little or no airborne gravity experience as well as those with more extensive experience. The resulting Turnkey Airborne Gravity System (TAGS) was successfully introduced in 2007 and has since been flown in applications from oil, gas and mineral exploration surveys to regional gravity mapping and geoid mapping. The system has been mounted in a variety of airborne platforms including depending on the application of interest. The development experience with the TAGS enabled Micro-g Lacoste to embark on a new project in 2010 to completely redesign the mechanical and electronic components of the system rather than continuing incremental upgrades. Building on the capabilities of the original TAGS, the objectives for the

  3. Airborne In-Situ Measurements of Formaldehyde over California: First Results from the Compact Formaldehyde Fluorescence Experiment (COFFEE) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, Josette; St. Clair, Jason; Yates, Emma L.; Gore, Warren; Swanson, Andrew K.; Iraci, Laura T.; Hanisco, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most abundant oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, playing a role multiple atmospheric processes. Measurements of HCHO can be used to help quantify convective transport, the abundance of VOCs, and ozone production in urban environments. The Compact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE) instrument uses Non-Resonant Laser Induced Fluorescence (NR-LIF) to detect trace concentrations of HCHO as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) payload. Developed at NASA GSFC, COFFEE is a small, low maintenance instrument with a sensitivity of 100 pptv and a quick response time (1 sec). The COFFEE instrument has been customized to fit in an external wing pod on the Alpha Jet aircraft based at NASA ARC. The instrument can operate over a broad range of altitudes, from boundary layer to lower stratosphere, making it well suited for the Alpha Jet, which can access altitudes from the surface up to 40,000 ft. Results of the first COFFEE science flights preformed over the California's Central Valley will be presented. Boundary layer measurements and vertical profiles in the tropospheric column will both be included. This region is of particular interest, due to its elevated levels of HCHO, revealed in satellite images, as well as its high ozone concentrations. In addition to HCHO, the AJAX payload includes measurements of atmospheric ozone, methane, and carbon dioxide. Formaldehyde is one of the few urban pollutants that can be measured from space. Plans to compare in-situ COFFEE data with satellite-based HCHO observations such as those from OMI (Aura) and OMPS (SuomiNPP) will also be presented.

  4. Airborne In-Situ Measurements of Formaldehyde Over California: First Results from the Compact Formaldehyde Fluorescence Experiment (COFFEE) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, Josette Elizabeth; Saint Clair, Jason; Yates, Emma L.; Gore, Warren; Swanson, Andrew K.; Iraci, Laura T.; Hanisco, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most abundant oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, playing a role multiple atmospheric processes. Measurements of HCHO can be used to help quantify convective transport, the abundance of VOCs, and ozone production in urban environments. The Compact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE) instrument uses Non-Resonant Laser Induced Fluorescence (NR-LIF) to detect trace concentrations of HCHO as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) payload. Developed at NASA GSFC, COFFEE is a small, low maintenance instrument with a sensitivity of 100 pptv and a quick response time (1 sec). The COFFEE instrument has been customized to fit in an external wing pod on the Alpha Jet aircraft based at NASA ARC. The instrument can operate over a broad range of altitudes, from boundary layer to lower stratosphere, making it well suited for the Alpha Jet, which can access altitudes from the surface up to 40,000 ft. Results of the first COFFEE science flights preformed over the California's Central Valley will be presented. Boundary layer measurements and vertical profiles in the tropospheric column will both be included. This region is of particular interest, due to its elevated levels of HCHO, revealed in satellite images, as well as its high ozone concentrations. In addition to HCHO, the AJAX payload includes measurements of atmospheric ozone, methane, and carbon dioxide. Formaldehyde is one of the few urban pollutants that can be measured from space. Plans to compare in-situ COFFEE data with satellite-based HCHO observations such as those from OMI (Aura) and OMPS (SuomiNPP) will also be presented.

  5. Joint Variability of Airborne Passive Microwave and Ground-based Radar Observations Obtained in the TRMM Kwajalein Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuter, S. E.; Kingsmill, D. E.

    2007-12-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX) held July-September 1999 in the west Pacific was designed to obtain an empirical physical characterization of precipitating convective clouds over the tropical ocean. The majority of the precipitation was from mixed-phase clouds. Coordinated data sets were obtained from aircraft and ground-based sensors including passive microwave measurements by the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) instrument on the NASA DC-8 aircraft and S-band volumetric radar data by the KPOL radar. The AMPR and KPOL data sets were processed to yield a set of 25,049 matching observations at ~ 2 km x 2 km horizontal spatial resolution and within 6 min. The TRMM satellite Microwave Imager (TMI) has a similar set of channels to AMPR but coarser spatial resolution (19 GHz: 35 km, 85 GHz: 7.7 km). During KWAJEX, the 0 deg C level height was nearly constant at ~ 4800 m. Hence, two potential sources of uncertainty in relating passive microwave brightness temperatures (Tbs) to surface precipitation, inhomogeneous beam filling and variations in depth of the rain layer are much smaller sources of error in the KWAJEX data set than for TMI. TRMM was originally designed to yield monthly rainfall estimates over 5 deg x 5 deg grid boxes. The use of these data to yield instantaneous rainrate products at smaller spatial scales is more sensitive to the detailed characteristics of the joint distributions of passive microwave Tbs versus rain rate. KWAJEX data sets reveal poor correlations, very wide scatter, and weak modes in these distributions. The spread of emission Tb values for a given rain-layer reflectivity (e.g., 75 K at 30 dBZ for 19 GHz) is similar or larger within convective compared to stratiform precipitation regions. This result implies that the enhancement in emission Tbs associated with partially melted ice particles can occur whether the particles are concentrated within a thin layer in stratiform

  6. First Results of the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models Experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schorlemmer, D.; Zechar, J.D.; Werner, M.J.; Field, E.H.; Jackson, D.D.; Jordan, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to successfully predict the future behavior of a system is a strong indication that the system is well understood. Certainly many details of the earthquake system remain obscure, but several hypotheses related to earthquake occurrence and seismic hazard have been proffered, and predicting earthquake behavior is a worthy goal and demanded by society. Along these lines, one of the primary objectives of the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) working group was to formalize earthquake occurrence hypotheses in the form of prospective earthquake rate forecasts in California. RELM members, working in small research groups, developed more than a dozen 5-year forecasts; they also outlined a performance evaluation method and provided a conceptual description of a Testing Center in which to perform predictability experiments. Subsequently, researchers working within the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) have begun implementing Testing Centers in different locations worldwide, and the RELM predictability experiment-a truly prospective earthquake prediction effort-is underway within the U. S. branch of CSEP. The experiment, designed to compare time-invariant 5-year earthquake rate forecasts, is now approximately halfway to its completion. In this paper, we describe the models under evaluation and present, for the first time, preliminary results of this unique experiment. While these results are preliminary-the forecasts were meant for an application of 5 years-we find interesting results: most of the models are consistent with the observation and one model forecasts the distribution of earthquakes best. We discuss the observed sample of target earthquakes in the context of historical seismicity within the testing region, highlight potential pitfalls of the current tests, and suggest plans for future revisions to experiments such as this one. ?? 2010 The Author(s).

  7. Regional prediction of soil organic carbon content over temperate croplands using visible near-infrared airborne hyperspectral imagery and synchronous field spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, E.; Gilliot, J. M.; Bel, L.; Lefevre, J.; Chehdi, K.

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at identifying the potential of Vis-NIR airborne hyperspectral AISA-Eagle data for predicting the topsoil organic carbon (SOC) content of bare cultivated soils over a large peri-urban area (221 km2) with both contrasted soils and SOC contents, located in the western region of Paris, France. Soil types comprised haplic luvisols, calcaric cambisols and colluvic cambisols. Airborne AISA-Eagle data (400-1000 nm, 126 bands) with 1 m-resolution were acquired on 17 April 2013 over 13 tracks. Tracks were atmospherically corrected then mosaicked at a 2 m-resolution using a set of 24 synchronous field spectra of bare soils, black and white targets and impervious surfaces. The land use identification system layer (RPG) of 2012 was used to mask non-agricultural areas, then calculation and thresholding of NDVI from an atmospherically corrected SPOT image acquired the same day enabled to map agricultural fields with bare soil. A total of 101 sites sampled either in 2013 or in the 3 previous years and in 2015 were identified as bare by means of this map. Predictions were made from the mosaic AISA spectra which were related to topsoil SOC contents by means of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Regression robustness was evaluated through a series of 1000 bootstrap data sets of calibration-validation samples, considering 74 sites outside cloud shadows only, and different sampling strategies for selecting calibration samples. Validation root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were comprised between 3.73 and 4.49 g Kg-1 and were ∼4 g Kg-1 in median. The most performing models in terms of coefficient of determination (R2) and Residual Prediction Deviation (RPD) values were the calibration models derived either from Kennard-Stone or conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling on smoothed spectra. The most generalizable model leading to lowest RMSE value of 3.73 g Kg-1 at the regional scale and 1.44 g Kg-1 at the within-field scale and low bias was the cross-validated leave

  8. Closing supersymmetric resonance regions with direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, Chris

    2014-01-01

    One of the few remaining ways that neutralinos could potentially evade constraints from direct detection experiments is if they annihilate through a resonance, as can occur if 2m{sub χ⁰} falls within about ~10% of either m{sub A/H}, m{sub h}, or m{sub Z}. Assuming a future rate of progress among direct detection experiments that is similar to that obtained over the past decade, we project that within 7 years the light Higgs and Z pole regions will be entirely closed, while the remaining parameter space near the A/H resonance will require that 2m{sub χ₀} be matched to the central value (near m{sub A}) to within less than 4%. At this rate of progress, it will be a little over a decade before multi-ton direct detection experiments will be able to close the remaining, highly-tuned, regions of the A/H resonance parameter space.

  9. Airborne Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaps, Wm. S.; Burris, J.

    1996-12-01

    We designed and tested an airborne lidar system using Raman scattering to make simultaneous measurements of methane, water vapor, and temperature in a series of flights on a NASA-operated C-130 aircraft. We present the results for methane detection, which show that the instrument has the requisite sensitivity to atmospheric trace gases. Ultimately these measurements can be used to examine the transport of chemically processed air from within the polar vortex to mid-latitudinal regions and the exchange of stratospheric air between tropical and mid-latitudinal regions.

  10. Centralization of a regional clinical microbiology service: The Calgary experience

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre L; Hall, Paula

    1999-01-01

    Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS) in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA) and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL). Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs) are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles, a detailed assessment of the needs of each institution and extensive networking with user groups, the functions of the microbiology RRLs were established and a detailed implementation plan drawn up. The experience at CLS with regards to restructuring a regional microbiology service is described herein. A post-hoc analysis provides the pros and cons of directing and operating a regionalized microbiology service. PMID:22346397

  11. Biomonitoring airborne parent and alkylated three-ring PAHs in the Greater Cologne Conurbation II: regional distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Lehndorff, E; Schwark, L

    2009-05-01

    The spatial distribution of an important air pollutant class, three-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives (PAH-3), has been monitored for the Greater Cologne Conurbation (GCC) using pine needle as passive samplers. The GCC comprises one of the most heavily populated, trafficked, and industrialized regions in Germany. Here, 71 locations covering 3600 km(2) were sampled and, for the first time, isopleths maps constructed to investigate the regional variability in PAH-3 concentration and composition. The highest PAH-3 loads on needles (1000-1500 ng g(-1)) were detected downwind of three lignite fuelled power plants, followed by Cologne City (600-700 ng g(-1)) and smaller towns (400-600 ng g(-1)), whereas rural and forest regions yielded PAH-3 loads of 60-300 ng g(-1). PAH-3 ratios facilitated source reconciliation, with high dibenzothiophene versus retene values indicating lignite combustion and high 9/(9+1)-methylphenanthrene ratios depicting traffic emissions in inner cities. PAH-3 ratios depended on topography and outlined the heavily industrialized Rhine Valley, demonstrating atmospheric dispersal of PAH-3. PMID:19157662

  12. The Coca-campaign: An Attempt To Derive The Carbon Exchange of A Forested Region Using Airborne Co2 and Co Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitgen, S.; Ciais, P.; Geiß, H.; Kley, D.; Neininger, B.; Baeumle, M.; Fuchs, W.; Brunet, Y.

    As part of the project COCA an attempt was made to measure the daytime biogenic CO2 fluxes over a forest area (about 15 by 30 km). This campaign took place around the CARBOEUROFLUX site "Le Bray" (Pinus pinaster) close to Bordeaux in France end of June 2001. Based on continuous airborne CO2, H2O and CO flux and concen- tration measurements a Lagrangian budgeting approach was chosen for the determi- nation of the regional CO2 fluxes. The objective is to determine the CO2 uptake of the extended forest area from the CO2/CO gradients up- and downwind of the ecosystem, using CO as air mass tracer and such eliminating the influence of anthropogenic CO2 advected into the area. First results will be shown of a flight on June 23rd, where fair wind speeds (about 5 m/s) and a low CBL height led to the observation of a clear decrease in CO2 at the downwind flight stacks with basically constant CO concentrations. For other flights with very low wind speeds, local effects dominate the observa- tions leading to a larger variability in the observations. Both, correlations and anti- correlations of CO2 with the anthropogenic tracer CO have been observed. Positive correlations indicate fresh plumes of anthropogenic CO2. Negative correlations are indicative of entrainment of free tropospheric air, that was marked by relatively higher CO2 and lower CO concentrations than the average CBL concentrations.

  13. The information of oil and gas micro-seepage in Dongsheng region of inner Mongolia based on the airborne hyperspectral remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shu-Fang; Chen, Jian-Ping; Zhou, Mi

    2008-11-01

    The technology of hyper-spectral remote sensing which has higher spatial resolution characteristic, and optimizes the qualification of identifying and extracting salt mines, not only enhances the capacity of natural scenes detection and recognition, but also advances the level of quantitative remote sensing. It has important meaning for using the technology of hyper-spectral remote sensing to quantitative extraction. The paper investigate gas micro-seepage based on the Airborne Hyper-spectral Remote Sensing in Dongsheng of Inner Mongolia on the basis of gas micro-seepage theory using EO-1 Hyperion data collected by Satellite-Borne Sensor which has highest spatial resolution presently in the world. On the basis of data pretreated this paper adopts band math extracted the distribution of oil and gas micro-seepage using diagnostic assimilating spectrum of alteration minerals by the numbers. With eigenvector length model evaluates the research area comprehensive index, oil and gas micro-seepage information model of the research area is established and key regions of oil and gas micro-seepage are confirmed, which offers academic gist for oil and gas resource exploitation of Dongsheng.

  14. An overview of the regional experiments for land-atmosphere exchanges 2012 (REFLEX 2012) campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Wim; Van der Tol, Christiaan; Timmermans, Joris; Ucer, Murat; Chen, Xuelong; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, Jose; Carrara, Arnaud; Lopez, Ramon; de la Cruz Tercero, Fernando; Corcoles, Horacio L.; de Miguel, Eduardo; Sanchez, Jose A. G.; Pérez, Irene; Franch, Belen; Munoz, Juan-Carlos J.; Skokovic, Drazen; Sobrino, Jose; Soria, Guillem; MacArthur, Alasdair; Vescovo, Loris; Reusen, Ils; Andreu, Ana; Burkart, Andreas; Cilia, Chiara; Contreras, Sergio; Corbari, Chiara; Calleja, Javier F.; Guzinski, Radoslaw; Hellmann, Christine; Herrmann, Ittai; Kerr, Gregoire; Lazar, Adina-Laura; Leutner, Benjamin; Mendiguren, Gorka; Nasilowska, Sylwia; Nieto, Hector; Pachego-Labrador, Javier; Pulanekar, Survana; Raj, Rahul; Schikling, Anke; Siegmann, Bastian; von Bueren, Stefanie; Su, Zhongbo (Bob)

    2014-12-01

    The REFLEX 2012 campaign was initiated as part of a training course on the organization of an airborne campaign to support advancement of the understanding of land-atmosphere interaction processes. This article describes the campaign, its objectives and observations, remote as well as in situ. The observations took place at the experimental Las Tiesas farm in an agricultural area in the south of Spain. During the period of ten days, measurements were made to capture the main processes controlling the local and regional land-atmosphere exchanges. Apart from multi-temporal, multi-directional and multi-spatial space-borne and airborne observations, measurements of the local meteorology, energy fluxes, soil temperature profiles, soil moisture profiles, surface temperature, canopy structure as well as leaf-level measurements were carried out. Additional thermo-dynamical monitoring took place at selected sites. After presenting the different types of measurements, some examples are given to illustrate the potential of the observations made.

  15. An Overview of the Regional Experiments for Land-Atmosphere Exchanges 2012 (Reflex 2012) Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Wim J.; Tol, Christiaan van der; Timmermans, Joris; Ucer, Murat; Chen, Xuelong; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, Jose; Carrara, Arnaud; Lopez, Ramon; de la Cruz Tercero, Fernando; Corcoles, Horacio L.; De Miguel, Eduardo; Sanchez, Jose A. G.; Pérez, Irene; Franch, Belen; Munoz, Juan-Carlos J.; Skokovic, Drazen; Sobrino, Jose; Soria, Guillem; MacArthur, Alasdair; Vescovo, Loris; Reusen, Ils; Andreu, Ana; Burkart, Andreas; Cilia, Chiara; Contreras, Sergio; Corbari, Chiara; Calleja, Javier F.; Guzinski, Radoslaw; Hellmann, Christine; Herrmann, Ittai; Kerr, Gregoire; Lazar, Adina-Laura; Leutner, Benjamin; Mendiguren, Gorka; Nasilowska, Sylwia; Nieto, Hector; Pachego-Labrador, Javier; Pulanekar, Survana; Raj, Rahul; Schikling, Anke; Siegmann, Bastian; von Bueren, Stefanie; Su, Zhongbo

    2015-12-01

    The REFLEX 2012 campaign was initiated as part of a training course on the organization of an airborne campaign to support advancement of the understanding of land-atmosphere interaction processes. This article describes the campaign, its objectives and observations, remote as well as in situ. The observations took place at the experimental Las Tiesas farm in an agricultural area in the south of Spain. During the period of ten days, measurements were made to capture the main processes controlling the local and regional land-atmosphere exchanges. Apart from multi-temporal, multi-directional and multi-spatial space-borne and airborne observations, measurements of the local meteorology, energy fluxes, soil temperature profiles, soil moisture profiles, surface temperature, canopy structure as well as leaf-level measurements were carried out. Additional thermo-dynamical monitoring took place at selected sites. After presenting the different types of measurements, some examples are given to illustrate the potential of the observations made.

  16. Measurements of aerosol distributions and properties from Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar and DRAGON during the DISCOVER-AQ California Experiment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Scarino, A. J.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Mueller, D.; Chemyakin, E.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Hare, R.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.; Anderson, B. E.; Sawamura, P.

    2011-12-01

    The new NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar-2 (HSRL-2) was deployed from the NASA Langley King Air aircraft for the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) and DRAGON experiments that occurred over the San Joaquin Valley during January and February, 2013. The HSRL-2, which is the world's first airborne multiwavelength HSRL, measures aerosol extinction at 355 and 532 nm via the HSRL technique, as well as aerosol backscatter and depolarization at 355, 532, and 1064 nm. Additional HSRL-2 data products include aerosol type, mixed layer depth, and range-resolved aerosol microphysical parameters (e.g., effective radius, index of refraction, single scatter albedo, and concentration). During this mission, the King Air flights and HSRL-2 measurements were acquired over the DRAGON network and long-term AERONET sites and were closely coordinated with flights of the NASA P-3 aircraft that carried a suite of in situ aerosol instruments. In this presentation, we discuss how the HSRL-2 and DRAGON observations have been used to examine aerosol optical and microphysical properties as well as spatial and temporal variability. On some days, both HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements indicated that coarse mode dust contributed a significant fraction of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT); in these cases, HSRL-2 measurements indicated that this depolarizing layer was located at the top of the boundary layer. We discuss differences in the aerosol properties between two episodes of high surface PM2.5 concentrations as revealed by the HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements. Both the HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements reveal considerable day-to-day spatial variability in the aerosol distributions across the valley. The HSRL-2 measurements also show variability in the daily evolution of the vertical distribution of aerosols.

  17. Measurements of aerosol distributions and properties from Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar and DRAGON during the DISCOVER-AQ California Experiment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Scarino, A. J.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Mueller, D.; Chemyakin, E.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Hare, R.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.; Anderson, B. E.; Sawamura, P.

    2013-12-01

    The new NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar-2 (HSRL-2) was deployed from the NASA Langley King Air aircraft for the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) and DRAGON experiments that occurred over the San Joaquin Valley during January and February, 2013. The HSRL-2, which is the world's first airborne multiwavelength HSRL, measures aerosol extinction at 355 and 532 nm via the HSRL technique, as well as aerosol backscatter and depolarization at 355, 532, and 1064 nm. Additional HSRL-2 data products include aerosol type, mixed layer depth, and range-resolved aerosol microphysical parameters (e.g., effective radius, index of refraction, single scatter albedo, and concentration). During this mission, the King Air flights and HSRL-2 measurements were acquired over the DRAGON network and long-term AERONET sites and were closely coordinated with flights of the NASA P-3 aircraft that carried a suite of in situ aerosol instruments. In this presentation, we discuss how the HSRL-2 and DRAGON observations have been used to examine aerosol optical and microphysical properties as well as spatial and temporal variability. On some days, both HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements indicated that coarse mode dust contributed a significant fraction of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT); in these cases, HSRL-2 measurements indicated that this depolarizing layer was located at the top of the boundary layer. We discuss differences in the aerosol properties between two episodes of high surface PM2.5 concentrations as revealed by the HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements. Both the HSRL-2 and DRAGON measurements reveal considerable day-to-day spatial variability in the aerosol distributions across the valley. The HSRL-2 measurements also show variability in the daily evolution of the vertical distribution of aerosols.

  18. Comparison of Precision of Biomass Estimates in Regional Field Sample Surveys and Airborne LiDAR-Assisted Surveys in Hedmark County, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naesset, Erik; Gobakken, Terje; Bollandsas, Ole Martin; Gregoire, Timothy G.; Nelson, Ross; Stahl, Goeran

    2013-01-01

    Airborne scanning LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has emerged as a promising tool to provide auxiliary data for sample surveys aiming at estimation of above-ground tree biomass (AGB), with potential applications in REDD forest monitoring. For larger geographical regions such as counties, states or nations, it is not feasible to collect airborne LiDAR data continuously ("wall-to-wall") over the entire area of interest. Two-stage cluster survey designs have therefore been demonstrated by which LiDAR data are collected along selected individual flight-lines treated as clusters and with ground plots sampled along these LiDAR swaths. Recently, analytical AGB estimators and associated variance estimators that quantify the sampling variability have been proposed. Empirical studies employing these estimators have shown a seemingly equal or even larger uncertainty of the AGB estimates obtained with extensive use of LiDAR data to support the estimation as compared to pure field-based estimates employing estimators appropriate under simple random sampling (SRS). However, comparison of uncertainty estimates under SRS and sophisticated two-stage designs is complicated by large differences in the designs and assumptions. In this study, probability-based principles to estimation and inference were followed. We assumed designs of a field sample and a LiDAR-assisted survey of Hedmark County (HC) (27,390 km2), Norway, considered to be more comparable than those assumed in previous studies. The field sample consisted of 659 systematically distributed National Forest Inventory (NFI) plots and the airborne scanning LiDAR data were collected along 53 parallel flight-lines flown over the NFI plots. We compared AGB estimates based on the field survey only assuming SRS against corresponding estimates assuming two-phase (double) sampling with LiDAR and employing model-assisted estimators. We also compared AGB estimates based on the field survey only assuming two-stage sampling (the NFI

  19. Meeting Review: Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Huebert, Barry; Wilson, Chuck

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings from the Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop are presented. The two central topics of discussion were the role of aerosols in atmospheric processes and the difficulties in characterizing aerosols. The following topics were discussed during the working sessions: airborne observations to date; identification of inlet design issues; inlet modeling needs and directions; objectives for aircraft experiments; and future laboratory and wind tunnel studies.

  20. CALIOPE airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system design

    SciTech Connect

    Mietz, D.; Archuleta, B.; Archuleta, J.

    1997-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently developing an airborne CO{sub 2} Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system based on second generation technology demonstrated last summer at NTS. The CALIOPE Airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system requirements have been compiled based on the mission objectives and SONDIAL model trade studies. Subsystem designs have been developed based on flow down from these system requirements, as well as experience gained from second generation ground tests and N-ABLE (Non-proliferation AirBorne Lidar Experiments) airborne experiments. This paper presents the CACDI mission objectives, system requirements, the current subsystem design, and provides an overview of the airborne experimental plan.

  1. Potential impact of releases from a new Molybdenum-99 production facility on regional measurements of airborne xenon isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Friese, Judah I.; Hayes, James C.; Metz, Lori A.; Miley, Harry S.

    2014-03-01

    The monitoring of the radioactive xenon isotopes 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 135Xe is important for the detection of nuclear explosions. While backgrounds of the xenon isotopes are short-lived, they are constantly replenished from activities dominated by the fission-based production of 99Mo used for medical procedures. One of the most critical locations on earth for the monitoring of nuclear explosions is the Korean peninsula, where the Democratic Republic of North Korea (DPRK) has announced that it had conducted three nuclear tests between 2009 and 2013. This paper explores the backgrounds that would be caused by the medium to large scale production of 99Mo in the region of the Korean peninsula.

  2. Study on airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Na; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Juan; Gao, Meng; Gao, Fei; Fan, Zhe; Sun, Kefeng; Wu, Jun; Li, Junna; Gao, Zedong; Cheng, Gang

    2014-11-01

    The airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology is proposed in this paper. In this design scheme, the airborne multispectral imaging system consists of the multispectral camera, the image processing unit, and the stabilized platform. The multispectral camera can operate in the spectral region from visible to near infrared waveband (0.4-1.0um), it has four same and independent imaging channels, and sixteen different typical wavelengths to be selected based on the different typical targets and background. The related experiments were tested by the airborne multispectral imaging system. In particularly, the camouflage targets were fused and detected in the different complex environment, such as the land vegetation background, the desert hot background and underwater. In the spectral region from 0.4 um to 1.0um, the three different characteristic wave from sixteen typical spectral are selected and combined according to different backgrounds and targets. The spectral image corresponding to the three characteristic wavelengths is resisted and fused by the image processing technology in real time, and the fusion video with typical target property is outputted. In these fusion images, the contrast of target and background is greatly increased. Experimental results confirm that the airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology can acquire multispectral fusion image with high contrast in real time, and has the ability of detecting and identification camouflage objects from complex background to targets underwater.

  3. Transient Region Coverage in the Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaban, Edward; Sweet, Adam; Bajwa, Anupa; Maul, William; Fulton, Chris; Chicatelli, amy

    2004-01-01

    Over the last several years researchers at NASA Glenn and Ames Research Centers have developed a real-time fault detection and isolation system for propulsion subsystems of future space vehicles. The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX), as it is called follows the model-based diagnostic methodology and employs Livingstone, developed at NASA Ames, as its reasoning engine. The system has been tested on,flight-like hardware through a series of nominal and fault scenarios. These scenarios have been developed using a highly detailed simulation of the X-34 flight demonstrator main propulsion system and include realistic failures involving valves, regulators, microswitches, and sensors. This paper focuses on one of the recent research and development efforts under PITEX - to provide more complete transient region coverage. It describes the development of the transient monitors, the corresponding modeling methodology, and the interface software responsible for coordinating the flow of information between the quantitative monitors and the qualitative, discrete representation Livingstone.

  4. Subsatellite experiments in a coastal region of the Black sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhanov, V.; Bogatov, N.; Ermoshkin, A.; Kazakov, V.; Kemarskaya, O.; Lobanov, V.; Repina, I.; Titov, V.; Troitskaya, Yu.; Zuikova, E.

    2009-04-01

    The results of field experiments carried out in 2007, 2008 in a north-east part of the Black sea in region of city Gelendzhik, are given. Experiments targeted the development of a bottom topography remote (radar and optical) diagnostics. Experimental area is characterized by abrupt depth dumping (fall 50 - 1250 m), and irregularity of a bank vault (numerous canyons). Such bottom topography in the presence of alongshore current creates favorable conditions for hydrodynamic perturbations on thermocline and corresponding anomalies on sea surface and in atmospheric surface layer characteristics. The simultaneous measurement of atmospheric near-surface layer, sea surface and sea bulk parameters synchronously with reception of the radar image from the satellite ENVISAT was feature of the given experiment. The ground-based measurements were carried out simultaneously from high coast by means of X-band radar and from R/V "Aquanaut" (Institute of Oceanology RAS). The meteorological conditions during observations varied considerably. The wind velocity changed from 0 up to 10 m/c, heaving - from 0 up to 4 balls. The short-term atmospheric precipitations were observed. The bottom topography was measured by echo-sounder. Investigation of the hydrological characteristics was carried out by combined SVP-CTD probe. The current field was measured by ADCP. The surface wave characteristics in length range 4 mm - 1 m were measured by X and Ka radar and two-dimensional optical spectrum analyzer. Air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and direction were measured. Sonic anemometer-thermometer for recording horizontal and vertical components of the wind and temperature fluctuations in the surface layer was used. The connection of current field heterogeneities with a bottom configuration in region of depth dumping is investigated. The correlation of radar signal with current speed in near-surface region is observed also. For example, the slicks are observed

  5. Airborne Petcoke Dust is a Major Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Shotyk, William; Zaccone, Claudio; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Bicalho, Beatriz; Froese, Duane G; Davies, Lauren; Martin, Jonathan W

    2016-02-16

    Oil sands mining has been linked to increasing atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR), but known sources cannot explain the quantity of PAHs in environmental samples. PAHs were measured in living Sphagnum moss (24 sites, n = 68), in sectioned peat cores (4 sites, n = 161), and snow (7 sites, n = 19) from ombrotrophic bogs in the AOSR. Prospective source samples were also analyzed, including petroleum coke (petcoke, from both delayed and fluid coking), fine tailings, oil sands ore, and naturally exposed bitumen. Average PAH concentrations in near-field moss (199 ng/g, n = 11) were significantly higher (p = 0.035) than in far-field moss (118 ng/g, n = 13), and increasing temporal trends were detected in three peat cores collected closest to industrial activity. A chemical mass-balance model estimated that delayed petcoke was the major source of PAHs to living moss, and among three peat core the contribution to PAHs from delayed petcoke increased over time, accounting for 45-95% of PAHs in contemporary layers. Petcoke was also estimated to be a major source of vanadium, nickel, and molybdenum. Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed large petcoke particles (>10 μm) in snow at near-field sites. Petcoke dust has not previously been considered in environmental impact assessments of oil sands upgrading, and improved dust control from growing stockpiles may mitigate future risks. PMID:26771587

  6. A data assimilation experiment of RASTA airborne cloud radar data during HyMeX IOP16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saussereau, Gaël; Caumont, Olivier; Delanoë, Julien

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of HyMeX first special observing period (SOP1), which took place from 5 September to 5 November 2012, was to document the heavy precipitation events and flash floods that regularly affect the north-western Mediterranean coastal areas. In the two-month campaign, around twenty rainfall events were documented in France, Italy, and Spain. Among the instrumental platforms that were deployed during SOP1, the Falcon 20 of the Safire unit (http://www.safire.fr/) made numerous flights in storm systems so as to document their thermodynamic, microphysical, and dynamical properties. In particular, the RASTA cloud radar (http://rali.projet.latmos.ipsl.fr/) was aboard this aircraft. This radar measures vertical profiles of reflectivity and Doppler velocity above and below the aircraft. This unique instrument thus allows us to document the microphysical properties and the speed of wind and hydrometeors in the clouds, quasi-continuously in time and at a 60-m vertical resolution. For this field campaign, a special version of the numerical weather prediction (NWP) Arome system was developed to cover the whole north-western Mediterranean basin. This version, called Arome-WMed, ran in real time during the SOP in order to, notably, schedule the airborne operations, especially in storm systems. Like the operational version, Arome-WMed delivers forecasts at a horizontal resolution of 2.5 km with a one-moment microphysical scheme that predicts the evolution of six water species: water vapour, cloud liquid water, rainwater, pristine ice, snow, and graupel. Its three-dimensional variational (3DVar) data assimilation (DA) system ingests every three hours (at 00 UTC, 03 UTC, etc.) numerous observations (radiosoundings, ground automatic weather stations, radar, satellite, GPS, etc.). In order to provide improved initial conditions to Arome-WMed, especially for heavy precipitation events, RASTA data were assimilated in Arome-WMed 3DVar DA system for IOP16 (26 October 2012), to

  7. MODIS airborne simulator visible and near-infrared calibration, 1991 FIRE-Cirrus field experiment. Calibration version: FIRE King 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael; Grant, Patrick S.; King, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) is derived from observations of a calibrated light source. For the 1991 FIRE-Cirrus field experiment, the calibrated light source was the NASA Goddard 48-inch integrating hemisphere. Laboratory tests during the FIRE Cirrus field experiment were conducted to calibrate the hemisphere and from the hemisphere to the MAS. The purpose of this report is to summarize the FIRE-Cirrus hemisphere calibration, and then describe how the MAS was calibrated from observations of the hemisphere data. All MAS calibration measurements are presented, and determination of the MAS calibration coefficients (raw counts to radiance conversion) is discussed. Thermal sensitivity of the MAS visible and near-infrared calibration is also discussed. Typically, the MAS in-flight is 30 to 60 degrees C colder than the room temperature laboratory calibration. Results from in-flight temperature measurements and tests of the MAS in a cold chamber are given, and from these, equations are derived to adjust the MAS in-flight data to what the value would be at laboratory conditions. For FIRE-Cirrus data, only channels 3 through 6 were found to be temperature sensitive. The final section of this report describes comparisons to an independent MAS (room temperature) calibration by Ames personnel using their 30-inch integrating sphere.

  8. Airborne geophysical surveys in the north-central region of Goias (Brazil): implications for radiometric characterization of tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Suze Nei P; Hamza, Valiya M; da Silva, Joney Justo

    2013-02-01

    Progress obtained in analysis aerogammaspectrometric and aeromagnetic survey data for the north-central region of the state of Goias (Brazil) are presented. The results obtained have allowed not only determination of the abundances of naturally radioactive elements but also new insights into the processes that determine the radiometric characteristics of the main soil types. There are indications that the radioelement abundances of soils are not only related to their physical properties, but also chemical characteristics of source rocks from which they are derived. For example, oxisol soils derived from the felsic source rocks of the Mara Rosa and Green stone belts have equivalent uranium (eU) values higher than 1.7 ppm, while those derived from source rocks of the relatively more basic Uruaçu Group and sediment sequences of Proterozoic age are characterized by eU contents of less than 1 ppm. Oxisol soils of the Median massif, ultisol soils of the Paranoá, Canastra and Araxá Groups, cambisol soils of the Araí Group and plintosol soils of the Bambuí Group constitute an intermediate class with eU contents in the range of 1-1.3 ppm. Equivalent thorium abundances of soil types display similar trends, the range of variation being 4-16 ppm. Potassium abundances on the other hand are rather uniform with values in the range of 1-1.3%, the only exception being the sedimentary sequences of Proterozoic age, which has a mean value of 0.7%. These observations have been considered as indicative of characteristic features of tropical soils in the study area. In this context, we point out the possibility of using results of aerogammaspectrometry surveys as a convenient complementary tool in identifying geochemical zoning of soils in tropical environments. The ratios of eU/K are found to fall in the range of 1-1.7, which is typical of common soils. The ratios of eTh/K exhibit a relatively wide interval, with values in the range of 4-16. The ratios of eTh/eU are found to have

  9. Evaluation of SEVIRI Thermal Infra-Red data for airborne dust detection in an arid regions: the UAE case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherboudj, I.; Parajuli, S. P.; Ghedira, H.

    2011-12-01

    Our interest in the study of the dust emission cycle over arid area results from the impacts that they have on the climate and atmospheric processes. Large dust concentration emitted even naturally or anthropogenic may reduce surface insolation by extinction of solar radiation. In addition, the knowledge of its spatio-temporal distribution is essential for monitoring several applications such as solar energy potential and health effect. Satellite-based remote sensing is an efficient tool to improve our understanding of the interaction of the desert dust and surrounding climate over regional and global scales with high frequency measurements. Thermal infrared (TIR) channels (3μm -15μm) of different satellites (MVIRI, AVHRR, MODIS, ADEOS-2/POLDER, TOMS, and MSG/SERIVI) were widely used for dust detection. Several dust detection and forecasting algorithms have been proposed based on these satellite data. However, the spatial and temporal variability of the physical characteristics of dust (concentrations, particle size distribution, location in the atmosphere, and chemical composition) has limited their estimations particularly with the dependence of the dust emission on the wind, soil water content, vegetation, and sediment availability. This study focuses on the analysis of the sensitivity of the MSG/SEVIRI TIR observation to dust generation, surface wind, soil moisture, and surface emissivity over the United Arab Emirates (UAE). SEVIRI observations were acquired in 2009 with temporal and spatial resolutions of 30 minutes and about 3km respectively. While the soil moisture is extracted from the AMSR-E data (1:30 AM and 1:30 PM) at spatial resolution of 25 km, the surface emissivity and Aerosol Optical Thickness were extracted from the MODIS products at spatial resolutions of 1 km and 100 km respectively. In coincidence with the satellites acquisitions, meteorological measurements were collected from seven met stations distributed over the selected study area (wind

  10. Multi-criteria ranking and receptor modelling of airborne fine particles at three sites in the Pearl River Delta region of China.

    PubMed

    Friend, Adrian J; Ayoko, Godwin A; Guo, Hai

    2011-01-15

    The multi-criteria decision making methods, Preference Ranking Organization METHods for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) and Graphical Analysis for Interactive Assistance (GAIA), and the two-way Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model were applied to airborne fine particle compositional data collected at three sites in Hong Kong during two monitoring campaigns held from November 2000 to October 2001 and November 2004 to October 2005. PROMETHEE/GAIA indicated that the three sites were worse during the later monitoring campaign, and that the order of the air quality at the sites during each campaign was: rural site>urban site>roadside site. The PMF analysis on the other hand, identified 6 common sources at all of the sites (diesel vehicle, fresh sea salt, secondary sulphate, soil, aged sea salt and oil combustion) which accounted for approximately 68.8±8.7% of the fine particle mass at the sites. In addition, road dust, gasoline vehicle, biomass burning, secondary nitrate, and metal processing were identified at some of the sites. Secondary sulphate was found to be the highest contributor to the fine particle mass at the rural and urban sites with vehicle emission as a high contributor to the roadside site. The PMF results are broadly similar to those obtained in a previous analysis by PCA/APCS. However, the PMF analysis resolved more factors at each site than the PCA/APCS. In addition, the study demonstrated that combined results from multi-criteria decision making analysis and receptor modelling can provide more detailed information that can be used to formulate the scientific basis for mitigating air pollution in the region. PMID:21146196

  11. Using Airborne Microwave Remotely Sensed Root-Zone Soil Moisture and Flux Measurements to Improve Regional Predictions of Carbon Fluxes in a Terrestrial Biosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Antonarakis, A. S.; Medvigy, D.; Burgin, M. S.; Crow, W. T.; Milak, S.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Truong-Loi, M.; Moghaddam, M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Cuenca, R. H.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    North American ecosystems are critical components of the global carbon cycle, exchanging large amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases with the atmosphere. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 between atmosphere and ecosystems quantifies these carbon fluxes, but current continental-scale estimates contain high levels of uncertainty. Root-zone soil moisture (RZSM) and its spatial and temporal heterogeneity influences NEE and improved estimates can help reduce uncertainty in NEE estimates. We used the RZSM measurements from the Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) mission, and the carbon, water and energy fluxes observed by the eddy-covariance flux towers to constrain the Ecosystem Demography Model 2.2 (ED2.2) to improve its predictions of carbon fluxes. The parameters of the ED2.2 model were first optimized at seven flux tower sites in North America, which represent six different biomes, by constraining the model against a suite of flux measurements and forest inventory measurements through a Bayesian Markov-Chain Monte Carlo framework. We further applied the AirMOSS RZSM products to constrain the ED2.2 model to achieve better estimates of regional NEE. Evaluation against flux tower measurements and forest dynamics measurements shows that the constrained ED2.2 model produces improved predictions of monthly to annual carbon fluxes. The remote sensing based RZSM can further help improve the spatial patterns and temporal variations of model NEE. The results demonstrate that model-data fusion can substantially improve model performance and highlight the important role of RZSM in regulating the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of carbon fluxes.

  12. Airborne measurements of black carbon aerosol over the Southeastern U.S. during the Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, M. Z.; Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R.; Watts, L.; Holloway, J.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Welti, A.; Liao, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) field campaign was a large-scale, collaborative project, which took place in the Southeastern U.S. in June and July of 2013. The goal of the campaign was to investigate the impacts of biogenic and anthropogenic gases and aerosols on the formation of haze and anomalous climate cooling in the region. During SAS, a NOAA Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) instrument was utilized onboard NOAA WP-3D research aircraft for measurements of black carbon (BC) aerosol mass and microphysical properties. BC aerosol is emitted into the atmosphere from biomass burning (BB) and incomplete combustion of fossil and biofuel. Hence, BC sources are strongly linked to anthropogenic activity. BC aerosol is currently the second largest anthropogenic climate forcing agent after CO2(g), and its climate impacts, which depend on vertical burden and internal mixing, are not fully understood. In the Southeast, BC aerosol is expected to provide surface area for the condensation of semi-volatile products of VOC oxidation and subsequent formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Hence, BC is expected to impact the haze formation and regional climate. In this work we present an overview of BC measurements during Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study, the NOAA contribution to SAS. Geographical variations in mass mixing ratios, mass size distributions, and mixing state of BC over the Southeast U.S. are discussed. Relationships of BC with carbon monoxide (CO), acetonitrile (ACN) and other trace gases are used to investigate the impacts of urban, BB, natural gas development, and power plant emissions on the distribution and properties of BC aerosol in the region. Among studied urban centers, St. Louis and Atlanta were determined to be the largest source regions of BC. A clear weekend effect in BC mass mixing ratios and microphysical properties was observed in the metropolitan Atlanta region. Compared to BB and urban centers, power plants and natural gas developments

  13. Visualizing Airborne and Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierwirth, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is a process able to provide information about Earth to better understand Earth's processes and assist in monitoring Earth's resources. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is one remote sensing instrument dedicated to the cause of collecting data on anthropogenic influences on Earth as well as assisting scientists in understanding land-surface and atmospheric interactions. Landsat is a satellite program dedicated to collecting repetitive coverage of the continental Earth surfaces in seven regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Combining these two aircraft and satellite remote sensing instruments will provide a detailed and comprehensive data collection able to provide influential information and improve predictions of changes in the future. This project acquired, interpreted, and created composite images from satellite data acquired from Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). Landsat images were processed for areas covered by CAR during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCT AS), Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC), Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEXB), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 missions. The acquisition of Landsat data will provide supplemental information to assist in visualizing and interpreting airborne and satellite imagery.

  14. Airborne laser topographic mapping results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of terrain mapping experiments utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) over forested areas are presented. The flight tests were conducted as part of a joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) investigation aimed at evaluating the potential of an airborne laser ranging system to provide cross-sectional topographic data on flood plains that are difficult and expensive to survey using conventional techniques. The data described in this paper were obtained in the Wolf River Basin located near Memphis, TN. Results from surveys conducted under winter 'leaves off' and summer 'leaves on' conditions, aspects of day and night operation, and data obtained from decidous and coniferous tree types are compared. Data processing techniques are reviewed. Conclusions relative to accuracy and present limitations of the AOL, and airborne lidar systems in general, to terrain mapping over forested areas are discussed.

  15. The Constrained Vapor Bubble Experiment - Interfacial Flow Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundan, Akshay; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Plawsky, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Internal heat transfer coefficient of the CVB correlated to the presence of the interfacial flow region. Competition between capillary and Marangoni flow caused Flooding and not a Dry-out region. Interfacial flow region growth is arrested at higher power inputs. 1D heat model confirms the presence of interfacial flow region. 1D heat model confirms the arresting phenomena of interfacial flow region Visual observations are essential to understanding.

  16. Source identification, apportionment and toxicity of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 airborne particulates in a region characterised by wood burning.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Linares, Claudio; Ovando-Fuentealba, Luis; Orellana-Donoso, Sandra; Gatica, Silvana; Klerman, Francisca; Mudge, Stephen M; Gallardo, Waldo; Pinaud, Jean Paul; Loyola-Sepulveda, Rodrigo

    2016-05-18

    The occurrence of airborne particulate matter has been flagged as "of concern" in several megacities, especially in Asia. Selected Chilean regions have similar problems as wood burning is the major source of heating in homes. This concern has led to mitigation measures restricting the burning of wood at periods when the particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) concentrations are predicted to be high. This work investigates the linkage between indoor and outdoor particle concentrations, determines their source through the polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) signature and investigates the efficacy of the current management practice of burning restrictions. The PM2.5 fraction was collected at 12 different properties with coincident indoor and outdoor sampling using a low-volume active sampler for 24 hours. Indoor concentrations of PM2.5 ranged from 6 to 194 μg m(-3) with a mean of 72 μg m(-3) and corresponding outdoor concentrations ranged from 5 to 367 μg m(-3) with a mean of 85 μg m(-3) over the winter periods of 2014 and 2015; the Chilean national permitted maximum in outdoor air is 50 μg m(-3) in 24 hours. Higher concentrations were measured when the outdoor air temperature was lower. The PAHs were analysed on the PM2.5 fraction; the indoor concentrations ranged from 2 to 291 ng m(-3) with a mean of 51 ng m(-3) compared to an outdoor concentration between 3 and 365 ng m(-3) with a mean of 71 ng m(-3). Multivariate statistical analysis of the PAH profiles using principal components analysis (PCA) and polytopic vector analysis (PVA) identified wood burning, static and mobile diesel emissions and kerosene combustion as the major contributors to the particulate matter. When converted to toxicity equivalents (BaP-TEQ), the highest toxicity arising from PAHs in the indoor air was associated with a property that used a "leaky" combined wood stove and heater and also used a wood-fired brazier for local heating. In outdoor air, there was a relationship between the

  17. Experience on healthcare utilization in seven administrative regions of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Health care utilization in many developing countries, Tanzania included, is mainly through the use of traditional medicine (TRM) and its practitioners despite the presence of the conventional medicine. This article presents findings on the study that aimed to get an experience of health care utilization from both urban and rural areas of seven administrative regions in Tanzania. A total of 33 health facility managers were interviewed on health care provision and availability of supplies including drugs, in their respective areas. The findings revealed that the health facilities were overburden with higher population to serve than it was planned. Consequently essential drugs and other health supplies were available only in the first two weeks of the month. Conventional health practitioners considered traditional health practitioners to be more competent in mental health management, and overall, they were considered to handle more HIV/AIDS cases knowingly or unknowingly due to shear need of healthcare by this group. In general conventional health practitioners were positive towards traditional medicine utilization; and some of them admitted using traditional medicines. Traditional medicines like other medical health systems worldwide have side effects and some contentious ethical issues that need serious consideration and policy direction. Since many people will continue using traditional/alternative medicine, there is an urgent need to collaborate with traditional/alternative health practitioners through the institutionalization of basic training including hygiene in order to improved healthcare in the community and attain the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. PMID:22284539

  18. Estimation of regional mass anomalies from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) over Himalayan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, R.; Singh, S. K.; Rajawat, A. S.; Ajai

    2014-11-01

    Time-variable gravity changes are caused by a combination of postglacial rebound, redistribution of water and snow/ice on land and as well as in the ocean. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, launched in 2002, provides monthly average of the spherical harmonic co-efficient. These spherical harmonic co-efficient describe earth's gravity field with a resolution of few hundred kilometers. Time-variability of gravity field represents the change in mass over regional level with accuracies in cm in terms of Water Equivalent Height (WEH). The WEH reflects the changes in the integrated vertically store water including snow cover, surface water, ground water and soil moisture at regional scale. GRACE data are also sensitive towards interior strain variation, surface uplift and surface subsidence cover over a large area. GRACE data was extracted over the three major Indian River basins, Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra, in the Himalayas which are perennial source of fresh water throughout the year in Northern Indian Plain. Time series analysis of the GRACE data was carried out from 2003-2012 over the study area. Trends and amplitudes of the regional mass anomalies in the region were estimated using level 3 GRACE data product with a spatial resolution at 10 by 10 grid provided by Center for Space Research (CSR), University of Texas at Austin. Indus basin has shown a subtle decreasing trend from 2003-2012 however it was observed to be statistically insignificant at 95 % confidence level. Ganga and Brahmaputra basins have shown a clear decreasing trend in WEH which was also observed to be statistically significant. The trend analysis over Ganga and Brahamputra basins have shown an average annual change of -1.28 cm and -1.06 cm in terms of WEH whereas Indus basin has shown a slight annual change of -0.07 cm. This analysis will be helpful to understand the loss of mass in terms of WEH over Indian Himalayas and will be crucial for hydrological and

  19. The Continuous wavelet in airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Liu, L.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravimetry is an efficient method to recover medium and high frequency band of earth gravity over any region, especially inaccessible areas, which can measure gravity data with high accuracy,high resolution and broad range in a rapidly and economical way, and It will play an important role for geoid and geophysical exploration. Filtering methods for reducing high-frequency errors is critical to the success of airborne gravimetry due to Aircraft acceleration determination based on GPS.Tradiontal filters used in airborne gravimetry are FIR,IIR filer and so on. This study recommends an improved continuous wavelet to process airborne gravity data. Here we focus on how to construct the continuous wavelet filters and show their working principle. Particularly the technical parameters (window width parameter and scale parameter) of the filters are tested. Then the raw airborne gravity data from the first Chinese airborne gravimetry campaign are filtered using FIR-low pass filter and continuous wavelet filters to remove the noise. The comparison to reference data is performed to determinate external accuracy, which shows that continuous wavelet filters applied to airborne gravity in this thesis have good performances. The advantages of the continuous wavelet filters over digital filters are also introduced. The effectiveness of the continuous wavelet filters for airborne gravimetry is demonstrated through real data computation.

  20. CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grainger, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this award was to supply a platform for the airborne measurements of gases associated with the CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne Study (COBRA). The original program was to consist of three field programs: the first was to be in 1999, the second in 2000, and the third in 2001. At the end of the second field program, it was agreed that the science could better be served by making the measurements in northern Brazil, rather than in North America. The final North American program would be postponed until after two field programs in Brazil. A substantial amount of effort was diverted into making plans and preparations for the Brazil field programs. The Brazil field programs were originally scheduled to take place in the Fall of 2002 and Spring of 2003. Carrying out the field program in Brazil was going to logistically much more involved than a program in the US. Shipping of equipment, customs, and site preparations required work to begin many months prior to the actual measurement program. Permission to fly in that country was also not trivial and indeed proved to be a major obstacle. When we were not able to get permission to fly in Brazil for the 2002 portion of the experiment, the program was pushed back to 2003. When permission by the Brazilian government was not given in time for a Spring of 2003 field program, the experiment was postponed again to begin in the Fall of 2003.

  1. Infrared airborne spectroradiometer survey results in the western Nevada area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.; Chang, S. H.; Kuo, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark II airborne spectroradiometer system was flown over several geologic test sites in western Nevada. The infrared mineral absorption bands were observed and recorded for the first time using an airborne system with high spectral resolution in the 2.0 to 2.5 micron region. The data show that the hydrothermal alteration zone minerals, carbonates, and other minerals are clearly visible in the airborne survey mode. The finer spectral features that distinguish the various minerals with infrared bands are also clearly visible in the airborne survey data. Using specialized computer pattern recognition methods, it is possible to identify mineralogy and map alteration zones and lithologies by airborne spectroradiometer survey techniques.

  2. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) flight mission participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.

    1988-01-01

    From February 1986 to the present, the AOL participated in six interagency flight missions. (1) Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP II) (Department of Energy). The SEEP experiments are designed to assess the assimilative capacity of the Continental Shelf to absorb the energy by-products introduced into the near-shore ocean environment from coastal communities and marine activities such as energy production plants and offshore oil operations. (2) BIOWATT II (Office of Naval Research). The major objective of this study was to provide a better understanding of the relationships between ocean physics, biology, bioluminescence, and optics in oligotrophic portions of the Atlantic Ocean. (3) Fall Experiment (FLEX) (Department of Energy). The FLEX studies were designed to determine the fate of low salinity water in the coastal boundary zone that is advected south towards the Florida coast during autumn. (4) Greenland Sea and Icelandic Marine Biological Experiments (NASA). The investigations were designed to evaluate the distribution of surface layer chlorophyll in the Greeland Sea and in the coastal waters in the vicinity of Iceland. (5) Submerged Oceanic Scattering Layer Experiment (Naval Ocean Systems Center). This flight experiment demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of detecting and metrically measuring the depth to submerged layers of particulate matter in the shelf break region and in the inner coastal zone. (6) Microbial Exchanges and Coupling in Coastal Atlantic Systems (National Science Foundation). This investigation was designed to study the transportation and fate of particulates in coastal waters and in particular the Chesapeake Bay/coastal Atlantic Ocean. Shortly after the conduct of the flight experiments, airborne laser-induced chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin fluorescence data, as well as sea surface temperature and airborne expendable bathythermograph water column temperature profiles are supplied to cooperating institutions.

  3. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) flight mission participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoge, F. E.

    From February 1986 to the present, the AOL participated in six interagency flight missions. (1) Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP II) (Department of Energy). The SEEP experiments are designed to assess the assimilative capacity of the Continental Shelf to absorb the energy by-products introduced into the near-shore ocean environment from coastal communities and marine activities such as energy production plants and offshore oil operations. (2) BIOWATT II (Office of Naval Research). The major objective of this study was to provide a better understanding of the relationships between ocean physics, biology, bioluminescence, and optics in oligotrophic portions of the Atlantic Ocean. (3) Fall Experiment (FLEX) (Department of Energy). The FLEX studies were designed to determine the fate of low salinity water in the coastal boundary zone that is advected south towards the Florida coast during autumn. (4) Greenland Sea and Icelandic Marine Biological Experiments (NASA). The investigations were designed to evaluate the distribution of surface layer chlorophyll in the Greeland Sea and in the coastal waters in the vicinity of Iceland. (5) Submerged Oceanic Scattering Layer Experiment (Naval Ocean Systems Center). This flight experiment demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of detecting and metrically measuring the depth to submerged layers of particulate matter in the shelf break region and in the inner coastal zone. (6) Microbial Exchanges and Coupling in Coastal Atlantic Systems (National Science Foundation). This investigation was designed to study the transportation and fate of particulates in coastal waters and in particular the Chesapeake Bay/coastal Atlantic Ocean. Shortly after the conduct of the flight experiments, airborne laser-induced chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin fluorescence data, as well as sea surface temperature and airborne expendable bathythermograph water column temperature profiles are supplied to cooperating institutions.

  4. Signal processing for airborne doppler radar detection of hazardous wind shear as applied to NASA 1991 radar flight experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Radar data collected during the 1991 NASA flight tests have been selectively analyzed to support research directed at developing both improved as well as new algorithms for detecting hazardous low-altitude windshear. Analysis of aircraft attitude data from several flights indicated that platform stability bandwidths were small compared to the data rate bandwidths which should support an assumption that radar returns can be treated as short time stationary. Various approaches at detection of weather returns in the presence of ground clutter are being investigated. Non-coventional clutter rejection through spectrum mode tracking and classification algorithms is a subject of continuing research. Based upon autoregressive modeling of the radar return time sequence, this approach may offer an alternative to overcome errors in conventional pulse-pair estimates. Adaptive filtering is being evaluated as a means of rejecting clutter with emphasis on low signal-to-clutter ratio situations, particularly in the presence of discrete clutter interference. An analysis of out-of-range clutter returns is included to illustrate effects of ground clutter interference due to range aliasing for aircraft on final approach. Data are presented to indicate how aircraft groundspeed might be corrected from the radar data as well as point to an observed problem of groundspeed estimate bias variation with radar antenna scan angle. A description of how recorded clutter return data are mixed with simulated weather returns is included. This enables the researcher to run controlled experiments to test signal processing algorithms. In the summary research efforts involving improved modelling of radar ground clutter returns and a Bayesian approach at hazard factor estimation are mentioned.

  5. Sample selection in foreign similarity regions for multicrop experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, J. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The selection of sample segments in the U.S. foreign similarity regions for development of proportion estimation procedures and error modeling for Argentina, Australia, Brazil, and USSR in AgRISTARS is described. Each sample was chosen to be similar in crop mix to the corresponding indicator region sample. Data sets, methods of selection, and resulting samples are discussed.

  6. PROTON RADIOGRAPHY EXAMINATION OF UNBURNED REGIONS IN PBX 9502 CORNER TURNING EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    E. N. FERM; C. L. MORRIS; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    PBX 9502 Corner Turning Experiments have been used with various diagnostics techniques to study detonation wave propagation and the boosting of the insensitive explosive. In this work, the uninitiated region of the corner turning experiment is examined using Proton Radiography. Seven transmission radiographs obtained on the same experiment are used to map out the undetonated regions on each of three different experiments. The results show regions of high-density material, a few percent larger than initial explosive density. These regions persist at nearly this density while surrounding material, which has reacted, is released as expected. Calculations using Detonation Shock Dynamics are used to examine the situations that lead to the undetonated regions.

  7. The Beginnings of Airborne Astronomy, 1920 - 1930: an Historical Narrative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craine, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    The emergence of airborne astronomy in the early twentieth century is recounted. The aerial expedition to observe the solar eclipse on September 10, 1923, is described. Observation of the total solar eclipse of January 24, 1925, is discussed. The Honey Lake aerial expedition to study the solar eclipse of April 28, 1930, is also described. Four major accomplishments in airborne astronomy during the period 1920 to 1930 are listed. Airborne expeditions were undertaken at every logical opportunity, starting a continuous sequence of airborne astronomical expeditions which was to remain unbroken, except by World War II, to the present day. Although the scientific returns of the first ten years were modest, they did exist. Interest in, and support for, airborne astronomy was generated not only among astronomers but also among the public. Albert Stevens, arguably the true father of airborne astronomy, was to become interested in applying his considerable skill and experience to the airborne acquisition of astronomical data.

  8. Gas-flow experiments in the transition region

    SciTech Connect

    Santeler, D.J. )

    1994-07-01

    A special gas-flow facility was designed and constructed for the purpose of accurately measuring UF[sub 6] gas flow through a variety of gas-flow restrictions. The facility was used to measure the gas flow through 15 different orifices and 20 short tubes over a nominal pressure range from 0.002 to 100 Torr. The intent of the experiments was to confirm a new theoretical approach to gas flow through short tubes in the transition range between laminar viscous flow and molecular flow. The theoretical approach previously discussed [Santeler, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A [bold 4], 338, 348 (1986)] (1986) became a part of the basis for several computer programs used for calculating gas flow in vacuum systems. A number of interesting results in turbulent flow were observed during the experiments and are discussed in the paper. The results of the experiments confirmed the proposed model and were used to evaluate specific parameters of the proposed equations.

  9. The Regional Learning Service. An Experiment in Freeing Up Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordalewski, Jean B.

    In 1974 the Syracuse University Research Corporation developed the Regional Learning Service (RLS) to provide a free-standing, community-based educational and career information and counseling agency. RLS disaffiliated from the parent body in 1979 and turned to client fees, contracts, and contributions for a financial base. Clients'…

  10. A Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Outbreak in One Geographic Region of the United States: Descriptive Epidemiology and Investigation of the Possibility of Airborne Virus Spread

    PubMed Central

    Beam, Andrea; Goede, Dane; Fox, Andrew; McCool, Mary Jane; Wall, Goldlin; Haley, Charles; Morrison, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a spring 2013 outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv), using data from 222 swine sites in 14 counties area in 4 contiguous states in the United States. During the outbreak, the premises-level incidence of PEDv was 40.5 percent (90/222 sites). One of the three companies from which data were collected had a lower incidence (19.5 percent) than the other two companies (41.1 and 47.2 percent). Sow sites had the highest incidence of PEDv during the outbreak (80.0 percent). Spatial analysis showed that PEDv was clustered rather than randomly distributed, which suggested that sites near a positive site had increased risk of acquiring PEDv infection. Meteorological data were used to investigate the hypothesis that PEDv was spread by air. If airborne dissemination played a role in this outbreak, we would expect the direction of disease spread to correlate with the predominant wind direction. Two methods were used to determine the direction of disease spread—linear direction mean analysis in ArcGIS and the direction test in ClusterSeer. The former method indicated PEDv spread was south to slightly southwest, and the latter indicated spread was to the southeast. The predominant wind direction during the month of the outbreak was toward the south, with some southeast and southwest winds; the strongest wind gusts were toward the southwest. These findings support the hypothesis that PEDv was spread by air. The results, however, should be interpreted cautiously because we did not have information on direct and indirect contacts between sites, such as movement of trucks, feed, pigs or people. These types of contacts should be evaluated before pathogen spread is attributed to airborne mechanisms. Although this study did not provide a definitive assessment of airborne spread of PEDv, we believe the findings justify additional research to investigate this potential mechanism of transmission. PMID:26709512

  11. AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN NATIONAL PARKS--WHAT WE KNOW AND WANT TO LEARN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Park Service initiated the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) in 2002 to determine if airborne contaminants from regional or distant sources have an impact on remote (typically high elevation) western ecosystems, including Alaska. Eight Nationa...

  12. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are given. The AOL system is described and its potential for various measurement applications including bathymetry and fluorosensing is discussed.

  13. Modeling air quality during the California Regional PM 10/PM 2.5 Air Quality Study (CPRAQS) using the UCD/CIT source-oriented air quality model - Part III. Regional source apportionment of secondary and total airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Qi; Lu, Jin; Kleeman, Michael

    A comprehensive air quality modeling project was carried out to simulate regional source contributions to secondary and total (=primary + secondary) airborne particle concentrations in California's Central Valley. A three-week stagnation episode lasting from December 15, 2000 to January 7, 2001, was chosen for study using the air quality and meteorological data collected during the California Regional PM 10/PM 2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS). The UCD/CIT mechanistic air quality model was used with explicit decomposition of the gas phase reaction chemistry to track source contributions to secondary PM. Inert artificial tracers were used with an internal mixture representation to track source contributions to primary PM. Both primary and secondary source apportionment calculations were performed for 15 size fractions ranging from 0.01 to 10 μm particle diameters. Primary and secondary source contributions were resolved for fugitive dust, road dust, diesel engines, catalyst equipped gasoline engines, non-catalyst equipped gasoline engines, wood burning, food cooking, high sulfur fuel combustion, and other anthropogenic sources. Diesel engines were identified as the largest source of secondary nitrate in central California during the study episode, accounting for approximately 40% of the total PM 2.5 nitrate. Catalyst equipped gasoline engines were also significant, contributing approximately 20% of the total secondary PM 2.5 nitrate. Agricultural sources were the dominant source of secondary ammonium ion. Sharp gradients of PM concentrations were predicted around major urban areas. The relative source contributions to PM 2.5 from each source category in urban areas differ from those in rural areas, due to the dominance of primary OC in urban locations and secondary nitrate in the rural areas. The source contributions to ultra-fine particle mass PM 0.1 also show clear urban/rural differences. Wood smoke was found to be the major source of PM 0.1 in urban areas while

  14. Satellite and airborne IR sensor validation by an airborne interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Gumley, L.E.; Delst, P.F. van; Moeller, C.C.

    1996-11-01

    The validation of in-orbit longwave IR radiances from the GOES-8 Sounder and inflight longwave IR radiances from the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) is described. The reference used is the airborne University of Wisconsin High Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS). The calibration of each sensor is described. Data collected during the Ocean Temperature Interferometric Survey (OTIS) experiment in January 1995 is used in the comparison between sensors. Detailed forward calculations of at-sensor radiance are used to account for the difference in GOES-8 and HIS altitude and viewing geometry. MAS radiances and spectrally averaged HIS radiances are compared directly. Differences between GOES-8 and HIS brightness temperatures, and GOES-8 and MAS brightness temperatures, are found to be with 1.0 K for the majority of longwave channels examined. The same validation approach will be used for future sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). 11 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. The Northern Territory Teaching Schools Program: Exploring the Promise of Partnerships in Regional Professional Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckworth, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    One of the key challenges for education in Northern Australia is attracting and recruiting teachers who can respond to the challenges of the region at the start of their careers through professional experience in the region. For pre-service students in regional locations such as the Northern Territory these challenges include coping with the…

  16. Hip Fractures: The St Ann's Bay Regional Hospital Experience

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, I; McDowell, D; Barnes, D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the outcome of hip fractures in a cohort of patients from two different time periods (2002–2003 and 2006–2008). Methods: Patients treated for hip fractures at the St Ann's Bay Regional Hospital, which provides orthopaedic care for the parishes of St Ann, St Mary and Portland, were retrospectively analysed between 2002–2003 and 2006–2008. Results: A significant increase in the recorded incidence of hip fractures, from 19 in the 2002–2003 time period to 101 in the 2006–2008 time period was noted. There was a drastic fall in the in-hospital mortality rate (43% in the 2002–2003 time period compared to 4.5% in the 2006–2008 time period). In the 2006–2008 period, 82.9% of patients were ambulant at discharge compared to 36% from the 2002–2003 time period. Conclusion: Early surgical fixation is necessary to allow rapid mobilization in these patients for whom the consequences of bed rest would otherwise be devastating. PMID:25303247

  17. CARABAS - an airborne VHF SAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, B.; Frolined, P.O.; Gustavsson, A.

    1996-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in imaging radar systems operating at low frequencies, Examples of civilian and military applications are detection of stealth-designed man-made objects, targets hidden under foliage, biomass estimation, and penetration into glaciers or ground. CARABAS (Coherent All Radio Band Sensing) is a new airborne SAR system developed by FOA. It is designed for operation in the lowest part of the VHF band (20-90 NHz), using horizontal polarisation. This frequency region gives the system a good ability to penetrate vegetation and to some extent ground. CARABAS is the first known SAR sensor with a capability of diffraction limited imaging, i.e. a resolution in magnitude of the adopted wavelengths. A Sabreliner business jet aircraft is used as the airborne platform. Critical parts in the development have been the antenna system, the receiver and the processing algorithms. Based upon the experiences gained with CARABAS I a major system upgrade is now taking place. The new CARABAS II system is scheduled to fly in May 1996. This system is designed to give operational performance while CARABAS I was used to verify the feasibility. The first major field campaigns are planned for the second half of 1996. CARABAS II is jointly developed by FOA and Ericsson Microwave Systems AB in Sweden. This paper will give an overview of the system design and data collected with the current radar system, including some results for forested regions. The achieved system performance will be discussed, with a presentation of the major modifications made in the new CARABAS 11 system. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. North Karelia regional chain of care: Finnish experiences.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Pentti

    2004-01-01

    Information--and communication technology is one of the most important cornerstones in more and more data and knowledge intensive health care sector. However these factors don't create financial gains and productivity benefits spontaneously. They need organisational and social innovations and new business models. The growth of productivity is connected to the process and organisational innovations and not to the number of computers and the growth of using ICT. One of the problems prohibiting health care profession to move to real e-work environment is the lack of the reliable measures and on these measures based performance measurement and strategic management. Health care can be improved by utilizing ICT and tools like performance measuring are key weapons in the arsenal of new e-work environment and measuring based new strategic management. Neither public sector nor not-for-profit hospitals look for financial rewards as their ultimate proof of success. Instead, they seek to achieve ambitious missions aimed at improving the health standards and wellbeing of the citizens. ICT- based new way of managing in the public sector is just beginning to gain a critical level of digitalization and will most likely come to its own in the coming years. Therefore, it is essential to research on how the health care sector can be moved towards new regional models and clinical workflow using intelligent standard based strategic management and performance measurement. If the breakthrough of the eight-hour working day and shortening of working time are evaluated afterwards, it can be stated that they have made the society more anthropocentric and humane. During one century the annual working time has shortened from 3000 hours to 1700 hours in the European Union countries. These foundations of a more humane society--eight-hour working day and shortening of regular working time--are however disappearing in the post-industrialized information society. There are various grounds for the

  19. Regional lightning NOx sources during the TROCCINOX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, C.; Chaboureau, J. P.; Pinty, J. P.; Duron, J.; Mascart, P.; Cammas, J. P.; Gheusi, F.; Fehr, T.; Schlager, H.; Roiger, A.; Lichtenstein, M.; Stock, P.

    2006-06-01

    vary between 75 kg(N)/s during nighttime to 400 kg(N)/s at the times of maximun convective activity. Extrapolation of these regional fluxes gives global LiNOx production between 39-55 Tg(N)/year which is above the upper range of current estimates.

  20. Regional lightning NOx sources during the TROCCINOX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, C.; Chaboureau, J. P.; Pinty, J. P.; Duron, J.; Mascart, P.; Cammas, J. P.; Gheusi, F.; Fehr, T.; Schlager, H.; Roiger, A.; Lichtenstein, M.; Stock, P.

    2006-12-01

    times of maximun convective activity. Extrapolation of the regional LiNOx source would yield a global LiNOx production around 5.7 Tg(N)/year which is within the current estimates but should not hide the overestimation of the number of flash rates by the model.

  1. Involvement of Sensory Regions in Affective Experience: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Satpute, Ajay B.; Kang, Jian; Bickart, Kevin C.; Yardley, Helena; Wager, Tor D.; Barrett, Lisa F.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of work suggests that sensory processes may also contribute to affective experience. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of affective experiences driven through visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory stimulus modalities including study contrasts that compared affective stimuli to matched neutral control stimuli. We found, first, that limbic and paralimbic regions, including the amygdala, anterior insula, pre-supplementary motor area, and portions of orbitofrontal cortex were consistently engaged across two or more modalities. Second, early sensory input regions in occipital, temporal, piriform, mid-insular, and primary sensory cortex were frequently engaged during affective experiences driven by visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory inputs. A classification analysis demonstrated that the pattern of neural activity across a contrast map diagnosed the stimulus modality driving the affective experience. These findings suggest that affective experiences are constructed from activity that is distributed across limbic and paralimbic brain regions and also activity in sensory cortical regions. PMID:26696928

  2. NASA Student Airborne Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students majoring in the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2012, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA P-3B aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program from the first four summers and discuss plans for the future.

  3. Airborne gravity is here

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, S.

    1982-01-11

    After 20 years of development efforts, the airborne gravity survey has finally become a practical exploration method. Besides gravity data, the airborne survey can also collect simultaneous, continuous records of high-precision magneticfield data as well as terrain clearance; these provide a topographic contour map useful in calculating terrain conditions and in subsequent planning and engineering. Compared with a seismic survey, the airborne gravity method can cover the same area much more quickly and cheaply; a seismograph could then detail the interesting spots.

  4. Challenges and Successes Managing Airborne Science Data for CARVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardman, S. H.; Dinardo, S. J.; Lee, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission collects detailed measurements of important greenhouse gases on local to regional scales in the Alaskan Arctic and demonstrates new remote sensing and improved modeling capabilities to quantify Arctic carbon fluxes and carbon cycle-climate processes. Airborne missions offer a number of challenges when it comes to collecting and processing the science data and CARVE is no different. The biggest challenge relates to the flexibility of the instrument payload. Within the life of the mission, instruments may be removed from or added to the payload, or even reconfigured on a yearly, monthly or daily basis. Although modification of the instrument payload provides a distinct advantage for airborne missions compared to spaceborne missions, it does tend to wreak havoc on the underlying data system when introducing changes to existing data inputs or new data inputs that require modifications to the pipeline for processing the data. In addition to payload flexibility, it is not uncommon to find unsupported files in the field data submission. In the case of CARVE, these include video files, photographs taken during the flight and screen shots from terminal displays. These need to captured, saved and somehow integrated into the data system. The CARVE data system was built on a multi-mission data system infrastructure for airborne instruments called the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE). ACCE encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation. This well-tested and proven infrastructure allows the CARVE data system to be easily adapted in order to handle the challenges posed by the CARVE mission and to successfully process, manage and distribute the mission's science data. This

  5. Optical measurements of nasa/usaf crres high altitude rocket borne chemical release experiments in conjunction with the USAF airborne ionospheric observatory aircraft. Final report, 9 January 1991-30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Boquist, W.P.; Ledley, B.G.

    1992-10-01

    In order to provide post experiment optical imagery data for correlation of airborne measurements of satellite signal modification from intervening chemical vapor clouds released in the upper atmosphere, Technology International Corporation provided and operated as part of the NASA/USAF PL/CRRES research program a ground optics station on Grand Turk Island in the Caribbean during June-July 1992. Optical data was acquired on the AA-1 event (approximately 95%) and the AA-7 event (approximately 60%). The third release (AA-2 event) occurred when the Grand Turk optics site was fully obscured by clouds for the duration of the normal period of visibility. All three rocket borne experiments were launched at morning twilight.

  6. On the use of L-band multipolarization airborne SAR for surveys of crops, vineyards, and orchards in a California irrigated agricultural region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The airborne L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) collected multipolarization calibrated image data over an irrigated agricultural test site near Fresno, CA, on March 6, 1984. The conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) the effects of incidence angle on the measured backscattering coefficients could be removed by using a correction factor equal to the secant of the angle raised to the 1.4 power, (2) for this scene and time of year, the various polarization channels were highly correlated such that the use of more than one polarization added little to the ability of the radar to discriminate vegetation type or condition; the exception was barley which separated from vineyards only when a combination of like and cross polarization data were used (polarization was very useful for corn identification in fall crops), (3) an excellent separation between herbaceous vegetation (alfalfa, barley, and oats) or bare fields and trees in orchards existed in brightness was well correlated to alfalfa height or biomass, especially for the HH polarization combination, (5) vineyards exhibited a narrow range of brightnesses with no systematic effects of type or number of stakes nor of number of wires in the trellises nor of the size of the vines, (6) within the orchard classes, areal biomass characterized by basal area differences caused radar image brightness differences for small to medium trees but not for medium to large trees.

  7. Toolsets for Airborne Data

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-04-02

    article title:  Toolsets for Airborne Data     View larger image The ... limit of detection values. Prior to accessing the TAD Web Application ( https://tad.larc.nasa.gov ) for the first time, users must ...

  8. Airborne laser communication technology and flight test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Li-xin; Zhang, Li-zhong; Li, Xiao-ming; Li, Ying-chao; Jiang, Hui-lin

    2015-11-01

    Reconnaissance aircraft is an important node of the space-air-ground integrated information network, on which equipped with a large number of high-resolution surveillance equipment, and need high speed communications equipment to transmit detected information in real time. Currently RF communication methods cannot meet the needs of communication bandwidth. Wireless laser communication has outstanding advantages high speed, high capacity, security, etc., is an important means to solve the high-speed information transmission of airborne platforms. In this paper, detailed analysis of how the system works, the system components, work processes, link power and the key technologies of airborne laser communication were discussed. On this basis, a prototype airborne laser communications was developed, and high-speed, long-distance communications tests were carried out between the two fixed-wing aircraft, and the airborne precision aiming, atmospheric laser communication impacts on laser communication were tested. The experiments ultimately realize that, the communication distance is 144km, the communication rate is 2.5Gbps. The Airborne laser communication experiments provide technical basis for the application of the conversion equipment.

  9. Seeking Solutions though the Mirror of Finnish Experience: Policy Recommendations for Regional University Transformation in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo; Yang, Po; Lyytinen, Anu; Hölttä, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    China has recently launched a radical reform to transform over 600 regional universities into application and technology oriented institutions. The reform is a response to diverse labour market demands, regional economic development and the suboptimal structure of the higher education system, and uses international experiences as a reference.…

  10. Regional Differences in Spanking Experiences and Attitudes: A Comparison of Northeastern and Southern College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Clifton P.

    1996-01-01

    Examines regional differences in college student experiences with corporal punishment as children. Students from a northeastern and a southern university were surveyed. Results indicated that students attending the northeastern university were less likely to have been spanked as children. Effect of region was more important for attitudes than…

  11. The airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven; Schall, Harold; Shattuck, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the current program status.

  12. Regional Differences in Kindergartners' Early Education Experiences. Statistics in Brief. NCES 2005-099

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Emily; Rathbun, Amy; West, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    This statistics-in-brief report takes a closer look at two of kindergartners' early education experiences, preschool and kindergarten, in each of four regions of the United States (i.e., Northeast, South, Midwest, and West). This report defines early education experiences as participation in preschool, the number of hours spent in preschool, and…

  13. ABA Southern Region Burn disaster plan: the process of creating and experience with the ABA southern region burn disaster plan.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Cairns, Bruce A; Hickerson, William L; Holmes, James H

    2014-01-01

    The Southern Region of the American Burn Association began to craft a regional plan to address a surge of burn-injured patients after a mass casualty event in 2004. Published in 2006, this plan has been tested through modeling, exercise, and actual events. This article focuses on the process of how the plan was created, how it was tested, and how it interfaces with other ongoing efforts on preparedness. One key to success regarding how people respond to a disaster can be traced to preexisting relationships and collaborations. These activities would include training or working together and building trust long before the crisis. Knowing who you can call and rely on when you need help, within the context of your plan, can be pivotal in successfully managing a disaster. This article describes how a coalition of burn center leaders came together. Their ongoing personal association has facilitated the development of planning activities and has kept the process dynamic. This article also includes several of the building blocks for developing a plan from creation to composition, implementation, and testing. The plan discussed here is an example of linking leadership, relationships, process, and documentation together. On the basis of these experiences, the authors believe these elements are present in other regions. The intent of this work is to share an experience and to offer it as a guide to aid others in their regional burn disaster planning efforts. PMID:23666386

  14. Mapping Waterhyacinth Infestations Using Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] is an exotic aquatic weed that often invades and clogs waterways in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different image classification techniques for mapp...

  15. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor: Recent Measurements and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Howell, James N.; Darby, Lisa S.; Tratt, David M.; Menzies, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    The coherent Doppler lidar, when operated from an airborne platform, offers a unique measurement capability for study of atmospheric dynamical and physical properties. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are at a disadvantage in terms of spatial resolution and coverage. Recent experience suggests airborne coherent Doppler lidar can yield unique wind measurements of--and during operation within--extreme weather phenomena. This paper presents the first airborne coherent Doppler lidar measurements of hurricane wind fields. The lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory jointly developed an airborne lidar system, the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS). The centerpiece of MACAWS is the lidar transmitter from the highly successful NOAA Windvan. Other field-tested lidar components have also been used, when feasible, to reduce costs and development time. The methodology for remotely sensing atmospheric wind fields with scanning coherent Doppler lidar was demonstrated in 1981; enhancements were made and the system was reflown in 1984. MACAWS has potentially greater scientific utility, compared to the original airborne scanning lidar system, owing to a factor of approx. 60 greater energy-per-pulse from the NOAA transmitter. MACAWS development was completed and the system was first flown in 1995. Following enhancements to improve performance, the system was re-flown in 1996 and 1998. The scientific motivation for MACAWS is three-fold: obtain fundamental measurements of subgrid scale (i.e., approx. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in hydrological, climate, and general/regional

  16. NASA's Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Dungan, J. L.; Edwards, M.; Russell, P. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Hooker, S.; Myers, J.; Kudela, R. M.; Dunagan, S.; Soulage, M.; Ellis, T.; Clinton, N. E.; Lobitz, B.; Martin, K.; Zell, P.; Berthold, R. W.; Smith, C.; Andrew, D.; Gore, W.; Torres, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed (COAST) Project is a NASA Earth-science flight mission that will advance coastal ecosystems research by providing a unique airborne payload optimized for remote sensing in the optically complex coastal zone. Teaming NASA Ames scientists and engineers with Biospherical Instruments, Inc. (San Diego) and UC Santa Cruz, the airborne COAST instrument suite combines a customized imaging spectrometer, sunphotometer system, and a new bio-optical radiometer package to obtain ocean/coastal/atmosphere data simultaneously in flight for the first time. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue region of the spectrum to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data will be accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Based on optical detectors called microradiometers, the NASA Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Calibration and Validation (cal/val) Office team has deployed advanced commercial off-the-shelf instrumentation that provides in situ measurements of the apparent optical properties at the land/ocean boundary including optically shallow aquatic ecosystems (e.g., lakes, estuaries, coral reefs). A complimentary microradiometer instrument package (Biospherical Instruments, Inc.), optimized for use above water, will be flown for the first time with the airborne instrument suite. Details of the October 2011 COAST airborne mission over Monterey Bay demonstrating this new airborne instrument suite capability will be presented, with associated preliminary data on coastal ocean color products, coincident spatial and temporal data on aerosol optical depth and water vapor column content, as well as derived exact water-leaving radiances.

  17. Regional-scale mineral mapping using ASTER VNIR/SWIR data and validation of reflectance and mineral map products using airborne hyperspectral CASI/SASI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Cui; Bokun, Yan; Runsheng, Wang; Feng, Tian; Yingjun, Zhao; Dechang, Liu; Suming, Yang; Wei, Shen

    2014-12-01

    ASTER data have been widely and successfully used in lithological mapping and mineral exploration for decades. The errors due to atmospheric water vapor and the characteristics of the photoelectric sensor could lead to the anomalous characteristics of band 5 and 9 in the ASTER standard reflectivity product. These anomalies could result in the spectroscopic misidentification of minerals. This study proposed a simple method of atmospheric correction for converting radiance-at-sensor to ground reflectance. The ASTER VNIR/SWIR reflectance correction factor was derived to correct the spectral shape bias resulting from the radiometric calibration error using airborne hyperspectral CASI_SASI data. The ASTER VNIR/SWIR reflectance correction factor was derived to correct the spectral shape bias resulting from the radiometric calibration error. After applying the reflectance factor to the atmospheric-corrected ASTER L1B data, a band combination mapping method was proposed for identifying minerals more quickly and accurately. The results indicate that this method for atmospheric correction of ASTER data produces very good results in the arid and bare areas. It is still unknown whether the method is suitable for humid and rainy areas where atmospheric water vapor varies spatially more than in arid and bare areas. After applying the reflectance factor to the atmospheric-corrected ASTER L1B data, the mean error of all reflectance bands decreased from 0.0256 to 0.002, and the standard deviation decreased from 0.04251 to 0.0007. The errors of the 2/1, 5/6 and 9/8 band ratios decreased from 2.38%, 4.102%, and 4.28% to 1.26%, -0.162%, and 0.31%, respectively. The radiometric calibration error of the ASTER band 1-9 data can lead to the overestimation of kaolinite. A band index of 2/1 for retrieving Fe3+ cannot produce a reliable Fe3+ distribution map, and a new index should be developed.

  18. Airborne pollen trends in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Aira, M J; Belmonte, J; Diaz de la Guardia, C; Fernández-González, D; Gutierrez-Bustillo, M; Moreno-Grau, S; Pérez-Badía, R; Rodríguez-Rajo, J; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L; Tormo, R; Trigo, M M; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    2016-04-15

    Airborne pollen monitoring is an effective tool for studying the reproductive phenology of anemophilous plants, an important bioindicator of plant behavior. Recent decades have revealed a trend towards rising airborne pollen concentrations in Europe, attributing these trends to an increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions and temperature. However, the lack of water availability in southern Europe may prompt a trend towards lower flowering intensity, especially in herbaceous plants. Here we show variations in flowering intensity by analyzing the Annual Pollen Index (API) of 12 anemophilous taxa across 12 locations in the Iberian Peninsula, over the last two decades, and detecting the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Results revealed differences in the distribution and flowering intensity of anemophilous species. A negative correlation was observed between airborne pollen concentrations and winter averages of the NAO index. This study confirms that changes in rainfall in the Mediterranean region, attributed to climate change, have an important impact on the phenology of plants. PMID:26803684

  19. Airborne Gravimetry and Downward Continuation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jekeli, C.; Yang, H.; Kwon, J.

    2009-12-01

    Measuring the Earth’s gravity field using airborne instrumentation is fully operational and has been widely practiced for nearly three decades since its official debut in the early 1980s (S. Hammer: “Airborne Gravity is Here!”) coinciding with the precision kinematic positioning capability of GPS. Airborne gravimetry is undertaken for both efficient geophysical exploration purposes, as well as the determination of the regional geoid to aid in the modernization of height systems. Especially for the latter application, downward continuation of the data and combination with existing terrestrial gravimetry pose theoretical as well as practical challenges, which, on the other hand, create multiple processing possibilities. Downward continuation may be approached in various ways from the viewpoint of potential theory and the boundary-value problem to using gradients either estimated locally or computed from existing models. Logistical constraints imposed by the airborne survey, instrumental noise, and the intrinsic numerical instability of downward continuation all conspire to impact the final product in terms of achievable resolution and accuracy. In this paper, we review the theory of airborne gravimetry and the methodology of downward continuation, and provide a numerical comparison of possible schemes and their impact on geoid determination.

  20. Within-field and regional-scale accuracies of topsoil organic carbon content prediction from an airborne visible near-infrared hyperspectral image combined with synchronous field spectra for temperate croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Bel, Liliane; Lefevre, Josias; Chehdi, Kacem

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out in the framework of the TOSCA-PLEIADES-CO of the French Space Agency and benefited data from the earlier PROSTOCK-Gessol3 project supported by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME). It aimed at identifying the potential of airborne hyperspectral visible near-infrared AISA-Eagle data for predicting the topsoil organic carbon (SOC) content of bare cultivated soils over a large peri-urban area (221 km2) with intensive annual crop cultivation and both contrasted soils and SOC contents, located in the western region of Paris, France. Soils comprise hortic or glossic luvisols, calcaric, rendzic cambisols and colluvic cambisols. Airborne AISA-Eagle images (400-1000 nm, 126 bands) with 1 m-resolution were acquired on 17 April 2013 over 13 tracks. Tracks were atmospherically corrected then mosaicked at a 2 m-resolution using a set of 24 synchronous field spectra of bare soils, black and white targets and impervious surfaces. The land use identification system layer (RPG) of 2012 was used to mask non-agricultural areas, then calculation and thresholding of NDVI from an atmospherically corrected SPOT4 image acquired the same day enabled to map agricultural fields with bare soil. A total of 101 sites, which were sampled either at the regional scale or within one field, were identified as bare by means of this map. Predictions were made from the mosaic AISA spectra which were related to SOC contents by means of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Regression robustness was evaluated through a series of 1000 bootstrap data sets of calibration-validation samples, considering those 75 sites outside cloud shadows only, and different sampling strategies for selecting calibration samples. Validation root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were comprised between 3.73 and 4.49 g. Kg-1 and were ~4 g. Kg-1 in median. The most performing models in terms of coefficient of determination (R²) and Residual Prediction Deviation (RPD) values were the

  1. Analysis of D-Region Absorption via HF Cross-Modulation Experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, E. M.; Moore, R. C.

    2010-12-01

    Experimental observations performed near the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska are used to implement a new method quantifying the rate of absorption of HF radio waves in the D-region ionosphere. Quantifying the ambient and HF-modified characteristics of the D-region ionosphere in the vicinity of ionospheric HF heaters has historically proven to be a difficult task. For example, the electron density in the 60-90 km altitude range is typically too low to employ radio-sounding techniques; LIDAR observations typically require significant temporal averaging, precluding the investigation of physical processes that occur on sub-millisecond time scales; ELF/VLF wave generation experiments typically have difficulty providing reliable spatial resolution and also cannot experimentally distinguish between the spatial distribution of the ionospheric conductivity modulation produced by modulated HF heating and that of the current-driving electric fields associated with the auroral electrojet. Yet, the majority of HF signal absorption occurs in this region of the ionosphere, and the ability to characterize HF absorption in this region benefits a wide range of ionospheric HF heating experiments. The technique described and demonstrated in this paper combines ionosonde-style radio sounding with ELF/VLF cross-modulation experiments to identify the altitude of maximum D-region absorption as a function of HF frequency. Observations are presented and compared with the predictions of a theoretical model, demonstrating excellent agreement between experiment and theory and indicating that the technique may be used successfully in practice. Based on the success of this first experiment, another HF cross-modulation experiment has been performed at HAARP and analyzed theoretically. Pulsed-modulation experiments are used to assess the relative absorption as a function of altitude within the D-region ionosphere, and a method to chart the

  2. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.; Moninger, William R.; Mamrosh, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) project, giving some history on the project, various applications of the atmospheric data, and future ideas and plans. As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, the TAMDAR project developed a small low-cost sensor that collects useful meteorological data and makes them available in near real time to improve weather forecasts. This activity has been a joint effort with FAA, NOAA, universities, and industry. A tri-agency team collaborated by developing a concept of operations, determining the sensor specifications, and evaluating sensor performance as reported by Moosakhanian et. al. (2006). Under contract with Georgia Tech Research Institute, NASA worked with AirDat of Raleigh, NC to develop the sensor. The sensor is capable of measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and icing. It can compute pressure altitude, indicated and true air speed, ice accretion rate, wind speed and direction, peak and average turbulence, and eddy dissipation rate. The overall development process, sensor capabilities, and performance based on ground and flight tests is reported by Daniels (2002), Daniels et. al. (2004) and by Tsoucalas et. al. (2006). An in-service evaluation of the sensor was performed called the Great Lakes Fleet Experiment (GLFE), first reported by Moninger et. al. (2004) and Mamrosh et. al. (2005). In this experiment, a Mesaba Airlines fleet was equipped to collect meteorological data over the Great Lakes region during normal revenue-producing flights.

  3. Regional Climate Simulation Experiments with a Variable Resolution Stretched Grid GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takacs, Lawrence L.; Stein, Uri; Govindaraju, Ravi C.

    1999-01-01

    The variable resolution stretched grid (SG) version of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) GCM has been recently developed and tested in a regional climate simulation mode. The SG-approach is an alternative to the widely used nested grid approach introduced a decade ago as a pioneering step to regional climate modeling. The region of interest with a uniform about 60 km resolution used in experiments is a rectangle over the U.S. The results of one annual as well as two-month simulations for the anomalous climate event of the U.S. drought of 1988, are validated against data analysis fields and diagnostics. The efficient regional down-scaling as well as the positive impact of fine regional resolution, are obtained. The SG-concept appeared to be a promising candidate for regional and subregional climate studies and applications.

  4. EVALUATING AND OPTIMIZING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZING AIRBORNE ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of EM methods for measuring airborne asbestos fiber concentrations and size distributions was carried out by studying a large number of variables and subprocedures in a five-phase program using elaborate statistically designed experiments. Observations were analyzed by...

  5. Airborne Brightness Temperature Measurements of the Polar Winter Troposphere as Part of the Airborne Arctic Stratosphere Experiment 2 and the Effect of Brightness Temperature Variations on the Diabatic Heating in the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisoco P. J.; Platnick, Steven; Kinne, Stefan; Pilewskie, Peter; Bucholtz, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we report radiometric measurements of tropospheric brightness temperatures obtained during the AASE 2 experiment. These measurements represent the first attempt to characterize effective radiative temperatures as seen from above the troposphere during the Arctic winter. The reported measurements include brightness temperatures at 6.7 and 10.5 micrometers as seen from the NASA DC-8 aircraft flying at about 11 km altitude. We also present radiative transfer calculations to estimate the effect of tropospheric brightness temperature on the lower stratospheric heating rates. Because of the recent massive eruption of the Pinatubo volcano, we also discuss the effects of a volcanic aerosol layer. It is concluded that small particles like the volcanic aerosol or PSCs type 1 do not affect stratospheric heating rates by much; on the other hand, larger particles, PSCs types 2 and 3, may have significant effects on heating rates and consequently on dynamics of the lower stratosphere. The dynamical effects of local stratospheric temperature variations are briefly discussed.

  6. Airborne brightness temperature measurements of the polar winter troposphere as part of the Airborne Arctic Stratosphere Experiment 2 and the effect of brightness temperature variations on the diabatic heating in the lower stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.; Platnick, Steven; Kinne, Stefan; Pilewskie, Peter; Bucholtz, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we report radiometric measurements of tropospheric brightness temperatures obtained during the AASE 2 experiment. These measurements represent the first attempt to characterize effective radiative temperatures as seen from above the troposphere during the Arctic winter. The reported measurements include brightness temperatures at 6.7 and 10.5 microns as seen from the NASA DC-8 aircraft flying at about 11 km altitude. We also present radiative transfer calculations to estimate the effect of tropospheric brightness temperature on the lower stratospheric heating rates. Because of the recent massive eruption of the Pinatubo volcano, we also discuss the effects of a volcanic aerosol layer. It is concluded that small particles like the volcanic aerosol or polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) type 1 do not affect stratospheric heating rates by much; on the other hand, larger particles, PSCs types 2 and 3, may have significant effects on heating rates and consequently on dynamics of the lower stratosphere. The dynamical effects of local stratospheric temperature variations are briefly discussed.

  7. The Mexico City Outflow and Its Regional Influence: A Regional Model Study in INTEX- B/MIRAGE Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Carmichael, G. R.; Mena, M.; D'Allura, A.; Chai, T.; Pierce, R. B.; Al-Saadi, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    During the NASA INTEX-B and NSF MIRAGE field experiments in Spring of 2006, we applied a regional chemical transport model, STEM-2K3, to make nested forecasts coupled with a global model RAQMS by using its output as lateral and top boundary conditions. WRF mesoscale meteorological model was used to drive the regional model. The model predicted reasonable results compared with NASA DC-8 and NCAR C- 130 aircraft measurements over Mexico and Southern USA. Sulfate is the major ion in the Mexico City plume. Biomass/biofuel burning contributed to black carbon, though it became aged quickly during the transport process. Since aerosols and their precursors were usually co-emitted with gaseous pollutants from Mexico City, their interactions via direct reaction and radiative impacts became evident. The aerosol influence on photolysis rates depend not only on the aerosol optical depth, but also on the absorption portion or single scatter albedo (SSA). Sensitivity studies were performed to reveal the influence of aerosol SSA on photochemical processes over Mexico City and its downwind region. Due to the relatively high altitude of Mexico City, its outflow usually existed in middle troposphere over downwind regions. The radiative impact became a important portion of the influence of Mexico City plumes on downwind surface. The model study over Mexico City surface sites was also evaluated.

  8. Comparison of retracking algorithms using airborne radar and laser altimeter measurements of the Greenland ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Ellen J.; Swift, Calvin T.

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, NASA conducted a multisensor airborne altimetry experiment over the Greenland ice sheet. The experiment consisted of ten flights. Four types of radar altimeter retracking algorithms which include the Advanced Application Flight Experiment (AAFE) Ku-band altimeter, the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), the NASA Airborne Terrain Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) and the NASA Ka-band Surface Contour Radar (SCR) were used. In this paper, these four continental ice sheet radar altimeter tracking algorithms were compared.

  9. 3D time-domain airborne EM modeling for an arbitrarily anisotropic earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Changchun; Qi, Yanfu; Liu, Yunhe

    2016-08-01

    Time-domain airborne EM data is currently interpreted based on an isotropic model. Sometimes, it can be problematic when working in the region with distinct dipping stratifications. In this paper, we simulate the 3D time-domain airborne EM responses over an arbitrarily anisotropic earth with topography by edge-based finite-element method. Tetrahedral meshes are used to describe the abnormal bodies with complicated shapes. We further adopt the Backward Euler scheme to discretize the time-domain diffusion equation for electric field, obtaining an unconditionally stable linear equations system. We verify the accuracy of our 3D algorithm by comparing with 1D solutions for an anisotropic half-space. Then, we switch attentions to effects of anisotropic media on the strengths and the diffusion patterns of time-domain airborne EM responses. For numerical experiments, we adopt three typical anisotropic models: 1) an anisotropic anomalous body embedded in an isotropic half-space; 2) an isotropic anomalous body embedded in an anisotropic half-space; 3) an anisotropic half-space with topography. The modeling results show that the electric anisotropy of the subsurface media has big effects on both the strengths and the distribution patterns of time-domain airborne EM responses; this effect needs to be taken into account when interpreting ATEM data in areas with distinct anisotropy.

  10. Airborne gamma radiation soil moisture measurements over short flight lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Carrol, Thomas R.; Lipinski, Daniel M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture condition, carried out along short flight lines as part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE). Data were collected over an area in Kansas during the summers of 1987 and 1989. The airborne surveys, together with ground measurements, provide the most comprehensive set of airborne and ground truth data available in the U.S. for calibrating and evaluating airborne gamma flight lines. Analysis showed that, using standard National Weather Service weights for the K, Tl, and Gc radiation windows, the airborne soil moisture estimates for the FIFE lines had a root mean square error of no greater than 3.0 percent soil moisture. The soil moisture estimates for sections having acquisition time of at least 15 sec were found to be reliable.

  11. The clothes make the trans: region and geography in experiences of the body.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Sara L

    2008-01-01

    Written as an autoethnographic essay, the article explores the relationship between LGBT experience and geographic differences. The author discusses her experiences of forming a butch self while living in a suburban, subtropical environment and comparing herself to images of urban lesbian pop culture. If gender is performative, how do clothes permit us to or impede us from envisioning the body or being seen by others as butch/trans/masculine/multiple-gendered/diverse? Does the fashion uniform of the urban tranny boi and the publicizing of urban youth movements as the measure of LGBT experience impede LGBTs in other regions from envisioning themselves as "trans" or "butch: enough? Using interactionist sociological theory and gender performance theories, she considers the relationship between the visually sexed body and gendered embodiment. The goal in this piece is to open the conversation about regional LGBT experiences and their influence on physical embodiment. PMID:19042745

  12. The Airborne Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven E.

    2002-09-01

    The US Air Force Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the risk reduction approach being utilized to ensure program success.

  13. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  14. The ESA/NASA Multi-Aircraft ATV-1 Re-Entry Campaign: Analysis of Airborne Intensified Video Observations from the NASA/JSC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Ed; Maley, Paul; Mulrooney, Mark; Beaulieu, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    In September 2008, a joint ESA/NASA multi-instrument airborne observing campaign was conducted over the Southern Pacific ocean. The objective was the acquisition of data to support detailed atmospheric re-entry analysis for the first flight of the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV)-1. Skilled observers were deployed aboard two aircraft which were flown at 12.8 km altitude within visible range of the ATV-1 re-entry zone. The observers operated a suite of instruments with low-light-level detection sensitivity including still cameras, high speed and 30 fps video cameras, and spectrographs. The collected data has provided valuable information regarding the dynamic time evolution of the ATV-1 re-entry fragmentation. Specifically, the data has satisfied the primary mission objective of recording the explosion of ATV-1's primary fuel tank and thereby validating predictions regarding the tanks demise and the altitude of its occurrence. Furthermore, the data contains the brightness and trajectories of several hundred ATV-1 fragments. It is the analysis of these properties, as recorded by the particular instrument set sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center, which we present here.

  15. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  16. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  17. Experiments with clustering of catchments in PCA-reduced space and regionalization of a hydrological model (Central Alborz region, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Mohammad; Solomatine, Dimitri; Salajegheh, Ali; Mohseni Saravi, Mohsen; Malekian, Arash; Corzo, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the possibility of simulating time series of daily streamflows in ungauged catchments based on climatic and physiographic similarity. The study area is located in central Alborz region in Iran. Fourteen (14) proper catchments, with the area ranged between 16 to 827Km2, in this region selected for testing. After applying Principal Component Analysis for selecting the most important parameters among the different climatic and physiographic parameters, five components which could explain more than 90% of variances of the data were selected and according to the values of the coefficients in selected PCA components, five parameters including: Area, Annual Rainfall, Annual temperature, gravelius compactness coefficient and mean elevation, were selected as the measures for clustering. Then mentioned parameters entered in K-means clustering analysis method to classify the catchments. Finally the catchments divided in three different clusters. Using the well known HBV model, we built a model for the closest catchment to the center of each cluster. Then, the thirteen (13) HBV model parameters were calibrated using Genetic Algorithm. We assumed that the remained catchments in each cluster are ungauged, and using the calibrated model, the daily time series of streamflows simulated in the remained catchments in the considered cluster (as the receiver catchments). Nash Sutcliffe and RMSE indices used to comparing the simulated and recorded data. The experiments with the considered case study confirmed that the model regionalization based on the physiographic and climatic characteristics could be a useful instrument in hydrological studies. Key words: Regionalization, HBV, PCA, Cluster, Catchment, central Alborz region

  18. Regional experience of evaluation of professional practice and quality assurance implementation in Aquitaine.

    PubMed

    Michel, P; Capdenat, E; Raymond, J M; Maurette, P; Daubech, L; Salamon, R; Amouretti, M

    1997-06-01

    We report the establishment of a voluntary programme for developing the assessment of professional practice and quality assurance conducted since 1989 in the Aquitaine region of south-west France. This experience, in a region where there are 14,000 hospital beds in about a hundred institutions, has aimed at two objectives: (1) the adoption by the region's health professionals of medical guidelines for good practice and methods for measuring quality and outcomes obtained, by means of university training in evaluation and the conducting of several surveys of professional practice and clinical audits; (2) similar adoption by the regional political, administrative and medical directors of quality assurance procedures defined by an organizational audit concerning the prescription of preoperative tests in the university hospital and in the main public hospitals of the region. The critical impetus that this experience has created, together with other factors related to the political decision-makers and health managers of the region, has led to an operational regional structure for developing clinical evaluation and quality in Aquitaine. PMID:9209920

  19. Analysis of Measurements of Saharan Dust by Airborne and Ground-based Remote Sensing Methods during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Jeffrey S.; Kinney, James E.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, E. Judd; Tsay, Si-Chee; Eleuterio, Daniel P.; Campbell, James; Christopher, Sundar A.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.

    2003-01-01

    For 26 days in mid-June and July 2000, a research group comprised of U.S. Navy, NASA, and university scientists conducted the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE). In this paper we give a brief overview of mean meteorological conditions during the study. We focus on findings on African dust transported into the Caribbean utilizing Navajo aircraft and AERONET Sun photometer data. During the study midvisible aerosol optical thickness (AOT) in Puerto Rico averaged 0.25, with a maximum less than 0.5 and with clean marine periods of _0.08. Dust AOTs near the coast of Africa (Cape Verde Islands and Dakar) averaged _0.4, 30% less than previous years. By analyzing dust vertical profiles in addition to supplemental meteorology and MPLNET lidar data we found that dust transport cannot be easily categorized into any particular conceptual model. Toward the end of the study period, the vertical distribution of dust was similar to the commonly assumed Saharan Air Layer (SAL) transport. During the early periods of the study, dust had the highest concentrations in the marine and convective boundary layers with only a, weak dust layer in the SAL being present, a state usually associated with wintertime transport patterns. We corroborate the findings of Maring et al. that in most cases, there was an unexpected lack of vertical stratification of dust particle size. We systematically analyze processes which may impact dust vertical distribution and determine and speculate that dust vertical distribution predominately influenced by flow patterns over Africa and differential advection couple with mixing by easterly waves and regional subsidence.

  20. Analysis of measurements of Saharan dust by airborne and ground-based remote sensing methods during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Jeffrey S.; Kinney, James E.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Eleuterio, Daniel P.; Campbell, James R.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Colarco, P. R.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Livingston, John M.; Maring, Hal B.; Meier, Michael L.; Pilewskie, Peter; Prospero, Joseph M.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Russell, Philip B.; Savoie, Dennis L.; Smirnov, Alexander; Tanré, Didier

    2003-10-01

    For 26 days in mid-June and July 2000, a research group comprised of U.S. Navy, NASA, and university scientists conducted the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE). In this paper we give a brief overview of mean meteorological conditions during the study. We focus on our findings on African dust transported into the Caribbean utilizing a Navajo aircraft and AERONET Sun photometer data. During the study midvisible aerosol optical thickness (AOT) in Puerto Rico averaged 0.25, with a maximum >0.5 and with clean marine periods of ˜0.08. Dust AOTs near the coast of Africa (Cape Verde Islands and Dakar) averaged ˜0.4, 30% less than previous years. By analyzing dust vertical profiles in addition to supplemental meteorology and MPLNET lidar data we found that dust transport cannot be easily categorized into any particular conceptual model. Toward the end of the study period, the vertical distribution of dust was similar to the commonly assumed Saharan Air Layer (SAL) transport. During the early periods of the study, dust had the highest concentrations in the marine and convective boundary layers with only a weak dust layer in the SAL being present, a state usually associated with wintertime transport patterns. We corroborate the findings of [2003] that in most cases, there was an unexpected lack of vertical stratification of dust particle size. We systematically analyze processes that may impact dust vertical distribution and speculate that dust vertical distribution predominately influenced by flow patterns over Africa and differential advection coupled with fair weather cloud entrainment, mixing by easterly waves, and regional subsidence.

  1. Hearing Parents' and Carers' Voices: Experiences of Accessing Quality Long Day Care in Northern Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Nonie; Tinning, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores parents' and carers' experiences of accessing quality long day care in northern regional Australia. The data was gathered in 2009, after the collapse of ABC Developmental Learning Centres (herein referred to as ABC Learning) and before the implementation of the "National Quality Framework," and provides a snapshot of…

  2. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region. Based on findings, this…

  3. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knerr, T. J.; Schaffner, P. R.; Mielke, R. R.; Gilreath, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for numerically calculating radiation patterns of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas using the Volumetric Pattern Analysis Program is presented. Special attention is given to aircraft modeling. An actual case study involving a large commercial aircraft is included to illustrate the analysis procedure.

  4. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  5. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  6. Airborne Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA imaging technology has provided the basis for a commercial agricultural reconnaissance service. AG-RECON furnishes information from airborne sensors, aerial photographs and satellite and ground databases to farmers, foresters, geologists, etc. This service produces color "maps" of Earth conditions, which enable clients to detect crop color changes or temperature changes that may indicate fire damage or pest stress problems.

  7. Airborne lidar measurements of pollution transport in central and southern California during CalNEX 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senff, C. J.; Alvarez, R. J., II; Hardesty, R.; Langford, A. O.; Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Davies, F.; Sandberg, S.; Marchbanks, R.; Weickmann, A.

    2010-12-01

    During the CalNEX experiment from May through July 2010, we co-deployed NOAA’s airborne ozone and aerosol lidar TOPAZ and the University of Leeds scanning Doppler wind lidar on a Twin Otter aircraft. We flew a total of 46 missions over central and southern California, focusing primarily on the Los Angeles Basin and Sacramento areas. The downward-looking lidars provided highly resolved measurements of ozone concentration, aerosol backscatter, and wind speed and direction in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere. We will use the airborne lidar data to characterize transport of ozone and aerosols on regional and local scales. In particular, we will focus on pollutant transport between air basins and the role of flow patterns in complex terrain, such as gap flows and orographic lifting and venting along mountain slopes, on pollutant distribution.

  8. Oil film thickness using airborne laser-induced oil fluorescence backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.

    1983-01-01

    Remote airborne measurement of oil film thickness on ocean surface using laser-induced water Raman backscatter is discussed. It is pointed out that the theoretical model of oil fluorescence by Horvath et al. (1971) contains the necessary constituents to provide for the natural background fluorescence that is also induced by the laser during the course of an oil thickness experiment. How the various parameters of the model are obtained from typical airborne profile data is discussed, and it is shown that the water Raman backscatter may be used to assist further in the application of the data. The regions or water types over which the technique might be most useful or applicable are discussed.

  9. Profiling the atmosphere with the airborne radio occultation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muradyan, Paytsar

    The GNSS Instrument System for Multistatic and Occultation Sensing (GISMOS) was designed for dense sampling of meteorological targets using the airborne radio occultation (RO) technique. Airborne RO refers to an atmospheric limb sounding technique in which Global Positioning System (GPS) signals are recorded at a receiver onboard an aircraft as the satellites descend beyond the limb of the Earth. The GPS signals, that are unaffected by clouds and precipitation, experience refractive bending as well as a delay in the travel time through the atmosphere. Bending can be used to retrieve information about atmospheric refractivity, which depends on atmospheric moisture and temperature. The new system has the potential for improving numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts through assimilation of many high-resolution atmospheric profiles in an area of interest, compared to spaceborne RO, which samples sparsely around the globe. In February 2008, GISMOS was deployed on the National Science Foundation Gulfstream-V aircraft to make atmospheric observations in the Gulf of Mexico coastal region with an objective to test the performance of the profiling system. Recordings from this flight campaign made with the conventional phase lock loop GPS receivers descend from flight level to 5 km altitude. However, below that level strong refractivity gradients, especially those associated with the boundary layer, cause rapid phase accelerations resulting in loss of lock in the receiver. To extend the RO profiles deeper in the atmosphere, the GISMOS system was also equipped with a GPS Recording System (GRS) that records the raw RF signals. Post-processing this dataset in open-loop (OL) tracking mode enables reliable atmospheric profiling at lower altitudes. We present a comprehensive analysis of the performance of the airborne system OL tracking algorithm during a 5 hour flight on 15 February 2008. Excess phase and amplitude profiles for 5 setting and 5 rising occultations were

  10. Evaluation of airborne topographic lidar for quantifying beach changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Krabill, W.B.; Swift, R.N.; Brock, J.; List, J.; Hansen, M.; Holman, R.A.; Manizade, S.; Sontag, J.; Meredith, A.; Morgan, K.; Yunkel, J.K.; Frederick, E.B.; Stockdon, H.

    2003-01-01

    A scanning airborne topographic lidar was evaluated for its ability to quantify beach topography and changes during the Sandy Duck experiment in 1997 along the North Carolina coast. Elevation estimates, acquired with NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), were compared to elevations measured with three types of ground-based measurements - 1) differential GPS equipped all-terrain vehicle (ATV) that surveyed a 3-km reach of beach from the shoreline to the dune, 2) GPS antenna mounted on a stadia rod used to intensely survey a different 100 m reach of beach, and 3) a second GPS-equipped ATV that surveyed a 70-km-long transect along the coast. Over 40,000 individual intercomparisons between ATM and ground surveys were calculated. RMS vertical differences associated with the ATM when compared to ground measurements ranged from 13 to 19 cm. Considering all of the intercomparisons together, RMS ??? 15 cm. This RMS error represents a total error for individual elevation estimates including uncertainties associated with random and mean errors. The latter was the largest source of error and was attributed to drift in differential GPS. The ??? 15 cm vertical accuracy of the ATM is adequate to resolve beach-change signals typical of the impact of storms. For example, ATM surveys of Assateague Island (spanning the border of MD and VA) prior to and immediately following a severe northeaster showed vertical beach changes in places greater than 2 m, much greater than expected errors associated with the ATM. A major asset of airborne lidar is the high spatial data density. Measurements of elevation are acquired every few m2 over regional scales of hundreds of kilometers. Hence, many scales of beach morphology and change can be resolved, from beach cusps tens of meters in wavelength to entire coastal cells comprising tens to hundreds of kilometers of coast. Topographic lidars similar to the ATM are becoming increasingly available from commercial vendors and should, in the future

  11. Integrated Verification Experiment data collected as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Source Region Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, R.W.; Noel, S.D.

    1992-12-01

    The summary report by Tom Weaver gives the overall background for the series of IVE (Integrated Verification Experiment) experiments including information on the full set of measurements made. This appendix presents details of the infrasound data for the and discusses certain aspects of a few special experiments. Prior to FY90, the emphasis of the Infrasound Program was on underground nuclear test (UGT) detection and yield estimation. During this time the Infrasound Program was a separate program at Los Alamos, and it was suggested to DOE/OAC that a regional infrasound network be established around NTS. The IVE experiments took place in a time frame that allowed simultaneous testing of possible network sites and examination of propagation in different directions. Whenever possible, infrasound stations were combined with seismic stations so that a large number could be efficiently fielded. The regional infrasound network was not pursued by DOE, as world events began to change the direction of verification toward non-proliferation. Starting in FY90 the infrasound activity became part of the Source Region Program which has a goal of understanding how energy is transported from the UGT to a variety of measurement locations.

  12. A Gravity data along LARSE (Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment) Line II, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wooley, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed gravity study along part of the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment (LARSE) transect across the San Fernando Basin and Transverse Ranges to help characterize the structure underlying this area. 249 gravity measurements were collected along the transect and to augment regional coverage near the profile. An isostatic gravity low of 50-60 mGal reflects the San Fernando-East Ventura basin. Another prominent isostatic gravity with an amplitude of 30 mGal marks the Antelope Valley basin. Gravity highs occur over the Santa Monica Mountains and the Transverse Ranges. The highest isostatic gravity values coincide with outcrops of Pelona schist.

  13. Molecular spectroscopy from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckwith, S.

    1985-01-01

    Interstellar and circumstellar molecules are investigated through medium-resolution infrared spectrosocpy of the vibration-rotation and pure rotational transitions. A primary goal was the construction and improvement of instrumentation for the near and middle infrared regions, wavelengths between 2 and 10 microns. The main instrument was a cooled grating spectrometer with an interchangeable detector focal plane which could be used on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) for airborne observations, and also at ground-based facilities. Interstellar shock waves were investigated by H2 emission from the Orion Nebula, W51, and the proto-planetary nebulae CRL 2688 and CRL 618. The observations determined the physical conditions in shocked molecular gas near these objects. From these it was possible to characterize the energetic history of mass loss from both pre- and post-main sequence stars in the regions.

  14. Airborne UV and visible spectrometer for DOAS and radiometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petritoli, Andrea; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Bonafe, U.; Bortoli, Daniele; Kostadinov, Ivan; Ravegnani, Fabrizio

    1999-10-01

    A UV/Vis spectrometer (named GASCOD) for Differentiated Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) has been developed at ISAO Institute and deployed for ground based measurements of stratospheric trace gases for several years at mid-latitudes and the Antarctic region. An airborne version, called GASCOD/A has been installed on board a M55-Geophysica airplane, a stratospheric research platform, capable of flying at an altitude of up to 20 Km. After a test campaign in Italy, the GASCOD/A performed successfully during the Airborne Polar Experiment in the winter 95/96. More recently, the instrument was upgraded to achieve higher sensitivity and reliability. Two additional radiometric channels were added. The input optics can turn in order to collect solar radiation from five different channels: one for detection of the zenith scattered radiation through the roof window (for DOAS measurement), two for direct and diffused radiation through two lateral windows and two for radiometric measurements through two 2(pi) optical heads mounted on the upper and bottom part of the aircraft and linked to the instrument by means of optical guides. The radiometric channels give us the possibility of calculating the photodissociation rate coefficients (J-values) of photochemical reactions involving ozone and nitrogen dioxides. The mechanical and optical layout of the instrument are presented and discussed, as well as laboratory tests and preliminary results obtained during flights onboard the M55- Geophysica.

  15. [Air-borne disease].

    PubMed

    Lameiro Vilariño, Carmen; del Campo Pérez, Victor M; Alonso Bürger, Susana; Felpeto Nodar, Irene; Guimarey Pérez, Rosa; Pérez Alvarellos, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    Respiratory protection is a factor which worries nursing professionals who take care of patients susceptible of transmitting microorganisms through the air more as every day passes. This type of protection covers the use of surgical or hygienic masks against the transmission of infection by airborne drops to the use of highly effective masks or respirators against the transmission of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis or SARS, a recently discovered disease. The adequate choice of this protective device and its correct use are fundamental in order to have an effective protection for exposed personnel. The authors summarize the main protective respiratory devices used by health workers, their characteristics and degree of effectiveness, as well as the circumstances under which each device is indicated for use. PMID:14705591

  16. User definition and mission requirements for unmanned airborne platforms, revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhner, M. B.; Mcdowell, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The airborne measurement requirements of the scientific and applications experiment user community were assessed with respect to the suitability of proposed strawman airborne platforms. These platforms provide a spectrum of measurement capabilities supporting associated mission tradeoffs such as payload weight, operating altitude, range, duration, flight profile control, deployment flexibility, quick response, and recoverability. The results of the survey are used to examine whether the development of platforms is warranted and to determine platform system requirements as well as research and technology needs.

  17. Airborne PM2.5 Chemical Components and Low Birth Weight in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic Regions of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies on air pollutants and birth outcomes have reported inconsistent results. Chemical components of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) composition are spatially -heterogeneous, which might contribute to discrepancies across PM2.5 studies. Objectives: We explored whether birth weight at term is affected by PM2.5, PM10 (PM ≤ 10 µm), and gaseous pollutants. Methods: We calculated exposures during gestation and each trimester for PM2.5 chemical components, PM10, PM2.5, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide for births in 2000–2007 for states in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic United States. Associations between exposures and risk of low birth weight (LBW) were adjusted by family and individual characteristics and region. Interaction terms were used to investigate whether risk differs by race or sex. Results: Several PM2.5 chemical components were associated with LBW. Risk increased 4.9% (95% CI: 3.4, 6.5%), 4.7% (3.2, 6.2%), 5.7% (2.7, 8.8%), and 5.0% (3.1, 7.0%) per interquartile range increase of PM2.5 aluminum, elemental carbon, nickel, and titanium, respectively. Other PM2.5 chemical components and gaseous pollutants showed associations, but were not statistically significant in multipollutant models. The trimester associated with the highest relative risk differed among pollutants. Effect estimates for PM2.5 elemental carbon and nickel were higher for infants of white mothers than for those of African-American mothers, and for males than females. Conclusions: Most exposure levels in our study area were in compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency air pollution standards; however, we identified associations between PM2.5 components and LBW. Findings suggest that some PM2.5 components may be more harmful than others, and that some groups may be particularly susceptible. PMID:23008268

  18. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  19. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  20. NASA'S Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed (COAST): Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Dungan, J. L.; Edwards, M.; Russell, P. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Kudela, R. M.; Myers, J. S.; Livingston, J.; Lobitz, B.; Torres-Perez, J.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed (COAST) project advances coastal ecosystems research and ocean color calibration and validation capability by providing a unique airborne payload optimized for remote sensing in the optically complex coastal zone. The COAST instrument suite combines a customized imaging spectrometer, sunphotometer system, and a new bio-optical radiometer package to obtain ocean/coastal/atmosphere data simultaneously in flight for the first time. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue region of the spectrum to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data is accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Coastal Airborne In situ Radiometers (C-AIR, Biospherical Instruments, Inc.), developed for COAST for airborne campaigns from field-deployed microradiometer instrumentation, will provide measurements of apparent optical properties at the land/ocean boundary including optically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Ship-based measurements allowed validation of airborne measurements. Radiative transfer modeling on in-water measurements from the HyperPro and Compact-Optical Profiling System (C-OPS, the in-water companion to C-AIR) profiling systems allows for comparison of airborne and in-situ water leaving radiance measurements. Results of the October 2011 Monterey Bay COAST mission include preliminary data on coastal ocean color products, coincident spatial and temporal data on aerosol optical depth and water vapor column content, as well as derived exact water-leaving radiances.

  1. Airborne field strength monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredemeyer, J.; Kleine-Ostmann, T.; Schrader, T.; Münter, K.; Ritter, J.

    2007-06-01

    In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS) are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS) increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR) is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz), the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) accelerated method of moments (MoM) using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  2. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles. PMID:7005667

  3. EXPERIENCE IN REDUCING ELECTRON CLOUD AND DYNAMIC PRESSURE RISE IN WARM AND COLD REGIONS IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG, S.Y.; AHRENS,L.; ALLESI, J.; BAI, M.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; CAMERON, P.; CONNOLLY, R.; DREES, A.; FISCHER, W.; GULLOTTA, J.; HE, P.; HSEUH, H.C.; HUANG, H.; LEE, R.; LITVINENKO, V.; MACKAY, W.W.; MONTAG, C.; NICOLETTI, A.; OERTER, B.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; ROSER, T.; SATOGATA, T.; SMART, L.; SYNDSTRUP, L.; TEPIKIAN, S.; THIEBERGER, P.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; WEI, J.; ZENO, K.

    2006-06-23

    The large scale application of non-evaporable getter coating in RHIC has been effective in reducing the electron cloud. Since beams with higher intensity and smaller bunch spacing became possible in operation, the emittance growth is of concern. Study results are reported together with experiences of machine improvements: saturated NEG coatings, anti-grazing ridges in warm sections, and the pre-pumping in cryogenic regions.

  4. Performance metrics for an airborne imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.

    2004-11-01

    A series of airborne imaging experiments have been conducted on the island of Maui and at North Oscura Peak in New Mexico. Two platform altitudes were considered 3000 meters and 600 meters, both with a slant range to the target up to 10000 meters. The airborne imaging platform was a Twin Otter aircraft, which circled ground target sites. The second was a fixed platform on a mountain peak overlooking a valley 600 meters below. The experiments were performed during the day using solar illuminated target buildings. Imaging system performance predictions were calculated using standard atmospheric turbulence models, and aircraft boundary layer models. Several different measurement approaches were then used to estimate the actual system performance, and make comparisons with the calculations.

  5. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  6. Global and Regional Climate Responses Solar Radiation Management: Results from a climateprediction.net Geoengineering Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricke, Katharine; Allen, Myles; Ingram, William; Keith, David; Granger Morgan, M.

    2010-05-01

    To date modeling studies suggest that, while significant hydrological anomalies could result from the artificial addition of reflecting aerosols in the stratosphere for the purpose of solar radiation management (SRM), even at the regional level such a geoengineered world would bear a much closer resemblance to a low CO2 world, than to an unmodified high CO2 world. These previous modeling studies have generally compared one or two SRM forcing scenarios to various business-as-usual controls. However, such approaches cannot provide much information about regional sensitivities to the levels of SRM that might realistically result. Should engaging in SRM every be seriously contemplated, such regional analysis of a range of realistic scenarios will be an essential input to any process of geopolitical decision-making. Here we present the results from a large-ensemble experiment that used the HadCM3L GCM, implemented through climateprediction.net. The analysis examines 135 globally-uniform stratospheric optical depth modification scenarios designed to stabilize global temperatures under SRES A1B. Scenarios were tested using ten-member subensembles which made small perturbations to initial conditions. All simulations use identical standard settings of model physics parameters and are initiated from historically-forced runs from 1920-2005. A total of 7,331 simulations of the years 2000-2080 were performed for this experiment using computing resources donated by the general public. Our analysis of regional temperature and precipitation anomalies, normalized to account for variability, shows that SRM compensations for anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing do generally return regional climates closer to their baseline climate states than the no-geoengineering, business-as-usual scenarios. However, we find that the magnitudes and sensitivities of regional responses to this type of activity, as modeled in HadCM3L, are highly variable. As the amount of SRM increases to compensate

  7. Model experiments on climate change in the Tokyo metropolitan area using regional climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunematsu, N.; Dairaku, K.

    2011-12-01

    There is a possibility that the future atmospheric warming leads to more frequent heavy rainfall in the metropolitan area, thereby increasing the risk of floods. As part of REsearch Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, we started numerical model experiments for investigating the vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in water hazard assessments in the metropolitan area by the use of regional climate scenarios. The model experiments adopt dynamical downscaling techniques. Future climate projections obtained from regional climate model simulations at 20 km horizontal grid spacing are downscaled into finer grids (less than 5 km resolutions) of Regional Atmospheric Modeling System Version 6.0 modified by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED-RAMS). Prior to performing the dynamical downscaling experiments, the NIED-RAMS model biases are evaluated by comparing long-term surface meteorological observations with results of the model simulations that are carried out by using the Japanese Re-Analysis (JRA) data and Japan Meteorological Agency Meso-Scale Model outputs as the initial and boundary conditions.

  8. Modeling Airborne Gravimetry with High-Degree Harmonic Expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Simon; Wang, Yan Ming; Roman, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Since its official unveiling at the 2008 General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union, EGM2008 has demonstrated that high-degree harmonic expansions constitute a useful and effective final representation for high-resolution global gravitational models. However, such expansions also provide a versatile means of capturing (modeling), inter-comparing, and optimally combining local and regional high-resolution terrestrial data sets of different types. Here we present a general recipe for using high-degree expansions to capture, downward-continue and assimilate airborne survey data. This approach relies on the production of two ‘competing' high-degree expansions. A first, ‘terrestrial-only' expansion incorporates EGM2008 globally, and high-resolution terrestrial gravimetry regionally. This expansion can be used to upward-continue the regional terrestrial data to the flight level of the airborne survey, such that the terrestrial gravimetry outside the survey area can be merged with the airborne data inside the survey area, all at flight level. Harmonic analysis of this merged data set, also at flight level, yields a second ‘airborne-augmented' expansion, which closely matches the ‘terrestrial-only' expansion outside the survey area, but which also closely reproduces the airborne survey data inside the survey area. Capturing the airborne and terrestrial data in this way means that downward-continuation of the airborne data, as well as spectral/spatial comparison (and ultimate combination) of the airborne data with the terrestrial (and satellite) data, can all be achieved through spherical- and ellipsoidal-harmonic synthesis of these two competing expansions, and their spectral combination. This general approach is illustrated with a worked example.

  9. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  10. Overview of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Pfister, Leonhard

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATIREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, clouds, multiple gaseous tracers (CO, CO2, CH4, NMHC, SF6, CFCs, N2O), reactive chemical compounds (O3, BrO, NO2), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. ATTREX flight series have been conducted in the fall of 2011 from Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in California, in the winter of 2013 from AFRC, and in the winter/spring of 2014 from Guam. The first two f light series provided extensive sampling of the central and eastern Pacific, whereas the last flight series permitted sampling in the western Pacific. The sampling strategy has primarily involved repeated ascents and descents through the depth of the TTL (about 13-19 km). Over 100 TTL profiles were obtained on each flight series. The ATTREX dataset includes TTL water vapor measurements with unprecedented accuracy, ice crystal size distributions and habits. The cloud and water measurements provide unique information about TTL cloud formation, the persistence of supersaturation with respect to ice, and dehydration. The plethora of tracers measured on the Global Hawk flights are providing unique information about TTL transport pathways and time scales. The meteorological measurements are revealing dynamical phenomena controlling the TTL thermal structure, and the radiation measurements are providing information about heating rates associated with TTL clouds and water vapor. This presentation

  11. On the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Braun, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    In gravity field modeling, fused models that utilize satellite, airborne and terrestrial gravity observations are often employed to deal with erroneous terrestrially derived gravity datasets. These terrestrial datasets may suffer from long-wavelength systematic errors and inhomogeneous data coverage, which are not prevalent in airborne and satellite datasets. Airborne gravity acquisition plays an essential role in gravity field modeling, providing valuable information of the Earth's gravity field at medium and short wavelengths. Thus, assessing the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models is important for identifying problematic regions. Six study regions that represent different gravity field variability and terrestrial data point-density characteristics are investigated to quantify the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models. The numerical assessments of these representative regions resulted in predictions of airborne gravity impact for individual states and provinces in the USA and Canada, respectively. Prediction results indicate that, depending on the terrestrial data point-density and gravity field variability, the expected impact of airborne gravity can reach up to 3mGal (in terms of standard deviation) in Canada and Alaska (over areas of 1° × 1°). However, in the mainland US region, small changes are expected (0.2-0.4 mGal over areas of 1° × 1°) due to the availability of high spatial resolution terrestrial data. These results can serve as a guideline for setting airborne gravity data acquisition priorities and for improving future planning of airborne gravity surveys.

  12. On the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Braun, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    In gravity field modeling, fused models that utilize satellite, airborne and terrestrial gravity observations are often employed to deal with erroneous terrestrially derived gravity datasets. These terrestrial datasets may suffer from long-wavelength systematic errors and inhomogeneous data coverage, which are not prevalent in airborne and satellite datasets. Airborne gravity acquisition plays an essential role in gravity field modeling, providing valuable information of the Earth's gravity field at medium and short wavelengths. Thus, assessing the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models is important for identifying problematic regions. Six study regions that represent different gravity field variability and terrestrial data point-density characteristics are investigated to quantify the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models. The numerical assessments of these representative regions resulted in predictions of airborne gravity impact for individual states and provinces in the USA and Canada, respectively. Prediction results indicate that, depending on the terrestrial data point-density and gravity field variability, the expected impact of airborne gravity can reach up to 3mGal (in terms of standard deviation) in Canada and Alaska (over areas of 1° × 1°). However, in the mainland US region, small changes are expected (0.2-0.4 mGal over areas of 1° × 1°) due to the availability of high spatial resolution terrestrial data. These results can serve as a guideline for setting airborne gravity data acquisition priorities and for improving future planning of airborne gravity surveys.

  13. Airborne infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Geoffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of utilizing an IR imaging system to support flow visualization studies, an initial series of tests were conducted using an AN/AAS-38, NITE Hawk targeting pod. The targeting pod, installed on the left side of an F/A-18 aircraft provides a stabilized infrared imaging capability in the 8-12 micron spectral band. Initial data acquired with system indicated that IR thermography was a very promising tool for flow visualization. For the next phase of the investigation, an advanced version of the NITE Hawk targeting pod equipped with a staring 3-5 micron sensor was utilized. Experimental results obtained with this sensor indicated improved sensitivity and resolution. This method was limited to position the experiment and chase aircraft sufficiently close to each other and with the sightline angle required to acquire the region of interest. For the current phase of the investigation, the proven 3-5 micron staring sensor was deployed in an externally mounted podlet, located on the experimental aircraft with a fixed line of sight, centered on the region of interest. Based on initial data collection efforts, this approach appears to provide consistent high quality data for a wide range of flight conditions. To minimize the size of the podlet and resultant drag, the sensor was oriented parallel to the air flow. This also placed the line of sight parallel to the experiment. A fold mirror was incorporated in the design to fold the line of sight inboard and down to center on the region of interest. The experimental results obtained during the current test phase have provided consistently high quality images clearly mapping regions of laminar and turbulent flow. Several examples of these images and further details of the experimental approach are presented.

  14. Comparison of airborne passive and active L-band System (PALS) brightness temperature measurements to SMOS observations during the SMAP validation experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) campaign was to collect data for the pre-launch development and validation of SMAP soil moisture algorithms. SMAP is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) satellite mission designed for the m...

  15. CVB: the Constrained Vapor Bubble Capillary Experiment on the International Space Station MARANGONI FLOW REGION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Kundan, Akshay; Plawsky, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The Constrained Vapor Bubble (CVB) is a wickless, grooved heat pipe and we report on a full- scale fluids experiment flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The CVB system consists of a relatively simple setup a quartz cuvette with sharp corners partially filled with either pentane or an ideal mixture of pentane and isohexane as the working fluids. Along with temperature and pressure measurements, the two-dimensional thickness profile of the menisci formed at the corners of the quartz cuvette was determined using the Light Microscopy Module (LMM). Even with the large, millimeter dimensions of the CVB, interfacial forces dominate in these exceedingly small Bond Number systems. The experiments were carried out at various power inputs. Although conceptually simple, the transport processes were found to be very complex with many different regions. At the heated end of the CVB, due to a high temperature gradient, we observed Marangoni flow at some power inputs. This region from the heated end to the central drop region is defined as a Marangoni dominated region. We present a simple analysis based on interfacial phenomena using only measurements from the ISS experiments that lead to a predictive equation for the thickness of the film near the heated end of the CVB. The average pressure gradient for flow in the film is assumed due to the measured capillary pressure at the two ends of the liquid film and that the pressure stress gradient due to cohesion self adjusts to a constant value over a distance L. The boundary conditions are the no slip condition at the wall interface and an interfacial shear stress at the liquid- vapor interface due to the Marangoni stress, which is due to the high temperature gradient. Although the heated end is extremely complex, since it includes three- dimensional variations in radiation, conduction, evaporation, condensation, fluid flow and interfacial forces, we find that using the above simplifying assumptions, a simple successful

  16. Observations of Florida Convective Storms using Dual Wavelength Airborne Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Heymsfield, A. J.; Belcher, L.

    2004-01-01

    NASA conducted the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers (CRYSTAL) Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (FACE) during July 2002 for improved understanding of tropical cirrus. One of the goals was to improve the understanding of cirrus generation by convective updrafts. The reasons why some convective storms produce extensive cirrus anvils is only partially related to convective instability and the vertical transport ice mass by updrafts. Convective microphysics must also have an important role on cirrus generation, for example, there are hypotheses that homogeneous nucleation in convective updrafts is a major source of anvil ice particles. In this paper, we report on one intense CRYSTAL-FACE convective case on 16 July 2002 that produced extensive anvil. During CRYSTAL-FACE, up to 5 aircraft flying from low- to high-altitudes, were coordinated for the study of thunderstorm-generated cirrus. The NASA high-altitude (20 km) ER-2 aircraft with remote sensing objectives flew above the convection, and other aircraft such as the WB-57 performing in situ measurements flew below the ER-2. The ER-2 remote sensing instruments included two nadir viewing airborne radars. The CRS 94 GHz radar and the EDOP 9.6 GHz radar were flown together for the first time during CRYSTAL-FACE and they provided a unique opportunity to examine the structure of 16 July case from a dual-wavelength perspective. EDOP and CRS are complementary for studying convection and cirrus since CRS is more sensitive than EDOP for cirrus, and EDOP is considerably less attenuating in convective regions. In addition to the aircraft, coordinated ground-based radar measurements were taken with the NPOL S-Band (3 GHz) multiparameter radar. One of the initial goals was to determine whether dual-wavelength airborne measurements could identify supercooled water regions.

  17. High Resolution Regional Attenuation for the Source Physics Experiment Using Multiphase Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, M. L.; Walter, W. R.; Pasyanos, M.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic event amplitude measurement plays a critical role in the discrimination between earthquakes and explosions. An accurate 2D model of the attenuation experienced by seismic waves traveling through the earth is especially important for reasonable amplitude estimation at small event-to-station distances. In this study, we investigate the detailed attenuation structure in the region around southern Nevada as part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). The SPE consists of a series of chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) designed to improve our understanding of explosion physics and enable better modeling of explosion sources. Phase I of the SPE is currently being conducted in the Climax Stock Granite and Phase II will move to a contrasting dry alluvium geology. A high-resolution attenuation model will aid in the modeling efforts of these experiments. To improve our understanding of the propagation of energy from sources in the area to local and regional stations in the western U.S., we invert regional phases Pn, Pg, and Lg to examine the crust and upper mantle attenuation structure of southern Nevada and the surrounding region. We consider observed amplitudes as the frequency-domain product of a source term, a site term, a geometrical spreading term, and an attenuation (Q) term (e.g. Walter and Taylor, 2001). Initially we take a staged approach to first determine the best 1D Q values; next we calculate source terms using the 1D model, and finally we solve for the best 2D Q parameters and site terms considering all frequencies simultaneously. Our preliminary results agree generally with those from the continent-wide study by Pasyanos (2013). With additional data we are working to develop a more detailed and higher frequency model of the region as well as move toward a fully non-linear inversion.

  18. Design of a regional climate modelling projection ensemble experiment - NARCliM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. P.; Ji, F.; Lee, C.; Smith, P.; Argüeso, D.; Fita, L.

    2014-04-01

    Including the impacts of climate change in decision making and planning processes is a challenge facing many regional governments including the New South Wales (NSW) and Australian Capital Territory (ACT) governments in Australia. NARCliM (NSW/ACT Regional Climate Modelling project) is a regional climate modelling project that aims to provide a comprehensive and consistent set of climate projections that can be used by all relevant government departments when considering climate change. To maximise end user engagement and ensure outputs are relevant to the planning process, a series of stakeholder workshops were run to define key aspects of the model experiment including spatial resolution, time slices, and output variables. As with all such experiments, practical considerations limit the number of ensemble members that can be simulated such that choices must be made concerning which global climate models (GCMs) to downscale from, and which regional climate models (RCMs) to downscale with. Here a methodology for making these choices is proposed that aims to sample the uncertainty in both GCM and RCM ensembles, as well as spanning the range of future climate projections present in the GCM ensemble. The RCM selection process uses performance evaluation metrics to eliminate poor performing models from consideration, followed by explicit consideration of model independence in order to retain as much information as possible in a small model subset. In addition to these two steps the GCM selection process also considers the future change in temperature and precipitation projected by each GCM. The final GCM selection is based on a subjective consideration of the GCM independence and future change. The created ensemble provides a more robust view of future regional climate changes. Future research is required to determine objective criteria that could replace the subjective aspects of the selection process.

  19. Urban and regional land use analysis: CARETS and census cities experiment package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. (Principal Investigator); Pease, R. W.; Lins, H. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Successful tentative calibration permits computer programs to be written to convert Skylab thermal tapes into line-printed graymaps showing actual surface radiation temperature distributions at the time of imaging. The calibrations will be further checked when atmospheric soundings are available. Success of Skylab calibration suggests that satellite are feasible platforms for thermal scanning and provide a much broader geographical field of view than is possible with airborne platforms.

  20. Analysis of Airborne Radar Altimetry Measurements of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, Ellen J.

    1994-01-01

    This dissertation presents an analysis of airborne altimetry measurements taken over the Greenland ice sheet with the 13.9 GHz Advanced Application Flight Experiment (AAFE) pulse compression radar altimeter. This Ku-band instrument was refurbished in 1990 by the Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Massachusetts to obtain high-resolution altitude measurements and to improve the tracking, speed, storage and display capabilities of the radar. In 1991 and 1993, the AAFE altimeter took part in the NASA Multisensor Airborne Altimetry Experiments over Greenland, along with two NASA laser altimeters. Altitude results from both experiments are presented along with comparisons to the laser altimeter and calibration passes over the Sondrestroem runway in Greenland. Although it is too early to make a conclusion about the growth or decay of the ice sheet, these results show that the instrument is capable of measuring small-scale surface changes to within 14 centimeters. In addition, results from these experiments reveal that the radar is sensitive to the different diagenetic regions of the ice sheet. Return waveforms from the wet- snow, percolation and dry-snow zones show varying effects of both surface scattering and sub-surface or volume scattering. Models of each of the diagenetic regions of Greenland are presented along with parameters such as rms surface roughness, rms surface slope and attenuation coefficient of the snow pack obtained by fitting the models to actual return waveforms.

  1. Research on airborne infrared leakage detection of natural gas pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Dongjie; Xu, Bin; Xu, Xu; Wang, Hongchao; Yu, Dongliang; Tian, Shengjie

    2011-12-01

    An airborne laser remote sensing technology is proposed to detect natural gas pipeline leakage in helicopter which carrying a detector, and the detector can detect a high spatial resolution of trace of methane on the ground. The principle of the airborne laser remote sensing system is based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The system consists of an optical unit containing the laser, camera, helicopter mount, electronic unit with DGPS antenna, a notebook computer and a pilot monitor. And the system is mounted on a helicopter. The principle and the architecture of the airborne laser remote sensing system are presented. Field test experiments are carried out on West-East Natural Gas Pipeline of China, and the results show that airborne detection method is suitable for detecting gas leak of pipeline on plain, desert, hills but unfit for the area with large altitude diversification.

  2. Autonomous Aircraft Operations using RTCA Guidelines for Airborne Conflict Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Wing, David J.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Johnson, Edward J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the feasibility of DAG-TM autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained airspace. The airspace was constrained by a pair of special-use airspace (SUA) regions on either side of the pilot's planned route. Traffic flow management (TFM) constraints were imposed as a required time of arrival and crossing altitude at an en route fix. Key guidelines from the RTCA Airborne Conflict Management (ACM) concept were applied to autonomous aircraft operations for this experiment. These concepts included the RTCA ACM definitions of distinct conflict detection and collision avoidance zones, and the use of a graded system of conflict alerts for the flight crew. Three studies were conducted in the course of the experiment. The first study investigated the effect of hazard proximity upon pilot ability to meet constraints and solve conflict situations. The second study investigated pilot use of the airborne tools when faced with an unexpected loss of separation (LOS). The third study explored pilot interactions in an over-constrained conflict situation, with and without priority rules dictating who should move first. Detailed results from these studies were presented at the 5th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar (ATM2003). This overview paper focuses on the integration of the RTCA ACM concept into autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained situations, and provides an overview of the results presented at the ATM2003 seminar. These results, together with previously reported studies, continue to support the feasibility of autonomous aircraft operations.

  3. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  4. Airborne radioactive contamination monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, C.R.; Adams, J.R.; Bounds, J.A.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-03-01

    Current technologies for the detection of airborne radioactive contamination do not provide real-time capability. Most of these techniques are based on the capture of particulate matter in air onto filters which are then processed in the laboratory; thus, the turnaround time for detection of contamination can be many days. To address this shortcoming, an effort is underway to adapt LRAD (Long-Range-Alpha-Detection) technology for real-time monitoring of airborne releases of alpa-emitting radionuclides. Alpha decays in air create ionization that can be subsequently collected on electrodes, producing a current that is proportional to the amount of radioactive material present. Using external fans on a pipe containing LRAD detectors, controlled samples of ambient air can be continuously tested for the presence of radioactive contamination. Current prototypes include a two-chamber model. Sampled air is drawn through a particulate filter and then through the first chamber, which uses an electrostatic filter at its entrance to remove ambient ionization. At its exit, ionization that occurred due to the presence of radon is collected and recorded. The air then passes through a length of pipe to allow some decay of short-lived radon species. A second chamber identical to the first monitors the remaining activity. Further development is necessary on air samples without the use of particulate filtering, both to distinguish ionization that can pass through the initial electrostatic filter on otherwise inert particulate matter from that produced through the decay of radioactive material and to separate both of these from the radon contribution. The end product could provide a sensitive, cost-effective, real-time method of determining the presence of airborne radioactive contamination.

  5. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  6. Airborne LIDAR Measurements of Water Vapor, Ozone, Clouds, and Aerosols in the Tropics Near Central America During the TC4 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kooi, Susan; Fenn, Marta; Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard; Hair, John; Browell, Edward; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn; Burton, Sharon; Simpson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Large scale distributions of ozone, water vapor, aerosols, and clouds were measured throughout the troposphere by two NASA Langley lidar systems on board the NASA DC-8 aircraft as part of the Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4) over Central and South America and adjacent oceans in the summer of 2007. Special emphasis was placed on the sampling of convective outflow and transport, sub-visible cirrus clouds, boundary layer aerosols, Saharan dust, volcanic emissions, and urban and biomass burning plumes. This paper presents preliminary results from this campaign, and demonstrates the value of coordinated measurements by the two lidar systems.

  7. Airborne nanoparticle exposures while using constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain-isolated fume hoods.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Jung Candace; Huang, Rong Fung; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Tsai et al. (Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods. J Nanopart Res 2009; 11: 147-61) found that the handling of dry nanoalumina and nanosilver inside laboratory fume hoods can cause a significant release of airborne nanoparticles from the hood. Hood design affects the magnitude of release. With traditionally designed fume hoods, the airflow moves horizontally toward the hood cupboard; the turbulent airflow formed in the worker wake region interacts with the vortex in the constant-flow fume hood and this can cause nanoparticles to be carried out with the circulating airflow. Airborne particle concentrations were measured for three hood designs (constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain hoods) using manual handling of nanoalumina particles. The hood operator's airborne nanoparticle breathing zone exposure was measured over the size range from 5 nm to 20 mum. Experiments showed that the exposure magnitude for a constant-flow hood had high variability. The results for the constant-velocity hood varied by operating conditions, but were usually very low. The performance of the air-curtain hood, a new design with significantly different airflow pattern from traditional hoods, was consistent under all operating conditions and release was barely detected. Fog tests showed more intense turbulent airflow in traditional hoods and that the downward airflow from the double-layered sash to the suction slot of the air-curtain hood did not cause turbulence seen in other hoods. PMID:19933309

  8. Sulfate Regional Experiment: data base inventory and summary of major index file programs. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, P.K.; Hidy, G.M.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the composition and format of the SURE data base and is meant to be a supplement to Section 4 of the Sulfate Regional Experiment, Report of Findings, EPRI Report EA-1901. It is the purpose of this document to provide a prospective user of the SURE data base with a listing of the percent data capture of the currently available validated data by site and month for each observable, a summary of major files and programs used to access and manipulate the data, and a format description of all data files incorporated into the data base. A prospective user may request data from four categories: ground station monitored air quality data, aircraft monitored air quality data, upper air and surface meteorological observations, and the emissions inventory compiled for the SURE region.

  9. SEA monitoring in Swedish regional transport infrastructure plans - Improvement opportunities identified in practical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, K.; Balfors, B.; Folkeson, L.; Nilsson, M.

    2010-11-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) requires monitoring in order to identify unforeseen adverse effects and to enable appropriate remedial action to be taken. Guidelines on how to monitor significant environmental impacts have been developed but experience from practice is limited. This paper presents a study of environmental monitoring in Swedish regional transport infrastructure planning. The result shows that essentially no environmental monitoring is currently performed. Monitoring of the plans merely involves checking the implementation of projects and performing an economic account. At present, a new planning period has commenced for the regional transport infrastructure plans. To obtain an iterative SEA process for the new plan with integrated SEA monitoring, the following means are suggested: reinforcement of practitioners' incentives to plan and perform monitoring; integration of monitoring in the SEA process; pre-determined impact thresholds that prompt remedial action; and more efficient use of monitoring results.

  10. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  11. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  12. [Experience in the use of laser instruments in surgery of the anorectal region].

    PubMed

    Skobelkin, O K; Brekhov, E I; Ul'ianov, V I; Tolstykh, P I; Kochurkov, N V; Sten'ko, V G; Derbenev, V A; Tsvik, A M; Itskovich, L N

    1989-10-01

    The article discusses experience in surgical treatment of 480 patients with the most common diseases of the anorectal region (acute and chronic haemorrhoids, acute and chronic paraproctitis, polyps, chronic fissures of the anal canal) in which special laser tools were used. The carbonic acid laser Skalpel-1 with a wave length of 10.6 microns and power of 30 W was used as the source of laser radiation. Methods of operations with the use of these tools are described in detail. The advantages of laser instruments in the treatment of patients with the above listed diseases are shown on a rich clinical material. PMID:2593578

  13. Airborne source localization in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhaohui; Wang, Guangxu

    2012-11-01

    Owing to the great difference of acoustic characteristic impedance between air and water, the sound transmission loss from an airborne source into water is very high. So, it is very difficult to do experimental research on air-to-water sound propagation. An experiment was conducted for air-to-water sound propagation in the South China Sea in 2010. A HLA placed on the sea bottom was used to receive signals sent by a high-power loudspeaker hung on a research ship floating 1km to 4km away from the HLA. The locations of airborne sources are estimated from the signals measured by the HLA. The estimated DOA and ranges are in agreement with the GPS records.

  14. To the Extremes! A Teacher Research Experience Program in the Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, J.; Bartholow, S.

    2014-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a teacher professional development program, began with the International Polar Year in 2004 and continues today in the United States. In 2007, the National Science Foundation designated PolarTREC as potentially transformative, meaning that the "research results often do not fit within established models or theories and may initially be unexpected or difficult to interpret; their transformative nature and utility might not be recognized until years later." PolarTREC brings U.S. K-12 educators and polar researchers together through an innovative teacher research experience model. Teachers spend three to six weeks in remote arctic and Antarctic field camps. Since 2007, over 100 teachers have been placed in field experiences throughout the Arctic and Antarctic and with half of them participating in field experiences in Antarctica. During their experience, teachers become research team members filling a variety of roles on the team. They also fulfil a unique role of public outreach officer, conducting live presentations about their field site and research as well as journaling, answering questions, and posting photos. Evaluation data collected over the past eight years on program participants shows that PolarTREC has clearly achieved it goals and strongly suggests programs that link teachers and researchers can have the potential to transform the nature of science education. By giving teachers the content knowledge, pedagogical tools, confidence, understanding of science in the broader society, and experiences with scientific inquiry, participating teachers are using authentic scientific research in their classrooms. Not surprisingly this has also led to increases in student interest and knowledge about the Polar Regions. In this presentation, we will highlight the best practices of teacher research experiences as well as discuss why it is vital to have teachers and researchers work together to communicate

  15. Airborne trichloramine (NCl(3)) levels and self-reported health symptoms in indoor swimming pool workers: dose-response relationships.

    PubMed

    Fantuzzi, Guglielmina; Righi, Elena; Predieri, Guerrino; Giacobazzi, Pierluigi; Petra, Berchotd; Aggazzotti, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that attendance at indoor chlorinated swimming pool is a risk factor for irritative ocular and respiratory symptoms and bronchial asthma is well known in literature, although epidemiological evidence is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between airborne trichloramine (NCl(3)) levels and irritative symptoms in swimming pool employees in order to obtain detailed data regarding dose-response relationships and to identify the airborne NCl(3) exposure level, if any, without health effects. A total of 20 indoor swimming pools in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy were included in the study. Information about the health status of 128 employees was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Exposure to airborne NCl(3) was evaluated in indoor swimming pools by a modified DPD/KI method. The results of the study evidenced a mean value of airborne NCl(3) of 0.65±0.20 mg/m(3) (ranging from 0.20 to 1.02 mg/m(3)). Both ocular and upper respiratory symptoms, in particular red eyes, runny nose, voice loss and cold symptoms, were declared more frequently by lifeguards and trainers when compared with employees working in other areas of the facility (office, cafe, and so on). Pool attendants exposed to airborne NCl(3) levels of >0.5 mg/m(3) experienced higher risks for runny nose (OR: 2.91; 95% CI: 1.22-6.93) red eyes (OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.46-6.82), voice loss (OR: 3.56; 95% CI: 1.60-7.95) and itchy eyes (OR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.04-4.78) than other employees. Moreover, red eyes, itchy eyes, runny nose and voice loss are related to airborne NCl(3) levels, with strong dose-response relationships. In conclusion, this study shows that lifeguards and trainers experience ocular and respiratory irritative symptoms more frequently than employees not exposed. Irritative symptoms become significant starting from airborne NCl(3) levels of >0.5 mg/m(3), confirming that the WHO-recommended value can be considered protective in

  16. Estimating fire radiative power obscuration by tree canopies through laboratory experiments: Estimating fire radiative energy in a longleaf pine forest from airborne thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, William

    Remote sensing has been proven as a useful tool in characterizing the effects of fire on a landscape scale. The radiant energy released during biomass burning can be measured remotely, and is directly related to the rate biomass consumed from the fire. This is an important measurement as it can characterize fire effects on the ground along with provide important information about the amount of gases produced by the fire. One source of error associated with estimating the fire radiative energy (FRE) remotely is the obscuration of the signal by the forest canopy. We quantify the relationship between canopy cover and the amount of energy observed by a sensor rom laboratory experiments. A prescribed fire was conducted in northwestern Florida and a suite of pre-, active, and post-fire measurements were taken by an interdisciplinary team. From those data we measured the amount of biomass consumed by the fire FRE estimates.

  17. Airborne transmission of lyssaviruses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N; Phillpotts, R; Fooks, A R

    2006-06-01

    In 2002, a Scottish bat conservationist developed a rabies-like disease and subsequently died. This was caused by infection with European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2), a virus closely related to Rabies virus (RABV). The source of this infection and the means of transmission have not yet been confirmed. In this study, the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, particularly RABV and the bat variant EBLV-2, might be transmitted via the airborne route was tested. Mice were challenged via direct introduction of lyssavirus into the nasal passages. Two hours after intranasal challenge with a mouse-adapted strain of RABV (Challenge Virus Standard), viral RNA was detectable in the tongue, lungs and stomach. All of the mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation developed disease signs by 7 days post-infection. Two out of five mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation of EBLV-2 developed disease between 16 and 19 days post-infection. In addition, a simple apparatus was evaluated in which mice could be exposed experimentally to infectious doses of lyssavirus from an aerosol. Using this approach, mice challenged with RABV, but not those challenged with EBLV-2, were highly susceptible to infection by inhalation. These data support the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, and RABV in particular, can be spread by airborne transmission in a dose-dependent manner. This could present a particular hazard to personnel exposed to aerosols of infectious RABV following accidental release in a laboratory environment. PMID:16687600

  18. Airborne flux measurements and budget estimates of trace species over the Amazon Basin during the GTE/ABLE 2B expedition. [Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, John A.; Barrick, John D. W.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, Gerald F.; Lenschow, Donald H.

    1990-01-01

    In situ airborne measurements of turbulent heat, moisture, momentum, ozone, and carbon monoxide fluxes in a convective boundary layer were obtained over a tropical rain forest between 1100 and 1630 LT on May 4, 1987. The aircraft flight path was chosen so as to fly over the tower site at the Ducke Forest Reserve near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Both turbulence statistics and mean quantities were used to study the budgets of heat, water vapor, ozone, and carbon monoxide. The ozone budget study shows an accumulation rate in the boundary layer of 0.3 + or - 0.2 ppbv/h. The surface resistance to ozone during this flight was determined to be 0.06 + or - 0.03 s/cm, while the aerodynamic resistance was 0.14-0.17 s/cm. Results from the CO budget analysis show a midday accumulation rate of 0.6 + or - 0.3 ppbv/h in the Amazonian boundary layer. The evidence suggests production of CO in the PBL. A source of CO may exist below the lowest flight level (about 150 m), although it was not possible to determine what part of the flux at flight level was due to chemical production and what part may be due to surface emission.

  19. An Assessment of the Surface Longwave Direct Radiative Effect of Airborne Dust in Zhangye China During the Asian Monsoon Year Field Experiment (2008)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansell, Richard A.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Holben, Brent N.; Ellsworth, Welton J.; Roush, Ted L.; Zhang, Wu; Huang, J.; Li, Zhanquing; Chen, Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    Tiny suspensions of solid particles or liquid droplets, called aerosols, hover in earth's atmosphere and can be found over just about anywhere including oceans, deserts, vegetated areas, and other global regions. Aerosols come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and compositions which depend on such factors as their origin and how long they have been in the atmosphere (i.e., their residence time). Some of the more common types of aerosols include mineral dust and sea salt which get lifted from the desert and ocean surfaces, respectively by mechanical forces such as strong winds. Depending on their size, aerosols will either fall out gravitationally, as in the case of larger particles, or will remain resident in the atmosphere where they can undergo further change through interactions with other aerosols and cloud particles. Not only do aerosols affect air quality where they pose a health risk, they can also perturb the distribution of radiation in the earth-atmosphere system which can inevitably lead to changes in our climate. One aerosol that has been in the forefront of many recent studies, particularly those examining its radiative effects, is mineral dust. The large spatial coverage of desert source regions and the fact that dust can radiatively interact with such a large part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to its range in particle size, makes it an important aerosol to study. Dust can directly scatter and absorb solar and infrared radiation which can subsequently alter the amount of radiation that would otherwise be present in the absence of dust at any level of the atmosphere like the surface. This is known as radiative forcing. At the surface dust can block incoming solar energy, however at infrared wavelengths, dust acts to partially compensate the solar losses. Evaluating the solar radiative effect of dust aerosols is relatively straightforward due in part to the relatively large signal-to-noise ratio in the measurements. At infrared wavelengths, on the

  20. Biomass burning layers measured with an airborne Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimerl, K.; Weinzierl, B.; Minikin, A.; Sauer, D. N.; Fütterer, D.; Lichtenstern, M.; Schlager, H.; Schwarz, J. P.; Markovic, M. Z.; Perring, A. E.; Fahey, D. W.; Huntrieser, H.

    2013-12-01

    The 2012 wildfire season in the U.S. was one of the worst in the past decade. Coinciding with the period of intense wildfires in the western U.S., the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment took place in the central U.S. in May and June of 2012. Although the main goal of this experiment was to characterize chemical processes in and around thunderstorms, biomass burning plumes from wildfires were also measured during almost every flight. Measurements were performed with three different research aircraft (NCAR GV, NASA DC8 and DLR Falcon 20E), accompanied by ground based measurements with radars and radiosondes, and measurements of meteorological parameters and lightning. The instrumentation aboard the DLR Falcon included measurements of the trace gases NO, CO, O3, CO2, CH4, SO2, volatile organic compounds, and a variety of aerosol microphysical parameters. To cover a wide range of aerosol particle sizes, the DLR Falcon payload included optical particle counters (UHSAS-A, FSSP-300, FSSP-100, PCASP-100X/SPP-200 and Sky-OPC 1.129), a multi-channel CPC system for measuring total and non-volatile particle concentrations and, for absorbing particles, a three-wavelength PSAP and a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). We will focus on the latter in this presentation. The SP2 measures both the mass of refractory black carbon (rBC) particles as well as their optical size, providing information about the mixing state of particles in the biomass burning layers. Most biomass burning layers were found between 3 and 8 km altitude. We will discuss measurements of plumes originating from New Mexico wildfires (Little Bear wildfire on June 11th of 2012 and Whitewater-Baldy wildfire on May 29th and 30th of 2012). Peaks of the rBC mass concentration in the plumes were as high as 2μg/m3, the fraction of rBC particles with thick coatings was higher than what is usually found in the boundary layer. During the Falcon transfer flights from Germany to the U.S. and back

  1. A regional and multi-faceted approach to postgraduate water education - the WaterNet experience in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonker, L.; van der Zaag, P.; Gumbo, B.; Rockström, J.; Love, D.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2012-11-01

    This paper reports the experience of a regional network of academic departments involved in water education that started as a project and evolved, over a period of 12 yr, into an independent network organisation. The paper pursues three objectives. First, it argues that it makes good sense to organise postgraduate education and research on water resources on a regional scale and presents the WaterNet experience as an example that a regional approach can work. Second, it presents preliminary findings and conclusions that the regional approach presented by WaterNet did make a contribution to the capacity needs of the region both in terms of management and research capacity. Third, it draws two generalised lessons from the WaterNet experience. Lesson one pertains to the importance of legitimate ownership and an accountability structure for network effectiveness. Lesson two is related to the financial and intellectual resources required to jointly developing educational programmes through shared experience.

  2. Test-sites for earthquake prediction experiments within the Colli Albani region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, F.; Calcara, M.

    In this paper we discuss some geochemical data gathered by discrete and continuous monitoring during the 1995-1996 period, carried out for earthquake prediction test-experiments throughout the Colli Albani quiescent volcano, seat of seismicity, selecting some gas discharge sites with peri-volcanic composition. In particular we stressed the results obtained at the continuous geochemical monitoring station (GMS I, BAR site), designed by ING for geochemical surveillance of seismic events. The 12/6/1995 (M=3.6-3.8) Roma earthquake together with the 3/11/1995 (M=3.1) Tivoli earthquake was the most energetic events within the Colli Albani - Roma area, after the beginning of the continuous monitoring (1991) up today: strict correlation between these seismic events and fluid geochemical anomalies in groundwater has been discovered (temperature, Eh, 222Rn, CO 2, NH 3). Separation at depth of a vapour phase, rich in reducing-acidic gases (CO 2, H 2S, etc...), from a hyper-saline brine, within the deep geothermal reservoir is hypothesised to explain the geochemical anomalies: probably the transtensional episodes accompanying the seismic sequences caused an increasing and/or triggering of the phase-separation process and fluid migration, on the regional scale of the Western sector of the Colli Albani, beyond the seismogenic depth (2-4 Km) up to surface. We draw the state of art of GMS II monitoring prototype and the selection criteria of test-sites for earthquake prediction experiments in the Colli Albani region.

  3. Airborne eddy covariance measurements of methane over mid-latitude and sub-Arctic wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, T.; Hartmann, J.

    2011-12-01

    Methane fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere are highly variable in space and time. This is especially valid for wetlands, which are often characterized by extremely small-scale spatial heterogeneity. While closed chambers and eddy covariance methods are well suited for identifying individual contributions from micro-sites, for local process studies, for controlled experiments, and for investigating the temporal variability of fluxes, they may not necessarily be representative of larger spatial scales and of resolving interactions between methane emissions and boundary layer processes. A comprehensive assessment of the role of natural wetlands in atmospheric CH4 dynamics would thus benefit greatly from regional, i.e. airborne flux and concentrations measurements. Airborne measurements allow sufficiently large spatial coverage and may therefore be significantly more representative than sparse ground-based measurements, especially in remote and extensive northern wetlands and permafrost areas. In June 2011 we used a Los Gatos RMT-200 Fast Methane Analyzer and the onboard turbulence nose boom of the Polar-5 research aircraft to conduct airborne eddy covariance measurements of methane emissions over a variety of anthropogenic and natural targets. These included rewetted areas in northeastern Germany and extensive boreal and sub-Arctic wetlands in near Hyytiälä, Sodankylä, and Kaamanen in Finland. We will present preliminary results obtained during repeated survey flights along flight tracks of several kilometers to tens of kilometers.

  4. Airborne and ground based CCN spectral characteristics: Inferences from CAIPEEX - 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Mercy; Prabha, Thara V.; Malap, Neelam; Resmi, E. A.; Murugavel, P.; Safai, P. D.; Axisa, Duncan; Pandithurai, G.; Dani, K.

    2016-01-01

    A first time comprehensive study of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) and associated spectra from both airborne and ground campaigns of the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) conducted over the rain shadow region of Western Ghats during September and October 2011 is illustrated. Observations of CCN spectra during clean, polluted and highly polluted conditions indicated significant differences between airborne and ground observations. Vertical variation of CCN concentration is illustrated from airborne observations in the clean, polluted and highly polluted conditions with different air mass characteristics. The cloud base CCN number concentrations are three times less than that of the surface measurements at different supersaturations. Diurnal variations of the ground based CCN number concentration and activation diameter showed bimodality. Atmospheric mixing in the wet conditions is mainly through mechanical mixing. The dry conditions favored convective mixing and were dominated by more CCN than the wet conditions. New particle formation and growth events have been observed and were found more often on days with convective mixing. The average critical activation diameter (at 0.6% SS) observed at the ground is approximately 60 nm and availability of a large number of particles below this limit was due to the new particle formation. Observations give convincing evidence that the precipitable water and liquid water path is inversely proportional to surface CCN number concentration, and this relationship is largely dictated by the meteorological conditions.

  5. Which incentive package will retain regionalized health personnel in Burkina Faso: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of motivation of health workers to practice in rural areas remains a crucial problem for decision-makers, as it deprives the majority of access to health care. To solve the problem, many countries have implemented health worker retention strategies. However, the development of such strategies requires an understanding of the preferences of health workers. The objective of the study was to identify a package for attracting and retaining health workers in underserved areas. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in three health regions of Burkina Faso in 2012. A discrete choice experiment was used to investigate preferences for incentive packages among health workers recruited under the regionalized policy. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health workers currently working in the East and Sahel regions and policy makers, and a literature review on attraction and retention in low income countries, were performed to identify the attributes and levels. These attributes were: the regionalized recruitment policy, health insurance, work equipment, housing, and specific incentive compensation. The final design resulted in 16 choice sets. A multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on choice of a given option. A probit logistic regression model was then used to analyze the effect of these difference variables on choice, to identify the incentive package best suited to health workers. In total, questionnaires were administered to 315 regional health workers. Results For all participants, choice of package was strongly influenced by length of commitment under the policy and provision of housing. Sex, number of years in profession, and location also influenced the choice of package. Women are twice more likely to choose a package with free housing and the cancellation of the policy. Conclusion It is important that governments consider health worker preferences in

  6. Experiments on movement of DNA regions in Escherichia coli evaluated by computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Roos, M; Lingeman, R; Woldringh, C L; Nanninga, N

    2001-01-01

    During the cell cycle of Escherichia coli DNA is replicated and segregated over two prospective daughter cells. Nucleoids as a whole separate gradually in line with cell elongation, but sub-nucleoid DNA regions may behave differently, separating non-gradually. We tested the ability of three models to predict the outcome of a fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) experiment. We did this by comparing computer-simulated data with experimental data. The first model predicts gradual separation in line with cell elongation. The second model predicts that origins stick together for some time after duplication before one copy jumps to the other side of the cell (non-gradual separation). The simulated data of these models are very similar, indicating that FISH is not a suitable method to distinguish between these two models. The third model predicts that origins may be anywhere within the nucleoid(s). We found that simulated data using the third model resemble the experimental data most. However, DNA regions are not randomly localised in the cell, although their localisation is fuzzy. We propose that movement of DNA regions is the result of a combination of factors. Nucleoid segregation (or the forces behind it) dictates the overall direction of movement. Other factors, of which we show that diffusion could be an important one, move DNA in other directions giving rise to non-gradual movement in individual cells and contributing to variation in intracellular position per cell length in a population of cells. PMID:11254977

  7. The VOCALS Regional Experiment: Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions in Marine Boundary Layer Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, R.

    2012-12-01

    Robert Wood, C.S. Bretherton, C. R. Mechoso, R. A. Weller, B. J. Huebert, H. Coe, B. A. Albrecht, P. H. Daum, D. Leon, A. Clarke, P. Zuidema, C. W. Fairall, G. Allen, S. deSzoeke, G. Feingold, J. Kazil, S. Yuter, R. George, A. Berner, C. Terai, G. Painter, H. Wang, M. Wyant, D. Mechem The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) is an international field program designed to make observations of poorly understood but critical components of the coupled climate system of the southeast Pacific (SEP), a region dominated by strong coastal upwelling, extensive cold SSTs, and home to the largest subtropical stratocumulus deck on Earth. VOCALS-REx took place during October and November 2008 and involved five research aircraft, two ships and two surface sites in northen Chile. A central theme of VOCALS-REx is the improved understanding of links between aerosols, clouds and precipitation and their impacts on marine stratocumulus radiative properties. In this presentation, we will present a synthesis of results from VOCALS-REx focusing on the following questions: (a) how are aerosols, clouds and precipitation inter-related in the SEP region? (b) what microphysical-macrophysical interactions are necessary for the formation and maintenance of open cells? (c) how do cloud and MBL properties change across the strong microphysical gradients from the South American coast to the remote ocean?

  8. Synoptic meteorology and transport during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) intensive: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, John T.; Moody, Jennie L.

    1996-12-01

    Analyses of meteorological conditions during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) intensive period, defined here as August 1 through September 13, 1993, indicate that transport in the study region in Nova Scotia was influenced by several well-defined synoptic disturbances (weak frontal passages or troughs) and by intervening periods of slowly varying transport conditions. Using trajectory analysis, synoptic charts, and other meteorological products, we have characterized these conditions and indicated the transitions in transport in relation to the synoptic scale meteorological situation. The ideal meteorological scenario for delivering pollution plumes from the U.S. East Coast urban areas over the Gulf of Maine to the Maritime Provinces of Canada is shown to be warm sector flow ahead of an advancing cold front. In addition, for two of these frontal passages we have discussed some of the smaller-scale effects which appear to have influenced the transport and or the composition of air masses reaching the NARE intensive region. Finally, we compare the conditions actually encountered during the field campaign with our idealized conceptual model of warm sector transport.

  9. Airborne measurements of solar and planetary near ultraviolet radiation during the NASA/ESA CV-900 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivjee, G. G.

    1977-01-01

    Results from a comparative study of the feasibility of employing experiment operators on the space shuttle to acquire scientifically worthwhile data are presented. The experiments performed during these tests included spectral observations of the Sun and Venus in the near ultraviolet region. The solar measurements were analyzed to determine ozone abundance in the terrestrial atmosphere. Using a detailed spectral matching technique to compare airborne solar UV measurements with synthetic spectral profiles of sunlight, it is deduced that in winter the total atmospheric ozone abundance is about 0.33 atm/cm at midlatitudes in the northern hemisphere.

  10. Airborne electromagnetic hydrocarbon mapping in Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffhuber, Andreas A.; Monstad, Ståle; Rudd, Jonathan

    2009-09-01

    The Inhaminga hydrocarbon exploration licence in central Mozambique sets the location for a multi-method airborne geophysical survey. The size of the Inhaminga block, spanning some 16500km2 from Beira to the Zambezi, limited available data and a tight exploration schedule made an airborne survey attractive for the exploration portfolio. The aim of the survey was to map hydrocarbon seepage zones based on the evidence that seepage may create resistivity, radiometric and sometimes magnetic anomalies. The survey involved a helicopter-borne time domain electromagnetic induction system (AEM) and a fixed wing magnetic gradiometer and radiometer. Our data analysis highlights an anomaly extending some tens of kilometres through the survey area along the eastern margin of the Urema Graben. The area is imaged by AEM as a shallow resistive unit below a strong surface conductor and shows high Uranium and low Potassium concentrations (normalised to mean Thorium ratios). A seismic dimming zone on a 2D seismic line crossing the area coincides with the resistivity and radiometric anomaly. The geological exploration model expects seepage to be linked to the graben fault systems and an active seep has been sampled close to the anomaly. We thus interpret this anomaly to be associated with a gas seepage zone. Further geological ground work and seismic investigations are planned to assess this lead. Airborne data has further improved the general understanding of the regional geology allowing spatial mapping of faults and other features from 2D seismic lines crossing the survey area.

  11. Airborne Infrared Spectrograph for Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, L.; Cheimets, P.; DeLuca, E. E.; Samra, J.; Judge, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    Direct measurements of the coronal magnetic field have significant potential to enhance our understanding of coronal dynamics, and improve forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of coronal field lines in the Transition Corona, the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on eruptive instabilities and on the origin of the slow solar wind. While current instruments routinely observe the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, the proposed airborne spectrometer will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. The targeted lines are five forbidden magnetic dipole transitions between 1.4 and 4 um. The airborne system will consist of a telescope, grating spectrometer and pointing/stabilization system to be flown on the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) during the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse. We will discuss the scientific objectives of the 2017 flight, describe details of the instrument design, and present the observing program for the eclipse.

  12. Integrated Airborne and In-Situ Measurements Over Land-Fast Ice Near Barrow, AK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. M.; Brozena, J. M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Abelev, A.; Liang, R.; Ball, D.; Claffey, K. J.; Hebert, D. A.; Jones, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory has collected two field seasons of integrated airborne and in-situ measurements over multiple sites of floating, but land-fast ice north of Barrow, AK. During the first season in March of 2014 the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory led the on-ice group including NRL personnel and Naval Academy midshipmen. The second season (March 2015) included only NRL scientists and midshipmen. The in-situ data provided ground-truth for airborne measurements from a scanning LiDAR (Riegl Q 560i), digital photogrammetry (Applanix DSS-439), a low-frequency SAR (P-band in 2014 and P and L bands in 2015) and a snow/Ku radar procured from the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets of the University of Kansas. The CReSIS radar was updated in 2015 to integrate the snow and Ku radars into a single continuous chirp, thus improving resolution. The objective of the survey was to aid our understanding of the use of the airborne data to calibrate/validate Cryosat-2 data. Sampling size or "footprint" plays a critical role in the attempt to compare in-situ measurements with airborne (or satellite) measurements. Thus the in-situ data were arranged to minimize aliasing. Ground measurements were collected along transects a sites generally consisting of a 2 km long profile of Magnaprobe and EM31 measurements with periodic boreholes. A 60 m x 400 m swath of Magnaprobe measurements was centered on this profile. Airborne data were collected on multiple overflights of the transect areas. The LiDAR measured total freeboard (ice + snow) referenced to leads in the ice, and produced swaths 200-300 m wide. The SAR imaged the ice beneath the snow and the snow/Ku radar measured snow thickness. The freeboard measurements and snow thickness are used to estimate ice thickness via isostasy and density estimates. Comparisons and processing methodology will be shown. The results of this ground-truth experiment will inform our analysis of grids of airborne data collected

  13. Integrated Airborne and In-Situ Measurements over Land-Fast Ice near Barrow, AK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozena, J. M.; Gardner, J. M.; Liang, R.; Ball, D.; Richter-Menge, J.; Claffey, K. J.; Abelev, A.; Hebert, D. A.; Jones, K.

    2014-12-01

    During March of 2014, the Naval Research Laboratory and the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory collected an integrated set of airborne and in-situ measurements over two areas of floating, but land-fast ice near the coast of Barrow, AK. The near-shore site was just north of Point Barrow, and the "offshore" site was ~ 20 km east of Point Barrow. The in-situ data provided ground-truth for airborne measurements from a scanning LiDAR (Riegl Q 560i), digital photogrammetry (Applanix DSS-439) and a snow radar procured from the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets of the University of Kansas. The objective of the survey was to aid our understanding of the use of the airborne data to calibrate/validate Cryosat-2 data. Sampling size or "footprint" plays a critical role in the attempt to compare in-situ measurements with airborne (or satellite) measurements. Thus the in-situ data were arranged to minimize aliasing. Ground measurements were collected along transects at both sites consisting of a 2 km long profile of snow depth and ice thickness measurements with periodic boreholes. A 60 m x 400 m swath of snow depth measurements was centered on this profile. Airborne data were collected on five overflights of the two transect areas. The LiDAR measured total freeboard (ice + snow) referenced to leads in the ice, and produced swaths 200-300 m wide. The radar measured snow thickness. The freeboard and snow thickness measurements are used to estimate ice thickness via isostasy and density estimates. The central swath of in situ snow depth data allows examination of the effects of cross-track variations considering the relatively large footprint of the snow radar. Assuming a smooth, flat surface the radar range resolution in air is < 4 cm, but the along-track sampling distance is ~ 3 m after unfocussed SAR processing. The width of the footprint varies from ~ 9 m up to about 40 m (beam-limited) for uneven surfaces. However, the radar could not resolve snow thickness

  14. Processor architecture for airborne SAR systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Digital processors for spaceborne imaging radars and application of the technology developed for airborne SAR systems are considered. Transferring algorithms and implementation techniques from airborne to spaceborne SAR processors offers obvious advantages. The following topics are discussed: (1) a quantification of the differences in processing algorithms for airborne and spaceborne SARs; and (2) an overview of three processors for airborne SAR systems.

  15. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  16. Recent advances in airborne terrestrial remote sensing with the NASA airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS), airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg; Evans, Diane L.; Kahle, Anne B.

    1989-01-01

    Significant progress in terrestrial remote sensing from the air has been made with three NASA-developed sensors that collectively cover the solar-reflected, thermal infrared, and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These sensors are the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS), the thermal infrared mapping spectrometer (TIMS) and the airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), respectively. AVIRIS and SAR underwent extensive in-flight engineering testing in 1987 and 1988 and are scheduled to become operational in 1989. TIMS has been in operation for several years. These sensors are described.

  17. Comparison of Retracking Algorithms Using Airborne Radar and Laser Altimeter Measurements of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, Ellen J.; Swift, Calvin T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares four continental ice sheet radar altimeter retracking algorithms using airborne radar and laser altimeter data taken over the Greenland ice sheet in 1991. The refurbished Advanced Application Flight Experiment (AAFE) airborne radar altimeter has a large range window and stores the entire return waveform during flight. Once the return waveforms are retracked, or post-processed to obtain the most accurate altitude measurement possible, they are compared with the high-precision Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) altimeter measurements. The AAFE waveforms show evidence of varying degrees of both surface and volume scattering from different regions of the Greenland ice sheet. The AOL laser altimeter, however, obtains a return only from the surface of the ice sheet. Retracking altimeter waveforms with a surface scattering model results in a good correlation with the laser measurements in the wet and dry-snow zones, but in the percolation region of the ice sheet, the deviation between the two data sets is large due to the effects of subsurface and volume scattering. The Martin et al model results in a lower bias than the surface scattering model, but still shows an increase in the noise level in the percolation zone. Using an Offset Center of Gravity algorithm to retrack altimeter waveforms results in measurements that are only slightly affected by subsurface and volume scattering and, despite a higher bias, this algorithm works well in all regions of the ice sheet. A cubic spline provides retracked altitudes that agree with AOL measurements over all regions of Greenland. This method is not sensitive to changes in the scattering mechanisms of the ice sheet and it has the lowest noise level and bias of all the retracking methods presented.

  18. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  19. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  20. Potential airborne release from soil-working operations in a contaminated area

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, S.L.

    1980-08-01

    Experiments were performed to provide an indication of how much material could be made airborne during soil-working operations in a contaminated area. Approximately 50 kg of contaminated soil were collected, dried, and mixed, and particle size distribution and /sup 137/Cs content were characterized. In four experiments performed in a 2 ft x 2 ft wind tunnel at the Radioactive Aerosol Release Test Facility, soil was pumped into an airstream moving at 3.2, 10.4, 15.2, and 20 mph. These experiments were designed to maximize airborne releases by fluidizing the soil as it was pumped into the wind tunnel. Thus the airborne releases should represent upper limit values for soil-working operations. Airborne concentration and particle size samples were collected and all of the material deposited downstream was collected to calculate a mass balance. The fraction airborne was calculated using these measurements.

  1. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  2. Comparison with CLPX II airborne data using DMRT model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, X.; Liang, D.; Andreadis, K.M.; Tsang, L.; Josberger, E.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we considered a physical-based model which use numerical solution of Maxwell Equations in three-dimensional simulations and apply into Dense Media Radiative Theory (DMRT). The model is validated in two specific dataset from the second Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX II) at Alaska and Colorado. The data were all obtain by the Ku-band (13.95GHz) observations using airborne imaging polarimetric scatterometer (POLSCAT). Snow is a densely packed media. To take into account the collective scattering and incoherent scattering, analytical Quasi-Crystalline Approximation (QCA) and Numerical Maxwell Equation Method of 3-D simulation (NMM3D) are used to calculate the extinction coefficient and phase matrix. DMRT equations were solved by iterative solution up to 2nd order for the case of small optical thickness and full multiple scattering solution by decomposing the diffuse intensities into Fourier series was used when optical thickness exceed unity. It was shown that the model predictions agree with the field experiment not only co-polarization but also cross-polarization. For Alaska region, the input snow structure data was obtain by the in situ ground observations, while for Colorado region, we combined the VIC model to get the snow profile. ??2009 IEEE.

  3. Performance Basis for Airborne Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging applications of Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) technologies make possible new and powerful methods in Air Traffic Management (ATM) that may significantly improve the system-level performance of operations in the future ATM system. These applications typically involve the aircraft managing certain components of its Four Dimensional (4D) trajectory within the degrees of freedom defined by a set of operational constraints negotiated with the Air Navigation Service Provider. It is hypothesized that reliable individual performance by many aircraft will translate into higher total system-level performance. To actually realize this improvement, the new capabilities must be attracted to high demand and complexity regions where high ATM performance is critical. Operational approval for use in such environments will require participating aircraft to be certified to rigorous and appropriate performance standards. Currently, no formal basis exists for defining these standards. This paper provides a context for defining the performance basis for 4D-ASAS operations. The trajectory constraints to be met by the aircraft are defined, categorized, and assessed for performance requirements. A proposed extension of the existing Required Navigation Performance (RNP) construct into a dynamic standard (Dynamic RNP) is outlined. Sample data is presented from an ongoing high-fidelity batch simulation series that is characterizing the performance of an advanced 4D-ASAS application. Data of this type will contribute to the evaluation and validation of the proposed performance basis.

  4. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Aerosol Measurements during MILAGRO and TEXAQS/GOMACCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, Richard; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John; Cook Anthony; Harper, David; Burton, Sharon; Clayton, Marian; Clarke, Antony; Russell, Phil; Redemann, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Two1 field experiments conducted during 2006 provided opportunities to investigate the variability of aerosol properties near cities and the impacts of these aerosols on air quality and radiative transfer. The Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) /Megacity Aerosol Experiment in Mexico City (MAX-MEX)/Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B (INTEX-B) joint experiment conducted during March 2006 investigated the evolution and transport of pollution from Mexico City. The Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS)/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) (http://www.al.noaa.gov/2006/) conducted during August and September 2006 investigated climate and air quality in the Houston/Gulf of Mexico region. During both missions, the new NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 King Air aircraft and measured profiles of aerosol extinction, backscattering, and depolarization to: 1) characterize the spatial and vertical distributions of aerosols, 2) quantify aerosol extinction and optical thickness contributed by various aerosol types, 3) investigate aerosol variability near clouds, 4) evaluate model simulations of aerosol transport, and 5) assess aerosol optical properties derived from a combination of surface, airborne, and satellite measurements.

  5. Adopting narrative pedagogy to improve the student learning experience in a regional Australian university.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Margaret; John, Tracey; Gray, Michelle; Williams, Leonie; Barnes, Margaret; Allan, Janet; Rowe, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of work in the literature describes and explains narrative pedagogy within nursing and midwifery programs. This paper continues the conversation by explaining, with examples, how narrative pedagogy has been interpreted and applied within a new nursing faculty in Australia. The aims of our nursing and midwifery programs are to provide students with a clear professional identity and to prepare them for contemporary Australian nursing practice. As part of these aims, we want students to develop their imaginations and to consciously examine, and challenge, nursing and healthcare paradigms and practices such as the enduring illness model of healthcare and the emphasis on technique-oriented care. Members of our teaching team, working together and individually, have used narrative pedagogy in a variety of ways, developing novel teaching and learning activities for use in real time classroom settings as well as online to provide a regionally and globally relevant educational experience. PMID:19697986

  6. Standard-resolution TOVS observations for the FIRE/SRB Wisconsin experiment region from October 9 through November 2, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, Charles H.; Lecroy, Stuart R.; Darnell, Wayne L.

    1987-01-01

    Maps and concise tables are presented which show TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) box centroid locations, box size, and vertical sounding products from the NOAA-6 and -9 satellites for the FIRE/SRB (First ISCCP Regional Experiment/Surface Radiation Budget) Wisconsin experiment region during October 9 through November 2, 1986. In addition to the operational standard products, relative reflectance is calculated and presented based on values from HIRS/2 Band 20 measurements.

  7. Analysis of the NASA/MSFC airborne Doppler lidar results from San Gorgonio Pass, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, W. C.; Skarda, J. R.; Renne, D. S.; Sandusky, W. F.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC Airborne Doppler Lidar System was flown in July 1981 aboard the NASA/Ames Convair 990 on the east side of San Gorgonio Pass California, near Palm Springs, to measure and investigate the accelerated atmospheric wind field discharging from the pass. At this region, the maritime layer from the west coast accelerates through the pass and spreads out over the valley floor on the east side of the pass. The experiment was selected in order to study accelerated flow in and at the exit of the canyon. Ground truth wind data taken concurrently with the flight data were available from approximately 12 meteorological towers and 3 tala kites for limited comparison purposes. The experiment provided the first spatial data for ensemble averaging of spatial correlations to compute lateral and longitudinal length scales in the lateral and longitudinal directions for both components, and information on atmospheric flow in this region of interest from wind energy resource considerations.

  8. Characterizing soil preferential flow using iodine--starch staining experiments and the active region model

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Feng; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Renduo; Liu, Hui-Hai

    2009-03-01

    Thirteen iodine-starch staining experiments with different boundary conditions and measurement scales were conducted at two sites to study preferential flow processes in natural unsaturated soils. Digital imaging analyses were implemented to obtain the corresponding preferential flow patterns. The test results are used to evaluate a recently proposed active region model in terms of its usefulness and robustness for characterizing unsaturated flow processes at field scale. Test results provide useful insights into flow patterns in unsaturated soils. They show that flow pattern depends on the top boundary condition. As the total infiltrating-water depth increased form 20 mm to 80 mm for the 100 x 100 cm{sup 2} plots, the corresponding flow pattern changed from few preferential flow paths associated with a relatively small degree of stained coverage and a small infiltration depth, to a pattern characterized by a higher stained coverage and a larger infiltration depth, and to (finally) a relatively homogeneous flow pattern with few unstained area and a much larger infiltration depth. Test results also show that the preferential flow pattern became generally more heterogeneous and complex for a larger measurement scale (or size of infiltration plot). These observations support the general idea behind the active region model that preferential flow pattern in unsaturated soils are dynamic and depend on water flow conditions. Further analyses of the test results indicate that the active-region model is able to capture the major features of the observed flow pattern at the scale of interest, and the determined parameter values do not significantly depend on the test conditions (initial water content and total amount of infiltrating water) for a given test site. This supports the validity of the active region model that considers that parameter to be a property of the corresponding unsaturated soil. Results also show that some intrinsic relation seems to exist between active

  9. The large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia: Analyzing regional land use change effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Michael; Silva-Dias, Maria Assunção; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Silva-Andreae, Meinrat O.

    The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multi-disciplinary, multinational scientific project led by Brazil. LBA researchers seek to understand Amazonia in its global context especially with regard to regional and global climate. Current development activities in Amazonia including deforestation, logging, cattle ranching, and agriculture significantly perturb regional and global carbon budgets and the atmospheric radiation budget through both greenhouse gas inputs and the increase in atmospheric particulates generated by fires. The Brazilian Amazon currently releases about 0.2 Pg-C to the atmosphere each year as a result of net deforestation. Logging and forest fire activity are poorly quantified but certainly increase this amount by more than 10%. Fires associated with land management activities generate smoke that leads to heating of the lower atmosphere, decreases in overall cloudiness, increases in cloud lifetimes, and the suppression of rainfall. There are considerable uncertainties associated with our understanding of smoke effects. Present development trends point to agricultural intensification in the Brazilian Amazon. This intensification and the associated generation of wealth present an opportunity to enhance governance on the frontier and to minimize the damaging effects of fires.

  10. QIN. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Doot, Robert K.; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E.; Allberg, Keith C.; Linden, Hannah M.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging is a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. PMID:22795929

  11. Airborne optical detection of oil on water.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Airborne measurements were made over controlled oil-spill test sites to evaluate various techniques, utilizing reflected sunlight, for detecting oil on water. The results of these measurements show that (1) maximum contrast between oil and water is in the UV and red portions of the spectrum; (2) minimum contrast is in the blue-green; (3) differential polarization appears to be a very promising technique; (4) no characteristic absorption bands, which would permit one oil to be distinguished from another, were discovered in the spectral regions measured; (5) sky conditions greatly influence the contrast between oil and water; and (6) highest contrast was achieved under overcast sky conditions.

  12. Coastal Downscaling Experiments: Can CESM Fields Successfully Force Regional Coastal Ocean Simulations with Strong Freshwater Forcing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCready, P.; Bryan, F.; Tseng, Y. H.; Whitney, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal ocean accounts for about half of the global fish harvest, but is poorly resolved in global climate models (a one-degree grid barely sees the continental shelf). Moreover, coastal ocean circulation is strongly modified by river freshwater sources, often coming from estuarine systems that are completely unresolved in the coarse grid. River freshwater input in CESM is added in a practical but ad hoc way, by imposing a surface salinity sink over a region of the ocean approximating the plume area of a given river. Here we present results from a series of model experiments using a high-resolution (1.5 km) ROMS model of the NE Pacific, including the Columbia River and the inland waters of Puget Sound. The base model does multi-year hindcasts using the best available sources of atmospheric (MM5/WRF), ocean (NCOM), river (USGS), and tidal forcing. It has been heavily validated against observations of all sorts, and performs well, so it is an ideal test bed for downscaling experiments. The model framework also does biogeochemistry, including oxygen, and carbon chemistry is being added to make forecasts of Ocean Acidification.This high-resolution ROMS model is systematically run in downscaling experiments for the year 2005 with combinations of CESM forcing (CAM, POP, and rivers) swapped in. Skill is calculated using observations. It is found that the runs with CESM forcing generally retain much of the skill of the base model. A compact metric of response to freshwater forcing is used, which is the mechanical energy required to destratify a shallow coastal volume. This, along with the average temperature and salinity of the volume, are used to characterize and compare runs, including the original CESM-POP fields. Finally the model is run with projected CESM simulation forcing at the end of 21st century based on a set of RCP scenarios, and the compact metrics are used to quantify differences from 2005.

  13. Airborne midwave and longwave infrared hyperspectral imaging of gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Duval, Marc; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Characterization of gas clouds are challenging situations to address due to the large and uneven distribution of these fast moving entities. Whether gas characterization is carried out for gas leaks surveys or environmental monitoring purposes, explosives and/or toxic chemicals are often involved. In such situations, airborne measurements present distinct advantages over ground based-techniques since large areas can be covered efficiently from a safe distance. In order to illustrate the potential of airborne thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging for gas cloud characterization, measurements were carried out above smokestacks and a ground-based gas release experiment. Quantitative airborne chemical images of carbon monoxide (CO) and ethylene (C2H4) were obtained from measurements carried out using a midwave (MWIR, 3-5 μm) and a longwave (LWIR, 8-12 μm) airborne infrared hyperspectral sensor respectively. Scattering effects were observed in the MWIR experiments on smokestacks as a result of water condensation upon rapid cool down of the hot emission gases. Airborne measurements were carried out using both mapping and targeting acquisition modes. The later provides unique time-dependent information such as the gas cloud direction and velocity.

  14. Airborne midwave and longwave infrared hyperspectral imaging of gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Duval, Marc; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Characterization of gas clouds are challenging situations to address due to the large and uneven distribution of these fast moving entities. Whether gas characterization is carried out for gas leaks surveys or environmental monitoring purposes, explosives and/or toxic chemicals are often involved. In such situations, airborne measurements present distinct advantages over ground based-techniques since large areas can be covered efficiently from a safe distance. In order to illustrate the potential of airborne thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging for gas cloud characterization, measurements were carried out above smokestacks and a ground-based gas release experiment. Quantitative airborne chemical images of carbon monoxide (CO) and ethylene (C2H4) were obtained from measurements carried out using a midwave (MWIR, 3-5 μm) and a longwave (LWIR, 8-12 μm) airborne infrared hyperspectral sensor respectively. Scattering effects were observed in the MWIR experiments on smokestacks as a result of water condensation upon rapid cool down of the hot emission gases. Airborne measurements were carried out using both mapping and targeting acquisition modes. The later provides unique time-dependent information such as the gas cloud direction and velocity.

  15. Airborne midwave and longwave infrared hyperspectral imaging of gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Duval, Marc; Farley, Vincent; Guyot, Éric; Chamberland, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Characterization of gas clouds are challenging situations to address due to the large and uneven distribution of these fast moving entities. Whether gas characterization is carried out for gas leaks surveys or environmental monitoring purposes, explosives and/or toxic chemicals are often involved. In such situations, airborne measurements present distinct advantages over ground based-techniques since large areas can be covered efficiently from a safe distance. In order to illustrate the potential of airborne thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging for gas cloud characterization, measurements were carried out above smokestacks and a ground-based gas release experiment. Quantitative airborne chemical images of carbon monoxide (CO) and ethylene (C2H4) were obtained from measurements carried out using a midwave (MWIR, 3-5 μm) and a longwave (LWIR, 8-12 μm) airborne infrared hyperspectral sensor respectively. Scattering effects were observed in the MWIR experiments on smokestacks as a result of water condensation upon rapid cool down of the hot emission gases. Airborne measurements were carried out using both mapping and targeting acquisition modes. The later provides unique time-dependent information such as the gas cloud direction and velocity.

  16. Mature-Aged Job Seekers' Experiences of Centrelink and the Job Network Services in an Australian Regional Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossen, Chris; Hammer, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Unemployment may be considered a normal, if not likely, experience of a person's lifelong career. This paper is based on a primary, qualitative study that focused on the way mature-aged unemployed citizens experience government unemployment and employment agencies: Centrelink and the Job Network in a large regional city. It contributes to existing…

  17. The Relationship of a Pilot's Educational Background, Aeronautical Experience and Recency of Experience to Performance In Initial Training at a Regional Airline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shane, Nancy R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine how a pilot's educational background, aeronautical experience and recency of experience relate to their performance during initial training at a regional airline. Results show that variables in pilots' educational background, aeronautical experience and recency of experience do predict performance in training. The most significant predictors include years since graduation from college, multi-engine time, total time and whether or not a pilot had military flying experience. Due to the pilot shortage, the pilots entering regional airline training classes since August 2013 have varied backgrounds, aeronautical experience and recency of experience. As explained by Edward Thorndike's law of exercise and the law of recency, pilots who are actively using their aeronautical knowledge and exercising their flying skills should exhibit strong performance in those areas and pilots who have not been actively using their aeronautical knowledge and exercising their flying skills should exhibit degraded performance in those areas. Through correlation, chi-square and multiple regression analysis, this study tests this theory as it relates to performance in initial training at a regional airline.

  18. Mapping permafrost with airborne electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsley, B. J.; Ball, L. B.; Bloss, B. R.; Kass, A.; Pastick, N.; Smith, B. D.; Voss, C. I.; Walsh, D. O.; Walvoord, M. A.; Wylie, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost is a key characteristic of cold region landscapes, yet detailed assessments of how the subsurface distribution of permafrost impacts the environment, hydrologic systems, and infrastructure are lacking. Data acquired from several airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys in Alaska provide significant new insight into the spatial extent of permafrost over larger areas (hundreds to thousands of square kilometers) than can be mapped using ground-based geophysical methods or through drilling. We compare several AEM datasets from different areas of interior Alaska, and explore the capacity of these data to infer geologic structure, permafrost extent, and related hydrologic processes. We also assess the impact of fires on permafrost by comparing data from different burn years within similar geological environments. Ultimately, interpretations rely on understanding the relationship between electrical resistivity measured by AEM surveys and the physical properties of interest such as geology, permafrost, and unfrozen water content in the subsurface. These relationships are often ambiguous and non-unique, so additional information is useful for reducing uncertainty. Shallow (upper ~1m) permafrost and soil characteristics identified from remotely sensed imagery and field observations help to constrain and aerially extend near-surface AEM interpretations, where correlations between the AEM and remote sensing data are identified using empirical multivariate analyses. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (sNMR) measurements quantify the contribution of unfrozen water at depth to the AEM-derived electrical resistivity models at several locations within one survey area. AEM surveys fill a critical data gap in the subsurface characterization of permafrost environments and will be valuable in future mapping and monitoring programs in cold regions.

  19. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  20. Collaborative experiment on intercomparison of regional-scale hydrological models for climate impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysanova, Valentina; Hattermann, Fred

    2015-04-01

    The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) is a community-driven modelling effort bringing together impact modellers across sectors and scales to create more consistent and comprehensive projections of the impacts of climate change. This project is aimed in establishing a long-term, systematic, cross-sectoral impact model intercomparison process, including comparison of climate change impacts for multiple sectors using ensemble of climate scenarios and applying global and regional impact models. The project is coordinated by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. An overview of this project and collaborative experiment related to the regional-scale water sector model intercomparison in ISI-MIP will be presented. The regional-scale water sector modelling includes eleven models applied to eleven large-scale river basins worldwide (not every model is applied to every of eleven basins). In total, 60-65 model applications will be done by several collaborating groups from different Institutions. The modelling tools include: ECOMAG, HBV, HBV-light, HYPE, LASCAM, LISFLOOD, mHM, SWAT, SWIM, VIC and WaterGAP. Eleven river basins chosen for the model application and intercomparison are: the Rhine and Tagus in Europe, the Niger and Blue Nile in Africa, the Ganges, Lena, Upper Yellow and Upper Yangtze in Asia, the Upper Mississippi and Upper Amazon in America, and the Murray-Darling in Australia. Their drainage areas range between 67,490 km2 (Tagus) to 2,460,000 km2 (Lena). Data from global and regional datasets are used for the model setup and calibration. The model calibration and validation was done using the WATCH climate data for all cases, also checking the representation of high and low percentiles of river discharge. For most of the basins, also intermediate gauge stations were included in the calibration. The calibration and validation results, evaluated with the Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and percent bias (PBIAS), are mostly

  1. Evaluating Airborne Hyperspectral imagery for mapping waterhyacinth infestations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] is an exotic aquatic weed that often invades and clogs waterways in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and different image classification techniques for mapp...

  2. Target detection algorithm for airborne thermal hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marwaha, R.; Kumar, A.; Raju, P. L. N.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging is constantly being used for classification purpose. But airborne thermal hyperspectral image usually is a challenge for conventional classification approaches. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that helps in the spatial and spectral analysis of targets utilizing a single sensor. It is based on the technology of Fourier-transform which yields high spectral resolution and enables high accuracy radiometric calibration. The Hypercam instrument has 84 spectral bands in the 868 cm-1 to 1280 cm-1 region (7.8 μm to 11.5 μm), at a spectral resolution of 6 cm-1 (full-width-half-maximum) for LWIR (long wave infrared) range. Due to the Hughes effect, only a few classifiers are able to handle high dimensional classification task. MNF (Minimum Noise Fraction) rotation is a data dimensionality reducing approach to segregate noise in the data. In this, the component selection of minimum noise fraction (MNF) rotation transformation was analyzed in terms of classification accuracy using constrained energy minimization (CEM) algorithm as a classifier for Airborne thermal hyperspectral image and for the combination of airborne LWIR hyperspectral image and color digital photograph. On comparing the accuracy of all the classified images for airborne LWIR hyperspectral image and combination of Airborne LWIR hyperspectral image with colored digital photograph, it was found that accuracy was highest for MNF component equal to twenty. The accuracy increased by using the combination of airborne LWIR hyperspectral image with colored digital photograph instead of using LWIR data alone.

  3. Airborne GLM Simulator (FEGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stewart, M. F.; Podgorny, S.; Corredor, D.

    2015-12-01

    Real time lightning observations have proven to be useful for advanced warning and now-casting of severe weather events. In anticipation of the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard GOES-R that will provide continuous real time observations of total (both cloud and ground) lightning, the Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS) is in production. FEGS is an airborne instrument designed to provide cal/val measurements for GLM from high altitude aircraft. It consists of a 5 x 5 array of telescopes each with a narrow passband filter to isolate the 777.4 nm neutral oxygen emission triplet radiated by lightning. The telescopes will measure the optical radiance emitted by lightning that is transmitted through the cloud top with a temporal resolution of 10 μs. When integrated on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the FEGS array with its 90° field-of-view will observe a cloud top area nearly equal to a single GLM pixel. This design will allow FEGS to determine the temporal and spatial variation of light that contributes to a GLM event detection. In addition to the primary telescope array, the instrument includes 5 supplementary optical channels that observe alternate spectral emission features and will enable the use of FEGS for interesting lightning physics applications. Here we present an up-to-date summary of the project and a description of its scientific applications.

  4. Airborne rescue system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The airborne rescue system includes a boom with telescoping members for extending a line and collar to a rescue victim. The boom extends beyond the tip of the helicopter rotor so that the victim may avoid the rotor downwash. The rescue line is played out and reeled in by winch. The line is temporarily retained under the boom. When the boom is extended, the rescue line passes through clips. When the victim dons the collar and the tension in the line reaches a predetermined level, the clips open and release the line from the boom. Then the rescue line can form a straight line between the victim and the winch, and the victim can be lifted to the helicopter. A translator is utilized to push out or pull in the telescoping members. The translator comprises a tape and a rope. Inside the telescoping members the tape is curled around the rope and the tape has a tube-like configuration. The tape and rope are provided from supply spools.

  5. Urban and regional land use analysis: CARETS and Census Cities experiment package. [mapping land use climatology from MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The arrival of the so-called energy crisis makes the portion of this experiment dealing with land use climatology of more immediate significance than before, since in addition to helping to understand the processes of climatic change associated with urbanization, the knowledge obtained may be useful in assigning an energy balance impact factor to proposed changes in land use in and around cities. Thermal maps derived from S-192 data are to be used as a measure of the energy being radiated into space from the mosaic of different surfaces in and around the city. While presenting excellent spatial sampling potential for a metropolitan area tests site, the Skylab data permit a very poor temporal sampling opportunity, owing to the large number of factors beyond the investigator's control that determine when data will be taken over a given test site. The strategy is to augment the thermal maps derived from S-192 with a modeling technique which enables the simulation of a number of components of the surface energy balance, calculated at regular time intervals throughout the day or year. Preliminary tests on the performance of the model are still underway, using airborne MSS data from NASA aircraft flights. Results look extremely promising.

  6. Lesser Antilles Subduction Zone Investigation by a Cluster of Large Seismic Experiments in the Forearc Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last, T.

    2007-12-01

    subduction mega-thrust fault plane, and which is here the main target has been localized along 3 transects to the Arc thanks to a preliminary survey in 2001, the French SISMANTILLES cuise. We will present the first results obtained during these experiments dedicated specifically to image at depth the seismic structure and activity of this region. To image faults at depth and the detailed upper-crustal structure, 3700 km of multi-beam bathymetry and multi-channel reflection seismic profiles have been collected along a grid comprising 7 strike-lines of up to 300 km long and spaced by 15 km and 12 transects of up to 150 km long and spaced by 25 km (SISMANTILLES 2). All these airgun shots dedicated to deep penetration have been recorded by the 84 OBSs and 20 OBHs deployed by the F/S Merian and N/O Atalante on the nodes of this grid of profiles. It will permit to get Vp constraints on the deep forearc region and mantle wedge by wide-angle refraction studies, as well as constraints on the updip and downdip limits of the seismogenic part of the mega-thrust fault plane. Two of these transects have been extended across the whole arc during the TRAIL survey, with up to 50 OBSs deployed along both 240 km long profiles. All these OBSs remained several months beyond the shot experiments for local earthquakes Vp and Vp/Vs tomography. They have been recovered and partly redeployed by N/O Antea during the OBSANTILLES survey. A significant number of those instruments had broadband seismometers, a notable originality in the case of the OBSs to detect low-frequency transient signals.

  7. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Doot, Robert K; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E; Allberg, Keith C; Linden, Hannah M; Mankoff, David A; Kinahan, Paul E

    2012-11-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging are a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing the feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed, and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. PMID:22795929

  8. Multi scale Disaster Risk Reduction Systems Space and Community based Experiences over HKH Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurung, D. R.; Shrestha, M.; Shrestha, N.; Debnath, B.; Jishi, G.; Bajracharya, R.; Dhonju, H. K.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-11-01

    An increasing trend in the recurrence of natural disasters and associated impacts due to Floods, Glacier Lake out bursts, landslides and forest fire is reported over Hindu Kush Himalyan (HKH) region. Climate change and anthropogenic coupled factors are identified as primary factors for such increased vulnerability. The large degree of poverty, lack of infrastructure, poor accessibility and uncertainties involved in understanding high altitude land surface and climate dynamics poses serious challenges in reducing disaster vulnerability and mitigating disaster impacts. In this context effective development of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) protocols and mechanisms have been realized as an urgent need. The paper presents the adoption and experiences of multi scale DRR systems across different Himalayan member countries ranging from community based indigenous early warning to space based emergency response and decision support systems. The Establishment of a Regional Flood Information System (HKH-HYCOS) over Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) and Indus river basins promoted the timely exchange of flood data and information for the reduction of flood vulnerability within and among the participating countries. Satellite based forest fire alert systems evoked significant response among diverse stakeholders to optimize fire incidence and control. Satellite rainfall estimation products, satellite altimetry based flood early warning systems, flood inundation modelling and products, model derived hydrology flow products from different global data-sharing networks constitutes diverse information to support multi scale DRR systems. Community-based Flood Early Warning System (FEWS) enabled by wireless technology established over the Singara and Jiadhal rivers in Assam also stands as one of the promising examples of minimizing flood risk. Disaster database and information system and decision support tools in Nepal serves as potential tool to support diverse stakeholders.

  9. A Mesocosm Experiment in an Inland Sea HNLC Region with Naturally High pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. W.; Canade, E.; Chong, M.; Peterson, A.; Reash, S.; Schaut, T.; Tonge, A.; Wang, A.; Bantam, C.; Foy, M. S.; Lessard, E. J.; Paul, B.; Fay, A.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Washington has constructed a new Ocean Acidification Experimental Lab (OAEL) facility at the Friday Harbor Laboratories (FHL). This facility consists of a small-scale indoor lab experimental facility, a large-scale in-water mesocosm facility and a fully equipped carbonate system analytical laboratory. A mesocosm experiment (nine 5m in water mesocosms with volumes of ~3500 l each) was conducted in April 2012 as part of a FHL Research Apprenticeship course. PCO2 levels in the mesocosms were adjusted initially to be ambient (3 at 650 μatm l-1) and two levels of enhancement (3 at 950 μatm l-1 and 3 at 1250 μatm l-1). The mesocosms were filled with seawater from the FHL dock and a time series over the previous nine months provided a historical context. Surface seawater at the FHL dock had concentrations of NO3 ranging from 15 to 30 μmol l-1 and values of PCO2 (calculated from DIC and Alkalinity) greater than 650 μatm l-1 over this period. The rich biological community of the San Juan Islands appear to sit in an ocean environment equivalent to an acidified ocean of the future 100 years and this is due to natural processes. The source for this high NO3 and CO2 water is upwelling along the Washington coast from the California Undercurrent that flows north from the oxygen minimum zone off Mexico along the west coast of the US. Meanwhile chlorophyll at the FHL dock is low (~1 mg l-1) so the waters around FHL qualify as a high nitrate low chlorophyll (HNLC) ocean region. Open ocean HNLC regions are thought to result from iron limitation, which influences food web structure. At FHL they are due to mixing with deeper water in the straits (mixed layer is deeper than the euphotic zone). Within two days of when the mesocosms a bloom developed. NO3 was reduced to 0 by day 6 and chlorophyll increased to 45 mg l-1. The experiment was continued for 6 days with NO3 = 0, then nutrients were added back to the initial values and a second bloom was followed with time

  10. Evaluation of the RAQMS Regional Model During the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Pierce, R.; Crawford, J. H.; Considine, D. B.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Kittaka, C.; Hitchman, M.; Tripoli, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America (INTEX-A) field campaign took place over North America (NA) and the Atlantic during July-August 2004. Among the goals of INTEX-A were to characterize the composition of the troposphere over NA and the outflow of pollution from NA, and to validate satellite observations of tropospheric composition. We test and improve the regional component of the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMSN) using the comprehensive dataset, including surface, ozonesonde, aircraft, and satellite measurements of ozone and its precursors obtained during INTEX-A. We show that RAQMSN is able to reproduce the major characteristics of tropospheric ozone-CO-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry over NA during INTEX-A. RAQMSN CO and tropospheric NO2 columns are highly correlated with those of MOPITT and SCIAMACHY, respectively. The model high NO2 bias in the Ohio River Valley reflects the fact that the emission inventory used did not take into account the reduced power plant NOx emissions from this region in 2004 as a result of pollution control programs. The model simulates well the strong day-to-day variability of O3 in the tropopause region as seen in the IONS (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study) ozonesonde data, but shows more stratospherically influenced air in the upper troposphere (UT). The model is also able to simulate the westerly outflow of O3 to the Atlantic as revealed by the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR, July-August 2005-2008 climatology) data from OMI/MLS. We compare RAQMSN simulations with NASA DC-8 in-situ CO, NO2, O3, and total PAN observations during INTEX-A. The simulated CO is within 10 ppbv of the observations except below 900 hPa where the model is about 40 ppbv too high, consistent with a recent report that the national anthropogenic emission inventory from the US EPA is too high by 60% in summer. While overestimated in the boundary layer, NO2 and PAN are underestimated in the UT. Model lightning NOx emissions are

  11. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight over Mt. Whitney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The DC-8 banking over the jagged peak of Mount Whitney on a February 25, 1998 flight. The DC-8 and a pair of ER-2 aircraft are operated by the Airborne Science program at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. NASA, other governmental agencies, academia, and scientific and technical organizations employ the DC-8 for a variety of experiments.

  12. Ozone Hole Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (Pre-Flight)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The first segment of this video gives an overview of the Ozone Hole Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, an international effort using balloon payloads, ground based instruments, and airborne instruments to study ozone depletion and the hole in the ozone over Antarctica which occurs every spring. False color imagery taken from NASA's Nimbus 7 satellite which documents daily changes in ozone is also shown. The second segment of this video shows actual take-off and flight footage of the two aircraft used in the experiment: the DC-8 Flying Laboratory and the high flying ER-2.

  13. Human Brucellosis in Macedonia – 10 Years of Clinical Experience in Endemic Region

    PubMed Central

    Bosilkovski, Mile; Krteva, Ljiljana; Dimzova, Marija; Vidinic, Ivan; Sopova, Zaklina; Spasovska, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    Aim To present our 10-year clinical experience with brucellosis patients at the University Clinic for Infectious Diseases and Febrile Conditions in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. Methods A total of 550 patients with brucellosis treated between 1998 and 2007 were retrospectively assessed for their demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics and outcomes. Results Of the 550 patients, 395 (72%) were male. The median age was 34.5 years (range, 1-82). Direct contact with infected animals was recorded in 333 (61%) patients and positive family history in 310 (56%). The most frequently seen symptoms were arthralgia (438, 80%), fever (419, 76%), and sweating (394, 72%). The most common signs were fever and hepatomegaly, which were verified in 357 (65%) and 273 (50%) patients, respectively. Focal brucellosis was found in 362 patients (66%) and osteoarticular in 299 (54%). Therapeutic failures were registered in 37 (6.7%) patients. Of the 453 (82%) patients who completed a follow-up period of at least 6 months, relapses occurred in 60 (13%). Conclusion Due to non-specific clinical manifestation and laboratory parameters, brucellosis should be considered one of the differential diagnoses of any patient suffering from obscure involvement of various organs in a brucellosis-endemic region. High percentage of relapses and therapeutic failures in spite of the use of currently recommended therapeutic regimens indicates the seriousness of this zoonosis and the need to control it. PMID:20718086

  14. Surface electrical properties experiment. [for Taurus-Littrow region of the moon on Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, G.

    1974-01-01

    The Surface Electrical Properties Experiment (SEP) was flown to the moon in December 1972 on Apollo 17 and used to explore a portion of the Taurus-Littrow region. SEP used a relatively new technique, termed radio frequency interferometry (RFI). Electromagnetic waves were radiated from two orthogonal, horizontal electric dipole antennas on the surface of the moon at frequencies of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 Mhz. The field strength of the EM waves was measured as a function of distance with a receiver mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle and using three orthogonal, electrically small, loops. The interference pattern produced by the waves that travelled above the moon's surface and those that travelled below the surface was recorded on magnetic tape. The tape was returned to earth for analysis and interpretation. Several reprints, preprints, and an initial draft of the first publication of the SEP results are included. These documents provide a rather complete account of the details of the theory of the RFI technique, of the terrestrial tests of the technique, and of the present state of our interpretation of the Apollo 17 data.

  15. Calibration Technique Using Nonlinear Region in Cantilever Magnetometry Experiments and Presence of Universal Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torizuka, Kiyoshi; Tajima, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Gosuke; Inoue, Munenori

    2013-06-01

    We have presented a calibration technique for commercially available atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers used in torque magnetometry experiments. The absolute values (J/rad) of the torque can be derived against the output signal, which is the change in piezoresistivity due to the deflection of the cantilever beam. The calibration has been performed using the susceptibility of a graphite plane. The linearity between the output signal and the torque is confirmed up to +/-1×10-8 J/rad of the torque. More importantly, since the nonlinear response of the cantilever is reproducible, we have also utilized the nonlinear region, so that the calibration range has been pushed up to +/-4 ×10-8 J/rad. In the nonlinear range, an important finding is that any curve (torque vs output signal curve) that is cantilever-dependent reduces to a single universal curve, after multiplying an appropriate factor. This factor is cantilever-dependent, but can be derived by rotating the sample-mounted cantilever in a zero magnetic field. We have also proposed a simple model regarding the presence of this universal curve.

  16. Specific features of oil biodegradation in meadow-chestnut soils of the Stavropol region (model experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibatullina, I. Z.; Semenova, T. A.; Yakovlev, A. S.

    2012-03-01

    Oil biodegradation in oil-contaminated meadow-chestnut soils under the impact of different biological preparations was studied in a model experiment. The soils differed from one another in the age of contamination and in the presence/absence of the stage of preliminary biological remediation. Background uncontaminated soils served as the control. To characterize oil degradation, the indices of basal respiration (BR) and dehydrogenase activity (DA) and data on oil concentrations in the soil were applied. It was shown that the most complete biodegradation of oil takes place in the soils with recent oil contamination in comparison with the soils contaminated with oil for 6.5 and 19.5 months. Maximum BR values were observed in the soils contaminated with oil for 19.5 months, whereas maximum DA values were observed in the soils contaminated with oil for 6.5 months. According to the multivariate analysis of variance, the major factors affecting the rate of oil biodegradation were the age of oil contamination, the biological preparation applied, and the presence (or absence) of the stage of preliminary biological remediation. These factors specified 18, 72, and 3% of the total variance of the residual oil content in the samples, respectively. The type of the applied biological preparations had the major effect on the BR and DA indices specifying 63 and 53% of their total variances, respectively. The results obtained in this study can be used as recommendations for remediation of oil-contaminated soils in the Stavropol region.

  17. Airborne Laser Polar Nephelometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Gerald W.

    1973-01-01

    A polar nephelometer has been developed at NCAR to measure the angular variation of the intensity of light scattered by air molecules and particles. The system has been designed for airborne measurements using outside air ducted through a 5-cm diameter airflow tube; the sample volume is that which is common to the intersection of a collimated source beam and the detector field of view within the airflow tube. The source is a linearly polarized helium-neon laser beam. The optical system defines a collimated field-of-view (0.5deg half-angle) through a series of diaphragms located behind a I72-mm focal length objective lens. A photomultiplier tube is located immediately behind an aperture in the focal plane of the objective lens. The laser beam is mechanically chopped (on-off) at a rate of 5 Hz; a two-channel pulse counter, synchronized to the laser output, measures the photomultiplier pulse rate with the light beam both on and off. The difference in these measured pulse rates is directly proportional to the intensity of the scattered light from the volume common to the intersection of the laser beam and the detector field-of-view. Measurements can be made at scattering angles from 15deg to 165deg with reference to the direction of propagation of the light beam. Intermediate angles are obtained by selecting the angular increments desired between these extreme angles (any multiple of 0.1deg can be selected for the angular increment; 5deg is used in normal operation). Pulses provided by digital circuits control a stepping motor which sequentially rotates the detector by pre-selected angular increments. The synchronous photon-counting system automatically begins measurement of the scattered-light intensity immediately after the rotation to a new angle has been completed. The instrument has been flown on the NASA Convair 990 airborne laboratory to obtain data on the complex index of refraction of atmospheric aerosols. A particle impaction device is operated simultaneously

  18. Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Wright, C. Wayne; Krabill, William B.; Buntzen, Rodney R.; Gilbert, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    The airborne lidar detection and cross-sectional mapping of submerged oceanic scattering layers are reported. The field experiment was conducted in the Atlantic Ocean southeast of Assateague Island, VA. NASA's Airborne Oceanographic Lidar was operated in the bathymetric mode to acquire on-wavelength 532-nm depth-resolved backscatter signals from shelf/slope waters. Unwanted laser pulse reflection from the air-water interface was minimized by spatial filtering and off-nadir operation. The presence of thermal stratification over the shelf was verified by the deployment of airborne expendable bathythermographs. Optical beam transmission measurements acquired from a surface truthing vessel indicated the presence of a layer of turbid water near the sea floor over the inner portion of the shelf.

  19. Airborne signals of communication in sagebrush: a pharmacological approach

    PubMed Central

    Shiojiri, Kaori; Ishizaki, Satomi; Ozawa, Rika; Karban, Richard

    2015-01-01

    When plants receive volatiles from a damaged plant, the receivers become more resistant to herbivory. This phenomenon has been reported in many plant species and called plant-plant communication. Lab experiments have suggested that several compounds may be functioning as airborne signals. The objective of this study is to identify potential airborne signals used in communication between sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) individuals in the field. We collected volatiles of one branch from each of 99 sagebrush individual plants. Eighteen different volatiles were detected by GC-MS analysis. Among these, 4 compounds; 1.8-cineol, β-caryophyllene, α-pinene and borneol, were investigated as signals of communication under natural conditions. The branches which received either 1,8-cineol or β-caryophyllene tended to get less damage than controls. These results suggested that 1,8-cineol and β-caryophyllene should be considered further as possible candidates for generalized airborne signals in sagebrush. PMID:26418970

  20. Airborne lidar detection of subsurface oceanic scattering layers.

    PubMed

    Hoge, F E; Wright, C W; Krabill, W B; Buntzen, R R; Gilbert, G D; Swift, R N; Yungel, J K; Berry, R E

    1988-10-01

    The airborne lidar detection and cross-sectional mapping of submerged oceanic scattering layers are reported. The field experiment was conducted in the Atlantic Ocean southeast of Assateague Island, VA. NASA's Airborne Oceanographic Lidar was operated in the bathymetric mode to acquire on-wavelength 532-nm depth-resolved backscatter signals from shelf/slope waters. Unwanted laser pulse reflection from the airwater interface was minimized by spatial filtering and off-nadir operation. The presence of thermal stratification over the shelf was verified by the deployment of airborne expendable bathythermographs. Optical beam transmission measurements acquired from a surface truthing vessel indicated the presence of a layer of turbid water near the sea floor over the inner portion of the shelf. PMID:20539503

  1. Atmospheric response in aurora experiment: Observations of E and F region neutral winds in a region of postmidnight diffuse aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M. F.; Marshall, T. R.; Mikkelsen, I. S.; Emery, B. A.; Christensen, A.; Kayser, D.; Hecht, J.; Lyons, L.; Walterscheid, R.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Atmospheric Response in Aurora (ARIA) experiment carried out at Poker Flat, Alaska, on March 3, 1992, was to determine the response of the neutral atmosphere to the long-lived, large-scale forcing that is characteristic of the diffuse aurora in the post midnight sector. A combination of chemical release rocket wind measurements, instrumented rocket composition measurements, and ground-based optical measurements were used to characterize the response of the neutral atmosphere. The rocket measurements were made at the end of a 90-min period of strong Joule heating. We focus on the neutral wind measurements made with the rocket. The forcing was determined by running the assimilated mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) analysis procedure developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The winds expected at the latitude and longitude of the experiment were calculated using the spectral thermospheric general circulation model developed at the Danish Meteorological Institute. Comparisons of the observations and the model suggest that the neutral winds responded strongly in two height ranges. An eastward wind perturbation of approximately 100 m/s developed between 140 and 200 km altitude with a peak near 160 km. A southwestward wind with peak magnitude of approximately 150 m/s developed near 115 km altitude. The large amplitude winds at the lower altitude are particularly surprising. They appear to be associated with the upward propagating semidiurnal tide. However, the amplitude is much larger than predicted by any of the tidal models, and the shear found just below the peak in the winds was nominally unstable with a Richardson number of approximately 0.08.

  2. Airborne bio-optics survey of the Galapagos Islands margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Wayne Wright, C.; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.; Berry, Richard E.; Mitchell, Richard

    Aircraft and ship surveys of the Galapagos Islands were conducted to address the hypothesized influence of "island-leached" iron upon phytoplankton production. This paper describes the airborne survey of the Galapagos Islands that composed the second phase of a two-part study of the influence of iron on phytoplankton production in high-nutrient/low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions. A single bio-optics airborne survey transect along 92°W from 1°N to 2°S was executed on 25 October 1993 in order to provide initial reconnaissance spatial and temporal sampling of the oceanic region west of the Galapagos Islands. A more extensive airborne bio-optics survey of the entire Galapagos Islands region was conducted on 3 November 1993. This expanded flight survey was made along all the ship cruise tracks of the R.V. Columbus Iselin originally planned for 15-27 November 1993. Analysis of the surface-layer airborne laser-induced and water-Raman normalized chlorophyll, phycoerythrin, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence, SST, and AXBT (airborne expendable bathythermograph) data suggest that: (1) the regional distribution of phytoplankton and dissolved organic matter is dominated by the strong east-west thermal boundary located both east and west of the Galapagos Islands; (2) the source for the elevated phytoplankton patches west of the Galapagos Islands is from upwelling rather than aeolian sources or from the westward drift of iron and nutrients leached from the islands themselves or offshore shallow bottom sources; (3) the introduction of subsurface water to the surface may occur in episodic events rather than as a steady-state process; and (4) the chronic high chlorophyll west of the Galapagos Islands noted in processed Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) images may be due, at least in part, to the presence of elevated levels of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption.

  3. An airborne isothermal haze chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal gradient diffusion cloud chambers (TGDCC) are used to determine the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with critical supersaturations greater than or equal to about 0.2%. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than theoretically predicted by factors ranging between 7.9 and 9.0. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than the concentrations measured with the larger laboratory IHC's by factors ranging between 3.9 and 7.5. The bounds of the supersaturation ranges of the airborne IHC and the CSU-Mee TGDCC do not overlap. Nevertheless, the slopes of the interpolated data between the bounds agree favorably with the theoretical slopes.

  4. Why a regional approach to postgraduate water education makes sense - the WaterNet experience in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonker, L.; van der Zaag, P.; Gumbo, B.; Rockström, J.; Love, D.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the experience of a regional network of academic departments involved in water education that started as a project and evolved, over a period of 12 yr, into an independent network organisation. The paper pursues three objectives. First, it argues that it makes good sense to organise postgraduate education and research on water resources on a regional scale. This is because water has a transboundary dimension that poses delicate sharing questions, an approach that promotes a common understanding of what the real water-related issues are, results in future water specialists speaking a common (water) language, enhances mutual respect, and can thus be considered an investment in future peace. Second, it presents the WaterNet experience as an example that a regional approach can work and has an impact. Third, it draws three generalised lessons from the WaterNet experience. Lesson 1: For a regional capacity building network to be effective, it must have a legitimate ownership structure and a clear mandate. Lesson 2: Organising water-related training opportunities at a regional and transboundary scale makes sense - not only because knowledge resources are scattered, but also because the topic - water - has a regional and transboundary scope. Lesson 3: Jointly developing educational programmes by sharing expertise and resources requires intense intellectual management and sufficient financial means.

  5. Regional modeling sensitivity experiments for interpreting the UK Winter 2013-2014 extreme rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omrani, H.; Vautard, R.; Schaller, N.; Allen, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    During the winter 2013/2014, the UK saw heavy rainfalls associated with a succession of storms reaching Southern England causing widespread flooding, power cuts and major disruptions to transport. The January precipitation set a record for several rain gauge stations in Southern England. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the anthropogenic climate change, represented by a modification of the sea surface temperature (SST) on the January precipitation. For that, we conducted a sensitivity experiment by running a set of 108 four-months simulations using WRF model with 9 different physics and 12 different SST fields; 9 for the factual world and 99 for the counter-factual world. A spectral nudging technique was used here to ensure a same atmospheric circulation patterns for all the simulations. Therefore, only the thermodynamic effect is considered here. The analysis is focused on January precipitation over the southern England. Results show for 0,5°C SST difference over the Northern Atlantic, the precipitation in the factual simulations is between 0,4 and 8% higher than the precipitation in the counter-factual simulations depending on the physic. A validation test shows that this value is closer to 8% for the "best physic" simulation. It also show a strong spatial variability where in some region the precipitation is higher in the counter-factual world compared the factual world. Finally, a backward trajectories were calculated to evaluate the sensitivity of the moisture sources and air mass trajectories to the SST in the factual and the counter-factual world.

  6. Comparisons of Box Model Calculations and Measurements of Formaldehyde from the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, G. J.; Fried, Alan; Lee, Y.- N.; Wert, B.; Henry, B.; Drummond, J. R.; Evans, M. J.; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Goldan, P. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Hubler, Gerhard F.; Jakoubek, R.; Jobson, B Tom T.; Knapp, K.; Kuster, W. C.; Roberts, J.; Rudolph, Jochen; Ryerson, T. B.; Stohl, A.; Stroud, C.; Sueper, D. T.; Trainer, Michael; Williams, J.

    2002-04-18

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) measurements from two independent instruments are compared with photochemical box model calculations. The measurements were made on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P-3 aircraft as part of the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE 97). The data set considered here consists of air masses sampled between 0 and 8 km over the North Atlantic Ocean which do not show recent influence from emissions or transport. These air masses therefore should be in photochemical steady state with respect to CH2O when constrained by the other P-3 measurements, and methane oxidation was expected to be the predominant source of CH2O in these air masses. For this data set both instruments measured identical CH2O concentrations to within 40 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) on average over the 0–800 pptv range, although differences larger than the combined 2s total uncertainty estimates were observed between the two instruments in 11% of the data. Both instruments produced higher CH2O concentrations than the model in more than 90% of this data set, with a median measured-modeled [CH2O] difference of 0.13 or 0.18 ppbv (depending on the instrument), or about a factor of 2. Such large differences cannot be accounted for by varying model input parameters within their respective uncertainty ranges. After examining the possible reasons for the model-measurement discrepancy, we conclude that there are probably one or more additional unknown sources of CH2O in the North Atlantic troposphere.

  7. Comparisons of box model calculations and measurements of formaldehyde from the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. J.; Fried, A.; Lee, Y.-N.; Wert, B.; Henry, B.; Drummond, J. R.; Evans, M. J.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Jakoubek, R.; Jobson, B. T.; Knapp, K.; Kuster, W. C.; Roberts, J.; Rudolph, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Stohl, A.; Stroud, C.; Sueper, D. T.; Trainer, M.; Williams, J.

    2002-04-01

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) measurements from two independent instruments are compared with photochemical box model calculations. The measurements were made on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P-3 aircraft as part of the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE 97). The data set considered here consists of air masses sampled between 0 and 8 km over the North Atlantic Ocean which do not show recent influence from emissions or transport. These air masses therefore should be in photochemical steady state with respect to CH2O when constrained by the other P-3 measurements, and methane oxidation was expected to be the predominant source of CH2O in these air masses. For this data set both instruments measured identical CH2O concentrations to within 40 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) on average over the 0-800 pptv range, although differences larger than the combined 2σ total uncertainty estimates were observed between the two instruments in 11% of the data. Both instruments produced higher CH2O concentrations than the model in more than 90% of this data set, with a median measured-modeled [CH2O] difference of 0.13 or 0.18 ppbv (depending on the instrument), or about a factor of 2. Such large differences cannot be accounted for by varying model input parameters within their respective uncertainty ranges. After examining the possible reasons for the model-measurement discrepancy, we conclude that there are probably one or more additional unknown sources of CH2O in the North Atlantic troposphere.

  8. A Regional CO2 Observing System Simulation Experiment Using ASCENDS Observations and WRF-STILT Footprints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James S.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Collatz, G. J.; Mountain, Marikate; Henderson, John; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Aschbrenner, Ryan; Zaccheo, T. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatiotemporal variations in emissions and uptake of CO2 is hampered by sparse measurements. The recent advent of satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations is increasing the density of measurements, and the future mission ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons) will provide even greater coverage and precision. Lagrangian atmospheric transport models run backward in time can quantify surface influences ("footprints") of diverse measurement platforms and are particularly well suited for inverse estimation of regional surface CO2 fluxes at high resolution based on satellite observations. We utilize the STILT Lagrangian particle dispersion model, driven by WRF meteorological fields at 40-km resolution, in a Bayesian synthesis inversion approach to quantify the ability of ASCENDS column CO2 observations to constrain fluxes at high resolution. This study focuses on land-based biospheric fluxes, whose uncertainties are especially large, in a domain encompassing North America. We present results based on realistic input fields for 2007. Pseudo-observation random errors are estimated from backscatter and optical depth measured by the CALIPSO satellite. We estimate a priori flux uncertainties based on output from the CASA-GFED (v.3) biosphere model and make simple assumptions about spatial and temporal error correlations. WRF-STILT footprints are convolved with candidate vertical weighting functions for ASCENDS. We find that at a horizontal flux resolution of 1 degree x 1 degree, ASCENDS observations are potentially able to reduce average weekly flux uncertainties by 0-8% in July, and 0-0.5% in January (assuming an error of 0.5 ppm at the Railroad Valley reference site). Aggregated to coarser resolutions, e.g. 5 degrees x 5 degrees, the uncertainty reductions are larger and more similar to those estimated in previous satellite data observing system simulation experiments.

  9. A Regional CO2 Observing System Simulation Experiment Using ASCENDS Observations and WRF-STILT Footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Collatz, G. J.; Mountain, M.; Henderson, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Aschbrenner, R.; Zaccheo, T.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of the spatiotemporal variations in emissions and uptake of CO2 is hampered by sparse measurements. The recent advent of satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations is increasing the density of measurements, and the future mission ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons) will provide even greater coverage and precision. Lagrangian atmospheric transport models run backward in time can quantify surface influences ("footprints") of diverse measurement platforms and are particularly well suited for inverse estimation of regional surface CO2 fluxes at high resolution based on satellite observations. We utilize the STILT Lagrangian particle dispersion model, driven by WRF meteorological fields at 40-km resolution, in a Bayesian synthesis inversion approach to quantify the ability of ASCENDS column CO2 observations to constrain fluxes at high resolution. This study focuses on land-based biospheric fluxes, whose uncertainties are especially large, in a domain encompassing North America. We present results based on realistic input fields for 2007. Pseudo-observation random errors are estimated from backscatter and optical depth measured by the CALIPSO satellite. We estimate a priori flux uncertainties based on output from the CASA-GFED (v.3) biosphere model and make simple assumptions about spatial and temporal error correlations. WRF-STILT footprints are convolved with candidate vertical weighting functions for ASCENDS. We find that at a horizontal flux resolution of 1 degree x 1 degree, ASCENDS observations are potentially able to reduce average weekly flux uncertainties by 0-8% in July, and 0-0.5% in January (assuming an error of 0.5 ppm at the Railroad Valley reference site). Aggregated to coarser resolutions, e.g. 5 degrees x 5 degrees, the uncertainty reductions are larger and more similar to those estimated in previous satellite data observing system simulation experiments.

  10. Creation of the sole regional laser lead extraction program serving Atlantic Canada: initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kenneth J.; O’Keefe, Scott; Légaré, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing need for laser lead extraction has grown in parallel with the increase of implantation of pacing and defibrillating devices. We reviewed the initial experience of a regional laser-assisted lead extraction program serving Atlantic Canada. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all consecutive patients who underwent laser lead extraction at the Maritime Heart Centre in Halifax, NS, between 2006 and 2015. We conducted univariate and Kaplan–Meier survivorship analyses. Results During the 9-year study period, 108 consecutive patients underwent laser lead extractions (218 leads extracted). The most common indication for extraction was infection (84.3%). Most patients were older than 60 years (73.1%) and had leads chronically implanted; the explanted leads were an average of 7.5 ± 6.8 years old. Procedural and clinical success (resolution of preoperative symptoms) rates and mortality were 96.8%, 97.2%, and 0.9%, respectively. Sternotomy procedures were performed in 3 instances: once for vascular repair due to perforation and twice to ensure that all infected lead material was removed. No minor complications required surgical intervention. Survival after discharge was 98.4% at 30 days and 94% at 12 months. Conclusion Atlantic Canada’s sole surgical extraction centre achieved high extraction success with a low complication rate. Lead extraction in an operative setting provides for immediate surgical intervention and is essential for the survival of patients with complicated cases. Surgeons must weigh the risks versus benefits in patients older than 60 years who have chronically implanted leads (> 1 yr) and infection. PMID:26999473

  11. Data Management Challenges for Airborne NASA Earth Venture Sub-Orbital Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, A.; Lindsley, C.; Wright, D.; Cook, R. B.; Santhana Vannan, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is developing technology infrastructure to archive airborne remote sensing observations from two of NASA's Earth Venture Sub-orbital Missions. The two missions are CARVE (Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment) and AirMOSS (Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface). These missions collected over 140 TB of data from extensive ground-based and airborne instruments. The metadata and documentation requirements necessary for proper archive and dissemination of such transect-based, and often 3-dimensional, airborne data are quite different from traditional field campaign data and satellite remote sensing data streams. Staff at the ORNL DAAC have developed a metadata and data infrastructure for airborne data that enables spatial or keyword-based search and discovery, integration of related satellite- or ground-based data sets, and subsetting and visualization tools for both CARVE and AirMOSS. Here we discuss challenges, progress, and lessons learned.

  12. GOES Satellite Observations for the FIRE/SRB Wisconsin Experiment Region from October 11 Through November 2, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, Charles H.; T R. acraitch, Eric J.

    1987-01-01

    A map, concise tables, and satellite images are presented which show ground-site locations, GOES visible/infrared instrument counts above each site, and cloud spatial distribution for the experiment region from 11 October through 2 November 1986. The cloud images are presented near times of the afternoon NOAA-9 satellite overpasses in order to provide a qualitative aid in the interpretation of TOVS, AVHRR, and heat budget data during the FIRE/SRB experiment.

  13. Spatial distribution of Sahelian land surface properties from airborne POLDER multiangular observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, Roselyne; Roujean, Jean-Louis; Goutorbe, Jean-Paul

    1999-05-01

    This paper presents the spatial distribution of land surface parameters in southwestern Niger, a region composed mainly of shrub and grassland fallows, millet crop, and tiger bush. The regional patterns of the surface albedo, the leaf area index, the fractional vegetation cover, and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation are estimated through the growing season from airborne POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances) data acquired during the Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot Experiment in Sahel (HAPEX-Sahel). The retrieval of these parameters is via a bidirectional reflectance model, appropriate vegetation indices, and Sun-view geometries. Comparison of the POLDER-derived surface parameters with airborne and ground measurements shows that the procedure generally performs well, enhancing the ability to constrain soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) models in the Sahel area by providing spatially averaged and updated information. This will enable a more valid assessment of the role of the land surface in determining the Sahelian climate, with a better determination of the scaling effect of surface processes. Although the algorithms described in this work rely primarily on multiangular observations, such as those provided by spaceborne POLDER data sets, they should be useful in a number of remote sensing applications.

  14. Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James G.; Toon, Owen B.

    1993-01-01

    The sudden onset of ozone depletion in the antarctic vortex set a precedent for both the time scale and the severity of global change. The Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE), staged from Punta Arenas, Chile, in 1987, established that CFCs, halons, and methyl bromide, the dominant sources of chlorine and bromine radicals in the stratosphere, control the rate of ozone destruction over the Antarctic; that the vortex is depleted in reactive nitrogen and water vapor; and that diabatic cooling during the antarctic winter leads to subsidence within the vortex core, importing air from higher altitudes and lower latitudes. This last conclusion is based on observed dramatic distortion in the tracer fields, most notably N2O. In 1989, the first Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-I), staged from Stavanger, Norway, and using the same aircraft employed for AAOE (the NASA ER-2 and the NASA DC-8), discovered that while NO(x) and to some degree NO(y) were perturbed within the arctic vortex, there was little evidence for desiccation. Under these (in contrast to the antarctic) marginally perturbed conditions, however, Cl0 was found to be dramatically enhanced such that a large fraction of the available (inorganic) chlorine resided in the form of Cl0 and its dimer ClOOCl. This leaves two abiding issues for the northern hemisphere and the mission of the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-II): (1) Will significant ozone erosion occur within the arctic vortex in the next ten years as chlorine loading in the stratosphere exceeds four parts per billion by volume? and (2) Which mechanisms are responsible for the observed ozone erosion poleward of 30 deg N in the winter/spring northern hemisphere reported in satellite observations?

  15. Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James G.; Toon, Owen B.

    1993-01-01

    The sudden onset of ozone depletion in the antarctic vortex set a precedent for both the time scale and the severity of global change. The Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE), stages from Punta Arenas, Chile, in 1987, established that CFCs, halons, and methyl bromide, the dominant sources of chlorine and bromide radicals in the stratosphere, control the rate of ozone destruction over the Antarctic; that the vortex is depleted in reactive nitrogen and water vapor; and that diabatic cooling during the antarctic winter leads to subsidence within the vortex core, importing air from higher altitudes and lower latitudes. This last conclusion is based on observed dramatic distortion in the tracer fields, most notably N2O. In 1989, the first Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-1), staged from Stavanger, Norway, and using the same aircraft employed for AAOE (the NASA ER-2 and the NASA DC-8), discovered that while NO(x) and to some degree NO(y) were perturbed within the arctic vortex, there was little evidence for desiccation. Under these (in contrast to the antarctic) marginally perturbed conditions, however, ClO was found to be dramatically enhanced such that a large fraction of the available (inorganic) chlorine resided in the form of ClO and its dimer ClOOCl. This leaves two abiding issues for the northern hemisphere and the mission of the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-2): (1) Will significant ozone erosion occur within the arctic vortex in the next ten years as chlorine loading in the stratosphere exceeds four parts per billion by volume? (2) Which mechanisms are responsible for the observed ozone erosion poleward of 30 deg N in the winter/spring northern hemisphere reported in satellite observations?

  16. Airborne Interferometry using GNSS Reflections for Surface Level Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmling, Maximilian; Beyerle, Georg; Schön, Steffen; Stosius, Ralf; Gerber, Thomas; Beckheinrich, Jamila; Markgraf, Markus; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The interferometric use of GNSS reflections for ocean altimetry can fill the gap in coverage of ocean observations. Today radar altimeters are used for large scale ocean observations to monitor e.g. global sea level change or circulation processes like El Niño. Spacial and temporal resolution of a single radar altimeter, however, is insufficient to observe mesoscale ocean phenomena like large oceanic eddies that are important indicators of climate change. The high coverage expected for a spaceborne altimeter based on GNSS reflections stimulated investigations on according interferometric methods. Several airborne experiments have been conducted using code observations. Carrier observations have a better precision but are severely affected by noise and have mostly been used in ground-based experiments. A new interferometric approach is presented using carrier observations for airborne application. Implementing a spectral retrieval noise reduction is achieved. A flight experiment was conducted with a Zeppelin airship on 2010/10/12 over Lake Constance at the border between Austria, Germany and Switzerland. The lake surface with an area of 536km2 is suitable for altimetric study as its decimeter range Geoid undulations are well-known. Three GNSS receiver were installed on the airship. A Javad Delta receiver recording direct signals for navigation. The DLR G-REX receiver recording reflected signals for scatterometry and the GORS (GNSS Occultation Reflectometry Scatterometry) receiver recording direct and reflected signals for interferometry. The airship's trajectory is determined from navigation data with a precision better than 10cm using regional augmentation. This presentation focuses on the interferometric analysis of GORS observations. Ray tracing calculations are used to model the difference of direct and reflected signals' path. Spectral retrieval is applied to determine Doppler residuals of modelled path difference and interferometric observations. Lake level

  17. Measurements of Ocean Surface Scattering Using an Airborne 94-GHz Cloud Radar: Implication for Calibration of Airborne and Spaceborne W-band Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Li-Hua; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Racette, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering properties of the Ocean surface have been widely used as a calibration reference for airborne and spaceborne microwave sensors. However, at millimeter-wave frequencies, the ocean surface backscattering mechanism is still not well understood, in part, due to the lack of experimental measurements. During the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE), measurements of ocean surface backscattering were made using a 94-GHz (W-band) cloud radar onboard a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The measurement set includes the normalized Ocean surface cross section over a range of the incidence angles under a variety of wind conditions. Analysis of the radar measurements shows good agreement with a quasi-specular scattering model. This unprecedented dataset enhances our knowledge about the Ocean surface scattering mechanism at 94 GHz. The results of this work support the proposition of using the Ocean surface as a calibration reference for airborne millimeter-wave cloud radars and for the ongoing NASA CloudSat mission, which will use a 94-GHz spaceborne cloud radar for global cloud measurements.

  18. NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon ... continuing to January 1984. Transcribed from the following NASA Tech Reports: McCormick, M. P., and M. T. Osborn, Airborne lidar ...

  19. Lessons Learned from the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) and Implications for Nitrogen Management of Tampa Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results from air quality modeling and field measurements made as part of the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) along with related scientific literature were reviewed to provide an improved estimate of atmospheric reactive nitrogen (N) deposition to Tampa Bay, to...

  20. Regional Sediment Management Experiment Using the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite and the Landsat Data Continuity Mission Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The central aim of this RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment is to demonstrate the use of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/ Radiometer Suite and LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission) sensors as key input to the RSM (Regional Sediment Management) GIS (geographic information system) DSS (Decision Support System). The project affects the Coastal Management National Application.

  1. Integrated Regional Resources Management. A Syllabus for an International Training Course Based on the Experience of the Tennessee Valley Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville.

    This syllabus outlines a course of study in integrated regional resources management based on the experience of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The course has been developed for resource practitioners, in developing countries, who have responsibilities related to topics addressed in the course's 14 instructional modules. These topics are:…

  2. Data System for HS3 Airborne Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, M.; Mceniry, M.; Berendes, T.; Bugbee, K.; Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) is a NASA airborne field campaign aimed at better understanding the physical processes that control hurricane intensity change. HS3 will help answer questions related to the roles of environmental conditions and internal storm structures to storm intensification. Due to the nature of the questions that HS3 mission is addressing, it involves a variety of in-situ, satellite observations, airborne data, meteorological analyses, and simulation data. This variety of datasets presents numerous data management challenges for HS3. The methods used for airborne data management differ greatly from the methods used for space-borne data. In particular, metadata extraction, spatial and temporal indexing, and the large number of instruments and subsequent variables are a few of the data management challenges unique to airborne missions. A robust data system is required to successfully help HS3 scientist achieve their mission goals. Furthermore, the data system also needs to provide for data management that assists in broader use of HS3 data to enable future research activities. The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) is considering all these needs and designing a data system for HS3. Experience with past airborne field campaign puts GHRC in a good position to address HS3 needs. However, the scale of this mission along with science requirements separates HS3 from previous field campaigns. The HS3 data system will include automated services for geo-location, metadata extraction, discovery, and distribution for all HS3 data. To answer the science questions, the data system will include a visual data exploration tool that is fully integrated into the data catalog. The tool will allow visually augmenting airborne data with analyses and simulations. Satellite data will provide contextual information during such data explorations. All HS3 tools will be supported by an enterprise service architecture that will allow scaling, easy integration

  3. Preliminary Results From the Serpentinite, Extension and Regional Porosity Experiment Across the Nicaraguan Trench (SERPENT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, K. W.; Constable, S.; Evans, R. L.; Naif, S.; Matsuno, T.; Lizarralde, D.

    2010-12-01

    Water plays an important role in the volcanic processes occurring at convergent margins, as the release of water from the downgoing slab affects the rheology of the mantle, increases melting by lowering the solidus temperature, and alters the chemistry of arc-lavas. Yet, one of the major uncertainties in terms of fluid inputs into the subduction factory concerns the extent of serpentinization of the oceanic upper mantle and the volumes of water that are being carried into the subduction system through this route. In April 2010 we conducted a large-scale marine electromagnetic experiment along a 300 km profile offshore Nicaragua in a region that shows evidence for substantial fault related fluid circulation in the crust and possibly upper mantle, and high Ba/La ratios and water contents in adjacent onshore volcanics that suggest a strong slab fluid input into the arc-melting. Our project is the largest combined controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) and magnetotelluric (MT) data set ever collected on an active subduction zone. During the single 28 day research cruise aboard the R/V Melville we collected 54 stations of broadband marine magnetotelluric (MT) data and deep-towed nearly 800 km of controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. Robust multiple-station array processing of the MT data yields high quality MT responses from 10 to 20,000 s period. The MT responses are fairly 1D over the abyssal plain, showing the effects of a thin veneer of conductive sediments overlying a resistive lithosphere and a deeper conductive mantle. The responses become strongly 2D on the trench outer rise and exhibit large 3D distortions at the bottom of the trench, likely due to a combination of effects from severe topography and seafloor conductivity variations. Two circular CSEM tows of 30 km radius were measured by special long-wire EM (LEM) sensors on the abyssal plain and the outer rise. The LEM data reveals a distinct pattern of electromagnetic polarization that is

  4. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  5. Airborne fungi--a resurvey

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.H.; Prince, H.E.; Raymer, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    A 15-month survey of airborne fungi at 14 geographical stations was conducted to determine the incidence of different fungal genera. Five of these stations were surveyed 25 years earlier. A comparison between previous studies and present surveys revealed similar organisms at each station with slight shifts in frequency of dominant genera.

  6. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  7. AARD - Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewers, Dick

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration program, and NASA Dryden's work in the program. The primary goal of the program is to make one fully automatic probe-to-drogue engagement using the AARD system. There are pictures of the aircraft approaching to the docking.

  8. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  9. An Overview of Regional Experiments on Biomass Burning Aerosols and Related Pollutants in Southeast Asia: From BASE-ASIA and the Dongsha Experiment to 7-SEAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Maring, Hal B.; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Fu, Joshua S.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Lee, Chung-Te; Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, Jia-Lin; Hsu, Christina N.; Sayer, Andrew M.; Holben, Brent N.; Chu, Yu-Chi; Nguyen, Xuan Anh; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Chen, Shui-Jen; Cheng, Man-Ting; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Peng, Chi-Ming; Schnell, Russell C.; Conway, Tom; Chang, Chang-Tang; Lin, Kuen-Song; Tsai, Ying I.; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang, Shuenn-Chin; Liu, Jyh-Jian; Chang, Wei-Li; Huang, Shih-Jen; Lin, Tang-Huang; Liu, Gin-Rong

    2013-01-01

    By modulating the Earth-atmosphere energy, hydrological and biogeochemical cycles, and affecting regional-to-global weather and climate, biomass burning is recognized as one of the major factors affecting the global carbon cycle. However, few comprehensive and wide-ranging experiments have been conducted to characterize biomass-burning pollutants in Southeast Asia (SEA) or assess their regional impact on meteorology, the hydrological cycle, the radiative budget, or climate change. Recently, BASEASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) and the 7-SEAS (7- South-East Asian Studies) Dongsha Experiment were conducted during the spring seasons of 2006 and 2010 in northern SEA, respectively, to characterize the chemical, physical, and radiative properties of biomass-burning emissions near the source regions, and assess their effects. This paper provides an overview of results from these two campaigns and related studies collected in this special issue, entitled Observation, modeling and impact studies of biomass burning and pollution in the SE Asian Environment. This volume includes 28 papers, which provide a synopsis of the experiments, regional weatherclimate, chemical characterization of biomass-burning aerosols and related pollutants in source and sink regions, the spatial distribution of air toxics (atmospheric mercury and dioxins) in source and remote areas, a characterization of aerosol physical, optical, and radiative properties, as well as modeling and impact studies. These studies, taken together, provide the first relatively complete dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the sourcesink region in the northern SEA, with particular emphasis on the marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere (LFT). The data, analysis and modeling included in these papers advance our present knowledge of source characterization of biomass-burning pollutants near the source regions as well as the physical and

  10. Regional incentives and patient cross-border mobility: evidence from the Italian experience

    PubMed Central

    Brenna, Elenka; Spandonaro, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background: In recent years, accreditation of private hospitals followed by decentralisation of the Italian National Health Service (NHS) into 21 regional health systems has provided a good empirical ground for investigating the Tiebout principle of "voting with their feet". We examine the infra-regional trade-off between greater patient choice (due to an increase in hospital services supply) and financial equilibrium, and we relate it to the significant phenomenon of Cross-Border Mobility (CBM) between Italian regions. Focusing on the rules supervising the financial agreements between regional authorities and providers of hospital care, we find incentives for private accredited providers in attracting patient inflows. Methods: The analysis is undertaken from an institutional, regulatory and empirical perspective. We select a sample of five regions with higher positive CBM balance and we examine regional regulations governing the contractual agreements between purchasers and providers of hospital care. According to this sample, we provide a statistical analysis of CBM and apply a Regional Attraction Ability Index (RAAI), aimed at testing patient preferences for private/public accredited providers. Results: We find that this index is systematically higher for private providers, both in the case of distance/boundary patients and of excellence/general hospitals. Conclusion: Conclusions address both financial issues regarding the coverage of regional healthcare systems and equity issues on patient healthcare access. They also raise concerns on the new European Union (EU) directive inherent to patient mobility across Europe. PMID:26029895

  11. Do Signers Understand Regional Varieties of a Sign Language? A Lexical Recognition Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Rose

    2016-01-01

    The degree of mutual intelligibility of British Sign Language (BSL) regional varieties has been a subject of some debate. Recent research in which dyads of signers from contrasting regional backgrounds engaged in a conversational task showed no problems understanding one another. The present study investigated signers' knowledge of different BSL…

  12. Airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weiming; Wang, Jianyu; Shu, Rong; He, Zhiping; Ma, Yanhua

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we present a kind of airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system that consists of an imaging spectrometer, a three-line scanner, a laser ranger, a position & orientation subsystem and a stabilizer PAV30. The imaging spectrometer is composed of two sets of identical push-broom high spectral imager with a field of view of 22°, which provides a field of view of 42°. The spectral range of the imaging spectrometer is from 420nm to 900nm, and its spectral resolution is 5nm. The three-line scanner is composed of two pieces of panchromatic CCD and a RGB CCD with 20° stereo angle and 10cm GSD(Ground Sample Distance) with 1000m flying height. The laser ranger can provide height data of three points every other four scanning lines of the spectral imager and those three points are calibrated to match the corresponding pixels of the spectral imager. The post-processing attitude accuracy of POS/AV 510 used as the position & orientation subsystem, which is the aerial special exterior parameters measuring product of Canadian Applanix Corporation, is 0.005° combined with base station data. The airborne multidimensional integrated remote sensing system was implemented successfully, performed the first flying experiment on April, 2005, and obtained satisfying data.

  13. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's DC-8 Airborne Science platform shown against a background of a dark blue sky on February 20, 1998. The aircraft is shown from the right rear, slightly above its plane, with the right wing in the foreground and the left wing and horizontal tail in the background. The former airliner is a 'dash-72' model and has a range of 5,400 miles. The craft can stay airborne for 12 hours and has an operational speed range between 300 and 500 knots. The research flights are made at between 500 and 41,000 feet. The aircraft can carry up to 30,000 lbs of research/science payload equipment installed in 15 mission-definable spaces. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  14. Impact detection on airborne multilayered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noharet, Bertrand; Chazelas, Jean; Bonniau, Philippe; Lecuellet, Jerome; Turpin, Marc J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper reviews the progress of an ongoing research program at Thomson-CSF and Bertin & Cie which addresses an optical fiber system dedicated to the assessment of impact induced damages on airborne multilayered structures. The method is based on the use of embedded high birefringence optical fiber sensors and distributed white light interfero-polarimetry. The first part is devoted to the transduction process efficiency within optical fibers depending on the applied force intensity, direction versus the fiber eigen axes and the interaction length. To understand the behavior of these optical fibers and calibrate the detection system, experiments have been conducted on elliptical core fibers, `bow-tie' fibers and side-hole fibers and showed a wide range of available sensitivities. The second step is related to the inclusion of optical fibers in a sandwich structure representative of an airborne dome, and composed of foam between glass/epoxy composite skins. Different designs of grooves in the foam and tube sheathings have been investigated to support and protect the optical fiber. Impacts have been performed on the structure in the 1 to 10 Joules energy range. Experimental impact location and energy measurements have been achieved for a variety of stress fields.

  15. Handling Trajectory Uncertainties for Airborne Conflict Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Doble, Nathan A.; Karr, David; Palmer, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne conflict management is an enabling capability for NASA's Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept. DAGTM has the goal of significantly increasing capacity within the National Airspace System, while maintaining or improving safety. Under DAG-TM, autonomous aircraft maintain separation from each other and from managed aircraft unequipped for autonomous flight. NASA Langley Research Center has developed the Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP), an onboard decision support system that provides airborne conflict management (ACM) and strategic flight planning support for autonomous aircraft pilots. The AOP performs conflict detection, prevention, and resolution from nearby traffic aircraft and area hazards. Traffic trajectory information is assumed to be provided by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). Reliable trajectory prediction is a key capability for providing effective ACM functions. Trajectory uncertainties due to environmental effects, differences in aircraft systems and performance, and unknown intent information lead to prediction errors that can adversely affect AOP performance. To accommodate these uncertainties, the AOP has been enhanced to create cross-track, vertical, and along-track buffers along the predicted trajectories of both ownship and traffic aircraft. These buffers will be structured based on prediction errors noted from previous simulations such as a recent Joint Experiment between NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers and from other outside studies. Currently defined ADS-B parameters related to navigation capability, trajectory type, and path conformance will be used to support the algorithms that generate the buffers.

  16. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth's climate, public health, air quality, and hydrological and carbon cycles. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemical composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. We suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events.

  17. A Three-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation Scheme for the Regional Ocean Modeling System: Implementation and Basic Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhijin; Chao, Yi; McWilliams, James C.; Ide, Kayo

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme for the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), named ROMS3DVAR, has been described in the work of Li et al. (2008). In this paper, ROMS3DVAR is applied to the central California coastal region, an area characterized by inhomogeneity and anisotropy, as well as by dynamically unbalanced flows. A method for estimating the model error variances from limited observations is presented, and the construction of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic error correlations based on the Kronecker product is demonstrated. A set of single observation experiments illustrates the inhomogeneous and anisotropic error correlations and weak dynamic constraints used. Results are presented from the assimilation of data gathered during the Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN) experiment during August 2003. The results show that ROMS3DVAR is capable of reproducing complex flows associated with upwelling and relaxation, as well as the rapid transitions between them. Some difficulties encountered during the experiment are also discussed.

  18. Implementation of the GFS physical package in the GRAPES regional model: single column experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baode; Huang, Wei; Bao, Jian-wen

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern about coupling among physical components in NWP models. The Physics package of the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) has been considerably turned and connection among various components is well considered. Thus, the full GFS physical package was implemented into the GRAPES-MESO and its single column version as well. Using the data collected at ARM Southern Great Plain site during the summer 1997 Intensive Observing Period, several experiments of single-column model (SCM) were conducted to test performance of a set of original physical processes of GRAPES(CTL experiment) and the GFS physics package implemented(GFS experiment). Temperature, moisture, radiation, surface heat flux, surface air temperature and precipitation are evaluated. It is found that potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment is more accurate than that of CTL experiment. Errors of surface downward solar and long-wave radiation simulated by GFS experiment are less than that of CTL experiment and upward latent and sensible heat flux are also better agreeing with observation. The maximum and minimum 2-m air temperatures of the GFS experiment are close to observation compared with that of CTL experiment. Analysis of precipitation simulated shows that both sets of physical processes well reproduce heavy rainfall events. Failure and delay of moderate rainfall events and over predictions of drizzle events are commonly found for two sets of experiments. For the case of three rainfall events, the errors of potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment were smaller than that of CTL experiment. It is shown that the late occurrences of rainfall are resulted from a more stable temperature profile and lower moisture simulated in boundary layer than those from the observation prior to rainfall. When the simulated rainfall occurs, the simulated temperature and moisture become more favorable to the precipitation than observation.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions derived from regional measurement networks and atmospheric inversions: Results from the MCI and INFLUX experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. J.; Andrews, A. E.; Cambaliza, M.; Denning, A.; Gurney, K. R.; Lauvaux, T.; Miles, N. L.; Ogle, S. M.; Possolo, A.; Richardson, S.; Schuh, A. E.; Shepson, P. B.; Sweeney, C.; Turnbull, J. C.; West, T. O.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric evaluation of emissions inventories is increasingly envisioned as a critical element of greenhouse gas emissions regulation. Atmospheric inversions utilizing dense regional networks of greenhouse gas measurements, however, are scarce. Discussions of the measurements and methods required to infer fluxes at spatial and temporal resolutions sufficient to meet the needs of policy makers, therefore, remain largely hypothetical. We present results from one past field experiment, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Midcontinent Intensive (MCI) regional study, and preliminary results from a new experiment, the Indianapolis Flux project (INFLUX), both of which include high density regional greenhouse gas measurement networks. Both studies also include detailed regional inventory assessments of greenhouse gas sources and sinks. The MCI results show large amplitude, spatially coherent synoptic and seasonal patterns in boundary layer CO2 mixing ratios correlated with cropping patterns. Regional atmospheric inversions utilizing these data show corrections that tend towards the inventory estimates regardless of the prior flux estimates utilized in the inversion, and the region appears to have been slightly oversampled by the instrument density deployed. The uncertainty bounds associated with the inverted fluxes, however, remain fairly large despite the high density of atmospheric data, and the true uncertainty is difficult to assess. The INFLUX experiment will utilize a similar number of sensors deployed over a spatial domain two to three orders of magnitude smaller in area than the MCI domain, and will attempt to utilize similar techniques to infer anthropogenic emissions at high spatial resolution. We will present the experimental design for this project including the unique challenges of multi-species inversions and the need to deconvolve biological and fossil fuel fluxes. We anticipate that this experiment will serve as a benchmark regarding the accuracy and

  20. Airborne Astronomy Symposium on the Galactic Ecosystem: From Gas to Stars to Dust, volume 73

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael R. (Editor); Davidson, Jacqueline A. (Editor); Erickson, Edwin F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This symposium was organized to review the science related to NASA's Airborne Astronomy Program on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The theme selected, 'The Galactic Ecosystem: From Gas to Stars to Dust,' was considered to capture the underlying commonality of much of the research discussed. The 8 sessions were as follows: The Interstellar Medium; The Life Cycle of the ISM in Other Galaxies; Star and Planetary System Formation; Our Planetary System: The Solar System; The Enrichment of the Interstellar Medium; The Galactic Center: A Unique Region of the Galactic Ecosystem; Instrumentation for Airborne Astronomy; KAO History and Education; and Missions and the Future of Infrared Astronomy.

  1. Methane emissions from Alaska in 2012 from CARVE airborne observations

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Steven J.; Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Daube, Bruce C.; Henderson, John M.; Mountain, Marikate E.; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Miller, John B.; Bruhwiler, Lori M. P.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    We determined methane (CH4) emissions from Alaska using airborne measurements from the Carbon Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). Atmospheric sampling was conducted between May and September 2012 and analyzed using a customized version of the polar weather research and forecast model linked to a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (stochastic time-inverted Lagrangian transport model). We estimated growing season CH4 fluxes of 8 ± 2 mg CH4⋅m−2⋅d−1 averaged over all of Alaska, corresponding to fluxes from wetlands of 56−13+22 mg CH4⋅m−2⋅d−1 if we assumed that wetlands are the only source from the land surface (all uncertainties are 95% confidence intervals from a bootstrapping analysis). Fluxes roughly doubled from May to July, then decreased gradually in August and September. Integrated emissions totaled 2.1 ± 0.5 Tg CH4 for Alaska from May to September 2012, close to the average (2.3; a range of 0.7 to 6 Tg CH4) predicted by various land surface models and inversion analyses for the growing season. Methane emissions from boreal Alaska were larger than from the North Slope; the monthly regional flux estimates showed no evidence of enhanced emissions during early spring or late fall, although these bursts may be more localized in time and space than can be detected by our analysis. These results provide an important baseline to which future studies can be compared. PMID:25385648

  2. Thermal response of the F region ionosphere in artificial modification experiments by HF radio waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantas, G. P.; Lahoz, C. H.; Carlson, H. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal response of the nighttime F region ionosphere to local heating by HF radio waves has been observed with the incoherent scatter radar at Arecibo, Puerto Rico. The observations consist of high-resolution space and time variation of the electron temperature as a high-power HF transmitter is switched on and off with a period 240 s. As soon as the HF transmitter is turned on, the electron temperature begins to rise rapidly in a narrow altitude region near 300 km, below the F2 layer peak. The electron temperature perturbation subsequently spreads over a broader altitude region. The observations are compared with the anticipated thermal response of the ionosphere based on numerical solutions of the coupled time-dependent heat conduction equations for the electron and composite ion gases and are found to be in good agreement over the entire altitude region covered by the observations.

  3. The Outlook for Low-Grade Fuels in Tomsk Region: Research Experience at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaustov, Sergei A.; Kazakov, Alexander V.; Cherkashina, Galina A.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    The urgency of the discussed issue is caused by the need to substitute in the regional fuel-energy balances imported energy resources with local low-grade fuels. The main aim of the study is to estimate thermal properties of local fuels in Tomsk region and evaluate its energy use viability. The methods used in the study were based standard GOST 52911-2008, 11022-95 and 6382-2001, by means of a bomb calorimeter ABK-1 and Vario micro cube analyzer. The mineral ash of researched fuels was studied agreeing with GOST 10538-87. The results state the fact that discussed low-grade fuels of Tomsk region in the unprepared form are not able to replace imported coal in regional energy balance, because of the high moisture and ash content values. A promosing direction of a low-temperature fue processing is a catalytic converter, which allows receiving hydrogen-enriched syngas from the initial solid raw.

  4. Integrated research and observation experiment of hydrological process in small watershed in cold regions of Qilian Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.; Liu, J.

    2012-04-01

    Heihe Qilian Mountain station is located at QingHai Province, northeast of Tibetan Plateau, belongs to the Source Region of Heihe River Basin at latitude 38° 15¢542 N and longitude 99° 52¢ 532 E. The research objective of this station is to find the mutual mechanisms of eco-hydrological processes and to predict the runoff with high precision in cold watershed in China under global warming. Hulugou watershed, with a total area of 23.1 km2 and elevation fluctuating from 2960m to 4820m, has obvious vertical landscape and all types of typical underlying surface of cold regions. Thus, it was chosen as the researched watershed for integrated research and observation experiment of hydrological process in cold regions. In 2008, four ENVIS (Environmental Information System) were built along different altitude gradient in Hulugou experiment watershed to measure heat and water flux of the frozen soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer systems. Besides, many apparatus measuring snow, frozen soil, glacier, evapotranspiration, infiltration and runoff were built on various typical underlying surfaces. Through the observation net in Hulugou experiment watershed, various hydrological and meteorological data was obtained for hydrological processes research in cold regions.

  5. Airborne Observations of Urban-Derived Water Vapor and Potential Impacts on Chemistry and Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, O. E.; Shepson, P. B.; Grundman, R. M., II; Stirm, B. H.; Ren, X.; Dickerson, R. R.; Fuentes, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric conditions typical of wintertime, such as lower boundary layer heights and reduced turbulent mixing, provide a unique environment for anthropogenic pollutants to accumulate and react. Wintertime enhancements in water vapor (H2O) have been observed in urban areas, and are thought to result from fossil fuel combustion and urban heat island-induced evaporation. The contribution of urban-derived water vapor to the atmosphere has the potential to locally influence atmospheric chemistry and weather for the urban area and surrounding region due to interactions between H2O and other chemical species, aerosols, and clouds. Airborne observations of urban-derived H2O, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone, and aerosols were conducted from Purdue University's Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) and the University of Maryland's (UMD) Twin Cessna research aircraft during the winter of 2015. Measurements were conducted as part of the collaborative airborne campaign, Wintertime INvestigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity (WINTER), which investigated seasonal trends in anthropogenic emissions and reactivity in the Northeastern United States. ALAR and the UMD aircraft participated in mass balance experiments around Washington D.C.-Baltimore to determine total city emission rates of H2O and other greenhouse gases. Average enhancements in H2O mixing ratio of 0.048%, and up to 0.13%, were observed downwind of the urban centers on ten research flights. In some cases, downwind H2O concentrations clearly track CO2 and NO2 enhancements, suggesting a strong combustion signal. Analysis of Purdue and UMD data collected during the WINTER campaign shows an average urban-derived H2O contribution of 5.3%, and as much as 13%, to the local boundary layer from ten research flights flown in February and March of 2015. In this paper, we discuss the potential chemical and physical implications of these results.

  6. Airborne Dust, "The Good Guy or the Bad Guy": How Much do We Know?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2010-01-01

    Processes in generating, transporting, and dissipating the airborne dust particles are global phenomena -African dust regularly reaching the Alps; Asian dust seasonally crossing the Pacific into North America, and ultimately the Atlantic into Europe. One of the vital biogeochemical roles dust storms play in Earth's ecosystem is routinely mobilizing mineral dust, as a source of iron, from deserts into oceans for fertilizing the growth of phytoplankton -the basis of the oceanic food chain. Similarly, these dust-laden airs also supply crucial nutrients for the soil of tropical rain forests, the so-called womb of life that hosts 50-90% of the species on Earth. With massive amounts of dust lifted from desert regions and injected into the atmosphere, however, these dust storms often affect daily activities in dramatic ways: pushing grit through windows and doors, forcing people to stay indoors, causing breathing problems, reducing visibility and delaying flights, and by and large creating chaos. Thus, both increasing and decreasing concentrations of doses result in harmful biological effects; so do the airborne dust particles to our Living Earth. Since 1997 NASA has been successfully launching a series of satellites - the Earth Observing System - to intensively study, and gain a better understanding of, the Earth as an integrated system. Through participation in many satellite remote-sensing/retrieval and validation projects over the years, we have gradually developed and refined the SMART (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) and COMMIT (Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere) mobile observatories, a suite of surface remote sensing and in-situ instruments that proved to be vital in providing high temporal measurements, which complement the satellite observations. In this talk, we will present SMART-COMMIT which has played key roles, serving as network or supersite, in major international research projects such

  7. Monitoring soil erosion in terraced catchments in Mediterranean regions: a field experiment in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, Corrado; Djuma, Hakan; Zoumides, Christos; Eliades, Marinos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Abate, Dante; Faka, Marina; Hermon, Sorin

    2016-04-01

    Terraces retained by dry-stone walls are very common features in mountainous Mediterranean environments. These structures provide accessible agricultural land on steep slopes, favoring water infiltration and reducing water runoff and soil erosion. However, during the last decades, an increasing trend of agricultural land abandonment has resulted in a lack of maintenance of the terrace walls and the onset of a general process of land degradation. The objective of this study is the quantification of soil erosion in a small terraced catchment (10,000 m2), located on the north-eastern slope of the Troodos Mountains (Cyprus), at an elevation of 1,300 m a.s.l. The catchment is cultivated with vineyards and it is representative of the main agricultural land use in the Troodos region. Soil erosion is measured by sediment traps and laser scans are made to assess changes in terrace geometry. In addition, a weather station measuring rainfall, temperature and relative humidity has been installed in the catchment, along with 18 soil moisture sensors, to relate soil erosion processes with climate and (sub)surface hydrology. A total of 10 sediment traps, five pairs, have been installed in the study site, catching five well-maintained sections of a dry-stone wall and five degraded (collapsed) sections. Each trap is 1 m wide. In detail, two terraces, 11 and 14 m long, located at the same elevation and separated by a strip of natural vegetation, are monitored with four and six traps, respectively. To get a complete picture of the erosion processes occurring on the selected area, the trap pairs collect sediment from both the collapsed and the well maintained wall sections of the two terraces. In addition, terrace area of two traps is delineated by metal borders (1x4 m2) to relate erosion rates to a known drainage area. The sediment traps are emptied after all rainfall events. At the beginning and end of the rainy season, a laser scanning survey of a terrace located uphill of the ones

  8. Experiments with Seasonal Forecasts of ocean conditions for the Northern region of the California Current upwelling system.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, Samantha A; Kaplan, Isaac C; Hermann, Albert J; Nguyen, Thanh Tam; Bond, Nicholas A; Newton, Jan A; Williams, Gregory D; Peterson, William T; Alin, Simone R; Feely, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Resource managers at the state, federal, and tribal levels make decisions on a weekly to quarterly basis, and fishers operate on a similar timeframe. To determine the potential of a support tool for these efforts, a seasonal forecast system is experimented with here. JISAO's Seasonal Coastal Ocean Prediction of the Ecosystem (J-SCOPE) features dynamical downscaling of regional ocean conditions in Washington and Oregon waters using a combination of a high-resolution regional model with biogeochemistry and forecasts from NOAA's Climate Forecast System (CFS). Model performance and predictability were examined for sea surface temperature (SST), bottom temperature, bottom oxygen, pH, and aragonite saturation state through model hindcasts, reforecast, and forecast comparisons with observations. Results indicate J-SCOPE forecasts have measurable skill on seasonal timescales. Experiments suggest that seasonal forecasting of ocean conditions important for fisheries is possible with the right combination of components. Those components include regional predictability on seasonal timescales of the physical environment from a large-scale model, a high-resolution regional model with biogeochemistry that simulates seasonal conditions in hindcasts, a relationship with local stakeholders, and a real-time observational network. Multiple efforts and approaches in different regions would advance knowledge to provide additional tools to fishers and other stakeholders. PMID:27273473

  9. Experiments with Seasonal Forecasts of ocean conditions for the Northern region of the California Current upwelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siedlecki, Samantha A.; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Hermann, Albert J.; Nguyen, Thanh Tam; Bond, Nicholas A.; Newton, Jan A.; Williams, Gregory D.; Peterson, William T.; Alin, Simone R.; Feely, Richard A.

    2016-06-01

    Resource managers at the state, federal, and tribal levels make decisions on a weekly to quarterly basis, and fishers operate on a similar timeframe. To determine the potential of a support tool for these efforts, a seasonal forecast system is experimented with here. JISAO’s Seasonal Coastal Ocean Prediction of the Ecosystem (J-SCOPE) features dynamical downscaling of regional ocean conditions in Washington and Oregon waters using a combination of a high-resolution regional model with biogeochemistry and forecasts from NOAA’s Climate Forecast System (CFS). Model performance and predictability were examined for sea surface temperature (SST), bottom temperature, bottom oxygen, pH, and aragonite saturation state through model hindcasts, reforecast, and forecast comparisons with observations. Results indicate J-SCOPE forecasts have measurable skill on seasonal timescales. Experiments suggest that seasonal forecasting of ocean conditions important for fisheries is possible with the right combination of components. Those components include regional predictability on seasonal timescales of the physical environment from a large-scale model, a high-resolution regional model with biogeochemistry that simulates seasonal conditions in hindcasts, a relationship with local stakeholders, and a real-time observational network. Multiple efforts and approaches in different regions would advance knowledge to provide additional tools to fishers and other stakeholders.

  10. Experiments with Seasonal Forecasts of ocean conditions for the Northern region of the California Current upwelling system

    PubMed Central

    Siedlecki, Samantha A.; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Hermann, Albert J.; Nguyen, Thanh Tam; Bond, Nicholas A.; Newton, Jan A.; Williams, Gregory D.; Peterson, William T.; Alin, Simone R.; Feely, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Resource managers at the state, federal, and tribal levels make decisions on a weekly to quarterly basis, and fishers operate on a similar timeframe. To determine the potential of a support tool for these efforts, a seasonal forecast system is experimented with here. JISAO’s Seasonal Coastal Ocean Prediction of the Ecosystem (J-SCOPE) features dynamical downscaling of regional ocean conditions in Washington and Oregon waters using a combination of a high-resolution regional model with biogeochemistry and forecasts from NOAA’s Climate Forecast System (CFS). Model performance and predictability were examined for sea surface temperature (SST), bottom temperature, bottom oxygen, pH, and aragonite saturation state through model hindcasts, reforecast, and forecast comparisons with observations. Results indicate J-SCOPE forecasts have measurable skill on seasonal timescales. Experiments suggest that seasonal forecasting of ocean conditions important for fisheries is possible with the right combination of components. Those components include regional predictability on seasonal timescales of the physical environment from a large-scale model, a high-resolution regional model with biogeochemistry that simulates seasonal conditions in hindcasts, a relationship with local stakeholders, and a real-time observational network. Multiple efforts and approaches in different regions would advance knowledge to provide additional tools to fishers and other stakeholders. PMID:27273473

  11. Mosquito hemocytes preferentially aggregate and phagocytose pathogens in the periostial regions of the heart that experience the most hemolymph flow.

    PubMed

    Sigle, Leah T; Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-02-01

    When a mosquito acquires an infection in the hemocoel, dedicated immune cells called hemocytes aggregate around the valves of the heart. These sessile hemocytes are called periostial hemocytes. In the present study we scrutinized the immune response mounted by the periostial hemocytes of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, against bacterial pathogens, and tested the relationship between periostial hemocyte aggregation, immune activity, and hemolymph flow. Initially, we quantified the process of periostial hemocyte aggregation and found that hemocytes migrate to the periostial regions in response to infection with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Micrococcus luteus (all infections tested). Then, we investigated whether the periostial hemocytes are evenly distributed along the six periostial regions of the heart, and found that they preferentially aggregate in the periostial regions of the mid-abdominal segments (4, 5 and 6). This distribution perfectly correlates with the spatial distribution of phagocytic activity along the surface of the heart, and to a lesser extent, with the distribution of melanin deposits. Finally, experiments measuring circulatory physiology found that the majority of hemolymph enters the heart through the ostia located in the periostial regions of abdominal segments 4, 5, and 6. These data show that periostial hemocytes aggregate on the surface of the heart in response to diverse foreign stimuli, and that both hemocytes and immune activity preferentially occur in the regions that experience the swiftest hemolymph flow. Thus, these data show that two major organ systems - the immune and circulatory systems - interact to control infections. PMID:26526332

  12. Lidar measurements of airborne particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangkun; Philbrick, C. Russell

    2003-03-01

    Raman lidar techniques have been used in remote sensing to measure the aerosol optical extinction in the lower atmosphere, as well as water vapor, temperature and ozone profiles. Knowledge of aerosol optical properties assumes special importance in the wake of studies strongly correlating airborne particulate matter with adverse health effects. Optical extinction depends upon the concentration, composition, and size distribution of the particulate matter. Optical extinction from lidar returns provide information on particle size and density. The influence of relative humidity upon the growth and size of aerosols, particularly the sulfate aerosols along the northeast US region, has been investigated using a Raman lidar during several field measurement campaigns. A particle size distribution model is being developed and verified based on the experimental results. Optical extinction measurements from lidar in the NARSTO-NE-OPS program in Philadelphia PA, during summer of 1999 and 2001, have been analyzed and compared with other measurements such as PM sampling and particle size measurements.

  13. Airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    1992-01-01

    Proper interpretation of airborne gravimetry and altimetry requires good knowledge of aircraft trajectory. Recent advances in precise navigation with differential GPS have made it possible to measure gravity from the air with accuracies of a few milligals, and to obtain altimeter profiles of terrain or sea surface correct to one decimeter. These developments are opening otherwise inaccessible regions to detailed geophysical mapping. Navigation with GPS presents some problems that grow worse with increasing distance from a fixed receiver: the effect of errors in tropospheric refraction correction, GPS ephemerides, and the coordinates of the fixed receivers. Ionospheric refraction and orbit error complicate ambiguity resolution. Optimal navigation should treat all error sources as unknowns, together with the instantaneous vehicle position. To do so, fast and reliable numerical techniques are needed: efficient and stable Kalman filter-smoother algorithms, together with data compression and, sometimes, the use of simplified dynamics.

  14. Upgraded airborne scanner for commercial remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sheng-Huei; Rubin, Tod D.

    1994-06-01

    Traditional commercial remote sensing has focused on the geologic market, with primary focus on mineral identification and mapping in the visible through short-wave infrared spectral regions (0.4 to 2.4 microns). Commercial remote sensing users now demand airborne scanning capabilities spanning the entire wavelength range from ultraviolet through thermal infrared (0.3 to 12 microns). This spectral range enables detection, identification, and mapping of objects and liquids on the earth's surface and gases in the air. Applications requiring this range of wavelengths include detection and mapping of oil spills, soil and water contamination, stressed vegetation, and renewable and non-renewable natural resources, and also change detection, natural hazard mitigation, emergency response, agricultural management, and urban planning. GER has designed and built a configurable scanner that acquires high resolution images in 63 selected wave bands in this broad wavelength range.

  15. CO{sub 2} emissions reduction using energy conservation measures: EPA Region IV`s experience

    SciTech Connect

    Berish, C.; Day, R.; Sibold, K.; Tiller, J.

    1994-12-31

    EPA Region 4 concluded in a recent comparative environmental risk evaluation that global climate change could substantially impact the Southeast. To address this risk, Region 4 developed an action plan to promote cost-effective pollution prevention and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, The regional plan contains programs that aye specific to Region 4 as well as geographic components of the national Climate Change Action Plan. Sources of carbon dioxide emissions were targeted for pollution prevention based on an energy model that allows the user to create energy efficiency scenarios in four sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. Activities were selected using the modeled information on sector reduction potentials and resource and cost-effectiveness criteria. Given the high level of uncertainty associated with climate change projections, the programs developed are all cost effective, prevent pollution and/or result in sound adaptation policies. Currently, policy makers at national, regional, and local levels are deciding on what types of energy efficiency programs to implement. The region`s action plan is composed of several programs and approaches. The authors have developed implemented, and/or participated in the following: energy scenario model. EARTHWALK (residential energy conservation); energy conservation in affordable homes (new residences); Cool Communities Program (strategic tree planting and light colored surfaces); EPA`s Green Lights Program; WAVE (water conservation), the Plant Protection Center; QUEST TO SAVE THE EARTH (outreach tools); energy and water use planning for the 1996 Olympic Games, and planning for sea-level rise. Reviewing the practices of the above programs will be the focus of this paper.

  16. Laboratory analysis and airborne detection of materials stimulated to luminesce by the sun

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemphill, W.R.; Theisen, A.F.; Tyson, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Fraunhofer line discriminator (FLD) is an airborne electro-optical device used to image materials which have been stimulated to luminesce by the Sun. Such materials include uranium-bearing sandstone, sedimentary phosphate rock, marine oil seeps, and stressed vegetation. Prior to conducting an airborne survey, a fluorescence spectrometer may be used in the laboratory to determine the spectral region where samples of the target material exhibit maximum luminescence, and to select the optimum Fraunhofer line. ?? 1984.

  17. Decadal changes in ozone and precursor emissions in the Los Angeles California region using in-situ airborne and ground-based field observations, roadside monitoring data, and surface network measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, I. B.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Atlas, E. L.; Blake, D. R.; Flynn, J. H.; Frost, G. J.; Grossberg, N.; Harley, R. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Lefer, B. L.; Lueb, R.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.

    2011-12-01

    In-situ observations from the Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) surface network show decreases in ozone (O3), nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Decreases in CO, NOx, and VOCs reflect changes, such as improved catalytic converters and reformulated fuels etc., that have been implemented in response to increasingly strict emissions standards placed upon on-road vehicles in the state of California. Here, we compare changes in emissions ratios of NOx and VOCs to CO determined from surface network data collected since 1994 to changes in emissions ratios from biennial roadside studies conducted in west Los Angeles since 1999 and airborne and ground-based measurements from three independent field campaigns conducted in California in 2002, 2008, and 2010. Using the more extensive in-situ surface network data set, we show that decreasing ozone is positively correlated with decreasing abundances of NOx and VOCs and with decreasing VOC/NOx ratio over time. The changes observed from 1994 to present suggest that reductions in both NOx and VOCs and the VOC/NOx ratio over the years have been effective in reducing ozone in the SoCAB.

  18. Airborne infrared low level wind shear predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, P. M.; Kurkowski, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The operating principles and test performance of an airborne IR (13-16 micron) temperature-sensing detection and warning system for low-level wind shear (LLWS) are presented. The physics of LLWS phenomena and of the IR radiometer are introduced. The cold density-current outflow or gust front related to LLWS is observed in the IR spectrum of CO2 by a radiometer with + or - 0.5-C accuracy at 0.5-Hz sampling rate; LLWS alerts are given on the basis of specific criteria. Test results from the JAWS experiments conducted at Denver in July 1982, are presented graphically and discussed. The feasibility of the passive IR system is demonstrated, with an average warning time of 51 sec, corresponding to a distance from touchdown of about 2 miles.

  19. SOFIA: The Next Generation Airborne Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, E. F.

    1995-10-01

    The United States and German Space Agencies (NASA and DARA) are collaborating in plans for SOFIA — The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. It is a 2.5 meter telescope to be installed in a Boeing 747 aircraft and operated at altitudes from 41,000 to 45,000 feet. It will permit routine measurement of infrared radiation absorbed by the atmosphere at lower altitudes, and observation of astronomical objects and transient events from anywhere in the world. The concept is based on 20 years of experience with NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), which SOFIA would replace. SOFIA will complement the capabilities of other future space missions, and will enable scientists to make observations which would otherwise be made from space.

  20. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.

    2013-04-01

    NCAR's Electra Doppler radar (ELDORA) with a dual-beam slotted waveguide array using dual-transmitter, dual-beam, rapid scan and step-chirped waveform significantly improved the spatial scale to 300m (Hildebrand et al. 1996). However, ELDORA X-band radar's penetration into precipitation is limited by attenuation and is not designed to collect polarimetric measurements to remotely estimate microphysics. ELDORA has been placed on dormancy because its airborne platform (P3 587) was retired in January 2013. The US research community has strongly voiced the need to continue measurement capability similar to the ELDORA. A critical weather research area is quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting (QPE/QPF). In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006). In the case of convective precipitation, two issues, namely, (1) when and where convection will be initiated, and (2) determining the organization and structure of ensuing convection, are key for QPF. Therefore collocated measurements of 3-D winds and precipitation microphysics are required for achieving significant skills in QPF and QPE. Multiple radars in dual-Doppler configuration with polarization capability estimate dynamical and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation are mostly available over land. However, storms over complex terrain, the ocean and in forest regions are not observable by ground-based radars (Bluestein and Wakimoto, 2003). NCAR/EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next generation airborne radar that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. ELDORA's slotted waveguide array radar is not compatible for dual-polarization measurements. Therefore, the new design has to address both dual-polarization capability and platform requirements to replace the ELDORA system. NCAR maintains a C-130

  1. Airborne Polarimeter Intercomparison for the NASA Aerosols-Clouds-Ecosystems (ACE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Redemann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The Aerosols-Clouds-Ecosystems (ACE) mission, recommended by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, calls for a multi-angle, multi-spectral polarimeter devoted to observations of atmospheric aerosols and clouds. In preparation for ACE, NASA funds the deployment of airborne polarimeters, including the Airborne Multi-angle SpectroPolarimeter Imager (AirMSPI), the Passive Aerosol and Cloud Suite (PACS) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). These instruments have been operated together on NASA's ER-2 high altitude aircraft as part of field campaigns such as the POlarimeter DEfinition EXperiment (PODEX) (California, early 2013) and Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS, California and Texas, summer 2013). Our role in these efforts has been to serve as an assessment team performing level 1 (calibrated radiance, polarization) and level 2 (retrieved geophysical parameter) instrument intercomparisons, and to promote unified and generalized calibration, uncertainty assessment and retrieval techniques. We will present our progress in this endeavor thus far and describe upcoming research in 2015.

  2. Progress in Airborne Polarimeter Inter Comparison for the NASA Aerosols-Clouds-Ecosystems (ACE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Redemann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The Aerosols-Clouds-Ecosystems (ACE) mission, recommended by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, calls for a multi-angle, multi-spectral polarimeter devoted to observations of atmospheric aerosols and clouds. In preparation for ACE, NASA funds the deployment of airborne polarimeters, including the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimeter Imager (AirMSPI), the Passive Aerosol and Cloud Suite (PACS) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). These instruments have been operated together on NASA's ER-2 high altitude aircraft as part of field campaigns such as the POlarimeter DEfinition EXperiment (PODEX) (California, early 2013) and Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS, California and Texas, summer 2013). Our role in these efforts has been to serve as an assessment team performing level 1 (calibrated radiance, polarization) and level 2 (retrieved geophysical parameter) instrument intercomparisons, and to promote unified and generalized calibration, uncertainty assessment and retrieval techniques. We will present our progress in this endeavor thus far and describe upcoming research in 2015.

  3. Airborne polarimeter intercomparison for the NASA Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Redemann, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission, recommended by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, calls for a multi-angle, multi-spectral polarimeter devoted to observations of atmospheric aerosols and clouds. In preparation for ACE, NASA funds the deployment of airborne polarimeter prototypes, including the Airborne Multi-angle SpectroPolarimeter Imager (AirMSPI), the Passive Aerosol and Cloud Suite (PACS) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). These instruments have been operated together on NASA's ER-2 high altitude aircraft as part of field campaigns such as the POlarimeter DEfinition EXperiment (PODEX) (California, early 2013) and Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS, California and Texas, summer 2013). Our role in these efforts has been to serve as an assessment team performing level 1 (calibrated radiance, polarization) and level 2 (retrieved geophysical parameter) instrument intercomparisons, and to promote unified and generalized calibration, uncertainty assessment and retrieval techniques. We will present our progress in this endeavor thus far and describe upcoming research in 2015.

  4. Large aperture scanning airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J.; Bindschadler, R.; Boers, R.; Bufton, J. L.; Clem, D.; Garvin, J.; Melfi, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A large aperture scanning airborne lidar facility is being developed to provide important new capabilities for airborne lidar sensor systems. The proposed scanning mechanism allows for a large aperture telescope (25 in. diameter) in front of an elliptical flat (25 x 36 in.) turning mirror positioned at a 45 degree angle with respect to the telescope optical axis. The lidar scanning capability will provide opportunities for acquiring new data sets for atmospheric, earth resources, and oceans communities. This completed facility will also make available the opportunity to acquire simulated EOS lidar data on a near global basis. The design and construction of this unique scanning mechanism presents exciting technological challenges of maintaining the turning mirror optical flatness during scanning while exposed to extreme temperatures, ambient pressures, aircraft vibrations, etc.

  5. Curriculum development for an advanced regional anesthesia education program: one institution's experience from apprenticeship to comprehensive teaching.

    PubMed

    Ouanes, Jean-Pierre P; Schwengel, Deborah; Mathur, Vineesh; Ahmed, Omar I; Hanna, Marie N

    2014-02-01

    Results of recent attitude survey studies suggest that most practicing physicians are inadequately treating postoperative pain. Residents in anesthesia are confident in performing lumbar epidural and spinal anesthesia, but many are not confident in performing the blocks with which they have the least exposure. Changes need to be made in the training processes to a comprehensive model that prepares residents to perform a wider array of blocks in postgraduate practice. Here, we describe one institution's approach to creating a standardized, advanced regional anesthesia curriculum for residents that follows the six core competencies of the ACGME. Residents received training in anatomy dissection, ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia, traditional nerve stimulation techniques, problem-based learning and simulation sessions, oral board presentation sessions, and journal club sessions. Residents kept a detailed log for their use of peripheral nerve block procedures. We have now redesigned and implemented an advanced regional anesthesia program within our institution to provide residents with experience in regional anesthesia at a competent level. Resident's knowledge in regional anesthesia did improve after the first year of implementation as reflected in improvements between the pre- and post-tests. As the advanced regional anesthesia education program continues to improve, we hope to demonstrate levels of validity, reliability, and usability by other programs. PMID:25007696

  6. Airborne infrared mineral mapping survey of Marysvale, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.; Chang, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Infrared spectroradiometer survey results from flights over the Marysvale, Utah district show that hydrothermal alteration mineralogy can be mapped using very rapid and effective airborne techniques. The system detects alteration mineral absorption band intensities in the infrared spectral region with high sensitivity. The higher resolution spectral features and high spectral differences characteristic of the various clay and carbonate minerals are also readily identified by the instrument allowing the mineralogy to be mapped as well as the mineralization intensity.

  7. Covariance analysis of the airborne laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, T. S., Jr.; Hammond, C. L.; Gibbs, B. P.

    1981-01-01

    The requirements and limitations of employing an airborne laser ranging system for detecting crustal shifts of the Earth within centimeters over a region of approximately 200 by 400 km are presented. The system consists of an aircraft which flies over a grid of ground deployed retroreflectors, making six passes over the grid at two different altitudes. The retroreflector baseline errors are assumed to result from measurement noise, a priori errors on the aircraft and retroreflector positions, tropospheric refraction, and sensor biases.

  8. Heat budget observations for the FIRE/SRB Wisconsin experiment region from October 9 through November 2, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, Charles H.; Lecroy, Stuart R.

    1987-01-01

    A map and concise tables are presented which show locations, pixel size, and heat budget products from the NOAA-9 satellite for the FIRE/SRB Wisconsin experiment region during the period 9 October through 2 November 1986. In addition to the operational standard products, a narrowband albedo parameter is calculated and presented based on values from AVHRR band 1. This parameter is useful in identifying and/or quantifying clouds on a global basis using a polar-stereographic grid system.

  9. Magnetic airborne survey - geophysical flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Camara, Erick; Nei Pereira Guimarães, Suze

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a technical review process in the area of airborne acquisition of geophysical data, with emphasis for magnetometry. In summary, it addresses the calibration processes of geophysical equipment as well as the aircraft to minimize possible errors in measurements. The corrections used in data processing and filtering are demonstrated with the same results as well as the evolution of these techniques in Brazil and worldwide.

  10. [The experience of the work of a regional cochlear implantation center].

    PubMed

    Mashchenko, A I; Eretnova, N M; Bakhshinian, V V; Petrova, I P; Tavartkiladze, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the main lines of the development of a regional cochlear implantation centre and to estimate the effectiveness of rehabilitation of the children treated with the use of cochlear implantation. Analysis of the results of the work of the branch of the Russian Research and Practical Centre of Audiology and Hearing Rehabilitation based at Voronezh Regional Children's Clinical Hospital No 1 provided materials for the establishment of the principle directions of activities of the regional cochlear implantation centre where a total of 161 children have been kept under observation during the last years. Fifty six of the 138 children at the age varying from 1 to 12 years were given the surgical treatment. The patients were followed up within two and more years after connection of the speech processor. The study group was comprised only of the pre-lingually deaf children. It is concluded that the performance of most cochlear implantation procedures based at local centres allows to reduce the cost of rehabilitation and makes the high-tech medical aid more readily available to the patients; moreover, the practical introduction of remote speech processor programming software into the work of regional cochlear implantation centres enhances the effectiveness of the rehabilitative measures based at local medical facilities. PMID:24781168

  11. "Power, Regulation and Physically Active Identities": The Experiences of Rural and Regional Living Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, M.; Mooney, A.; Smyth, J.; Payne, W.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on interpretations of Foucault's techniques of power, we explored the discourses and power relations operative between groups of girls that appeared to influence their participation in Physical Education (PE) and outside of school in sport and physical activity (PA) in rural and regional communities. Interviews and focus groups were…

  12. The collaborative experience of creating the National Capital Region Disease Surveillance Network.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sheri H; Holtry, Rekha S; Loschen, Wayne A; Wojcik, Richard; Hung, Lang; Lombardo, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) implemented state and district surveillance nodes in a central aggregated node in the National Capital Region (NCR). Within this network, de-identified health information is integrated with other indicator data and is made available to local and state health departments for enhanced disease surveillance. Aggregated data made available to the central node enable public health practitioners to observe abnormal behavior of health indicators spanning jurisdictions and view geographical spread of outbreaks across regions.Forming a steering committee, the NCR Enhanced Surveillance Operating Group (ESOG), was key to overcoming several data-sharing issues. The committee was composed of epidemiologists and key public health practitioners from the 3 jurisdictions. The ESOG facilitated early system development and signing of the cross-jurisdictional data-sharing agreement. This agreement was the first of its kind at the time and provided the legal foundation for sharing aggregated health information across state/district boundaries for electronic disease surveillance.Electronic surveillance system for the early notification of community-based epidemics provides NCR users with a comprehensive regional view to ascertain the spread of disease, estimate resource needs, and implement control measures. This article aims to describe the creation of the NCR Disease Surveillance Network as an exceptional example of cooperation and potential that exists for regional surveillance activities. PMID:21464687

  13. Addressing Human Capital Challenges: Assessing the Experiences of Four Countries in the Arab Region. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    This research brief describes an analysis of the reform efforts of four Arab region nations (Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates) in response to human capital challenges they face in preparing their people to work in a global environment. (Contains 3 tables.) [For associated report, see ED503118.

  14. African-American Materials Project Experiment in Regional Cooperation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Carol J.

    The African-American Materials Project was a three year venture in bibliographic control of African-American materials. It was a regional project, designed to locate and describe materials in six Southern states. The project was divided into three periods. Phase I was devoted to locating existing collections through the use of a questionnaire,…

  15. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    PubMed

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste. PMID:23047084

  16. Airborne lidar global positioning investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) network of satellites shows high promise of revolutionizing methods for conducting surveying, navigation, and positioning. This is especially true in the case of airborne or satellite positioning. A single GPS receiver (suitably adapted for aircraft deployment) can yield positioning accuracies (world-wide) in the order of 30 to 50 m vertically, as well as horizontally. This accuracy is dramatically improved when a second GPS receiver is positioned at a known horizontal and vertical reference. Absolute horizontal and vertical positioning of 1 to 2 m are easily achieved over areas of separation of tens of km. If four common satellites remain in lock in both receivers, then differential phase pseudo-ranges on the GPS L-band carrier can be utilized to achieve accuracies of + or - 10 cm and perhaps as good as + or - 2 cm. The initial proof of concept investigation for airborne positioning using the phase difference between the airborne and stationary GPS receivers was conducted and is examined.

  17. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  18. NASA's Earth Venture-1 (EV-1) Airborne Science Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, A.; Denkins, T.; Allen, B. Danette; Braun, Scott A.; Crawford, James H.; Jensen, Eric J.; Miller, Charles E.; Moghaddam, Mahta; Maring, Hal

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, NASA announced the first Earth Venture (EV-1) selections in response to a recommendation made by the National Research Council for low-cost investigations fostering innovation in Earth science. The five EV-1 investigations span the Earth science focus areas of atmosphere, weather, climate, water and energy and, carbon and represent earth science researchers from NASA as well as other government agencies, academia and industry from around the world. The EV-1 missions are: 1) Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS), 2) Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX), 3) Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), 4) Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ), and 5) Hurricane And Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3). The Earth Venture missions are managed out of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (Allen, et. al. 2010b)

  19. Impact of Pilot Delay and Non-Responsiveness on the Safety Performance of Airborne Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria; Hoadley, Sherwood; Wing, David; Baxley, Brian; Allen, Bonnie Danette

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the safety effects of prediction errors and uncertainty on automationsupported functions in the Next Generation Air Transportation System concept of operations is of foremost importance, particularly safety critical functions such as separation that involve human decision-making. Both ground-based and airborne, the automation of separation functions must be designed to account for, and mitigate the impact of, information uncertainty and varying human response. This paper describes an experiment that addresses the potential impact of operator delay when interacting with separation support systems. In this study, we evaluated an airborne separation capability operated by a simulated pilot. The experimental runs are part of the Safety Performance of Airborne Separation (SPAS) experiment suite that examines the safety implications of prediction errors and system uncertainties on airborne separation assistance systems. Pilot actions required by the airborne separation automation to resolve traffic conflicts were delayed within a wide range, varying from five to 240 seconds while a percentage of randomly selected pilots were programmed to completely miss the conflict alerts and therefore take no action. Results indicate that the strategicAirborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) functions exercised in the experiment can sustain pilot response delays of up to 90 seconds and more, depending on the traffic density. However, when pilots or operators fail to respond to conflict alerts the safety effects are substantial, particularly at higher traffic densities.

  20. Airborne measurements of surface layer turbulence over the ocean during cold air outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Shien; Yeh, Eueng-Nan

    1987-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of surface layer turbulence for the near-shore cloud street regions over the Atlantic Ocean were examined using 50-m level data of airborne measurements of atmospheric turbulence spectra above the western Atlantic Ocean during cold air outbreaks. The present study, performed for the Mesoscale Air-Sea Exchange (MASEX) experiment, extends and completes the preliminary analyses of Chou and Yeh (1987). In the inertial subrange, a near 4/3 ratio was observed between velocity spectra normal to and those along the aircraft heading. A comparison of the turbulent kinetic energy budgets with those of Wyngaard and Cote (1971) and Caughey and Wyngaard (1979) data indicates that the turbulent kinetic energy in the surface layer is dissipated less in the MASEX data than in data obtained by the previous groups.

  1. Survival rate of airborne Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Gannon, B W; Hayes, C M; Roe, J M

    2007-04-01

    Despite years of study the principle transmission route of bovine tuberculosis to cattle remains unresolved. The distribution of pathological lesions, which are concentrated in the respiratory system, and the very low dose of Mycobacterium bovis needed to initiate infection from a respiratory tract challenge suggest that the disease is spread by airborne transmission. Critical to the airborne transmission of a pathogenic microorganism is its ability to survive the stresses incurred whilst airborne. This study demonstrates that M. bovis is resistant to the stresses imposed immediately after becoming airborne, 94% surviving the first 10 min after aerosolisation. Once airborne the organism is robust, its viability decreasing with a half-life of approximately 1.5 hours. These findings support the hypothesis that airborne transmission is the principle route of infection for bovine tuberculosis. PMID:17045316

  2. A rocket-borne microprocessor-based experiment for investigation of energetic particles in the D and E regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braswell, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    An energetic experiment using the Z80 family of microcomputer components is described. Data collected from the experiment allowed fast and efficient postprocessing, yielding both energy-spectrum and pitch-angle distribution of energetic particles in the D and E regions. Advanced microprocessor system architecture and software concepts were used in the design to cope with the large amount of data being processed. This required the Z80 system to operate at over 80% of its total capacity. The microprocessor system was included in the payloads of three rockets launched during the Energy Budget Campaign at ESRANGE, Kiruna, Sweden in November 1980. Based on preliminary examination of the data, the performance of the experiment was satisfactory and good data were obtained on the energy spectrum and pitch-angle distribution of the particles.

  3. Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer AVIS: Design, Characterization and Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Oppelt, Natascha; Mauser, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    The Airborne Visible / Infrared imaging Spectrometer AVIS is a hyperspectral imager designed for environmental monitoring purposes. The sensor, which was constructed entirely from commercially available components, has been successfully deployed during several experiments between 1999 and 2007. We describe the instrument design and present the results of laboratory characterization and calibration of the system's second generation, AVIS-2, which is currently being operated. The processing of the data is described and examples of remote sensing reflectance data are presented.

  4. Assess program: Interactive data management systems for airborne research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, R. M.; Reller, J. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Two data systems were developed for use in airborne research. Both have distributed intelligence and are programmed for interactive support among computers and with human operators. The C-141 system (ADAMS) performs flight planning and telescope control functions in addition to its primary role of data acquisition; the CV-990 system (ADDAS) performs data management functions in support of many research experiments operating concurrently. Each system is arranged for maximum reliability in the first priority function, precision data acquisition.

  5. Possibility of growth of airborne microbes in outer planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimmick, R. L.; Chatigny, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The state of the art of laboratory aerobiological research is briefly reviewed. Experiments are described in which the biological behavior of microbes in or on aerosol particles is investigated in a stirred settling chamber and a rotating drum. Experimental findings are summarized which indicate that airborne bacteria can maintain metabolic functions in a suitable atmosphere. These studies have been undertaken in consideration of the possibility that Jupiter's atmosphere might be contaminated if a space probe enters a biological stratum.

  6. Future drought scenarios for the Greater Alpine Region based on dynamical downscaling experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslinger, Klaus; Anders, Ivonne; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Large scale droughts have major ecologic, agricultural, economic as well as societal impacts by reducing crop yield, producing low flows in river systems or by limiting the public water supply. Under the perspective of rising temperatures and possibly altered precipitation regimes in the upcoming decades due to global climate change, we accomplish an assessment of future drought characteristics for the Greater Alpine Region (GAR) with regional climate model simulations. This study consists of two parts: First, the ability of the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM (CCLM) to simulate drought conditions in the past in space and time is evaluated. Second, an analysis of future drought scenarios for the GAR is conducted. As a drought index the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) is used. For the evaluation of the Regional Climate Model in the past, simulations driven by ERA-40 are compared to observations. The gridded observational datasets of the HISTALP-database are used for evaluation in the first place. To assess the skill of CCLM, correlation coefficients between the SPEI of model simulations and gridded observations stratified by seasons and time scales are accomplished. For the analysis of future changes in the drought characteristics, four scenario runs are investigated. These are ECHAM5 and HadCM3 driven CCLM runs for the SRES scenarios A1B, A2 and B1. The SPEI is calculated spanning both the C20 and the scenario runs and are therefore regarded as transient simulations. Generally, trends to dryer annual mean conditions are apparent in each of the scenario runs, whereas the signal is rather strong in summer, contradicted by winter which shows a slight increase in precipitation north of the Alps. This in turn leads to higher variability of the SPEI in the future, as differences between winter (wetter or no change) and summer (considerably dryer) grow larger.

  7. Airborne LiDAR analysis and geochronology of faulted glacial moraines in the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone reveal substantial seismic hazards in the Lake Tahoe region, California-Nevada USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howle, James F.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Schweickert, Richard A.; Finkel, Robert C.; Hunter, Lewis E.; Rose, Ronn S.; von Twistern, Brent

    2012-01-01

    We integrated high-resolution bare-earth airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) imagery with field observations and modern geochronology to characterize the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone, which forms the neotectonic boundary between the Sierra Nevada and the Basin and Range Province west of Lake Tahoe. The LiDAR imagery clearly delineates active normal faults that have displaced late Pleistocene glacial moraines and Holocene alluvium along 30 km of linear, right-stepping range front of the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone. Herein, we illustrate and describe the tectonic geomorphology of faulted lateral moraines. We have developed new, three-dimensional modeling techniques that utilize the high-resolution LiDAR data to determine tectonic displacements of moraine crests and alluvium. The statistically robust displacement models combined with new ages of the displaced Tioga (20.8 ± 1.4 ka) and Tahoe (69.2 ± 4.8 ka; 73.2 ± 8.7 ka) moraines are used to estimate the minimum vertical separation rate at 17 sites along the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone. Near the northern end of the study area, the minimum vertical separation rate is 1.5 ± 0.4 mm/yr, which represents a two- to threefold increase in estimates of seismic moment for the Lake Tahoe basin. From this study, we conclude that potential earthquake moment magnitudes (Mw) range from 6.3 ± 0.25 to 6.9 ± 0.25. A close spatial association of landslides and active faults suggests that landslides have been seismically triggered. Our study underscores that the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone poses substantial seismic and landslide hazards.

  8. Airborne Electromagnetic Mapping of Subsurface Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J. D.; Minsley, B. J.; Cannia, J. C.; Smith, B. D.; Walvoord, M. A.; Voss, C. I.; Jorgenson, T. T.; Wylie, B. K.; Anderson, L.

    2011-12-01

    properties that reveal changes in lithology and the presence or absence of permafrost. These geophysical data fill an important gap between sparsely sampled boreholes, regional hydrogeologic measurements, and remote sensing data. Interpretations of the AEM data are being integrated with other remotely sensed data to supply critical hydrogeological information needed for developing an improved understanding of groundwater-surface-water interactions in permafrost terrains. More specifically, the interpretations of the AEM data help to refine groundwater flow models in the Yukon Flats Basin. Because of the success of this study we now know that there are many other uses for this data. For example, airborne surveys can provide baseline data for estimating the 3-D distribution of permafrost that can be compared to future surveys in order to estimate volumetric changes over time.

  9. Integrated Verification Experiment data collected as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Source Region Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, T.J.; Carlos, R.C.; Argo, P.E.

    1993-01-21

    As part of the integrated verification experiment (IVE), we deployed a network of hf ionospheric sounders to detect the effects of acoustic waves generated by surface ground motion following underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. The network sampled up to four geographic locations in the ionosphere from almost directly overhead of the surface ground zero out to a horizontal range of 60 km. We present sample results for four of the IVEs: Misty Echo, Texarkana, Mineral Quarry, and Bexar.

  10. Safety Performance of Airborne Separation: Preliminary Baseline Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wing, David J.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2007-01-01

    The Safety Performance of Airborne Separation (SPAS) study is a suite of Monte Carlo simulation experiments designed to analyze and quantify safety behavior of airborne separation. This paper presents results of preliminary baseline testing. The preliminary baseline scenario is designed to be very challenging, consisting of randomized routes in generic high-density airspace in which all aircraft are constrained to the same flight level. Sustained traffic density is varied from approximately 3 to 15 aircraft per 10,000 square miles, approximating up to about 5 times today s traffic density in a typical sector. Research at high traffic densities and at multiple flight levels are planned within the next two years. Basic safety metrics for aircraft separation are collected and analyzed. During the progression of experiments, various errors, uncertainties, delays, and other variables potentially impacting system safety will be incrementally introduced to analyze the effect on safety of the individual factors as well as their interaction and collective effect. In this paper we report the results of the first experiment that addresses the preliminary baseline condition tested over a range of traffic densities. Early results at five times the typical traffic density in today s NAS indicate that, under the assumptions of this study, airborne separation can be safely performed. In addition, we report on initial observations from an exploration of four additional factors tested at a single traffic density: broadcast surveillance signal interference, extent of intent sharing, pilot delay, and wind prediction error.

  11. First Airborne Laser Remote Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browell, E. V.; Dobbs, M. E.; Dobler, J.; Kooi, S.; Choi, Y.; Harrison, F. W.; Moore, B.; Zaccheo, T. S.

    2008-12-01

    A unique, multi-frequency, single-beam, laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) that operates at 1.57 μm has been developed for a future space-based mission to determine the global distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). A prototype of the space-based LAS system was developed by ITT, and it has been successfully flight tested in five airborne campaigns conducted in different geographic regions over the last three years. Flight tests were conducted over Oklahoma, Michigan, New Hampshire, and Virginia under a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Remote LAS measurements were compared to high-quality in situ measurements obtained from instrumentation on the same aircraft on spirals under the ground track of the LAS. LAS flights were conducted over a wide range of land and water reflectances and in the presence of scattered clouds. An extensive data set of CO2 measurements has been obtained for evaluating the LAS performance. LAS CO2 measurements with a signal-to-noise in excess of 250 were obtained for a 1-s average over land and for a 10-s average over water. Absolute comparisons of CO2 remote and in situ measurements showed agreement over a range of altitudes to better than 2 percent. LAS oxygen (O2) measurements, which are needed to convert LAS CO2 density measurements to CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2), have been made in the 1.26-μm region in horizontal ground-based experiments and in initial flight tests. Details of flight test campaigns and measured versus modeled results are presented in this paper.

  12. Test of IR arrays on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. W.; Rossano, G. S.; Lynch, D. K.; Colon-Bonet, G. T.; Hackwell, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory, which is a C-141 transport aircraft equipped with a 90-cm, all-reflective altazimuth telescope, has been engaged in the Kuiper Infrared Technology Experiment. Attention is presently given to the Experiment's flight series for state-of-the-art two-dimensional, 500-element arrays that use either blocked impurity band or bulk silicon devices. The switched FET readout scheme used on the three arrays flown thus far yields exceptionally low crosstalk. System sensitivities are found to be sufficient for the detection of both pointlike and extended sources; several of each type have been used in staring and scanning experiments.

  13. Hydrometeor discrimination in melting layer using multiparameter airborne radar measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumagai, H.; Meneghini, R.; Kozu, T.

    1992-01-01

    Results from a multiparameter airborne radar/radiometer experiment (the Typhoon experiment) are presented. The experiment was conducted in the western Pacific with the NASA DC-8 aircraft, in which a dual-wavelength at X-band and Ka-band and dual-polarization at X-band radar was installed. The signatures of dBZ(X), dBZ(Ka), LDR (linear depolarization ratio) at X-band and DZ=dBZ(X)-dBZ(Ka) are discussed for the data obtained in the penetration of the typhoon Flo. With emphasis on discrimination of hydrometeor particles, some statistical features of the brightband in stratiform rain are discussed.

  14. Soil Moisture Retrieval Using an L-Band Synthetic Apeture Radiometer During The Soil Moisture Experiments 2003 (SMEX03) and 2004 (SMEX04)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture retrievals made using data from the airborne L-band microwave radiometer, 2D-STAR, over a wide range of land cover types are presented. The 2D-STAR was flown over six r