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Sample records for airborne sar images

  1. Geometric accuracy in airborne SAR images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blacknell, D.; Quegan, S.; Ward, I. A.; Freeman, A.; Finley, I. P.

    1989-01-01

    Uncorrected across-track motions of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) platform can cause both a severe loss of azimuthal positioning accuracy in, and defocusing of, the resultant SAR image. It is shown how the results of an autofocus procedure can be incorporated in the azimuth processing to produce a fully focused image that is geometrically accurate in azimuth. Range positioning accuracy is also discussed, leading to a comprehensive treatment of all aspects of geometric accuracy. The system considered is an X-band SAR.

  2. Processor architecture for airborne SAR systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Digital processors for spaceborne imaging radars and application of the technology developed for airborne SAR systems are considered. Transferring algorithms and implementation techniques from airborne to spaceborne SAR processors offers obvious advantages. The following topics are discussed: (1) a quantification of the differences in processing algorithms for airborne and spaceborne SARs; and (2) an overview of three processors for airborne SAR systems.

  3. Image quality specification and maintenance for airborne SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinard, Mark S.

    2004-08-01

    Specification, verification, and maintenance of image quality over the lifecycle of an operational airborne SAR begin with the specification for the system itself. Verification of image quality-oriented specification compliance can be enhanced by including a specification requirement that a vendor provide appropriate imagery at the various phases of the system life cycle. The nature and content of the imagery appropriate for each stage of the process depends on the nature of the test, the economics of collection, and the availability of techniques to extract the desired information from the data. At the earliest lifecycle stages, Concept and Technology Development (CTD) and System Development and Demonstration (SDD), the test set could include simulated imagery to demonstrate the mathematical and engineering concepts being implemented thus allowing demonstration of compliance, in part, through simulation. For Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E), imagery collected from precisely instrumented test ranges and targets of opportunity consisting of a priori or a posteriori ground-truthed cultural and natural features are of value to the analysis of product quality compliance. Regular monitoring of image quality is possible using operational imagery and automated metrics; more precise measurements can be performed with imagery of instrumented scenes, when available. A survey of image quality measurement techniques is presented along with a discussion of the challenges of managing an airborne SAR program with the scarce resources of time, money, and ground-truthed data. Recommendations are provided that should allow an improvement in the product quality specification and maintenance process with a minimal increase in resource demands on the customer, the vendor, the operational personnel, and the asset itself.

  4. Hierarchical classifier design for airborne SAR images of ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Langis; Klepko, Robert

    1998-09-01

    We report about a hierarchical design for extracting ship features and recognizing ships from SAR images, and which will eventually feed a multisensor data fusion system for airborne surveillance. The target is segmented from the image background using directional thresholding and region merging processes. Ship end-points are then identified through a ship centerline detection performed with a Hough transform. A ship length estimate is calculated assuming that the ship heading and/or the cross-range resolution are known. A high-level ship classification identifies whether the target belongs to Line (mainly combatant military ships) or Merchant ship categories. Category discrimination is based on the radar scatterers' distribution in 9 ship sections along the ship's range profile. A 3-layer neural network has been trained on simulated scatterers distributions and supervised by a rule- based expert system to perform this task. The NN 'smoothes out' the rules and the confidence levels on the category declaration. Line ship type (Frigate, Destroyer, Cruiser, Battleship, Aircraft Carrier) is then estimated using a Bayes classifier based on the ship length. Classifier performances using simulated images are presented.

  5. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  6. Calibration of airborne SAR interferograms using multisquint-processed image pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats, Pau; Mallorqui, Jordi J.; Reigber, Andreas; Broquetas, Antoni

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents two different approaches to detect and correct phase errors appearing in interferometric airborne SAR sensors due to the lack of precision in the navigation system. The first one is intended for interferometric pairs with high coherence, and the second one for low coherent ones. Both techniques are based on a multisquint processing approach, i.e., by processing the same image pairs with different squint angles we can combine the information of different interferograms to obtain the desired phase correction. Airborne single- and repeat-pass interferometric data from the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) Experimental airborne SAR is used to validate the method.

  7. Recent advances in airborne terrestrial remote sensing with the NASA airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS), airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg; Evans, Diane L.; Kahle, Anne B.

    1989-01-01

    Significant progress in terrestrial remote sensing from the air has been made with three NASA-developed sensors that collectively cover the solar-reflected, thermal infrared, and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These sensors are the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS), the thermal infrared mapping spectrometer (TIMS) and the airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), respectively. AVIRIS and SAR underwent extensive in-flight engineering testing in 1987 and 1988 and are scheduled to become operational in 1989. TIMS has been in operation for several years. These sensors are described.

  8. Tomographic Imaging of a Forested Area By Airborne Multi-Baseline P-Band SAR

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Othmar; Morsdorf, Felix; Meier, Erich

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, various attempts have been undertaken to obtain information about the structure of forested areas from multi-baseline synthetic aperture radar data. Tomographic processing of such data has been demonstrated for airborne L-band data but the quality of the focused tomographic images is limited by several factors. In particular, the common Fourier-based focusing methods are susceptible to irregular and sparse sampling, two problems, that are unavoidable in case of multi-pass, multi-baseline SAR data acquired by an airborne system. In this paper, a tomographic focusing method based on the time-domain back-projection algorithm is proposed, which maintains the geometric relationship between the original sensor positions and the imaged target and is therefore able to cope with irregular sampling without introducing any approximations with respect to the geometry. The tomographic focusing quality is assessed by analysing the impulse response of simulated point targets and an in-scene corner reflector. And, in particular, several tomographic slices of a volume representing a forested area are given. The respective P-band tomographic data set consisting of eleven flight tracks has been acquired by the airborne E-SAR sensor of the German Aerospace Center (DLR).

  9. Lineaments from airborne SAR images and the 1988 Saguenay earthquake, Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, D.W.; Schmitt, L.; Woussen, G.; Duberger, R. )

    1993-08-01

    Airborne SAR images provided essential clues to the tectonic setting of (1) the MbLg 6.5 Saguenay earthquake of 25 November 1988, (2) the Charlevoix-Kamouraska seismic source zone, and (3) some of the low *eve* seismic activity in the Eastern seismic background zone of Canada. The event occurred in the southeastern part of the Canadian Shield in an area where the boundary between the Saguenay graben and the Jacques Cartier horst is not well defined. These two tectonic blocks are both associated with the Iapetan St-Lawrence rift. These blocks exhibit several important structural breaks and distinct domains defined by the lineament orientations, densities, and habits. Outcrop observations confirm that several lineament sets correspond to Precambrian ductile shear zones reactivated as brittle faults during the Phanerozoic. In addition, the northeast and southwest limits of recent seismic activity in the Charlevoix-Kamouraska zone correspond to major elements of the fracture pattern identified on the SAR images. These fractures appear to be related to the interaction of the Charlevoix astrobleme with the tectonic features of the area. 20 refs.

  10. MAPSAR Image Simulation Based on L-band Polarimetric Data from the SAR-R99B Airborne Sensor (SIVAM System)

    PubMed Central

    Mura, José Claudio; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Dutra, Luciano Vieira; dos Santos, João Roberto; Rudorff, Bernardo Friedrich Theodor; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon; da Silva, Mario Marcos Quintino; da Silva, Wagner Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology applied to generate simulated multipolarized L-band SAR images of the MAPSAR (Multi-Application Purpose SAR) satellite from the airborne SAR R99B sensor (SIVAM System). MAPSAR is a feasibility study conducted by INPE (National Institute for Space Research) and DLR (German Aerospace Center) targeting a satellite L-band SAR innovative mission for assessment, management and monitoring of natural resources. Examples of simulated products and their applications are briefly discussed. PMID:22389590

  11. Imaging fault slip variation along the central San Andreas fault from satellite, airborne InSAR and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Lundgren, P.; Fielding, E. J.; Hensley, S.

    2011-12-01

    The improved spatiotemporal resolution of surface deformation from recent satellite and airborne InSAR measurements provides great potential to improve our understanding of faulting processes and earthquake hazard for a given fault system. A major plate boundary fault in central California, the central San Andreas fault (CSAF) displays a spectrum of complex fault slip behaviors with creeping in its central segment that decreases towards its northwest and southeast ends where the fault transitions to being locked. In the north the CSAF branches into two sub-parallel faults that are both actively accommodating plate motion. To the south, near the Parkfield transition, large earthquakes have occurred with at least six Mw ~6.0 events since 1857, most recently in 2004. To understand the complexity and variety of fault slip behaviors and fault mechanics, we integrate satellite and airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) repeat pass interferometry (RPI) observations, with GPS measurements from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and regional campaign networks to estimate fault slip and shallow slip deficits along the CSAF. Existing C-band ERS-1/2, Envisat and Radarsat SAR data provide long archives of SAR data over the region but are subject to severe decorrelation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's ALOS satellite has made less frequent acquisitions (5-6/yr per track) since 2006 but its PALSAR L-band sensor provides much improved coherence compared to shorter wavelength radar data. More recently, the NASA UAVSAR airborne SAR has repeated fault perpendicular adjacent swaths imaged from opposing look directions and fault parallel swath flights over the CSAF over the past three years and provides an improved imaging of fault slip related deformation at finer spatial resolution than previous platforms (~6m at 12 azimuth x 3 range looks). Compared to C-band instruments, the UAVSAR provides nearly complete spatial coverage. Compared to the ALOS mission, the UAVSAR

  12. ISRO's dual frequency airborne SAR pre-cursor to NISAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanujam, V. Manavala; Suneela, T. J. V. D.; Bhan, Rakesh

    2016-05-01

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have jointly embarked on NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) operating in L-band and S-band, which will map Earth's surface every 12 days. As a pre-cursor to the NISAR mission, ISRO is planning an airborne SAR (L&S band) which will deliver NISAR analogue data products to the science community. ISRO will develop all the hardware with the aim of adhering to system design aspects of NISAR to the maximum extent possible. It is a fully polarimetric stripmap SAR and can be operated in single, dual, compact, quasi-quad and full polarimetry modes. It has wide incidence angle coverage from 24°-77° with swath coverage from 5.5km to 15 km. Apart from simultaneous imaging operations, this system can also operate in standalone L/S SAR modes. This system is planned to operate from an aircraft platform with nominal altitude of 8000meters. Antenna for this SAR will be rigidly mounted to the aircraft, whereas, motion compensation will be implemented in the software processor to generate data products. Data products for this airborne SAR will be generated in slant & ground range azimuth dimension and geocoded in HDF5/Geotiff formats. This airborne SAR will help to prepare the Indian scientific community for optimum utilization of NISAR data. In-order to collect useful science data, airborne campaigns are planned from end of 2016 onwards.

  13. CARABAS - an airborne VHF SAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, B.; Frolined, P.O.; Gustavsson, A.

    1996-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in imaging radar systems operating at low frequencies, Examples of civilian and military applications are detection of stealth-designed man-made objects, targets hidden under foliage, biomass estimation, and penetration into glaciers or ground. CARABAS (Coherent All Radio Band Sensing) is a new airborne SAR system developed by FOA. It is designed for operation in the lowest part of the VHF band (20-90 NHz), using horizontal polarisation. This frequency region gives the system a good ability to penetrate vegetation and to some extent ground. CARABAS is the first known SAR sensor with a capability of diffraction limited imaging, i.e. a resolution in magnitude of the adopted wavelengths. A Sabreliner business jet aircraft is used as the airborne platform. Critical parts in the development have been the antenna system, the receiver and the processing algorithms. Based upon the experiences gained with CARABAS I a major system upgrade is now taking place. The new CARABAS II system is scheduled to fly in May 1996. This system is designed to give operational performance while CARABAS I was used to verify the feasibility. The first major field campaigns are planned for the second half of 1996. CARABAS II is jointly developed by FOA and Ericsson Microwave Systems AB in Sweden. This paper will give an overview of the system design and data collected with the current radar system, including some results for forested regions. The achieved system performance will be discussed, with a presentation of the major modifications made in the new CARABAS 11 system. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Similarity measures of full polarimetric SAR images fusion for improved SAR image matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, H.

    2015-06-01

    China's first airborne SAR mapping system (CASMSAR) developed by Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping can acquire high-resolution and full polarimetric (HH, HV, VH and VV) Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. It has the ability to acquire X-band full polarimetric SAR data at a resolution of 0.5m. However, the existence of speckles which is inherent in SAR imagery affects visual interpretation and image processing badly, and challenges the assumption that conjugate points appear similar to each other in matching processing. In addition, researches show that speckles are multiplicative speckles, and most similarity measures of SAR image matching are sensitive to them. Thus, matching outcomes of SAR images acquired by most similarity measures are not reliable and with bad accuracy. Meanwhile, every polarimetric SAR image has different backscattering information of objects from each other and four polarimetric SAR data contain most basic and a large amount of redundancy information to improve matching. Therefore, we introduced logarithmically transformation and a stereo matching similarity measure into airborne full polarimetric SAR imagery. Firstly, in order to transform the multiplicative speckles into additivity ones and weaken speckles' influence on similarity measure, logarithmically transformation have to be taken to all images. Secondly, to prevent performance degradation of similarity measure caused by speckles, measure must be free or insensitive of additivity speckles. Thus, we introduced a stereo matching similarity measure, called Normalized Cross-Correlation (NCC), into full polarimetric SAR image matching. Thirdly, to take advantage of multi-polarimetric data and preserve the best similarity measure value, four measure values calculated between left and right single polarimetric SAR images are fused as final measure value for matching. The method was tested for matching under CASMSAR data. The results showed that the method delivered an effective

  15. Using airborne and satellite SAR for wake mapping offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Merete B.; Hasager, Charlotte B.

    2006-09-01

    Offshore wind energy is progressing rapidly around Europe. One of the latest initiatives is the installation of multiple wind farms in clusters to share cables and maintenance costs and to fully exploit premium wind resource sites. For siting of multiple nearby wind farms, the wind turbine wake effect must be considered. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an imaging remote sensing technique which offers a unique opportunity to describe spatial variations of wind speed offshore. For the first time an airborne SAR instrument was used for data acquisition over a large offshore wind farm. The aim was to identify the turbine wake effect from SAR-derived wind speed maps as a downstream region of reduced wind speed. The aircraft SAR campaign was conducted on 12 October 2003 over the wind farm at Horns Rev in the North Sea. Nearly simultaneous measurements were acquired over the area by the SAR on board the ERS-2 satellite. In addition, meteorological data were collected. Both aircraft and satellite SAR-derived wind speed maps showed significant velocity deficits downstream of the wind farm. Wind speed maps retrieved from aircraft SAR suggested deficits of up to 20% downstream of the last turbine, whereas satellite SAR-derived maps showed deficits of the order of 10%. The difference originated partly from the two different reference methods used for normalization of measured wind speeds. The detected region of reduced wind speed had the same width as the wind turbine array, indicating a low degree of horizontal wake dispersion. The downstream wake extent was approximately 10 km, which corresponds well with results from previous studies and with wake model predictions. Copyright

  16. BioSAR Airborne Biomass Sensing System

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Johnson, P.

    2007-05-24

    This CRADA was developed to enable ORNL to assist American Electronics, Inc. test a new technology--BioSAR. BioSAR is a an airborne, low frequency (80-120 MHz {approx} FM radio frequencies) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology which was designed and built for NASA by ZAI-Amelex under Patrick Johnson's direction. At these frequencies, leaves and small branches are nearly transparent and the majority of the energy reflected from the forest and returned to the radar is from the tree trunks. By measuring the magnitude of the back scatter, the volume of the tree trunk and therefore the biomass of the trunks can be inferred. The instrument was successfully tested on tropical rain forests in Panama. Patrick Johnson, with American Electronics, Inc received a Phase II SBIR grant from DOE Office of Climate Change to further test and refine the instrument. Mr Johnson sought ORNL expertise in measuring forest biomass in order for him to further validate his instrument. ORNL provided ground truth measurements of forest biomass at three locations--the Oak Ridge Reservation, Weyerhaeuser Co. commercial pine plantations in North Carolina, and American Energy and Power (AEP) Co. hardwood forests in southern Ohio, and facilitated flights over these forests. After Mr. Johnson processed the signal data from BioSAR instrument, the processed data were given to ORNL and we attempted to derive empirical relationships between the radar signals and the ground truth forest biomass measurements using standard statistical techniques. We were unsuccessful in deriving such relationships. Shortly before the CRADA ended, Mr Johnson discovered that FM signal from local radio station broadcasts had interfered with the back scatter measurements such that the bulk of the signal received by the BioSAR instrument was not backscatter from the radar but rather was local radio station signals.

  17. Temporal multiparameter airborne DLR E-SAR images for crop monitoring: summary of the CLEOPATRA campaign 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmullius, Christiane C.; Nithack, Juergen

    1997-01-01

    From May 11 to July 31, 1992 the Cloud Experiment OberPfaffenhofen And Transports took place as a field experimental contribution to the global energy and water cycle experiment. The DLR Institute of Radio Frequency Technology participated with its experimental SAR system E- SAR. Multitemporal X-, C- and L-band data from 8 dates and three ERS-1 images between May 20 and July 30, 1992 are analyzed in regard to the influence of changing plant backscatter constituents and to investigate the impact of increasing ground cover in the different wavelength on soil moisture mapping. Backscatter curves of four crops are shown, which indicate the possibility for crop monitoring and preferred times for crop classification. Detection of soil moisture changes is only possible with L-band and only under grain crops. Maximum likelihood and isocluster classifications were applied on several single- and multifrequency, mono- and multitemporal channel combinations. The overall classification accuracies were higher than with supervised methods. Maximum likelihood classification allowed identification of ten crop types with accuracies of up to 84 percent, when a temporal multifrequency data set was used.

  18. Ground moving target indication via multi-channel airborne SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Duc; Guo, Bin; Xu, Luzhou; Li, Jian

    2011-06-01

    We consider moving target detection and velocity estimation for multi-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) based ground moving target indication (GMTI). Via forming velocity versus cross-range images, we show that small moving targets can be detected even in the presence of strong stationary ground clutter. Furthermore, the velocities of the moving targets can be estimated, and the misplaced moving targets can be placed back to their original locations based on the estimated velocities. An iterative adaptive approach (IAA), which is robust and user parameter free, is used to form velocity versus cross-range images for each range bin of interest. Moreover, we discuss calibration techniques to combat near-field coupling problems encountered in practical systems. Furthermore, we present a sparse signal recovery approach for stationary clutter cancellation. We conclude by demonstrating the effectiveness of our approaches by using the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) publicly-released Gotcha airborne SAR based GMTI data set.

  19. Bayesian SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaofu; Tan, Xing; Xue, Ming; Li, Jian

    2010-04-01

    We introduce a maximum a posteriori (MAP) algorithm and a sparse learning via iterative minimization (SLIM) algorithm to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. Both MAP and SLIM are sparse signal recovery algorithms with excellent sidelobe suppression and high resolution properties. The former cyclically maximizes the a posteriori probability density function for a given sparsity promoting prior, while the latter cyclically minimizes a regularized least squares cost function. We show how MAP and SLIM can be adapted to the SAR imaging application and used to enhance the image quality. We evaluate the performance of MAP and SLIM using the simulated complex-valued backscattered data from a backhoe vehicle. The numerical results show that both MAP and SLIM satisfactorily suppress the sidelobes and yield higher resolution than the conventional matched filter or delay-and-sum (DAS) approach. MAP and SLIM outperform the widely used compressive sampling matching pursuit (CoSaMP) algorithm, which requires the delicate choice of user parameters. Compared with the recently developed iterative adaptive approach (IAA), MAP and SLIM are computationally more efficient, especially with the help of fast Fourier transform (FFT). Also, the a posteriori distribution given by the algorithms provides us with a basis for the analysis of the statistical properties of the SAR image pixels.

  20. Mapping Slumgullion Landslide in Colorado, USA Using Airborne Repeat-Pass InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Shrestha, R. L.; Carter, W. E.; Glennie, C. L.; Wang, G.; Lu, Z.; Fernandez-Diaz, J. C.; Cao, N.; Zaugg, E.

    2015-12-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) uses two or more SAR images over the same area to determine landscape topography or ground deformation. An interferogram, generated by the phase components of two coherent SAR images, depicts range changes between the radar and the ground resolution elements, and can be used to derive both landscape topography and subtle changes in surface elevation. However, spaceborne repeat-pass interferometry has two main drawbacks: effects due to differences in atmospheric temperature, pressure, and water vapour at two observation times, and loss of coherence due to long spatial and temporal baselines between observations. Airborne repeat-pass interferometry does not suffer from these drawbacks. The atmospheric effect in case of airborne DInSAR becomes negligible due to smaller swath coverage, and the coherence can be maintained by using smaller spatial and temporal baselines. However, the main technical limitation concerning airborne DInSAR is the need of precise motion compensation with an accurate navigation system to correct for the significant phase errors due to typical flight instability from air turbulence. Here, we present results from a pilot study conducted on July 2015 using both X-band and L-band SlimSAR airborne system over the Slumgullion landslide in Colorado in order to (1) acquire the differential interferograms from the airborne platform, (2) understand their source of errors, and (3) pave a way to improve the precision of the derived surface deformation. The landslide movement estimated from airborne DInSAR is also compared with coincident GPS, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), airborne LiDAR, and spaceborne DInSAR measurements using COSMO-SkyMed images. The airborne DInSAR system has a potential to provide time-transient variability in land surface topography with high-precision and high-resolution, and provide researchers with greater flexibility in selecting the temporal and spatial baselines of the data

  1. Classification And Monitoring Of Salt Marsh Habitats With Multi-Polarimetric Airborne SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beijma, Sybrand; Comber, Alexis; Lamb, Alistair

    2013-12-01

    Within the Copernicus programme there is much interest in the ability of remote sensing technology to deliver operational solutions to many areas of life including environmental management. This paper describes research focused on the application of Earth Observation for Integrated Coastal Zone Management. The main topic of this research is to explore to which extent salt marsh vegetation habitats can be identified from polarimetric SAR remotely sensed data. Multi- frequency, multi-polarimetric SAR images from airborne (S- and X-Band quad-polarimetric from the Astrium airborne SAR Demonstrator) is used to examine salt marsh habitat classification potential in the Llanrhidian salt marshes in South Wales, UK. This is achieved by (1) using both supervised and unsupervised classification routines, using several polarimetric SAR data layers as backscatter intensity, band ratios and polarimetric decomposition products, and by (2) statistical analysis by regression of these different SAR data layers and botanical parameters acquired from recent ecological fieldwork.

  2. Detection of airborne severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and environmental contamination in SARS outbreak units.

    PubMed

    Booth, Timothy F; Kournikakis, Bill; Bastien, Nathalie; Ho, Jim; Kobasa, Darwyn; Stadnyk, Laurie; Li, Yan; Spence, Mel; Paton, Shirley; Henry, Bonnie; Mederski, Barbara; White, Diane; Low, Donald E; McGeer, Allison; Simor, Andrew; Vearncombe, Mary; Downey, James; Jamieson, Frances B; Tang, Patrick; Plummer, Frank

    2005-05-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is characterized by a risk of nosocomial transmission; however, the risk of airborne transmission of SARS is unknown. During the Toronto outbreaks of SARS, we investigated environmental contamination in SARS units, by employing novel air sampling and conventional surface swabbing. Two polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive air samples were obtained from a room occupied by a patient with SARS, indicating the presence of the virus in the air of the room. In addition, several PCR-positive swab samples were recovered from frequently touched surfaces in rooms occupied by patients with SARS (a bed table and a television remote control) and in a nurses' station used by staff (a medication refrigerator door). These data provide the first experimental confirmation of viral aerosol generation by a patient with SARS, indicating the possibility of airborne droplet transmission, which emphasizes the need for adequate respiratory protection, as well as for strict surface hygiene practices. PMID:15809906

  3. Calibration of a polarimetric imaging SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarabandi, K.; Pierce, L. E.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1991-01-01

    Calibration of polarimetric imaging Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR's) using point calibration targets is discussed. The four-port network calibration technique is used to describe the radar error model. The polarimetric ambiguity function of the SAR is then found using a single point target, namely a trihedral corner reflector. Based on this, an estimate for the backscattering coefficient of the terrain is found by a deconvolution process. A radar image taken by the JPL Airborne SAR (AIRSAR) is used for verification of the deconvolution calibration method. The calibrated responses of point targets in the image are compared both with theory and the POLCAL technique. Also, response of a distributed target are compared using the deconvolution and POLCAL techniques.

  4. Registration Of SAR Images With Multisensor Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L.; Burnette, Charles F.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1993-01-01

    Semiautomated technique intended primarily to facilitate registration of polarimetric synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) images with other images of same or partly overlapping terrain while preserving polarization information conveyed by SAR data. Technique generally applicable in sense one or both of images to be registered with each other generated by polarimetric or nonpolarimetric SAR, infrared radiometry, conventional photography, or any other applicable sensing method.

  5. Roads Centre-Axis Extraction in Airborne SAR Images: AN Approach Based on Active Contour Model with the Use of Semi-Automatic Seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotte, R. G.; Sant'Anna, S. J. S.; Almeida, C. M.

    2013-05-01

    Research works dealing with computational methods for roads extraction have considerably increased in the latest two decades. This procedure is usually performed on optical or microwave sensors (radar) imagery. Radar images offer advantages when compared to optical ones, for they allow the acquisition of scenes regardless of atmospheric and illumination conditions, besides the possibility of surveying regions where the terrain is hidden by the vegetation canopy, among others. The cartographic mapping based on these images is often manually accomplished, requiring considerable time and effort from the human interpreter. Maps for detecting new roads or updating the existing roads network are among the most important cartographic products to date. There are currently many studies involving the extraction of roads by means of automatic or semi-automatic approaches. Each of them presents different solutions for different problems, making this task a scientific issue still open. One of the preliminary steps for roads extraction can be the seeding of points belonging to roads, what can be done using different methods with diverse levels of automation. The identified seed points are interpolated to form the initial road network, and are hence used as an input for an extraction method properly speaking. The present work introduces an innovative hybrid method for the extraction of roads centre-axis in a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) airborne image. Initially, candidate points are fully automatically seeded using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), followed by a pruning process based on specific metrics. The centre-axis are then detected by an open-curve active contour model (snakes). The obtained results were evaluated as to their quality with respect to completeness, correctness and redundancy.

  6. Bistatic SAR: Imagery & Image Products.

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, David A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Jakowatz, Charles V,

    2014-10-01

    While typical SAR imaging employs a co-located (monostatic) RADAR transmitter and receiver, bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. The transmitter and receiver geometry determines if the scattered signal is back scatter, forward scatter, or side scatter. The monostatic SAR image is backscatter. Therefore, depending on the transmitter/receiver collection geometry, the captured imagery may be quite different that that sensed at the monostatic SAR. This document presents imagery and image products formed from captured signals during the validation stage of the bistatic SAR research. Image quality and image characteristics are discussed first. Then image products such as two-color multi-view (2CMV) and coherent change detection (CCD) are presented.

  7. First Results from an Airborne Ka-Band SAR Using SweepSAR and Digital Beamforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory A.; Ghaemi, Hirad; Hensley, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    SweepSAR is a wide-swath synthetic aperture radar technique that is being studied for application on the future Earth science radar missions. This paper describes the design of an airborne radar demonstration that simulates an 11-m L-band (1.2-1.3 GHz) reflector geometry at Ka-band (35.6 GHz) using a 40-cm reflector. The Ka-band SweepSAR Demonstration system was flown on the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory and used to study engineering performance trades and array calibration for SweepSAR configurations. We present an instrument and experiment overview, instrument calibration and first results.

  8. Flight demonstration of image fix-taking with SAR

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, R.; Bottkol, M.; Owen, T.

    1993-06-11

    Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) uses coherent radar processing techniques to image ground reflectors. After processing, range and Doppler can be associated with any feature of interest in the final image. The location of any imaged feature can be estimated using a Kalman filter to combine these data with GPS and INS navigation data. This paper reports on the results of a flight demonstration of such a system, using an airborne SAR developed at Sandia. Collected data consisted of multiple SAR images containing surveyed reflectors. GPS/INS output taken aboard the aircraft, and GPS output recorded at surveyed ground stations. These data were post-processed at Sandia and at Draper Laboratory to obtain a navigation solution based on differential GPS and to demonstrate SAR fix-taking performance. This study successfully demonstrates accuracy of about 1 meter for fixing the position of a point imaged with SAR from an airborne platform. Because differential GPS was used, the navigation error was of about the same magnitude as the SAR range measurement error. Consequently, the measurements served primarily to fix the SAR image rather than to update the navigator.

  9. Cross-calibration between airborne SAR sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zink, Manfred; Olivier, Philippe; Freeman, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    As Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system performance and experience in SAR signature evaluation increase, quantitative analysis becomes more and more important. Such analyses require an absolute radiometric calibration of the complete SAR system. To keep the expenditure on calibration of future multichannel and multisensor remote sensing systems (e.g., X-SAR/SIR-C) within a tolerable level, data from different tracks and different sensors (channels) must be cross calibrated. The 1989 joint E-SAR/DC-8 SAR calibration campaign gave a first opportunity for such an experiment, including cross sensor and cross track calibration. A basic requirement for successful cross calibration is the stability of the SAR systems. The calibration parameters derived from different tracks and the polarimetric properties of the uncalibrated data are used to describe this stability. Quality criteria for a successful cross calibration are the agreement of alpha degree values and the consistency of radar cross sections of equally sized corner reflectors. Channel imbalance and cross talk provide additional quality in case of the polarimetric DC-8 SAR.

  10. Semi-physical Simulation of the Airborne InSAR based on Rigorous Geometric Model and Real Navigation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changyong, Dou; Huadong, Guo; Chunming, Han; yuquan, Liu; Xijuan, Yue; Yinghui, Zhao

    2014-03-01

    Raw signal simulation is a useful tool for the system design, mission planning, processing algorithm testing, and inversion algorithm design of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Due to the wide and high frequent variation of aircraft's trajectory and attitude, and the low accuracy of the Position and Orientation System (POS)'s recording data, it's difficult to quantitatively study the sensitivity of the key parameters, i.e., the baseline length and inclination, absolute phase and the orientation of the antennas etc., of the airborne Interferometric SAR (InSAR) system, resulting in challenges for its applications. Furthermore, the imprecise estimation of the installation offset between the Global Positioning System (GPS), Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and the InSAR antennas compounds the issue. An airborne interferometric SAR (InSAR) simulation based on the rigorous geometric model and real navigation data is proposed in this paper, providing a way for quantitatively studying the key parameters and for evaluating the effect from the parameters on the applications of airborne InSAR, as photogrammetric mapping, high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generation, and surface deformation by Differential InSAR technology, etc. The simulation can also provide reference for the optimal design of the InSAR system and the improvement of InSAR data processing technologies such as motion compensation, imaging, image co-registration, and application parameter retrieval, etc.

  11. First Results from an Airborne Ka-band SAR Using SweepSAR and Digital Beamforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory; Ghaemi, Hirad; Hensley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    NASA/JPL has developed SweepSAR technique that breaks typical Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) trade space using time-dependent multi-beam DBF on receive. Developing SweepSAR implementation using array-fed reflector for proposed DESDynI Earth Radar Mission concept. Performed first-of-a-kind airborne demonstration of the SweepSAR concept at Ka-band (35.6 GHz). Validated calibration and antenna pattern data sufficient for beam forming in elevation. (1) Provides validation evidence that the proposed Deformation Ecosystem Structure Dynamics of Ice (DESDynI) SAR architecture is sound. (2) Functions well even with large variations in receiver gain / phase. Future plans include using prototype DESDynI SAR digital flight hardware to do the beam forming in real-time onboard the aircraft.

  12. SAR imaging - Seeing the unseen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, M.

    1982-01-01

    The functional abilities and operations of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are described. SAR employs long wavelength radio waves in bursts, imaging a target by 'listening' to the small frequency changes that result from the Doppler shift due to the relative motion of the imaging craft and the motions of the target. The time delay of the signal return allows a determination of the location of the target, leading to the build up of a two-dimensional image. The uses of both Doppler shifts and time delay enable detailed imagery which is independent of distance. The synthetic aperture part of the name of SAR derives from the beaming of multiple pulses, which result in a picture that is effectively the same as using a large antenna. Mechanisms contributing to the fineness of SAR images are outlined.

  13. Classification of fully polarimetric F-SAR ( X / S ) airborne radar images using decomposition methods. (Polish Title: Klasyfikacja treści polarymetrycznych obrazów radarowych z wykorzystaniem metod dekompozycji na przykładzie systemu F-SAR ( X / S ))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mleczko, M.

    2014-12-01

    Polarimetric SAR data is not widely used in practice, because it is not yet available operationally from the satellites. Currently we can distinguish two approaches in POL - In - SAR technology: alternating polarization imaging (Alt - POL) and fully polarimetric (QuadPol). The first represents a subset of another and is more operational, while the second is experimental because classification of this data requires polarimetric decomposition of scattering matrix in the first stage. In the literature decomposition process is divided in two types: the coherent and incoherent decomposition. In this paper the decomposition methods have been tested using data from the high resolution airborne F - SAR system. Results of classification have been interpreted in the context of the land cover mapping capabilities

  14. First Demonstration of Agriculture Height Retrieval with PolInSAR Airborne Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Sanchez, Juan M.; Ballester-Berman, J. David; Hajnsek, Irena

    2011-03-01

    A set of three quad-pol images acquired at L-band in interferometric repeat-pass mode by DLR with the E-SAR system, in parallel with the AgriSAR2006 campaign, have been used to provide a first demonstration with airborne data of the retrieval of vegetation height from agricultural crops by means of PolInSAR based techniques.We have obtained accurate estimates of vegetation height over winter rape and maize fields, when compared with the availabe ground measurements. The same procedure yields a clear overestimation and larger variance over wheat fields.Results demonstrate that, although the frequency band is low, the model employed for the inversion is very simple, and the backscattered signal contains an important contribution from the ground, the volume information provided by interferometry is present and enables the application of PolInSAR-based retrieval approaches for agriculture monitoring practices.

  15. Registration of interferometric SAR images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Qian; Vesecky, John F.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1992-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) is a new way of performing topography mapping. Among the factors critical to mapping accuracy is the registration of the complex SAR images from repeated orbits. A new algorithm for registering interferometric SAR images is presented. A new figure of merit, the average fluctuation function of the phase difference image, is proposed to evaluate the fringe pattern quality. The process of adjusting the registration parameters according to the fringe pattern quality is optimized through a downhill simplex minimization algorithm. The results of applying the proposed algorithm to register two pairs of Seasat SAR images with a short baseline (75 m) and a long baseline (500 m) are shown. It is found that the average fluctuation function is a very stable measure of fringe pattern quality allowing very accurate registration.

  16. Forest stand structure from airborne polarimetric InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzter, H.; Saich, P.; Luckman, A. J.; Skinner, L.; Grant, J.

    2002-01-01

    Interferometric SAR at short wavelengths can be used to retrieve stand height of forests. We evaluate the precision of tree height estimation from airborne single-pass interferometric E-SAR data at X-band VV polarisation and repeat-pass L-band polarimetric data. General yield class curves were used to estimate tree height from planting year, tree species and yield class data provided by the Forest Enterprise. The data were compared to tree height estimates from X-VV single-pass InSAR and repeat-pass polarimetric InSAR at L-band acquired by DLR's E-SAR during the SHAC campaign 2000. The effect of gap structure and incidence angle on retrieval precision of tree height from interferometric SAR is analysed. Appropriate correction methods to improve tree height retrieval are proposed. The coherent microwave model CASM is used with a Lindenmayer system tree model to simulate the observed underestimation of stand height in the presence of gaps.

  17. Use of airborne polarimetric SAR, optical and elevation data for mapping and monitoring of salt marsh vegetation habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beijma, Sybrand; Comber, Alexis; Lamb, Alistair

    2014-10-01

    Within the Copernicus programme there is much interest in the ability of remote sensing technology to deliver operational solutions to many areas of life including environmental management. This paper describes research focused on the application of Earth Observation for Integrated Coastal Zone Management. The main topic of this research is to explore to which extent salt marsh vegetation habitats can be identified from polarimetric SAR remotely sensed data. Multi-frequency, multi-polarimetric SAR images from airborne (S- and X-Band quad-polarimetric from the Astrium airborne SAR Demonstrator) is used to examine salt marsh habitat classification potential in the Llanrhidian salt marshes in South Wales, UK. This is achieved by (1) using both supervised and unsupervised classification routines, using several polarimetric SAR data layers as backscatter intensity, band ratios and polarimetric decomposition products, and by (2) statistical analysis by regression of these different SAR data layers and botanical parameters acquired from recent ecological fieldwork.

  18. Method for removing RFI from SAR images

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2003-08-19

    A method of removing RFI from a SAR by comparing two SAR images on a pixel by pixel basis and selecting the pixel with the lower magnitude to form a composite image. One SAR image is the conventional image produced by the SAR. The other image is created from phase-history data which has been filtered to have the frequency bands containing the RFI removed.

  19. Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

    Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

  20. Airborne precursor missions in support of SIR-C/X-SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Oettl, H.; Pampaloni, P.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA DC-8 and DLR E-SAR airborne imaging radars have been deployed over several sites in Europe and the U.S. in support of SIR-C/X-SAR (Shuttle Imaging Radar-C/X-Synthetic Aperture Radar) science team investigations. To date, data have been acquired in support of studies of alpine glaciers, forests, geology, oceanography, and calibration. An experimental campaign with airborne sensors will take place in Europe in June to July 1991 which will allow multitemporal surveys of several Europeans sites. Current plans are for calibration and ecology experiments to be undertaken in Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, France, and the United Kingdom. Coordinated multitemporal aircraft and ground campaigns are planned in support of hydrology experiments in Italy, the United Kingdom, and Austria. Data will also be acquired in support of oceanogrqhy in the Gulf of Genova, North Atlantic, Straits of Messina and the North Sea. Geology sites will include Campi Flegrei and Vesuvio, Italy.

  1. MM wave SAR sensor design: Concept for an airborne low level reconnaissance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesswetter, C.

    1986-07-01

    The basic system design considerations for a high resolution SAR system operating at 35 GHz or 94 GHz are given. First it is shown that only the focussed SAR concept in the side looking configuration matches the requirements and constraints. After definition of illumination geometry and airborne modes the fundamental SAR parameters in range and azimuth direction are derived. A review of the performance parameters of some critical mm wave components (coherent pulsed transmitters, front ends, antennas) establish the basis for further analysis. The power and contrast budget in the processed SAR image shows the feasibility of a 35/94 GHz SAR sensor design. The discussion of the resulting system parameters points out that this unusual system design implies both benefits and new risk areas. One of the benefits besides the compactness of sensor hardware turns out to be the short synthetic aperture length simplifying the design of the digital SAR processor, preferably operating in real time. A possible architecture based on current state-of-the-art correlator hardware is shown. One of the potential risk areas in achieving high resolution SAR imagery in the mm wave frequency band is motion compensation. However, it is shown that the short range and short synthetic aperture lengths ease the problem so that correction of motion induced phase errors and thus focussed synthetic aperture processing should be possible.

  2. A videoSAR mode for the x-band wideband experimental airborne radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damini, A.; Balaji, B.; Parry, C.; Mantle, V.

    2010-04-01

    DRDC has been involved in the development of airborne SAR systems since the 1980s. The current system, designated XWEAR (X-band Wideband Experimental Airborne Radar), is an instrument for the collection of SAR, GMTI and maritime surveillance data at long ranges. VideoSAR is a land imaging mode in which the radar is operated in the spotlight mode for an extended period of time. Radar data is collected persistently on a target of interest while the aircraft is either flying by or circling it. The time span for a single circular data collection can be on the order of 30 minutes. The spotlight data is processed using synthetic apertures of up to 60 seconds in duration, where consecutive apertures can be contiguous or overlapped. The imagery is formed using a back-projection algorithm to a common Cartesian grid. The DRDC VideoSAR mode noncoherently sums the images, either cumulatively, or via a sliding window of, for example, 5 images, to generate an imagery stream presenting the target reflectivity as a function of viewing angle. The image summation results in significant speckle reduction which provides for increased image contrast. The contrast increases rapidly over the first few summed images and continues to increase, but at a lesser rate, as more images are summed. In the case of cumulative summation of the imagery, the shadows quickly become filled in. In the case of a sliding window, the summation introduces a form of persistence into the VideoSAR output analogous to the persistence of analog displays from early radars.

  3. Polar format algorithm for SAR imaging with Matlab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Ross; Best, Matthew; Farrell, Sean

    2014-06-01

    Due to its computational efficiency, the polar format algorithm (PFA) is considered by many to be the workhorse for airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging. PFA is implemented in spatial Fourier space, also known as "K-space", which is a convenient domain for understanding SAR performance metrics, sampling requirements, etc. In this paper the mathematics behind PFA are explained and computed examples are presented, both using simulated data, and experimental airborne radar data from the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Gotcha Challenge collect. In addition, a simple graphical method is described that can be used to model and predict wavefront curvature artifacts in PFA imagery, which are due to the limited validity of the underlying far-field approximation. The appendix includes Matlab code for computing SAR images using PFA.

  4. Indoor experimental facility for airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) configurations - rail-SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirose, Getachew; Phelan, Brian R.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Ranney, Kenneth I.; Koenig, Francois; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2014-05-01

    The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is developing an indoor experimental facility to evaluate and assess airborne synthetic-aperture-radar-(SAR)-based detection capabilities. The rail-SAR is located in a multi-use facility that also provides a base for research and development in the area of autonomous robotic navigation. Radar explosive hazard detection is one key sensordevelopment area to be investigated at this indoor facility. In particular, the mostly wooden, multi-story building houses a two (2) story housing structure and an open area built over a large sandbox. The housing structure includes reconfigurable indoor walls which enable the realization of multiple See-Through-The-Wall (STTW) scenarios. The open sandbox, on the other hand, allows for surface and buried explosive hazard scenarios. The indoor facility is not rated for true explosive hazard materials so all targets will need to be inert and contain surrogate explosive fills. In this paper we discuss the current system status and describe data collection exercises conducted using canonical targets and frequencies that may be of interest to designers of ultra-wideband (UWB) airborne, ground penetrating SAR systems. A bi-static antenna configuration will be used to investigate the effects of varying airborne SAR parameters such as depression angle, bandwidth, and integration angle, for various target types and deployment scenarios. Canonical targets data were used to evaluate overall facility capabilities and limitations. These data is analyzed and summarized for future evaluations. Finally, processing techniques for dealing with RF multi-path and RFI due to operating inside the indoor facility are described in detail. Discussion of this facility and its capabilities and limitations will provide the explosive hazard community with a great airborne platform asset for sensor to target assessment.

  5. Multiresolution FOPEN SAR image formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPietro, Robert C.; Fante, Ronald L.; Perry, Richard P.; Soumekh, Mehrdad; Tromp, Laurens D.

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents a new technique for FOPEN SAR (foliage penetration synthetic aperture radar) image formation of Ultra Wideband UHF radar data. Planar Subarray Processing (PSAP) has successfully demonstrated the capability of forming multi- resolution images for X and Ka band radar systems under MITRE IR&D and the DARPA IBC program. We have extended the PSAP algorithm to provide the capability to form strip map, multi- resolution images for Ultra Wideband UHF radar systems. The PSAP processing can accommodate very large SAR integration angles and the resulting very large range migration. It can also accommodate long coherent integration times and wide swath coverage. Major PSAP algorithm features include: multiple SAR sub-arrays providing different look angles at the same image area that can enable man-made target responses to be distinguished from other targets and clutter by their angle dependent specular characteristics, the capability to provide a full resolution image in these and other selected areas without the processing penalty of full resolution in non required areas, and the capability to include angle-dependent motion compensation within the image formation process.

  6. CASMSAR: the first Chinese airborne SAR mapping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jixian; Wang, Zhang; Huang, Guoman; Zhao, Zheng; Lu, Lijun

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we present an overall description of the newest Chinese airborne SAR mapping system CASMSAR, which is developed by a group led by Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping (CASM). Since CASMSAR is equipped with two independent high-resolution SAR sensors (X-band and P-band), it allows the integration of interferometric and fully polarimetric functions. Another novel feature of CASMSAR is the software control of system monitoring and flight navigation display, which makes the whole system very intelligent and operational. The data processing software systems of CASMSAR consists of five subsystems. CASMSAR works in several modes. The most important two of them are used for mapping in scale of 1:10,000 and 1:50,000. Initial data were acquired during several testing flight campaigns in last year, and experimental results have proved that the system works well and the performance is better than expectation.

  7. Initial assessment of an airborne Ku-band polarimetric SAR.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been used for a variety of dual-use research applications since the 1940's. By measuring the direction of the electric field vector from radar echoes, polarimetry may enhance an analyst's understanding of scattering effects for both earth monitoring and tactical surveillance missions. Polarimetry may provide insight into surface types, materials, or orientations for natural and man-made targets. Polarimetric measurements may also be used to enhance the contrast between scattering surfaces such as man-made objects and their surroundings. This report represents an initial assessment of the utility of, and applications for, polarimetric SAR at Ku-band for airborne or unmanned aerial systems.

  8. Block adjustment of airborne InSAR based on interferogram phase and POS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xijuan; Zhao, Yinghui; Han, Chunming; Dou, Changyong

    2015-12-01

    High-precision surface elevation information in large scale can be obtained efficiently by airborne Interferomatric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) system, which is recently becoming an important tool to acquire remote sensing data and perform mapping applications in the area where surveying and mapping is difficult to be accomplished by spaceborne satellite or field working. . Based on the study of the three-dimensional (3D) positioning model using interferogram phase and Position and Orientation System (POS) data and block adjustment error model, a block adjustment method to produce seamless wide-area mosaic product generated from airborne InSAR data is proposed in this paper. The effect of 6 parameters, including trajectory and attitude of the aircraft, baseline length and incline angle, slant range, and interferometric phase, on the 3D positioning accuracy is quantitatively analyzed. Using the data acquired in the field campaign conducted in Mianyang county Sichuan province, China in June 2011, a mosaic seamless Digital Elevation Model (DEM) product was generated from 76 images in 4 flight strips by the proposed block adjustment model. The residuals of ground control points (GCPs), the absolute positioning accuracy of check points (CPs) and the relative positioning accuracy of tie points (TPs) both in same and adjacent strips were assessed. The experimental results suggest that the DEM and Digital Orthophoto Map (DOM) product generated by the airborne InSAR data with sparse GCPs can meet mapping accuracy requirement at scale of 1:10 000.

  9. Preliminary results of the LLNL airborne experimental test-bed SAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.G.; Mullenhoff, C.J.; Kiefer, R.D.; Brase, J.M.; Wieting, M.G.; Berry, G.L.; Jones, H.E.

    1996-01-16

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within Laser Programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in cooperation with the Hughes Aircraft Company has developed a versatile, high performance, airborne experimental test-bed (AETB) capability. The test-bed has been developed for a wide range of research and development experimental applications including radar and radiometry plus, with additional aircraft modifications, optical systems. The airborne test-bed capability has been developed within a Douglas EA-3B Skywarrior jet aircraft provided and flown by Hughes Aircraft Company. The current test-bed payload consists of an X-band radar system, a high-speed data acquisition, and a real-time processing capability. The medium power radar system is configured to operate in a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode and is highly configurable in terms of waveforrns, PRF, bandwidth, etc. Antennas are mounted on a 2-axis gimbal in the belly radome of the aircraft which provides pointing and stabilization. Aircraft position and antenna attitude are derived from a dedicated navigational system and provided to the real-time SAR image processor for instant image reconstruction and analysis. This paper presents a further description of the test-bed and payload subsystems plus preliminary results of SAR imagery.

  10. Challenges and Potentials Using Multi Aspect Coverage of Urban Scenes by Airborne SAR on Circular Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, S.; Pohl, N.; Stilla, U.

    2015-03-01

    Airborne SAR on small and flexible platforms guarantees the evaluation of local damages after natural disasters and is both weather and daylight independent. The processing of circular flight trajectories can further improve the reconstruction of target scenes especially in complex urban scenarios as shadowing and foreshortening effects can be reduced by multiple views from different aspect angles (hyper- or full- aspect). A dataset collected with the Miranda 35 GHz radar system with 1 GHz bandwidth on a small ultralight aircraft on a circular trajectory over an urban scene was processed using a time domain approach. The SAR processing chain and the effects of the navigational data for such highly nonlinear trajectories and unstable platforms are described. The generated SAR image stack over the entire trajectory consists of 240 individual SAR images, each image visualizing the scene from a slightly different aspect angle. First results for the fusion of multiple aspect views to create one resulting image with reduced shadow areas and the possibility to find hidden targets are demonstrated. Further potentials of such particular datasets like moving target indication are discussed.

  11. SAR Image Complex Pixel Representations

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-03-01

    Complex pixel values for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of uniform distributed clutter can be represented as either real/imaginary (also known as I/Q) values, or as Magnitude/Phase values. Generally, these component values are integers with limited number of bits. For clutter energy well below full-scale, Magnitude/Phase offers lower quantization noise than I/Q representation. Further improvement can be had with companding of the Magnitude value.

  12. Representing SAR complex image pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerry, A. W.

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are often complex-valued to facilitate specific exploitation modes. Furthermore, these pixel values are typically represented with either real/imaginary (also known as I/Q) values, or as Magnitude/Phase values, with constituent components comprised of integers with limited number of bits. For clutter energy well below full-scale, Magnitude/Phase offers lower quantization noise than I/Q representation. Further improvement can be had with companding of the Magnitude value.

  13. Segmentation of SAR images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    The statistical characteristics of image speckle are reviewed. Existing segmentation techniques that have been used for speckle filtering, edge detection, and texture extraction are sumamrized. The relative effectiveness of each technique is briefly discussed.

  14. Spaceborne SAR Imaging Algorithm for Coherence Optimized

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhiwei; Yue, Jianping; Wang, Xueqin; Yue, Shun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes SAR imaging algorithm with largest coherence based on the existing SAR imaging algorithm. The basic idea of SAR imaging algorithm in imaging processing is that output signal can have maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by using the optimal imaging parameters. Traditional imaging algorithm can acquire the best focusing effect, but would bring the decoherence phenomenon in subsequent interference process. Algorithm proposed in this paper is that SAR echo adopts consistent imaging parameters in focusing processing. Although the SNR of the output signal is reduced slightly, their coherence is ensured greatly, and finally the interferogram with high quality is obtained. In this paper, two scenes of Envisat ASAR data in Zhangbei are employed to conduct experiment for this algorithm. Compared with the interferogram from the traditional algorithm, the results show that this algorithm is more suitable for SAR interferometry (InSAR) research and application. PMID:26871446

  15. Radiometric correction of SAR images of varying terrain heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Moghaddam, M.; Zink, M.; Zebker, H.

    1992-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of three different approaches to solving the problem of the radiometric correction of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of varying terrain heights are presented. The first approach involves registration of a digital elevation model (DEM) of the terrain to the image, determination of the local elevation and incidence angles, and appropriate radiometric correction. The second approach uses a DEM generated from interferometric SAR data to derive the elevation and incidence angle maps. In the third approach, a monopulse technique is employed to determine the elevation angle only. The relative errors in radiometric correction between these approaches are assessed. Calibration errors are estimated using corner reflectors deployed within some of the scenes imaged by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory airborne SAR (JPL AIRSAR).

  16. Lithologic mapping in a sedimentary environment using multipolarization SAR images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. L.; Schenck, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    Multipolarization Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the NASA/JPL aircraft SAR were used in conjunction with LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM), Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data as part of a three-year research program to evaluate the utility of remote sensing measurements for analysis of sedimentary basins. The purpose of this research effort is to construct stratigraphic columns, map variations in the lithology, geometry, and structure of sedimentary rocks in the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming, and to integrate remote sensing data with conventional rain models of basin formation and evolution.

  17. Design criteria and comparison between conventional and subaperture SAR processing in airborne systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats, Pau; Bara, Marc; Broquetas, Antoni

    2002-02-01

    This paper compares two different approaches for designing airborne SAR systems. The first one is the most common where conventional processing is employed, and therefore wide antenna beams are to be used in order to avoid ambiguities in the final image due to attitude variations. A second approach is proposed to lower the requirements such system imposes based on subaperture processing. The idea is to follow the azimuth variations of the Doppler centroid, without increasing the hardware requirements of the system. As it is shown in this paper, this processing procedure must be complemented with precise radiometric corrections, because the platform may experience small attitude variations, which could increase/decrease the target observation time, inducing a significant azimuth modulation in the final image. This leads to the definition of a new criterion concerning maximum attitude deviations for an airborne platform.

  18. Extracting DEM from airborne X-band data based on PolInSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, X. X.; Huang, G. M.; Zhao, Z.

    2015-06-01

    Polarimetric Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolInSAR) is a new trend of SAR remote sensing technology which combined polarized multichannel information and Interferometric information. It is of great significance for extracting DEM in some regions with low precision of DEM such as vegetation coverage area and building concentrated area. In this paper we describe our experiments with high-resolution X-band full Polarimetric SAR data acquired by a dual-baseline interferometric airborne SAR system over an area of Danling in southern China. Pauli algorithm is used to generate the double polarimetric interferometry data, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), Numerical Radius (NR) and Phase diversity (PD) methods are used to generate the full polarimetric interferometry data. Then we can make use of the polarimetric interferometric information to extract DEM with processing of pre filtering , image registration, image resampling, coherence optimization, multilook processing, flat-earth removal, interferogram filtering, phase unwrapping, parameter calibration, height derivation and geo-coding. The processing system named SARPlore has been exploited based on VC++ led by Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping. Finally compared optimization results with the single polarimetric interferometry, it has been observed that optimization ways can reduce the interferometric noise and the phase unwrapping residuals, and improve the precision of DEM. The result of full polarimetric interferometry is better than double polarimetric interferometry. Meanwhile, in different terrain, the result of full polarimetric interferometry will have a different degree of increase.

  19. Knowledge based SAR images exploitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, David L.

    1987-01-01

    One of the basic functions of SAR images exploitation system is the detection of man-made objects. The performance of object detection is strongly limited by performance of segmentation modules. This paper presents a detection paradigm composed of an adaptive segmentation algorithm based on a priori knowledge of objects followed by a top-down hierarchical detection process that generates and evaluates object hypotheses. Shadow information and inter-object relationships can be added to the knowledge base to improve performance over that of a statistical detector based only on the attributes of individual objects.

  20. Bistatic SAR: Signal Processing and Image Formation.

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the significant processing steps that were used to take the raw recorded digitized signals from the bistatic synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) hardware built for the NCNS Bistatic SAR project to a final bistatic SAR image. In general, the process steps herein are applicable to bistatic SAR signals that include the direct-path signal and the reflected signal. The steps include preprocessing steps, data extraction to for a phase history, and finally, image format. Various plots and values will be shown at most steps to illustrate the processing for a bistatic COSMO SkyMed collection gathered on June 10, 2013 on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

  1. Image based SAR product simulation for analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domik, G.; Leberl, F.

    1987-01-01

    SAR product simulation serves to predict SAR image gray values for various flight paths. Input typically consists of a digital elevation model and backscatter curves. A new method is described of product simulation that employs also a real SAR input image for image simulation. This can be denoted as 'image-based simulation'. Different methods to perform this SAR prediction are presented and advantages and disadvantages discussed. Ascending and descending orbit images from NASA's SIR-B experiment were used for verification of the concept: input images from ascending orbits were converted into images from a descending orbit; the results are compared to the available real imagery to verify that the prediction technique produces meaningful image data.

  2. SAR image formation toolbox for MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, LeRoy A.; Moore, Linda J.

    2010-04-01

    While many synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation techniques exist, two of the most intuitive methods for implementation by SAR novices are the matched filter and backprojection algorithms. The matched filter and (non-optimized) backprojection algorithms are undeniably computationally complex. However, the backprojection algorithm may be successfully employed for many SAR research endeavors not involving considerably large data sets and not requiring time-critical image formation. Execution of both image reconstruction algorithms in MATLAB is explicitly addressed. In particular, a manipulation of the backprojection imaging equations is supplied to show how common MATLAB functions, ifft and interp1, may be used for straight-forward SAR image formation. In addition, limits for scene size and pixel spacing are derived to aid in the selection of an appropriate imaging grid to avoid aliasing. Example SAR images generated though use of the backprojection algorithm are provided given four publicly available SAR datasets. Finally, MATLAB code for SAR image reconstruction using the matched filter and backprojection algorithms is provided.

  3. Statistical Modeling of SAR Images: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Gui

    2010-01-01

    Statistical modeling is essential to SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) image interpretation. It aims to describe SAR images through statistical methods and reveal the characteristics of these images. Moreover, statistical modeling can provide a technical support for a comprehensive understanding of terrain scattering mechanism, which helps to develop algorithms for effective image interpretation and creditable image simulation. Numerous statistical models have been developed to describe SAR image data, and the purpose of this paper is to categorize and evaluate these models. We first summarize the development history and the current researching state of statistical modeling, then different SAR image models developed from the product model are mainly discussed in detail. Relevant issues are also discussed. Several promising directions for future research are concluded at last. PMID:22315568

  4. Controlling Data Collection to Support SAR Image Rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.; Cordaro, J. Thomas; Burns, Bryan L.

    2008-10-14

    A desired rotation of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image can be facilitated by adjusting a SAR data collection operation based on the desired rotation. The SAR data collected by the adjusted SAR data collection operation can be efficiently exploited to form therefrom a SAR image having the desired rotational orientation.

  5. EcoSAR: NASA's P-band fully polarimetric single pass interferometric airborne radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanoglu, B.; Rincon, R. F.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Lee, S. K.; Sun, G.; Daniyan, O.; Harcum, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    EcoSAR is a new airborne synthetic aperture radar imaging system, developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It is a P-band sensor that employs a non-conventional and innovative design. The EcoSAR system was designed as a multi-disciplinary instrument to image the 3-dimensional surface of the earth from a single pass platform with two antennas. EcoSAR's principal mission is to penetrate the forest canopy to return vital information about the canopy structure and estimate biomass. With a maximum bandwidth of 200 MHz in H and 120 MHz in V polarizations it can provide sub-meter resolution imagery of the study area. EcoSAR's dual antenna, 32 transmit and receive channel architecture provides a test-bed for developing new algorithms in InSAR data processing such as single pass interferometry, full polarimetry, post-processing synthesis of multiple beams, simultaneous measurement over both sides of the flight track, selectable resolution and variable incidence angle. The flexible architecture of EcoSAR will create new opportunities in radar remote sensing of forest biomass, permafrost active layer thickness, and topography mapping. EcoSAR's first test flight occurred between March 27th and April 1st, 2014 over the Andros Island in Bahamas and Corcovado and La Selva National Parks in Costa Rica. The 32 channel radar system collected about 6 TB of radar data in about 12 hours of data collection. Due to the existence of radio and TV communications in the operational frequency band, acquired data contains strong radar frequency interference, which had to be removed prior to beamforming and focusing. Precise locations of the antennas are tracked using high-rate GPS and inertial navigation units, which provide necessary information for accurate processing of the imagery. In this presentation we will present preliminary imagery collected during the test campaign, show examples of simultaneous dual track imaging, as well as a single pass interferogram. The

  6. Reconnaissance with slant plane circular SAR imaging.

    PubMed

    Soumekh, M

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a method for imaging from the slant plane data collected by a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) over the full rotation or a partial segment of a circular flight path. A Fourier analysis for the Green's function of the imaging system is provided. This analysis is the basis of an inversion for slant plane circular SAR data. The reconstruction algorithm and resolution for this SAR system are outlined. It is shown that the slant plane circular SAR, unlike the slant plane linear SAR, has the capability to extract three-dimensional imaging information of a target scene. The merits of the algorithm are demonstrated via a simulated target whose ultra wideband foliage penetrating (FOPEN) or ground penetrating (GPEN) ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radar signature varies with the radar's aspect angle. PMID:18285213

  7. Tracking ocean wave spectrum from SAR images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfinger, A. D.; Beal, R. C.; Monaldo, F. M.; Tilley, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    An end to end algorithm for recovery of ocean wave spectral peaks from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is described. Current approaches allow precisions of 1 percent in wave number, and 0.6 deg in direction.

  8. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction from multistatic SAR images.

    PubMed

    Rigling, Brian D; Moses, Randolph L

    2005-08-01

    This paper discusses reconstruction of three-dimensional surfaces from multiple bistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Techniques for surface reconstruction from multiple monostatic SAR images already exist, including interferometric processing and stereo SAR. We generalize these methods to obtain algorithms for bistatic interferometric SAR and bistatic stereo SAR. We also propose a framework for predicting the performance of our multistatic stereo SAR algorithm, and, from this framework, we suggest a metric for use in planning strategic deployment of multistatic assets. PMID:16121463

  9. TELAER: a multi-mode/multi-antenna interferometric airborne SAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, Stefano; Amaral, Tiago; Berardino, Paolo; Esposito, Carmen; Jackson, Giuseppe; Pauciullo, Antonio; Vaz Junior, Eurico; Wimmer, Christian; Lanari, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    The present contribution is aimed at showing the capabilities of the TELAER airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system recently upgraded to the interferometric mode [1]. TELAER is an Italian airborne X-Band SAR system, mounted onboard a LearJet 35A aircraft. Originally equipped with a single TX/RX antenna, it now operates in single-pass interferometric mode thanks to a system upgrading [1] funded by the Italian National Research Council (CNR), via the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR), in the framework of a cooperation between CNR and the Italian Agency for Agriculture Subsidy Payments (AGEA). In the frame of such cooperation, CNR has entrusted the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA) for managing all the activities, included the final flight tests, related to the system upgrading. According to such an upgrading, two additional receiving X-band antennas have been installed in order to allow, simultaneously, single-pass Across-Track and Along-Track interferometry [1]. More specifically, the three antennas are now installed in such a way to produce three different across-track baselines and two different along-track baselines. Moreover, in the frame of the same system upgrading, it has been mounted onboard the Learjet an accurate embedded Global Navigation Satellite System and Inertial Measurement Unit equipment. This allows precise measurement of the tracks described by the SAR antennas during the flight, in order to accurately implement Motion Compensation (MOCO) algorithms [2] during the image formation (focusing) step. It is worth remarking that the TELAER system upgraded to the interferometric mode is very flexible, since the user can set different operational modes characterized by different geometric resolutions and range swaths. In particular, it is possible to reach up to 0.5 m of resolution with a range swath of 2km; conversely, it is possible to enlarge the range swath up to 10 km at expenses of

  10. FOPEN ultrawideband SAR imaging by wavelet interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanwei; Liang, Diannong; Wang, Yan; Huang, Xiaotao; Dong, Zhen

    2003-09-01

    Wave number Domain Imaging algorithm can deal with the problem of foliage-penetrating ultra-wide band synthesis aperture radar (FOPEN UWB SAR) imaging. Stolt interpolation is a key role in Imaging Algorithm and is unevenly interpolation problem. There is no fast computation algorithm on Stolt interpolation. In this paper, A novel 4-4 tap of integer wavelet filters is used as Stolt interpolation base function. A fast interpolation algorithm is put forwards to. There is only plus and shift operation in wavelet interpolation that is easy to realize by hardware. The real data are processed to prove the wavelet interpolation valid for FOPEN UWB SAR imaging.

  11. A comparison of airborne GEMS/SAR with satellite-borne Seasat/SAR radar imagery - The value of archived multiple data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Bradford C.; Dellwig, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In a study concerning the value of using radar imagery from systems with diverse parameters, X-band images of the Northern Louisiana Salt dome area generated by the airborne Goodyear electronic mapping system (GEMS) are analyzed in conjunction with imagery generated by the satelliteborne Seasat/SAR. The GEMS operated with an incidence angle of 75 to 85 deg and a resolution of 12 m, whereas the Seasat/SAR operated with an incidence angle of 23 deg and a resolution of 25 m. It is found that otherwise unattainable data on land management activities, improved delineation of the drainage net, better definition of surface roughness in cleared areas, and swamp identification, became accessible when adjustments for the time lapse between the two missions were made and supporting ground data concerning the physical and vegetative characteristics of the terrain were acquired.

  12. CCD architecture for spacecraft SAR image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    A real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image processing architecture amenable to future on-board spacecraft applications is currently under development. Using state-of-the-art charge-coupled device (CCD) technology, low cost and power are inherent features. Other characteristics include the ability to reprogram correlation reference functions, correct for range migration, and compensate for antenna beam pointing errors on the spacecraft in real time. The first spaceborne demonstration is scheduled to be flown as an experiment on a 1982 Shuttle imaging radar mission (SIR-B). This paper describes the architecture and implementation characteristics of this initial spaceborne CCD SAR image processor.

  13. Estimating IMU heading error from SAR images.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2009-03-01

    Angular orientation errors of the real antenna for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) will manifest as undesired illumination gradients in SAR images. These gradients can be measured, and the pointing error can be calculated. This can be done for single images, but done more robustly using multi-image methods. Several methods are provided in this report. The pointing error can then be fed back to the navigation Kalman filter to correct for problematic heading (yaw) error drift. This can mitigate the need for uncomfortable and undesired IMU alignment maneuvers such as S-turns.

  14. SAR/LANDSAT image registration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphrey, S. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Temporal registration of synthetic aperture radar data with LANDSAT-MSS data is both feasible (from a technical standpoint) and useful (from an information-content viewpoint). The greatest difficulty in registering aircraft SAR data to corrected LANDSAT-MSS data is control-point location. The differences in SAR and MSS data impact the selection of features that will serve as a good control points. The SAR and MSS data are unsuitable for automatic computer correlation of digital control-point data. The gray-level data can not be compared by the computer because of the different response characteristics of the MSS and SAR images.

  15. Interferometric SAR imaging by transmitting stepped frequency chaotic noise signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Gu, Xiang; Zhai, Wenshuai; Dong, Xiao; Shi, Xiaojin; Kang, Xueyan

    2015-10-01

    Noise radar has been applied in many fields since it was proposed more than 50 years ago. However, it has not been applied to interferometric SAR imaging yet as far as we know. This paper introduces our recent work on interferometric noise radar. An interferometric SAR system was developed which can transmit both chirp signal and chaotic noise signal (CNS) at multiple carrier frequencies. An airborne experiment with this system by transmitting both signals was carried out, and the data were processed to show the capability of interferometric SAR imaging with CNS. The results shows that although the interferometric phase quality of CNS is degraded due to the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is lower compared with that of chirp signal, we still can get satisfied DEM after multi-looking processing. Another work of this paper is to apply compressed sensing (CS) theory to the interferometric SAR imaging with CNS. The CS theory states that if a signal is sparse, then it can be accurately reconstructed with much less sampled data than that regularly required according to Nyquist Sampling Theory. To form a structured random matrix, if the transmitted signal is of fixed waveform, then random subsampling is needed. However, if the transmitted signal is of random waveform, then only uniform subsampling is needed. This is another advantage of noise signal. Both the interferometric phase images and the DEMs by regular method and by CS method are processed with results compared. It is shown that the degradation of interferometric phases due to subsampling is larger than that of amplitude image.

  16. Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Cooper, Moogega; Adler, John; Jacobson, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a hyperspectral imaging instrument package designed to be carried aboard a helicopter. It was developed to map the depths of Greenland's supraglacial lakes. The instrument is capable of telescoping to twice its original length, allowing it to be retracted with the door closed during takeoff and landing, and manually extended in mid-flight. While extended, the instrument platform provides the attached hyperspectral imager a nadir-centered and unobstructed view of the ground. Before flight, the instrument mount is retracted and securely strapped down to existing anchor points on the floor of the helicopter. When the helicopter reaches the destination lake, the door is opened and the instrument mount is manually extended. Power to the instrument package is turned on, and the data acquisition computer is commanded via a serial cable from an onboard user-operated laptop to begin data collection. After data collection is complete, the instrument package is powered down and the mount retracted, allowing the door to be closed in preparation for landing. The present design for the instrument mount consists of a three-segment telescoping cantilever to allow for a sufficient extended length to see around the landing struts and provide a nadir-centered and unobstructed field of view for the hyperspectral imager. This instrument works on the premise that water preferentially absorbs light with longer wavelengths on the red side of the visible spectrum. This property can be exploited in order to remotely determine the depths of bodies of pure freshwater. An imager flying over such a lake receives light scattered from the surface, the bulk of the water column, and from the lake bottom. The strength of absorption of longer-wavelength light depends on the depth of the water column. Through calibration with in situ measurements of the water depths, a depth-determining algorithm may be developed to determine lake depth from these spectral properties of the

  17. Detecting slow moving targets in SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnehan, Robert; Perlovsky, Leonid; Mutz, Chris W.; Schindler, John

    2004-08-01

    Ground moving target indication (GMTI) radars can detect slow-moving targets if their velocities are high enough to produce distinguishable Doppler frequencies. However, no reliable technique is currently available to detect targets that fall below the minimum detectable velocity (MDV) of GMTI radars. In synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, detection of moving targets is difficult because of target smear due to motion, which could make low-RCS targets fall below stationary ground clutter. Several techniques for SAR imaging of moving targets have been discussed in the literature. These techniques require sufficient signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) and adequate MDV for pre-detection. Other techniques require complex changes in hardware. Extracting the maximum information from SAR image data is possible using adaptive, model-based approaches. However, these approaches lead to computational complexity, which exceeds current processing power for more than a single object in an image. This combinatorial complexity is due to the need for having to consider a large number of combinations between multiple target models and the data, while estimating unknown parameters of the target models. We are developing a technique for detecting slow-moving targets in SAR images with low signal-to-clutter ratio, without minimal velocity requirements, and without combinatorial complexity. This paper briefly summarizes the difficulties related to current model-based detection algorithms. A new concept, dynamic logic, is introduced along with an algorithm suitable for the detection of very slow-moving targets in SAR images. This new mathematical technique is inspired by the analysis of biological systems, like the human brain, which combines conceptual understanding with emotional evaluation and overcomes the combinatorial complexity of model-based techniques.

  18. SAR Image Segmentation Using Morphological Attribute Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldt, M.; Thiele, A.; Schulz, K.; Hinz, S.

    2014-08-01

    In the last years, the spatial resolution of remote sensing sensors and imagery has continuously improved. Focusing on spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors, the satellites of the current generation (TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SykMed) are able to acquire images with sub-meter resolution. Indeed, high resolution imagery is visually much better interpretable, but most of the established pixel-based analysis methods have become more or less impracticable since, in high resolution images, self-sufficient objects (vehicle, building) are represented by a large number of pixels. Methods dealing with Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) provide help. Objects (segments) are groupings of pixels resulting from image segmentation algorithms based on homogeneity criteria. The image set is represented by image segments, which allows the development of rule-based analysis schemes. For example, segments can be described or categorized by their local neighborhood in a context-based manner. In this paper, a novel method for the segmentation of high resolution SAR images is presented. It is based on the calculation of morphological differential attribute profiles (DAP) which are analyzed pixel-wise in a region growing procedure. The method distinguishes between heterogeneous and homogeneous image content and delivers a precise segmentation result.

  19. Analysis of Multipath Pixels in SAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. W.; Wu, J. C.; Ding, X. L.; Zhang, L.; Hu, F. M.

    2016-06-01

    As the received radar signal is the sum of signal contributions overlaid in one single pixel regardless of the travel path, the multipath effect should be seriously tackled as the multiple bounce returns are added to direct scatter echoes which leads to ghost scatters. Most of the existing solution towards the multipath is to recover the signal propagation path. To facilitate the signal propagation simulation process, plenty of aspects such as sensor parameters, the geometry of the objects (shape, location, orientation, mutual position between adjacent buildings) and the physical parameters of the surface (roughness, correlation length, permittivity)which determine the strength of radar signal backscattered to the SAR sensor should be given in previous. However, it's not practical to obtain the highly detailed object model in unfamiliar area by field survey as it's a laborious work and time-consuming. In this paper, SAR imaging simulation based on RaySAR is conducted at first aiming at basic understanding of multipath effects and for further comparison. Besides of the pre-imaging simulation, the product of the after-imaging, which refers to radar images is also taken into consideration. Both Cosmo-SkyMed ascending and descending SAR images of Lupu Bridge in Shanghai are used for the experiment. As a result, the reflectivity map and signal distribution map of different bounce level are simulated and validated by 3D real model. The statistic indexes such as the phase stability, mean amplitude, amplitude dispersion, coherence and mean-sigma ratio in case of layover are analyzed with combination of the RaySAR output.

  20. InSAR Forensics: Tracing InSAR Scatterers in High Resolution Optical Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhu, XiaoXiang

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a step towards a better interpretation of the scattering mechanism of different objects and their deformation histories in SAR interferometry (InSAR). The proposed technique traces individual SAR scatterer in high resolution optical images where their geometries, materials, and other properties can be better analyzed and classified. And hence scatterers of a same object can be analyzed in group, which brings us to a new level of InSAR deformation monitoring.

  1. An Open Source Software and Web-GIS Based Platform for Airborne SAR Remote Sensing Data Management, Distribution and Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changyong, Dou; Huadong, Guo; Chunming, Han; Ming, Liu

    2014-03-01

    With more and more Earth observation data available to the community, how to manage and sharing these valuable remote sensing datasets is becoming an urgent issue to be solved. The web based Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology provides a convenient way for the users in different locations to share and make use of the same dataset. In order to efficiently use the airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing data acquired in the Airborne Remote Sensing Center of the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), a Web-GIS based platform for airborne SAR data management, distribution and sharing was designed and developed. The major features of the system include map based navigation search interface, full resolution imagery shown overlaid the map, and all the software adopted in the platform are Open Source Software (OSS). The functions of the platform include browsing the imagery on the map navigation based interface, ordering and downloading data online, image dataset and user management, etc. At present, the system is under testing in RADI and will come to regular operation soon.

  2. Enhanced Feature Based Mosaicing Technique for Visually and Geometrically Degraded Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, S.; Vardhini, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    In airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), there was a major problem encountered in the area of image mosaic in the absence of platform information and sensor information (geocoding), when SAR is applied in large-scale scene and the platform faces large changes. In order to enhance real-time performance and robustness of image mosaic, enhancement based Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) mosaic method for airborne SAR is proposed in this paper. SURF is a novel scale-invariant and rotation-invariant feature. It is perfect in its high computation, speed and robustness. In this paper, When the SAR image is acquired, initially the image is enhanced by using local statistic techniques and SURF is applied for SAR image matching accord to its characteristic, and then acquires its invariant feature for matching. In the process of image matching, the nearest neighbor rule for initial matching is used, and the wrong points of the matches are removed through RANSAC fitting algorithm. The proposed algorithm is implemented in different SAR images with difference in scale change, rotation change and noise. The proposed algorithm is compared with other existing algorithms and the quantitative and qualitative measures are calculated and tabulated. The proposed algorithm is robust to changes and the threshold is varied accordingly to increase the matching rate more than 95 %.

  3. Quantification of L-band InSAR decorrelation in volcanic terrains using airborne LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedze, M.; Heggy, E.; Jacquemoud, S.; Bretar, F.

    2011-12-01

    Repeat-pass InSAR LOS measurements of the Piton de La Fournaise (La Reunion Island, France) suffer from substantial phase decorrelation due to the occurrence of vegetation and ash deposits on the caldera and slopes of the edifice. To correct this deficiency, we combine normalized airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) intensity data with spaceborne InSAR coherence images from ALOS PALSAR L-band acquired over the volcano in 2008 and 2009, following the 2007 major eruption. The fusion of the two data sets improves the calculation of coherence and the textural classification of different volcanic surfaces. For future missions considering both InSAR and/or LiDAR such as DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics of Ice), such data fusion studies can provide a better analysis of the spatiotemporal variations in InSAR coherence in order to enhance the monitoring of pre-eruptive ground displacements. The airborne surveys conducted in 2008 and 2009, cover different types of vegetation and terrain roughness on the central and western parts of the volcano. The topographic data are first processed to generate a high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM) of the volcanic edifice with elevation accuracy better than 1 m. For our purposes, the phase variations caused by the surface relief can be eliminated using the LiDAR-derived DTM. Then normalized LiDAR intensities are correlated to the L-band polarimetric coherence for different zones of the volcano to assess the LiDAR-InSAR statistical behavior of different lava flows, pyroclastics, and vegetated surfaces. Results suggest that each volcanic terrain type is characterized by a unique LiDAR-InSAR histogram pattern. We identified four LiDAR-InSAR distinguished relations: (1) pahoehoe lava flow surfaces show an agglomerate histogram pattern which may be explained by low surface scattering and low wave penetration into the geological medium; (2) eroded a'a lava surfaces is characterized by high standard deviation

  4. Processing of polarametric SAR images. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Warrick, A.L.; Delaney, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a systematic method of combining multifrequency polarized SAR images. It is shown that the traditional methods of correlation, hard targets, and template matching fail to produce acceptable results. Hence, a new algorithm was developed and tested. The new approach combines the three traditional methods and an interpolation method. An example is shown that demonstrates the new algorithms performance. The results are summarized suggestions for future research are presented.

  5. Airborne imaging spectrometer development tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolten, John

    The tasks that must be completed to design and build an airborne imaging spectrometer are listed. The manpower and resources required to do these tasks must be estimated by the people responsible for that work. The tasks are broken down by instrument subsystem or discipline. The instrument performance can be assessed at various stages during the development. The initial assessment should be done with the preliminary computer model. The instrument calibration facilities should be designed, but no calibration facilities are needed. The intermediate assessment can be done when the front end has been assembled. The preliminary instrument calibration facility should be available at this stage. The final assessment can only be done when the instrument is complete and ready for flight. For this, the final instrument calibration facility and the flight qualification facilities must be ready. The final assessment is discussed in each discipline under the section on integration and test.

  6. Forming rotated SAR images by real-time motion compensation.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2012-12-01

    Proper waveform parameter selection allows collecting Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) phase history data on a rotated grid in the Fourier Space of the scene being imaged. Subsequent image formation preserves the rotated geometry to allow SAR images to be formed at arbitrary rotation angles without the use of computationally expensive interpolation or resampling operations. This should be useful where control of image orientation is desired such as generating squinted stripmaps and VideoSAR applications, among others.

  7. SAR Image despeckling via sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongmei; Yang, Xiaomei; Zheng, Liang

    2014-11-01

    SAR image despeckling is an active research area in image processing due to its importance in improving the quality of image for object detection and classification.In this paper, a new approach is proposed for multiplicative noise in SAR image removal based on nonlocal sparse representation by dictionary learning and collaborative filtering. First, a image is divided into many patches, and then a cluster is formed by clustering log-similar image patches using Fuzzy C-means (FCM). For each cluster, an over-complete dictionary is computed using the K-SVD method that iteratively updates the dictionary and the sparse coefficients. The patches belonging to the same cluster are then reconstructed by a sparse combination of the corresponding dictionary atoms. The reconstructed patches are finally collaboratively aggregated to build the denoised image. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves much better results than many state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of both objective evaluation index (PSNR and ENL) and subjective visual perception.

  8. Merging Airborne LIDAR Data and Satellite SAR Data for Building Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Nakagawa, M.

    2015-05-01

    A frequent map revision is required in GIS applications, such as disaster prevention and urban planning. In general, airborne photogrammetry and LIDAR measurements are applied to geometrical data acquisition for automated map generation and revision. However, attribute data acquisition and classification depend on manual editing works including ground surveys. In general, airborne photogrammetry and LiDAR measurements are applied to geometrical data acquisition for automated map generation and revision. However, these approaches classify geometrical attributes. Moreover, ground survey and manual editing works are finally required in attribute data classification. On the other hand, although geometrical data extraction is difficult, SAR data have a possibility to automate the attribute data acquisition and classification. The SAR data represent microwave reflections on various surfaces of ground and buildings. There are many researches related to monitoring activities of disaster, vegetation, and urban. Moreover, we have an opportunity to acquire higher resolution data in urban areas with new sensors, such as ALOS2 PALSAR2. Therefore, in this study, we focus on an integration of airborne LIDAR data and satellite SAR data for building extraction and classification.

  9. Using APES for interferometric SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Palsetia, Marzban

    1996-06-01

    In this paper, we present an adaptive FIR filtering approach, which is referred to as the APES (amplitude and phase estimation of a sinusoid) algorithm, for interferometric SAR imaging. We apply the APES algorithm on the data obtained from two vertically displaced apertures of a SAR system to obtain the complex amplitude and the phase difference estimates, which are proportional to the radar cross section and the height of the scatterer, respectively, at the frequencies of interest. We also demonstrate how the APES algorithm can be applied to data matrices with large dimensions without incurring high computational overheads. We compare the APES algorithm with other FIR filtering approaches including the Capon and FFT methods. We show via both numerical and experimental examples that the adaptive FIR filtering approaches such as Capon and APES can yield more accurate spectral estimates with much lower sidelobes and narrower spectral peaks than the FFT method. We show that although the APES algorithm yields somewhat wider spectral peaks than the Capon method, the former gives more accurate overall spectral estimates and SAR images than the latter and the FFT method.

  10. Synergistic combination technique for SAR image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Bhaskar

    1998-07-01

    Classification of earth terrain from satellite radar imagery represents an important and continually developing application of microwave remote sensing. The basic objective of this paper is to derive more information, through combining, than is present in any individual element of input data. Multispectral data has been used to provide complementary information so as to utilize a single SAR data for the purpose of land-cover classification. More recently neural networks have been applied to a number of image classification problems and have shown considerable success in exceeding the performance of conventional algorithms. In this work, a comparison study has been carried out between a conventional Maximum Likelihood (ML) classifier and a neural network (back-error-propagation) classifier in terms of classification accuracy. The results reveal that the combination of SAR and MSS data of the same scene produced better classification accuracy than either alone and the neural network classification has an edge over the conventional classification scheme.

  11. Airborne & SAR Synergy Reveals the 3D Structure of Air Bubble Entrainment in Internal Waves and Frontal Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, J. C. B.; Magalhaes, J. M.; Batista, M.; Gostiaux, L.; Gerkema, T.; New, A. L.

    2013-03-01

    Internal waves are now recognised as an important mixing mechanism in the ocean. Mixing at the base of the mixed layer and in the seasonal thermocline affects the properties of those water masses which define the exchange of heat and freshwater between the atmosphere and ocean. The breaking of Internal Solitary Waves (ISWs) contributes significantly to turbulent mixing in the near-surface layers, through the continual triggering of instabilities as they propagate and shoal towards the coast or shallow topography. Here we report some results of the EU funded project A.NEW (Airborne observations of Nonlinear Evolution of internal Waves generated by internal tidal beams). The airborne capabilities to observe small scale structure of breaking internal waves in the near-shore zone has been demonstrated in recent studies (e.g. Marmorino et al., 2008). In particular, sea surface thermal signatures of shoaling ISWs have revealed the turbulent character of these structures in the form of surface “boil” features. On the other hand, some in situ measurements of internal waves and theoretical work suggest subsurface entrainment of air bubbles in the convergence zones of ISWs (Serebryany and Galybin, 2009; Grimshaw et al., 2010). We conducted airborne remote sensing observations in the coastal zone off the west Iberian Peninsula (off Lisbon, Portugal) using high resolution imaging sensors: LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging), hyperspectral cameras (Eagle and Hawk) and thermal infrared imaging (TABI-320). These measurements were planned based on previous SAR observations in the region, which included also near-real time SAR overpasses (ESA project AOPT-2423 and TerraSAR-X project OCE-0056). The airborne measurements were conducted from board the NERC (Natural Environmental Research Centre) Do 228 aircraft in the summer of 2010. The TABI-320 thermal airborne broadband imager can distinguish temperature differences as small as one-twentieth of a degree and operates in the

  12. A Novel Azimuth Super-Resolution Method by Synthesizing Azimuth Bandwidth of Multiple Tracks of Airborne Stripmap SAR Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jingwen; Sun, Bing; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Azimuth resolution of airborne stripmap synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is restricted by the azimuth antenna size. Conventionally, a higher azimuth resolution should be achieved by employing alternate modes that steer the beam in azimuth to enlarge the synthetic antenna aperture. However, if a data set of a certain region, consisting of multiple tracks of airborne stripmap SAR data, is available, the azimuth resolution of specific small region of interest (ROI) can be conveniently improved by a novel azimuth super-resolution method as introduced by this paper. The proposed azimuth super-resolution method synthesize the azimuth bandwidth of the data selected from multiple discontinuous tracks and contributes to a magnifier-like function with which the ROI can be further zoomed in with a higher azimuth resolution than that of the original stripmap images. Detailed derivation of the azimuth super-resolution method, including the steps of two-dimensional dechirping, residual video phase (RVP) removal, data stitching and data correction, is provided. The restrictions of the proposed method are also discussed. Lastly, the presented approach is evaluated via both the single- and multi-target computer simulations. PMID:27304959

  13. A Novel Azimuth Super-Resolution Method by Synthesizing Azimuth Bandwidth of Multiple Tracks of Airborne Stripmap SAR Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jingwen; Sun, Bing; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Azimuth resolution of airborne stripmap synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is restricted by the azimuth antenna size. Conventionally, a higher azimuth resolution should be achieved by employing alternate modes that steer the beam in azimuth to enlarge the synthetic antenna aperture. However, if a data set of a certain region, consisting of multiple tracks of airborne stripmap SAR data, is available, the azimuth resolution of specific small region of interest (ROI) can be conveniently improved by a novel azimuth super-resolution method as introduced by this paper. The proposed azimuth super-resolution method synthesize the azimuth bandwidth of the data selected from multiple discontinuous tracks and contributes to a magnifier-like function with which the ROI can be further zoomed in with a higher azimuth resolution than that of the original stripmap images. Detailed derivation of the azimuth super-resolution method, including the steps of two-dimensional dechirping, residual video phase (RVP) removal, data stitching and data correction, is provided. The restrictions of the proposed method are also discussed. Lastly, the presented approach is evaluated via both the single- and multi-target computer simulations. PMID:27304959

  14. Estimation of bare soil evaporation using multifrequency airborne SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soares, Joao V.; Shi, Jiancheng; Van Zyl, Jakob; Engman, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that for homogeneous areas soil moisture can be derived from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements, so that the use of microwave remote sensing can given realistic estimates of energy fluxes if coupled to a simple two-layer model repesenting the soil. The model simulates volumetric water content (Wg) using classical meterological data, provided that some of the soil thermal and hydraulic properties are known. Only four parameters are necessary: mean water content, thermal conductivity and diffusitivity, and soil resistance to evaporation. They may be derived if a minimal number of measured values of Wg and surface layer temperature (Tg) are available together with independent measurements of energy flux to compare with the estimated values. The estimated evaporation is shown to be realistic and in good agreement with drying stage theory in which the transfer of water in the soil is in vapor form.

  15. Coherent aspect-dependent SAR image formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, Ronald D.; Willsky, Alan S.; Novak, Leslie M.

    1994-06-01

    An adaptive image formation algorithm is proposed to exploit the aspect-angle dependence of man-made scatterers in foliage penetrating (FOPEN) synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Man-made scatterers often exhibit a strong dependence on the aspect angle between the orientation of the scatterer and the line of sight of the radar. More specifically, the return from a man-made target is greater when the target is oriented broadside with respect to the radar. Conventional SAR image formation processing assumes that backscatter is independent of the aspect angle; by relaxing this assumption, it is possible to reformulate the image formation process to improve the separability of man-made scatterers vs. natural clutter. We propose an image formation process that adapts the length and position of the aperture used during the cross-range compression stage. The algorithm identifies the locations that are likely to correspond to aspect- dependent scatterers. In the vicinity of such scatterers, the algorithm chooses the aperture to match the expected return from a man-made scatterer. Elsewhere, the algorithm uses the full aperture. The resulting imagery enhances man-made targets relative to the background clutter and facilitates improved detection performance.

  16. Analysing multitemporal SAR images for forest mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghsoudi, Yasser; Collins, Michael J.; Leckie, Donald G.

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this paper is twofold: first, to presents a generic approach for the analysis of Radarsat-1 multitemporal data and, second, to presents a multi classifier schema for the classification of multitemporal images. The general approach consists of preprocessing step and classification. In the preprocessing stage, the images are calibrated and registered and then temporally filtered. The resulted multitemporally filtered images are subsequently used as the input images in the classification step. The first step in a classifier design is to pick up the most informative features from a series of multitemporal SAR images. Most of the feature selection algorithms seek only one set of features that distinguish among all the classes simultaneously and hence a limited amount of classification accuracy. In this paper, a class-based feature selection (CBFS) was proposed. In this schema, instead of using feature selection for the whole classes, the features are selected for each class separately. The selection is based on the calculation of JM distance of each class from the rest of classes. Afterwards, a maximum likelihood classifier is trained on each of the selected feature subsets. Finally, the outputs of the classifiers are combined through a combination mechanism. Experiments are performed on a set of 34 Radarsat-1 images acquired from August 1996 to February 2007. A set of 9 classes in a forest area are used in this study. Classification results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared with the case of single feature selection. Moreover, the proposed process is generic and hence is applicable in different mapping purposes for which a multitemporal set of SAR images are available.

  17. Ice cauldron formation during the initial phase of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption observed with an airborne SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, E.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Hognadottir, T.; Hoskuldsson, F.; Oddsson, B.

    2010-12-01

    We present images obtained by the Icelandic Coast Guard with an airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) during the first hours and days of the subglacial eruption in Eyjafjallajökull. Cloud cover obscured the summit from view in the first three days of the eruption. Under these circumstances the SAR, being weather independent and able to see through ash plumes, was a particularly valuable tool. It provided a record of temporal development of ice cauldrons formed in the 200 m thick ice cover in the caldera, the 50-100 m thick ice on the southern slopes and disruption due to flooding in the northward facing outlet glacier Gígjökull. The eruption started 14 April, 2010, at 1:30 AM. The eruption apparently remained subglacial for some hours but a small plume was observed by aircraft around 6 AM. The first SAR radar images were obtained at 8:55 and a record of images obtained until 10:42 reveal the early development of ice cauldrons providing unique detail in how the eruption breaks new holes in the ice surface, allowing accurate estimates of ice melting rates in an explosive eruption. Widening of the cauldron around the most active crater on the first day of the eruption was 20-25 m/hour, indicating that heat transfer from magma to the ice walls of the cauldron was of order 2 x 106 W m-2. This heat transfer rate reduced fast as the cauldrons reached a width of 300-400 m. The eruption site was repeatedly surveyed with the same SAR during the next days. The images demonstrate how the surface cauldrons evolved and how the center of the eruption activity moved during the second day of the eruption. During the first days of the eruption holes formed in the surface of the Gígjökull glacier outlet, where the roof of flood water channels collapsed. The SAR images allows further understanding on the flood water mechanism by revealing that many of these holes were formed by an intensive flash flood on the second day of the eruption, presumably by hydraulic fracturing when

  18. A model for forming airborne synthetic aperture radar images of underground targets

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from an airborne platform has been proposed for imaging targets beneath the earth`s surface. The propagation of the radar`s energy within the ground, however, is much different than in the earth`s atmosphere. The result is signal refraction, echo delay, propagation losses, dispersion, and volumetric scattering. These all combine to make SAR image formation from an airborne platform much more challenging than a surface imaging counterpart. This report treats the ground as a lossy dispersive half-space, and presents a model for the radar echo based on measurable parameters. The model is then used to explore various imaging schemes, and image properties. Dynamic range is discussed, as is the impact of loss on dynamic range. Modified window functions are proposed to mitigate effects of sidelobes of shallow targets overwhelming deeper targets.

  19. Mitigating illumination gradients in a SAR image based on the image data and antenna beam pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2013-04-30

    Illumination gradients in a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image of a target can be mitigated by determining a correction for pixel values associated with the SAR image. This correction is determined based on information indicative of a beam pattern used by a SAR antenna apparatus to illuminate the target, and also based on the pixel values associated with the SAR image. The correction is applied to the pixel values associated with the SAR image to produce corrected pixel values that define a corrected SAR image.

  20. Synthetic aperture design for increased SAR image rate

    DOEpatents

    Bielek, Timothy P.; Thompson, Douglas G.; Walker, Bruce C.

    2009-03-03

    High resolution SAR images of a target scene at near video rates can be produced by using overlapped, but nevertheless, full-size synthetic apertures. The SAR images, which respectively correspond to the apertures, can be analyzed in sequence to permit detection of movement in the target scene.

  1. A beamforming algorithm for bistatic SAR image formation.

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, David Alan; Wahl, Daniel Eugene; Jakowatz, Charles V., Jr.

    2010-03-01

    Beamforming is a methodology for collection-mode-independent SAR image formation. It is essentially equivalent to backprojection. The authors have in previous papers developed this idea and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of the approach to monostatic SAR image formation vis--vis the more standard and time-tested polar formatting algorithm (PFA). In this paper we show that beamforming for bistatic SAR imaging leads again to a very simple image formation algorithm that requires a minimal number of lines of code and that allows the image to be directly formed onto a three-dimensional surface model, thus automatically creating an orthorectified image. The same disadvantage of beamforming applied to monostatic SAR imaging applies to the bistatic case, however, in that the execution time for the beamforming algorithm is quite long compared to that of PFA. Fast versions of beamforming do exist to help alleviate this issue. Results of image reconstructions from phase history data are presented.

  2. The Accuratre Signal Model and Imaging Processing in Geosynchronous SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Cheng

    With the development of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) application, the disadvantage of low earth orbit (LEO) SAR becomes more and more apparent. The increase of orbit altitude can shorten the revisit time and enlarge the coverage area in single look, and then satisfy the application requirement. The concept of geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) SAR system is firstly presented and deeply discussed by K.Tomiyasi and other researchers. A GEO SAR, with its fine temporal resolution, would overcome the limitations of current imaging systems, allowing dense interpretation of transient phenomena as GPS time-series analysis with a spatial density several orders of magnitude finer. Until now, the related literatures about GEO SAR are mainly focused in the system parameter design and application requirement. As for the signal characteristic, resolution calculation and imaging algorithms, it is nearly blank in the related literatures of GEO SAR. In the LEO SAR, the signal model analysis adopts the `Stop-and-Go' assumption in general, and this assumption can satisfy the imaging requirement in present advanced SAR system, such as TerraSAR, Radarsat2 and so on. However because of long propagation distance and non-negligible earth rotation, the `Stop-and-Go' assumption does not exist and will cause large propagation distance error, and then affect the image formation. Furthermore the long propagation distance will result in the long synthetic aperture time such as hundreds of seconds, therefore the linear trajectory model in LEO SAR imaging will fail in GEO imaging, and the new imaging model needs to be proposed for the GEO SAR imaging processing. In this paper, considering the relative motion between satellite and earth during signal propagation time, the accurate analysis method for propagation slant range is firstly presented. Furthermore, the difference between accurate analysis method and `Stop-and-Go' assumption is analytically obtained. Meanwhile based on the derived

  3. Ship detection in SAR images using efficient land masking methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashaly, Ahmed S.; AbdElkawy, Ezz F.; Mahmoud, Tarek A.

    2014-06-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has an important contribution in monitoring ships in the littoral regions. This stems from the substantial information that SAR images have which can facilitate the ships detection operation. Coastline images produced by SAR suffer from many deficiencies which arise from the presence of speckles and strong signals returned from land and rough sea. The first step in many ship detection systems is to mark and reject the land in SAR images (land masking). This is performed to reduce the number of false alarms that might be introduced if the land is processed by ship detector. In this paper, two powerful methods for land masking are introduced. One is based on mathematical morphology while the other is based on Lee-Jurkevich coastline detection and mean estimator algorithm. From experimental results, the proposed methods give promising results for both strongly marking the land area in SAR images and efficiently preserving the details of coastlines as well.

  4. Internal wave parameters retrieval from space-borne SAR image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kaiguo; Fu, Bin; Gu, Yanzhen; Yu, Xingxiu; Liu, Tingting; Shi, Aiqin; Xu, Ke; Gan, Xilin

    2015-12-01

    Based on oceanic internal wave SAR imaging mechanism and the microwave scattering imaging model for oceanic surface features, we developed a new method to extract internal wave parameters from SAR imagery. Firstly, the initial wind fields are derived from NCEP reanalysis data, the sea water density and oceanic internal wave pycnocline depth are estimated from the Levites data, the surface currents induced by the internal wave are calculated according to the KDV equation. The NRCS profile is then simulated by solving the action balance equation and using the sea surface radar backscatter model. Both the winds and internal wave pycnocline depth are adjusted by using the dichotomy method step by step to make the simulated data approach the SAR image. Then, the wind speed, pycnocline depth, the phase speed, the group velocity and the amplitude of internal wave can be retrieved from SAR imagery when a best fit between simulated signals and the SAR image appears. The method is tested on one scene SAR image near Dongsha Island, in the South China Sea, results show that the simulated oceanic internal wave NRCS profile is in good agreement with that on the SAR image with the correlation coefficient as high as 90%, and the amplitude of oceanic internal wave retrieved from the SAR imagery is comparable with the SODA data. Besides, the phase speeds retrieved from other 16 scene SAR images in the South China Sea are in good agreement with the empirical formula which describes the relations between internal wave phase speed and water depths, both the root mean square and relative error are less than 0.11 m•s-1 and 7%, respectively, indicating that SAR images are useful for internal wave parameters retrieval and the method developed in this paper is convergent and applicable.

  5. Extraction of Coastlines with Fuzzy Approach Using SENTINEL-1 SAR Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, N.; Kaynarca, M.; Oy, S.

    2016-06-01

    Coastlines are important features for water resources, sea products, energy resources etc. Coastlines are changed dynamically, thus automated methods are necessary for analysing and detecting the changes along the coastlines. In this study, Sentinel-1 C band SAR image has been used to extract the coastline with fuzzy logic approach. The used SAR image has VH polarisation and 10x10m. spatial resolution, covers 57 sqkm area from the south-east of Puerto-Rico. Additionally, radiometric calibration is applied to reduce atmospheric and orbit error, and speckle filter is used to reduce the noise. Then the image is terrain-corrected using SRTM digital surface model. Classification of SAR image is a challenging task since SAR and optical sensors have very different properties. Even between different bands of the SAR sensors, the images look very different. So, the classification of SAR image is difficult with the traditional unsupervised methods. In this study, a fuzzy approach has been applied to distinguish the coastal pixels than the land surface pixels. The standard deviation and the mean, median values are calculated to use as parameters in fuzzy approach. The Mean-standard-deviation (MS) Large membership function is used because the large amounts of land and ocean pixels dominate the SAR image with large mean and standard deviation values. The pixel values are multiplied with 1000 to easify the calculations. The mean is calculated as 23 and the standard deviation is calculated as 12 for the whole image. The multiplier parameters are selected as a: 0.58, b: 0.05 to maximize the land surface membership. The result is evaluated using airborne LIDAR data, only for the areas where LIDAR dataset is available and secondly manually digitized coastline. The laser points which are below 0,5 m are classified as the ocean points. The 3D alpha-shapes algorithm is used to detect the coastline points from LIDAR data. Minimum distances are calculated between the LIDAR points of

  6. SAR Product Control Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, P. J.; Hounam, D.; Rye, A. J.; Rosich, B.; Börner, T.; Closa, J.; Schättler, B.; Smith, P. J.; Zink, M.

    2003-03-01

    As SAR instruments and their operating modes become more complex, as new applications place more and more demands on image quality and as our understanding of their imperfections becomes more sophisticated, there is increasing recognition that SAR data quality has to be controlled more completely to keep pace. The SAR product CONtrol software (SARCON) is a comprehensive SAR product control software suite tailored to the latest generation of SAR sensors. SARCON profits from the most up-to-date thinking on SAR image performance derived from other spaceborne and airborne SAR projects and is based on the newest applications. This paper gives an overview of the structure and the features of this new software tool, which is a product of a co-operation between teams at BAE SYSTEMS Advanced Technology Centre and DLR under contract to ESA (ESRIN). Work on SARCON began in 1999 and is continuing.

  7. Validation of Distributed Soil Moisture: Airborne Polarimetric SAR vs. Ground-based Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagdhuber, T.; Kohling, M.; Hajnsek, I.; Montzka, C.; Papathanassiou, K. P.

    2012-04-01

    The knowledge of spatially distributed soil moisture is highly desirable for an enhanced hydrological modeling in terms of flood prevention and for yield optimization in combination with precision farming. Especially in mid-latitudes, the growing agricultural vegetation results in an increasing soil coverage along the crop cycle. For a remote sensing approach, this vegetation influence has to be separated from the soil contribution within the resolution cell to extract the actual soil moisture. Therefore a hybrid decomposition was developed for estimation of soil moisture under vegetation cover using fully polarimetric SAR data. The novel polarimetric decomposition combines a model-based decomposition, separating the volume component from the ground components, with an eigen-based decomposition of the two ground components into a surface and a dihedral scattering contribution. Hence, this hybrid decomposition, which is based on [1,2], establishes an innovative way to retrieve soil moisture under vegetation. The developed inversion algorithm for soil moisture under vegetation cover is applied on fully polarimetric data of the TERENO campaign, conducted in May and June 2011 for the Rur catchment within the Eifel/Lower Rhine Valley Observatory. The fully polarimetric SAR data were acquired in high spatial resolution (range: 1.92m, azimuth: 0.6m) by DLR's novel F-SAR sensor at L-band. The inverted soil moisture product from the airborne SAR data is validated with corresponding distributed ground measurements for a quality assessment of the developed algorithm. The in situ measurements were obtained on the one hand by mobile FDR probes from agricultural fields near the towns of Merzenhausen and Selhausen incorporating different crop types and on the other hand by distributed wireless sensor networks (SoilNet clusters) from a grassland test site (near the town of Rollesbroich) and from a forest stand (within the Wüstebach sub-catchment). Each SoilNet cluster

  8. SAR image effects on coherence and coherence estimation.

    SciTech Connect

    Bickel, Douglas Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Radar coherence is an important concept for imaging radar systems such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This document quantifies some of the effects in SAR which modify the coherence. Although these effects can disrupt the coherence within a single SAR image, this report will focus on the coherence between separate images, such as for coherent change detection (CCD) processing. There have been other presentations on aspects of this material in the past. The intent of this report is to bring various issues that affect the coherence together in a single report to support radar engineers in making decisions about these matters.

  9. Nonuniform FFTs (NUFFT) algorithms applied to SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subiza, Begona; Gimeno-Nieves, Encarna; Lopez-Sanchez, Juan M.; Fortuny-Guasch, Joaquim

    2004-01-01

    Some recently developed algorithms known as Non-Uniform FFT's (NUFFT), which enable the computation of efficient FFT's with unequally spaced data in the time or frequency domain, have been applied to SAR imaging in this study. The main objective has been to analyze the potential improvement of the computational efficiency and/or image accuracy of seismic migration SAR processing techniques, like the ω-k algorithm. Our approach consists in substituting both the Stolt interpolation and the final range inverse FFT by a single NUFFT. Numerical simulations illustrate the performance of the new method and the influence of the selection of NUFFT parameters in the precision and computation time of the SAR imaging algorithm. The new method is especially suited for near-field wide-band configurations, such as inverse SAR (ISAR) and ground-based systems, where a very precise imaging algorithm is required.

  10. MITAS: multisensor imaging technology for airborne surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, John D.

    1991-08-01

    MITAS, a unique and low-cost solution to the problem of collecting and processing multisensor imaging data for airborne surveillance operations has been developed, MITAS results from integrating the established and proven real-time video processing, target tracking, and sensor management software of TAU with commercially available image exploitation and map processing software. The MITAS image analysis station (IAS) supports airborne day/night reconnaissance and surveillance missions involving low-altitude collection platforms employing a suite of sensors to perform reconnaissance functions against a variety of ground and sea targets. The system will detect, locate, and recognize threats likely to be encountered in support of counternarcotic operations and in low-intensity conflict areas. The IAS is capable of autonomous, near real-time target exploitation and has the appropriate communication links to remotely located IAS systems for more extended analysis of sensor data. The IAS supports the collection, fusion, and processing of three main imaging sensors: daylight imagery (DIS), forward looking infrared (FLIR), and infrared line scan (IRLS). The MITAS IAS provides support to all aspects of the airborne surveillance mission, including sensor control, real-time image enhancement, automatic target tracking, sensor fusion, freeze-frame capture, image exploitation, target data-base management, map processing, remote image transmission, and report generation.

  11. Aircraft Detection in High-Resolution SAR Images Based on a Gradient Textural Saliency Map

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yihua; Li, Qingyun; Li, Yansheng; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new automatic and adaptive aircraft target detection algorithm in high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of airport. The proposed method is based on gradient textural saliency map under the contextual cues of apron area. Firstly, the candidate regions with the possible existence of airport are detected from the apron area. Secondly, directional local gradient distribution detector is used to obtain a gradient textural saliency map in the favor of the candidate regions. In addition, the final targets will be detected by segmenting the saliency map using CFAR-type algorithm. The real high-resolution airborne SAR image data is used to verify the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that this algorithm can detect aircraft targets quickly and accurately, and decrease the false alarm rate. PMID:26378543

  12. Possible effects of clear-air refractive-index perturbations on SAR images.

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, Fred McCartney; Muschinski, Andreas; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2005-03-01

    Airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging systems have reached a degree of accuracy and sophistication that requires the validity of the free-space approximation for radio-wave propagation to be questioned. Based on the thin-lens approximation, a closed-form model for the focal length of a gravity wave-modulated refractive-index interface in the lower troposphere is developed. The model corroborates the suggestion that mesoscale, quasi-deterministic variations of the clear-air radio refractive-index field can cause diffraction patterns on the ground that are consistent with reflectivity artifacts occasionally seen in SAR images, particularly in those collected at long ranges, short wavelengths, and small grazing angles.

  13. Aircraft Detection in High-Resolution SAR Images Based on a Gradient Textural Saliency Map.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yihua; Li, Qingyun; Li, Yansheng; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new automatic and adaptive aircraft target detection algorithm in high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of airport. The proposed method is based on gradient textural saliency map under the contextual cues of apron area. Firstly, the candidate regions with the possible existence of airport are detected from the apron area. Secondly, directional local gradient distribution detector is used to obtain a gradient textural saliency map in the favor of the candidate regions. In addition, the final targets will be detected by segmenting the saliency map using CFAR-type algorithm. The real high-resolution airborne SAR image data is used to verify the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that this algorithm can detect aircraft targets quickly and accurately, and decrease the false alarm rate. PMID:26378543

  14. Imaging of buried and foliage-obscured objects with an ultrawide-bandwidth polarimetric SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Dan R.; Lewis, Terry B.; Wei, Susan C.; Kletzli, D. W., Jr.

    1993-11-01

    The Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) has developed a unique ground- based, portable, synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This SAR images targets in their natural backgrounds without the expense of an airborne sensor and with higher performance (bandwidth, resolution) than existing airborne systems. A horizontal 36-foot long aluminum truss supports a rail and an antenna cartridge, which is moved along the rail to allow synthetic aperture focusing. The system is fully-polarimetric and has collected data over the frequency band of 400 - 1300 MHz resulting in a nominal resolution of 0.17 m in range and 0.5 m in cross-range. The low frequency range of the system allows for penetration of soil (to shallow depths) as well as foliage and the system has been used to collect images of buried and foliage- obscured targets. The ground imagery collected to date includes steel oil drums buried at depths of up to one-meter. Both the drums as well as the disturbances due to digging the holes are visible in the imagery. Foliage imagery includes portions of a Lear jet under a mature hardwood forest. Due to the low frequency and wide bandwidth of the sensor (400 - 1300 MHz), obscured objects are clearly visible in the SAR imagery. Other responses in the foliage imagery are due to the dihedral-like ground-trunk reflections.

  15. Airborne lidar imaging of salmon.

    PubMed

    Churnside, James H; Wilson, James J

    2004-02-20

    Lidar images of adult salmon are presented. The lidar system is built around a pulsed green laser and a gated intensified CCD camera. The camera gating is timed to collect light scattered from the turbid water below the fish to produce shadows in the images. Image processing increases the estimated contrast-to-noise ratio from 3.4 in the original image to 16.4 by means of a matched filter. PMID:15008549

  16. Performance metrics for an airborne imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.

    2004-11-01

    A series of airborne imaging experiments have been conducted on the island of Maui and at North Oscura Peak in New Mexico. Two platform altitudes were considered 3000 meters and 600 meters, both with a slant range to the target up to 10000 meters. The airborne imaging platform was a Twin Otter aircraft, which circled ground target sites. The second was a fixed platform on a mountain peak overlooking a valley 600 meters below. The experiments were performed during the day using solar illuminated target buildings. Imaging system performance predictions were calculated using standard atmospheric turbulence models, and aircraft boundary layer models. Several different measurement approaches were then used to estimate the actual system performance, and make comparisons with the calculations.

  17. From Maxwell's Equations to Polarimetric SAR Images: A Simulation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Anna, Sidnei J. S.; da S. Lacava, J. C.; Fernandes, David

    2008-01-01

    A new electromagnetic approach for the simulation of polarimetric SAR images is proposed. It starts from Maxwell's equations, employs the spectral domain full-wave technique, the moment method, and the stationary phase method to compute the far electromagnetic fields scattered by multilayer structures. A multilayer structure is located at each selected position of a regular rectangular grid of coordinates, which defines the scene area under imaging. The grid is determined taking into account the elementary scatter size and SAR operational parameters, such as spatial resolution, pixel spacing, look angle and platform altitude. A two-dimensional separable “sinc” function to represent the SAR spread point function is also considered. Multifrequency sets of single-look polarimetric SAR images are generated, in L-, C- and X-bands and the images are evaluated using several measurements commonly employed in SAR data analysis. The evaluation shows that the proposed simulation process is working properly, since the obtained results are in accordance with those presented in the literature. Therefore, this new approach becomes suitable for carrying out theoretical and practical studies using polarimetric SAR images.

  18. High-Accuracy Elevation Data at Large Scales from Airborne Single-Pass SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Guy; Moller, Delwyn; Mentgen, Felix

    2015-12-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) are essential data sets for disaster risk management and humanitarian relief services as well as many environmental process models. At present, on the hand, globally available DEMs only meet the basic requirements and for many services and modeling studies are not of high enough spatial resolution and lack accuracy in the vertical. On the other hand, LiDAR-DEMs are of very high spatial resolution and great vertical accuracy but acquisition operations can be very costly for spatial scales larger than a couple of hundred square km and also have severe limitations in wetland areas and under cloudy and rainy conditions. The ideal situation would thus be to have a DEM technology that allows larger spatial coverage than LiDAR but without compromising resolution and vertical accuracy and still performing under some adverse weather conditions and at a reasonable cost. In this paper, we present a novel single pass In-SAR technology for airborne vehicles that is cost-effective and can generate DEMs with a vertical error of around 0.3 m for an average spatial resolution of 3 m. To demonstrate this capability, we compare a sample single-pass In-SAR Ka-band DEM of the California Central Valley from the NASA/JPL airborne GLISTIN-A to a high-resolution LiDAR DEM. We also perform a simple sensitivity analysis to floodplain inundation. Based on the findings of our analysis, we argue that this type of technology can and should be used to replace large regions of globally available lower resolution DEMs, particularly in coastal, delta and floodplain areas where a high number of assets, habitats and lives are at risk from natural disasters. We conclude with a discussion on requirements, advantages and caveats in terms of instrument and data processing.

  19. 3-D Target Location from Stereoscopic SAR Images

    SciTech Connect

    DOERRY,ARMIN W.

    1999-10-01

    SAR range-Doppler images are inherently 2-dimensional. Targets with a height offset lay over onto offset range and azimuth locations. Just which image locations are laid upon depends on the imaging geometry, including depression angle, squint angle, and target bearing. This is the well known layover phenomenon. Images formed with different aperture geometries will exhibit different layover characteristics. These differences can be exploited to ascertain target height information, in a stereoscopic manner. Depending on the imaging geometries, height accuracy can be on the order of horizontal position accuracies, thereby rivaling the best IFSAR capabilities in fine resolution SAR images. All that is required for this to work are two distinct passes with suitably different geometries from any plain old SAR.

  20. Final Report (O1-ERD-051) Dynamic InSAR: Imaging Seismic Waves Remotely from Space

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, P; Rodgers, A; Dodge, D; Zucca, J; Schultz, C; Walter, B; Portnoff, M

    2003-02-07

    The purpose of this LDRD project was to determine the feasibility of using InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar) to image seismic waves remotely from space. If shown to be feasible, the long-term goal of this project would be to influence future SAR satellite missions and airborne SAR platforms to include a this new capability. This final report summarizes the accomplishments of the originally-planned 2-year project that was cut short to 1 year plus 2 months due to a funding priority change that occurred in the aftermath of the September 11th tragedy. The LDRD-ER project ''Dynamic InSAR: Imaging Seismic Waves from Space'' (01-ERD-051) began in October, (FY01) and ended in December (FY02). Consequently, most of the results and conclusions for this project are represented in the FY0l Annual Report. Nonetheless, additional conclusions and insights regarding the progress of this work are included in this report. In should be noted that this work was restarted and received additional funding under the NA-22 DOE Nonproliferation Program in FY03.

  1. GeoEarthScope Airborne LiDAR and Satellite InSAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D. A.; Jackson, M. E.; Meertens, C.

    2008-12-01

    UNAVCO has successfully acquired a significant volume of aerial and satellite geodetic imagery as part of GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility project funded by the National Science Foundation. All GeoEarthScope acquisition activities are now complete. Airborne LiDAR data acquisitions took place in 2007 and 2008 and cover a total area of more than 5000 square kilometers. The primary LiDAR survey regions cover features in Northern California, Southern/Eastern California, the Pacific Northwest, the Intermountain Seismic Belt (including the Wasatch and Teton faults and Yellowstone), and Alaska. We have ordered and archived more than 28,000 scenes (more than 81,000 frames) of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data suitable for interferometric analyses covering most of the western U.S. and parts of Alaska and Hawaii from several satellite platforms, including ERS-1/2, ENVISAT and RADARSAT. In addition to ordering data from existing archives, we also tasked the ESA ENVISAT satellite to acquire new SAR data in 2007 and 2008. GeoEarthScope activities were led by UNAVCO, guided by the community and conducted in partnership with the USGS and NASA. Processed imagery products, in addition to formats intended for use in standard research software, can also be viewed using general purpose tools such as Google Earth. We present a summary of these vast geodetic imagery datasets, totaling tens of terabytes, which are freely available to the community.

  2. UAVSAR: A New NASA Airborne SAR System for Science and Technology Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.; Hensley, Scott; Wheeler, Kevin; Sadowy, Greg; Miller, Tim; Shaffer, Scott; Muellerschoen, Ron; Jones, Cathleen; Zebker, Howard; Madsen, Soren

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently building a reconfigurable, polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track SAR data for differential interferometric measurements. Differentian interferometry can provide key deformation measurements, important for studies of earthquakes, volcanoes and other dynamically changing phenomena. Using precision real-time GPS and a sensor controlled flight management system, the system will be able to fly predefined paths with great precision. The expected performance of the flight control system will constrain the flight path to be within a 10 m diameter tube about the desired flight track. The radar will be designed to be operable on a UAV (Unpiloted Aria1 Vehicle) but will initially be demonstrated on a NASA Gulfstream III. The radar will be fully polarimetric, with a range bandwidth of 80 MHz (2 m range resolution), and will support a 16 km range swath. The antenna will be electronically steered along track to assure that the antenna beam can be directed independently, regardless of the wind direction and speed. Other features supported by the antenna include elevation monopulse and pulse-to-pulse re-steering capabilities that will enable some novel modes of operation. The system will nominally operate at 45,000 ft (13800 m). The program began as an Instrument Incubator Project (IIP) funded by NASA Earth Science and Technology Office (ESTO).

  3. SAR imaging technique for reduction of sidelobes and noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lam

    2009-05-01

    Multiplicative noise poses a big challenge for SAR imaging system, in which energy from the sidelobes of large RCS man-made and natural clutter objects spread throughout the resulting SAR imagery. Detection of small RCS targets is very difficult since their signatures might be obscured or even embedded in this multiplicative noise floor that is proportional to the RCS of surrounding clutter objects. ARL has developed a Recursive Sidelobe Minimization (RSM) technique that is combined with the standard backprojection image formation algorithm to suppress the multiplicative noise floor in the resulting SAR imagery. In this paper, we present the Recursive Sidelobe Minimization (RSM) technique. Although the technique is originally developed and tested using data from the Army Research Lab (ARL) UWB Synchronous Impulse Reconstruction (SIRE) forward-looking radar, it is also applicable for other SAR data sets with different configurations.

  4. Fault and anthropogenic processes in central California constrained by satellite and airborne InSAR and in-situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Lundgren, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The San Andreas Fault (SAF) system is the primary plate boundary in California, with the central SAF (CSAF) lying adjacent to the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), a vast structural trough that accounts for about one-sixth of the United Sates' irrigated land and one-fifth of its extracted groundwater. The CSAF displays a range of fault slip behavior with creeping in its central segment that decreases towards its northwest and southeast ends, where the fault transitions to being fully locked. At least six Mw ~6.0 events since 1857 have occurred near the Parkfield transition, most recently in 2004. Large earthquakes also occurred on secondary faults parallel to the SAF, the result of distributed deformation across the plate boundary zone. Recent studies have revealed the complex interaction between anthropogenic related groundwater depletion and the seismic activity on adjacent faults through stress interaction. Despite recent progress, many questions regarding fault and anthropogenic processes in the region still remain. For example, how is the relative plate motion accommodated between the CSAF and off-fault deformation? What is the distribution of fault creep and slip deficit at shallow depths? What are the spatiotemporal variations of fault slip? What are the spatiotemporal characteristics of anthropogenic and lithospheric processes and how do they interact with each other? To address these, we combine satellite InSAR and NASA airborne UAVSAR data to image on and off-fault deformation. The UAVSAR data cover fault perpendicular swaths imaged from opposing look directions and fault parallel swaths since 2009. The much finer spatial resolution and optimized viewing geometry provide important constraints on near fault deformation and fault slip at very shallow depth. We performed a synoptic InSAR time series analysis using ERS-1/2, Envisat, ALOS and UAVSAR interferograms. The combined C-band ERS-1/2 and Envisat data provide a long time interval of SAR data over the region

  5. Nonlocal means SAR image despeckling using Principle Neighborhood Dictionaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hua; Yang, Chen; Jiao, L. C.

    2011-11-01

    The Principle Neighborhood Dictionary (PND) filter projects the image patches onto a lower dimensional subspace using Principle Component analysis (PCA), based on which the similarity measure of image patch can be computed with a higher accuracy for the nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm. In this paper, a new PND filter for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image despeckling is presented, in which a new distance that adapts to the multiplicative speckle noise is derived. Compared with the commonly used Euclidean distance in NLM, the new distance measure improves the accuracy of the similarity measure of speckled patches in SAR images. The proposed method is validated on simulated and real SAR images through comparisons with other classical despeckling methods.

  6. SAR image formation with azimuth interpolation after azimuth transform

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry; Armin W. , Martin; Grant D. , Holzrichter; Michael W.

    2008-07-08

    Two-dimensional SAR data can be processed into a rectangular grid format by subjecting the SAR data to a Fourier transform operation, and thereafter to a corresponding interpolation operation. Because the interpolation operation follows the Fourier transform operation, the interpolation operation can be simplified, and the effect of interpolation errors can be diminished. This provides for the possibility of both reducing the re-grid processing time, and improving the image quality.

  7. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macenka, Steven A.; Chrisp, Michael P.

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has been completed at JPL. This paper outlines the functional requirements of the spectrometer optics subsystem, and describes the spectrometer optical design. The optical subsystem performance is shown in terms of spectral modulation transfer functions, radial energy distributions, and system transmission at selected wavelengths for the four spectrometers. An outline of the spectrometer alignment is included.

  8. Advanced fractal approach for unsupervised classification of SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Triloki; Singh, Dharmendra; Srivastava, Tanuja

    2010-06-01

    Unsupervised classification of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is the alternative approach when no or minimum apriori information about the image is available. Therefore, an attempt has been made to develop an unsupervised classification scheme for SAR images based on textural information in present paper. For extraction of textural features two properties are used viz. fractal dimension D and Moran's I. Using these indices an algorithm is proposed for contextual classification of SAR images. The novelty of the algorithm is that it implements the textural information available in SAR image with the help of two texture measures viz. D and I. For estimation of D, the Two Dimensional Variation Method (2DVM) has been revised and implemented whose performance is compared with another method, i.e., Triangular Prism Surface Area Method (TPSAM). It is also necessary to check the classification accuracy for various window sizes and optimize the window size for best classification. This exercise has been carried out to know the effect of window size on classification accuracy. The algorithm is applied on four SAR images of Hardwar region, India and classification accuracy has been computed. A comparison of the proposed algorithm using both fractal dimension estimation methods with the K-Means algorithm is discussed. The maximum overall classification accuracy with K-Means comes to be 53.26% whereas overall classification accuracy with proposed algorithm is 66.16% for TPSAM and 61.26% for 2DVM.

  9. Extracting Tree Height from Repeat-Pass PolInSAR Data : Experiments with JPL and ESA Airborne Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi; Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our latest developments and experiments with the random-motion-over-ground (RMoG) model used to extract canopy height and other important forest parameters from repeat-pass polarimetricinterferometric SAR (Pol-InSAR) data. More specifically, we summarize the key features of the RMoG model in contrast with the random-volume-over-ground (RVoG) model, describe in detail a possible inversion scheme for the RMoG model and illustrate the results of the RMoG inversion using airborne data collected by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  10. Unsupervised Change Detection in SAR Images Using Gaussian Mixture Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiana, E.; Homayouni, S.; Sharifi, M. A.; Farid-Rohani, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for unsupervised change detection in Remote Sensing Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. This method is based on the mixture modelling of the histogram of difference image. In this process, the difference image is classified into three classes; negative change class, positive change class and no change class. However the SAR images suffer from speckle noise, the proposed method is able to map the changes without speckle filtering. To evaluate the performance of this method, two dates of SAR data acquired by Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic from an agriculture area are used. Change detection results show better efficiency when compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  11. Highly Protable Airborne Multispectral Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehnemann, Robert; Mcnamee, Todd

    2001-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is described that includes and airborne and a ground-based subsytem. It can acquire multispectral image data over swaths of terrain ranging in width from about 1.5 to 1 km. The system was developed especially for use in coastal environments and is well suited for performing remote sensing and general environmental monitoring. It includes a small,munpilotaed, remotely controlled airplance that carries a forward-looking camera for navigation, three downward-looking monochrome video cameras for imaging terrain in three spectral bands, a video transmitter, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) reciever.

  12. Modeling SAR images with a generalization of the Rayleigh distribution.

    PubMed

    Kuruoğlu, Ercan E; Zerubia, Josiane

    2004-04-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery has found important applications due to its clear advantages over optical satellite imagery one of them being able to operate in various weather conditions. However, due to the physics of the radar imaging process, SAR images contain unwanted artifacts in the form of a granular look which is called speckle. The assumptions of the classical SAR image generation model lead to a Rayleigh distribution model for the histogram of the SAR image. However, some experimental data such as images of urban areas show impulsive characteristics that correspond to underlying heavy-tailed distributions, which are clearly non-Rayleigh. Some alternative distributions have been suggested such as the Weibull, log-normal, and the k-distribution which had success in varying degrees depending on the application. Recently, an alternative model namely the alpha-stable distribution has been suggested for modeling radar clutter. In this paper, we show that the amplitude distribution of the complex wave, the real and the imaginery components of which are assumed to be distributed by the alpha-stable distribution, is a generalization of the Rayleigh distribution. We demonstrate that the amplitude distribution is a mixture of Rayleighs as is the k-distribution in accordance with earlier work on modeling SAR images which showed that almost all successful SAR image models could be expressed as mixtures of Rayleighs. We also present parameter estimation techniques based on negative order moments for the new model. Finally, we test the performance of the model on urban images and compare with other models such as Rayleigh, Weibull, and the k-distribution. PMID:15376587

  13. [Simulation of polarization SAR imaging of ocean surface].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ding; Gu, Xing-Fa; Yu, Tao; Fernado, N; Li, Juan; Chen, Xing-Feng

    2011-10-01

    The polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging simulation is of great significance to ocean surface scattering. According to the theory of wind-wave spectrum, rough ocean surface was modeled in the present paper using the two-scale-model. This treatment takes both the large scale and small scale surface into account. By using the velocity bunching (VB) theory, Bragg scattering model and the small perturbation model (SPM), the polarization SAR system can simulate the ocean surface with various parameters and ocean states. The effects of the parameters of ocean waves and the parameters of SAR system were analyzed. Finally, some useful conclusions were drawn, which are helpful for extracting the information of ocean surface. The method is an effective way in the ocean SAR design and the ocean surface research. PMID:22250525

  14. Ensemble polarimetric SAR image classification based on contextual sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lamei; Wang, Xiao; Zou, Bin; Qiao, Zhijun

    2016-05-01

    Polarimetric SAR image interpretation has become one of the most interesting topics, in which the construction of the reasonable and effective technique of image classification is of key importance. Sparse representation represents the data using the most succinct sparse atoms of the over-complete dictionary and the advantages of sparse representation also have been confirmed in the field of PolSAR classification. However, it is not perfect, like the ordinary classifier, at different aspects. So ensemble learning is introduced to improve the issue, which makes a plurality of different learners training and obtained the integrated results by combining the individual learner to get more accurate and ideal learning results. Therefore, this paper presents a polarimetric SAR image classification method based on the ensemble learning of sparse representation to achieve the optimal classification.

  15. Simulation of bit-quantization influence on SAR-images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolframm, A. P.; Pike, T. K.

    The first European Remote Sensing satellite ERS-1 has two imaging modes, the conventional Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode and the wave mode. Two quantization schemes, 2-bit and 4-bit, have been proposed for the analogue-to-digital conversion of the video signal of the ERS-1 wave mode. This paper analyzes the influence of these two quantization schemes on ocean-wave spectra. The SAR-images were obtained through simulation using a static oceanwave radar model and a comprehensive software SAR-system simulation model (SARSIM) on the DFVLR computing system. The results indicate that spectra produced by the 4-bit quantization are not significantly degraded from the optimum, but that the 2-bit quantization requires some gain adjustment for optimal spectral reproduction. The conclusions are supported by images and spectral plots covering the various options simulated.

  16. SAR imaging for a forward-looking GPR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoqing; Wang, Yanwei; Li, Jian; Bradley, Marshall R.

    2003-09-01

    We investigate both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging techniques for a forward-looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) system. In particular, we consider SAR imaging using the delay-and-sum (DAS), phase-shift migration, and spectral estimation (joint APES (Amplitude and Phase EStimation) and RCB (Robust Capon Beamforming)) approaches with the PSI (Planning Systems Inc.) FLGPR Phase II system. For the DAS and phase-shift migration approaches, we use shading in both frequency and cross-track aperture dimensions to reduce sidelobe leakages and clutter. We perform both coherent and non-coherent multi-look processing as well as smoothing to improve the SAR imaging quality and landmine detection capability of the system. The effectiveness of the approaches are demonstrated with an experimental data set collected by the PSI FLGPR Phase II system.

  17. Modelling Iteration Convergence Condition for Single SAR Image Geocoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yuting; Liao, Minghsheng; Zhang, Lu; Shi, Xuguo

    2014-11-01

    Single SAR image geocoding is to determine the ground coordinate for each pixel in the SAR image assisted with an external DEM. Due to the uncertainty of the elevation of each pixel in SAR image, an iterative procedure is needed, which suffers from the problem of divergence in some difficult areas such as shaded and serious layover areas. This paper aims at theoretically analysing the convergence conditions that has not been intensively studied till now. To make the discussion easier, the Range-Doppler (RD) model is simplified and then the general surface is simplified into a planar surface. Mathematical deduction is carried out to derive the convergence conditions and the impact factors for the convergence speed are analysed. The theoretical findings are validated by experiments for both simulated and real surfaces.

  18. Wind-wave-induced velocity in ATI SAR ocean surface currents: First experimental evidence from an airborne campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Adrien C. H.; Gommenginger, Christine; Marquez, Jose; Doody, Sam; Navarro, Victor; Buck, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Conventional and along-track interferometric (ATI) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) senses the motion of the ocean surface by measuring the Doppler shift of reflected signals. Measurements are affected by a Wind-wave-induced Artifact Surface Velocity (WASV) which was modeled theoretically in past studies and has been estimated empirically only once before with Envisat ASAR by Mouche et al. (2012). An airborne campaign in the tidally dominated Irish Sea served to evaluate this effect and the current retrieval capabilities of a dual-beam SAR interferometer known as Wavemill. A comprehensive collection of Wavemill airborne data acquired in a star pattern over a well-instrumented validation site made it possible for the first time to estimate the magnitude of the WASV, and its dependence on azimuth and incidence angle from data alone. In light wind (5.5 m/s) and moderate current (0.7 m/s) conditions, the wind-wave-induced contribution to the measured ocean surface motion reaches up to 1.6 m/s upwind, with a well-defined second-order harmonic dependence on direction to the wind. The magnitude of the WASV is found to be larger at lower incidence angles. The airborne WASV results show excellent consistency with the empirical WASV estimated from Envisat ASAR. These results confirm that SAR and ATI surface velocity estimates are strongly affected by WASV and that the WASV can be well characterized with knowledge of the wind knowledge and of the geometry. These airborne results provide the first independent validation of Mouche et al. (2012) and confirm that the empirical model they propose provides the means to correct airborne and spaceborne SAR and ATI SAR data for WASV to obtain accurate ocean surface current measurements. After removing the WASV, the airborne Wavemill-retrieved currents show very good agreement against ADCP measurements with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) typically around 0.1 m/s in velocity and 10° in direction.

  19. AESMIR: A New NASA Airborne Microwave Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Hood, Robbie; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Airborne Earth Science Microwave Imaging Radiometer (AESMIR) is a versatile new airborne imaging radiometer under development by NASA. The AESMIR design is unique in that it will perform dual-polarized imaging at all AMSR frequency bands (6.9 through 89 GHz) using only one sensor head/scanner package, providing an efficient solution for AMSR-type science applications (snow, soil moisture/land parameters, precip, ocean winds, SST, water vapor, sea ice, etc.). The microwave radiometers themselves will incorporate state-of-the-art receivers, with particular attention given to instrument calibration for the best possible accuracy and sensitivity. The single-package design of AESMIR makes it compatible with high-altitude aircraft platforms such as the NASA ER-2s and the Proteus. The arbitrary 2-axis gimbal can perform conical and cross-track scanning, as well as fixed-beam staring. This compatibility with high-altitude platforms coupled with the flexible scanning configuration, opens up previously unavailable science opportunities for convection/precip/cloud science and co-flying with complementary instruments, as well as providing wider swath coverage for all science applications. By designing AESMIR to be compatible with these high-altitude platforms, we are also compatible with the NASA P-3, the NASA DC-8, and ground-based deployments. Thus AESMIR can provide low-, mid-, and high altitude microwave imaging.

  20. Compressive SAR imaging with joint sparsity and local similarity exploitation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fangfang; Zhao, Guanghui; Shi, Guangming; Dong, Weisheng; Wang, Chenglong; Niu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Compressive sensing-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging has shown its superior capability in high-resolution image formation. However, most of those works focus on the scenes that can be sparsely represented in fixed spaces. When dealing with complicated scenes, these fixed spaces lack adaptivity in characterizing varied image contents. To solve this problem, a new compressive sensing-based radar imaging approach with adaptive sparse representation is proposed. Specifically, an autoregressive model is introduced to adaptively exploit the structural sparsity of an image. In addition, similarity among pixels is integrated into the autoregressive model to further promote the capability and thus an adaptive sparse representation facilitated by a weighted autoregressive model is derived. Since the weighted autoregressive model is inherently determined by the unknown image, we propose a joint optimization scheme by iterative SAR imaging and updating of the weighted autoregressive model to solve this problem. Eventually, experimental results demonstrated the validity and generality of the proposed approach. PMID:25686307

  1. An automatic coastline detector for use with SAR images

    SciTech Connect

    Erteza, Ireena A.

    1998-09-01

    SAR imagery for coastline detection has many potential advantages over conventional optical stereoscopic techniques. For example, SAR does not have restrictions on being collected during daylight or when there is no cloud cover. In addition, the techniques for coastline detection witth SAR images can be automated. In this paper, we present the algorithmic development of an automatic coastline detector for use with SAR imagery. Three main algorithms comprise the automatic coastline detection algorithm, The first algorithm considers the image pre-processing steps that must occur on the original image in order to accentuate the land/water boundary. The second algorithm automatically follows along the accentuated land/water boundary and produces a single-pixel-wide coastline. The third algorithm identifies islands and marks them. This report describes in detail the development of these three algorithms. Examples of imagery are used throughout the paper to illustrate the various steps in algorithms. Actual code is included in appendices. The algorithms presented are preliminary versions that can be applied to automatic coastline detection in SAR imagery. There are many variations and additions to the algorithms that can be made to improve robustness and automation, as required by a particular application.

  2. Camouflage effectiveness of static nets in SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jersblad, Johan; Larsson, Christer

    2015-10-01

    We present a methodology to determine the camouflage effectiveness of static nets in a SAR image. There is currently no common recognized methodology within the signature management community in this research topic. One step towards establishing a common methodology is to use a standardized target to be camouflaged. We use the STANdard Decoy for CAmouflage Materials (STANDCAM) target developed by the German Army, WTD 52, Oberjettenberg. An ISAR measurement of the STANDCAM with a camouflage configuration is acquired as the first step of the method. The ISAR data is then blended with SAR data acquired in field trials. In the final SAR image a contrast metric between the target and background is extracted. The contrast measure is then the measure of the camouflage effectiveness. As an example of result we present ISAR measurements and determine the camouflage effectiveness in a SAR image using SAR blending for static nets with different electrical conductivity and design. This methodology presents a measure to determine the effectiveness of a static net on the STANDCAM target.

  3. Space Radar Image of West Texas - SAR scan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This radar image of the Midland/Odessa region of West Texas, demonstrates an experimental technique, called ScanSAR, that allows scientists to rapidly image large areas of the Earth's surface. The large image covers an area 245 kilometers by 225 kilometers (152 miles by 139 miles). It was obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The smaller inset image is a standard SIR-C image showing a portion of the same area, 100 kilometers by 57 kilometers (62 miles by 35 miles) and was taken during the first flight of SIR-C on April 14, 1994. The bright spots on the right side of the image are the cities of Odessa (left) and Midland (right), Texas. The Pecos River runs from the top center to the bottom center of the image. Along the left side of the image are, from top to bottom, parts of the Guadalupe, Davis and Santiago Mountains. North is toward the upper right. Unlike conventional radar imaging, in which a radar continuously illuminates a single ground swath as the space shuttle passes over the terrain, a Scansar radar illuminates several adjacent ground swaths almost simultaneously, by 'scanning' the radar beam across a large area in a rapid sequence. The adjacent swaths, typically about 50 km (31 miles) wide, are then merged during ground processing to produce a single large scene. Illumination for this L-band scene is from the top of the image. The beams were scanned from the top of the scene to the bottom, as the shuttle flew from left to right. This scene was acquired in about 30 seconds. A normal SIR-C image is acquired in about 13 seconds. The ScanSAR mode will likely be used on future radar sensors to construct regional and possibly global radar images and topographic maps. The ScanSAR processor is being designed for 1996 implementation at NASA's Alaska SAR Facility, located at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and will produce digital images from the

  4. Multitemporal observations of sugarcane by TerraSAR-X images.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired

  5. Multitemporal Observations of Sugarcane by TerraSAR-X Images

    PubMed Central

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired

  6. SAR image change detection using watershed and spectral clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ruican; Jiao, L. C.; Wang, Guiting; Feng, Jie

    2011-12-01

    A new method of change detection in SAR images based on spectral clustering is presented in this paper. Spectral clustering is employed to extract change information from a pair images acquired on the same geographical area at different time. Watershed transform is applied to initially segment the big image into non-overlapped local regions, leading to reduce the complexity. Experiments results and system analysis confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. SAR image construction from periodically gapped phase-history data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Erik G.; Li, Jianwei J.

    2002-08-01

    It is known that high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging can be cast as a spectral analysis problem, and consequently a number of sophisticated spectral estimation methods have been applied to SAR imaging. These method include the classical Capon method and the closely related Amplitude and Phase Estimation (APES) algorithm. In this paper, we show how Capon and APES can be extended to deal with spectral analysis of periodically gapped (PG) data, i.e. data where samples are missing in a periodic fashion. This problem is highly relevant for SAR imaging with angular diversity since in that case the measured phase-history data matrix contains missing columns. Our extension of Capon and APES is based on a transform that maps a one-dimensional (1D) periodically gapped time-series into a uniformly sampled two-dimensional (2D) data set. We show that the stationarity properties of the 1D signal are left unchanged by the transformation, and as a result the conventional 2D Capon and APES methods can be applied to the transformed data. An associated inverse transform is used to extract the 1D spectral estimate from the 2D one. The new method is computationally and conceptually non-intricate and it does not involve any interpolation of the missing data. Despite its striking simplicity, numerical results indicate that the new method can be a promising tool for SAR imaging with angular diversity as well as for time-series analysis. In SAR applications, the new method may be particularly suitable for accurate imaging of a small region of interest.

  8. Theory and measure of certain image norms in SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The principal properties of synthetic aperture radar SAR imagery of point and distributed objects are summarized. Against this background, the response of a SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) to the moving surface of the sea is considered. Certain conclusions are drawn as to the mechanism of interaction between microwaves and the sea surface. Focus and speckle spectral tests may be used on selected SAR imagery for areas of the ocean. The fine structure of the sea imagery is sensitive to processor focus and adjustment. The ocean reflectivity mechanism must include point like scatterers of sufficient radar cross section to dominate the return from certain individual resolution elements. Both specular and diffuse scattering mechanisms are observed together, to varying degree. The effect is sea state dependent. Several experiments are proposed based on imaging theory that could assist in the investigation of reflectivity mechanisms.

  9. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some remote-sensing applications require advanced airborne multi-sensor systems to provide high performance reflective and emissive spectral imaging measurement rapidly over large areas. The key or unique problem of characteristics is associated with a black box back-end system that operates a suite of cutting-edge imaging sensors to collect simultaneously the high throughput reflective and emissive spectral imaging data with precision georeference. This back-end system needs to be portable, easy-to-use, and reliable with advanced onboard processing. The innovation of the black box backend is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS integrates a complex embedded system of systems with dedicated power and signal electronic circuits inside to serve a suite of configurable cutting-edge electro- optical (EO), long-wave infrared (LWIR), and medium-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras, a hyperspectral imaging scanner, and a GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for atmospheric and surface remote sensing. Its compatible sensor packages include NASA s 1,024 1,024 pixel LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) imager; a 60.5 megapixel BuckEye EO camera; and a fast (e.g. 200+ scanlines/s) and wide swath-width (e.g., 1,920+ pixels) CCD/InGaAs imager-based visible/near infrared reflectance (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer. MAICSS records continuous precision georeferenced and time-tagged multisensor throughputs to mass storage devices at a high aggregate rate, typically 60 MB/s for its LWIR/EO payload. MAICSS is a complete stand-alone imaging server instrument with an easy-to-use software package for either autonomous data collection or interactive airborne operation. Advanced multisensor data acquisition and onboard processing software features have been implemented for MAICSS. With the onboard processing for real time image development, correction, histogram-equalization, compression, georeference, and

  10. SAR image registration in absolute coordinates using GPS carrier phase position and velocity information

    SciTech Connect

    Burgett, S.; Meindl, M.

    1994-09-01

    It is useful in a variety of military and commercial application to accurately register the position of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery in absolute coordinates. The two basic SAR measurements, range and doppler, can be used to solve for the position of the SAR image. Imprecise knowledge of the SAR collection platform`s position and velocity vectors introduce errors in the range and doppler measurements and can cause the apparent location of the SAR image on the ground to be in error by tens of meters. Recent advances in carrier phase GPS techniques can provide an accurate description of the collection vehicle`s trajectory during the image formation process. In this paper, highly accurate carrier phase GPS trajectory information is used in conjunction with SAR imagery to demonstrate a technique for accurate registration of SAR images in WGS-84 coordinates. Flight test data will be presented that demonstrates SAR image registration errors of less than 4 meters.

  11. SAR imaging via iterative adaptive approach and sparse Bayesian learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ming; Santiago, Enrique; Sedehi, Matteo; Tan, Xing; Li, Jian

    2009-05-01

    We consider sidelobe reduction and resolution enhancement in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging via an iterative adaptive approach (IAA) and a sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) method. The nonparametric weighted least squares based IAA algorithm is a robust and user parameter-free adaptive approach originally proposed for array processing. We show that it can be used to form enhanced SAR images as well. SBL has been used as a sparse signal recovery algorithm for compressed sensing. It has been shown in the literature that SBL is easy to use and can recover sparse signals more accurately than the l 1 based optimization approaches, which require delicate choice of the user parameter. We consider using a modified expectation maximization (EM) based SBL algorithm, referred to as SBL-1, which is based on a three-stage hierarchical Bayesian model. SBL-1 is not only more accurate than benchmark SBL algorithms, but also converges faster. SBL-1 is used to further enhance the resolution of the SAR images formed by IAA. Both IAA and SBL-1 are shown to be effective, requiring only a limited number of iterations, and have no need for polar-to-Cartesian interpolation of the SAR collected data. This paper characterizes the achievable performance of these two approaches by processing the complex backscatter data from both a sparse case study and a backhoe vehicle in free space with different aperture sizes.

  12. Multiscale Segmentation of Polarimetric SAR Image Based on Srm Superpixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, F.; Yang, J.; Wu, L.; Li, D.

    2016-06-01

    Multi-scale segmentation of remote sensing image is more systematic and more convenient for the object-oriented image analysis compared to single-scale segmentation. However, the existing pixel-based polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) image multi-scale segmentation algorithms are usually inefficient and impractical. In this paper, we proposed a superpixel-based binary partition tree (BPT) segmentation algorithm by combining the generalized statistical region merging (GSRM) algorithm and the BPT algorithm. First, superpixels are obtained by setting a maximum region number threshold to GSRM. Then, the region merging process of the BPT algorithm is implemented based on superpixels but not pixels. The proposed algorithm inherits the advantages of both GSRM and BPT. The operation efficiency is obviously improved compared to the pixel-based BPT segmentation. Experiments using the Lband ESAR image over the Oberpfaffenhofen test site proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Automated extraction of pressure ridges from SAR images of sea ice - Comparison with surface truth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Smith, M. P.; Samadani, R.; Daida, J. M.; Comiso, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The authors estimate the characteristics of ridges and leads in sea ice from SAR (synthetic aperture radar) images. Such estimates are based on the hypothesis that bright filamentary features in SAR sea ice images correspond with pressure ridges. A data set collected in the Greenland Sea in 1987 allows this hypothesis to be evaluated for X-band SAR images. A preliminary analysis of data collected from SAR images and ice elevation (from a laser altimeter) is presented. It is found that SAR image brightness and ice elevation are clearly related. However, the correlation, using the data and techniques applied, is not strong.

  14. Mechanisms for SAR imaging of ocean surface phenomena: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesecky, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Understanding the SAR response to surface wave is a central issue in the analysis of SAR ocean images. The imaging mechanism for gravity waves and the practical question of just which characteristics of the ocean wave field can be measured remotely using SAR were examined. Assessments of wave imaging theory are based primarily on comparisons of the directional wave height variance spectrum psi (K) measured by in situ buoys with estimates from SAR images. Other criteria are also recommended, e.g., the effects of focus adjustments. It is assumed that fluctuations in SAR image intensity are proportional to fluctuations in ocean surface height. If this were true, the Fourier power spectrum of a SAR image and corresponding surface measurements of psi would coincide. Differences between SAR estimates based on this hypothesis and buoy measurements of psi are then used to begin the assessment of rival wave imaging theories.

  15. The Ecosystems SAR (EcoSAR) an Airborne P-band Polarimetric InSAR for the Measurement of Vegetation Structure, Biomass and Permafrost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Ranson, K. Jon; Osmanoglu, Batuhan; Sun, Guoqing; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Perrine, Martin L.; Du Toit, Cornelis F.; Bonds, Quenton; Beck, Jaclyn; Lu, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    EcoSAR is a new synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instrument being developed at the NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the polarimetric and interferometric measurements of ecosystem structure and biomass. The instrument uses a phased-array beamforming architecture and supports full polarimetric measurements and single pass interferometry. This Instrument development is part of NASA's Earth Science Technology Office Instrument Incubator Program (ESTO IIP).

  16. Coevolving feature extraction agents for target recognition in SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanu, Bir; Krawiec, Krzysztof

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a novel evolutionary method for automatic induction of target recognition procedures from examples. The learning process starts with training data containing SAR images with labeled targets and consists in coevolving the population of feature extraction agents that cooperate to build an appropriate representation of the input image. Features extracted by a team of cooperating agents are used to induce a machine learning classifier that is responsible for making the final decision of recognizing a target in a SAR image. Each agent (individual) contains feature extraction procedure encoded according to the principles of linear genetic programming (LGP). Like 'plain' genetic programming, in LGP an agent's genome encodes a program that is executed and tested on the set of training images during the fitness calculation. The program is a sequence of calls to the library of parameterized operations, including, but not limited to, global and local image processing operations, elementary feature extraction, and logic and arithmetic operations. Particular calls operate on working variables that enable the program to store intermediate results, and therefore design complex features. This paper contains detailed description of the learning and recognition methodology outlined here. In experimental part, we report and analyze the results obtained when testing the proposed approach for SAR target recognition using MSTAR database.

  17. Combined Use of Airborne Lidar and DBInSAR Data to Estimate LAI in Temperate Mixed Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peduzzi, Alicia; Wynne, Randolph Hamilton; Thomas, Valerie A.; Nelson, Ross F.; Reis, James J.; Sanford, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether leaf area index (LAI) in temperate mixed forests is best estimated using multiple-return airborne laser scanning (lidar) data or dual-band, single-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar data (from GeoSAR) alone, or both in combination. In situ measurements of LAI were made using the LiCor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer on 61 plots (21 hardwood, 36 pine, 4 mixed pine hardwood; stand age ranging from 12-164 years; mean height ranging from 0.4 to 41.2 m) in the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest, Virginia, USA. Lidar distributional metrics were calculated for all returns and for ten one meter deep crown density slices (a new metric), five above and five below the mode of the vegetation returns for each plot. GeoSAR metrics were calculated from the X-band backscatter coefficients (four looks) as well as both X- and P-band interferometric heights and magnitudes for each plot. Lidar metrics alone explained 69% of the variability in LAI, while GeoSAR metrics alone explained 52%. However, combining the lidar and GeoSAR metrics increased the R2 to 0.77 with a CV-RMSE of 0.42. This study indicates the clear potential for X-band backscatter and interferometric height (both now available from spaceborne sensors), when combined with small-footprint lidar data, to improve LAI estimation in temperate mixed forests.

  18. Comparison of JPL-AIRSAR and DLR E-SAR images from the MAC Europe 1991 campaign over testsite Oberpfaffenhofen: Frequency and polarization dependent backscatter variations from agricultural fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmullius, C.; Nithack, J.

    1992-01-01

    On July 12, the MAC Europe '91 (Multi-Sensor Airborne Campaign) took place over test site Oberpfaffenhofen. The DLR Institute of Radio-Frequency Technology participated with its C-VV, X-VV, and X-HH Experimental Synthetic Aperture Radar (E-SAR). The high resolution E-SAR images with a pixel size between 1 and 2 m and the polarimetric AIRSAR images were analyzed. Using both sensors in combination is a unique opportunity to evaluate SAR images in a frequency range from P- to X-band and to investigate polarimetric information.

  19. MOSK - AUTOMATED MOSAICKING ALGORITHM FOR GENERATION OF SPACEBORNE SAR IMAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlander, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are useful for planetary mapping and Earth sciences investigations. However, swath widths rarely exceed 100 Kilometers, and images must be patched together to create a mosaic in order to analyze larger areas. The primary function of this program is to generate large digital mosaics of SAR imagery without manually marked tiepoints. MOSK can produce multiframe mosaics by combining images in the along-track, adjacent cross-track swaths, or ascending and descending passes. Geocoded map registered images, such as the ones produced by MAPJTC (NPO-17718), are required as input. The output is a geocoded mosaic on a standard map grid which permits easy registration with other geocoded data sets. Mosaicking of geocoded SAR imagery involves three steps. First, a match point is selected at the center of the overlapping area, then an image patch around the match point is extracted from both images and cross-correlation is done on this area. Then, images with their refined match points are merged together to form a mosaic. To handle the large data volume of overlapping intermediate stages, large mosaics are divided into equal size quadrants with each quadrant cut from an intermediate mosaic. The full mosaic can then be assembled from the individual quadrants. Finally, radiometric disparities at the image seams are smoothed by a "feathering" technique. The automatic mosaic system generates output with minimal operator interaction. However, manual tiepointing is required in cases of a large registration error or two images with smooth surfaces such as ocean images. MOSK is implemented on a DEC VAX 11/785 running VMS 4.5. Most subroutines are in FORTRAN, but three are in MAXL and one is in APAL. The program requires 1 Mb of memory and a Floating Point Systems AP-5210 array processor. The system memory usage is approximately 1000 pages and the requirement of page file size is 2000 blocks. MOSK was developed in 1988.

  20. Chirp Scaling Algorithms for SAR Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, M.; Cheng, T.; Chen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The chirp scaling SAR processing algorithm is both accurate and efficient. Successful implementation requires proper selection of the interval of output samples, which is a function of the chirp interval, signal sampling rate, and signal bandwidth. Analysis indicates that for both airborne and spaceborne SAR applications in the slant range domain a linear chirp scaling is sufficient. To perform nonlinear interpolation process such as to output ground range SAR images, one can use a nonlinear chirp scaling interpolator presented in this paper.

  1. Using TerraSAR-X and hyperspectral airborne data to monitor surface deformation and physical properties of the Barrow permafrost landscape, Alask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghshenas-Haghighi, M.; Motagh, M.; Heim, B.; Sachs, T.; Kohnert, K.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we assess seasonal subsidence/heaving due to thawing/freezing of the permafrost in Barrow (71.3 N, 156.5 W) at the northernmost point of Alaska. The topographic relief in this area is low. Thick Permafrost underlies the entire area, with large ice volumes in its upper layer. With a large collection of field measurements during the past decades at the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), it is an ideal site for permafrost investigation. There are long term systematic geocryological investigations within the Global Terrestrial Network (GTN-P) of the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) programme. We use 28 TerraSAR-X images, acquired between December 2012 and December 2013 and analyze them using the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) technique to extract time-series of ground surface deformation. We also analyze hyperspectral images acquired by the airborne AISA sensor over Barrow area, within the AIRMETH2013 programme, to assess physical characteristics such as vegetation biomass and density, surface moisture, and water bodies. Finally, we combine the information derived from both InSAR and hyperspectral analysis, with field measurements to investigate the link between physical characteristics of the permafrost and surface displacement.

  2. Potential of Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy at Czechglobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuš, J.; Fabiánek, T.; Fajmon, L.

    2016-06-01

    Ecosystems, their services, structures and functions are affected by complex environmental processes, which are both natural and human-induced and globally changing. In order to understand how ecosystems behave in globally changing environment, it is important to monitor the current status of ecosystems and their structural and functional changes in time and space. An essential tool allowing monitoring of ecosystems is remote sensing (RS). Many ecosystems variables are being translated into a spectral response recorded by RS instruments. It is however important to understand the complexity and synergies of the key ecosystem variables influencing the reflected signal. This can be achieved by analysing high resolution RS data from multiple sources acquired simultaneously from the same platform. Such a system has been recently built at CzechGlobe - Global Change Research Institute (The Czech Academy of Sciences). CzechGlobe has been significantly extending its research infrastructure in the last years, which allows advanced monitoring of ecosystem changes at hierarchical levels spanning from molecules to entire ecosystems. One of the CzechGlobe components is a laboratory of imaging spectroscopy. The laboratory is now operating a new platform for advanced remote sensing observations called FLIS (Flying Laboratory of Imaging Spectroscopy). FLIS consists of an airborne carrier equipped with passive RS systems. The core instrument of FLIS is a hyperspectral imaging system provided by Itres Ltd. The hyperspectral system consists of three spectroradiometers (CASI 1500, SASI 600 and TASI 600) that cover the reflective spectral range from 380 to 2450 nm, as well as the thermal range from 8 to 11.5 μm. The airborne platform is prepared for mounting of full-waveform laser scanner Riegl-Q780 as well, however a laser scanner is not a permanent part of FLIS. In 2014 the installation of the hyperspectral scanners was completed and the first flights were carried out with all

  3. SAR Images Generated Using the Least Mean Squares (LMS) Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minardi, John E., II; Minardi, Michael J.

    2007-04-01

    It is believed that the LMS algorithm can be used to form a two dimensional image from radar return data. A version of the LMS algorithm was written to form SAR images from radar phase history data. Images were formed from fifty sets of twenty synthetically generated random points. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was measured for each image and showed an average of 30 dB. A more complex synthetic scene was also formed from a black and white JPEG image. This image showed excellent qualitative results. Actual radar range data was collected from a set of vertical pins and from a model car painted with conductive paint. The data was from a full 360-degree aperture. The resulting images were of high quality; the vertical pins acted as pure point sources and indicated that the image had a resolution of 4.5 mm, which agrees with theory.

  4. Advanced InSAR imaging for dune mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havivi, Shiran; August, Yitzhak; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rotman, Stanley R.

    2015-04-01

    Aeolian morphologies are formed in the presence of sufficient wind energy and available particles. These processes occur naturally or are further enhanced or reduced by human intervention. The dimensions of change are dependent primarily on the wind energy and surface properties. Since the 1970's, remote sensing imagery both optical and radar, are used for documentation and interpretation of the geomorphologic changes of sand dunes. Remote sensing studies of Aeolian morphologies is mostly useful to document major changes, yet, subtle changes, occurring in a period of days or months in scales of centimeters, are very difficult to detect in imagery. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is an imaging technique for measuring Earth's surface topography and deformation. InSAR images are produced by measuring the radar phase difference between two separated antennas that view the same surface area. Classical InSAR is based on high coherence between two images or more. The output (interferogram) can show subtle changes with an accuracy of several millimeters to centimeters. Very little work has been done on measuring or identifying the changes in dunes using InSAR. The reason is that dunes tend to be less coherent than firm, stable, surfaces. This research aims to demonstrate how interferometric decorrelation, or, coherence change detection, can be used for identifying dune instability. We hypothesize and demonstrate that the loss of radar coherence over time on dunes can be used as an indication of the dune's instability. When SAR images are acquired at sufficiently close intervals one can measure the time it takes to lose coherence and associate this time with geomorphic stability. To achieve our goals, the Nitzanim coastal dunes along the Mediterranean, 40 km south of Tel-Aviv, Israel, were chosen as a case study. The dunes in this area are of varying levels of stability and vegetation cover and have been monitored meteorologically, geomorphologically and

  5. Simulation of ocean SAR images via phase history generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, John R.; Clinthorne, James T.; Scheffler, Albert O.; Lyden, James D.

    1988-01-01

    A method for simulating an ocean synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) image is illustrated for a simple internal wave current pattern. The method calculates both the amplitude image and the radar signal history. The simulation model used consists of six stages. In the first stage, the full wave spectrum in two spatial coordinates is calculated from the wind speed and direction using the action spectral density equation. In the second stage, the pixel size is selected and used as the basis for dividing the spectrum into large and small scale motions. Realizations for the large-scale ocean surface height and velocity are then calculated. In the third stage, the sensor wavelength and geometry are used to calculate the small scale statistics (radar cross section, coherence time, root-mean square (RMS), radial velocity and RMS slope). In the fourth stage, an autoregressive method is used to generate a realization of the surface reflectivity history that is consistent with the radial velocity and the radial velocity variance. In the fifth stage, the signal history is generated by summing the reflectivities at the proper times with the appropriate antenna weighting function for the SAR. As a consequence of this process, speckle is automatically included in the signal. In the final stage, the SAR image can be created by using any of the traditional ways to process the signal history, including variable focusing and multilook processing.

  6. Monitoring of precursor landslide surface deformation using InSAR image in Kuchi-Sakamoto, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H. P.; Nakajima, H.; Nakano, T.; Daimaru, H.

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is the technique to obtain ground surface images using microwave that is emitted from and received on the antenna. The Kuchi-Sakamoto area, 2.2 km2 in precipitous mountains, central Japan, has suffered from frequent landslides, and slow landslide surface deformation has been monitored by on-site extensometer; however, such the monitoring method cannot detect the deformation in the whole area. Because satellite InSAR is effective tool to monitor slow landslide suface deformation, it is a promising tool for detecting precursor deformation and preparing effective measures against serious landslide disasters. In this study Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) / Phased Array type L-band SAR (PALSAR) data were used, and InSAR images were produced from the PALSAR data that were observed between 5 Sep 2008 and 21 Oct 2008 (from descending orbit) and between 20 Jul 2008 and 7 Sep 2009 (from ascending orbit). InSAR image from descending orbit was found to detect clear precursor landslide surface deformation on a slope; however, InSAR image on ascending orbit did not always detect clear precursor deformation. It is thought to be related with atmospheric moisture condition, length of observation baseline and so on. Furthermore, after phase unwrapping on InSAR images, 2.5-dimensional deformation was analized. This analysis needed both ascending and descending InSAR images and culculated quasi east-west deformation component (Figs. (a) and (b)) and quasi up-down deformation component (Figs. (c) and (d)). The resulting 2.5D calculation gave westward deformation and mixture of upward and downward deformations on the precursor landslide surface deformation slope (blue circles in Figs. (c) and (d)), where remarkable disrupted deep landslide occurred during Nov 2012 and 25 Jun 2013, judging from result of airborne LiDAR survey and field survey; the occurrence date is not precisely identified. The figure remains the issue that eliminating "real

  7. Measurement of pressure ridges in SAR images of sea ice - Preliminary results on scattering theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Smith, M. P.; Daida, J. M.; Samadani, R.; Camiso, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    Sea ice ridges and keels (hummocks and bummocks) are important in sea ice research for both scientific and practical reasons. A long-term objective is to make quantitative measurements of sea ice ridges using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The preliminary results of a scattering model for sea ice ridge are reported. The approach is through the ridge height variance spectrum Psi(K), where K is the spatial wavenumber, and the two-scale scattering model. The height spectrum model is constructed to mimic height statistics observed with an airborne optical laser. The spectrum model is used to drive a two-scale scattering model. Model results for ridges observed at C- and X-band yield normalized radar cross sections that are 10 to 15 dB larger than the observed cross sections of multiyear ice over the range of angles of incidence from 10 to 70 deg.

  8. A Novel Fusion-Based Ship Detection Method from Pol-SAR Images

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenguang; Ji, Yu; Lin, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    A novel fusion-based ship detection method from polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (Pol-SAR) images is proposed in this paper. After feature extraction and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection, the detection results of HH channel, diplane scattering by Pauli decomposition and helical factor by Barnes decomposition are fused together. The confirmed targets and potential target pixels can be obtained after the fusion process. Using the difference degree of the target, potential target pixels can be classified. The fusion-based ship detection method works accurately by utilizing three different features comprehensively. The result of applying the technique to measured Airborne Synthetic Radar (AIRSAR) data shows that the novel detection method can achieve better performance in both ship’s detection and ship’s shape preservation compared to the result of K-means clustering method and the Notch Filter method. PMID:26426021

  9. A Novel Fusion-Based Ship Detection Method from Pol-SAR Images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenguang; Ji, Yu; Lin, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    A novel fusion-based ship detection method from polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (Pol-SAR) images is proposed in this paper. After feature extraction and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection, the detection results of HH channel, diplane scattering by Pauli decomposition and helical factor by Barnes decomposition are fused together. The confirmed targets and potential target pixels can be obtained after the fusion process. Using the difference degree of the target, potential target pixels can be classified. The fusion-based ship detection method works accurately by utilizing three different features comprehensively. The result of applying the technique to measured Airborne Synthetic Radar (AIRSAR) data shows that the novel detection method can achieve better performance in both ship's detection and ship's shape preservation compared to the result of K-means clustering method and the Notch Filter method. PMID:26426021

  10. Decreasing range resolution of a SAR image to permit correction of motion measurement errors beyond the SAR range resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.; Heard, Freddie E.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    2010-07-20

    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  11. Enhanced Processing and Analysis of Cassini SAR Images of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, A.; Aharonson, O.; Hayes, A. G.; Deledalle, C. A.; Kirk, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    SAR images suffer from speckle noise, which hinders interpretation and quantitative analysis. We have adapted a non-local algorithm for de-noising images using an appropriate multiplicative noise model [1] for analysis of Cassini SAR images. We illustrate some examples here that demonstrate the improvement of landform interpretation by focusing on transport processes at Titan's surface. Interpretation of the geomorphic features is facilitated (Figure 1); including revealing details of the channels incised into the terrain, shoreline morphology, and contrast variations in the dark, liquid covered areas. The latter are suggestive of sub-marine channels and gradients in the bathymetry. Furthermore, substantial quantitative improvements are possible. We show that a derived Digital Elevation Model from radargrammetry [2] using the de-noised images is obtained with a greater number of matching points (up to 80%) and a better correlation (59% of the pixels give a good correlation in the de-noised data compared with 18% in the original SAR image). An elevation hypsogram of our enhanced DEM shows evidence that fluvial and/or lacustrine processes have affected the topographic distribution substantially. Dune wavelengths and interdune extents are more precisely measured. Finally, radarclinometry technics applied to our new data are more accurate in dunes and mountainous regions. [1] Deledalle C-A., et al., 2009, Weighted maximum likelihood denoising with iterative and probabilistic patch-based weights, Telecom Paris. [2] Kirk, R.L., et al., 2007, First stereoscopic radar images of Titan, Lunar Planet. Sci., XXXVIII, Abstract #1427, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston

  12. Wavelet Analysis of SAR Images for Coastal Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Wu, Sunny Y.; Tseng, William Y.; Pichel, William G.

    1998-01-01

    The mapping of mesoscale ocean features in the coastal zone is a major potential application for satellite data. The evolution of mesoscale features such as oil slicks, fronts, eddies, and ice edge can be tracked by the wavelet analysis using satellite data from repeating paths. The wavelet transform has been applied to satellite images, such as those from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and ocean color sensor for feature extraction. In this paper, algorithms and techniques for automated detection and tracking of mesoscale features from satellite SAR imagery employing wavelet analysis have been developed. Case studies on two major coastal oil spills have been investigated using wavelet analysis for tracking along the coast of Uruguay (February 1997), and near Point Barrow, Alaska (November 1997). Comparison of SAR images with SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) data for coccolithophore bloom in the East Bering Sea during the fall of 1997 shows a good match on bloom boundary. This paper demonstrates that this technique is a useful and promising tool for monitoring of coastal waters.

  13. Image synthesis for SAR system, calibration and processor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, J. C.; Abbott, J. L.; Kaupp, V. H.; Frost, V. S.

    1978-01-01

    The Point Scattering Method of simulating radar imagery rigorously models all aspects of the imaging radar phenomena. Its computational algorithms operate on a symbolic representation of the terrain test site to calculate such parameters as range, angle of incidence, resolution cell size, etc. Empirical backscatter data and elevation data are utilized to model the terrain. Additionally, the important geometrical/propagation effects such as shadow, foreshortening, layover, and local angle of incidence are rigorously treated. Applications of radar image simulation to a proposed calibrated SAR system are highlighted: soil moisture detection and vegetation discrimination.

  14. Airborne system for multispectral, multiangle polarimetric imaging.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Jeffrey H; Korwan, Daniel R; Montes, Marcos J; Gray, Deric J; Gillis, David B; Lamela, Gia M; Miller, W David

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the design, fabrication, calibration, and deployment of an airborne multispectral polarimetric imager. The motivation for the development of this instrument was to explore its ability to provide information about water constituents, such as particle size and type. The instrument is based on four 16 MP cameras and uses wire grid polarizers (aligned at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°) to provide the separation of the polarization states. A five-position filter wheel provides for four narrow-band spectral filters (435, 550, 625, and 750 nm) and one blocked position for dark-level measurements. When flown, the instrument is mounted on a programmable stage that provides control of the view angles. View angles that range to ±65° from the nadir have been used. Data processing provides a measure of the polarimetric signature as a function of both the view zenith and view azimuth angles. As a validation of our initial results, we compare our measurements, over water, with the output of a Monte Carlo code, both of which show neutral points off the principle plane. The locations of the calculated and measured neutral points are compared. The random error level in the measured degree of linear polarization (8% at 435) is shown to be better than 0.25%. PMID:26560615

  15. A high-resolution, four-band SAR testbed with real-time image formation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.; Sander, G.; Thompson, M.; Burns, B.; Fellerhoff, R.; Dubbert, D.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the Twin-Otter SAR Testbed developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This SAR is a flexible, adaptable testbed capable of operation on four frequency bands: Ka, Ku, X, and VHF/UHF bands. The SAR features real-time image formation at fine resolution in spotlight and stripmap modes. High-quality images are formed in real time using the overlapped subaperture (OSA) image-formation and phase gradient autofocus (PGA) algorithms.

  16. Accounting for image uncertainty in SAR-based flood mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustarini, L.; Vernieuwe, H.; Verwaeren, J.; Chini, M.; Hostache, R.; Matgen, P.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; De Baets, B.

    2015-02-01

    Operational flood mitigation and flood modeling activities benefit from a rapid and automated flood mapping procedure. A valuable information source for such a flood mapping procedure can be remote sensing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. In order to be reliable, an objective characterization of the uncertainty associated with the flood maps is required. This work focuses on speckle uncertainty associated with the SAR data and introduces the use of a non-parametric bootstrap method to take into account this uncertainty on the resulting flood maps. From several synthetic images, constructed through bootstrapping the original image, flood maps are delineated. The accuracy of these flood maps is also evaluated w.r.t. an independent validation data set, obtaining, in the two test cases analyzed in this paper, F-values (i.e. values of the Jaccard coefficient) comprised between 0.50 and 0.65. This method is further compared to an image segmentation method for speckle analysis, with which similar results are obtained. The uncertainty analysis of the ensemble of bootstrapped synthetic images was found to be representative of image speckle, with the advantage that no segmentation and speckle estimations are required. Furthermore, this work assesses to what extent the bootstrap ensemble size can be reduced while remaining representative of the original ensemble, as operational applications would clearly benefit from such reduced ensemble sizes.

  17. Autofocus correction of SAR images exhibiting excessive residual migration.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2005-03-01

    Relatively small motion measurement errors manifest themselves principally as a phase error in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) complex data samples, and if large enough become observable as a smearing, blurring, or other degradation in the image. The phase error function can be measured and then deconvolved from the original data to compensate for the presumed motion error, ultimately resulting in a well-focused image. Techniques that do this are termed 'autofocus' algorithms. A very popular autofocus algorithm is the Phase Gradient Autofocus (PGA) algorithm. The nearly universal, and typically reasonable, assumption is that the motion errors are less than the range resolution of the radar, allowing solely a phase correction to suffice. Very large relative motion measurement errors manifest themselves as an unexpected additional shifting or migration of target locations beyond any deterministic migration during the course of the synthetic aperture. Degradation in images from data exhibiting errors of this magnitude are substantial, often rendering the image completely useless. When residual range migration due to either real or apparent motion errors exceeds the range resolution, conventional autofocus algorithms fail. Excessive residual migration is increasingly encountered as resolutions become finer, less expensive inertial sensors are used, and operating ranges become longer (due to atmospheric phenomena). A new migration-correction autofocus algorithm has been developed that estimates the excessive residual migration and applies phase and frequency corrections to properly focus the image. This overcomes the conventional constraint that motion errors not exceed the SAR range resolution.

  18. Digital Intermediate Frequency Receiver Module For Use In Airborne Sar Applications

    DOEpatents

    Tise, Bertice L.; Dubbert, Dale F.

    2005-03-08

    A digital IF receiver (DRX) module directly compatible with advanced radar systems such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. The DRX can combine a 1 G-Sample/sec 8-bit ADC with high-speed digital signal processor, such as high gate-count FPGA technology or ASICs to realize a wideband IF receiver. DSP operations implemented in the DRX can include quadrature demodulation and multi-rate, variable-bandwidth IF filtering. Pulse-to-pulse (Doppler domain) filtering can also be implemented in the form of a presummer (accumulator) and an azimuth prefilter. An out of band noise source can be employed to provide a dither signal to the ADC, and later be removed by digital signal processing. Both the range and Doppler domain filtering operations can be implemented using a unique pane architecture which allows on-the-fly selection of the filter decimation factor, and hence, the filter bandwidth. The DRX module can include a standard VME-64 interface for control, status, and programming. An interface can provide phase history data to the real-time image formation processors. A third front-panel data port (FPDP) interface can send wide bandwidth, raw phase histories to a real-time phase history recorder for ground processing.

  19. New observations of Bolivian wind streaks by JPL Airborne SAR: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumberg, Dan G.; Greeley, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    In 1993 NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar system (AIRSAR) was deployed to South America to collect multi-parameter radar data over pre-selected targets. Among the sites targeted was a series of wind streaks located in the Altiplano of Bolivia. The objective of this investigation is to study the effect of wavelength, polarization, and incidence angle on the visibility of wind streaks in radar data. Because this is a preliminary evaluation of the recently acquired data we will focus on one scene and, thus, only on the effects of wavelength and polarization. Wind streaks provide information on the near-surface prevailing winds and on the abundance of winderodible material, such as sand. The potential for a free-flyer radar system that could provide global radar images in multiple wavelengths, polarizations, and incidence angles requires definition of system parameters for mission planning. Furthermore, thousands of wind streaks were mapped from Magellan radar images of Venus; their interpretation requires an understanding of the interaction of radar with wind streaks and the surrounding terrain. Our experiment was conducted on wind streaks in the Altiplano of Bolivia to address these issues.

  20. Support plane method applied to ground objects recognition using modelled SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherdev, Denis A.; Fursov, Vladimir A.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the object recognition problem was solved using support plane method. The modelled SAR images were used as features vectors in the recognition algorithm. Radar signal backscattering of objects in different observing poses is presented in SAR images. For real time simulation, we used simple mixture model of Lambertian-specular reflectivity. To this end, an algorithm of ray tracing is extended for simulating SAR images of 3D man-made models. The suggested algorithm of support plane is very effective in objects recognition using SAR images and RCS diagrams.

  1. Experimental results from an airborne static Fourier transform imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ferrec, Yann; Taboury, Jean; Sauer, Hervé; Chavel, Pierre; Fournet, Pierre; Coudrain, Christophe; Deschamps, Joël; Primot, Jérôme

    2011-10-20

    A high étendue static Fourier transform spectral imager has been developed for airborne use. This imaging spectrometer, based on a Michelson interferometer with rooftop mirrors, is compact and robust and benefits from a high collection efficiency. Experimental airborne images were acquired in the visible domain. The processing chain to convert raw images to hyperspectral data is described, and airborne spectral images are presented. These experimental results show that the spectral resolution is close to the one expected, but also that the signal to noise ratio is limited by various phenomena (jitter, elevation fluctuations, and one parasitic image). We discuss the origin of those limitations and suggest solutions to circumvent them. PMID:22015418

  2. Effects of different soil types on strip-map GPR SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazlı, Hakkı; Sezgin, Mehmet

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we present generation of Strip-map Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images using impulse GPR system, and investigate effects of different soil types on SAR images. The SAR images of buried objects have been interpreted via 2D inverse Fourier transformation. GPR buried target data have been collected from three soil pools having different dielectric constants and B-scan images have been reconstructed from the received data using mean A-scan signal subtraction method. In order to reconstruct SAR images, the time domain data collected from multiple observation points have been transformed to 2D spectral domain. Non-uniform data have been interpolated over spatial Cartesian grid by using uniform interval. Thus, the SAR images have been reconstructed via 2D inverse FFT of interpolated data on ky-kz plane. When examined mathematical background of SAR algorithm, the values of different dielectric constants change the wave number of k. This can lead to deterioration of the SAR imagery. In this study, we investigate the Effect of the dielectric constant of different soils has been examined on SAR images. Finally, resolution difference between background removed B-Scan data and SAR images is considered.

  3. Coastal lee waves on ERS-1 SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Klemas, Vic; Ho, Chung-Ru; Kuo, Nan-Jung; Wang, Zongming

    1998-04-01

    Alternative dark-bright patterns on ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the west side of the Taiwan Strait taken on December 8, 1994, were recognized to be the sea surface signature of a coastal lee wave. Such waves are called coastal lee waves because they occur along the lee side of the coast. The coastal lee waves appeared in the form of a wave packet distributed within an offshore band 20-40 km wide. The first packet, which occurred in the northern portion of the observed area, contained six waves with variable wavelengths (defined as the spatial separation between two waves) from 1.7 to 2.7 km. The second packet, in the middle, contained 10 waves with a relatively uniform wavelength of 4.2 km. The third packet, in the southern portion, contained 17 waves with an average wavelength of 2.0 km. The crest lengths were from 20 to 80 km. Local meteorologic parameters observed simultaneously at Fuzhou, China, close to the imaged area, showed an offshore wind of 1.5-3.5 m/s and a land surface air temperature of 19°C, which was 4°C lower than the sea surface temperature (SST). Thus the lower atmospheric boundary conditions at imaging time were very favorable both for generating the land breeze circulation and small wind waves on the sea surface, which are in the Bragg-scattering wavelength band of the C band ERS-1 SAR. A physical model of a three-layer atmosphere was developed in order to explain how the land breeze circulation can generate the coastal lee waves. The results showed that the vertical velocity disturbance caused by the wind convergence at the land breeze frontal zone is of vital importance for the generation of coastal lee waves, and the model gave very good estimates of the processes observed. The SAR imaging mechanisms of the waves were analyzed in detail. The differences between coastal lee waves and ocean internal waves, which appear as similar alternative dark-bright patterns on SAR images, were also discussed.

  4. 3-D SAR image formation from sparse aperture data using 3-D target grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Rajan; Li, Junfei; Ling, Hao

    2005-05-01

    The performance of ATR systems can potentially be improved by using three-dimensional (3-D) SAR images instead of the traditional two-dimensional SAR images or one-dimensional range profiles. 3-D SAR image formation of targets from radar backscattered data collected on wide angle, sparse apertures has been identified by AFRL as fundamental to building an object detection and recognition capability. A set of data has been released as a challenge problem. This paper describes a technique based on the concept of 3-D target grids aimed at the formation of 3-D SAR images of targets from sparse aperture data. The 3-D target grids capture the 3-D spatial and angular scattering properties of the target and serve as matched filters for SAR formation. The results of 3-D SAR formation using the backhoe public release data are presented.

  5. C-band, multi-angle SAR imaging of agricultural cover

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, E.D.; Petersen, G.W.

    1996-03-01

    The launch of the Canadian Space Agency{close_quote}s RADARSAT will provide the capability to supply imagery acquired from different instrument look angles, resulting in a multi-incidence view of an area of interest. Previous research has utilized multi-incidence imaging to map land use/land cover and to model soil moisture content. This research utilizes an innovative approach to the use of multi-angle SAR imagery to detect differences in land use/land cover. In this study, plant canopies and bare soil are imaged with multi-angle and multi-frequency data acquired with the airborne NASA/JPL AIRSAR instrument. Findings are relevant for possible applications of data from the soon to be orbited RADARSAT instrument. Backscatter from a distributed target, such as vegetation, is the product of microwave absorption and scattering interactions with all features within the imaged area. The intensity of the backscatter from the area varies with the angle of the incident wave. This investigation uses this physical understanding of multi-angle imaging to describe the differences in scattering from different crop covers. Using the fully polarized, three frequency, C-, L- and P-Bands, airborne NASA/JPL AIRSAR instrument, land use/land cover of an area in central Pennsylvania was imaged at look angles of 30{degree} and 45{degree}. C-Band, hh polarized data will be examined in this study as it is the same configuration as the RADARSAT instrument. Land use/land covers in the study include bare fields, alfalfa, corn, and trees. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Study on airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Na; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Juan; Gao, Meng; Gao, Fei; Fan, Zhe; Sun, Kefeng; Wu, Jun; Li, Junna; Gao, Zedong; Cheng, Gang

    2014-11-01

    The airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology is proposed in this paper. In this design scheme, the airborne multispectral imaging system consists of the multispectral camera, the image processing unit, and the stabilized platform. The multispectral camera can operate in the spectral region from visible to near infrared waveband (0.4-1.0um), it has four same and independent imaging channels, and sixteen different typical wavelengths to be selected based on the different typical targets and background. The related experiments were tested by the airborne multispectral imaging system. In particularly, the camouflage targets were fused and detected in the different complex environment, such as the land vegetation background, the desert hot background and underwater. In the spectral region from 0.4 um to 1.0um, the three different characteristic wave from sixteen typical spectral are selected and combined according to different backgrounds and targets. The spectral image corresponding to the three characteristic wavelengths is resisted and fused by the image processing technology in real time, and the fusion video with typical target property is outputted. In these fusion images, the contrast of target and background is greatly increased. Experimental results confirm that the airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology can acquire multispectral fusion image with high contrast in real time, and has the ability of detecting and identification camouflage objects from complex background to targets underwater.

  7. Modified Multilook Cross Correlation technique for Doppler centroid estimation in SAR image signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bee Cheng, Sew

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is one of the widely used remote sensing sensors which produces high resolution image by using advance signal processing technique. SAR managed to operate in all sorts of weather and cover wide range of area. To produce a high-quality image, accurate parameters such as Doppler centroid are required for precise SAR signal processing. In the azimuth matched filtering of SAR signal processing, Doppler centroid is an important azimuth parameter that helps to focus the image pixels. Doppler centroid has always been overlooked during SAR signal processing. It is due to the fact that estimation of Doppler centroid involved complicated calculation and increased computational load. Therefore, researcher used to apply only the approximate Doppler value which is not precise and cause defocus effort in the generated SAR image. In this study, several conventional Doppler centroid estimation algorithms are reviewed and developed using Matlab software program to extract the Doppler parameter from received SAR data, namely Spectrum Fit Algorithm, Wavelength Diversity Algorithm (WDA), Multilook Cross Correlation Algorithm (MLCC), and Multilook Beat Frequency Algorithm (MLBF). Two sets of SAR data are employed to evaluate the performance of each estimator, i.e. simulated point target data and RADARSAT-1 Vancouver scene raw data. These experiments gave a sense of accuracy for the estimated results together with computational time consumption. Point target is simulated to generate ideal case SAR data with pre-defined SAR system parameters.

  8. Robust optical and SAR multi-sensor image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingdan; Ming, Yang

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a robust matching method for the multi-sensor imagery. Firstly, the SIFT feature matching and relaxation matching method are integrated in the highest pyramid to derive the approximate relationship between the reference and slave image. Then, the normalized Mutual Information and multi-grid multi-level RANSAC algorithm are adopted to find the correct conjugate points. Iteratively perform above steps until the original image level, the facet- based transformation model is used to carry out the image registration. Experiments have been made, and the results show that the method in this paper can deliver large number of evenly distributed conjugate points and realize the accurate registration of optical and SAR multi-sensor imagery.

  9. Observation of pressure ridges in SAR images of sea ice: Scattering theory and comparison with observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Daida, J. M.; Shuchman, R. A.; Onstott, R. H.; Camiso, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Ridges and keels (hummocks and bummocks) in sea ice flows are important in sea ice research for both scientific and practical reasons. Sea ice movement and deformation is driven by internal and external stresses on the ice. Ridges and keels play important roles in both cases because they determine the external wind and current stresses via drag coefficients. For example, the drag coefficient over sea ice can vary by a factor of several depending on the fluid mechanical roughness length of the surface. This roughness length is thought to be strongly dependent on the ridge structures present. Thus, variations in ridge and keel structure can cause gradients in external stresses which must be balanced by internal stresses and possibly fracture of the ice. Ridging in sea ice is also a sign of fracture. In a practical sense, large ridges form the biggest impediment to surface travel over the ice or penetration through sea ice by ice-strengthened ships. Ridges also play an important role in the damage caused by sea ice to off-shore structures. Hence, observation and measurement of sea ice ridges is an important component of sea ice remote sensing. The research reported here builds on previous work, estimating the characteristics of ridges and leads in sea ice from SAR images. Our objective is to develop methods for quantitative measurement of sea ice ridges from SAR images. To make further progress, in particular, to estimate ridge height, a scattering model for ridges is needed. Our research approach for a ridge scattering model begins with a survey of the geometrical properties of ridges and a comparison with the characteristics of the surrounding ice. For this purpose we have used airborne optical laser (AOL) data collected during the 1987 Greenland Sea Experiment. These data were used to generate a spatial wavenumber spectrum for height variance for a typical ridge - the typical ridge is the average over 10 large ridges. Our first-order model radar scattering includes

  10. Observation of pressure ridges in SAR images of sea ice: Scattering theory and comparison with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Daida, J. M.; Shuchman, R. A.; Onstott, R. H.; Camiso, J. C.

    Ridges and keels (hummocks and bummocks) in sea ice flows are important in sea ice research for both scientific and practical reasons. Sea ice movement and deformation is driven by internal and external stresses on the ice. Ridges and keels play important roles in both cases because they determine the external wind and current stresses via drag coefficients. For example, the drag coefficient over sea ice can vary by a factor of several depending on the fluid mechanical roughness length of the surface. This roughness length is thought to be strongly dependent on the ridge structures present. Thus, variations in ridge and keel structure can cause gradients in external stresses which must be balanced by internal stresses and possibly fracture of the ice. Ridging in sea ice is also a sign of fracture. In a practical sense, large ridges form the biggest impediment to surface travel over the ice or penetration through sea ice by ice-strengthened ships. Ridges also play an important role in the damage caused by sea ice to off-shore structures. Hence, observation and measurement of sea ice ridges is an important component of sea ice remote sensing. The research reported here builds on previous work, estimating the characteristics of ridges and leads in sea ice from SAR images. Our objective is to develop methods for quantitative measurement of sea ice ridges from SAR images. To make further progress, in particular, to estimate ridge height, a scattering model for ridges is needed. Our research approach for a ridge scattering model begins with a survey of the geometrical properties of ridges and a comparison with the characteristics of the surrounding ice. For this purpose we have used airborne optical laser (AOL) data collected during the 1987 Greenland Sea Experiment. These data were used to generate a spatial wavenumber spectrum for height variance for a typical ridge - the typical ridge is the average over 10 large ridges. Our first-order model radar scattering includes

  11. Flight path-driven mitigation of wavefront curvature effects in SAR images

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2009-06-23

    A wavefront curvature effect associated with a complex image produced by a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be mitigated based on which of a plurality of possible flight paths is taken by the SAR when capturing the image. The mitigation can be performed differently for different ones of the flight paths.

  12. An Integrated Navigation System using GPS Carrier Phase for Real-Time Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Fellerhoff, J. Rick; Kim, Theodore J.; Kohler, Stewart M.

    1999-06-24

    A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) requires accu- rate measurement of the motion of the imaging plat- form to produce well-focused images with minimal absolute position error. The motion measurement (MoMeas) system consists of a inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a P-code GPS receiver that outputs corrected ephemeris, L1 & L2 pseudoranges, and L1 & L2 carrier phase measurements. The unknown initial carrier phase biases to the GPS satellites are modeled as states in an extended Kalman filter and the resulting integrated navigation solution has po- sition errors that change slowly with time. Position error drifts less than 1- cm/sec have been measured from the SAR imagery for various length apertures.

  13. Citrus greening detection using airborne hyperspectral and multispectral imaging techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral imaging can provide unique spectral signatures for diseased vegetation. Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imaging can be used to detect potentially infected trees over a large area for rapid detection of infected zones. This paper proposes a method to detect the citrus greening...

  14. An airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  15. Citrus greening disease detection using airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral imaging can provide unique spectral signatures for diseased vegetation. Airborne hyperspectral imaging can be used to detect potentially infected trees over a large area for rapid detection of infected zones. Ground inspection and management can be focused on these infected zones rath...

  16. The Airborne Ocean Color Imager - System description and image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, Robert C.; Slye, Robert E.; Klooster, Steven A.; Freedman, Richard S.; Carle, Mark; Mcgregor, Lloyd F.

    1992-01-01

    The Airborne Ocean Color Imager was developed as an aircraft instrument to simulate the spectral and radiometric characteristics of the next generation of satellite ocean color instrumentation. Data processing programs have been developed as extensions of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner algorithms for atmospheric correction and bio-optical output products. The latter include several bio-optical algorithms for estimating phytoplankton pigment concentration, as well as one for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of the water. Additional programs have been developed to geolocate these products and remap them into a georeferenced data base, using data from the aircraft's inertial navigation system. Examples illustrate the sequential data products generated by the processing system, using data from flightlines near the mouth of the Mississippi River: from raw data to atmospherically corrected data, to bio-optical data, to geolocated data, and, finally, to georeferenced data.

  17. A Likelihood-Based SLIC Superpixel Algorithm for SAR Images Using Generalized Gamma Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Huanxin; Qin, Xianxiang; Zhou, Shilin; Ji, Kefeng

    2016-01-01

    The simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) method is a recently proposed popular superpixel algorithm. However, this method may generate bad superpixels for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images due to effects of speckle and the large dynamic range of pixel intensity. In this paper, an improved SLIC algorithm for SAR images is proposed. This algorithm exploits the likelihood information of SAR image pixel clusters. Specifically, a local clustering scheme combining intensity similarity with spatial proximity is proposed. Additionally, for post-processing, a local edge-evolving scheme that combines spatial context and likelihood information is introduced as an alternative to the connected components algorithm. To estimate the likelihood information of SAR image clusters, we incorporated a generalized gamma distribution (GГD). Finally, the superiority of the proposed algorithm was validated using both simulated and real-world SAR images. PMID:27438840

  18. A Likelihood-Based SLIC Superpixel Algorithm for SAR Images Using Generalized Gamma Distribution.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huanxin; Qin, Xianxiang; Zhou, Shilin; Ji, Kefeng

    2016-01-01

    The simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) method is a recently proposed popular superpixel algorithm. However, this method may generate bad superpixels for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images due to effects of speckle and the large dynamic range of pixel intensity. In this paper, an improved SLIC algorithm for SAR images is proposed. This algorithm exploits the likelihood information of SAR image pixel clusters. Specifically, a local clustering scheme combining intensity similarity with spatial proximity is proposed. Additionally, for post-processing, a local edge-evolving scheme that combines spatial context and likelihood information is introduced as an alternative to the connected components algorithm. To estimate the likelihood information of SAR image clusters, we incorporated a generalized gamma distribution (GГD). Finally, the superiority of the proposed algorithm was validated using both simulated and real-world SAR images. PMID:27438840

  19. Segmentation of Polarimetric SAR Images Usig Wavelet Transformation and Texture Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeian, A.; Homayouni, S.; Safari, A.

    2015-12-01

    Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) sensors can collect useful observations from earth's surfaces and phenomena for various remote sensing applications, such as land cover mapping, change and target detection. These data can be acquired without the limitations of weather conditions, sun illumination and dust particles. As result, SAR images, and in particular Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) are powerful tools for various environmental applications. Unlike the optical images, SAR images suffer from the unavoidable speckle, which causes the segmentation of this data difficult. In this paper, we use the wavelet transformation for segmentation of PolSAR images. Our proposed method is based on the multi-resolution analysis of texture features is based on wavelet transformation. Here, we use the information of gray level value and the information of texture. First, we produce coherency or covariance matrices and then generate span image from them. In the next step of proposed method is texture feature extraction from sub-bands is generated from discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Finally, PolSAR image are segmented using clustering methods as fuzzy c-means (FCM) and k-means clustering. We have applied the proposed methodology to full polarimetric SAR images acquired by the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) L-band system, during July, in 2012 over an agricultural area in Winnipeg, Canada.

  20. Airborne Microwave Imaging of River Velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project was to determine whether airborne microwave remote sensing systems can measure river surface currents with sufficient accuracy to make them prospective instruments with which to monitor river flow from space. The approach was to fly a coherent airborne microwave Doppler radar, developed by APL/UW, on a light airplane along several rivers in western Washington state over an extended period of time. The fundamental quantity obtained by this system to measure river currents is the mean offset of the Doppler spectrum. Since this scatter can be obtained from interferometric synthetic aperture radars (INSARs), which can be flown in space, this project provided a cost effective means for determining the suitability of spaceborne INSAR for measuring river flow.

  1. A new automatic technique for coastline extraction from SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Frate, Fabio; Latini, Daniele; Minchella, Andrea; Palazzo, Francesco

    2012-09-01

    The coastal marine habitat is an important and delicate environment from economical, ecological, political and security point of view, therefore its integrity has to be monitored and preserved from dangerous human activities. Recent studies have demonstrated that the 42% of the Italian Coast is eroding because of the increase of the sea-level height and the reduced solid transport from rivers to sea, hence there is an important requirement for tools capable to provide a synoptic view of the coastal area. COSMO-SkyMed SAR products with their very high resolution and short revisit time, can represent a breakthrough on coastline delineation and mapping, also overcoming the problems related to cloud cover or large extension of the areas. While in remotely sensed imagery including visible bands the specific coastline extraction task may be recognized as not particularly complex, this does not hold for SAR images in which the backscattering from the water can be influenced by different effects due to the wind and the wave modulation, determining a not easy discrimination between sea and land. In this research activity a new automatic technique based on Pulse Coupled Neural Networks (PCNN) has been developed to detect the coastal boundaries, moreover a local tracing procedure exploiting statistical information has been designed to properly extract the coastline. The results have been validated through a GPS survey and an assessment of the real impact of the proposed procedure in coastal mapping application has been carried out.

  2. Extended adaptive filtering for wide-angle SAR image formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanwei; Roberts, William; Li, Jian

    2005-05-01

    For two-dimensional (2-D) spectral analysis, the adaptive filtering based technologies, such as CAPON and APES (Amplitude and Phase EStimation), are developed under the implicit assumption that the data sets are rectangular. However, in real SAR applications, especially for the wide-angle cases, the collected data sets are always non-rectangular. This raises the problem of how to extend the original adaptive filtering based algorithms for such kind of scenarios. In this paper, we propose an extended adaptive filtering (EAF) approach, which includes Extended APES (E-APES) and Extended CAPON (E-CAPON), for arbitrarily shaped 2-D data. The EAF algorithms adopt a missing-data approach where the unavailable data samples close to the collected data set are assumed missing. Using a group of filter-banks with varying sizes, these algorithms are non-iterative and do not require the estimation of the unavailable samples. The improved imaging results of the proposed algorithms are demonstrated by applying them to two different SAR data sets.

  3. Real-time SAR image processing onboard a Venus orbiting spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The potential use of real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing to produce 200 meter resolution imagery onboard a 1983 Venus orbiter imaging radar spacecraft is described. The VOIR SAR processing requirements are defined in terms of a nominal baseline design evolving from a 1977 VOIR mission study. A candidate onboard SAR processor architecture compatible with the VOIR requirements is next detailed. Finally, implementation characteristics, based upon currently available integrated circuits, are estimated in terms of chip count, power, and weight.

  4. On the use of L-band multipolarization airborne SAR for surveys of crops, vineyards, and orchards in a California irrigated agricultural region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The airborne L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) collected multipolarization calibrated image data over an irrigated agricultural test site near Fresno, CA, on March 6, 1984. The conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) the effects of incidence angle on the measured backscattering coefficients could be removed by using a correction factor equal to the secant of the angle raised to the 1.4 power, (2) for this scene and time of year, the various polarization channels were highly correlated such that the use of more than one polarization added little to the ability of the radar to discriminate vegetation type or condition; the exception was barley which separated from vineyards only when a combination of like and cross polarization data were used (polarization was very useful for corn identification in fall crops), (3) an excellent separation between herbaceous vegetation (alfalfa, barley, and oats) or bare fields and trees in orchards existed in brightness was well correlated to alfalfa height or biomass, especially for the HH polarization combination, (5) vineyards exhibited a narrow range of brightnesses with no systematic effects of type or number of stakes nor of number of wires in the trellises nor of the size of the vines, (6) within the orchard classes, areal biomass characterized by basal area differences caused radar image brightness differences for small to medium trees but not for medium to large trees.

  5. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  6. Target recognition using HRR profile-based incoherent SAR (InSAR) image formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoughue, Nicholas A.; Kuklinski, Walter S.; Arabadjis, Constantine

    2008-04-01

    Feature-aided target verification is a challenging field of research, with the potential to yield significant increases in the confidence of re-established target tracks after kinematic confusion events. Using appropriate control algorithms airborne multi-mode radars can acquire a library of HRR (High Range Resolution) profiles for targets as they are tracked. When a kinematic confusion event occurs, such as a vehicle dropping below MDV (Minimum Detectable Velocity) for some period of time, or two target tracks crossing, it is necessary to utilize feature-aided tracking methods to correctly associate post-confusion tracks with pre-confusion tracks. Many current HRR profile target recognition methods focus on statistical characteristics of either individual profiles or sets of profiles taken over limited viewing angles. These methods have not proven to be very effective when the pre- and post- confusion libraries do not overlap in azimuth angle. To address this issue we propose a new approach to target recognition from HRR profiles. We present an algorithm that generates 2-D imagery of targets from the pre- and post-confusion libraries. These images are subsequently used as the input to a target recognition/classifier process. Since, center-aligned HRR Profiles, while ideal for processing, are not easily computed in field systems, as they require the airborne platform's center of rotation to line up with the geometric center of the moving target (this is impossible when multiple targets are being tracked), our algorithm is designed to work with HRR profiles that are aligned to the leading edge (the first detection above a threshold, commonly referred to as Edge-Aligned HRR profiles). Our simulated results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method for classifying target vehicles based on simulations using both overlapping and non-overlapping HRR profile sets. The algorithm was tested on several test cases using an input set of .28 m resolution XPATCH generated HRR

  7. Comparison of Filters Dedicated to Speckle Suppression in SAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupidura, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the effectiveness of different filtering methods dedicated to speckle suppression in SAR images. The tests were performed on RadarSat-2 images and on an artificial image treated with simulated speckle noise. The research analysed the performance of particular filters related to the effectiveness of speckle suppression and to the ability to preserve image details and edges. Speckle is a phenomenon inherent to radar images - a deterministic noise connected with land cover type, but also causing significant changes in digital numbers of pixels. As a result, it may affect interpretation, classification and other processes concerning radar images. Speckle, resembling "salt and pepper" noise, has the form of a set of relatively small groups of pixels of values markedly different from values of other pixels representing the same type of land cover. Suppression of this noise may also cause suppression of small image details, therefore the ability to preserve the important parts of an image, was analysed as well. In the present study, selected filters were tested, and methods dedicated particularly to speckle noise suppression: Frost, Gamma-MAP, Lee, Lee-Sigma, Local Region, general filtering methods which might be effective in this respect: Mean, Median, in addition to morphological filters (alternate sequential filters with multiple structuring element and by reconstruction). The analysis presented in this paper compared the effectiveness of different filtering methods. It proved that some of the dedicated radar filters are efficient tools for speckle suppression, but also demonstrated a significant efficiency of the morphological approach, especially its ability to preserve image details.

  8. Analysis of ROC on chest direct digital radiography (DR) after image processing in diagnosis of SARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Guozheng; Lan, Rihui; Zeng, Qingsi; Zheng, Zhong

    2004-05-01

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, also called Infectious Atypical Pneumonia), which initially broke out in late 2002, has threatened the public"s health seriously. How to confirm the patients contracting SARS becomes an urgent issue in diagnosis. This paper intends to evaluate the importance of Image Processing in the diagnosis on SARS at the early stage. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis has been employed in this study to compare the value of DR images in the diagnosis of SARS patients before and after image processing by Symphony Software supplied by E-Com Technology Ltd., and DR image study of 72 confirmed or suspected SARS patients were reviewed respectively. All the images taken from the studied patients were processed by Symphony. Both the original and processed images were taken into ROC analysis, based on which the ROC graph for each group of images has been produced as described below: For processed images: a = 1.9745, b = 1.4275, SA = 0.8714; For original images: a = 0.9066, b = 0.8310, SA = 0.7572; (a - intercept, b - slop, SA - Area below the curve). The result shows significant difference between the original images and processed images (P<0.01). In summary, the images processed by Symphony are superior to the original ones in detecting the opacity lesion, and increases the accuracy of SARS diagnosis.

  9. Airborne midwave and longwave infrared hyperspectral imaging of gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Duval, Marc; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Characterization of gas clouds are challenging situations to address due to the large and uneven distribution of these fast moving entities. Whether gas characterization is carried out for gas leaks surveys or environmental monitoring purposes, explosives and/or toxic chemicals are often involved. In such situations, airborne measurements present distinct advantages over ground based-techniques since large areas can be covered efficiently from a safe distance. In order to illustrate the potential of airborne thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging for gas cloud characterization, measurements were carried out above smokestacks and a ground-based gas release experiment. Quantitative airborne chemical images of carbon monoxide (CO) and ethylene (C2H4) were obtained from measurements carried out using a midwave (MWIR, 3-5 μm) and a longwave (LWIR, 8-12 μm) airborne infrared hyperspectral sensor respectively. Scattering effects were observed in the MWIR experiments on smokestacks as a result of water condensation upon rapid cool down of the hot emission gases. Airborne measurements were carried out using both mapping and targeting acquisition modes. The later provides unique time-dependent information such as the gas cloud direction and velocity.

  10. Airborne midwave and longwave infrared hyperspectral imaging of gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Duval, Marc; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Characterization of gas clouds are challenging situations to address due to the large and uneven distribution of these fast moving entities. Whether gas characterization is carried out for gas leaks surveys or environmental monitoring purposes, explosives and/or toxic chemicals are often involved. In such situations, airborne measurements present distinct advantages over ground based-techniques since large areas can be covered efficiently from a safe distance. In order to illustrate the potential of airborne thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging for gas cloud characterization, measurements were carried out above smokestacks and a ground-based gas release experiment. Quantitative airborne chemical images of carbon monoxide (CO) and ethylene (C2H4) were obtained from measurements carried out using a midwave (MWIR, 3-5 μm) and a longwave (LWIR, 8-12 μm) airborne infrared hyperspectral sensor respectively. Scattering effects were observed in the MWIR experiments on smokestacks as a result of water condensation upon rapid cool down of the hot emission gases. Airborne measurements were carried out using both mapping and targeting acquisition modes. The later provides unique time-dependent information such as the gas cloud direction and velocity.

  11. Airborne midwave and longwave infrared hyperspectral imaging of gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Marc-André; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Duval, Marc; Farley, Vincent; Guyot, Éric; Chamberland, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Characterization of gas clouds are challenging situations to address due to the large and uneven distribution of these fast moving entities. Whether gas characterization is carried out for gas leaks surveys or environmental monitoring purposes, explosives and/or toxic chemicals are often involved. In such situations, airborne measurements present distinct advantages over ground based-techniques since large areas can be covered efficiently from a safe distance. In order to illustrate the potential of airborne thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging for gas cloud characterization, measurements were carried out above smokestacks and a ground-based gas release experiment. Quantitative airborne chemical images of carbon monoxide (CO) and ethylene (C2H4) were obtained from measurements carried out using a midwave (MWIR, 3-5 μm) and a longwave (LWIR, 8-12 μm) airborne infrared hyperspectral sensor respectively. Scattering effects were observed in the MWIR experiments on smokestacks as a result of water condensation upon rapid cool down of the hot emission gases. Airborne measurements were carried out using both mapping and targeting acquisition modes. The later provides unique time-dependent information such as the gas cloud direction and velocity.

  12. Calibration Of Airborne Visible/IR Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G. A.; Chrien, T. G.; Miller, E. A.; Reimer, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Paper describes laboratory spectral and radiometric calibration of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) applied to all AVIRIS science data collected in 1987. Describes instrumentation and procedures used and demonstrates that calibration accuracy achieved exceeds design requirements. Developed for use in remote-sensing studies in such disciplines as botany, geology, hydrology, and oceanography.

  13. Mapping Fault Slip in Central California Using Satellite, Airborne InSAR and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Lundgren, Paul; Hensley, Scott

    2015-05-01

    The central San Andreas fault is accommodating relative motion between the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley block and the Pacific plate in central California. It is creeping along the ~60 km long central segment while changing to locking towards the northwest and southeast. Characterizing its creeping nature and on and off-fault deformation are crucial for improved earthquake hazard assessment in the region. We use L-band ALOS PALSAR, NASA airborne UAVSAR data and geodetic measurements to map the fault slip variation. Our results show a distinct change in shallow fault creep and fault slip at depth from the central creeping to the transitional segment. Our work demonstrates that airborne UAVSAR provides useful constraints on shallow creep and near fault deformation. Continuing observations would be essential in capturing time-varying faulting behaviours and their implication towards present and future earthquake activities.

  14. Study on automatic airborne image positioning model and its application in FY-3A airborne experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Yang, Zhongdong; Guan, Min; Zhang, Liyang; Wang, Tiantian

    2009-08-01

    This paper addresses the issue on airborne image positioning model and its application in FY-3A experiment. First, the FY-3A Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI)'s viewing vector is derived from MERSI's imaging pattern. Then, the image positioning model is analyzed mathematically in detail which is based on Earth-aircraft geometry. The model parameters are mainly determined by both the sensor - aircraft alignment and the onboard discrete measurements of the positioning and orientation. Flight trials are flown at an altitude of 8300 m over the Qinghai Lake China. It is shown that the image positioning accuracy (about 1~4 pixels) is better than previous methods (more than 7 pixels, [G. J. Jedlovec et al. NASA Technical Memorandum TM - 100352 (1989) and D. P. Roy et al. Int. J. Rem. Sens. 18(9), 1865 - 1887 (1997)]). It is also shown that the model has the potential to hold the image positioning errors within one pixel. The model can operate automatically, and does not need ground control points data. Since our algorithm get the image positioning results through an observation geometric perspective which is in computing the point at which the sensor viewing vector intersects the earth surface, our algorithm assumes the airborne data are from the plain area.

  15. The Determination Of Titan'S Rotational State From Cassini Sar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persi Del Marmo, Paolo; Iess, L.; Picardi, G.; Seu, R.; Bertotti, B.

    2007-10-01

    SAR images acquired by the spacecraft Cassini in overlapping strips have been used to determine the vectorial angular velocity of Titan. The method entails the tracking of surface landmarks at different times (and mean anomalies), spanning a period from 2004 to 2007. Each image is referenced both in an inertial frame and in the IAU, Titan-centric, body-fixed reference frame. This referencing is quite precise (accuracy of Cassini relative to Titan position smaller than 100 m). The IAU body-fixed frame assumes a spin axis different from the actual one. By correlating the two images of the same surface region, one gets a two-dimensional vector, which retains information about the true spin axis. This vector provides the magnitude and direction of the displacement to be applied to a reference point of each image in order to produce maximum correlation. The correlation results therefore in a new Titan-centric, inertial referencing of the images, R(t1) and R(t2). The spin axis s is then obtained by requiring that [R(t2) - R(t1)] • s = 0 for each overlapping image pairs. Left hand sides cannot be simultaneously zeroed because Titan doesn't move respect to the known polar axis and the real spin axis must be determined by means of a least square procedure. The magnitude of the angular velocity is then derived from the angle and time between two observations. The Titan pole position estimated is consistent with the occupancy of a Cassini state. If Titan were a rigid body in a Cassini state (with an icy crust anchored to the mantle), one could use theoretical arguments to derive the moment of inertia from the obliquity and the second degree gravity field. However, our results suggest that those theoretical arguments cannot be straightforwardly applied to Titan, whose rotational state is more complex than expected.

  16. Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer AVIS: Design, Characterization and Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Oppelt, Natascha; Mauser, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    The Airborne Visible / Infrared imaging Spectrometer AVIS is a hyperspectral imager designed for environmental monitoring purposes. The sensor, which was constructed entirely from commercially available components, has been successfully deployed during several experiments between 1999 and 2007. We describe the instrument design and present the results of laboratory characterization and calibration of the system's second generation, AVIS-2, which is currently being operated. The processing of the data is described and examples of remote sensing reflectance data are presented.

  17. The Establishment of the SAR images database System Based on Oracle and ArcSDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jijin; Li, Zhen; Chen, Quan; Tian, Bangsen

    2014-03-01

    Synthetic aperture radar is a kind of microwave imaging system, and has the advantages of multi-band, multi-polarization and multi-angle. At present, there is no SAR images database system based on typical features. For solving problems in interpretation and identification, a new SAR images database system of the typical features is urgent in the current development need. In this article, a SAR images database system based on Oracle and ArcSDE was constructed. The main works involving are as follows: (1) SAR image data was calibrated and corrected geometrically and geometrically. Besides, the fully polarimetric image was processed as the coherency matrix[T] to preserve the polarimetric information. (2) After analyzing multiple space borne SAR images, the metadata table was defined as: IMAGEID; Name of features; Latitude and Longitude; Sensor name; Range and Azimuth resolution etc. (3) Through the comparison between GeoRaster and ArcSDE, result showed ArcSDE is a more appropriate technology to store images in a central database. The System stores and manages multisource SAR image data well, reflects scattering, geometry, polarization, band and angle characteristics, and combines with analysis of the managed objects and service objects of the database as well as focuses on constructing SAR image system in the aspects of data browse and data retrieval. According the analysis of characteristics of SAR images such as scattering, polarization, incident angle and wave band information, different weights can be given to these characteristics. Then an interpreted tool is formed to provide an efficient platform for interpretation.

  18. Comparison of automatic segmentation of full polarimetric SAR sea ice images with manually drawn ice charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moen, M.-A. N.; Doulgeris, A. P.; Anfinsen, S. N.; Renner, A. H. H.; Hughes, N.; Gerland, S.; Eltoft, T.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we investigate the performance of an algorithm for automatic segmentation of full polarimetric, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sea ice scenes. The algorithm uses statistical and polarimetric properties of the backscattered radar signals to segment the SAR image into a specified number of classes. This number was determined in advance from visual inspection of the SAR image and by available in-situ measurements. The segmentation result was then compared to ice charts drawn by ice service analysts. The comparison revealed big discrepancies between the charts of the analysts, and between the manual and the automatic segmentations. In the succeeding analysis, the automatic segmentation chart was labeled into ice types by sea ice experts, and the SAR features used in the segmentation were interpreted in terms of physical sea ice properties. Studies of automatic and robust estimation of the number of ice classes in SAR sea ice scenes will be highly relevant for future work.

  19. Accelerating Spaceborne SAR Imaging Using Multiple CPU/GPU Deep Collaborative Computing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Guojun; Li, Wei; Hu, Wei; Hu, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    With the development of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technologies in recent years, the huge amount of remote sensing data brings challenges for real-time imaging processing. Therefore, high performance computing (HPC) methods have been presented to accelerate SAR imaging, especially the GPU based methods. In the classical GPU based imaging algorithm, GPU is employed to accelerate image processing by massive parallel computing, and CPU is only used to perform the auxiliary work such as data input/output (IO). However, the computing capability of CPU is ignored and underestimated. In this work, a new deep collaborative SAR imaging method based on multiple CPU/GPU is proposed to achieve real-time SAR imaging. Through the proposed tasks partitioning and scheduling strategy, the whole image can be generated with deep collaborative multiple CPU/GPU computing. In the part of CPU parallel imaging, the advanced vector extension (AVX) method is firstly introduced into the multi-core CPU parallel method for higher efficiency. As for the GPU parallel imaging, not only the bottlenecks of memory limitation and frequent data transferring are broken, but also kinds of optimized strategies are applied, such as streaming, parallel pipeline and so on. Experimental results demonstrate that the deep CPU/GPU collaborative imaging method enhances the efficiency of SAR imaging on single-core CPU by 270 times and realizes the real-time imaging in that the imaging rate outperforms the raw data generation rate. PMID:27070606

  20. Accelerating Spaceborne SAR Imaging Using Multiple CPU/GPU Deep Collaborative Computing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Guojun; Li, Wei; Hu, Wei; Hu, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    With the development of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technologies in recent years, the huge amount of remote sensing data brings challenges for real-time imaging processing. Therefore, high performance computing (HPC) methods have been presented to accelerate SAR imaging, especially the GPU based methods. In the classical GPU based imaging algorithm, GPU is employed to accelerate image processing by massive parallel computing, and CPU is only used to perform the auxiliary work such as data input/output (IO). However, the computing capability of CPU is ignored and underestimated. In this work, a new deep collaborative SAR imaging method based on multiple CPU/GPU is proposed to achieve real-time SAR imaging. Through the proposed tasks partitioning and scheduling strategy, the whole image can be generated with deep collaborative multiple CPU/GPU computing. In the part of CPU parallel imaging, the advanced vector extension (AVX) method is firstly introduced into the multi-core CPU parallel method for higher efficiency. As for the GPU parallel imaging, not only the bottlenecks of memory limitation and frequent data transferring are broken, but also kinds of optimized strategies are applied, such as streaming, parallel pipeline and so on. Experimental results demonstrate that the deep CPU/GPU collaborative imaging method enhances the efficiency of SAR imaging on single-core CPU by 270 times and realizes the real-time imaging in that the imaging rate outperforms the raw data generation rate. PMID:27070606

  1. Fast SAR Image Change Detection Using Bayesian Approach Based Difference Image and Modified Statistical Region Merging

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Weiping; Yan, Weidong; Bian, Hui; Wu, Junzheng

    2014-01-01

    A novel fast SAR image change detection method is presented in this paper. Based on a Bayesian approach, the prior information that speckles follow the Nakagami distribution is incorporated into the difference image (DI) generation process. The new DI performs much better than the familiar log ratio (LR) DI as well as the cumulant based Kullback-Leibler divergence (CKLD) DI. The statistical region merging (SRM) approach is first introduced to change detection context. A new clustering procedure with the region variance as the statistical inference variable is exhibited to tailor SAR image change detection purposes, with only two classes in the final map, the unchanged and changed classes. The most prominent advantages of the proposed modified SRM (MSRM) method are the ability to cope with noise corruption and the quick implementation. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior in both the change detection accuracy and the operation efficiency. PMID:25258740

  2. APEX: current status of the airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieke, Jens; Itten, Klaus I.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Schlapfer, Daniel R.; Brazile, Jason; Debruyn, Walter; Meuleman, Koen; Kempeneers, Pieter B.; Neukom, Andreas; Feusi, Hans; Adolph, Peter; Moser, Renzo; Schilliger, Thomas; van Quickelberghe, Marie; Alder, John; Mollet, Dominique; De Vos, Lieve; Kohler, Peter; Meng, Markus; Piesbergen, Jens; Strobl, Peter; Schaepman, Michael E.; Gavira, Jose; Ulbrich, Gerd J.; Meynart, Roland

    2004-10-01

    Recently, a joint Swiss/Belgian initiative started a project to build a new generation airborne imaging spectrometer, namely APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) under the ESA funding scheme named PRODEX. APEX is a dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer operating in the spectral range between 380 - 2500 nm. The spectral resolution will be better then 10 nm in the SWIR and < 5 nm in the VNIR range of the solar reflected range of the spectrum. The total FOV will be +/- 14 deg, recording 1000 pixels across track with max. 300 spectral bands simultaneously. APEX is subdivided into an industrial team responsible for the optical instrument, the calibration homebase, and the detectors, and a science and operational team, responsible for the processing and archiving of the imaging spectrometer data, as well as for its operation. APEX is in its design phase and the instrument will be operationally available to the user community in the year 2006.

  3. Clipping service: ATR-based SAR image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodkey, David L.; Welby, Stephen P.; Hostetler, Larry D.

    1996-06-01

    Future wide area surveillance systems such as the Tier II+ and Tier III- unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) will be gathering cast amounts of high resolution SAR data for transmission to ground stations and subsequent analysis by image interpreters to provide critical and timely information to field commanders. This extremely high data rate presents two problems. First, wide bandwidth data link channels which would be needed to transmit this high data rate presents two problems. First, wide bandwidth data link channels which would be needed to transmit this imagery to a ground station are both expensive and difficult to obtain. Second, the volume of data which is generated by the system will quickly saturate any human-based analysis system without some degree of computer assistance. The ARPA sponsored clipping service program seeks to apply automatic target recognition (ATR) technology to perform 'intelligent' data compression on this imagery in a way which will provide a product on the ground that preserves essential information for further processing either by the military analyst or by a ground-based ATR system. An ATR system on board the UAV would examine the imagery data stream in real time determining regions of interest. Imagery from those regions would be transmitted to the ground in a manner which preserved most or all of the information contained in the original image. The remainder of the imagery would be transmitted to the ground with lesser fidelity. This paper presents system analysis deriving the operational requirements for the clipping service system and examines candidate architectures.

  4. Sea ice motion measurements from Seasat SAR images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leberl, F.; Raggam, J.; Elachi, C.; Campbell, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Data from the Seasat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) experiment are analyzed in order to determine the accuracy of this information for mapping the distribution of sea ice and its motion. Data from observations of sea ice in the Beaufort Sea from seven sequential orbits of the satellite were selected to study the capabilities and limitations of spaceborne radar application to sea-ice mapping. Results show that there is no difficulty in identifying homologue ice features on sequential radar images and the accuracy is entirely controlled by the accuracy of the orbit data and the geometric calibration of the sensor. Conventional radargrammetric methods are found to serve well for satellite radar ice mapping, while ground control points can be used to calibrate the ice location and motion measurements in the cases where orbit data and sensor calibration are lacking. The ice motion was determined to be approximately 6.4 + or - 0.5 km/day. In addition, the accuracy of pixel location was found over land areas. The use of one control point in 10,000 sq km produced an accuracy of about + or 150 m, while with a higher density of control points (7 in 1000 sq km) the location accuracy improves to the image resolution of + or - 25 m. This is found to be applicable for both optical and digital data.

  5. Field of view selection for optimal airborne imaging sensor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Tristan M.; Barnard, P. Werner; Fildis, Halidun; Erbudak, Mustafa; Senger, Tolga; Alpman, Mehmet E.

    2014-05-01

    The choice of the Field of View (FOV) of imaging sensors used in airborne targeting applications has major impact on the overall performance of the system. Conducting a market survey from published data on sensors used in stabilized airborne targeting systems shows a trend of ever narrowing FOVs housed in smaller and lighter volumes. This approach promotes the ever increasing geometric resolution provided by narrower FOVs, while it seemingly ignores the influences the FOV selection has on the sensor's sensitivity, the effects of diffraction, the influences of sight line jitter and collectively the overall system performance. This paper presents a trade-off methodology to select the optimal FOV for an imaging sensor that is limited in aperture diameter by mechanical constraints (such as space/volume available and window size) by balancing the influences FOV has on sensitivity and resolution and thereby optimizing the system's performance. The methodology may be applied to staring array based imaging sensors across all wavebands from visible/day cameras through to long wave infrared thermal imagers. Some examples of sensor analysis applying the trade-off methodology are given that highlights the performance advantages that can be gained by maximizing the aperture diameters and choosing the optimal FOV for an imaging sensor used in airborne targeting applications.

  6. Mono- and multistatic polarimetric sparse aperture 3D SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGraaf, Stuart; Twigg, Charles; Phillips, Louis

    2008-04-01

    SAR imaging at low center frequencies (UHF and L-band) offers advantages over imaging at more conventional (X-band) frequencies, including foliage penetration for target detection and scene segmentation based on polarimetric coherency. However, bandwidths typically available at these center frequencies are small, affording poor resolution. By exploiting extreme spatial diversity (partial hemispheric k-space coverage) and nonlinear bandwidth extrapolation/interpolation methods such as Least-Squares SuperResolution (LSSR) and Least-Squares CLEAN (LSCLEAN), one can achieve resolutions that are commensurate with the carrier frequency (λ/4) rather than the bandwidth (c/2B). Furthermore, extreme angle diversity affords complete coverage of a target's backscatter, and a correspondingly more literal image. To realize these benefits, however, one must image the scene in 3-D; otherwise layover-induced misregistration compromises the coherent summation that yields improved resolution. Practically, one is limited to very sparse elevation apertures, i.e. a small number of circular passes. Here we demonstrate that both LSSR and LSCLEAN can reduce considerably the sidelobe and alias artifacts caused by these sparse elevation apertures. Further, we illustrate how a hypothetical multi-static geometry consisting of six vertical real-aperture receive apertures, combined with a single circular transmit aperture provide effective, though sparse and unusual, 3-D k-space support. Forward scattering captured by this geometry reveals horizontal scattering surfaces that are missed in monostatic backscattering geometries. This paper illustrates results based on LucernHammer UHF and L-band mono- and multi-static simulations of a backhoe.

  7. Ship Detection in SAR Image Based on the Alpha-stable Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changcheng; Liao, Mingsheng; Li, Xiaofeng

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an improved Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) ship detection algorithm in spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image based on Alpha-stable distribution model. Typically, the CFAR algorithm uses the Gaussian distribution model to describe statistical characteristics of a SAR image background clutter. However, the Gaussian distribution is only valid for multilook SAR images when several radar looks are averaged. As sea clutter in SAR images shows spiky or heavy-tailed characteristics, the Gaussian distribution often fails to describe background sea clutter. In this study, we replace the Gaussian distribution with the Alpha-stable distribution, which is widely used in impulsive or spiky signal processing, to describe the background sea clutter in SAR images. In our proposed algorithm, an initial step for detecting possible ship targets is employed. Then, similar to the typical two-parameter CFAR algorithm, a local process is applied to the pixel identified as possible target. A RADARSAT-1 image is used to validate this Alpha-stable distribution based algorithm. Meanwhile, known ship location data during the time of RADARSAT-1 SAR image acquisition is used to validate ship detection results. Validation results show improvements of the new CFAR algorithm based on the Alpha-stable distribution over the CFAR algorithm based on the Gaussian distribution.

  8. Airborne electromagnetic imaging of discontinuous permafrost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minsley, B.J.; Abraham, J.D.; Smith, B.D.; Cannia, J.C.; Voss, C.I.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Walvoord, M.A.; Wylie, B.K.; Anderson, L.; Ball, L.B.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Wellman, T.P.; Ager, T.A.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of permafrost in cold regions is inextricably connected to hydrogeologic processes, climate, and ecosystems. Permafrost thawing has been linked to changes in wetland and lake areas, alteration of the groundwater contribution to streamflow, carbon release, and increased fire frequency. But detailed knowledge about the dynamic state of permafrost in relation to surface and groundwater systems remains an enigma. Here, we present the results of a pioneering ???1,800 line-kilometer airborne electromagnetic survey that shows sediments deposited over the past ???4 million years and the configuration of permafrost to depths of ???100 meters in the Yukon Flats area near Fort Yukon, Alaska. The Yukon Flats is near the boundary between continuous permafrost to the north and discontinuous permafrost to the south, making it an important location for examining permafrost dynamics. Our results not only provide a detailed snapshot of the present-day configuration of permafrost, but they also expose previously unseen details about potential surface-groundwater connections and the thermal legacy of surface water features that has been recorded in the permafrost over the past ???1,000 years. This work will be a critical baseline for future permafrost studies aimed at exploring the connections between hydrogeologic, climatic, and ecological processes, and has significant implications for the stewardship of Arctic environments. ?? 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Direct Geolocation of TerraSAR-X Spotlight Mode Image and Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao; Zeng, Qiming; Jiao, Jian; Zhang, Jingfa; Gong, Lixia

    2013-01-01

    The research dealt with direct geolocation of spaceborne high-resolution SAR image. The TerraSAR-X spotlight mode image was chosen as the study object. The mathematical model of SAR geolocation is Range-Doppler (RD) model. Its resolving algorithms had been studied and the ASF algorithm was chosen because of its high accuracy. The focus of this research laid on the error sources and their correction method which could affect the geolocation accuracy, such as the orbit errors, azimuth timing errors and range timing errors. At last, the accuracy of this method was verified by the experiment results.

  10. The Determination Of Titan's Rotational State From Cassini SAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persi Del Marmo, P.; Iess, L.; Picardi, G.; Seu, R.; Bertotti, B.

    2007-12-01

    SAR images acquired by the spacecraft Cassini in overlapping strips have been used to determine the vectorial angular velocity of Titan. The method entails the tracking of surface landmarks at different times (and mean anomalies). Cassini radar observations have provided so far 14 high resolution image pairs of the same portion of Titan surface, spanning a period from 2004 to 2007. Each image is referenced both in an inertial frame and in the IAU, Titan-centric, body-fixed reference frame. This referencing is quite precise, as the position of Cassini relative to Titan is known with an accuracy smaller than 100 m during each flyby. The IAU body-fixed frame assumes a spin axis different from the actual one. Therefore, in this putative frame a landmark appears at different geographic coordinates in the two observations. By correlating the two images of the same surface region, one gets a two-dimensional vector, which retains information about the true spin axis. This vector provides the magnitude and direction of the displacement to be applied to a reference point of each image in order to produce maximum correlation. The correlation results therefore in a new Titan-centric, inertial referencing of the images, R(t1) and R(t2). The spin axis s is then obtained by requiring that [R(t2) - R(t1)] s = 0 for each overlapping image pairs. Due to experimental errors (dominated by image correlation errors and inaccuracies in the spacecraft orbit relative to Titan) the left hand sides cannot be simultaneously zeroed and the spin axis must be determined by means of a least square procedure. The magnitude of the angular velocity is then derived from the angle between the vectors R(t1) and R(t2) and the known time difference between the two observations. Our analysis indicates that the Titan pole coordinates are consistent with the occupancy of the fourth Cassini state. The uncertainties are obtained assuming a realistic error of 250 m in the reconstruction of the inertially

  11. Inter-Tidal Flats Segmentation Of SAR Images Using A Waterfall Hierarchical Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, F.; Catalao, J.; Nico, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we describe a scheme to identify 1D structures in SAR images and applied it to a dataset consisting of two TerraSAR-X images acquired over the region of Lisbon with a temporal baseline of 22 days. The aim of this application it to identify the inter-tidal flats along the south bank of the Tagus river. First results show that a proper recognition of the inter-tidal zone is achieved.

  12. Automatic compensation of antenna beam roll-off in SAR images.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-04-01

    The effects of a non-uniform antenna beam are sometimes visible in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. This might be due to near-range operation, wide scenes, or inadequate antenna pointing accuracy. The effects can be mitigated in the SAR image by fitting very a simple model to the illumination profile and compensating the pixel brightness accordingly, in an automated fashion. This is accomplished without a detailed antenna pattern calibration, and allows for drift in the antenna beam alignments.

  13. Landsat radiometric continuity using airborne imaging spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCorkel, J.; Angal, A.; Thome, K.; Cook, B.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Goddard's Lidar, Hyperspectral and Thermal Imager (G-LiHT) includes a scanning lidar, an imaging spectrometer and a thermal camera. The Visible Near-Infrared (VNIR) Imaging Spectrometer acquires high resolution spectral measurements (1.5 nm resolution) from 0.4 to 1.0 µm. The SIRCUS-based calibration facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center was used to measure the absolute spectral response (ASR) of the G-LiHT's imaging spectrometer. Continuously tunable lasers coupled to an integrating sphere facilitated a radiance-based calibration for the detectors in the reflective solar bands. The transfer of the SIRCUS-based laboratory calibration of G-LiHT's Imaging Spectrometer to the Landsat sensors (Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI) is demonstrated using simultaneous overpasses over the Red Lake Playa and McClaw's Playa sites during the commissioning phase of Landsat 8 in March 2013. Solar Lunar Absolute Imaging Spectrometer (SOLARIS) is the calibration demonstration system for the reflected solar instrument of CLARREO. A portable version of SOLARIS, known as Suitcase SOLARIS, also calibrated using a SIRCUS-based setup, was deployed for ground measurements as a part of both the field campaigns. Simultaneous measurements of SOLARIS allow cross-comparison with G-LiHT and Landsat sensors. The transfer of the lab-based calibration of G-LiHT to Landsat sensors show that the sensors agree within 5% with a 1-3% calibration uncertainty of G-LiHT's Imaging Spectrometer.

  14. Real-time airborne hyperspectral imaging of land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanco, Tyler; Achal, Steve; McFee, John E.; Anger, Cliff; Young, Jane

    2007-04-01

    DRDC Suffeld and Itres Research have jointly investigated the use of visible and infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for surface and buried land mine detection since 1989. These studies have demonstrated reliable passive HSI detection of surface-laid mines, based on their reflectance spectra, from airborne and ground-based platforms. Commercial HSI instruments collect and store image data at aircraft speeds, but the data are analysed off- line. This is useful for humanitarian demining, but unacceptable for military countermine operations. We have developed a hardware and software system with algorithms that can process the raw hyperspectral data in real time to detect mines. The custom algorithms perform radiometric correction of the raw data, then classify pixels of the corrected data, referencing a spectral signature library. The classification results are stored and displayed in real time, that is, within a few frame times of the data acquisition. Such real-time mine detection was demonstrated for the first time from a slowly moving land vehicle in March 2000. This paper describes an improved system which can achieve real-time detection of mines from an airborne platform, with its commensurately higher data rates. The system is presently compatible with the Itres family of visible/near infrared, short wave infrared and thermal infrared pushbroom hyperspectral imagers and its broadband thermal infrared pushbroom imager. Experiments to detect mines from an airborne platform in real time were conducted at DRDC Suffield in November 2006. Surface-laid land mines were detected in real time from a slowly moving helicopter with generally good detection rates and low false alarm rates. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that land mines have been detected from an airborne platform in real time using hyperspectral imaging.

  15. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS USING AIRBORNE LWIR HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne longwave infrared LWIR) hyperspectral imagery was utilized to detect and identify gaseous chemical release plumes at sites in sourthern Texzas. The Airborne Hysperspectral Imager (AHI), developed by the University of Hawaii was flown over a petrochemical facility and a ...

  16. Thermal infrared spectral imager for airborne science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Realmuto, Vincent; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2009-05-01

    An airborne thermal hyperspectral imager is underdevelopment which utilizes the compact Dyson optical configuration and quantum well infrared photo detector (QWIP) focal plane array. The Dyson configuration uses a single monolithic prism-like grating design which allows for a high throughput instrument (F/1.6) with minimal ghosting, stray-light and large swath width. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal imaging spectroscopy solution unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The planned instrument specifications are discussed as well as design trade-offs. Calibration testing results (noise equivalent temperature difference, spectral linearity and spectral bandwidth) and laboratory emissivity plots from samples are shown using an operational testbed unit which has similar specifications as the final airborne system. Field testing of the testbed unit was performed to acquire plots of emissivity for various known standard minerals (quartz). A comparison is made using data from the ASTER spectral library.

  17. Towards HyTES: an airborne thermal imaging spectroscopy instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Realmuto, Vincent; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2009-08-01

    An airborne thermal hyperspectral imager is underdevelopment which utilizes the compact Dyson optical configuration and quantum well infrared photo detector (QWIP) focal plane array. The Dyson configuration uses a single monolithic prism-like grating design which allows for a high throughput instrument (F/1.6) with minimal ghosting, stray-light and large swath width. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal imaging spectroscopy solution unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The planned instrument specifications are discussed as well as design trade-offs. Calibration testing results (noise equivalent temperature difference, spectral linearity and spectral bandwidth) and laboratory emissivity plots from samples are shown using an operational testbed unit which has similar specifications as the final airborne system. Field testing of the testbed unit was performed to acquire plots of emissivity for various known standard minerals (quartz). A comparison is made using data from the ASTER spectral library.

  18. Drift Ice Classification Using SAR Image Data by a Self-Organizing Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumi, Minoru; Mitsukura, Yasue; Nagao, Taketsugu; Akamatsu, Norio

    This paper proposes a segmentation method of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images which uses a SOM(Self-Organizing Map). SAR images are obtained by observation using microwave sensor. They are segmented into the drift ice (thick, thin), and sea regions manually, and then features are extracted from partitioned data. However they are not necessarily effective for neural network learning because they can include incorrectly segmented data. Therefore, in particular, a multi-step SOM is used as a learning method to improve reliability of teacher data, and carries out classification. This process enable us to fix all mistook data and segment the SAR data using just data. The validity of this method was demonstrated by computer simulations using the actual SAR images.

  19. Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging of Seagrass and Coral Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, J.; Pan, Z.; Mewes, T.; Herwitz, S.

    2013-12-01

    This talk presents the process of project preparation, airborne data collection, data pre-processing and comparative analysis of a series of airborne hyperspectral projects focused on the mapping of seagrass and coral reef communities in the Florida Keys. As part of a series of large collaborative projects funded by the NASA ROSES program and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and administered by the NASA UAV Collaborative, a series of airborne hyperspectral datasets were collected over six sites in the Florida Keys in May 2012, October 2012 and May 2013 by Galileo Group, Inc. using a manned Cessna 172 and NASA's SIERRA Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Precise solar and tidal data were used to calculate airborne collection parameters and develop flight plans designed to optimize data quality. Two independent Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging systems covering 400-100nm were used to collect imagery over six Areas of Interest (AOIs). Multiple collections were performed over all sites across strict solar windows in the mornings and afternoons. Independently developed pre-processing algorithms were employed to radiometrically correct, synchronize and georectify individual flight lines which were then combined into color balanced mosaics for each Area of Interest. The use of two different hyperspectral sensor as well as environmental variations between each collection allow for the comparative analysis of data quality as well as the iterative refinement of flight planning and collection parameters.

  20. A portfolio of fine resolution Ka-band SAR images : part l.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Martin; Gutierrez, Vivian Dee; Dubbert, Dale Francis; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories designs and builds Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems capable of forming high-quality exceptionally fine resolution images. During the spring of 2004 a series of test flights were completed with a Ka-band testbed SAR on Sandia's DeHavilland DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft. A large data set was collected including real-time fine-resolution images of a variety of target scenes. This paper offers a sampling of high quality images representative of the output of Sandia's Ka-band testbed radar with resolutions as fine as 4 inches. Images will be annotated with descriptions of collection geometries and other relevant image parameters.

  1. SAR image simulation in the time domain for moving ocean surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takero; Rheem, Chang-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a fundamental simulation method to generate synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images for moving ocean surfaces. We have designed the simulation based on motion induced modulations and Bragg scattering, which are important features of ocean SAR images. The time domain simulation is able to obtain time series of microwave backscattering modulated by the orbital motions of ocean waves. Physical optics approximation is applied to calculate microwave backscattering. The computational grids are smaller than transmit microwave to demonstrate accurate interaction between electromagnetic waves and ocean surface waves. In this paper, as foundations for SAR image simulation of moving ocean surfaces, the simulation is carried out for some targets and ocean waves. The SAR images of stationary and moving targets are simulated to confirm SAR signal processing and motion induced modulation. Furthermore, the azimuth signals from the regular wave traveling to the azimuth direction also show the azimuthal shifts due to the orbital motions. In addition, incident angle dependence is simulated for irregular wind waves to compare with Bragg scattering theory. The simulation results are in good agreement with the theory. These results show that the simulation is applicable for generating numerical SAR images of moving ocean surfaces. PMID:23549367

  2. High spectral resolution airborne short wave infrared hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liqing; Yuan, Liyin; Wang, Yueming; Zhuang, Xiaoqiong

    2016-05-01

    Short Wave InfraRed(SWIR) spectral imager is good at detecting difference between materials and penetrating fog and mist. High spectral resolution SWIR hyperspectral imager plays a key role in developing earth observing technology. Hyperspectral data cube can help band selections that is very important for multispectral imager design. Up to now, the spectral resolution of many SWIR hyperspectral imagers is about 10nm. A high sensitivity airborne SWIR hyperspectral imager with narrower spectral band will be presented. The system consists of TMA telescope, slit, spectrometer with planar blazed grating and high sensitivity MCT FPA. The spectral sampling interval is about 3nm. The IFOV is 0.5mrad. To eliminate the influence of the thermal background, a cold shield is designed in the dewar. The pixel number of spatial dimension is 640. Performance measurement in laboratory and image analysis for flight test will also be presented.

  3. A three-component method for timely detection of land cover changes using polarimetric SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhixin; Yeh, Anthony Gar-On; Li, Xia; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2015-09-01

    This study proposes a new three-component method for timely detection of land cover changes using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) images. The three components are object-oriented image analysis (OOIA), change vector analysis (CVA), and post-classification comparison (PCC). First, two PolSAR images acquired over the same area at different dates are segmented hierarchically to delineate land parcels (image objects). Then, parcel-based CVA is performed with the coherency matrices of the PolSAR data to detect changed parcels. Finally, PCC based on a parcel-based classification algorithm integrating polarimetric decomposition, decision tree algorithms, and support vector machines is used to determine the type of change for the changed parcels. Compared with conventional PCC based on the widely used Wishart supervised classification, the three-component method achieves much higher accuracy for land cover change detection with PolSAR images. The contribution of each component is evaluated by excluding it from the method. The integration of OOIA in the method greatly reduces the false alarms caused by speckle noise in PolSAR images as well as improves the accuracy of PolSAR image classification. CVA contributes to the method by significantly reducing the effect of the classification errors on the change detection. The use of PCC in the method not only identifies different types of land cover change but also reduces the false alarms introduced by the change in the environment. The three-component method is validated in land development detection, which is important to many developing countries that are confronting a growing problem of unauthorized construction land expansion. The results show that the three-component method is effective in detecting land developments with PolSAR images.

  4. Correcting Spatial Variance of RCM for GEO SAR Imaging Based on Time-Frequency Scaling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ze; Lin, Peng; Xiao, Peng; Kang, Lihong; Li, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Compared with low-Earth orbit synthetic aperture radar (SAR), a geosynchronous (GEO) SAR can have a shorter revisit period and vaster coverage. However, relative motion between this SAR and targets is more complicated, which makes range cell migration (RCM) spatially variant along both range and azimuth. As a result, efficient and precise imaging becomes difficult. This paper analyzes and models spatial variance for GEO SAR in the time and frequency domains. A novel algorithm for GEO SAR imaging with a resolution of 2 m in both the ground cross-range and range directions is proposed, which is composed of five steps. The first is to eliminate linear azimuth variance through the first azimuth time scaling. The second is to achieve RCM correction and range compression. The third is to correct residual azimuth variance by the second azimuth time-frequency scaling. The fourth and final steps are to accomplish azimuth focusing and correct geometric distortion. The most important innovation of this algorithm is implementation of the time-frequency scaling to correct high-order azimuth variance. As demonstrated by simulation results, this algorithm can accomplish GEO SAR imaging with good and uniform imaging quality over the entire swath. PMID:27428974

  5. Correcting Spatial Variance of RCM for GEO SAR Imaging Based on Time-Frequency Scaling

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ze; Lin, Peng; Xiao, Peng; Kang, Lihong; Li, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Compared with low-Earth orbit synthetic aperture radar (SAR), a geosynchronous (GEO) SAR can have a shorter revisit period and vaster coverage. However, relative motion between this SAR and targets is more complicated, which makes range cell migration (RCM) spatially variant along both range and azimuth. As a result, efficient and precise imaging becomes difficult. This paper analyzes and models spatial variance for GEO SAR in the time and frequency domains. A novel algorithm for GEO SAR imaging with a resolution of 2 m in both the ground cross-range and range directions is proposed, which is composed of five steps. The first is to eliminate linear azimuth variance through the first azimuth time scaling. The second is to achieve RCM correction and range compression. The third is to correct residual azimuth variance by the second azimuth time-frequency scaling. The fourth and final steps are to accomplish azimuth focusing and correct geometric distortion. The most important innovation of this algorithm is implementation of the time-frequency scaling to correct high-order azimuth variance. As demonstrated by simulation results, this algorithm can accomplish GEO SAR imaging with good and uniform imaging quality over the entire swath. PMID:27428974

  6. Advanced Algorithms and High-Performance Testbed for Large-Scale Site Characterization and Subsurface Target Detecting Using Airborne Ground Penetrating SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Collier, James B.; Citak, Ari

    1997-01-01

    A team of US Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha District and Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville, let Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and Montgomery Watson is currently in the process of planning and conducting the largest ever survey at the Former Buckley Field (60,000 acres), in Colorado, by using SRI airborne, ground penetrating, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The purpose of this survey is the detection of surface and subsurface Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) and in a broader sense the site characterization for identification of contaminated as well as clear areas. In preparation for such a large-scale survey, JPL has been developing advanced algorithms and a high-performance restbed for processing of massive amount of expected SAR data from this site. Two key requirements of this project are the accuracy (in terms of UXO detection) and speed of SAR data processing. The first key feature of this testbed is a large degree of automation and a minimum degree of the need for human perception in the processing to achieve an acceptable processing rate of several hundred acres per day. For accurate UXO detection, novel algorithms have been developed and implemented. These algorithms analyze dual polarized (HH and VV) SAR data. They are based on the correlation of HH and VV SAR data and involve a rather large set of parameters for accurate detection of UXO. For each specific site, this set of parameters can be optimized by using ground truth data (i.e., known surface and subsurface UXOs). In this paper, we discuss these algorithms and their successful application for detection of surface and subsurface anti-tank mines by using a data set from Yuma proving Ground, A7, acquired by SRI SAR.

  7. Advanced algorithms and high-performance testbed for large-scale site characterization and subsurface target detection using airborne ground-penetrating SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fijany, Amir; Collier, James B.; Citak, Ari

    1999-08-01

    A team of US Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha District and Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville, JPL, Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and Montgomery Watson is currently in the process of planning and conducting the largest ever survey at the Former Buckley Field, in Colorado, by using SRI airborne, ground penetrating, SAR. The purpose of this survey is the detection of surface and subsurface Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) and in a broader sense the site characterization for identification of contaminated as well as clear areas. In preparation for such a large-scale survey, JPL has been developing advanced algorithms and a high-performance testbed for processing of massive amount of expected SAR data from this site. Two key requirements of this project are the accuracy and speed of SAR data processing. The first key feature of this testbed is a large degree of automation and maximum degree of the need for human perception in the processing to achieve an acceptable processing rate of several hundred acres per day. For accuracy UXO detection, novel algorithms have been developed and implemented. These algorithms analyze dual polarized SAR data. They are based on the correlation of HH and VV SAR data and involve a rather large set of parameters for accurate detection of UXO. For each specific site, this set of parameters can be optimized by using ground truth data. In this paper, we discuss these algorithms and their successful application for detection of surface and subsurface anti-tank mines by using a data set from Yuma Proving Ground, AZ, acquired by SRI SAR.

  8. Geodetic imaging of tectonic deformation with InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattahi, Heresh

    Precise measurements of ground deformation across the plate boundaries are crucial observations to evaluate the location of strain localization and to understand the pattern of strain accumulation at depth. Such information can be used to evaluate the possible location and magnitude of future earthquakes. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) potentially can deliver small-scale (few mm/yr) ground displacement over long distances (hundreds of kilometers) across the plate boundaries and over continents. However, Given the ground displacement as our signal of interest, the InSAR observations of ground deformation are usually affected by several sources of systematic and random noises. In this dissertation I identify several sources of systematic and random noise, develop new methods to model and mitigate the systematic noise and to evaluate the uncertainty of the ground displacement measured with InSAR. I use the developed approach to characterize the tectonic deformation and evaluate the rate of strain accumulation along the Chaman fault system, the western boundary of the India with Eurasia tectonic plates. I evaluate the bias due to the topographic residuals in the InSAR range-change time-series and develope a new method to estimate the topographic residuals and mitigate the effect from the InSAR range-change time-series (Chapter 2). I develop a new method to evaluate the uncertainty of the InSAR velocity field due to the uncertainty of the satellite orbits (Chapter 3) and a new algorithm to automatically detect and correct the phase unwrapping errors in a dense network of interferograms (Chapter 4). I develop a new approach to evaluate the impact of systematic and stochastic components of the tropospheric delay on the InSAR displacement time-series and its uncertainty (Chapter 5). Using the new InSAR time-series approach developed in the previous chapters, I study the tectonic deformation across the western boundary of the India plate with Eurasia and

  9. Laser Imaging of Airborne Acoustic Emission by Nonlinear Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodov, Igor; Döring, Daniel; Busse, Gerd

    2008-06-01

    Strongly nonlinear vibrations of near-surface fractured defects driven by an elastic wave radiate acoustic energy into adjacent air in a wide frequency range. The variations of pressure in the emitted airborne waves change the refractive index of air thus providing an acoustooptic interaction with a collimated laser beam. Such an air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) is proposed for detecting and imaging of acoustic radiation of nonlinear spectral components by cracked defects. The photoelastic relation in air is used to derive induced phase modulation of laser light in the heterodyne interferometer setup. The sensitivity of the scanning ACV to different spatial components of the acoustic radiation is analyzed. The animated airborne emission patterns are visualized for the higher harmonic and frequency mixing fields radiated by planar defects. The results confirm a high localization of the nonlinear acoustic emission around the defects and complicated directivity patterns appreciably different from those observed for fundamental frequencies.

  10. On the Implementation of a Land Cover Classification System for SAR Images Using Khoros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina Revera, Edwin J.; Espinosa, Ramon Vasquez

    1997-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensor is widely used to record data about the ground under all atmospheric conditions. The SAR acquired images have very good resolution which necessitates the development of a classification system that process the SAR images to extract useful information for different applications. In this work, a complete system for the land cover classification was designed and programmed using the Khoros, a data flow visual language environment, taking full advantages of the polymorphic data services that it provides. Image analysis was applied to SAR images to improve and automate the processes of recognition and classification of the different regions like mountains and lakes. Both unsupervised and supervised classification utilities were used. The unsupervised classification routines included the use of several Classification/Clustering algorithms like the K-means, ISO2, Weighted Minimum Distance, and the Localized Receptive Field (LRF) training/classifier. Different texture analysis approaches such as Invariant Moments, Fractal Dimension and Second Order statistics were implemented for supervised classification of the images. The results and conclusions for SAR image classification using the various unsupervised and supervised procedures are presented based on their accuracy and performance.

  11. An application of backprojection for video SAR image formation exploiting a subaperature circular shift register

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Bishop, E.; Doerry, A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper details a Video SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) mode that provides a persistent view of a scene centered at the Motion Compensation Point (MCP). The radar platform follows a circular flight path. An objective is to form a sequence of SAR images while observing dynamic scene changes at a selectable video frame rate. A formulation of backprojection meets this objective. Modified backprojection equations take into account changes in the grazing angle or squint angle that result from non-ideal flight paths. The algorithm forms a new video frame relying upon much of the signal processing performed in prior frames. The method described applies an appropriate azimuth window to each video frame for window sidelobe rejection. A Cardinal Direction Up (CDU) coordinate frame forms images with the top of the image oriented along a given cardinal direction for all video frames. Using this coordinate frame helps characterize a moving target's target response. Generation of synthetic targets with linear motion including both constant velocity and constant acceleration is described. The synthetic target video imagery demonstrates dynamic SAR imagery with expected moving target responses. The paper presents 2011 flight data collected by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) implementing the video SAR mode. The flight data demonstrates good video quality showing moving vehicles. The flight imagery demonstrates the real-time capability of the video SAR mode. The video SAR mode uses a circular shift register of subapertures. The radar employs a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in order to implement this algorithm.

  12. Sea state monitoring over Socotra Rock (Ieodo) by dual polarization SAR image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, J.; Yun, H.; yun, H.

    2013-12-01

    The application SAR in sea state monitoring have been conducted in the large number of fields such as the vessel tracing using the wake in SAR amplitude, the measurement of sea wave height and the oil spill detection. The true merit of SAR application in sea state monitoring is the full independence from the climate conditions. Hence, it is highly useful to secure safety of the anthropogenic activities in ocean and the understanding of the marine environment. Especially the dual and full polarization modes of new L band and X band SAR such as Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR)'s Fine Beam double Polarization (FDB) and Polarimetry mode (PLR) and terraSAR-X polarization mode provided innovative means to extract sea state information exploiting the different amplitude and phase angle responses by electromagnetic and sea wave interactions. Thus a sample projects for mining the maximum possible sea state information from the ALOS PLASAR FDB SAR/InSAR pairs compared with the in-suit observation of sea state is being conducted. Test site was established over Socotra Rock (Ieodo in Korean), which is located at the Western Sea of Korea. At first, it aimed the measurement of sea waves using ALOS PLASAR multi-polarization images and its doppler-shift analysis. Together with sea state monitoring, auxiliary data analyses to combine the sea state outputs with the other in-orbital sensing image and non image information to trace the influence of sea states in the marine environment are actively undergoing. For instance, MERIS chlorophyll-a products are under investigation to identify the correlation with sea state. However, an significant obstacles to apply SAR interpretation scheme for mining sea state is the temporal gap between SAR image acquisitions in spite of the improved revising time of contemporary in-orbital SAR sensors. To tackle this problem, we are also introducing the multi view angle optical sensor

  13. Validation of an active transponder for KOMPSAT-5 SAR image calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Durk Jong; Yeom, Kyung Whan; Ahn, Sang Il; Lim, Hyo Suk

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a transportable active transponder designed for the image calibration of Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-5 (KOMPSAT-5) with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Ground targets are essential in SAR image calibration. The environment for the deployment of ground targets for SAR image calibration should provide uniformity and minimum interference. The Amazon or deserts are regarded as desirable environments. However, such environments for SAR image calibration are difficult to find in Korea. Thus, it will be advantageous to have an active transponder whose performance will not be severely limited by the absence of such uniform environment. We have therefore developed an active transponder which has an adjustable internal delay and into which the orbit data of an arbitrary satellite can be loaded. The stored obit data with the aid of an internal global positioning system (GPS) receiver and gyroscope enables the active transponder to point to a selected satellite. In addition, a virtual deployment of the active transponder is possible due to its adjustable internal delay. Thus, the developed active transponder can be deployed at any place without environmental constraint. The performance of the developed active transponder is validated using the satellite TerraSAR-X, which is already in operation. The test results show that the active transponder is successfully compliant with the requirements for KOMPSAT-5 image calibration.

  14. Sizing and ranging criteria for SAR images of steel and wood specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Viet; Yu, Tzuyang; Owusu Twumasi, Jones; Tang, Qixiang

    2016-04-01

    The use of microwave and radar sensors in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of damaged materials and structures has been proven to be a promising approach. In this paper, a portable imaging radar sensor utilizing 10 GHz central frequency and stripmap synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging was applied to steel and wood specimens for size and range determination. Relationships between range and properties of SAR images (e.g. maximum amplitude and total SAR amplitude) were developed and reported for various specimens including a steel bar (2.5 cm by 2.5 cm by 28.5 cm), a wood bar (2.5 cm by 2.5 cm by 28.5 cm), a steel plate (39.7 cm by 57.9 cm by 1.75 cm), and a wood board (30.5 cm by 30.5 cm by 1.8 cm). Various ranges from 30 cm to 100 cm were used on these specimens. In our experiment, attenuation of radar signals collected by the imaging radar system on different material specimens was measured and modeled. Change in the attenuation of maximum SAR amplitude was observed in different materials. It is found that SAR images can be used to distinguish materials of different compositions and sizes.

  15. The effects of snow on landmarks in K/sub u/ band SAR images

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report documents research into the effects of snow on candidate landmarks for the TFS radar. It includes a discussion of a simple snow model, relevant backscatter data from previous ground based collections, predictions of the effects of snow coverage based on this data, a discussion of the snow data collection with the TFS radar, and an analysis of the results of that collection. All SAR images are for a K/sub u/ band radar, with HH polarization, and a 30/degree/ depression angle. The images have three meter resolution and a one kilometer swath. SAR images were collected of both rural and urban landmarks. 5 refs., 10 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Target Detection in SAR Images Based on a Level Set Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, Regis C.P.; Medeiros, Fatima N.S.; Ushizima, Daniela M.

    2008-09-01

    This paper introduces a new framework for point target detection in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. We focus on the task of locating reflective small regions using alevel set based algorithm. Unlike most of the approaches in image segmentation, we address an algorithm which incorporates speckle statistics instead of empirical parameters and also discards speckle filtering. The curve evolves according to speckle statistics, initially propagating with a maximum upward velocity in homogeneous areas. Our approach is validated by a series of tests on synthetic and real SAR images and compared with three other segmentation algorithms, demonstrating that it configures a novel and efficient method for target detection purpose.

  17. SAR Computation inside Fetus by RF Coil during MR Imaging Employing Realistic Numerical Pregnant Woman Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi; Ikehira, Hiroo

    This paper presents the computational electromagnetic dosimetry inside an anatomically based pregnant woman models exposed to electromagnetic wave during magnetic resonance imaging. The two types of pregnant woman models corresponding to early gestation and 26 weeks gestation were used for this study. The specific absorption rate (SAR) in and around a fetus were calculated by radiated electromagnetic wave from highpass and lowpass birdcage coil. Numerical calculation results showed that high SAR region is observed at the body in the vicinity of gaps of the coil, and is related to concentrated electric field in the gaps of human body such as armpit and thigh. Moreover, it has confirmed that the SAR in the fetus is less than International Electrotechnical Commission limit of 10W/kg, when whole-body average SARs are 2W/kg and 4W/kg, which are the normal operating mode and first level controlled operating mode, respectively.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the airborne imaging spectrometer for vegetation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Woodcock, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    The primary goal of the project was to provide ground truth and manual interpretation of data from an experimental flight of the Airborne Infrared Spectrometer (AIS) for a naturally vegetated test site. Two field visits were made; one trip to note snow conditions and temporally related vegetation states at the time of the sensor overpass, and a second trip following acquisition of prints of the AIS images for field interpretation. Unfortunately, the ability to interpret the imagery was limited by the quality of the imagery due to the experimental nature of the sensor.

  19. Visualisation of urban airborne laser scanning data with occlusion images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinks, Tommy; Carr, Hamish; Gharibi, Hamid; Laefer, Debra F.

    2015-06-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) was introduced to provide rapid, high resolution scans of landforms for computational processing. More recently, ALS has been adapted for scanning urban areas. The greater complexity of urban scenes necessitates the development of novel methods to exploit urban ALS to best advantage. This paper presents occlusion images: a novel technique that exploits the geometric complexity of the urban environment to improve visualisation of small details for better feature recognition. The algorithm is based on an inversion of traditional occlusion techniques.

  20. Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H.; Barhen, J.

    1997-04-01

    A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

  1. Building detection and building parameter retrieval in InSAR phase images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Clémence; Thiele, Antje; Hinz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The high resolution provided by the current satellite SAR missions makes them an attractive solution for the detailed analysis of urban areas. Especially due to their weather and daylight independency, they can be employed when optical sensors come to their limits. Due to the specific oblique side-looking configuration of such SAR sensors, phenomena such as layover, double bounce and shadow appear at building location, which can be better understood with very high resolution (VHR) SAR data. The detection of those areas, as well as the retrieval of building parameters through a detailed analysis of the extracted structures, is a challenging task. Indeed, depending on the acquisition configuration, on building material and surroundings, those patterns are not always consistent in amplitude SAR images. They can be difficult to recognize and distinguish automatically. Considering InSAR phase images instead of amplitude images is very helpful for this task, as InSAR is more depending on the geometry. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on the detection and extraction of building layover in InSAR phase images. Two complementing detectors are proposed, and their results are combined, in order to provide reliable building hypotheses. Based on the extracted segments, further analysis is conducted. Especially, the number of connected facades is analyzed. Characteristically geometrical shapes are finally fitted for each facade to permit the determination of the final building parameters as length, width, and height. Results of this approach are shown for three different datasets, first in terms of correctness and completeness of the extraction, and second in terms of accuracy of the extracted building parameters. For the considered datasets, the completeness and correctness are of about 70% and 90%, respectively. Eliminating clear outliers, the determined parameters present an accuracy up to 4 m (length), 2 m (height) and 3 ° (orientation). In this article isolated, middle to

  2. Image Enhancement and Speckle Reduction of Full Polarimetric SAR Data by Gaussian Markov Random Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdian, M.; Motagh, M.; Akbari, V.

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the use of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) data in different applications dramatically has been increased. In SAR imagery an interference phenomenon with random behavior exists which is called speckle noise. The interpretation of data encounters some troubles due to the presence of speckle which can be considered as a multiplicative noise affecting all coherent imaging systems. Indeed, speckle degrade radiometric resolution of PolSAR images, therefore it is needful to perform speckle filtering on the SAR data type. Markov Random Field (MRF) has proven to be a powerful method for drawing out eliciting contextual information from remotely sensed images. In the present paper, a probability density function (PDF), which is fitted well with the PolSAR data based on the goodness-of-fit test, is first obtained for the pixel-wise analysis. Then the contextual smoothing is achieved with the MRF method. This novel speckle reduction method combines an advanced statistical distribution with spatial contextual information for PolSAR data. These two parts of information are combined based on weighted summation of pixel-wise and contextual models. This approach not only preserves edge information in the images, but also improves signal-to-noise ratio of the results. The method maintains the mean value of original signal in the homogenous areas and preserves the edges of features in the heterogeneous regions. Experiments on real medium resolution ALOS data from Tehran, and also high resolution full polarimetric SAR data over the Oberpfaffenhofen test-site in Germany, demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm compared with well-known despeckling methods.

  3. Focusing, imaging, and ATR for the Gotcha 2008 wide angle SAR collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianelli, Christopher D.; Xu, Luzhou

    2013-05-01

    The following work discusses IAA's approach to tackling the wide angle, circular spotlight, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) problem from the 2008 Gotcha wide angle SAR data set, which is publicly released, with unlimited distribution. This data set comes with a MATLAB image formation routine and attendant graphical user inter- face (GUI). We begin by introducing a simple approach to focusing the collected phase history data that utilizes point targets (quadrahedral targets) present in the scene. Two SAR imaging algorithms are then presented, namely, the data-independent backprojection (BP) algorithm and the data-adaptive sparse learning via itera- tive minimization (SLIM) algorithm. These imaging approaches are compared using the 2008 Gotcha wide angle SAR data to perform both a clutter discrimination experiment, as well as an automatic target recognition (ATR) experiment. The ATR system is composed of a target pose and target center estimation preprocessing system, and includes a novel target feature for the final classification stage. Empirical results obtained by applying the focusing approach and imaging algorithms to the 2008 Gotcha wide angle SAR data set are presented and described. The results presented highlight the benefit of applying the SLIM algorithm over its data-independent counterpart, as well as the utility of the novel target feature.

  4. The appropriate parameter retrieval algorithm for feature-based SAR image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Zhang, Yunhua

    2012-09-01

    This paper is dedicated to investigate the appropriate parameter retrieval algorithm for feature-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image registration. The widely-used random sample consensus (RANSAC) is observed to be instable for its inappropriate estimation strategy and loss function for SAR images. In order to enable a stable and robust registration for SAR, an extended fast least trimmed squares (EF-LTS) is proposed which conducts the registration by least squares fitting at least half of the correspondences to minimize the squared polynomial residuals instead of fitting the minimal sampling set to maximize the cardinality of the consensus set as RANSAC. Experiment on interferometric SAR image pair demonstrates that the proposed algorithm behaves very stably and the obtained registration is averagely better than that by RANSAC in terms of cross-correlation and spectral SNR. By this algorithm, a stable estimation for any kind of 2D polynomial warp model with high robustness and accuracy can be efficiently achieved. Thus EF-LTS is more appropriate for SAR image registration.

  5. Fast building damage mapping using a single post-earthquake PolSAR image: a case study of the 2010 Yushu earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Wei; Huang, Chunlin

    2016-05-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most destructive natural disasters. Efficiently and quickly acquiring building earthquake damage information can help to reduce the casualties after an earthquake. In this paper, for convenience, speed, and precision, building damage information is extracted using a single post-earthquake PolSAR image. In PolSAR images, the undamaged parallel buildings characterized by double-bounce scattering are different from the collapsed buildings characterized by volume scattering, but the undamaged oriented buildings are very similar to collapsed buildings because of their scattering mechanism ambiguity in the early traditional model-based decomposition. Therefore, the collapsed buildings are difficult to extract accurately. In this paper, the scheme of polarization orientation angle (POA) compensation is employed to enhance the double-bounce scattering power of the oriented buildings, and the difference in the relative contribution change rate of scattering components before and after POA compensation is proposed to further enhance the difference between collapsed buildings and oriented buildings, in order that the collapsed buildings can be extracted more accurately. The "4.14" Yushu earthquake, which occurred in Yushu County, Qinghai province of China, is used as the case study to test the proposed method, and an airborne high-resolution PolSAR image of the urban region of Yushu County is used in the experiment. The experimental results show that the accuracy of building damage information extraction can be improved by the use of the proposed method, compared with the traditional polarimetric classification.

  6. SAR Image Segmentation Using Voronoi Tessellation and Bayesian Inference Applied to Dark Spot Feature Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Quanhua; Li, Yu; Liu, Zhenggang

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new segmentation-based algorithm for oil spill feature extraction from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) intensity images. The proposed algorithm combines a Voronoi tessellation, Bayesian inference and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme. The shape and distribution features of dark spots can be obtained by segmenting a scene covering an oil spill and/or look-alikes into two homogenous regions: dark spots and their marine surroundings. The proposed algorithm is applied simultaneously to several real SAR intensity images and simulated SAR intensity images which are used for accurate evaluation. The results show that the proposed algorithm can extract the shape and distribution parameters of dark spot areas, which are useful for recognizing oil spills in a further classification stage. PMID:24233074

  7. Analysis of airborne MAIS imaging spectrometric data for mineral exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jinnian; Zheng Lanfen; Tong Qingxi

    1996-11-01

    The high spectral resolution imaging spectrometric system made quantitative analysis and mapping of surface composition possible. The key issue will be the quantitative approach for analysis of surface parameters for imaging spectrometer data. This paper describes the methods and the stages of quantitative analysis. (1) Extracting surface reflectance from imaging spectrometer image. Lab. and inflight field measurements are conducted for calibration of imaging spectrometer data, and the atmospheric correction has also been used to obtain ground reflectance by using empirical line method and radiation transfer modeling. (2) Determining quantitative relationship between absorption band parameters from the imaging spectrometer data and chemical composition of minerals. (3) Spectral comparison between the spectra of spectral library and the spectra derived from the imagery. The wavelet analysis-based spectrum-matching techniques for quantitative analysis of imaging spectrometer data has beer, developed. Airborne MAIS imaging spectrometer data were used for analysis and the analysis results have been applied to the mineral and petroleum exploration in Tarim Basin area china. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Comparing C- and L-band SAR images for sea ice motion estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtiranta, J.; Siiriä, S.; Karvonen, J.

    2015-02-01

    Pairs of consecutive C-band synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images are routinely used for sea ice motion estimation. The L-band radar has a fundamentally different character, as its longer wavelength penetrates deeper into sea ice. L-band SAR provides information on the seasonal sea ice inner structure in addition to the surface roughness that dominates C-band images. This is especially useful in the Baltic Sea, which lacks multiyear ice and icebergs, known to be confusing targets for L-band sea ice classification. In this work, L-band SAR images are investigated for sea ice motion estimation using the well-established maximal cross-correlation (MCC) approach. This work provides the first comparison of L-band and C-band SAR images for the purpose of motion estimation. The cross-correlation calculations are hardware accelerated using new OpenCL-based source code, which is made available through the author's web site. It is found that L-band images are preferable for motion estimation over C-band images. It is also shown that motion estimation is possible between a C-band and an L-band image using the maximal cross-correlation technique.

  9. Random Forest and Rotation Forest for fully polarized SAR image classification using polarimetric and spatial features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Peijun; Samat, Alim; Waske, Björn; Liu, Sicong; Li, Zhenhong

    2015-07-01

    Fully Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) has the advantages of all-weather, day and night observation and high resolution capabilities. The collected data are usually sorted in Sinclair matrix, coherence or covariance matrices which are directly related to physical properties of natural media and backscattering mechanism. Additional information related to the nature of scattering medium can be exploited through polarimetric decomposition theorems. Accordingly, PolSAR image classification gains increasing attentions from remote sensing communities in recent years. However, the above polarimetric measurements or parameters cannot provide sufficient information for accurate PolSAR image classification in some scenarios, e.g. in complex urban areas where different scattering mediums may exhibit similar PolSAR response due to couples of unavoidable reasons. Inspired by the complementarity between spectral and spatial features bringing remarkable improvements in optical image classification, the complementary information between polarimetric and spatial features may also contribute to PolSAR image classification. Therefore, the roles of textural features such as contrast, dissimilarity, homogeneity and local range, morphological profiles (MPs) in PolSAR image classification are investigated using two advanced ensemble learning (EL) classifiers: Random Forest and Rotation Forest. Supervised Wishart classifier and support vector machines (SVMs) are used as benchmark classifiers for the evaluation and comparison purposes. Experimental results with three Radarsat-2 images in quad polarization mode indicate that classification accuracies could be significantly increased by integrating spatial and polarimetric features using ensemble learning strategies. Rotation Forest can get better accuracy than SVM and Random Forest, in the meantime, Random Forest is much faster than Rotation Forest.

  10. Data correction techniques for the airborne large-aperture static image spectrometer based on image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Geng; Shi, Dalian; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Tao; Hu, Bingliang

    2015-01-01

    We propose an approach to correct the data of the airborne large-aperture static image spectrometer (LASIS). LASIS is a kind of stationary interferometer which compromises flux output and device stability. It acquires a series of interferograms to reconstruct the hyperspectral image cube. Reconstruction precision of the airborne LASIS data suffers from the instability of the plane platform. Usually, changes of plane attitudes, such as yaws, pitches, and rolls, can be precisely measured by the inertial measurement unit. However, the along-track and across-track translation errors are difficult to measure precisely. To solve this problem, we propose a co-optimization approach to compute the translation errors between the interferograms using an image registration technique which helps to correct the interferograms with subpixel precision. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, experiments are run on real airborne LASIS data and our results are compared with those of the state-of-the-art approaches.

  11. Spectral estimation of gapped data and SAR imaging with angular diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Erik G.; Li, Jian; Stoica, Peter; Liu, Guoqing; Williams, Robert L.

    2001-08-01

    The Amplitude and Phase EStimation (APES) approach to amplitude spectrum estimation has been receiving considerably attention recently. We develop an extension of APES for the spectral estimation of gapped (incomplete) data and apply it to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging with angular diversity. It has recently been shown that APES minimizes a certain least-squares criterion with respect to the estimate of the spectrum. Our new algorithm is called gapped-data APES and is based on minimizing this criterion with respect to the missing data as well. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and its applicability to SAR imaging with angular diversity.

  12. Ice-volcano interactions during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, as revealed by airborne imaging radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnússon, E.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Roberts, M. J.; Sigurã°Sson, G.; HöSkuldsson, F.; Oddsson, B.

    2012-07-01

    During the eruption of the ice-covered Eyjafjallajökull volcano, a series of images from an airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) were obtained by the Icelandic Coast Guard. Cloud obscured the summit from view during the first three days of the eruption, making the weather-independent SAR a valuable monitoring resource. Radar images revealed the development of ice cauldrons in a 200 m thick ice cover within the summit caldera, as well as the formation of cauldrons to the immediate south of the caldera. Additionally, radar images were used to document the subglacial and supraglacial passage of floodwater to the north and south of the eruption site. The eruption breached the ice surface about four hours after its onset at about 01:30 UTC on 14 April 2010. The first SAR images, obtained between 08:55 and 10:42 UTC, show signs of limited supraglacial drainage from the eruption site. Floodwater began to drain from the ice cap almost 5.5 h after the beginning of the eruption, implying storage of meltwater at the eruption site due to initially constricted subglacial drainage from the caldera. Heat transfer rates from magma to ice during early stages of cauldron formation were about 1 MW m-2 in the radial direction and about 4 MW m-2 vertically. Meltwater release was characterized by accumulation and drainage with most of the volcanic material in the ice cauldrons being drained in hyperconcentrated floods. After the third day of the eruption, meltwater generation at the eruption site diminished due to an insulating lag of tephra.

  13. Thermal Infrared Spectral Imager for Airborne Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2009-01-01

    An airborne thermal hyperspectral imager is under development which utilizes the compact Dyson optical configuration and quantum well infrared photo detector (QWIP) focal plane array. The Dyson configuration uses a single monolithic prism-like grating design which allows for a high throughput instrument (F/1.6) with minimal ghosting, stray-light and large swath width. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal imaging spectroscopy solution for lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The planned instrument specifications are discussed as well as design trade-offs. Calibration testing results (noise equivalent temperature difference, spectral linearity and spectral bandwidth) and laboratory emissivity plots from samples are shown using an operational testbed unit which has similar specifications as the final airborne system. Field testing of the testbed unit was performed to acquire plots of apparent emissivity for various known standard minerals (such as quartz). A comparison is made using data from the ASTER spectral library.

  14. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a bellymounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  15. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a belly-mounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  16. Change detection of polarimetric SAR images based on the KummerU Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Quan; Zou, Pengfei; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Ping

    2014-11-01

    In the society of PolSAR image segmentation, change detection and classification, the classical Wishart distribution has been used for a long time, but it especially suit to low-resolution SAR image, because in traditional sensors, only a small number of scatterers are present in each resolution cell. With the improving of SAR systems these years, the classical statistical models can therefore be reconsidered for high resolution and polarimetric information contained in the images acquired by these advanced systems. In this study, SAR image segmentation algorithm based on level-set method, added with distance regularized level-set evolution (DRLSE) is performed using Envisat/ASAR single-polarization data and Radarsat-2 polarimetric images, respectively. KummerU heterogeneous clutter model is used in the later to overcome the homogeneous hypothesis at high resolution cell. An enhanced distance regularized level-set evolution (DRLSE-E) is also applied in the later, to ensure accurate computation and stable level-set evolution. Finally, change detection based on four polarimetric Radarsat-2 time series images is carried out at Genhe area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, NorthEastern of China, where a heavy flood disaster occurred during the summer of 2013, result shows the recommend segmentation method can detect the change of watershed effectively.

  17. Airborne imaging spectrometer - A new tool for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Wellman, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    The first of a new class of remote sensing instruments is described. The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer represents the first use of two-dimensional area arrays in a scientific application. The instrument images 32 cross-track pixels simultaneously, each in 128 spectral bands in the 1.2 to 2.4 micro region. The IFOV of the instrument is 1.9 mrad and the spectral sampling interval is 9.6 nanometers. Plans include upgrading the detector from the current 32 x 32 element HgCdTe CCD array to a 64 x 64 element array in 1984. Science and engineering data are currently being actively gathered with the instrument.

  18. Airborne imaging spectrometer - A new tool for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Wellman, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The first of a new class of remote sensing instruments is described. The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer represents the first use of two-dimensional integrated infrared area arrays in a scientific application. The instrument images 32 cross-track pixels simultaneously, each in 128 spectral bands in the 1.2- to 2.4-micron region. The IFOV of the instrument is 1.9 mrad/pixel and the spectral sampling interval is 9.6 nm. Plans include upgrading the detector from the current 32 x 32 element HgCdTe CCD array to a 64 x 64 element array in 1985. Science and engineering data are currently being actively gathered with the instrument.

  19. Proceedings of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, G. (Editor); Goetz, A. F. H. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) Data Analysis Workshop was held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on April 8 to 10, 1985. It was attended by 92 people who heard reports on 30 investigations currently under way using AIS data that have been collected over the past two years. Written summaries of 27 of the presentations are in these Proceedings. Many of the results presented at the Workshop are preliminary because most investigators have been working with this fundamentally new type of data for only a relatively short time. Nevertheless, several conclusions can be drawn from the Workshop presentations concerning the value of imaging spectrometry to Earth remote sensing. First, work with AIS has shown that direct identification of minerals through high spectral resolution imaging is a reality for a wide range of materials and geological settings. Second, there are strong indications that high spectral resolution remote sensing will enhance the ability to map vegetation species. There are also good indications that imaging spectrometry will be useful for biochemical studies of vegetation. Finally, there are a number of new data analysis techniques under development which should lead to more efficient and complete information extraction from imaging spectrometer data. The results of the Workshop indicate that as experience is gained with this new class of data, and as new analysis methodologies are developed and applied, the value of imaging spectrometry should increase.

  20. Benchmarking High Density Image Matching for Oblique Airborne Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavegn, S.; Haala, N.; Nebiker, S.; Rothermel, M.; Tutzauer, P.

    2014-08-01

    Both, improvements in camera technology and new pixel-wise matching approaches triggered the further development of software tools for image based 3D reconstruction. Meanwhile research groups as well as commercial vendors provide photogrammetric software to generate dense, reliable and accurate 3D point clouds and Digital Surface Models (DSM) from highly overlapping aerial images. In order to evaluate the potential of these algorithms in view of the ongoing software developments, a suitable test bed is provided by the ISPRS/EuroSDR initiative Benchmark on High Density Image Matching for DSM Computation. This paper discusses the proposed test scenario to investigate the potential of dense matching approaches for 3D data capture from oblique airborne imagery. For this purpose, an oblique aerial image block captured at a GSD of 6 cm in the west of Zürich by a Leica RCD30 Oblique Penta camera is used. Within this paper, the potential test scenario is demonstrated using matching results from two software packages, Agisoft PhotoScan and SURE from University of Stuttgart. As oblique images are frequently used for data capture at building facades, 3D point clouds are mainly investigated at such areas. Reference data from terrestrial laser scanning is used to evaluate data quality from dense image matching for several facade patches with respect to accuracy, density and reliability.

  1. Airborne Laser Scanning and Image Processing Techniques for Archaeological Prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltýnová, M.; Nový, P.

    2014-06-01

    Aerial photography was, for decades, an invaluable tool for archaeological prospection, in spite of the limitation of this method to deforested areas. The airborne laser scanning (ALS) method can be nowadays used to map complex areas and suitable complement earlier findings. This article describes visualization and image processing methods that can be applied on digital terrain models (DTMs) to highlight objects hidden in the landscape. Thanks to the analysis of visualized DTM it is possible to understand the landscape evolution including the differentiation between natural processes and human interventions. Different visualization methods were applied on a case study area. A system of parallel tracks hidden in a forest and its surroundings - part of old route called "Devil's Furrow" near the town of Sázava was chosen. The whole area around well known part of Devil's Furrow has not been prospected systematically yet. The data from the airborne laser scanning acquired by the Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre was used. The average density of the point cloud was approximately 1 point/m2 The goal of the project was to visualize the utmost smallest terrain discontinuities, e.g. tracks and erosion furrows, which some were not wholly preserved. Generally we were interested in objects that are clearly not visible in DTMs displayed in the form of shaded relief. Some of the typical visualization methods were tested (shaded relief, aspect and slope image). To get better results we applied image-processing methods that were successfully used on aerial photographs or hyperspectral images in the past. The usage of different visualization techniques on one site allowed us to verify the natural character of the southern part of Devil's Furrow and find formations up to now hidden in the forests.

  2. Heat equation inversion framework for average SAR calculation from magnetic resonance thermal imaging.

    PubMed

    Alon, Leeor; Sodickson, Daniel K; Deniz, Cem M

    2016-10-01

    Deposition of radiofrequency (RF) energy can be quantified via electric field or temperature change measurements. Magnetic resonance imaging has been used as a tool to measure three dimensional small temperature changes associated with RF radiation exposure. When duration of RF exposure is long, conversion from temperature change to specific absorption rate (SAR) is nontrivial due to prominent heat-diffusion and conduction effects. In this work, we demonstrated a method for calculation of SAR via an inversion of the heat equation including heat-diffusion and conduction effects. This method utilizes high-resolution three dimensional magnetic resonance temperature images and measured thermal properties of the phantom to achieve accurate calculation of SAR. Accuracy of the proposed method was analyzed with respect to operating frequency of a dipole antenna and parameters used in heat equation inversion. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:493-503, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27490064

  3. Spacecraft on-board SAR image generation for EOS-type missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K. Y.; Arens, W. E.; Assal, H. M.; Vesecky, J. F.

    1987-01-01

    Spacecraft on-board synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image generation is an extremely difficult problem because of the requirements for high computational rates (usually on the order of Giga-operations per second), high reliability (some missions last up to 10 years), and low power dissipation and mass (typically less than 500 watts and 100 Kilograms). Recently, a JPL study was performed to assess the feasibility of on-board SAR image generation for EOS-type missions. This paper summarizes the results of that study. Specifically, it proposes a processor architecture using a VLSI time-domain parallel array for azimuth correlation. Using available space qualifiable technology to implement the proposed architecture, an on-board SAR processor having acceptable power and mass characteristics appears feasible for EOS-type applications.

  4. A nonquadratic regularization-based technique for joint SAR imaging and model error correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önhon, N. Özben; Çetin, Müjdat

    2009-05-01

    Regularization based image reconstruction algorithms have successfully been applied to the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging problem. Such algorithms assume that the mathematical model of the imaging system is perfectly known. However, in practice, it is very common to encounter various types of model errors. One predominant example is phase errors which appear either due to inexact measurement of the location of the SAR sensing platform, or due to effects of propagation through atmospheric turbulence. We propose a nonquadratic regularization-based framework for joint image formation and model error correction. This framework leads to an iterative algorithm, which cycles through steps of image formation and model parameter estimation. This approach offers advantages over autofocus techniques that involve post-processing of a conventionally formed image. We present results on synthetic scenes, as well as the Air Force Research Labarotory (AFRL) Backhoe data set, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Coupling Regular Tessellation with Rjmcmc Algorithm to Segment SAR Image with Unknown Number of Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Li, Y.; Zhao, Q. H.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image segmentation approach with unknown number of classes, which is based on regular tessellation and Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC') algorithm. First of all, an image domain is portioned into a set of blocks by regular tessellation. The image is modeled on the assumption that intensities of its pixels in each homogeneous region satisfy an identical and independent Gamma distribution. By Bayesian paradigm, the posterior distribution is obtained to build the region-based image segmentation model. Then, a RJMCMC algorithm is designed to simulate from the segmentation model to determine the number of homogeneous regions and segment the image. In order to further improve the segmentation accuracy, a refined operation is performed. To illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach, two real SAR image is tested.

  6. Improvement of the Accuracy of InSAR Image Co-Registration Based On Tie Points – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Weibao; Li, Yan; Li, Zhilin; Ding, Xiaoli

    2009-01-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a new measurement technology, making use of the phase information contained in the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. InSAR has been recognized as a potential tool for the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs) and the measurement of ground surface deformations. However, many critical factors affect the quality of InSAR data and limit its applications. One of the factors is InSAR data processing, which consists of image co-registration, interferogram generation, phase unwrapping and geocoding. The co-registration of InSAR images is the first step and dramatically influences the accuracy of InSAR products. In this paper, the principle and processing procedures of InSAR techniques are reviewed. One of important factors, tie points, to be considered in the improvement of the accuracy of InSAR image co-registration are emphatically reviewed, such as interval of tie points, extraction of feature points, window size for tie point matching and the measurement for the quality of an interferogram. PMID:22399966

  7. Comparing The Results Of Terrasar-X And Envisat Sar Images With Ps-InSAR Methods On Slow Motion Landslides: Koyulhisar, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, Mehmet; Poyraz, Fatih; Özgür Hastaoğlu, Kemal; Türk, Tarık; Tatar, Orhan; Birdal, Anıl Can

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, PS-InSAR method has been used widely on monitoring slow motion landslides. The motion amounts obtained by PS-InSAR method is avaliable only in LOS(line of sight) and it can't provide information about three dimensional motions. Nevertheless, motions caused by landslides are usually 3 dimensional and also they are not homogeneous. This is one of the biggest handicaps of monitoring landslides with SAR method. In this study, annual motion rates of the PS points that are located in Koyulhisar landslide region are obtained from differently resolutioned sar images of Envisat and Terrasar-x satellite's frames through PS-InSAR method and by using StaMPS software. Throughout the landslide region a profile has been established in North-South line, and the correlation of the results obtained from the sar images lining on this profile. All results are observed to have %80 correlation with each other. By means of these results a subsidence area has been found in the northern region and an uplifting area has been found in the southern region. Through this study, general information about the landslide mechanism has been obtained.

  8. Calibration of the National Ecological Observatory Network's Airborne Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisso, N.; Kampe, T. U.; Karpowicz, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is currently under construction by the National Science Foundation. NEON is designed to collect data on the causes and responses to change in the observed ecosystem. The observatory will combine site data collected by terrestrial, instrumental, and aquatic observation systems with airborne remote sensing data. The Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) is designed to collect high-resolution aerial imagery, waveform and discrete LiDAR, and high-fidelity imaging spectroscopic data over the NEON sites annually at or near peak-greenness. Three individual airborne sensor packages will be installed in leased Twin Otter aircraft and used to the collect the NEON sites as NEON enters operations. A key driver to the derived remote sensing data products is the calibration of the imaging spectrometers. This is essential to the overall NEON mission to detect changes in the collected ecosystems over the 30-year expected lifetime. The NEON Imaging Spectrometer (NIS) is a Visible and Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) grating spectrometer designed by NASA JPL. Spectroscopic data is collected at 5-nm intervals from 380-2500-nm. A single 480 by 640 pixel HgCdTe Focal Plane Array collects dispersed light from a grating tuned for efficiency across the solar-reflective utilized in a push-broom configuration. Primary calibration of the NIS consists of the characterizing the FPA behavior, spectral calibration, and radiometric calibration. To this end, NEON is constructing a Sensor Test Facility to calibrate the NEON sensors. This work discusses the initial NIS laboratory calibration and verification using vicarious calibration techniques during operations. Laboratory spectral calibration is based on well-defined emission lines in conjunction with a scanning monochromator to define the individual spectral response functions. A NIST traceable FEL bulb is used to radiometrically calibrate the imaging spectrometer. An On-board Calibration (OBC) system

  9. Analysis of Scattering Components from Fully Polarimetric SAR Images for Improving Accuracies of Urban Density Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susaki, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we analyze probability density functions (PDFs) of scatterings derived from fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images for improving the accuracies of estimated urban density. We have reported a method for estimating urban density that uses an index Tv+c obtained by normalizing the sum of volume and helix scatterings Pv+c. Validation results showed that estimated urban densities have a high correlation with building-to-land ratios (Kajimoto and Susaki, 2013b; Susaki et al., 2014). While the method is found to be effective for estimating urban density, it is not clear why Tv+c is more effective than indices derived from other scatterings, such as surface or double-bounce scatterings, observed in urban areas. In this research, we focus on PDFs of scatterings derived from fully polarimetric SAR images in terms of scattering normalization. First, we introduce a theoretical PDF that assumes that image pixels have scatterers showing random backscattering. We then generate PDFs of scatterings derived from observations of concrete blocks with different orientation angles, and from a satellite-based fully polarimetric SAR image. The analysis of the PDFs and the derived statistics reveals that the curves of the PDFs of Pv+c are the most similar to the normal distribution among all the scatterings derived from fully polarimetric SAR images. It was found that Tv+c works most effectively because of its similarity to the normal distribution.

  10. Estimation and characterization of physical and inorganic chemical indicators of water quality by using SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shareef, Muntadher A.; Toumi, Abdelmalek; Khenchaf, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Recently, remote sensing is considering one of the most important tools in studies of water scattering and water characterization. Traditional methods for monitoring pollutants depended on optical satellite rather than Radar data. Thus, many of Water Quality Parameters (WQP) from optical imagery are still limited. In this paper, a new approach based on the TerraSAR-X images has been presented which it is used to map the region of interest and to estimate physical and chemical WQPs. This approach based on a Small Perturbation Model (SPM) for the electromagnetic scattering is applied by using the Elfouhaily spectrum. A series of inversions have been included in this model started by finding the reflectivity from backscattering coefficients which are calculated from SAR images. Another inversion has been applied to find dielectric constant from the calculation models of the reflectivity (in HH and VV polarizations). Then, a Stogryn Debye formulation has been used to estimate temperature and salinity of water surface from SAR images. After many derivations we got a new model able to estimate temperature and salinity directly from backscattering coefficients obtained from radar images. Inorganic chemical parameters which are represented by Total Dissolved Salts (TDS) and the Electrical Conductivity (EC) are estimated directly from salinity. A tow dataset of instu data have been used to validate this work. The validation included a comparison between parameters measured in situ and those estimated from Terra SAR-X image.

  11. SAR image formation using phase-history data from nonuniform aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lam; Sichina, Jeffrey

    2007-04-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is formed using radar data collected from a moving platform (aircraft, vehicle, human, etc.). The radar transmits and receives backscatter signals in the down-range direction at a fixed pulse repetition interval (PRI) while the platform moves along the cross-range direction (called along-track) to generate a synthetic aperture. In the ideal situation, the platform moves at a constant speed and as a result, the radar will collect the phase-history data that are uniformly sampled along the aperture. However, in many situations the radar platform cannot be kept at a constant speed, e.g. a helicopter maneuvering over an imaging area for surveillance. The problem is even worse in the case of urban warfare with human-borne radar. A soldier moves at his own speed and creates erratic aperture sections with phase-history data that are either sparse or dense. The collected SAR data in such situation will result in SAR imagery with severe artifacts that might prevent us from detecting targets of interest. In this paper, we will present the SAR imagery of non-uniform aperture data formed using the backprojection image formation algorithm. Although the backprojection image former is well suited to an arbitrary radar aperture, the SAR image artifacts are obvious from the nonuniform aperture. Using the nonuniform aperture phase-history data, we interpolate the data using a uniform grid along the aperture. We will show the resulting imagery with reduced artifacts. We use both simulated data and the Army Research Lab BoomSAR data to illustrate the artifacts generated by nonuniform sampling and the improvement using this interpolation technique.

  12. Photogrammetric processing of a TerraSAR-X image: evaluation of products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidis, C.; Bourexis, F.; Tsigenopoulos, G.

    2013-08-01

    TerraSAR-X was the first from a series of very high resolution SAR satellites, which have significantly enlarged the range of cartographic applications of SAR data. For such applications the use of photogrammetric processing, either independently or combined with optical images became meaningful. In this paper the procedures that may be applied on a single SAR image are developed and the quality and accuracy of their products are investigated regarding the impact of using various models or changing the parameters of external data (GCPs, DTM). A Spotlight mode TerraSAR-X image is used for a case study. The area is a mountainous terrain, of 5x10km size, located in the north-eastern region of Athens, Greece. Three alternative registration/georeferencing methods are investigated: the Physical Sensor Model (Range- Doppler method), the DLT and the 2nd order RPF. Orthoimage production using four different DTMs of various quality and density are investigated. Geometric accuracy and quality are investigated using Independent Check Points and through an analysis of the slopes and aspects of the terrain in combination with the geometry of the sensor. Automatic techniques for the extraction of the road network are used; however the results are not satisfactory. In addition, a manual extraction of the roads using visual interpretation is made and the results are evaluated in terms of completeness, correctness and quality. According to the results derived from the above procedures, the use of high resolution TerraSAR- Χ images is very promising for a variety of applications for which medium scale geometric accuracies are required.

  13. Age and thickness distribution of polynya sea ice in the Laptev Sea determined by satellite SAR imagery and airborne EM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabenstein, L.; Krumpen, T.; Hendricks, S.; Hoelemann, J.

    2012-04-01

    The importance and annual amount of sea ice volume produced during polyna opening events in the Siberian Laptev Sea is still controversially discussed. So far, published information about sea ice volume production are purely based on indirect thickness measurements of thin ice using remote sensing techniques or on computer simulations of sea ice growth based on reanalysis climate data. We recorded a sea ice thickness transect of approximately 160 km length using helicopter electromagnetics (HEM) in the region of the so called West New Siberian (WNS) Polynya located directly north of the Lena delta in April 2008. In addition, a time series of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images covering the complete polynya region was analyzed and ice area fragments were tracked from their origin to the moment when we recorded their thickness. Both data sets together, HEM and SAR, provide the opportunity to classify overflown ice areas in terms of age, area and thickness and therefore in terms of volume. From December 2007 to April 2008 approximately 50.000 km2 of sea-ice area was produced in the WNS polynya, which is more than the size of Switzerland. The youngest surveyed sea-ice was 6 days old and had a mean total and a mean level-ice thickness of 0.2 m. The oldest surveyed ice floe had an age of 104 days and a mean total thickness of 2.4 +/- 0.3 m and a mean level ice thickness of 1.8 +/- 0.3 m. The error is based on the HEM instrument accuracy and a lag of snow thickness data. Assuming that ice thickness along the HEM transect was representative for entire overflown ice areas, our calculations result that the produced sea ice area contained a volume of approximately 86 km3. This is about 1.8 % of the Arctic wide ice production between October 2007 and March 2008, as it was published by Kwok et al. 2009 on the basis of ICE-Sat ice thickness data. The combined HEM and SAR study enabled us furthermore to analyze thickness vs. age relations of first year ice floes. Mean thickness

  14. Airborne measurements of NO2 shipping emissions using imaging DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Andreas C.; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Seyler, André; Ruhtz, Thomas; Lindemann, Carsten; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    2014-05-01

    NOx (NO and NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry and affect human health and the environment. Shipping emissions contribute substantially to the global emissions of anthropogenic NOx. Due to globalization and increased trade volume, the relative importance emissions from ships gain even more importance. The Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP), developed at IUP Bremen, has been used to perform measurements of NO2 in the visible spectral range. The observations allow the determination of spatial distributions of column densities of NO2 below the aircraft. Airborne measurements were performed over Northern Germany and adjacent coastal waters during the NOSE (NO2 from Shipping Emissions) campaign in August 2013. The focus of the campaign activities was on shipping emissions, but NO2 over cities and power plants has been measured as well. The measurements have a spatial resolution below the order of 100 × 30 m2, and they reveal the large spatial variability of NO2 and the evolution of NO2 plumes behind point sources. Shipping lanes as well as plumes of individual ships are detected by the AirMAP instrument. In this study, first results from the NOSE campaign are presented for selected measurement areas.

  15. Patch diameter limitation due to high chirp rates in focused SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    1994-10-01

    Polar-format processed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images have a limited focused patch diameter that results from unmitigated phase errors. Very high chirp rates, encountered with fine-resolution short-pulse radars, exasperate the problem via a residual video phase error term. This letter modifies the traditional maximum patch diameter expression to include effects of very high chirp rates.

  16. DBSCAN-based ROI extracted from SAR images and the discrimination of multi-feature ROI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xin Yi; Zhao, Bo; Tan, Shu Run; Zhou, Xiao Yang; Jiang, Zhong Jin; Cui, Tie Jun

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the paper is to extract the region of interest (ROI) from the coarse detected synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and discriminate if the ROI contains a target or not, so as to eliminate the false alarm, and prepare for the target recognition. The automatic target clustering is one of the most difficult tasks in the SAR-image automatic target recognition system. The density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) relies on a density-based notion of clusters which is designed to discover clusters of arbitrary shape. DBSCAN was first used in the SAR image processing, which has many excellent features: only two insensitivity parameters (radius of neighborhood and minimum number of points) are needed; clusters of arbitrary shapes which fit in with the coarse detected SAR images can be discovered; and the calculation time and memory can be reduced. In the multi-feature ROI discrimination scheme, we extract several target features which contain the geometry features such as the area discriminator and Radon-transform based target profile discriminator, the distribution characteristics such as the EFF discriminator, and the EM scattering property such as the PPR discriminator. The synthesized judgment effectively eliminates the false alarms.

  17. Mini-SAR: An Imaging Radar for the Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.; Bussey, Ben; Lichtenberg, Chris; Marinelli, Bill; Nozette, Stewart

    2005-01-01

    The debate on the presence of ice at the poles of the Moon continues. We will fly a small imaging radar on the Indian Chandrayaan mission to the Moon, to be launched in September, 2007. Mini-SAR will map the scattering properties of the lunar poles, determining the presence and extent of polar ice.

  18. Pre-processing SAR image stream to facilitate compression for transport on bandwidth-limited-link

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, Bobby G.; Riley, Robert

    2015-09-29

    Pre-processing is applied to a raw VideoSAR (or similar near-video rate) product to transform the image frame sequence into a product that resembles more closely the type of product for which conventional video codecs are designed, while sufficiently maintaining utility and visual quality of the product delivered by the codec.

  19. Three-dimensional SAR imaging using cross-track coherent stereo collections

    SciTech Connect

    Jakowatz, C.V. Jr.; Wahl, D.E.; Thompson, P.A.

    1997-11-01

    In this paper we describe a new method for creating three-dimensional images using pairs of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images obtained from a unique collection geometry. This collection mode involves synthetic apertures that have a common center. In this sense the illumination directions for the two SAR images are the same, while the slant planes are at different spatial orientations. The slant plane orientations give rise to cross-range layover (fore-shortening) components in the two images that are of equal magnitude but opposite directions. This differential cross-range layover is therefore proportional to the elevation of a given target, which is completely analogous to the situation in stereo optical imaging, wherein two film planes (corresponding to the two slant planes) result in elevation-dependent parallax. Because the two SAR collections are coherent in this particular collection mode, the images have the same speckle patterns throughout. As a result, the images may be placed into stereo correspondence via calculation of correlations between micro-patches of the complex image data. The resulting computed digital stereo elevation map can be quite accurate. Alternatively, an analog anaglyph can be displayed for 3-D viewing, avoiding the necessity of the stereo correspondence calculation.

  20. ERS-1 Investigations of Southern Ocean Sea Ice Geophysics Using Combined Scatterometer and SAR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, M.; Early, D.; Long, D.

    1994-01-01

    Coregistered ERS-1 SAR and Scatterometer data are presented for the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Calibrated image backscatter statistics are extracted from data acquired in regions where surface measurements were made during two extensive international Weddell Sea experiments in 1992. Changes in summer ice-surface conditions, due to temperature and wind, are shown to have a large impact on observed microwave backscatter values. Winter calibrated backscatter distributions are also investigated as a way of describing ice thickness conditions in different location during winter. Coregistered SAR and EScat data over a manned drifting ice station are used to illustrate the seasonal signature changes occurring during the fall freeze-up transition.

  1. Determination of pasture quality using airborne hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, G.; Yule, Ian J.; Irwin, M. E.

    2015-10-01

    Pasture quality is a critical determinant which influences animal performance (live weight gain, milk and meat production) and animal health. Assessment of pasture quality is therefore required to assist farmers with grazing planning and management, benchmarking between seasons and years. Traditionally, pasture quality is determined by field sampling which is laborious, expensive and time consuming, and the information is not available in real-time. Hyperspectral remote sensing has potential to accurately quantify biochemical composition of pasture over wide areas in great spatial detail. In this study an airborne imaging spectrometer (AisaFENIX, Specim) was used with a spectral range of 380-2500 nm with 448 spectral bands. A case study of a 600 ha hill country farm in New Zealand is used to illustrate the use of the system. Radiometric and atmospheric corrections, along with automatized georectification of the imagery using Digital Elevation Model (DEM), were applied to the raw images to convert into geocoded reflectance images. Then a multivariate statistical method, partial least squares (PLS), was applied to estimate pasture quality such as crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) from canopy reflectance. The results from this study revealed that estimates of CP and ME had a R2 of 0.77 and 0.79, and RMSECV of 2.97 and 0.81 respectively. By utilizing these regression models, spatial maps were created over the imaged area. These pasture quality maps can be used for adopting precision agriculture practices which improves farm profitability and environmental sustainability.

  2. Identification of hydrothermal alteration assemblages using airborne imaging spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, S. C.; Taranik, J. V.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data, field and laboratory spectra and samples for X-ray diffraction analysis were collected in argillically altered Tertiary volcanic rocks in the Hot Creek Range, Nevada. From laboratory and field spectral measurements in the 2.0 to 2.4 micron range and using a spectroradiometer with a 4 nm sampling interval, the absorption band centers for kaolinite were loacted at 2.172 and 2.215 microns, for montmorillonite at 2.214 micron and for illite at 2.205. Based on these values and the criteria for resolution and separtion of spectral features, a spectral sampling interval of less than 4 nm is necessary to separate the clays. With an AIS spectral sampling interval of 9.3 nm, a spectral matching algorithm is more effective for separating kaolinite, montmorillonite, ad illite in Hot Creek Range than using the location of absorption minima alone.

  3. Detection of single graves by airborne hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, G; Kalacska, M; Soffer, R

    2014-12-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging (HSI) was assessed as a potential tool to locate single grave sites. While airborne HSI has shown to be useful to locate mass graves, it is expected the location of single graves would be an order of magnitude more difficult due to the smaller size and reduced mass of the targets. Two clearings were evaluated (through a blind test) as potential sites for containing at least one set of buried remains. At no time prior to submitting the locations of the potential burial sites from the HSI were the actual locations of the sites released or shared with anyone from the analysis team. The two HSI sensors onboard the aircraft span the range of 408-2524nm. A range of indicators that exploit the narrow spectral and spatial resolutions of the two complimentary HSI sensors onboard the aircraft were calculated. Based on the co-occurrence of anomalous pixels within the expected range of the indicators three potential areas conforming to our underlying assumptions of the expected spectral responses (and spatial area) were determined. After submission of the predicted burial locations it was revealed that two of the targets were located within GPS error (10m) of the true burial locations. Furthermore, due to the history of the TPOF site for burial work, investigation of the third target is being considered in the near future. The results clearly demonstrate promise for hyperspectral imaging to aid in the detection of buried remains, however further work is required before these results can justifiably be used in routine scenarios. PMID:25447169

  4. A Comparative Study on Water Vapor Extracted from Interferometric SAR Images and Synchronized Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shilai

    Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) is a newly developed satellite observation technology which is applied in studies of hydrosphere, atmosphere, topography and earth surface changes caused by natural or anthropogenic activities. The technology is capable of retrieving accurate geophysical parameters with multiple air-/satellite-based SAR images through establishing interferometric geometry where the phase measurements precisely reflect the geometry between spaceborne platforms and earth surface and highly sensitive to its variation. Due to these unique advantages, interferometric technology has been widely applied in surveying the ground topography and detecting tiny dynamic changes of ground surface in the last two decades. However, the applicability of such technology is severely affected by differential atmospheric delay induced by inhomogeneity of air refractivity. Previous studies show that the water vapour with strong variation in both spatial and temporal domain dominates the atmospheric artifacts in interferometric phase measurements. It is the problem that we were trying to solve. In this research, we aim at determining and compensating atmospheric signal in SAR interferograms. Compared with previous works, this work studies the problem in a new perspective that the information of water vapor was extracted from Atmospheric Phase Screen (APS) obtained by Permanent Scatterer SAR Interferometry (PSInSAR), and was comparatively studied with synchronized water vapor data, including GPS observations, MERIS images and MM5 simulated products. The main contributive work in this research includes following aspects: Firstly, a water vapor component model was proposed for comparison between SAR and non-SAR water vapors. Besides the typical mixing turbulent and stratification terms, the spatial liner trend and ground feature related stationary term has been accounted for in mixed water vapor. Based on this model, a logical strategy of differentiation

  5. Urban-area extraction from polarimetric SAR image using combination of target decomposition and orientation angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Bin; Lu, Da; Wu, Zhilu; Qiao, Zhijun G.

    2016-05-01

    The results of model-based target decomposition are the main features used to discriminate urban and non-urban area in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) application. Traditional urban-area extraction methods based on modelbased target decomposition usually misclassified ground-trunk structure as urban-area or misclassified rotated urbanarea as forest. This paper introduces another feature named orientation angle to improve urban-area extraction scheme for the accurate mapping in urban by PolSAR image. The proposed method takes randomness of orientation angle into account for restriction of urban area first and, subsequently, implements rotation angle to improve results that oriented urban areas are recognized as double-bounce objects from volume scattering. ESAR L-band PolSAR data of the Oberpfaffenhofen Test Site Area was used to validate the proposed algorithm.

  6. A new method for speckle reduction in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images using optimal window size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavi, S.; Salehi, B.; Moloney, C.; Huang, W.; Brisco, B.

    2016-04-01

    Speckle degrades the radiometric quality of a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image and makes its visual interpretation difficult. The approaches proposed previously for speckle filtering of SAR images exploit a window of fixed size for this purpose. But a fixed size window is not sufficient as the size of objects may vary throughout the image. In this paper, a method is introduced by which each pixel in the image is filtered using a window size which is optimal for that pixel. Real and imaginary parts of a single-channel SAR image are used for the selection of the best window size for each pixel, and then intensity image is filtered by applying that window size. The Average and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) filters are modified using the Adaptive Window Size method. This approach is implemented on the HH-channel of a RADARSAT-2 image acquired over the Avalon Peninsula near St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. This filter can supress speckle effectively while retaining the details reasonably.

  7. A fast and reliable change detection feature from bi-temporal amplitude SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzelli, Andrea; Zoppetti, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a change detection feature for an amplitude SAR image pair, based on both information theoretic (IT) assumptions and a CFAR criterion derived from the probabilistic model of the ratio image. In particular, the proposed method aims to introduce two main improvements with respect to the previous IT-based approaches. The first goal is to find a strategy to adaptively quantize the 2-D scatterplot instead of applying clustering. This is carried out by performing a preliminary partition of the image pixels according to a constant false alarm rate criterion that is based on the probabilistic model of the ratio image. The second goal is to test the proposed method in order to assess reliable performances in case of severe speckle noise and in case of small percentage of change within the scene. Therefore, experimental results have been carried out with simulated changes applied to synthetically-generated 1-look SAR images produced from an optical remote sensing image. True Cosmo-SkyMed SAR images have been also considered on a damage assessment scenario.

  8. Estimating Sea Ice Parameters from Multi-Look SAR Images Using - and Second-Order Variograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaojian; Li, Yu; Zhao, Quanhua

    2016-06-01

    The spatial structures revealed in SAR intensity imagery provide essential information characterizing the natural variation processes of sea ice. This paper proposes a new method to extract the spatial structures of sea ice based on two spatial stochastic models. One is a multi-Gamma model, which characterizes continuous variations corresponding to ice-free area or the background. The other is a Poisson line mosaic model, which characterizes the regional variations of sea ice with different types. The linear combination of the two models builds the mixture model to represent spatial structures of sea ice within SAR intensity imagery. To estimate different sea ice parameters, such as its concentration, scale etc. We define two kinds of geostatistic metrics, theoretical first- and second-order variograms. Their experimental alternatives can be calculated from the SAR intensity imagery directly, then the parameters of the mixture model are estimated through fitting the theoretical variograms to the experimental ones, and by comparing the estimated parameters to the egg code, it is verified that the estimated parameters can indicate sea ice structure information showing in the egg code. The proposed method is applied to simulated images and Radarsat-1 images. The results of the experiments show that the proposed method can estimate the sea ice concentration and floe size accurately and stably within SAR testing images.

  9. An efficient two-objective automatic SAR image segmentation framework using artificial immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongdong; Niu, Ruican; Fei, Rong; Jiang, Qiaoyong; Li, Hongye; Cao, Zijian

    2015-12-01

    Here, an efficient multi-objective automatic segmentation framework (MASF) is formulated and applied to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image unsupervised classification. In the framework, three important issues are presented: 1) two reasonable image preprocessing techniques, including spatial filtering and watershed operator, are discussed at the initial stage of the framework; 2)then, an efficient immune multi-objective optimization algorithm with uniform clone, adaptive selection by online nondominated solutions, and dynamic deletion in diversity maintenance is proposed; 3 two very simple, but very efficient conflicting clustering validity indices are incorporated into the framework and simultaneously optimized. Two simulated SAR data and two complicated real images are used to quantitatively validate its effectiveness. In addition, four other state-of-the-art image segmentation methods are employed for comparison.

  10. Bayesian classification of polarimetric SAR images using adaptive a priori probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zyl, J. J.; Burnette, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of classifying earth terrain by observed polarimetric scattering properties is tackled with an iterative Bayesian scheme using a priori probabilities adaptively. The first classification is based on the use of fixed and not necessarily equal a priori probabilities, and successive iterations change the a priori probabilities adaptively. The approach is applied to an SAR image in which a single water body covers 10 percent of the image area. The classification accuracy for ocean, urban, vegetated, and total area increase, and the percentage of reclassified pixels decreases greatly as the iteration number increases. The iterative scheme is found to improve the a posteriori classification accuracy of maximum likelihood classifiers by iteratively using the local homogeneity in polarimetric SAR images. A few iterations can improve the classification accuracy significantly without sacrificing key high-frequency detail or edges in the image.

  11. Using SAR Interferograms and Coherence Images for Object-Based Delineation of Unstable Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, Barbara; Holbling, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    This study uses synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometric products for the semi-automated identification and delineation of unstable slopes and active landslides. Single-pair interferograms and coherence images are therefore segmented and classified in an object-based image analysis (OBIA) framework. The rule-based classification approach has been applied to landslide-prone areas located in Taiwan and Southern Germany. The semi-automatically obtained results were validated against landslide polygons derived from manual interpretation.

  12. Migration-based SAR imaging for ground-penetrating radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Kunlong; Wang, Gang; Li, Jian

    2003-09-01

    We consider migration based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging of surfaced or shallowly buried objects using both down-looking and forward-looking ground penetrating radar (GPR). The well-known migration approaches devised to image the interior of the earth are based on wave equations and have been widely and successfully used in seismic signal processing for oil exploration for decades. They have exhibited great potentials and convenience to image the underground objects buried in complicated propagation medium. Compared to the ray-tracing based SAR imaging methods, the migration based SAR imaging approaches are more suited for the imaging of the underground objects due to their simple and direct treatment of the oblique incidence at the air-ground interface and the propagation velocity variation in the soil. In this paper, we apply the phase-shift migration approach to both the constant-offset and the common-shot experimental data collected by the PSI (Planning Systems Inc.) GPR systems. We will address the spatial aliasing problems related to the application of migration to the GPR data and the spatial zero-padding approach to circumvent the problem successfully.

  13. Estimation of Bare Surface Soil Moisture and Surface Roughness Parameter Using L-Band SAR Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jian-Cheng; Wang, James; Hsu, Ann Y.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Engman, Edwin T.

    1997-01-01

    An algorithm based on a fit of the single-scattering Integral Equation Method (IEM) was developed to provide estimation of soil moisture and surface roughness parameter (a combination of rms roughness height and surface power spectrum) from quad-polarized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements. This algorithm was applied to a series of measurements acquired at L-band (1.25 GHz) from both AIRSAR (Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and SIR-C (Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C) over a well- managed watershed in southwest Oklahoma. Prior to its application for soil moisture inversion, a good agreement was found between the single-scattering IEM simulations and the L band measurements of SIR-C and AIRSAR over a wide range of soil moisture and surface roughness conditions. The sensitivity of soil moisture variation to the co-polarized signals were then examined under the consideration of the calibration accuracy of various components of SAR measurements. It was found that the two co-polarized backscattering coefficients and their combinations would provide the best input to the algorithm for estimation of soil moisture and roughness parameter. Application of the inversion algorithm to the co-polarized measurements of both AIRSAR and SIR-C resulted in estimated values of soil moisture and roughness parameter for bare and short-vegetated fields that compared favorably with those sampled on the ground. The root-mean-square (rms) errors of the comparison were found to be 3.4% and 1.9 dB for soil moisture and surface roughness parameter, respectively.

  14. Compressed Sensing for Millimeter-wave Ground Based SAR/ISAR Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiğit, Enes

    2014-11-01

    Millimeter-wave (MMW) ground based (GB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and inverse SAR (ISAR) imaging are the powerful tools for the detection of foreign object debris (FOD) and concealed objects that requires wide bandwidths and highly frequent samplings in both slow-time and fast-time domains according to Shannon/Nyquist sampling theorem. However, thanks to the compressive sensing (CS) theory GB-SAR/ISAR data can be reconstructed by much fewer random samples than the Nyquist rate. In this paper, the impact of both random frequency sampling and random spatial domain data collection of a SAR/ISAR sensor on reconstruction quality of a scene of interest was studied. To investigate the feasibility of using proposed CS framework, different experiments for various FOD-like and concealed object-like targets were carried out at the Ka and W band frequencies of the MMW. The robustness and effectiveness of the recommend CS-based reconstruction configurations were verified through a comparison among each other by using integrated side lobe ratios (ISLR) of the images.

  15. Extracting hurricane eye morphology from spaceborne SAR images using morphological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Isabella K.; Shamsoddini, Ali; Li, Xiaofeng; Trinder, John C.; Li, Zeyu

    2016-07-01

    Hurricanes are among the most destructive global natural disasters. Thus recognizing and extracting their morphology is important for understanding their dynamics. Conventional optical sensors, due to cloud cover associated with hurricanes, cannot reveal the intense air-sea interaction occurring at the sea surface. In contrast, the unique capabilities of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for cloud penetration, and its backscattering signal characteristics enable the extraction of the sea surface roughness. Therefore, SAR images enable the measurement of the size and shape of hurricane eyes, which reveal their evolution and strength. In this study, using six SAR hurricane images, we have developed a mathematical morphology method for automatically extracting the hurricane eyes from C-band SAR data. Skeleton pruning based on discrete skeleton evolution (DSE) was used to ensure global and local preservation of the hurricane eye shape. This distance weighted algorithm applied in a hierarchical structure for extraction of the edges of the hurricane eyes, can effectively avoid segmentation errors by reducing redundant skeletons attributed to speckle noise along the edges of the hurricane eye. As a consequence, the skeleton pruning has been accomplished without deficiencies in the key hurricane eye skeletons. A morphology-based analyses of the subsequent reconstructions of the hurricane eyes shows a high degree of agreement with the hurricane eye areas derived from reference data based on NOAA manual work.

  16. MREG V1.1 : a multi-scale image registration algorithm for SAR applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Eichel, Paul H.

    2013-08-01

    MREG V1.1 is the sixth generation SAR image registration algorithm developed by the Signal Processing&Technology Department for Synthetic Aperture Radar applications. Like its predecessor algorithm REGI, it employs a powerful iterative multi-scale paradigm to achieve the competing goals of sub-pixel registration accuracy and the ability to handle large initial offsets. Since it is not model based, it allows for high fidelity tracking of spatially varying terrain-induced misregistration. Since it does not rely on image domain phase, it is equally adept at coherent and noncoherent image registration. This document provides a brief history of the registration processors developed by Dept. 5962 leading up to MREG V1.1, a full description of the signal processing steps involved in the algorithm, and a user's manual with application specific recommendations for CCD, TwoColor MultiView, and SAR stereoscopy.

  17. High Resolution Two Dimensional TEC Imaging by an Improvement of Multiple-Aperture InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, Yanling; GUO, Linying; WU, Jicang

    2015-04-01

    In traditional InSAR especially the L-band InSAR study, ionosphere effect has always been regarded as noise or error source to be removed. The emergence of multiple-aperture InSAR (MAI) made it possible to extract ionosphere signal from InSAR technology. The principle of MAI is to split the SAR spectrum along azimuth direction into forward- and backward-looking images and then form two different-looking interferograms. The differential of the two interferograms is the multiple-aperture interferogram. Due to the linear relation between MAI phase and the derivative of ionospheric along the azimuth direction, we can obtain the TEC(Total Electron Content) variation by integrating the MAI phase. During the integration we found that the estimation of integration constant is very important, which determined the extent of consistency of the derived TEC distribution. We proposed an filtering algorithm to make the integration constant more reasonable so as to improve the accuracy of TEC distribution. Furthermore to validate the effect of this improved algorithm we compared it with the unimproved one ,and then CODE ionospheric VTEC data is interpolated to evaluate the ionospheric accuracy of the new method. The result showed the two-dimensional TEC using MAI possessed the advantage of very high spatial resolution and high accuracy, which not only can be used for InSAR ionospheric correction, but also for the space detection of ionosphere, whose spatial resolution is higher than any other space technology, such as radiosonde, GPS and GPS occultation etc.

  18. Synthetic aperture integration (SAI) algorithm for SAR imaging

    DOEpatents

    Chambers, David H; Mast, Jeffrey E; Paglieroni, David W; Beer, N. Reginald

    2013-07-09

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  19. Oil Spill Detection by SAR Images: Dark Formation Detection, Feature Extraction and Classification Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Topouzelis, Konstantinos N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar images (SAR) for detection of illegal discharges from ships. It summarizes the current state of the art, covering operational and research aspects of the application. Oil spills are seriously affecting the marine ecosystem and cause political and scientific concern since they seriously effect fragile marine and coastal ecosystem. The amount of pollutant discharges and associated effects on the marine environment are important parameters in evaluating sea water quality. Satellite images can improve the possibilities for the detection of oil spills as they cover large areas and offer an economical and easier way of continuous coast areas patrolling. SAR images have been widely used for oil spill detection. The present paper gives an overview of the methodologies used to detect oil spills on the radar images. In particular we concentrate on the use of the manual and automatic approaches to distinguish oil spills from other natural phenomena. We discuss the most common techniques to detect dark formations on the SAR images, the features which are extracted from the detected dark formations and the most used classifiers. Finally we conclude with discussion of suggestions for further research. The references throughout the review can serve as starting point for more intensive studies on the subject.

  20. SAR imaging from partial-aperture data with frequency-band omissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Mujdat; Moses, Randolph L.

    2005-05-01

    We consider the problem of wide-angle SAR imaging from data with arbitrary frequency-band omissions. We propose an approach that involves composite image formation through combination of subaperture images, as well as point-enhanced, superresolution image reconstruction. This framework provides a number of desirable features including preservation of anisotropic scatterers that do not persist over the full wide-angle aperture; robustness to bandwidth limitations and frequency-band omissions; as well as a characterization of the aspect dependence of scatterers. We present experimental results based on the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) "Backhoe Data Dome," demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  1. Design of a monopulse SAR system to determine elevation angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oettl, H.; Zink, M.; Zeller, K. H.; Freeman, A.

    1992-01-01

    Terrain height variations in mountainous areas cause problems in radiometric corrections of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. To determine the elevation angle and the height at the different parts of an image, an application of the monopulse principle is proposed. From the ratios of images radiometrically modulated by the difference and sum antenna pattern in range it is possible to calculate the appropriate elevation angle at any point in the image. Design considerations for a corresponding airborne SAR-system are presented, and some estimates of error influences (e.g., ambiguities), expected performance and precision in topographic mapping are given.

  2. Testing sensitivity of the LISFLOOD subgrid hydraulic model to SAR image derived information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Melissa; Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeff; Hostache, Renaud; Matgen, Patrick; Chini, Marco; Giustarini, Laura

    2013-04-01

    There has been much interest in the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images to indirectly estimate flood extent and flood elevation to aid the understanding of fluvial flood inundation processes. SAR remote sensing satellites are capable of all-weather day/night observations that can discriminate between land and smooth open water surfaces over large scales. By combining SAR derived information with 2D hydraulic models and terrain data, the mechanisms of flooding can be better simulated therefore enabling more accurate and reliable flood forecasting. The objective of this study is to test the sensitivity of a LISFLOOD subgrid 2D model to its main parameters (i.e. roughness coefficient, river bathymetry) using SAR derived flood extent maps. Because of SAR imaging techniques and processing steps used to derive the flood information, any SAR-derived flood extent image will contain inherent uncertainty. We therefore use the uncertainty of the SAR information to obtain a range of plausible parameters to test sensitivity of the hydraulic model. LISFLOOD is a distributed 2D model developed at the University of Bristol and designed for use with larger ungauged river catchments. The version used employs a subgrid procedure which allows any size of river channel below that of the grid resolution to be represented. This procedure has been shown to improve hydraulic connectivity within the modelled flooded area and thus improve flood prediction for data sparse areas. A hydrodynamic LISFLOOD subgrid model of the River Severn at Tewkesbury covering a domain area of 50x70km and including the confluence with a major tributary (the River Avon) will be utilised. A complete storm hydrograph will be used as inflow to the model to simulate the full flood event. Surveyed cross section and gauged daily flows are also available for the River Severn. Therefore, the model results using variable parameters can be compared against results obtained from ground observations to further

  3. SAR Image Segmentation with Unknown Number of Classes Combined Voronoi Tessellation and Rjmcmc Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q. H.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a novel segmentation method for automatically determining the number of classes in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images by combining Voronoi tessellation and Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) strategy. Instead of giving the number of classes a priori, it is considered as a random variable and subject to a Poisson distribution. Based on Voronoi tessellation, the image is divided into homogeneous polygons. By Bayesian paradigm, a posterior distribution which characterizes the segmentation and model parameters conditional on a given SAR image can be obtained up to a normalizing constant; Then, a Revisable Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo(RJMCMC) algorithm involving six move types is designed to simulate the posterior distribution, the move types including: splitting or merging real classes, updating parameter vector, updating label field, moving positions of generating points, birth or death of generating points and birth or death of an empty class. Experimental results with real and simulated SAR images demonstrate that the proposed method can determine the number of classes automatically and segment homogeneous regions well.

  4. Comparison of mosaicking techniques for airborne images from consumer-grade cameras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Images captured from airborne imaging systems have the advantages of relatively low cost, high spatial resolution, and real/near-real-time availability. Multiple images taken from one or more flight lines could be used to generate a high-resolution mosaic image, which could be useful for diverse rem...

  5. Estimation of Bare Surface Soil Moisture and Surface Roughness Parameter Using L-Band SAR Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jian-Cheng; Wang, James; Hsu, Ann; ONeill, Peggy; Engman, Edwin T.

    1997-01-01

    An algorithm based on a fit of the single-scattering Integral Equation Method (IEM) was developed to provide estimation of soil moisture and surface roughness parameter (a combination of rms roughness height and surface power spectrum) from quasi-polarized synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements. This algorithm was applied to a series of measurements acquired at L-band (1.25 GHz) from both AIRSAR (Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar operated by Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and SIR-C (Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C) over a well-managed watershed in southwest Oklahoma. It was found that the two co-polarized backscattering coefficients and their combinations would provide the best input to the algorithm for estimation of soil moisture and roughness parameter. Application of the inversion algorithm to the co-polarized measurements of both AIRSAR and SIR-C resulted in estimated values of soil moisture and roughness parameter for bare and short-vegetated fields that compared favorably with those sampled on the ground. The root-mean-square (rms) errors of the comparison were found to be 3.4% and 1.9 dB for soil moisture and surface roughness parameter, respectively.

  6. Application of neural networks for sea ice classification in polarimetric SAR images

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Yoshihisa; Atkins, R.G.; Shin, R.T.; Kong, J.A.; Yueh, S.H.; Kwok, R.

    1995-05-01

    Classification of sea ice types using polarimetric radar is an area of considerable current interest and research. Several automatic methods have been developed to classify sea ice types from fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, and these techniques are generally grouped into supervised and unsupervised approaches. In previous work, supervised methods have been shown to yield higher accuracy than unsupervised techniques, but suffer from the need for human interaction to determine classes and training regions. In contrast, unsupervised methods determine classes automatically, but generally show limited ability to accurately divide terrain into natural classes. In this paper, a new classification technique is applied to determine sea ice types in polarimetric and multifrequency SAR images, utilizing an unsupervised neural network to provide automatic classification, and employing an iterative algorithm to improve the performance.

  7. Subspace-based CFAR detection of vehicles from forests in SAR image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Guan, Jian; Wang, Jie; Li, Hongwei

    2005-11-01

    Automatic detection of military vehicles hidden among forests in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image is a challenging and difficult task because tree trunk clutter often appears as locally bright as obscured targets. We apply subspace-based detection methods to treat the problem as detecting subspace signals in structured subspace interference and broadband noise of unknown level. Specifically, tree trunk clutter is modeled as structured isotropic interferences with unknown amplitudes while dominant vehicle scatterers as anisotropic dihedral responses. Matched subspace detector (MSD) with constant false alarm rate (CFAR) property is derived. Experiments on both simulated and real foliage-penetrating (FOPEN) SAR image show that the proposed detection scheme has good detection performance even at low false alarm rates.

  8. Classification of PolSAR image based on quotient space theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Zhihui; Yu, Jie; Liu, Xiaomeng; Liu, Limin; Jiao, Shuai; Zhu, Teng; Wang, Shaohua

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the classification accuracy, quotient space theory was applied in the classification of polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) image. Firstly, Yamaguchi decomposition method is adopted, which can get the polarimetric characteristic of the image. At the same time, Gray level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and Gabor wavelet are used to get texture feature, respectively. Secondly, combined with texture feature and polarimetric characteristic, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used for initial classification to establish different granularity spaces. Finally, according to the quotient space granularity synthetic theory, we merge and reason the different quotient spaces to get the comprehensive classification result. Method proposed in this paper is tested with L-band AIRSAR of San Francisco bay. The result shows that the comprehensive classification result based on the theory of quotient space is superior to the classification result of single granularity space.

  9. A survey of SAR image-formation processing for earth resources applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayma, R. W.; Jordan, R. L.; Manning, B. N.

    1977-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in active microwave sensors for earth resources applications, such as the SEASAT-A radar. However, to obtain spatial resolutions comparable to optical sensors at radar frequencies, sophisticated image formation processing techniques must be applied to the raw data. Processing requirements for non-coherent optical and coherent radar imaging systems are compared. The image formation processing requirements for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems are discussed. Both optical and digital techniques are addressed, and examples of hardware and imagery for each processing technique are presented.

  10. A survey of SAR image-formation processing for earth resources applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayma, R. W.; Jordan, R. L.; Manning, B. N.

    1977-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in active microwave sensors for earth resources applications. A particular example is the Seasat-A radar. However, to obtain spatial resolutions comparable to optical sensors at radar frequencies, sophisticated image formation processing techniques must be applied to the raw data. This paper briefly compares processing requirements for non-coherent optical and coherent radar imaging systems, and then discusses the image formation processing requirements for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. Both optical and digital techniques are addressed, and examples of hardware and imagery for each processing technique are presented.

  11. Direct and inverse methods for ocean-wave imaging by SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotheram, S.; Macklin, J. T.

    1984-08-01

    The direct and inverse problems for ocean-wave imaging by SAR for the image and its power spectrum are discussed. The direct problem is reasonably well understood, but the inverse methods are not complete or optimum. However, they represent the first steps in the development of such methods, and they confirm aspects of imaging theory. Other aspects, particularly for the power spectrum, remain to be completed. Once this is done, optimum methods could be developed using Bacchus-Gilbert theory to provide the required tradeoff between resolution and speckle.

  12. Breast tumor detection using UWB circular-SAR tomographic microwave imaging.

    PubMed

    Oloumi, Daniel; Boulanger, Pierre; Kordzadeh, Atefeh; Rambabu, Karumudi

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes the possibility of detecting tumors in human breast using ultra-wideband (UWB) circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR). CSAR is a subset of SAR which is a radar imaging technique using a circular data acquisition pattern. Tomographic image reconstruction is done using a time domain global back projection technique adapted to CSAR. Experiments are conducted on a breast phantoms made of pork fat emulating normal and cancerous conditions. Preliminary experimental results show that microwave imaging of a breast phantom using UWB-CSAR is a simple and low-cost method, efficiently capable of detecting the presence of tumors. PMID:26737919

  13. OFDM and compressive sensing based GPR imaging using SAR focusing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Xia, Tian

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new ground penetrating radar (GPR) design approach using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and compressive sensing (CS) algorithms. OFDM technique is applied to leverage GPR operating speed with multiple frequency tones transmission and receiving concurrently, and CS technique allows utilizing reduced frequency tones without compromising data reconstruction accuracy. Combination of OFDM and CS boosts the radar operating efficiency. For GPR image reconstruction, a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technique is implemented.

  14. Calibration of a flood inundation model using a SAR image: influence of acquisition time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Wesemael, Alexandra; Gobeyn, Sacha; Neal, Jeffrey; Lievens, Hans; Van Eerdenbrugh, Katrien; De Vleeschouwer, Niels; Schumann, Guy; Vernieuwe, Hilde; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; De Baets, Bernard; Bates, Paul; Verhoest, Niko

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk management has always been in a search for effective prediction approaches. As such, the calibration of flood inundation models is continuously improved. In practice, this calibration process consists of finding the optimal roughness parameters, both channel and floodplain Manning coefficients, since these values considerably influence the flood extent in a catchment. In addition, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images have been proven to be a very useful tool in calibrating the flood extent. These images can distinguish between wet (flooded) and dry (non-flooded) pixels through the intensity of backscattered radio waves. To this date, however, satellite overpass often occurs only once during a flood event. Therefore, this study is specifically concerned with the effect of the timing of the SAR data acquisition on calibration results. In order to model the flood extent, the raster-based inundation model, LISFLOOD-FP, is used together with a high resolution synthetic aperture radar image (ERS-2 SAR) of a flood event of the river Dee, Wales, in December 2006. As only one satellite image of the considered case study is available, a synthetic framework is implemented in order to generate a time series of SAR observations. These synthetic observations are then used to calibrate the model at different time instants. In doing so, the sensitivity of the model output to the channel and floodplain Manning coefficients is studied through time. As results are examined, these suggest that there is a clear difference in the spatial variability to which water is held within the floodplain. Furthermore, these differences seem to be variable through time. Calibration by means of satellite flood observations obtained from the rising or receding limb, would generally lead to more reliable results rather than near peak flow observations.

  15. Optimal structural design of the Airborne Infrared Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Keith B.; Cerrati, Vincent J.; Forman, Steven E.; Sultana, John A.

    1995-09-01

    The airborne infrared imager (AIRI) is a dual-band IR sensor designed to study air defense issues while wing mounted in a pod. The sensor consists of an optical bench attached to a two- axis inertially stabilized gimbal structure in elevation and azimuth. The gimbal assembly operates within an 18-inch diameter globe while meeting strict pointing and tracking requirements. Design conditions for the assembly include operational and nonoperational inertial, thermal, and dynamic loads. Primary design efforts centered on limiting the line-of- sight jitter of the optical system to 50 (mu) rad under the operating environment. An MSC/NASTRAN finite element model was developed for structural response predictions and correlated to experimental data. Design changes were aided by MSC/NASTRAN's optimization routine with the goal of maximizing the fundamental frequency of the gimbal assembly. The final structural design resultsed in a first natural frequency of 79 Hz using a titanium azimuthal gimbal, a stainless steel elevation gimbal, and an aluminum optical bench which met the design and performance requirements.

  16. Application of the airborne ocean color imager for commercial fishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to develop a commercial remote sensing system for providing near-real-time data (within one day) in support of commercial fishing operations. The Airborne Ocean Color Imager (AOCI) had been built for NASA by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc., but it needed certain improvements, data processing software, and a delivery system to make it into a commercial system for fisheries. Two products were developed to support this effort: the AOCI with its associated processing system and an information service for both commercial and recreational fisheries to be created by Spectro Scan, Inc. The investigation achieved all technical objectives: improving the AOCI, creating software for atmospheric correction and bio-optical output products, georeferencing the output products, and creating a delivery system to get those products into the hands of commercial and recreational fishermen in near-real-time. The first set of business objectives involved Daedalus Enterprises and also were achieved: they have an improved AOCI and new data processing software with a set of example data products for fisheries applications to show their customers. Daedalus' marketing activities showed the need for simplification of the product for fisheries, but they successfully marketed the current version to an Italian consortium. The second set of business objectives tasked Spectro Scan to provide an information service and they could not be achieved because Spectro Scan was unable to obtain necessary venture capital to start up operations.

  17. Locations and types of ruptures involved in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake revealed by SAR image matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Takada, Y.; Furuya, M.; Murakami, M.

    2009-12-01

    Introduction: A catastrophic earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.9 struck China’s Sichuan area on 12 May 2008. The rupture was thought to proceed northeastward along the Longmen Shan fault zone (LMSFZ), but it remained uncertain where and how the faults were involved in the seismic event. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) analysis has an advantage of detecting ground deformation in a vast region with high precision. However, for the Sichuan event, the standard InSAR approach was not helpful in knowing the faults directly related to the seismic rupture, due to a wide coherent loss area in the proximity of the fault zone. Thus, in order to reveal the unknown surface displacements, we conducted a SAR image matching procedure that enables us to robustly detect large ground deformation even in an incoherent area. Although similar approaches can be taken with optical images to detect surface displacements, SAR images are advantageous because of the radar’s all-weather detection capability. In this presentation we will show a strong advantage of SAR data for inland large earthquakes. Analysis Method: We use ALOS/PALSAR data on the ascending orbital paths. We process the SAR data from a level-1.0 product using a software package Gamma. After conducting coregistration between two images acquired before and after the mainshock, we divide the single-look SAR amplitude images into patches and calculate an offset between the corresponding patches by an intensity tracking method. This method is performed by cross-correlating samples of backscatter intensity of a master image with those of a slave image. To reduce the artificial offsets in range component, we apply an elevation dependent correction incorporating SRTM3 DEM data. Results: We have successfully obtained the surface deformation in range component: A sharp displacement discontinuity with a relative motion of 1-2 m appears over a length of 200 km along the LMSFZ, which demonstrates that the main rupture has proceeded

  18. Retrieval of the thickness of undeformed sea ice from C-band compact polarimetric SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Dierking, W.; Zhang, J.; Meng, J. M.; Lang, H. T.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we introduce a parameter for the retrieval of the thickness of undeformed first-year sea ice that is specifically adapted to compact polarimetric SAR images. The parameter is denoted as "CP-Ratio". In model simulations we investigated the sensitivity of CP-Ratio to the dielectric constant, thickness, surface roughness, and incidence angle. From the results of the simulations we deduced optimal conditions for the thickness retrieval. On the basis of C-band CTLR SAR data, which were generated from Radarsat-2 quad-polarization images acquired jointly with helicopter-borne sea ice thickness measurements in the region of the Sea of Labrador, we tested empirical equations for thickness retrieval. An exponential fit between CP-Ratio and ice thickness provides the most reliable results. Based on a validation using other compact polarimetric SAR images from the same region we found a root mean square (rms) error of 8 cm and a maximum correlation coefficient of 0.92 for the retrieval procedure when applying it on level ice of 0.9 m mean thickness.

  19. Integration of optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to differentiate grassland and alfalfa in Prairie area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Gang; Zhang, Aining; Zhou, Fuqun; Brisco, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Alfalfa presents a huge potential biofuel source in the Prairie Provinces of Canada. However, it remains a challenge to find an ideal single satellite sensor to monitor the regional spatial distribution of alfalfa on an annual basis. The primary interest of this study is to identify alfalfa spatial distribution through effectively differentiating alfalfa from grasslands, given their spectral similarity and same growth calendars. MODIS and RADARSAT-2 ScanSAR narrow mode were selected for regional-level grassland and alfalfa differentiation in the Prairie Provinces, due to the high frequency revisit of MODIS, the weather independence of ScanSAR as well as the large area coverage and the complementary characteristics SAR and optical images. Combining MODIS and ScanSAR in differentiating alfalfa and grassland is very challenging, since there is a large spatial resolution difference between MODIS (250 m) and ScanSAR narrow (50 m). This study investigated an innovative image fusion technique for combining MODIS and ScanSAR and obtaining a synthetic image which has the high spatial details derived from ScanSAR and the colour information from MODIS. The field trip was arranged to collect ground truth to label and validate the classification results. The fusion classification result shows significant accuracy improvement when compared with either ScanSAR or MODIS alone or with other commonly-used data combination methods, such as multiple files composites. This study has shown that the image fusion technique used in this study can combine the structural information from high resolution ScanSAR and colour information from MODIS to significantly improve the classification accuracy between alfalfa and grassland.

  20. Airborne test results for smart pushbroom imaging system with optoelectronic image correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernykh, Valerij; Dyblenko, Serguei; Janschek, Klaus; Seifart, Klaus; Harnisch, Bernd

    2004-02-01

    Smart pushbroom imaging system (SMARTSCAN) solves the problem of image correction for satellite pushbroom cameras which are disturbed by satellite attitude instability effects. Satellite cameras with linear sensors are particularly sensitive to attitude errors, which cause considerable image distortions. A novel solution of distortions correction is presented, which is based on the real-time recording of the image motion in the focal plane of the satellite camera. This allows using such smart pushbroom cameras (multi-/hyperspectral) even on moderately stabilised satellites, e.g. small sat's, LEO comsat's. The SMARTSCAN concept uses in-situ measurements of the image motion with additional CCD-sensors in the focal plane and real-time image processing of these measurements by an onboard Joint Transform Optical Correlator. SMARTSCAN has been successfully demonstrated with breadboard models for the Optical Correlator and a Smart Pushbroom Camera at laboratory level (satellite motion simulator on base of a 5 DOF industrial robot) and by an airborne flight demonstration in July 2002. The paper describes briefly the principle of operation of the system and gives a description of the hardware model are provided. Detailed results of the airborne tests and performance analysis are given as well as detailed tests description.

  1. Generalized interpretation scheme for arbitrary HR InSAR image pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldt, Markus; Thiele, Antje; Schulz, Karsten

    2013-10-01

    Land cover classification of remote sensing imagery is an important topic of research. For example, different applications require precise and fast information about the land cover of the imaged scenery (e.g., disaster management and change detection). Focusing on high resolution (HR) spaceborne remote sensing imagery, the user has the choice between passive and active sensor systems. Passive systems, such as multispectral sensors, have the disadvantage of being dependent from weather influences (fog, dust, clouds, etc.) and time of day, since they work in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Here, active systems like Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provide improved capabilities. As an interactive method analyzing HR InSAR image pairs, the CovAmCohTM method was introduced in former studies. CovAmCoh represents the joint analysis of locality (coefficient of variation - Cov), backscatter (amplitude - Am) and temporal stability (coherence - Coh). It delivers information on physical backscatter characteristics of imaged scene objects or structures and provides the opportunity to detect different classes of land cover (e.g., urban, rural, infrastructure and activity areas). As example, railway tracks are easily distinguishable from other infrastructure due to their characteristic bluish coloring caused by the gravel between the sleepers. In consequence, imaged objects or structures have a characteristic appearance in CovAmCoh images which allows the development of classification rules. In this paper, a generalized interpretation scheme for arbitrary InSAR image pairs using the CovAmCoh method is proposed. This scheme bases on analyzing the information content of typical CovAmCoh imagery using the semisupervised k-means clustering. It is shown that eight classes model the main local information content of CovAmCoh images sufficiently and can be used as basis for a classification scheme.

  2. Enhancement of multi-pass 3D circular SAR images using sparse reconstruction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, Matthew; Jackson, Julie A.; Austin, Christian

    2009-05-01

    This paper demonstrates image enhancement for wide-angle, multi-pass three-dimensional SAR applications. Without sufficient regularization, three-dimensional sparse-aperture imaging from realistic data-collection scenarios results in poor quality, low-resolution images. Sparsity-based image enhancement techniques may be used to resolve high-amplitude features in limited aspects of multi-pass imagery. Fusion of the enhanced images across multiple aspects in an approximate GLRT scheme results in a more informative view of the target. In this paper, we apply two sparse reconstruction techniques to measured data of a calibration top-hat and of a civilian vehicle observed in the AFRL publicly-released 2006 Circular SAR data set. First, we employ prominent-point autofocus in order to compensate for unknown platform motion and phase errors across multiple radar passes. Each sub-aperture of the autofocused phase history is digitally-spotlighted (spatially low-pass filtered) to eliminate contributions to the data due to features outside the region of interest, and then imaged with l1-regularized least squares and CoSaMP. The resulting sparse sub-aperture images are non-coherently combined to obtain a wide-angle, enhanced view of the target.

  3. SAR Satellite Images and Terrestrial Laser Scanning in Forest Damages Mapping in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karjalainen, Mika; Kaasalainen, Sanna; Hyyppa, Juha; Holopainen, Markus; Lyytikainen-Saarenmaa, Paivi; Krooks, Anssi; Jaakkola, Anttoni

    2010-12-01

    Forests are of high importance for the Finnish economy and environment. Forests inventories should not only provide information about the volume of growing stock, but also about the health status of forests, which is an indicator of the annual growth of forests and Carbon balance. One of the forest damage types is defoliation, which causes forest growth reduction and consequently potentially economical losses to the forest owners, but can be seen as an environmental indicator also. For example, in the past ten years, extensive and persistent needle defoliation caused by insects has been observed in the areas of Palokangas and Outokumpu in Eastern Finland. It is expected that the insect outbreaks are becoming more common and new species of insects may be spreading out in Finland due to the climate warming. Traditionally the intensity of needle defoliation has been estimated using visual observations, which are prone to errors and their areal extent is limited. Therefore, remote sensing can be seen as a potential tool for mapping defoliation. In this study, both Terrestrial Laser Scanning data and SAR satellite images have been exploited. On the one hand, Terrestrial Laser Scanning provides means to rapidly and objectively measure critical forest related information. On the other hand, SAR satellite images enable wide-area mapping and constant monitoring, which would be impossible in Finland using optical satellite images due to the cloudiness. The fusion of Laser scanning and SAR information could make a difference in forest health mapping. In this paper, preliminary results of the estimation of the needle defoliation intensity based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning and ERS and Envisat SAR (non-interferometric) satellite data are presented.

  4. Large Oil Spill Classification Using SAR Images Based on Spatial Histogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schvartzman, I.; Havivi, S.; Maman, S.; Rotman, S. R.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    Among the different types of marine pollution, oil spill is a major threat to the sea ecosystems. Remote sensing is used in oil spill response. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an active microwave sensor that operates under all weather conditions and provides information about the surface roughness and covers large areas at a high spatial resolution. SAR is widely used to identify and track pollutants in the sea, which may be due to a secondary effect of a large natural disaster or by a man-made one . The detection of oil spill in SAR imagery relies on the decrease of the backscattering from the sea surface, due to the increased viscosity, resulting in a dark formation that contrasts with the brightness of the surrounding area. Most of the use of SAR images for oil spill detection is done by visual interpretation. Trained interpreters scan the image, and mark areas of low backscatter and where shape is a-symmetrical. It is very difficult to apply this method for a wide area. In contrast to visual interpretation, automatic detection algorithms were suggested and are mainly based on scanning dark formations, extracting features, and applying big data analysis. We propose a new algorithm that applies a nonlinear spatial filter that detects dark formations and is not susceptible to noises, such as internal or speckle. The advantages of this algorithm are both in run time and the results retrieved. The algorithm was tested in genesimulations as well as on COSMO-SkyMed images, detecting the Deep Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (occurred on 20/4/2010). The simulation results show that even in a noisy environment, oil spill is detected. Applying the algorithm to the Deep Horizon oil spill, the algorithm classified the oil spill better than focusing on dark formation algorithm. Furthermore, the results were validated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data.

  5. Prediction of water quality parameters from SAR images by using multivariate and texture analysis models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shareef, Muntadher A.; Toumi, Abdelmalek; Khenchaf, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Remote sensing is one of the most important tools for monitoring and assisting to estimate and predict Water Quality parameters (WQPs). The traditional methods used for monitoring pollutants are generally relied on optical images. In this paper, we present a new approach based on the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images which we used to map the region of interest and to estimate the WQPs. To achieve this estimation quality, the texture analysis is exploited to improve the regression models. These models are established and developed to estimate six common concerned water quality parameters from texture parameters extracted from Terra SAR-X data. In this purpose, the Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) is used to estimate several regression models using six texture parameters such as contrast, correlation, energy, homogeneity, entropy and variance. For each predicted model, an accuracy value is computed from the probability value given by the regression analysis model of each parameter. In order to validate our approach, we have used tow dataset of water region for training and test process. To evaluate and validate the proposed model, we applied it on the training set. In the last stage, we used the fuzzy K-means clustering to generalize the water quality estimation on the whole of water region extracted from segmented Terra SAR-X image. Also, the obtained results showed that there are a good statistical correlation between the in situ water quality and Terra SAR-X data, and also demonstrated that the characteristics obtained by texture analysis are able to monitor and predicate the distribution of WQPs in large rivers with high accuracy.

  6. Coseismic displacements from SAR image offsets between different satellite sensors: Application to the 2001 Bhuj (India) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Teng; Wei, Shengji; Jónsson, Sigurjón

    2015-09-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image offset tracking is increasingly being used for measuring ground displacements, e.g., due to earthquakes and landslide movement. However, this technique has been applied only to images acquired by the same or identical satellites. Here we propose a novel approach for determining offsets between images acquired by different satellite sensors, extending the usability of existing SAR image archives. The offsets are measured between two multiimage reflectivity maps obtained from different SAR data sets, which provide significantly better results than with single preevent and postevent images. Application to the 2001 Mw7.6 Bhuj earthquake reveals, for the first time, its near-field deformation using multiple preearthquake ERS and postearthquake Envisat images. The rupture model estimated from these cross-sensor offsets and teleseismic waveforms shows a compact fault slip pattern with fairly short rise times (<3 s) and a large stress drop (20 MPa), explaining the intense shaking observed in the earthquake.

  7. Advanced Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Imaging Radar (InSAR) for Dune Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havivi, Shiran; Amir, Doron; Schvartzman, Ilan; August, Yitzhak; Mamman, Shimrit; Rotman, Stanely R.; Blumberg, Dan G.

    2016-04-01

    Aeolian morphologies are formed in the presence of sufficient wind energy and available lose particles. These processes occur naturally or are further enhanced or reduced by human intervention. The dimensions of change are dependent primarily on the wind energy and surface properties. Since the 1970s, remote sensing imagery, both optical and radar, have been used for documentation and interpretation of the geomorphologic changes of sand dunes. Remote sensing studies of aeolian morphologies is mostly useful to document major changes, yet, subtle changes, occurring in a period of days or months in scales of centimeters, are very difficult to detect in imagery. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is an imaging technique for measuring Earth's surface topography and deformation. InSAR images are produced by measuring the radar phase difference between two separated antennas that view the same surface area. Classical InSAR is based on high coherence between two or more images. The output (interferogram) can show subtle changes with an accuracy of several millimeters to centimeters. Very little work has been done on measuring or identifying the changes in dunes using InSAR methods. The reason is that dunes tend to be less coherent than firm, stable, surfaces. This work aims to demonstrate how interferometric decorrelation can be used for identifying dune instability. We hypothesize and demonstrate that the loss of radar coherence over time on dunes can be used as an indication of the dune's instability. When SAR images are acquired at sufficiently close intervals one can measure the time it takes to lose coherence and associate this time with geomorphic stability. To achieve our goals, the coherence change detection method was used, in order to identify dune stability or instability and the dune activity level. The Nitzanim-Ashdod coastal dunes along the Mediterranean, 40 km south of Tel-Aviv, Israel, were chosen as a case study. The dunes in this area are of

  8. A novel polar format algorithm for SAR images utilizing post azimuth transform interpolation.

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, Michael Warren; Martin, Grant D.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2005-09-01

    SAR phase history data represents a polar array in the Fourier space of a scene being imaged. Polar Format processing is about reformatting the collected SAR data to a Cartesian data location array for efficient processing and image formation. In a real-time system, this reformatting or ''re-gridding'' operation is the most processing intensive, consuming the majority of the processing time; it also is a source of error in the final image. Therefore, any effort to reduce processing time while not degrading image quality is valued. What is proposed in this document is a new way of implementing real-time polar-format processing through a variation on the traditional interpolation/2-D Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. The proposed change is based upon the frequency scaling property of the Fourier Transform, which allows a post azimuth FFT interpolation. A post azimuth processing interpolation provides overall benefits to image quality and potentially more efficient implementation of the polar format image formation process.

  9. A Novel General Imaging Formation Algorithm for GNSS-Based Bistatic SAR

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hong-Cheng; Wang, Peng-Bo; Chen, Jie; Liu, Wei; Ge, LinLin; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) recently plays a more and more significant role in remote sensing applications for its low-cost and real-time global coverage capability. In this paper, a general imaging formation algorithm was proposed for accurately and efficiently focusing GNSS-based bistatic SAR data, which avoids the interpolation processing in traditional back projection algorithms (BPAs). A two-dimensional point target spectrum model was firstly presented, and the bulk range cell migration correction (RCMC) was consequently derived for reducing range cell migration (RCM) and coarse focusing. As the bulk RCMC seriously changes the range history of the radar signal, a modified and much more efficient hybrid correlation operation was introduced for compensating residual phase errors. Simulation results were presented based on a general geometric topology with non-parallel trajectories and unequal velocities for both transmitter and receiver platforms, showing a satisfactory performance by the proposed method. PMID:26927117

  10. First Experiment of IECAS P-Band Quad-Pol SAR System in Circular Imaging Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wen; Li, Yang; Yin, Qiang; Lin, Yun; Chen, Erxue; Pottier, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of the DRAGON2 project, the Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IECAS) continuously had a tight collaboration with the European and the Chinese partners. Our contribution to the joint research, separated by 4 working packages: land cover analysis, earth surface deformation monitoring and DEM extraction, forest vertical structure parameters extraction, and PolSARpro software continued development, is reviewed in the beginning. Furthermore, a joint study between IECAS - NKLMIT and University of Rennes-1 -Institute of Electronics and Telecommunications, about DEM based soil moisture inversion using POLSAR data is reviewed. Besides, a compact-pol calibration algorithm for a wide-band ground-based SAR system and a supervised land cover classification method are proposed here. Finally, the first experiment of IECAS P-band quad-pol SAR system in circular imaging mode is introduced.

  11. A Novel General Imaging Formation Algorithm for GNSS-Based Bistatic SAR.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong-Cheng; Wang, Peng-Bo; Chen, Jie; Liu, Wei; Ge, LinLin; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) recently plays a more and more significant role in remote sensing applications for its low-cost and real-time global coverage capability. In this paper, a general imaging formation algorithm was proposed for accurately and efficiently focusing GNSS-based bistatic SAR data, which avoids the interpolation processing in traditional back projection algorithms (BPAs). A two-dimensional point target spectrum model was firstly presented, and the bulk range cell migration correction (RCMC) was consequently derived for reducing range cell migration (RCM) and coarse focusing. As the bulk RCMC seriously changes the range history of the radar signal, a modified and much more efficient hybrid correlation operation was introduced for compensating residual phase errors. Simulation results were presented based on a general geometric topology with non-parallel trajectories and unequal velocities for both transmitter and receiver platforms, showing a satisfactory performance by the proposed method. PMID:26927117

  12. LDRD final report : first application of geospatial semantic graphs to SAR image data.

    SciTech Connect

    Brost, Randolph C.; McLendon, William Clarence,

    2013-01-01

    Modeling geospatial information with semantic graphs enables search for sites of interest based on relationships between features, without requiring strong a priori models of feature shape or other intrinsic properties. Geospatial semantic graphs can be constructed from raw sensor data with suitable preprocessing to obtain a discretized representation. This report describes initial work toward extending geospatial semantic graphs to include temporal information, and initial results applying semantic graph techniques to SAR image data. We describe an efficient graph structure that includes geospatial and temporal information, which is designed to support simultaneous spatial and temporal search queries. We also report a preliminary implementation of feature recognition, semantic graph modeling, and graph search based on input SAR data. The report concludes with lessons learned and suggestions for future improvements.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Mining of PolSAR Satellite Image Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julea, A.; Meger, N.; Trouve, E.; Bolon, Ph.; Rigotti, C.; Fallourd, R.; Nicolas, J.-M.; Vasile, G.; Gay, M.; Harant, O.; Ferro-Famil, L.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents an original data mining approach for describing Satellite Image Time Series (SITS) spatially and temporally. It relies on pixel-based evolution and sub-evolution extraction. These evolutions, namely the frequent grouped sequential patterns, are required to cover a minimum surface and to affect pixels that are sufficiently connected. These spatial constraints are actively used to face large data volumes and to select evolutions making sense for end-users. In this paper, a specific application to fully polarimetric SAR image time series is presented. Preliminary experiments performed on a RADARSAT-2 SITS covering the Chamonix Mont-Blanc test-site are used to illustrate the proposed approach.

  14. Using dynamic interferometric synthetic aperature radar (InSAR) to image fast-moving surface waves

    DOEpatents

    Vincent, Paul

    2005-06-28

    A new differential technique and system for imaging dynamic (fast moving) surface waves using Dynamic Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is introduced. This differential technique and system can sample the fast-moving surface displacement waves from a plurality of moving platform positions in either a repeat-pass single-antenna or a single-pass mode having a single-antenna dual-phase receiver or having dual physically separate antennas, and reconstruct a plurality of phase differentials from a plurality of platform positions to produce a series of desired interferometric images of the fast moving waves.

  15. Development of a satellite SAR image spectra and altimeter wave height data assimilation system for ERS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasselmann, Klaus; Hasselmann, Susanne; Bauer, Eva; Bruening, Claus; Lehner, Susanne; Graber, Hans; Lionello, Piero

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of ERS-1 wind and wave data for wave models was studied using the WAM third generation wave model and SEASAT altimeter, scatterometer and SAR data. A series of global wave hindcasts is made for the surface stress and surface wind fields by assimilation of scatterometer data for the full 96-day SEASAT and also for two wind field analyses for shorter periods by assimilation with the higher resolution ECMWF T63 model and by subjective analysis methods. It is found that wave models respond very sensitively to inconsistencies in wind field analyses and therefore provide a valuable data validation tool. Comparisons between SEASAT SAR image spectra and theoretical SAR spectra derived from the hindcast wave spectra by Monte Carlo simulations yield good overall agreement for 32 cases representing a wide variety of wave conditions. It is concluded that SAR wave imaging is sufficiently well understood to apply SAR image spectra with confidence for wave studies if supported by realistic wave models and theoretical computations of the strongly nonlinear mapping of the wave spectrum into the SAR image spectrum. A closed nonlinear integral expression for this spectral mapping relation is derived which avoids the inherent statistical errors of Monte Carlo computations and may prove to be more efficient numerically.

  16. An Automatic Optical and SAR Image Registration Method Using Iterative Multi-Level and Refinement Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Sui, H. G.; Li, D. R.; Sun, K. M.; Liu, J. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Automatic image registration is a vital yet challenging task, particularly for multi-sensor remote sensing images. Given the diversity of the data, it is unlikely that a single registration algorithm or a single image feature will work satisfactorily for all applications. Focusing on this issue, the mainly contribution of this paper is to propose an automatic optical-to-SAR image registration method using -level and refinement model: Firstly, a multi-level strategy of coarse-to-fine registration is presented, the visual saliency features is used to acquire coarse registration, and then specific area and line features are used to refine the registration result, after that, sub-pixel matching is applied using KNN Graph. Secondly, an iterative strategy that involves adaptive parameter adjustment for re-extracting and re-matching features is presented. Considering the fact that almost all feature-based registration methods rely on feature extraction results, the iterative strategy improve the robustness of feature matching. And all parameters can be automatically and adaptively adjusted in the iterative procedure. Thirdly, a uniform level set segmentation model for optical and SAR images is presented to segment conjugate features, and Voronoi diagram is introduced into Spectral Point Matching (VSPM) to further enhance the matching accuracy between two sets of matching points. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively and robustly generate sufficient, reliable point pairs and provide accurate registration.

  17. An image formation algorithm for missile-borne circular-scanning SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yesheng; Wang, Kaizhi; Liu, Xingzhao

    2013-12-01

    Circular-scanning SAR is an imaging mode with its antenna beam rotating continuously with respect to the vertical axis. An image formation algorithm for the missile-borne circular-scanning SAR is proposed in this article. Based on the principle of the polar format algorithm, the focus algorithm is generalized to form each subimage when the antenna beam scans at an arbitrary position. By calculating the 2-D position of each calibration point between the scatterers and the subimages, a method is presented to correct the geometric distortion of each subimage. This method is able to correct the geometric distortion even in the case of high maneuvering. These subimages are then mosaicked together to form a circular image. The simulation results under three different maneuvering trajectories are given, the subimages are formed by the focusing algorithm, and then the final circular image can be formed by mosaicking 71 subimages, each of which is after geometric distortion correction. The simulations validate the proposed image formation algorithm, and the results satisfy system design requirements.

  18. SAR image quality effects of damped phase and amplitude errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenka, Jerry S.; Falk, Thomas

    The effects of damped multiplicative, amplitude, or phase errors on the image quality of synthetic-aperture radar systems are considered. These types of errors can result from aircraft maneuvers or the mechanical steering of an antenna. The proper treatment of damped multiplicative errors can lead to related design specifications and possibly an enhanced collection capability. Only small, high-frequency errors are considered. Expressions for the average intensity and energy associated with a damped multiplicative error are presented and used to derive graphic results. A typical example is used to show how to apply the results of this effort.

  19. The 2014 Napa Earthquake Imaged Through A Full Exploitation Of SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldo, R.; Casu, F.; de Luca, C.; Solaro, G.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the co-seismic surface deformation related to the earthquake occurred in Napa area (California) on August 24, 2014. To this aim, we exploit both the phase and the amplitude information of SAR data acquired in Stripmap mode by the Italian COSMO-SkyMed (CSK), the Canadian RADARSAT-2 (RS2), and the recently launched Europena Sentinel-1 satellites, to evaluate and analyze the induced surface displacements through the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) and Pixel-Offset (PO) techniques. In particular, the SAR images, acquired from descending orbits on 26 July and 27 August 2014 by CSK, and on 07 August and 31 August 2014 by Sentinel-1, as well as the ones acquired on 24 July and 10 September by RS2 from ascending passes were used to generate differential SAR interferograms encompassing the main seismic events. The related deformation map, obtained by performing a complex multi-look operation resulting in a pixel size of about 30 m by 30 m, reveals two main lobes of LOS displacement with a range change decrease of about 11 cm to the NE sector and about 7 cm of range change increase to the SE sector. Moreover, by benefiting from the sensor spatial resolutions (down to 3 meters for both CSK and Sentinel-1 satellites), the Pixel-Offset maps of the same data pairs have been also computed, thus permitting us to retrieve displacement information along the azimuth direction and better describing the deformation field. In order to retrieve the earthquake source location and its geometrical characteristics, the displacement maps were modeled by finite dislocation faults in an elastic and homogeneous half-space [Okada, 1985]. In particular, we searched for all the parameters free the fault by using a nonlinear inversion based on the Levenberg-Marquardt least-squares approach. The best fit solution, consists of a right -lateral NNW-SSE oriented fault. The comparison between the model results and the measured InSAR data show a good fit, with residue values

  20. Analysis of backscattering behaviors for partially damaged buildings in VHR SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrone, Davide; Bovolo, Francesca; Bruzzone, Lorenzo

    2015-10-01

    In the recent years, new satellite SAR data with very-high spatial resolution are available for scientific studies. In the urban scenario, these data are of high interest. Because, they allow the detection of changes at fine resolution, such those affecting buildings. Thus, they represent a precious information for rescue activities. Here, we study and design a geometrical model for representing possible kinds of damages in buildings. Among the different kinds of damages, we focus the attention on the one associated to the façades visible from the SAR sensor. According to the model and by using a ray-tracing method (i.e., the electromagnetic propagation is approximated with optical rays), we develop an analytical model for the backscattering of partially damaged buildings and investigate their behaviors in multi-temporal VHR SAR images. Both surface and multiple-bounce contributions are considered and analyzed by varying geometrical parameters. The resulting single date and multi-temporal patterns are validated on Cosmo-SkyMed data acquired over L'Aquila before and after the seismic event that hit the city in March 2009.

  1. Decomposition of Polarimetric SAR Images Based on Second- and Third-order Statics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, S.; Hensley, S.

    2012-12-01

    There are many papers concerning the research of the decomposition of polerimetric SAR imagery. Most of them are based on second-order statics analysis that Freeman and Durden [1] suggested for the reflection symmetry condition that implies that the co-polarization and cross-polarization correlations are close to zero. Since then a number of improvements and enhancements have been proposed to better understand the underlying backscattering mechanisms present in polarimetric SAR images. For example, Yamaguchi et al. [2] added the helix component into Freeman's model and developed a 4 component scattering model for the non-reflection symmetry condition. In addition, Arii et al. [3] developed an adaptive model-based decomposition method that could estimate both the mean orientation angle and a degree of randomness for the canopy scattering for each pixel in a SAR image without the reflection symmetry condition. This purpose of this research is to develop a new decomposition method based on second- and third-order statics analysis to estimate the surface, dihedral, volume and helix scattering components from polarimetric SAR images without the specific assumptions concerning the model for the volume scattering. In addition, we evaluate this method by using both simulation and real UAVSAR data and compare this method with other methods. We express the volume scattering component using the wire formula and formulate the relationship equation between backscattering echo and each component such as the surface, dihedral, volume and helix via linearization based on second- and third-order statics. In third-order statics, we calculate the correlation of the correlation coefficients for each polerimetric data and get one new relationship equation to estimate each polarization component such as HH, VV and VH for the volume. As a result, the equation for the helix component in this method is the same formula as one in Yamaguchi's method. However, the equation for the volume

  2. Rapid extraction of water bodies from SAR imagery assisted by InSAR DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Ming; Zmuda, Andy

    1998-08-01

    In China, detailed flood maps are produced in near real time using an airborne SAR and data transmission system. Water bodies are extracted and the information is integrated with other thematic data to facilitate the rapid response to economic and humanitarian relief. One problem has been that terrain shadow on SAR images is classified as water and this proves difficult to eliminate without detailed elevation data. However interferometric processing of ERS Tandem Mission data has been used to produce a digital elevation model for a test area in China. This has been used to mask areas of terrain shadow on SAR images therefore improving the automatic classification of water bodies. The result is promising compared with the previously used method that relied on manual elimination of shadow areas.

  3. A comparative evaluation of SAR and SLAR

    SciTech Connect

    Mastin, G.A.; Manson, J.J.; Bradley, J.D.; Axline, R.M.; Hover, G.L.

    1993-11-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) was evaluated as a potential technological improvement over the Coast Guard`s existing side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) for oil-spill surveillance applications. The US Coast Guard Research and Development Center (R&D Center), Environmental Branch, sponsored a joint experiment including the US Coast Guard, Sandia National Laboratories, and the Naval Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Hazardous Materials Division. Radar imaging missions were flown on six days over the coastal waters off Santa Barbara, CA, where there are constant natural seeps of oil. Both the Coast Guard SLAR and the Sandia National Laboratories SAR were employed to acquire simultaneous images of oil slicks and other natural sea surface features that impact oil-spill interpretation. Surface truth and other environmental data were also recorded during the experiment. The experiment data were processed at Sandia National Laboratories and delivered to the R&D Center on a computer workstation for analysis by experiment participants. Issues such as optimal spatial resolution, single-look vs. multi-look SAR imaging, and the utility of SAR for oil-spill analysis were addressed. Finally, conceptual design requirements for a possible future Coast Guard SAR were outlined and evaluated.

  4. Electro-optical and SAR image fusion for improvements on target feature estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampropoulos, George A.; Li, Yifeng; Secker, Jeff; Sevigny, Leandre; Beaudoin, Andre

    2003-02-01

    In this paper, tradeoff studies on several pixel level fusion algorithms and on their performance evaluation criteria are presented. Electro-optical (EO) and SAR sensors are dissimilar and produce images with very low degrees of correlation. These images are initially registered at subpixel level accuracy. The fusion is performed using the following pixel level fusion algorithms: Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Averaging (Ave), Laplacian Pyramid, Filter Subtract Decimate (FSD), Ratio Pyramid, Contrast Pyramid, Gradient Pyramid, Discrete Wavelet Transform (QWT), Shift Invariant DWT (SIDWT) with Haar, Morphological Pyramid, and the recent image fusion method developed by AUG Signals Ltd. A MATLAB based dedicated image fusion toolbox, that includes several pixel level fusion, restoration and registration algorithms, has been recently developed by AUG Signals. This toolbox is used for the tradeoff studies.

  5. Registration of Optical Data with High-Resolution SAR Data: a New Image Registration Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, T.; Jin, X.

    2013-04-01

    Accurate image-to-image registration is critical for many image processing workflows, including georeferencing, change detection, data fusion, image mosaicking, DEM extraction and 3D modeling. Users need a solution to generate tie points accurately and geometrically align the images automatically. To solve these requirements we developed the Hybrid Powered Auto-Registration Engine (HyPARE). HyPARE combines all available spatial reference information with a number of image registration approaches to improve the accuracy, performance, and automation of tie point generation and image registration. We demonstrate this approach by the registration of a Pléiades-1a image with a TerraSAR-X SpotLight image of Hannover, Germany. Registering images with different modalities is a known challenging problem; e.g. manual tie point collection is prone to error. The registration engine allows to generate tie points automatically, using an optimized mutual information-based matching method. It produces more accurate results than traditional correlation-based measures. In this example the resulting tie points are well distributed across the overlapping areas, even as the images have significant local feature differences.

  6. The effects of snow on landmarks in K/sub u/ band SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images

    SciTech Connect

    Murrary, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report documents research into the effects of snow on candidate landmarks for the TFS radar. It includes a discussion of a simple snow model, relevant backscatter data from previous ground based collections, predictions of the effects of snow coverage based on this data, a discussion of the snow data collection with the TFS radar, and an analysis of the results of that collection. All SAR images are for a K/sub u/ band radar, with HH polarization, and a 30/degree/ depression angle. The images have three meter resolution and a one kilometer swath. SAR images were collected of both rural and urban landmarks. 5 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. A high-resolution airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  8. ANALYZING WATER QUALITY WITH IMAGES ACQUIRED FROM AIRBORNE SENSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring different parameters of water quality can be a time consuming and expensive activity. However, the use of airborne light-sensitive (optical) instruments may enhance the abilities of resource managers to monitor water quality in rivers in a timely and cost-effective ma...

  9. Scattering Properties of Greenland Ice Sheets Inferred from ALOS L-band InSAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. C.; Zebker, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet is 2000 kilometers long and has a maximum thickness of over 3000 meters. It contains around ten percent of the fresh water on Earth. As both a reservoir of water and a heat sink for the Gulf Stream, it plays an important role in the Earth's climate and sea level. Therefore accurate assessments of the Greenland ice sheet's mass balance are essential for understanding global climate change and sea level. Measurements of ice scattering properties in the dry snow zone can contribute to our understanding of accumulation rates, which tend to be harder to measure than loss rates. In this study we examine data acquired by the PALSAR L-band (23.61 centimeter carrier wavelength) InSAR instrument aboard the ALOS satellite. We generate polarimetric InSAR images of two long strips of the Greenland ice sheet extending from the inner dry snow zone through the percolation and wet snow zones to the northern coastline, a total distance of about 700 kilometers. The single-look resolution is around 10 meters, and there is a temporal baseline of 46 days, and spatial baselines range from about 150 to 350 meters. We have demonstrated that the resulting geocoded differential interferograms can have high coherence (0.5 up to 0.9) in large regions of the dry snow zone, and that corrections can be made to recover coherence that is lost due to ionospheric inhomogeneity. We have also estimated radar penetration depths of 50 to 90 meters in the dry snow zone, though estimated penetration depth also depends on polarization. We apply phase and radiometric calibration to the data products generated by our SAR processor, incorporating calibration results published by JAXA. This allows us to estimate radar backscatter brightness (sigma0) and to make an estimated correction for ionospheric Faraday rotation effects in order to accurately measure polarimetric parameters. In general, the backscatter brightness in co-polarized SLC images is about 5 dB higher than in cross

  10. Two-dimensional wavelet variance estimation with application to sea ice SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilhufe, M.; Percival, D. B.; Stern, H. L.

    2013-04-01

    The surface of Arctic sea ice presents complex patterns of cracks and ridges that change with the seasons according to the external forces acting on the ice and the internal stresses within the ice. We propose a new statistical tool for analysis of these patterns based on a two-dimensional Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT) of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, which can be used to track how ice conditions change over the course of the year. Here we give details on an extended pyramid algorithm that efficiently computes the MODWT coefficients for all combinations of vertical and horizontal scales. We show how to use these coefficients to form mean- and median-based wavelet variance estimates along with confidence intervals for the true unknown variances. We demonstrate the usefulness of the statistical tool on images acquired by the SAR sensor onboard RADARSAT, but the tool is of potential use in other geoscience applications and in other areas (e.g. medical imaging). We provide a Matlab implementation of this tool but also give sufficient details so that it can be encoded in other languages.

  11. Dynamic experiment design regularization approach to adaptive imaging with array radar/SAR sensor systems.

    PubMed

    Shkvarko, Yuriy; Tuxpan, José; Santos, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    We consider a problem of high-resolution array radar/SAR imaging formalized in terms of a nonlinear ill-posed inverse problem of nonparametric estimation of the power spatial spectrum pattern (SSP) of the random wavefield scattered from a remotely sensed scene observed through a kernel signal formation operator and contaminated with random Gaussian noise. First, the Sobolev-type solution space is constructed to specify the class of consistent kernel SSP estimators with the reproducing kernel structures adapted to the metrics in such the solution space. Next, the "model-free" variational analysis (VA)-based image enhancement approach and the "model-based" descriptive experiment design (DEED) regularization paradigm are unified into a new dynamic experiment design (DYED) regularization framework. Application of the proposed DYED framework to the adaptive array radar/SAR imaging problem leads to a class of two-level (DEED-VA) regularized SSP reconstruction techniques that aggregate the kernel adaptive anisotropic windowing with the projections onto convex sets to enforce the consistency and robustness of the overall iterative SSP estimators. We also show how the proposed DYED regularization method may be considered as a generalization of the MVDR, APES and other high-resolution nonparametric adaptive radar sensing techniques. A family of the DYED-related algorithms is constructed and their effectiveness is finally illustrated via numerical simulations. PMID:22163859

  12. Segmentation-based detection of targets in foliage-penetrating SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Amit; Burlina, Philippe

    1997-06-01

    Segmentation and labeling algorithms for foliage penetrating (FOPEN) ultra-wideband Synthetic Aperture Radar (UWB SAR) images are critical components in providing local context in automatic target recognition algorithms. We develop a statistical estimation-theoretic approach to segmenting and labeling the FOPEN images into foliage and non-foliage regions. The labeled maps enable the use of region-adaptive detectors, such as a constant false-alarm rate detector with region-dependent parameters. Segmentation of the images is achieved by performing a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of the pixel labels. By modeling the conditional distribution with a Symmetric Alpha-Stable density and assuming a Markov random field model for the pixel labels, the resulting posterior probability density function is maximized by using simulated annealing to yield the MAP estimate.

  13. Adaptive target detection in foliage-penetrating SAR images using alpha-stable models.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Burlina, P; Chellappa, R

    1999-01-01

    Detecting targets occluded by foliage in foliage-penetrating (FOPEN) ultra-wideband synthetic aperture radar (UWB SAR) images is an important and challenging problem. Given the different nature of target returns in foliage and nonfoliage regions and very low signal-to-clutter ratio in UWB imagery, conventional detection algorithms fail to yield robust target detection results. A new target detection algorithm is proposed that (1) incorporates symmetric alpha-stable (SalphaS) distributions for accurate clutter modeling, (2) constructs a two-dimensional (2-D) site model for deriving local context, and (3) exploits the site model for region-adaptive target detection. Theoretical and empirical evidence is given to support the use of the SalphaS model for image segmentation and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection. Results of our algorithm on real FOPEN images collected by the Army Research Laboratory are provided. PMID:18267459

  14. Algorithms research of airborne long linear multi-elements whisk broom remote sensing image geometric correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Ma, Yan-hua; Li, Sheng-hong

    2015-10-01

    Multi-Element scanning imaging is an imaging method that is conventionally used in space-born spectrometer. By multipixel scanning at the same time, increased exposure time can be achieved and the picture quality can be enhanced. But when this imaging method is applied in airborne remote sensing image systems, corresponding imaging model and correction algorithms must be built, because of the poor posture stability of airborne platform and different characteristics and requirements. This paper builds a geometric correction model of airborne long linear multi-element scanning imaging system by decomposing the process of imaging and also deduced related correction algorithms. The sampling moment of linear CCD can be treated as push broom imaging and a single pixel imaging during the whole whisk broom period can be treated as whisk broom imaging. Based on this kind of decomposition, col-linearity equation correction algorithm and a kind of new tangent correction algorithm are deduced. As shown in the simulation experiment result, combining with position and attitude date collected by the posture position measurement system, these algorithms can map pixel position from image coordinate to WGS84 coordinate with high precision. In addition, some error factors and correction accuracy are roughly analyzed.

  15. Low complexity efficient raw SAR data compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, Shantanu; Boufounos, Petros; Vetro, Anthony; Okada, Yu

    2011-06-01

    We present a low-complexity method for compression of raw Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. Raw SAR data is typically acquired using a satellite or airborne platform without sufficient computational capabilities to process the data and generate a SAR image on-board. Hence, the raw data needs to be compressed and transmitted to the ground station, where SAR image formation can be carried out. To perform low-complexity compression, our method uses 1-dimensional transforms, followed by quantization and entropy coding. In contrast to previous approaches, which send uncompressed or Huffman-coded bits, we achieve more efficient entropy coding using an arithmetic coder that responds to a continuously updated probability distribution. We present experimental results on compression of raw Ku-SAR data. In those we evaluate the effect of the length of the transform on compression performance and demonstrate the advantages of the proposed framework over a state-of-the-art low complexity scheme called Block Adaptive Quantization (BAQ).

  16. Observation of a Large Landslide on La Reunion Island Using Differential Sar Interferometry (JERS and Radarsat) and Correlation of Optical (Spot5 and Aerial) Images.

    PubMed

    Delacourt, Christophe; Raucoules, Daniel; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Carnec, Claudie; Feurer, Denis; Allemand, Pascal; Cruchet, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Slope instabilities are one of the most important geo-hazards in terms of socio-economic costs. The island of La Réunion (Indian Ocean) is affected by constant slope movements and huge landslides due to a combination of rough topography, wet tropical climate and its specific geological context. We show that remote sensing techniques (Differential SAR Interferometry and correlation of optical images) provide complementary means to characterize landslides on a regional scale. The vegetation cover generally hampers the analysis of C-band interferograms. We used JERS-1 images to show that the L-band can be used to overcome the loss of coherence observed in Radarsat C-band interferograms. Image correlation was applied to optical airborne and SPOT 5 sensors images. The two techniques were applied to a landslide near the town of Hellbourg in order to assess their performance for detecting and quantifying the ground motion associated to this landslide. They allowed the mapping of the unstable areas. Ground displacement of about 0.5 m yr(-1) was measured. PMID:22389620

  17. Observation of a Large Landslide on La Reunion Island Using Differential Sar Interferometry (JERS and Radarsat) and Correlation of Optical (Spot5 and Aerial) Images

    PubMed Central

    Delacourt, Christophe; Raucoules, Daniel; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Carnec, Claudie; Feurer, Denis; Allemand, Pascal; Cruchet, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Slope instabilities are one of the most important geo-hazards in terms of socio-economic costs. The island of La Réunion (Indian Ocean) is affected by constant slope movements and huge landslides due to a combination of rough topography, wet tropical climate and its specific geological context. We show that remote sensing techniques (Differential SAR Interferometry and correlation of optical images) provide complementary means to characterize landslides on a regional scale. The vegetation cover generally hampers the analysis of C–band interferograms. We used JERS-1 images to show that the L-band can be used to overcome the loss of coherence observed in Radarsat C-band interferograms. Image correlation was applied to optical airborne and SPOT 5 sensors images. The two techniques were applied to a landslide near the town of Hellbourg in order to assess their performance for detecting and quantifying the ground motion associated to this landslide. They allowed the mapping of the unstable areas. Ground displacement of about 0.5 m yr-1 was measured. PMID:22389620

  18. Tracking of Ice Edges and Ice Floes by Wavelet Analysis of SAR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Martin, Seelye; Kwok, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of wavelet transforms in the tracking of sequential ice features in the ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, especially in situations where feature correlation techniques fail to yield reasonable results. Examples include the evolution of the St. Lawrence polynya and summer sea ice change in the Beaufort Sea. For the polynya, the evolution of the region of young ice growth surrounding a polynya can be easily tracked by wavelet analysis due to the large backscatter difference between the young and old ice. Also within the polynya, a 2D fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used to identify the extent of the Langmuir circulation region, which is coincident with the wave-agitated frazil ice growth region, where the sea ice experiences its fastest growth. Therefore, the combination of wavelet and FFT analysis of SAR images provides for the large-scale monitoring of different polynya features. For summer ice, previous work shows that this is the most difficult period for ice trackers due to the lack of features on the sea ice cover. The multiscale wavelet analysis shows that this method delineates the detailed floe shapes during this period, so that between consecutive images, the floe translation and rotation can be estimated.

  19. Joint image formation and anisotropy characterization in wide-angle SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Kush R.; Çetin, Müjdat; Fisher, John W., III; Willsky, Alan S.

    2006-05-01

    We consider the problem of jointly forming images and characterizing anisotropy from wide-angle synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements. Conventional SAR image formation techniques assume isotropic scattering, which is not valid with wide-angle apertures. We present a method based on a sparse representation of aspect-dependent scattering with an overcomplete basis composed of basis vectors with varying levels of angular persistence. Solved as an inverse problem, the result is a complex-valued, aspect-dependent response for each spatial location in a scene. Our non-parametric approach does not suffer from reduced cross-range resolution inherent in subaperture methods and considers all point scatterers in a scene jointly. The choice of the overcomplete basis set incorporates prior knowledge of aspect-dependent scattering, but the method is flexible enough to admit solutions that may not match a family of parametric functions. We enforce sparsity through regularization based on the l k-norm, k < 1. This formulation leads to an optimization problem that is solved through a robust quasi-Newton method. We also develop a graph-structured interpretation of the overcomplete basis leading towards approximate algorithms using guided depth-first search with appropriate stopping conditions and search heuristics. We present experimental results on synthetic scenes and the backhoe public release dataset.

  20. SAR imaging in the presence of spectrum notches via fast missing data IAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, William; Karlsson, Johan; Xu, Luzhou; Glentis, George-Othon; Li, Jian

    2013-05-01

    A synthetic aperture radar system operating in congested frequency bands suffers from radio frequency inter­ ference (RFI) from narrowband sources. When RFI interference is suppressed by frequency notching, gaps are introduced into the fast time phase history. This results in a missing data spectral estimation problem, where the missing data increases sidelobe energy and degrades image quality. The adaptive spectral estimation method Iterative Adaptive Approach (IAA) has been shown to provide higher resolution and lower sidelobes than comparable methods, but at the cost of higher computationally complexity. Current fast IAA algorithms reduce the computational complexity using Toeplitz /Vandermonde structures, but are not applicable for missing data cases because these structures are lost. When the number of missing data samples is small, which often is the case in SAR with RFI, we use a low rank completion to restore the Toeplitz/ Vandermonde structures. We show that the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is considerably lower than the state-of-the-art and demonstrate the utility on a simulated frequency notched SAR imaging problem.

  1. SAR image filtering based on the heavy-tailed Rayleigh model.

    PubMed

    Achim, Alin; Kuruoğlu, Ercan E; Zerubia, Josiane

    2006-09-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images are inherently affected by a signal dependent noise known as speckle, which is due to the radar wave coherence. In this paper, we propose a novel adaptive despeckling filter and derive a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator for the radar cross section (RCS). We first employ a logarithmic transformation to change the multiplicative speckle into additive noise. We model the RCS using the recently introduced heavy-tailed Rayleigh density function, which was derived based on the assumption that the real and imaginary parts of the received complex signal are best described using the alpha-stable family of distribution. We estimate model parameters from noisy observations by means of second-kind statistics theory, which relies on the Mellin transform. Finally, we compare the proposed algorithm with several classical speckle filters applied on actual SAR images. Experimental results show that the homomorphic MAP filter based on the heavy-tailed Rayleigh prior for the RCS is among the best for speckle removal. PMID:16948313

  2. Phi-s correlation and dynamic time warping - Two methods for tracking ice floes in SAR images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, Ross; Kober, Wolfgang; Kwok, Ronald; Curlander, John C.; Pang, Shirley S.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present two algorithms for performing shape matching on ice floe boundaries in SAR (synthetic aperture radar) images. These algorithms quickly produce a set of ice motion and rotation vectors that can be used to guide a pixel value correlator. The algorithms match a shape descriptor known as the Phi-s curve. The first algorithm uses normalized correlation to match the Phi-s curves, while the second uses dynamic programming to compute an elastic match that better accommodates ice floe deformation. Some empirical data on the performance of the algorithms on Seasat SAR images are presented.

  3. Spaceborne radar applications in geology. An introduction to imaging radar and application examples of ERS SAR in geology and geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Karen

    2005-12-01

    This document is intended for geologists who are interested in broadening their knowledge of interpretation of imaging radar data, but also addresses the general public for reference and information. It introduces imaging radar as it may be used by technicians and image interpreters, stressing the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for Earth observation in general and for geology in particular. Interferometric SAR is briefly treated, with some basic and practical hints. An illustrated application study on land subsidence is included. SAR/optical data fusion is explained, with examples of the different methods suggested. The main part of the document, part II, consists of 14 case studies that demonstrate the potential of SAR imagery for geology. These studies cover themes such as the detection and mapping of neotectonic activity, tectonic mapping, and recognition of karst structures, as well as analysis of active lahars and other volcanic events. They look into drainage systems in desert areas, consider lithofacies changes and morphostructure texture analysis, and they demonstrate the geological mapping of active tectonic compression. Finally, the document mentions the key points of the ESA SAR missions. Contacts for further information are also provided.

  4. SAR Reduction in 7T C-Spine Imaging Using a “Dark Modes” Transmit Array Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Eryaman, Yigitcan; Guerin, Bastien; Keil, Boris; Mareyam, Azma; Herraiz, Joaquin L.; Kosior, Robert K.; Martin, Adrian; Torrado-Carvajal, Angel; Malpica, Norberto; Hernandez-Tamames, Juan A.; Schiavi, Emanuele; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Local specific absorption rate (SAR) limits many applications of parallel transmit (pTx) in ultra high-field imaging. In this Note, we introduce the use of an array element, which is intentionally inefficient at generating spin excitation (a “dark mode”) to attempt a partial cancellation of the electric field from those elements that do generate excitation. We show that adding dipole elements oriented orthogonal to their conventional orientation to a linear array of conventional loop elements can lower the local SAR hotspot in a C-spine array at 7 T. Methods We model electromagnetic fields in a head/torso model to calculate SAR and excitation B1+ patterns generated by conventional loop arrays and loop arrays with added electric dipole elements. We utilize the dark modes that are generated by the intentional and inefficient orientation of dipole elements in order to reduce peak 10g local SAR while maintaining excitation fidelity. Results For B1+ shimming in the spine, the addition of dipole elements did not significantly alter the B1+ spatial pattern but reduced local SAR by 36%. Conclusion The dipole elements provide a sufficiently complimentary B1+ and electric field pattern to the loop array that can be exploited by the radiofrequency shimming algorithm to reduce local SAR. PMID:24753012

  5. A Combined Use of Decomposition and Texture for Terrain Classification of Fully Polarimetric SAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, N. V.

    2007-03-01

    This p aper presents two-stag e unsupervised terrain classification of fully polarimetr ic SA R data using Freeman and Durden decomposition based on three simp le scattering mechanisms: surface, volume and double bounce (first step), and textur al features (uncorrelated uniformity , contr ast, inv erse mo men t and entropy) obtained from grey lev el co-occurrence matr ices (GLCM) (second step). Textural f eatures ar e defined in moving w indow 5x5 pixels w ith N=32 (N - number of grey lev els) . This algorith m preserves th e purity of domin ant polarimetric scattering properties and defines textural features in each scatter ing category. It is shown better object discrimin ation after app lying textur e w ith in fix ed scattering category. Speckle r eduction is one of th e main mo ments in imag e interpr etation improvement because of its great influen ce on textur e. Results from unfiltered and Lee filtered polar imetr ic SAR imag es show that the v alues of contrast and en tropy decr ease and th e values of uniformity and inverse moment increase with speckle reduction, that's tru e for all polarizations (HH, VV, HV). Th e d iscr imination b etw een objects increases after speckle f ilter ing. Polar ization influen ce on textur e features is def ined by calculating th e features in SAR images w ith HH , VV and HV polarizations before and after speck le filter ing, and then creating RG B images. It is shown mor e polarization inf luence on textur e features (uniformity , inverse mo ment and entropy) before filtering and less influen ce - after speck le f iltering. I t's not true for contrast wher e polar ization influen ce is not ch anged practically w ith filtering. SIR-C/X-SA R SLC L-band imag es of Moscow r egion are used for illustr ation.

  6. An image recorded by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.

    1990-01-01

    The airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) is described, and an example of a false-color image recorded by this device is provided. The AVIRIS is capable of sensing in 209 visible and near-infrared wavebands with an 11km swath and a 20m spatial resolution. Evaluation flights for AVIRIS were made at an altitude of approximately 20km x 10.2km of low-lying and relatively flat irrigated land near Yuba City and Sacramento, California. Raw data were converted from digital numbers to radiance and radiometrically corrected at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Notch filtering in the frequency domain of the image was used to remove periodic noise. The illustration of both spatial and spectral properties on the false-color image are explained. AVIRIS is designed to be flown in an ER-2 aircraft and will serve as a test-bed sensor for the High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) planned for the Earth Observing System.

  7. Impacts of dichroic prism coatings on radiometry of the airborne imaging spectrometer APEX.

    PubMed

    Hueni, A; Schlaepfer, D; Jehle, M; Schaepman, M

    2014-08-20

    The generation of well-calibrated radiometric measurements from imaging spectrometer data requires careful consideration of all influencing factors, as well as an instrument calibration based on a detailed sensor model. Deviations of ambient parameters (i.e., pressure, humidity, temperature) from standard laboratory conditions during airborne operations can lead to biases that should be accounted for and properly compensated by using dedicated instrument models. This study introduces a model for the airborne imaging spectrometer airborne prism experiment (APEX), describing the impact of spectral shifts as well as polarization effects on the radiometric system response due to changing ambient parameters. Key issues are related to changing properties of the dichroic coating applied to the dispersing elements within the optical path. We present a model based on discrete numerical simulations. With the improved modeling approach, we predict radiometric biases with an root mean square error (RMSE) below 1%, leading to a substantial improvement of radiometric stability and predictability of system behavior. PMID:25321104

  8. Orientation of Airborne Laser Scanning Point Clouds with Multi-View, Multi-Scale Image Blocks

    PubMed Central

    Rönnholm, Petri; Hyyppä, Hannu; Hyyppä, Juha; Haggrén, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive 3D modeling of our environment requires integration of terrestrial and airborne data, which is collected, preferably, using laser scanning and photogrammetric methods. However, integration of these multi-source data requires accurate relative orientations. In this article, two methods for solving relative orientation problems are presented. The first method includes registration by minimizing the distances between of an airborne laser point cloud and a 3D model. The 3D model was derived from photogrammetric measurements and terrestrial laser scanning points. The first method was used as a reference and for validation. Having completed registration in the object space, the relative orientation between images and laser point cloud is known. The second method utilizes an interactive orientation method between a multi-scale image block and a laser point cloud. The multi-scale image block includes both aerial and terrestrial images. Experiments with the multi-scale image block revealed that the accuracy of a relative orientation increased when more images were included in the block. The orientations of the first and second methods were compared. The comparison showed that correct rotations were the most difficult to detect accurately by using the interactive method. Because the interactive method forces laser scanning data to fit with the images, inaccurate rotations cause corresponding shifts to image positions. However, in a test case, in which the orientation differences included only shifts, the interactive method could solve the relative orientation of an aerial image and airborne laser scanning data repeatedly within a couple of centimeters. PMID:22454569

  9. Effect of wind turbine micro-Doppler on SAR and GMTI signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Rajan; Ling, Hao

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a modeling study to examine the interference effect of microDopplers caused by offshore wind farms on airborne sensors operating in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ground moving target indicator (GMTI) modes. The modeling is carried out by generating CAD instantiations of the dynamic wind turbine and using the high-frequency electromagnetic code Xpatch to perform the scattering calculations. Artifacts in the resulting SAR and GMTI signatures are evaluated for interference with tracking of boats in coastal waters. Results of signal filtering algorithms to reduce the dynamic turbine clutter in both SAR images and GMTI displays are presented.

  10. An Unsupervised Change Detection Based on Test Statistic and KI from Multi-Temporal and Full Polarimetric SAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. Q.; Yang, J.; Li, P. X.; Liu, M. Y.; Shi, Y. M.

    2016-06-01

    Accurate and timely change detection of Earth's surface features is extremely important for understanding relationships and interactions between people and natural phenomena. Many traditional methods of change detection only use a part of polarization information and the supervised threshold selection. Those methods are insufficiency and time-costing. In this paper, we present a novel unsupervised change-detection method based on quad-polarimetric SAR data and automatic threshold selection to solve the problem of change detection. First, speckle noise is removed for the two registered SAR images. Second, the similarity measure is calculated by the test statistic, and automatic threshold selection of KI is introduced to obtain the change map. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by the quad-pol SAR images acquired by Radarsat-2 over Wuhan of China.

  11. Visual analytics for semantic queries of TerraSAR-X image content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Molina, Daniela; Alonso, Kevin; Datcu, Mihai

    2015-10-01

    With the continuous image product acquisition of satellite missions, the size of the image archives is considerably increasing every day as well as the variety and complexity of their content, surpassing the end-user capacity to analyse and exploit them. Advances in the image retrieval field have contributed to the development of tools for interactive exploration and extraction of the images from huge archives using different parameters like metadata, key-words, and basic image descriptors. Even though we count on more powerful tools for automated image retrieval and data analysis, we still face the problem of understanding and analyzing the results. Thus, a systematic computational analysis of these results is required in order to provide to the end-user a summary of the archive content in comprehensible terms. In this context, visual analytics combines automated analysis with interactive visualizations analysis techniques for an effective understanding, reasoning and decision making on the basis of very large and complex datasets. Moreover, currently several researches are focused on associating the content of the images with semantic definitions for describing the data in a format to be easily understood by the end-user. In this paper, we present our approach for computing visual analytics and semantically querying the TerraSAR-X archive. Our approach is mainly composed of four steps: 1) the generation of a data model that explains the information contained in a TerraSAR-X product. The model is formed by primitive descriptors and metadata entries, 2) the storage of this model in a database system, 3) the semantic definition of the image content based on machine learning algorithms and relevance feedback, and 4) querying the image archive using semantic descriptors as query parameters and computing the statistical analysis of the query results. The experimental results shows that with the help of visual analytics and semantic definitions we are able to explain

  12. Mapping diverse vegetation with multichannel radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Wickland, D. E.; Ocampo, A.; Sharitz, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne-SAR, SIR-A, Seasat SAR, and Landsat TM images of the Savannah River Plant, a gently sloping area of South Carolina covered with diverse vegetation, are presented and briefly characterized. Preliminary results indicate that multiple-polarization images constructed from the airborne-SAR data give some indication of forest density and understory growth but do not permit discrimination between evergreen and deciduous forests. Heat-tolerant vegetation growing on sand bars in streams bearing thermal effluents from nuclear reactors on the site is found to have a distinguishing polarization signature.

  13. SAR change detection MTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarborough, Steven; Lemanski, Christopher; Nichols, Howard; Owirka, Gregory; Minardi, Michael; Hale, Todd

    2006-05-01

    This paper examines the theory, application, and results of using single-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data with Moving Reference Processing (MRP) to focus and geolocate moving targets. Moving targets within a standard SAR imaging scene are defocused, displaced, or completely missing in the final image. Building on previous research at AFRL, the SAR-MRP method focuses and geolocates moving targets by reprocessing the SAR data to focus the movers rather than the stationary clutter. SAR change detection is used so that target detection and focusing is performed more robustly. In the cases where moving target returns possess the same range versus slow-time histories, a geolocation ambiguity results. This ambiguity can be resolved in a number of ways. This paper concludes by applying the SAR-MRP method to high-frequency radar measurements from persistent continuous-dwell SAR observations of a moving target.

  14. Characterization of spatial statistics of distributed targets in SAR data. [applied to sea-ice data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E.; Kwok, R.

    1993-01-01

    A statistical approach to the analysis of spatial statistics in polarimetric multifrequency SAR data, which is aimed at extracting the intrinsic variability of the target by removing variability from other sources, is presented. An image model, which takes into account three sources of spatial variability, namely, image speckle, system noise, and the intrinsic spatial variability of the target or texture, is described. It is shown that the presence of texture increases the image variance-to-mean square ratio and introduces deviations of the image autocovariance function from the expected SAR system response. The approach is exemplified by sea-ice SAR imagery acquired by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory three-frequency polarimetric airborne SAR. Data obtained indicate that, for different sea-ice types, the spatial statistics seem to vary more across frequency than across polarization and the observed differences increase in magnitude with decreasing frequency.

  15. Application of pixel segmentation to the low rate compression of complex SAR imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, R.W.; Eichel, P.; Magotra, N.

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes a technique to identify pixels within a subregion (chip) of a complex or detected SAR image which are to be losslessly compressed while the remainder of the image is subjected to a high compression ratio. This multi-modal compression is required for the intelligent low rate compression of SAR imagery, which addresses the problem of transmitting massive amounts of high resolution complex SAR data from a remote airborne sensor to a ground station for exploitation by an automatic target recognition (ATR) system, in a real time environment, over a narrow bandwidth. The ATR system results might then be presented to an image analyst who, using the contextual information from the SAR image, makes final target determination.

  16. Use of Radarsat-2 Polarimetric SAR Images for Fuel Moisture Mapping in Alaska Boreal Forests and South Africa Savannahs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblon, B.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.; Kong, M.; Buckley, J. R.; Mathieu, R. M.; Charbonneau, F.; Gross, C. P.; Naidoo, L.

    2014-12-01

    The study reported a comparison between two Radarsat-2 polarimetric SAR (polSAR) images from extreme dry versus wet conditions are compared in an effort to determine the value of using polarimetric SAR data for estimating fuel moisture over South Africa savannahs and Alaska boreal forests. The savannahs study area is located into the Kruger National Park area and has 36 sites of lowveld savannas from bare overgrazed sites to medium-dense savannahs. The boreal forest study area has a chronosequence of black spruce ecosystems (recent burns, shrub-dominated regenerating forests , open canopied forests, moderately dense forest cover). Both study areas have a fairly level topography suitable for radar studies. The polSAR images were acquired using the same beam mode (FQ5 (23-25° incidence angle over the boreal sites, FQ15 (34.47-36.05° incidence angle) over the savannahs sites). Over each study area, soil moisture and vegetation structural data were measured in situ concurrently to the acquisition of the SAR imagery. The polSAR images were filtered for speckle noise using a Lee sigma filter and several polarimetric products were computed, such as those directly derived from the images (single linear and polairzed backscatters, polarimetric discriminators) and from target decompositions (Freeman-Durden, new van Zyl, Cloude-Pottier). Because most of these variables have a different unit, a normalized difference (in %) for each variable was calculated using the median values of the dry and wet dates for easier comparison of variable changes between the dates. Over both study areas, the normalized difference between wet and dry conditions was lower when higher tree canopy occurs. Results show utility of C-HH and C-RR polarized backscatters. Several polarimetric discriminators (dmin, Pr max, Pr min, Smax, Smin) were also significantly affected by the soil wetness. The Freeman Durden and van Zyl decomposition parameters outperformed the Cloude-Pottier decomposition

  17. Comparison of feature based segmentation of full polarimetric SAR satellite sea ice images with manually drawn ice charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moen, M.-A. N.; Doulgeris, A. P.; Anfinsen, S. N.; Renner, A. H. H.; Hughes, N.; Gerland, S.; Eltoft, T.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the performance of an algorithm for automatic segmentation of full polarimetric, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sea ice scenes. The algorithm uses statistical and polarimetric properties of the backscattered radar signals to segment the SAR image into a specified number of classes. This number was determined in advance from visual inspection of the SAR image and by available in situ measurements. The segmentation result was then compared to ice charts drawn by ice service analysts. The comparison revealed big discrepancies between the charts of the analysts, and between the manual and the automatic segmentations. In the succeeding analysis, the automatic segmentation chart was labeled into ice types by sea ice experts, and the SAR features used in the segmentation were interpreted in terms of physical sea ice properties. Utilizing polarimetric information in sea ice charting will increase the efficiency and exactness of the maps. The number of classes used in the segmentation has shown to be of significant importance. Thus, studies of automatic and robust estimation of the number of ice classes in SAR sea ice scenes will be highly relevant for future work.

  18. Spectral difference analysis and airborne imaging classification for citrus greening infected trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening, also called Huanglongbing (HLB), became a devastating disease spread through citrus groves in Florida, since it was first found in 2005. Multispectral (MS) and hyperspectral (HS) airborne images of citrus groves in Florida were acquired to detect citrus greening infected trees in 20...

  19. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  20. Validation of Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Data at Ray Mine, AZ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, H.; Baloga, S.

    1999-01-01

    We validate 1997 Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) reflectance spectra covering 0.4 meu - 2.4 meu from a stable, flat mineralogically characterized man-made target at Ray Mine, AZ, the site for an EPA/NASA assessment of the utility of remote sensing for monitoring acid drainage from an active open pit mine.

  1. Imaging of downward-looking linear array SAR using three-dimensional spatial smoothing MUSIC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Siqian; Kuang, Gangyao

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a novel three-dimensional imaging algorithm of downward-looking linear array SAR is presented. To improve the resolution, multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm has been used. However, since the scattering centers are always correlated in real SAR system, the estimated covariance matrix becomes singular. To address the problem, a three-dimensional spatial smoothing method is proposed in this paper to restore the singular covariance matrix to a full-rank one. The three-dimensional signal matrix can be divided into a set of orthogonal three-dimensional subspaces. The main idea of the method is based on extracting the array correlation matrix as the average of all correlation matrices from the subspaces. In addition, the spectral height of the peaks contains no information with regard to the scattering intensity of the different scattering centers, thus it is difficulty to reconstruct the backscattering information. The least square strategy is used to estimate the amplitude of the scattering center in this paper. The above results of the theoretical analysis are verified by 3-D scene simulations and experiments on real data.

  2. Airborne radar imaging of subaqueous channel evolution in Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, John B.; Ayoub, Francois; Jones, Cathleen E.; Lamb, Michael P.; Holt, Benjamin; Wagner, R. Wayne; Coffey, Thomas S.; Chadwick, J. Austin; Mohrig, David

    2016-05-01

    Shallow coastal regions are among the fastest evolving landscapes but are notoriously difficult to measure with high spatiotemporal resolution. Using Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) data, we demonstrate that high signal-to-noise L band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can reveal subaqueous channel networks at the distal ends of river deltas. Using 27 UAVSAR images collected between 2009 and 2015 from the Wax Lake Delta in coastal Louisiana, USA, we show that under normal tidal conditions, planform geometry of the distributary channel network is frequently resolved in the UAVSAR images, including ~700 m of seaward network extension over 5 years for one channel. UAVSAR also reveals regions of subaerial and subaqueous vegetation, streaklines of biogenic surfactants, and what appear to be small distributary channels aliased by the survey grid, all illustrating the value of fine resolution, low noise, L band SAR for mapping the nearshore subaqueous delta channel network.

  3. Approximation and bounding of distortion errors in polar format SAR imaging for squinted geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Matt S.; Rigling, Brian D.

    2012-05-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging is a powerful tool that can be utilized where other conventional surveillance methods fail. It has a variety of applications including reconnaissance and surveillance for defense purposes, natural resource exploration, and environmental monitoring, among others. SAR systems generally create large datasets that need to be processed to form a final image. Processing this data can be computationally intensive, and applications may demand algorithms that can form images quickly. The goal and motivation of this research is to analyze algorithms that permit a large SAR dataset to be efficiently processed into a high-resolution image of a large scene. The backprojection algorithm (BPA)1 can serve as a baseline for performance relative to other SAR imaging algorithms. It results in accurately formed images for a vast variety of imaging scenarios. The tradeoff comes in its computational complexity which is O(N3) for an N × N pixel image. The polar format algorithm (PFA)2 is a long-standing and popular alternative to the BPA. The PFA allows the use of fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs), leading to a computational complexity of O(N2 logN) for an N × N pixel image. However, the PFA relies on a far-field approximation, wherein the curved wavefront of the transmitted pulses is approximated as a planar wavefront, thereby introducing spatially variant phase errors and hence distortion and defocus in the PFA formed image. The defocus and distortion errors can be corrected, but this is a non-trivial process.3 It can be shown that first-order Taylor expansion of a differential range expression yields the assumed received signal phase used to generate images from SAR phase history data with the PFA.4 This work focuses on error terms introduced by the PFA assumption that introduce geometric distortion in the resulting image. This distortion causes a point scatterer located at a true (x, y) coordinate to appear at some (x, y) in the formed image, i

  4. Retrieval of Both Soil Moisture and Texture Using one configuration TerraSAR-X radar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zribi, M., Sr.; Gorrab, A.; Baghdadi, N.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a methodology combing multi-temporal X-band SAR images (TerraSAR-X) with continuous ground thetaprobe measurements, for the retrieval of surface soil moisture and texture at a high spatial resolution. Our analysis is based on seven radar images acquired at a 36° incidence angle in the HH polarization, over a semi-arid site in Tunisia (North Africa). All ground measurements of surface soil parameters were carried out over several bare soil reference fields located at the Kairouan site. Between November 2013 and January 2014 (three months), ground campaigns were carried out at the same time as the seven satellite acquisitions. The soil moisture estimations are based on an empirical change detection approach using TerraSAR-X data and ground auxiliary thetaprobe network measurements. Two assumptions were tested: (1) roughness variations during the three-month radar acquisition campaigns were not accounted for; (2) a simple correction for temporal variations in roughness was included. For the two considered approaches, the soil moisture estimations were validated using ground measurements acquired over fifteen test fields, under different moisture conditions. These comparisons lead to a volumetric moisture RMSE equal to 3.8% and 3.3%, and a bias equal to 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively. By considering the estimated temporal dynamics of soil moisture, a methodology is proposed for the retrieval of clay and sand content (expressed as percentages) in soil. Two empirical relationships were established between the mean moisture values retrieved from the seven acquired radar images and the two soil texture components over 36 test fields. Validation of the proposed approach was carried out over a second set of 34 fields, showing that highly accurate clay estimations can be achieved. For clay and sand, we retrieve an rms error equal to 10.8% (equivalent to 108 g/kg) and 18.6% (equivalent to 186 g/kg), respectively. Maps of soil moisture, clay

  5. Sparsity-driven autofocus for multipass SAR tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, F.; Mulgrew, B.; Woodhouse, I. H.; Greig, D.

    2015-10-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems produce high resolution, two dimensional imaging of areas of environmental interest. SAR interferometry and tomography enables these techniques to extend to three dimensional imaging by exploiting multiple SAR images with diversity in space and time. These techniques require accurate phase information over multiple images as the data is extremely sensitive to deviations from the reference track, therefore to enable interferometry and tomography an accurate autofocus solution is required. This paper investigates phase errors resulting from navigational uncertainties in multipass spotlight SAR imaging and uses techniques from the field of compressive sensing to achieve an autofocus solution. The proposed algorithm builds on previous autofocus work by expanding it to the multipass case and jointly recovers phase errors for all images simultaneously, making it extremely useful for interferometry and tomography techniques. The algorithm described uses pixels that are stable in all SAR images to gain an autofocus solution as these are the pixels that are the focus for analysis using tomography. This is unlike conventional autofocus, which just works on an image-by-image basis. The tools of compressive sensing can be used to concurrently select pixels for bright image elements that are stable and coherent over all images, as these pixels are sparse in the image domain, and calculate the phase errors present in each pass. Using the multipass data after autofocus, height distributions for scatterers in single pixels are determined for simulated forest scenes at X-band. The performance of the autofocus algorithm is examined through numerical simulations and is also applied to real data collected from Selex ES's airborne, X-band, experimental SAR system. The experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm effectively achieves an autofocus solution. By finding the vertical distribution of two scatterers in a single pixel over

  6. Synthetic aperture radar images of ocean waves, theories of imaging physics and experimental tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Durden, S. L.; Smith, M. P.; Napolitano, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The physical mechanism for the synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging of ocean waves is investigated through the use of analytical models. The models are tested by comparison with data sets from the SEASAT mission and airborne SAR's. Dominant ocean wavelengths from SAR estimates are biased towards longer wavelengths. The quasispecular scattering mechanism agrees with experimental data. The Doppler shift for ship wakes is that of the mean sea surface.

  7. Diffused Matrix Format: A New Storage and Processing Format for Airborne Hyperspectral Sensor Images

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Pablo; Cristo, Alejandro; Koch, Magaly; Pérez, Rosa Mª.; Schmid, Thomas; Hernández, Luz M.

    2010-01-01

    At present, hyperspectral images are mainly obtained with airborne sensors that are subject to turbulences while the spectrometer is acquiring the data. Therefore, geometric corrections are required to produce spatially correct images for visual interpretation and change detection analysis. This paper analyzes the data acquisition process of airborne sensors. The main objective is to propose a new data format called Diffused Matrix Format (DMF) adapted to the sensor's characteristics including its spectral and spatial information. The second objective is to compare the accuracy of the quantitative maps derived by using the DMF data structure with those obtained from raster images based on traditional data structures. Results show that DMF processing is more accurate and straightforward than conventional image processing of remotely sensed data with the advantage that the DMF file structure requires less storage space than other data formats. In addition the data processing time does not increase when DMF is used. PMID:22399919

  8. Charge-coupled device data processor for an airborne imaging radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, W. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Processing of raw analog echo data from synthetic aperture radar receiver into images on board an airborne radar platform is discussed. Processing is made feasible by utilizing charge-coupled devices (CCD). CCD circuits are utilized to perform input sampling, presumming, range correlation and azimuth correlation in the analog domain. These radar data processing functions are implemented for single-look or multiple-look imaging radar systems.

  9. The Airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, J. R.; Manning, W.; Wang, J. R.; Racette, P.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Results of the first science flight of the airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) for high-altitude observations from the NASA ER-2 is discussed. Imagery collected from the flight demonstrates CoSMIR's unique conical/cross-track imaging mode and provides comparison of CoSMIR measurements to those of the Special Sensor Microwave/Temperature-2 (SSM/T-2) satellite radiometer.

  10. Two-dimensional Co-Seismic Surface Displacements Field of the Chi-Chi Earthquake Inferred from SAR Image Matching

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Li, Zhi-Wei; Ding, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Jian-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan occurred in 1999 over the Chelungpu fault and caused a great surface rupture and severe damage. Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been applied previously to study the co-seismic ground displacements. There have however been significant limitations in the studies. First, only one-dimensional displacements along the Line-of-Sight (LOS) direction have been measured. The large horizontal displacements along the Chelungpu fault are largely missing from the measurements as the fault is nearly perpendicular to the LOS direction. Second, due to severe signal decorrelation on the hangling wall of the fault, the displacements in that area are un-measurable by differential InSAR method. We estimate the co-seismic displacements in both the azimuth and range directions with the method of SAR amplitude image matching. GPS observations at the 10 GPS stations are used to correct for the orbital ramp in the amplitude matching and to create the two-dimensional (2D) co-seismic surface displacements field using the descending ERS-2 SAR image pair. The results show that the co-seismic displacements range from about -2.0 m to 0.7 m in the azimuth direction (with the positive direction pointing to the flight direction), with the footwall side of the fault moving mainly southwards and the hanging wall side northwards. The displacements in the LOS direction range from about -0.5 m to 1.0 m, with the largest displacement occuring in the northeastern part of the hanging wall (the positive direction points to the satellite from ground). Comparing the results from amplitude matching with those from DInSAR, we can see that while only a very small fraction of the LOS displacement has been recovered by the DInSAR mehtod, the azimuth displacements cannot be well detected with the DInSAR measurements as they are almost perpendicular to the LOS. Therefore, the amplitude matching method is obviously more advantageous than the DInSAR

  11. The flight test of Pi-SAR(L) for the repeat-pass interferometric SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohmi, Hitoshi; Shimada, Masanobu; Miyawaki, Masanori

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes the experiment of the repeat pass interferometric SAR using Pi-SAR(L). The air-borne repeat-pass interferometric SAR is expected as an effective method to detect landslide or predict a volcano eruption. To obtain a high-quality interferometric image, it is necessary to make two flights on the same flight pass. In addition, since the antenna of the Pi-SAR(L) is secured to the aircraft, it is necessary to fly at the same drift angle to keep the observation direction same. We built a flight control system using an auto pilot which has been installed in the airplane. This navigation system measures position and altitude precisely with using a differential GPS, and the PC Navigator outputs a difference from the desired course to the auto pilot. Since the air density is thinner and the speed is higher than the landing situation, the gain of the control system is required to be adjusted during the repeat pass flight. The observation direction could be controlled to some extent by adjusting a drift angle with using a flight speed control. The repeat-pass flight was conducted in Japan for three days in late November. The flight was stable and the deviation was within a few meters for both horizontal and vertical direction even in the gusty condition. The SAR data were processed in time domain based on range Doppler algorism to make the complete motion compensation. Thus, the interferometric image processed after precise phase compensation is shown.

  12. Multispectral light scattering imaging and multivariate analysis of airborne particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holler, Stephen; Skelsey, Charles R.; Fuerstenau, Stephen D.

    2005-05-01

    Light scattering patterns from non-spherical particles and aggregates exhibit complex structure that is only revealed when observing in two angular dimensions. However, due to the varied shape and packing of such aerosols, the rich structure in the two-dimensional angular optical scattering (TAOS) pattern varies from particle to particle. We examine two-dimensional light scattering patterns obtained at multiple wavelengths using a single CCD camera with minimal cross talk between channels. The integration of the approach with a single CCD camera assures that data is acquired within the same solid angle and orientation. Since the optical size of the scattering particle is inversely proportional to the illuminating wavelength, the spectrally resolved scattering information provides characteristic information about the airborne particles simultaneously in two different scaling regimes. The simultaneous acquisition of data from airborne particulate matter at two different wavelengths allows for additional degrees of freedom in the analysis and characterization of the aerosols. Whereas our previous multivariate analyses of aerosol particles has relied solely on spatial frequency components, our present approach attempts to incorporate the relative symmetry of the particledetector system while extracting information content from both spectral channels. In addition to single channel data, this current approach also examines relative metrics. Consequently, we have begun to employ multivariate techniques based on novel morphological descriptors in order to classify "unknown" particles within a database of TAOS patterns from known aerosols utilizing both spectral and spatial information acquired. A comparison is made among several different classification metrics, all of which show improved classification capabilities relative to our previous approaches.

  13. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Leifer, I.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M.; Fladeland, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Kratwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Thorpe, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of the NASA/ESA CO2 and Methane Experiment (COMEX) campaign in California during June and August/September 2014. COMEX was a multi-platform campaign to measure CH4 plumes released from anthropogenic sources including oil and gas infrastructure. We discuss principles for real-time spectral signature detection and measurement, and report performance on the NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG). AVIRIS-NG successfully detected CH4 plumes in real-time at Gb s-1 data rates, characterizing fugitive releases in concert with other in situ and remote instruments. The teams used these real-time CH4 detections to coordinate measurements across multiple platforms, including airborne in situ, airborne non-imaging remote sensing, and ground-based in situ instruments. To our knowledge this is the first reported use of real-time trace gas signature detection in an airborne science campaign, and presages many future applications.

  14. The Gulf of Mexico oil rig accident: analysis by different SAR satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Frate, Fabio; Giacomini, Andrea; Latini, Daniele; Solimini, Domenico; Emery, William J.

    2011-11-01

    The management of the monitoring oil spills over the sea surface is a very important and actual task for international environmental agencies, due to the continuous risks represented by possible accidents involving either rigs or tankers. On the other hand the increase of remote sensing space missions can definitely improve our capabilities in this kind of activity. In this paper we consider the dramatic Gulf of Mexico oil spill event of 2010 to investigate on the types of information that could be provided by the available SAR images collection which included different polarizations and bands. With an eye to the implementation of fully automatic processing chains, an assessment of a novel segmentation technique based on PCNN (Pulse Coupled Neural Networks) was also carried out.

  15. Origins and features of oil slicks in the Bohai Sea detected from satellite SAR images.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Cao, Conghua; Huang, Juan; Song, Yan; Liu, Guiyan; Wu, Lingjuan; Wan, Zhenwen

    2016-05-15

    Oil slicks were detected using satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images in 2011. We investigated potential origins and regional and seasonal features of oil slick in the Bohai Sea. Distance between oil slicks and potential origins (ships, seaports, and oil exploitation platforms) and the angle at which oil slicks move relative to potential driving forces were evaluated. Most oil slicks were detected along main ship routes rather than around seaports and oil exploitation platforms. Few oil slicks were detected within 20km of seaports. Directions of oil slicks movement were much more strongly correlated with directions of ship routes than with directions of winds and currents. These findings support the premise that oil slicks in the Bohai Sea most likely originate from illegal disposal of oil-polluted wastes from ships. Seasonal variation of oil slicks followed an annual cycle, with a peak in August and a trough in December. PMID:26988390

  16. Light weight airborne imaging spectrometer remote sensing system for mineral exploration in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Taixia; Zhang, Lifu; Cen, Yi; Wang, Jinnian; Tong, Qingxi

    2014-05-01

    Imaging spectrometers provide the unique combination of both spatially contiguous spectra and spectrally contiguous images of the Earth's surface that allows spatial mapping of these minerals. One of the successful applications of imaging spectrometers remote sensing identified was geological mapping and mineral exploration. A Light weight Airborne Imaging Spectrometer System (LAISS) has been developed in China. The hardware of the compact LAISS include a VNIR imaging spectrometer, a SWIR imaging spectrometer, a high resolution camera and a position and attitude device. The weight of the system is less than 20kg. The VNIR imaging spectrometer measures incoming radiation in 344 contiguous spectral channels in the 400-1000 nm wavelength range with spectral resolution of better than 5 nm and creates images of 464 pixels for a line of targets with a nominal instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of ~1 mrad. The SWIR imaging spectrometer measures incoming radiation in the 1000-2500 nm wavelength range with spectral resolution of better than 10 nm with a nominal instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of ~2 mrad. The 400 to 2500nm spectral range provides abundant information about many important Earth-surface minerals. A ground mineral scan experiment and an UAV carried flying experiment has been done. The experiment results show the LAISS have achieved relative high performance levels in terms of signal to noise ratio and image quality. The potential applications for light weight airborne imaging spectrometer system in mineral exploration are tremendous.

  17. Feature Detection in POLInSAR Images by an Interactive Fuzzy Fusion Approach: Application to Glacier Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, G.; Trouvé, E.; Valet, L.; Nicolas, J.-M.; Gay, M.; Bombrun, L.; Bolon, Ph.

    2007-03-01

    Interferometry in POLSAR performs two acquisitions (spatially separated by the baseline) of the scattering matrix for each resolution cell. The advantages of interferometry (height and/or displacement information) are enhanced by the polarimetric decomposition techniques. In this paper a two-step approach is proposed to obtain specific features from multivariate SAR data sets, either multi-temporal InSAR or POL-InSAR. The first step consists in extracting image attributes related to the useful information. The second step consists in merging the attributes using a interactive fuzzy fusion technique. The interactive fuzzy fusion is proposed to provide end-users with a simple and easily understandable tool for tuning the detection results. A first application of the method is performed on a data set of five co-registered ERS 1/2 tandems from the French Alps (the Mont-Blanc region), including two temperate glaciers: the Argentière and the Mer-de-glace. A second application is the analysis of the scattering mechanisms with L-Band E-SAR POL-InSAR data.

  18. Classification on the monogenic scale space: application to target recognition in SAR image.

    PubMed

    Ganggang Dong; Gangyao Kuang

    2015-08-01

    This paper introduces a novel classification strategy based on the monogenic scale space for target recognition in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image. The proposed method exploits monogenic signal theory, a multidimensional generalization of the analytic signal, to capture the characteristics of SAR image, e.g., broad spectral information and simultaneous spatial localization. The components derived from the monogenic signal at different scales are then applied into a recently developed framework, sparse representation-based classification (SRC). Moreover, to deal with the data set, whose target classes are not linearly separable, the classification via kernel combination is proposed, where the multiple components of the monogenic signal are jointly considered into a unifying framework for target recognition. The novelty of this paper comes from: the development of monogenic feature via uniformly downsampling, normalization, and concatenation of the components at various scales; the development of score-level fusion for SRCs; and the development of composite kernel learning for classification. In particular, the comparative experimental studies under nonliteral operating conditions, e.g., structural modifications, random noise corruption, and variations in depression angle, are performed. The comparative experimental studies of various algorithms, including the linear support vector machine and the kernel version, the SRC and the variants, kernel SRC, kernel linear representation, and sparse representation of monogenic signal, are performed too. The feasibility of the proposed method has been successfully verified using Moving and Stationary Target Acquiration and Recognition database. The experimental results demonstrate that significant improvement for recognition accuracy can be achieved by the proposed method in comparison with the baseline algorithms. PMID:25872212

  19. Canada`s commercially oriented Radarsat returns SAR data for oil, gas exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Tack, R.E.

    1996-07-15

    Canada in November 1995 launched the world`s first commercially oriented remote sensing satellite to carry a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging system. Radarsat provides the oil and gas industry with a unique variety of exploration and mapping capabilities not previously offered by an operational imaging satellite. Radarsat`s SAR data became commercially available in March 1996 at a cost ranging between 2{cents} to $1.60/sq km for most products--a fraction of the cost of airborne SAR imagery. The paper discusses the exploration and production benefits of SAR (all-weather imaging, varied orbits, and sensitivity to terrain) and Radarsat advantages variable incidence angle, multiple beam modes, onboard tape recorders, processing and delivery, and cost effectiveness.

  20. Comparison of mosaicking techniques for airborne images from consumer-grade cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huaibo; Yang, Chenghai; Zhang, Jian; Hoffmann, Wesley Clint; He, Dongjian; Thomasson, J. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Images captured from airborne imaging systems can be mosaicked for diverse remote sensing applications. The objective of this study was to identify appropriate mosaicking techniques and software to generate mosaicked images for use by aerial applicators and other users. Three software packages-Photoshop CC, Autostitch, and Pix4Dmapper-were selected for mosaicking airborne images acquired from a large cropping area. Ground control points were collected for georeferencing the mosaicked images and for evaluating the accuracy of eight mosaicking techniques. Analysis and accuracy assessment showed that Pix4Dmapper can be the first choice if georeferenced imagery with high accuracy is required. The spherical method in Photoshop CC can be an alternative for cost considerations, and Autostitch can be used to quickly mosaic images with reduced spatial resolution. The results also showed that the accuracy of image mosaicking techniques could be greatly affected by the size of the imaging area or the number of the images and that the accuracy would be higher for a small area than for a large area. The results from this study will provide useful information for the selection of image mosaicking software and techniques for aerial applicators and other users.

  1. Integrating Smartphone Images and Airborne LIDAR Data for Complete Urban Building Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shenman; Shan, Jie; Zhang, Zhichao; Yan, Jixing; Hou, Yaolin

    2016-06-01

    A complete building model reconstruction needs data collected from both air and ground. The former often has sparse coverage on building façades, while the latter usually is unable to observe the building rooftops. Attempting to solve the missing data issues in building reconstruction from single data source, we describe an approach for complete building reconstruction that integrates airborne LiDAR data and ground smartphone imagery. First, by taking advantages of GPS and digital compass information embedded in the image metadata of smartphones, we are able to find airborne LiDAR point clouds for the corresponding buildings in the images. In the next step, Structure-from-Motion and dense multi-view stereo algorithms are applied to generate building point cloud from multiple ground images. The third step extracts building outlines respectively from the LiDAR point cloud and the ground image point cloud. An automated correspondence between these two sets of building outlines allows us to achieve a precise registration and combination of the two point clouds, which ultimately results in a complete and full resolution building model. The developed approach overcomes the problem of sparse points on building façades in airborne LiDAR and the deficiency of rooftops in ground images such that the merits of both datasets are utilized.

  2. Unsupervised SAR images change detection with hidden Markov chains on a sliding window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyahia, Zied; Benyoussef, Lamia; Derrode, Stéphane

    2007-10-01

    This work deals with unsupervised change detection in bi-date Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. Whatever the indicator of change used, e.g. log-ratio or Kullback-Leibler divergence, we have observed poor quality change maps for some events when using the Hidden Markov Chain (HMC) model we focus on in this work. The main reason comes from the stationary assumption involved in this model - and in most Markovian models such as Hidden Markov Random Fields-, which can not be justified in most observed scenes: changed areas are not necessarily stationary in the image. Besides the few non stationary Markov models proposed in the literature, the aim of this paper is to describe a pragmatic solution to tackle stationarity by using a sliding window strategy. In this algorithm, the criterion image is scanned pixel by pixel, and a classical HMC model is applied only on neighboring pixels. By moving the window through the image, the process is able to produce a change map which can better exhibit non stationary changes than the classical HMC applied directly on the whole criterion image. Special care is devoted to the estimation of the number of classes in each window, which can vary from one (no change) to three (positive change, negative change and no change) by using the corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) suited to small samples. The quality assessment of the proposed approach is achieved with speckle-simulated images in which simulated changes is introduced. The windowed strategy is also evaluated with a pair of RADARSAT images bracketing the Nyiragongo volcano eruption event in January 2002. The available ground truth confirms the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared to a classical HMC-based strategy.

  3. Management Of Airborne Reconnaissance Images Through Real-Time Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endsley, Neil H.

    1985-12-01

    Digital reconnaissance images gathered by low-altitude over-flights with resolutions on the order of a few feet and fields of view up to 120 degrees can generate millions of pixels per second. Storing this data in-flight, transmitting it to the ground, and analyzing it presents significant problems to the tactical community. One potential solution is in-flight preview and pruning of the data where an operator keeps or transmits only those image segments which on first view contain potential intelligence data. To do this, the images must be presented to the operator in a geometrically correct form. Wide-angle dis-tortion, distortions induced by yaw, pitch, roll and altitude variations, and distortions due to non-ideal alignment of the focal plane array must be removed so the operator can quickly assess the scene content and make decisions on which image segments to keep. When multiple sensors are used with a common field of view, they must be mutually coregistered to permit multispectral or multimode processing to exploit these rich data dimensions. In addition, the operator should be able to alter the apparent point of view of the image, i.e., be able to zoom in and out, rotate, and roam through the displayed field of view while maintaining geometric and radiometric precision. These disparate requirements have a common feature in the ability to perform real-time image geometry manipulation. The role of image geometry manipulation, or image warping, is reviewed and a "strawman" system dis-cussed which incorporates the Pipelined Resampling Processor (PRP). The PRP is a real-time image warping processor discussed at this conference in previous years"2'3". Actual results from the PRP prototype are presented. In addition, other image processing aids such as image enhancement and object classification are discussed as they apply to reconnaissance applications.

  4. Segmentation Of Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric J. M.; Chellappa, Rama

    1994-01-01

    Report presents one in continuing series of studies of segmentation of polarimetric synthetic-aperture-radar, SAR, image data into regions. Studies directed toward refinement of method of automated analysis of SAR data.

  5. A method to calibrate channel friction and bathymetry parameters of a Sub-Grid hydraulic model using SAR flood images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M.; Neal, J. C.; Hostache, R.; Corato, G.; Chini, M.; Giustarini, L.; Matgen, P.; Wagener, T.; Bates, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellites are capable of all-weather day and night observations that can discriminate between land and smooth open water surfaces over large scales. Because of this there has been much interest in the use of SAR satellite data to improve our understanding of water processes, in particular for fluvial flood inundation mechanisms. Past studies prove that integrating SAR derived data with hydraulic models can improve simulations of flooding. However while much of this work focusses on improving model channel roughness values or inflows in ungauged catchments, improvement of model bathymetry is often overlooked. The provision of good bathymetric data is critical to the performance of hydraulic models but there are only a small number of ways to obtain bathymetry information where no direct measurements exist. Spatially distributed river depths are also rarely available. We present a methodology for calibration of model average channel depth and roughness parameters concurrently using SAR images of flood extent and a Sub-Grid model utilising hydraulic geometry concepts. The methodology uses real data from the European Space Agency's archive of ENVISAT[1] Wide Swath Mode images of the River Severn between Worcester and Tewkesbury during flood peaks between 2007 and 2010. Historic ENVISAT WSM images are currently free and easy to access from archive but the methodology can be applied with any available SAR data. The approach makes use of the SAR image processing algorithm of Giustarini[2] et al. (2013) to generate binary flood maps. A unique feature of the calibration methodology is to also use parameter 'identifiability' to locate the parameters with higher accuracy from a pre-assigned range (adopting the DYNIA method proposed by Wagener[3] et al., 2003). [1] https://gpod.eo.esa.int/services/ [2] Giustarini. 2013. 'A Change Detection Approach to Flood Mapping in Urban Areas Using TerraSAR-X'. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote

  6. Impact of model order and estimation window for indexing TerraSAR-X images using Gauss Markov random fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Molina, Daniela; Datcu, Mihai

    2010-10-01

    TerraSAR-X is the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) German satellite which provides a high diversity of information due to its high-resolution. TerraSAR-X acquires daily a volume of up to 100 GB of high complexity, multi-mode SAR images, i.e. SpotLight, StripMap, and ScanSAR data, with dual or quad-polarization, and with different look angles. The high and multiple resolutions of the instrument (1m, 3m or 10m) open perspectives for new applications, that were not possible with past lower resolution sensors (20-30m). Mainly the 1m and 3m modes we expect to support a broad range of new applications related to human activities with relevant structures and objects at the 1m scale. Thus, among the most interesting scenes are: urban, industrial, and rural data. In addition, the global coverage and the relatively frequent repeat pass will definitely help to acquire extremely relevant data sets. To analyze the available TerrrSAR-X data we rely on model based methods for feature extraction and despeckling. The image information content is extracted using model-based methods based on Gauss Markov Random Field (GMRF) and Bayesian inference approach. This approach enhances the local adaptation by using a prior model, which learns the image structure and enables to estimate the local description of the structures, acting as primitive feature extraction method. However, the GMRF model-based method uses as input parameters the Model Order (MO) and the size of Estimation Window (EW). The appropriated selection of these parameters allows us to improve the classification and indexing results due to the number of well separated classes could be determined by them. Our belief is that the selection of the MO depends on the kind of information that the image contains, explaining how well the model can recognize complex structures as objects, and according to the size of EW the accuracy of the estimation is determined. In the following, we present an evaluation of the impact of the model

  7. Accuracy evaluation of airborne stereo line imager data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. R.; Chapman, M. A.

    The accuracy of the corrected imagery from a pushbroom stereo line imager is evaluated. The line imager system consists of the MIES II imaging system, an auxiliary data system, and a postflight data-processing system. The imagery and navigation data are tied to ground control points by a photogrammetric bundle adjustment to resolve low-frequency position errors. The accuracy of the correct imagery was found to be 1.5 pixels rms in position and 0.5 pixels rms in height.

  8. Integrated SAR Technologies for Monitoring the Stability of Mine Sites: Application Using Terrasar-X and RADARSAT-2 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheault, M.; Bouroubi, Y.; Sarago, V.; Nguyen-Xuan, P. T.; Bugnet, P.; Gosselin, C.; Benoit, M.

    2015-04-01

    The last three decades have seen significant mining development in the northern regions of Canada, where the freeze and thaw cycle of permafrost and corresponding surface subsidence and heave represent a significant challenge at all mining stages, from the design of infrastructures to the monitoring of restored areas. Over the past ten years, SAR interferometry has been widely used to monitor ground surface deformation. With this technique, changes in phase between two SAR acquisitions are used to detect centimetre to millimetre surface displacements over a large area with high spatial resolution. This paper presents the results of a project that aims to develop a SAR solution to provide useful information for environmental monitoring and assessing the stability of mining sites. RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X images acquired during the summer of 2014 were used to measure the displacements of ground surface, infrastructures and stockpiles caused by seasonal changes in permafrost extent. The study area is an open-pit mine located in Nunavut, northern Canada, in the continuous permafrost zone. Results shown that surface displacements calculated from RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X are very similar and in agreement with scientific and terrain knowledge. Significant displacements were observed in loose soil areas while none was detected in bedrock and rock outcrop areas. The areas most affected by active layer changes showed surface subsidence during the thaw settlement period. Thus, InSAR can be used as a tool to guide the siting and design of new infrastructure as well as highlighting risks in areas of unstable terrain.

  9. Novel Airborne Imaging Polarimeter Undergoes High-Altitude Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J.; Pingree, Paula J.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    Optical and signal processing technologies for high-accuracy polarimetric imaging, aimed at studying the impact of atmospheric haze and clouds on Earth's climate, have been demonstrated on checkout flights aboard NASA's ER-2 aircraft.

  10. Tomographic imaging of airglow from airborne spectroscopic measurements.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D Scott; Swenson, Gary; Kamalabadi, Farzad; Liu, Alan

    2008-05-01

    A description is given of the methodology based on a single, aircraft-mounted spectroscopic imager to tomographically reconstruct airglow perturbations induced by atmospheric gravity waves. In this configuration, the imager passes under the airglow structure to gather multiple-angle views of the wave structure in a relatively short amount of time. Under the assumption that the airglow structure does not change significantly during the acquisition interval, the data can be tomographically inverted to estimate the 2D (horizontal-vertical) airglow structure. We develop an inversion strategy for this image formation task and illustrate its applicability by inverting time-sequential imaging data taken from different vantage points during the ALOHA-93 campaign to reconstruct atmospheric gravity wave structures. PMID:18449320

  11. On The Spatial Homogeneity Of The Wave Spectra In Deep Water Employing ERS-2 SAR Precision Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violante-Carvalho, Nelson; Robinson, Ian; Gommenginger, Christine; Carvalho, Luiz Mariano; Goldstein, Brunno

    2010-04-01

    Using wave spectra extracted from image mode ERS-2 SAR, the spatial homogeneity of the wave field in deep water is investigated against directional buoy measurements. From the 100 x 100 km image, several small images of 6.4 x 6.4 km are selected and the wave spectra are computed. The locally disturbed wind velocity pat- tern, caused by the sheltering effect of large mountains near the coast, translates into the selected SAR image as regions of higher and lower wind speed. Assuming that a swell component is uniform over the whole image, SAR wave spectra retrieved from the sheltered and non-sheltered areas are intercompared. Any difference between them could be related to a possible interaction between wind sea and swell, since the wind sea part of the spectrum would be slightly different due to the different wind speeds. The results show that there is no significative variation, and apparently there is no clear difference in the swell spectra despite the different wind sea components.

  12. Prediction and performance measures of atmospheric disturbances on an airborne imaging platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Kovacs, Mark A.; Cardani, Joseph C.; Maia, Francisco; Aflalo, Tyson; Shilko, Michael L., Sr.

    2004-02-01

    A series of airborne imaging experiments have been conducted on the island of Maui. The imaging platform was a Twin Otter aircraft, which circled ground target sites. The typical platform altitude was 3000 meters, with a slant range to the target of 9000 meters. This experiment was performed during the day using solar illuminated target buildings, and at night with spotlights used to simulate point sources. Imaging system performance predictions were calculated using standard atmospheric turbulence models, and aircraft boundary layer models. Several different measurement approaches were then used to estimate the actual system performance, and make comparisons with the calculations.

  13. An airborne thematic thermal infrared and electro-optical imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiuhong; Shu, Peter

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes an advanced Airborne Thematic Thermal InfraRed and Electro-Optical Imaging System (ATTIREOIS) and its potential applications. ATTIREOIS sensor payload consists of two sets of advanced Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) - a broadband Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) and a four (4) band Multispectral Electro-Optical Sensor (MEOS) to approximate Landsat ETM+ bands 1,2,3,4, and 6, and LDCM bands 2,3,4,5, and 10+11. The airborne TIRS is 3-axis stabilized payload capable of providing 3D photogrammetric images with a 1,850 pixel swathwidth via pushbroom operation. MEOS has a total of 116 million simultaneous sensor counts capable of providing 3 cm spatial resolution multispectral orthophotos for continuous airborne mapping. ATTIREOIS is a complete standalone and easy-to-use portable imaging instrument for light aerial vehicle deployment. Its miniaturized backend data system operates all ATTIREOIS imaging sensor components, an INS/GPS, and an e-Gimbal™ Control Electronic Unit (ECU) with a data throughput of 300 Megabytes/sec. The backend provides advanced onboard processing, performing autonomous raw sensor imagery development, TIRS image track-recovery reconstruction, LWIR/VNIR multi-band co-registration, and photogrammetric image processing. With geometric optics and boresight calibrations, the ATTIREOIS data products are directly georeferenced with an accuracy of approximately one meter. A prototype ATTIREOIS has been configured. Its sample LWIR/EO image data will be presented. Potential applications of ATTIREOIS include: 1) Providing timely and cost-effective, precisely and directly georeferenced surface emissive and solar reflective LWIR/VNIR multispectral images via a private Google Earth Globe to enhance NASA's Earth science research capabilities; and 2) Underflight satellites to support satellite measurement calibration and validation observations.

  14. Anatomy of a SAR impulse response.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-08-01

    A principal measure of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image quality is the manifestation in the SAR image of a spatial impulse, that is, the SAR's Impulse Response (IPR). IPR requirements direct certain design decisions in a SAR. Anomalies in the IPR can point to specific anomalous behavior in the radar's hardware and/or software.

  15. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) spectrometer design and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macenka, Steven A.; Chrisp, Michael P.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has been completed at JPL. This paper outlines the functional requirements of the spectrometer optics subsystem, and describes the spectrometer optical design. The optical subsystem performance is shown in terms of spectral modulation transfer functions, radial energy distributions, and system transmission at selected wavelengths for the four spectrometers. An outline of the spectrometer alignment is included.

  16. Recent Improvements to the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, T.; Eastwood, M.; Green, R.; Sarture, C.

    1995-01-01

    Several improvements have been made to the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVRIS) since 1994--new focal plane arrays, a new analog and digital chain and an onboard calibration lamp controlled by radiance feedback. These changes increased the signal-to- noise ratio by 2 to 3 times, eliminated noise spikes and the need for spectral sampling, and greatly reduced dark-current noise.

  17. Current instrument status of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Chrien, Thomas G.; Green, Robert O.; Porter, Wallace M.

    1991-01-01

    An upgraded version of AVIRIS, an airborne imaging spectrometer based on a whiskbroom-type scanner coupled via optical fibers to four dispersive spectrometers, that has been in operation since 1987 is described. Emphasis is placed on specific AVIRIS subsystems including foreoptics, fiber optics, and an in-flight reference source; spectrometers and detector dewars; a scan drive mechanism; a signal chain; digital electronics; a tape recorder; calibration systems; and ground support requirements.

  18. Alien plant monitoring with ultralight airborne imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Calviño-Cancela, María; Méndez-Rial, Roi; Reguera-Salgado, Javier; Martín-Herrero, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of invasive plants requires a precise determination of their distribution. Remote sensing techniques constitute a promising alternative to field surveys and hyperspectral sensors (also known as imaging spectrometers, with a large number of spectral bands and high spectral resolution) are especially suitable when very similar categories are to be distinguished (e.g. plant species). A main priority in the development of this technology is to lower its cost and simplify its use, so that its demonstrated aptitude for many environmental applications can be truly realized. With this aim, we have developed a system for hyperspectral imaging (200 spectral bands in the 380-1000 nm range and circa 3 nm spectral resolution) operated on board ultralight aircraft (namely a gyrocopter), which allows a drastic reduction of the running costs and operational complexity of image acquisition, and also increases the spatial resolution of the images (circa 5-8 pixels/m(2) at circa 65 km/h and 300 m height). The detection system proved useful for the species tested (Acacia melanoxylon, Oxalis pes-caprae, and Carpobrotus aff. edulis and acinaciformis), with user's and producer's accuracy always exceeding 90%. The detection accuracy reported corresponds to patches down to 0.125 m(2) (50% of pixels 0.5 × 0.5 m in size), a very small size for many plant species, making it very effective for initial stages of invasive plant spread. In addition, its low operating costs, similar to those of a 4WD ground vehicle, facilitate frequent image acquisition. Acquired images constitute a permanent record of the status of the study area, with great amount of information that can be analyzed in the future for other purposes, thus greatly facilitating the monitoring of natural areas at detailed spatial and temporal scales for improved management. PMID:25010601

  19. Alien Plant Monitoring with Ultralight Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Calviño-Cancela, María; Méndez-Rial, Roi; Reguera-Salgado, Javier; Martín-Herrero, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of invasive plants requires a precise determination of their distribution. Remote sensing techniques constitute a promising alternative to field surveys and hyperspectral sensors (also known as imaging spectrometers, with a large number of spectral bands and high spectral resolution) are especially suitable when very similar categories are to be distinguished (e.g. plant species). A main priority in the development of this technology is to lower its cost and simplify its use, so that its demonstrated aptitude for many environmental applications can be truly realized. With this aim, we have developed a system for hyperspectral imaging (200 spectral bands in the 380–1000 nm range and circa 3 nm spectral resolution) operated on board ultralight aircraft (namely a gyrocopter), which allows a drastic reduction of the running costs and operational complexity of image acquisition, and also increases the spatial resolution of the images (circa 5–8 pixels/m2 at circa 65 km/h and 300 m height). The detection system proved useful for the species tested (Acacia melanoxylon, Oxalis pes-caprae, and Carpobrotus aff. edulis and acinaciformis), with user’s and producer’s accuracy always exceeding 90%. The detection accuracy reported corresponds to patches down to 0.125 m2 (50% of pixels 0.5×0.5 m in size), a very small size for many plant species, making it very effective for initial stages of invasive plant spread. In addition, its low operating costs, similar to those of a 4WD ground vehicle, facilitate frequent image acquisition. Acquired images constitute a permanent record of the status of the study area, with great amount of information that can be analyzed in the future for other purposes, thus greatly facilitating the monitoring of natural areas at detailed spatial and temporal scales for improved management. PMID:25010601

  20. Measured performance of an airborne Fourier-transform hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Leonard John, III; Meigs, Andrew D.; Sellar, R. Glenn; Rafert, Bruce

    1996-11-01

    A new hyperspectral imager has recently been developed by Kestrel Corporation for use in light aircraft platforms. The instrument provides 256 spectral channels with 87 cm-1 spectral bandwidth over the 450 nm to 1000 nm portion of the spectrum. Operated as a pushbroom imager, the FTVHSI has been shown to have a IFOV of 0.75 mrad, and a FOV of 0.23 rad. The sensor includes an internal spectral/radiometric calibration source, a self contained spectrally resolved downwelling sensor, and complete line of sight and GPS positioning information. The instrument is now operating from a Cessna TU-206 single engine aircraft.

  1. Coastal Monitoring Using L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Image Data - Some Case Studies in Asian Delta Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal geomorphology is highly variable as it is affected by sea-level changes and other naturally- and human-induced fluctuations. To effectively assess and monitor geomorphological changes in various time scales is thus critical for coastal management. Asian mega deltas are vulnerable to a sea-level rise due to its low-lying delta plain, and are dynamic region given a large amount of sediment supply. However, limited data availability and accessibility in the deltas have prevented establishment of systematic coastal monitoring. A variety of remote sensing systems can be used to monitor geomorphological changes in coastal areas as it has wide spatial coverage and high temporal repeatability. Especially, analysis using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data not affected by the cloud conditions offer potential for monitoring in the monsoon Asia region. We will present some case studies of Asian coastal regions using L-band SAR data, ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band SAR) and JERS-1 (Japanese Earth Resource Satellite-1) SAR data. One example is that time-series of radar amplitude images can be used to delineate changes quantitatively of the areal extent of river-mouth bars in distributaries of the Mekong River delta. It shows that the estimated areas of river mouthbars gradually increase on an annual time scale, and seasonal variations of areas were also recognized. Another example is that differential SAR interferometry is applied to the coast of the Yellow River delta in China. It shows very high subsidence rates, likely due to groundwater pumping. A further example is that we apply a SAR interferometry time series analysis to monitor ground deformations in the lower Chao Phraya delta plain, Thailand. A single reference time series interferogram from the stacking of unwrapped phases were applied. The subsidence and uplift pattern observed using the SAR interferometry time series analysis highlights the spatial complexity

  2. A new clustering algorithm applicable to multispectral and polarimetric SAR images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Yiu-Fai; Posner, Edward C.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an application of a scale-space clustering algorithm to the classification of a multispectral and polarimetric SAR image of an agricultural site. After the initial polarimetric and radiometric calibration and noise cancellation, we extracted a 12-dimensional feature vector for each pixel from the scattering matrix. The clustering algorithm was able to partition a set of unlabeled feature vectors from 13 selected sites, each site corresponding to a distinct crop, into 13 clusters without any supervision. The cluster parameters were then used to classify the whole image. The classification map is much less noisy and more accurate than those obtained by hierarchical rules. Starting with every point as a cluster, the algorithm works by melting the system to produce a tree of clusters in the scale space. It can cluster data in any multidimensional space and is insensitive to variability in cluster densities, sizes and ellipsoidal shapes. This algorithm, more powerful than existing ones, may be useful for remote sensing for land use.

  3. Polarimetric SAR image signatures of the ocean and gulf stream features

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, D.L.; Lee, Jong Sen; Hoppel, K.W.

    1993-11-01

    Polarimetric signatures and related polarimetric properties of microwave ocean backscatter have been analyzed for both the ambient ocean and for ocean features such as those associated with the Gulf Stream. Interpretation of the polarimetric signatures for the ocean surface was accomplished using a tilted-Bragg theoretical model. This model was used to calculate the EM fields, to second order, necessary to compute the full Stokes matrix and, ultimately, the polarimetric signature. The polarimetric studies led to a technique for potentially improving the visibility of all azimuthally traveling waves in real-aperture radar (RAR) images and, very long waves in synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images. This technique utilizes linear polarization signatures to maximize the instrument sensitivity to azimuthally traveling waves. Wave tilts create a modulation of the cell polarization orientation which, in turn, modulates the backscatter. Critical to the success of this technique are the properties that ocean polarimetric signatures are sharply peaked (i.e., returns are highly polarized). The polarimetric contribution to the overall modulation transfer function has also been evaluated.

  4. Near-coastal Antarctic Iceberg Size Distributions Determined From SAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesche, Christine; Dierking, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decades, the iceberg size distribution in Antarctic waters is a recurrent topic. Icebergs are moving sources of freshwater. Their drift and decay have an impact on the hydrology, circulation and biology of the ocean regions and are needed for a realistic simulation of the ocean dynamics. During the Radarsat-1 Antarctic Mapping Project (RAMP) Antarctic Mapping Mission-1 (AMM-1) a mosaic of Antarctica and the adjacent ocean zone was compiled from more than 3000 high-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. The mosaic offered the unique opportunity to determine spatial distributions of icebergs sizes along the entire coastline of Antarctica. A combination of automated iceberg detection and visual control as well as a correction of false detections resulted in identifying nearly 7000 icebergs with areas between 0.3 and 4717.7 qkm. Their spatial distribution showed correlations with coastline classes. These classes are based on the spatial distribution of surface features on ice shelves close to the calving front. From the detections and assumed mean iceberg thicknesses, we can calculate the distribution of floating freshwater ice mass within the coastal zone of Antarctica at the time of image acquisitions. For models of ocean dynamics, this dataset offers the opportunity to simulate the freshwater input into the Southern Ocean on a more realistic basis.

  5. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckner, F. L.; Ahr, H. A.; Ausherman, D. A.; Cutrona, L. J.; Francisco, S.; Harrison, R. E.; Heuser, J. S.; Jordan, R. L.; Justus, J.; Manning, B.

    1978-01-01

    The available and optimal methods for generating SAR imagery for NASA applications were identified. The SAR image quality and data processing requirements associated with these applications were studied. Mathematical operations and algorithms required to process sensor data into SAR imagery were defined. The architecture of SAR image formation processors was discussed, and technology necessary to implement the SAR data processors used in both general purpose and dedicated imaging systems was addressed.

  6. Exploitation of amplitude and phase of satellite SAR images for landslide mapping: the case of Montescaglioso (South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raspini, Federico; Ciampalini, Andrea; Lombardi, Luca; Nocentini, Massimiliano; Gigli, Giovanni; Casagli, Nicola; Del Conte, Sara; Ferretti, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Pre- event and event landslide deformations have been detected and measured for the landslide that occurred on 3 December 2013 on the south-western slope of the Montescaglioso village (Basilicata Region, southern Italy). The event, triggered by prolonged rainfalls, created significant damage to buildings and local infrastructures. Ground displacements have been mapped through an integrated analysis based on a series of high resolution SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images acquired by the Italian constellation of satellites COSMO-SkyMed. Analysis has been performed by exploiting both phase (through multi-image SAR interferometry) and amplitude information (through speckle tracking techniques) of the satellite images. SAR Interferometry, applied to images taken before the event, revealed a general pre-event movement, in the order of a few mm/yr, in the south-western slope of the Montescaglioso village. Highest pre-event velocities, ranging between 8 and 12 mm/yr, have been recorded in the sector of the slope where the first movement of the landslide took place. Speckle tracking, applied to images acquired before and after the event, allowed the retrieval of the 3D deformation field produced by the landslide. It also showed that ground displacements produced by the landslide have a dominant SSW component, with values exceeding 10 m for large sectors of the landslide area, with local peaks of 20 m in its central and deposit areas. Two minor landslides with a dominant SSE direction, which were detected in the upper parts of the slope, likely also occurred as secondary phenomena as consequence of the SSW movement of the main Montescaglioso landslide. This work demonstrates that this complementary approach, based on the synergistic exploitation of phase and amplitude SAR data, can become a powerful tool for landslide investigation, allowing the detection of slow, precursory deformation patterns as well the retrieval of full 3D surface displacement fields caused by large

  7. Proceedings of the Third Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data Analysis Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Summaries of 17 papers presented at the workshop are published. After an overview of the imaging spectrometer program, time was spent discussing AIS calibration, performance, information extraction techniques, and the application of high spectral resolution imagery to problems of geology and botany.

  8. Two methods for firn-area and mass-balance monitoring of Svalbard glaciers with SAR satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Max; Winther, Jan-Gunnar; Kohler, Jack; König, Florian

    This paper presents two methods for glacier monitoring on Svalbard using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite images. Both methods were developed on glaciers in the Kongsfjorden area. The first method monitors the firn area extent and the firn line over time by thresholding and filtering the SAR image. Manual detection of the threshold is preferable, but using a constant threshold for all images also gives adequate results. A retreat of the firn-line position is visible, especially on Kongsvegen, corresponding to consecutive years of negative mass balance. The second method applies a k-means classification to three clusters on the glacier surface. The areal extent of the resulting class on the upper part of the glacier correlates remarkably well with the independently measured mass balance of Kongsvegen, having a correlation coefficient of around 0.89 for the various glaciers. This is because the snow from the accumulation area influences the k-means classification. Thus, on glaciers where mass-balance values are available, new mass-balance values can be predicted solely from SAR images. For glaciers where no mass balance is available, the area change cannot be calibrated to absolute mass-balance values, but relative changes can be predicted.

  9. Special Issue on Results from Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (Sir-C/X-SAR): Foreword

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, Jefferey J.

    1996-01-01

    The two flights of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour represent a major advance in remote sensing technology for studies of planetary surfaces.

  10. Geometric Correction of Airborne Linear Array Image Based on Bias Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Hu, J.; Zhou, M.; Li, J. M.; Zhang, Z.

    2013-05-01

    As the linear array sensor has great potential in disaster monitoring, geological survey, the quality of the image geometric correction should be guaranteed. The primary focus of this paper is to present a new method correcting airbone linear image based on the bias matrix,which is bulit by describing and analysing the errors of airbone linear image included the misalignment. The bias matrix was considered as additional observations to the traditional geometric correction model in our method. And by using control points which have both image coordinate and object coordinate, the solving equation from geometric correction model can be established and the bias matrix can be calculated by adjustment strategy. To avoid the singularity problem in the calculating process, this paper uses quaternion to describe the image's attitude and rotation instead of traditional calculating method which is structured by the Euler angle. Finally, geometric correction of airborne linear array image with high accuracy based on bias matrix can be achieved.

  11. a New Control Points Based Geometric Correction Algorithm for Airborne Push Broom Scanner Images Without On-Board Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strakhov, P.; Badasen, E.; Shurygin, B.; Kondranin, T.

    2016-06-01

    Push broom scanners, such as video spectrometers (also called hyperspectral sensors), are widely used in the present. Usage of scanned images requires accurate geometric correction, which becomes complicated when imaging platform is airborne. This work contains detailed description of a new algorithm developed for processing of such images. The algorithm requires only user provided control points and is able to correct distortions caused by yaw, flight speed and height changes. It was tested on two series of airborne images and yielded RMS error values on the order of 7 meters (3-6 source image pixels) as compared to 13 meters for polynomial-based correction.

  12. EARSEC SAR processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protheroe, Mark; Sloggett, David R.; Sieber, Alois J.

    1994-12-01

    Traditionally, the production of high quality Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery has been an area where a potential user would have to expend large amounts of money in either the bespoke development of a processing chain dedicated to his requirements or in the purchase of a dedicated hardware platform adapted using accelerator boards and enhanced memory management. Whichever option the user adopted there were limitations based on the desire for a realistic throughput in data load and time. The user had a choice, made early in the purchase, for either a system that adopted innovative algorithmic manipulation, to limit the processing time of the purchase of expensive hardware. The former limits the quality of the product, while the latter excludes the user from any visibility into the processing chain. Clearly there was a need for a SAR processing architecture that gave the user a choice into the methodology to be adopted for a particular processing sequence, allowing him to decide on either a quick (lower quality) product or a detailed slower (high quality) product, without having to change the algorithmic base of his processor or the hardware platform. The European Commission, through the Advanced Techniques unit of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Institute for Remote Sensing at Ispra in Italy, realizing the limitations on current processing abilities, initiated its own program to build airborne SAR and Electro-Optical (EO) sensor systems. This program is called the European Airborne Remote Sensing Capabilities (EARSEC) program. This paper describes the processing system developed for the airborne SAR sensor system. The paper considers the requirements for the system and the design of the EARSEC Airborne SAR Processing System. It highlights the development of an open SAR processing architecture where users have full access to intermediate products that arise from each of the major processing stages. It also describes the main processing stages in the overall

  13. A Fast Multiple Sampling Method for Low-Noise CMOS Image Sensors With Column-Parallel 12-bit SAR ADCs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Hong, Seong-Kwan; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a fast multiple sampling method for low-noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) applications with column-parallel successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs). The 12-bit SAR ADC using the proposed multiple sampling method decreases the A/D conversion time by repeatedly converting a pixel output to 4-bit after the first 12-bit A/D conversion, reducing noise of the CIS by one over the square root of the number of samplings. The area of the 12-bit SAR ADC is reduced by using a 10-bit capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with four scaled reference voltages. In addition, a simple up/down counter-based digital processing logic is proposed to perform complex calculations for multiple sampling and digital correlated double sampling. To verify the proposed multiple sampling method, a 256 × 128 pixel array CIS with 12-bit SAR ADCs was fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurement results shows that the proposed multiple sampling method reduces each A/D conversion time from 1.2 μs to 0.45 μs and random noise from 848.3 μV to 270.4 μV, achieving a dynamic range of 68.1 dB and an SNR of 39.2 dB. PMID:26712765

  14. A Fast Multiple Sampling Method for Low-Noise CMOS Image Sensors With Column-Parallel 12-bit SAR ADCs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Hong, Seong-Kwan; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a fast multiple sampling method for low-noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) applications with column-parallel successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs). The 12-bit SAR ADC using the proposed multiple sampling method decreases the A/D conversion time by repeatedly converting a pixel output to 4-bit after the first 12-bit A/D conversion, reducing noise of the CIS by one over the square root of the number of samplings. The area of the 12-bit SAR ADC is reduced by using a 10-bit capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with four scaled reference voltages. In addition, a simple up/down counter-based digital processing logic is proposed to perform complex calculations for multiple sampling and digital correlated double sampling. To verify the proposed multiple sampling method, a 256 × 128 pixel array CIS with 12-bit SAR ADCs was fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurement results shows that the proposed multiple sampling method reduces each A/D conversion time from 1.2 μs to 0.45 μs and random noise from 848.3 μV to 270.4 μV, achieving a dynamic range of 68.1 dB and an SNR of 39.2 dB. PMID:26712765

  15. Sub-urban landscape characterization by very high-resolution X-band COSMO-Skymed SAR images: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Frate, Fabio; Loschiavo, Domenico; Pratola, Chiara; Schiavon, Giovanni; Solimini, Domenico

    2010-10-01

    The very-high spatial resolution provided by COSMO-Skymed products, also considering the concurrent TerraSAR-X mission, opens new challenges in the field of SAR image processing for remote sensing applications, maybe comparable to those represented by the first optical commercial satellites at the beginning of last decade. The Tor Vergata-Frascati test site, where extensive ground-truth data are available, was imaged by the COSMO constellation at two different days in summer 2010. This enabled first investigations on the potential of this type of imagery in providing a characterization of sub-urban areas by exploitation of both amplitude and phase information contained in the radar return. In particular this paper deals with the set-up of preliminary chains of automatic processing based on Multi-Layer Perceptron neural networks for pixel based analysis. Also some comments concerning the retrieval of information on the vertical properties of a single building are reported.

  16. Mapping of bare soil surface parameters from TerraSAR-X radar images over a semi-arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorrab, A.; Zribi, M.; Baghdadi, N.; Lili Chabaane, Z.

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to analyze the sensitivity of X-band SAR (TerraSAR-X) signals as a function of different physical bare soil parameters (soil moisture, soil roughness), and to demonstrate that it is possible to estimate of both soil moisture and texture from the same experimental campaign, using a single radar signal configuration (one incidence angle, one polarization). Firstly, we analyzed statistically the relationships between X-band SAR (TerraSAR-X) backscattering signals function of soil moisture and different roughness parameters (the root mean square height Hrms, the Zs parameter and the Zg parameter) at HH polarization and for an incidence angle about 36°, over a semi-arid site in Tunisia (North Africa). Results have shown a high sensitivity of real radar data to the two soil parameters: roughness and moisture. A linear relationship is obtained between volumetric soil moisture and radar signal. A logarithmic correlation is observed between backscattering coefficient and all roughness parameters. The highest dynamic sensitivity is obtained with Zg parameter. Then, we proposed to retrieve of both soil moisture and texture using these multi-temporal X-band SAR images. Our approach is based on the change detection method and combines the seven radar images with different continuous thetaprobe measurements. To estimate soil moisture from X-band SAR data, we analyzed statistically the sensitivity between radar measurements and ground soil moisture derived from permanent thetaprobe stations. Our approaches are applied over bare soil class identified from an optical image SPOT / HRV acquired in the same period of measurements. Results have shown linear relationship for the radar signals as a function of volumetric soil moisture with high sensitivity about 0.21 dB/vol%. For estimation of change in soil moisture, we considered two options: (1) roughness variations during the three-month radar acquisition campaigns were not accounted for; (2) a simple

  17. Step-stare technique for airborne high-resolution infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, Valerie; Chevrette, Paul C.; Ricard, Benot; Zaccarin, Andre

    2004-08-01

    The Infrared Eye project was developed at DRDC Valcartier to improve the efficiency of airborne search and rescue operations. A high performance opto-mechanical pointing system was developed to allow fast positioning of a narrow field of view with high resolution, used for search and detection, over a wide field of view of lower resolution that optimizes area coverage. This system also enables the use of a step-stare technique, which rapidly builds a large area coverage image mosaic by step-staring a narrow field camera and properly tiling the resulting images. The resulting image mosaic covers the wide field of the current Infrared Eye, but with the high resolution of the narrow field. For the desired application, the camera will be fixed to an airborne platform using a stabilized mount and image positioning in the mosaic will be calculated using flight data provided by an altimeter, a GPS and an inertial unit. This paper presents a model of the complete system, a dynamic step-stare strategy that generates the image mosaic, a flight image taking simulator for strategy testing and some results obtained with this simulator.

  18. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Leifer, I.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M.; Fladeland, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Kratwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Thorpe, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of the NASA/ESA CO2 and MEthane eXperiment (COMEX) campaign in California during June and August/September 2014. COMEX was a multi-platform campaign to measure CH4 plumes released from anthropogenic sources including oil and gas infrastructure. We discuss principles for real-time spectral signature detection and measurement, and report performance on the NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG). AVIRIS-NG successfully detected CH4 plumes in real-time at Gb s-1 data rates, characterizing fugitive releases in concert with other in situ and remote instruments. The teams used these real-time CH4 detections to coordinate measurements across multiple platforms, including airborne in situ, airborne non-imaging remote sensing, and ground-based in situ instruments. To our knowledge this is the first reported use of real-time trace-gas signature detection in an airborne science campaign, and presages many future applications. Post-analysis demonstrates matched filter methods providing noise-equivalent (1σ) detection sensitivity for 1.0 % CH4 column enhancements equal to 141 ppm m.

  19. SAR coherent change detection (CCD) for search and rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Arthur W.; Poehler, Paul L.; Rais, Houra

    1997-06-01

    Recent advances in the areas of phase history processing, interferometry, and radargrammetric adjustment have made possible extremely accurate information extraction from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image pairs by means of interferometric techniques. The potential gain in accuracy is significant since measurements can theoretically be determined to within a fraction of a wavelength (subcentimeter accuracy) as opposed to a fraction of pixel distance (meter accuracy). One promising application of interferometric SAR (IFSAR) is the use of coherent change detection (CCD) over large areas to locate downed aircraft. This application poses an additional challenge since IFSAR must be processed at longer wavelengths to achieve foliage penetration. In this paper a combination of advanced techniques is described for using airborne SAR imagery to carry out this mission. Performance parameters are derived, and some examples are given from actual data.

  20. Aseismic deformation of a fold-and-thrust belt imaged by SAR interferometry near Shahdad, southeast Iran

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, Eric J.; Wright, Tim J.; Muller, Jordan; Parsons, Barry E.; Walker, Richard

    2004-01-01

    At depth, many fold-and-thrust belts are composed of a gently dipping, basal thrust fault and steeply dipping, shallower splay faults that terminate beneath folds at the surface. Movement on these buried faults is difficult to observe, but synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry has imaged slip on at least 600 square kilometers of the Shahdad basal-thrust and splay-fault network in southeast Iran.

  1. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) onboard calibration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Thomas G.; Eastwood, Mike; Green, Robert O.; Sarture, Charles; Johnson, Howell; Chovit, Chris; Hajek, Pavel

    1995-01-01

    The AVIRIS instrument uses an onboard calibration system to provide auxiliary calibration data. The system consist of a tungsten halogen cycle lamp imaged onto a fiber bundle through an eight position filter wheel. The fiber bundle illuminates the back side of the foreoptics shutter during a pre-run and post-run calibration sequence. The filter wheel contains two neutral density filters, five spectral filters and one blocked position. This paper reviews the general workings of the onboard calibrator system and discusses recent modifications.

  2. Comparison of techniques for discriminating hydrothermal alteration minerals with Airborne Imaging Spectrometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Sandra C.; Taranik, James V.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrothermal alteration mineralogy in the Tybo mining district of Nevada has been mapped on the basis of high spectral and spatial resolution Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data, using band ratios, principal component analysis, and a signature-matching algorithm to delineate the alteration zones and limestone foundations. The signature-matching algorithm is found to be the most effective method of discriminating alteration minerals, and is noted to be able to identify mineralogy by matching AIS image spectra with library reference spectra. AIS bands in the 2048-2337-nm portion of the spectrum accounted for the greatest amount of variance.

  3. Overview of Austrian Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) programme and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banninger, C.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data collected from eight test areas in Austria were evaluated for their usefulness in forest damage assessment, geobotany, alpine vegetation mapping, and land use classification. Difficulties encountered in installing the SPAM spectral analysis software for use on the image display system and the necessity to adapt existing programs for this task impeded and delayed the analysis of the AIS data. Spectral reflectance curves obtained from a geobotanical test site show a marked increase in reflectance across most of the measured spectrum for metal stressed spruce trees compared with nonstressed spruce trees.

  4. An Airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, J.; Racette, P.; Wang, J.; Crites, A.; Doiron, T.; Engler, C.; Lecha, J.; Powers, M.; Simon, E.; Triesky, M.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An airborne Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) for high-altitude observations from the NASA Research Aircraft (ER-2) is discussed. The primary application of the CoSMIR is water vapor profile remote sensing. Four radiometers operating at 50 (three channels), 92, 150, and 183 (three channels) GHz provide spectral coverage identical to nine of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) high-frequency channels. Constant polarization-basis conical and cross-track scanning capabilities are achieved using an elevation-under-azimuth two-axis gimbals.

  5. Retrieval of the thickness of undeformed sea ice from simulated C-band compact polarimetric SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Dierking, Wolfgang; Zhang, Jie; Meng, Junmin; Lang, Haitao

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we introduce a parameter for the retrieval of the thickness of undeformed first-year sea ice that is specifically adapted to compact polarimetric (CP) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The parameter is denoted as the "CP ratio". In model simulations we investigated the sensitivity of the CP ratio to the dielectric constant, ice thickness, ice surface roughness, and radar incidence angle. From the results of the simulations we deduced optimal sea ice conditions and radar incidence angles for the ice thickness retrieval. C-band SAR data acquired over the Labrador Sea in circular transmit and linear receive (CTLR) mode were generated from RADARSAT-2 quad-polarization images. In comparison with results from helicopter-borne measurements, we tested different empirical equations for the retrieval of ice thickness. An exponential fit between the CP ratio and ice thickness provides the most reliable results. Based on a validation using other compact polarimetric SAR images from the same region, we found a root mean square (rms) error of 8 cm and a maximum correlation coefficient of 0.94 for the retrieval procedure when applying it to level ice between 0.1 and 0.8 m thick.

  6. Semi-automatic Road Extraction from SAR images using EKF and PF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. Q.; Yang, J.; Li, P. X.; Lu, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the use of linear features for processing remote sensing images has shown its importance in applications. As one of typical linear targets, road is a hot spot of remote sensing image interpretation. Since extracting road by manual processing is too expensive and time consuming, researches based on automatic and semi-automatic have become more and more popular. Such interest is motivated by the requirements for civilian and military applications, such as road maps, traffic monitoring, navigation applications, and topographic mapping. How to extract road accurately and efficiently from SAR images is a key problem. In this paper, through analyzing characteristics of road, semi-automatic road extraction based on Extend Kalman Filtering (EKF) and Particles Filtering (PF), is presented. These two methods have the same algorithm flow which is an iterative approach based on prediction and update. The specific procedure as follows: at prediction stage, we obtain prior probability density function by the prior stage and prediction model, and through prior probability density function and the new measurement, at update stage we obtain the posterior probability density function which is the optimal estimation of road system state. Both EKF and PF repeat the steps above until the extracting tasks are finished. We use these two methods to extract road respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through the experiments from Howland by UAVSAR in L-band. And through contrast experiments, we discover that extracting difference complexity of road based on different methods can improve accuracy and efficiency. The results show that EKF has better performance on road with middle noise and PF has better performance on road with high noise.

  7. Geodetic imaging with airborne LiDAR: the Earth's surface revealed.

    PubMed

    Glennie, C L; Carter, W E; Shrestha, R L; Dietrich, W E

    2013-08-01

    The past decade has seen an explosive increase in the number of peer reviewed papers reporting new scientific findings in geomorphology (including fans, channels, floodplains and landscape evolution), geologic mapping, tectonics and faulting, coastal processes, lava flows, hydrology (especially snow and runoff routing), glaciers and geo-archaeology. A common genesis of such findings is often newly available decimeter resolution 'bare Earth' geodetic images, derived from airborne laser swath mapping, a.k.a. airborne LiDAR, observations. In this paper we trace nearly a half century of advances in geodetic science made possible by space age technology, such as the invention of short-pulse-length high-pulse-rate lasers, solid state inertial measurement units, chip-based high speed electronics and the GPS satellite navigation system, that today make it possible to map hundreds of square kilometers of terrain in hours, even in areas covered with dense vegetation or shallow water. To illustrate the impact of the LiDAR observations we present examples of geodetic images that are not only stunning to the eye, but help researchers to develop quantitative models explaining how terrain evolved to its present form, and how it will likely change with time. Airborne LiDAR technology continues to develop quickly, promising ever more scientific discoveries in the years ahead. PMID:23828665

  8. Airborne Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging Survey of the Southern San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. K.; Tratt, D. M.; Buckland, K. N.; Johnson, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The San Andreas Fault (SAF) between Desert Hot Springs and Bombay Beach has been surveyed with Mako, an airborne hyperspectral imager operating across the wavelength range 7.6-13.2 μm in the thermal-infrared (TIR) spectral region. The data were acquired with a 4-km swath width centered on the SAF, and many tectonic features are recorded in the imagery. Spectral analysis using diagnostic features of minerals can identify rocks, soils and vegetation. Mako imagery can also locate rupture zones and measure slip distances. Designed and built by The Aerospace Corporation, the innovative and highly capable airborne imaging spectrometer used for this work enables low-noise performance (NEΔT ≲ 0.1 K @ 10 μm) at small pixel IFOV (0.55 mrad) and high frame rates, making possible an area-coverage rate of 20 km2 per minute with 2-m ground resolution from 12,500 ft (3.8 km) above-ground altitude. Since its commissioning in 2010, Mako has been used in numerous studies involving other earthquake fault systems (Hector Mine, S. Bristol Mts.), mapping of surface geology, geothermal sources (fumaroles near the Salton Sea), urban surveys, and the detection, quantification, and tracking of natural and anthropogenic gaseous emission plumes. Mako is available for airborne field studies and new applications are of particular interest. It can be flown at any altitude below 20,000 ft to achieve the desired GSD.

  9. Geodetic imaging with airborne LiDAR: the Earth's surface revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glennie, C. L.; Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2013-08-01

    The past decade has seen an explosive increase in the number of peer reviewed papers reporting new scientific findings in geomorphology (including fans, channels, floodplains and landscape evolution), geologic mapping, tectonics and faulting, coastal processes, lava flows, hydrology (especially snow and runoff routing), glaciers and geo-archaeology. A common genesis of such findings is often newly available decimeter resolution ‘bare Earth’ geodetic images, derived from airborne laser swath mapping, a.k.a. airborne LiDAR, observations. In this paper we trace nearly a half century of advances in geodetic science made possible by space age technology, such as the invention of short-pulse-length high-pulse-rate lasers, solid state inertial measurement units, chip-based high speed electronics and the GPS satellite navigation system, that today make it possible to map hundreds of square kilometers of terrain in hours, even in areas covered with dense vegetation or shallow water. To illustrate the impact of the LiDAR observations we present examples of geodetic images that are not only stunning to the eye, but help researchers to develop quantitative models explaining how terrain evolved to its present form, and how it will likely change with time. Airborne LiDAR technology continues to develop quickly, promising ever more scientific discoveries in the years ahead.

  10. Ice island detection and characterization with airborne synthetic aperture radar

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, M.O.; Sackinger, W.M. )

    1990-04-15

    A 1:300,000 scale airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image of an area of the Arctic Ocean adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth Islands, Canadian High Arctic, is examined to determine the number and characteristics of ice islands in the image and to assess the capability of airborne and satellite SAR to detect ice islands. Twelve ice islands have been identified, and their dimensions range from as large as 5.7 km by 8.7 km to as small as 0.15 km by 0.25 km. A significant SAR characteristic of the shelf ice portions of ice islands is a return with a ribbed texture of alternating lighter and darker grey tones resulting from the indulating shelf ice surfaces of the ice islands. The appearance of the ribbed texture varies according to the ice islands' orientation relative to the illumination direction and consequently the incidence angle. Some ice islands also include extensive areas of textureless dark tone attached to the shelf ice. The weak returns correspond to (1) multiyear landfast sea ice that was attached to the front of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf at the time of calving and which has remained attached since then and (2) multiyear pack ice that has become attached and consolidated since the calving, indicating that ice islands can increase their area and mass significantly as they drift. Ice islands are easily discernible in SAR images and for the future SAR represents a promising technique to obtain a census of ice islands in the Arctic Ocean. However, any SAR-based census probably will be conservative because ice islands smaller than 300-400 m across are likely to remain undetected, particularly in areas of heavy ice ridging which produces strong SAR clutter.

  11. An interactive lake survey program. [airborne multispectral sensor image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Consideration is given to the development and operation of the interactive lake survey program developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Environmental Protection Agency. The program makes it possible to locate, isolate, and store any number of water bodies on the basis of a given digital image. The stored information may be used to generate statistical analyses of each body of water including the lake surface area and the shoreline perimeter. The hardware includes a 360/65 host computer, a Ramtek G100B display controller, and a trackball cursor. The system is illustrated by the LAKELOC operation as it would be applied to a Landsat scene, noting the FARINA and STATUS programs. The water detection algorithm, which increases the accuracy with which water and land data may be separated, is discussed.

  12. Pointing stability and image quality of the SOFIA Airborne Telescope during initial science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampater, Ulrich; Keas, Paul; Brewster, Rick; Herter, Terry; Wolf, Juergen; Pfueller, Enrico; Wiedemann, Manuel; Teufel, Stefan; Harms, Franziska; Jakob, Holger; Roser, Hans-Peter

    2011-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne observatory for astronomical observations at wavelengths ranging from 0.3-1600 µm. It consists of a telescope with an effective aperture of 2.5 m, which is mounted in a heavily modified Boeing 747SP. The aircraft features an open port cavity that gives the telescope an unobstructed view of the sky. Hence the optical system is subject to both aerodynamic loads from airflow entering the cavity, and to inertial loads introduced by motion of the airborne platform. A complex suspension assembly was designed to stabilize the telescope. Detailed end-to-end simulations were performed to estimate image stability based on the mechatronic design, the expected loads, and optical influence parameters. In December 2010 SOFIA entered its operational phase with a series of Early Science flights, which have relaxed image quality requirements compared to the full operations capability. At the same time, those flights are used to characterize image quality and image stability in order to validate models and to optimize systems. Optimization of systems is not based on analytical models, but on models derived from system identification measurements that are performed on the actual hardware both under controlled conditions and operational conditions. This paper discusses recent results from system identification measurements, improvements to image stability, and plans for the further enhancement of the system.

  13. Validation of 2DH hydrodynamic and morphological mathematical models. A methodology based on SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canelas, Ricardo; Heleno, Sandra; Pestana, Rita; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the present work is to devise a methodology to validate 2DH shallow-water models suitable to simulate flow hydrodynamics and channel morphology. For this purpose, a 2DH mathematical model, assembled at CEHIDRO, IST, is employed to model Tagus river floods over a 70 km reach and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are collected to retrieve planar inundation extents. The model is suited for highly unsteady discontinuous flows over complex, time-evolving geometries, employing a finite-volume discretization scheme, based on a flux-splitting technique incorporating a reviewed version of the Roe Riemann solver. Novel closure terms for the non-equilibrium sediment transport model are included. New boundary conditions are employed, based on the Riemann variables associated the outgoing characteristic fields, coping with the provided hydrographs in a mathematically coherent manner. A high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is used and levee structures are considered as fully erodible elements. Spatially heterogeneous roughness characteristics are derived from land-use databases such as CORINE LandCover 2006. SAR satellite imagery of the floods is available and is used to validate the simulation results, with particular emphasis on the 2000/2001 flood. The delimited areas from the satellite and simulations are superimposed. The quality of the adjustment depends on the calibration of roughness coefficients and the spatial discretization of with small structures, with lengths at the order of the spatial discretization. Flow depths and registered discharges are recovered from the simulation and compared with data from a measuring station in the domain, with the comparison revealing remarkably high accuracy, both in terms of amplitudes and phase. Further inclusion of topographical detail should improve the comparison of flood extents regarding satellite data. The validated model was then employed to simulate 100-year floods in the same reach. The

  14. Preliminary results of SAR image compression using MatrixViewTM on coherent change detection (CCD) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresko, Lawrence S.; Gorham, LeRoy A.; Thiagarajan, Arvind

    2012-05-01

    An investigation was made into the feasibility of compressing complex Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images using MatrixViewTM compression technology to achieve higher compression ratios than previously achieved. Complex SAR images contain both amplitude and phase information that are severely degraded with traditional compression techniques. This phase and amplitude information allows interferometric analysis to detect minute changes between pairs of SAR images, but is highly sensitive to any degradation in image quality. This sensitivity provides a measure to compare capabilities of different compression technologies. The interferometric process of Coherent Change Detection (CCD) is acutely sensitive to any quality loss and, therefore, is a good measure by which to compare compression capabilities of different technologies. The best compression that could be achieved by block adaptive quantization (a classical compression approach) applied to a set of I and Q phased-history samples, was a Compression Ratio (CR) of 2x. Work by Novak and Frost [3] increased this CR to 3-4x using a more complex wavelet-based Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) algorithm (similar in its core to JPEG 2000). In each evaluation as the CR increased, degradation occurred in the reconstituted image measured by the CCD image coherence. The maximum compression was determined at the point the CCD image coherence remained > 0.9. The same investigation approach using equivalent sample data sets was performed using an emerging technology and product called MatrixViewTM. This paper documents preliminary results of MatrixView's compression of an equivalent data set to demonstrate a CR of 10-12x with an equivalent CCD coherence level of >0.9: a 300-400% improvement over SPIHT.

  15. Calibration, Sensor Model Improvements and Uncertainty Budget of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueni, A.

    2015-12-01

    ESA's Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) was developed under the PRODEX (PROgramme de Développement d'EXpériences scientifiques) program by a Swiss-Belgian consortium and entered its operational phase at the end of 2010 (Schaepman et al., 2015). Work on the sensor model has been carried out extensively within the framework of European Metrology Research Program as part of the Metrology for Earth Observation and Climate (MetEOC and MetEOC2). The focus has been to improve laboratory calibration procedures in order to reduce uncertainties, to establish a laboratory uncertainty budget and to upgrade the sensor model to compensate for sensor specific biases. The updated sensor model relies largely on data collected during dedicated characterisation experiments in the APEX calibration home base but includes airborne data as well where the simulation of environmental conditions in the given laboratory setup was not feasible. The additions to the model deal with artefacts caused by environmental changes and electronic features, namely the impact of ambient air pressure changes on the radiometry in combination with dichroic coatings, influences of external air temperatures and consequently instrument baffle temperatures on the radiometry, and electronic anomalies causing radiometric errors in the four shortwave infrared detector readout blocks. Many of these resolved issues might be expected to be present in other imaging spectrometers to some degree or in some variation. Consequently, the work clearly shows the difficulties of extending a laboratory-based uncertainty to data collected under in-flight conditions. The results are hence not only of interest to the calibration scientist but also to the spectroscopy end user, in particular when commercial sensor systems are used for data collection and relevant sensor characteristic information tends to be sparse. Schaepman, et al, 2015. Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science

  16. Monitoring river morphological changes using high resolution multitemporal sar images: a case study on orco river, italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitidieri, Francesco; Nicolina Papa, Maria; Ruello, Giuseppe; Amitrano, Donato; Bizzi, Simone; Demarchi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Improving the knowledge about river processes by applying innovative monitoring techniques is extremely needed to face the challenge of a better river management. In this paper we test the capability of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to enrich the monitoring of river geomorphological processes. Multitemporal SAR images provide observations and measurements at high spatial (3 m), and in particular temporal resolution (15 days). This information if properly processed and classified may significantly enrich our ability to monitor the evolution of river morphological phenomena (erosion/deposition, narrowing/widening, riparian vegetation's evolution and interferences with river flow). This is expected to lead to an enhancements in the river management capabilities, in particular as regards the assessment of hydro-morphological river quality, as strongly suggested by European Commission's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). A case study on the Italian River Orco is here presented. The case study has used a set of 100 COSMO-SkyMed stripmap images (from October 2008 to November 2014) from Italian Space Agency. All the data were acquired with medium look angle (almost 30°) and HH polarization, also for increasing the land-water contrast. Calibration, registration and despeckling procedures were applied on the acquired dataset. In particular, the optimal weighting multitemporal De Grandi filter was adopted in order to allow an effective extraction of the water surfaces contour. This method was applied to extract water contours over the entire historical series of SAR datasets available. Thanks to the generated information we were able to monitor the lateral dynamic of the water channels and infer on the evolutions of erosion/deposition phenomena. To this aim, an RGB representation of multitemporal SAR data was implemented. The series of detected river channel morphological changes was then analyzed in the light of the series of discharge measurements in

  17. Cross-sensor SAR image offsets for deriving coseismic displacements: Application to the 2001 Bhuj (India) earthquake using ERS and Envisat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Wei, S.; Jonsson, S.; Avouac, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a powerful imaging technique for measuring ground deformation, either through Interferometric SAR (InSAR) or image offset tracking. However, these methods are only applied to SAR images acquired by the same satellite, which limits the measurement capability for many earthquakes. Here we propose a novel approach that allows for calculating offsets between images acquired from the European ERS and Envisat satellites. To achieve this cross-sensor offset calculation, we first coregister pre-event (ERS) and post-event (Envisat) SAR images separately to generate averaged pre- and post-event SAR amplitude maps. We then compute the orbital offsets between these two maps in order to resample the ERS average map onto the grid of the averaged Envisat image. We finally calculate the cross-sensor image offsets based on cross-correlating selected sub-images distributed throughout the coregistered averaged SAR maps. Application to the 2001 Bhuj earthquake reveals, for the first time, its near-field coseismic displacement field right above the epicenter. We compare our measurements with the surface displacement field predicted from the published source model of Copley et al. [2011]. This model was derived from tele-seismic waveforms and limited far-field geodetic data. The comparison between the two displacement maps shows consistent displacement patterns, yet a systematic shift, which likely is due to the limited near-fault resolution of the data used in the previous model. We then perform a joint inversion using the newly derived SAR image offsets and tele-seismic waveforms. The preferred source model suggests a compact slip pattern at depths of 20-30 km with a peak slip of ~10 meters and a fairly short rise time (<3s). The large slip rate and low attenuation in the crust are likely responsible for the widely felt ground shaking despite of its compact source area. The result demonstrates that it is possible to correlate non-coherent SAR images

  18. Verification of 3d Building Models Using Mutual Information in Airborne Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyaruhuma, A. P.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a method for automatic verification of 3D building models using airborne oblique images. The problem being tackled is identifying buildings that are demolished or changed since the models were constructed or identifying wrong models using the images. The models verified are of CityGML LOD2 or higher since their edges are expected to coincide with actual building edges. The verification approach is based on information theory. Corresponding variables between building models and oblique images are used for deriving mutual information for individual edges, faces or whole buildings, and combined for all perspective images available for the building. The wireframe model edges are projected to images and verified using low level image features - the image pixel gradient directions. A building part is only checked against images in which it may be visible. The method has been tested with models constructed using laser points against Pictometry images that are available for most cities of Europe and may be publically viewed in the so called Birds Eye view of the Microsoft Bing Maps. Results are that nearly all buildings are correctly categorised as existing or demolished. Because we now concentrate only on roofs we also used the method to test and compare results from nadir images. This comparison made clear that especially height errors in models can be more reliably detected in oblique images because of the tilted view. Besides overall building verification, results per individual edges can be used for improving the 3D building models.

  19. Estimation of the Atmospheric Refraction Effect in Airborne Images Using Radiosonde Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beisl, U.; Tempelmann, U.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of the atmospheric refraction on the geometric accuracy of airborne photogrammetric images was already considered in the days of analogue photography. The effect is a function of the varying refractive index on the path from the ground to the image sensor. Therefore the effect depends on the height over ground, the view zenith angle and the atmospheric constituents. It is leading to a gradual increase of the scale towards the borders of the image, i.e. a magnification takes place. Textbooks list a shift of several pixels at the borders of standard wide angle images. As it was the necessity of that time when images could only be acquired at good weather conditions, the effect was calculated using standard atmospheres for good atmospheric conditions, leading to simple empirical formulas. Often the pixel shift caused by refraction was approximated as linear with height and compensated by an adjustment of the focal length. With the advent of sensitive digital cameras, the image dynamics allows for capturing images at adverse weather conditions. So the influence of the atmospheric profiles on the geometric accuracy of the images has to be investigated and the validity of the standard correction formulas has to be checked. This paper compares the results from the standard formulas by Saastamoinen with the results calculated from a broad selection of atmospheres obtained from radiosonde profile data. The geometric deviation is calculated by numerical integration of the refractive index as a function of the height using the refractive index formula by Ciddor. It turns out that the effect of different atmospheric profiles (including inversion situations) is generally small compared to the overall effect except at low camera heights. But there the absolute deviation is small. Since the necessary atmospheric profile data are often not readily available for airborne images a formula proposed by Saastamoinen is verified that uses only camera height, the pressure

  20. Use of ERS SAR interferometric coherence and PRI images to evaluate crop height and soil moisture and to identify crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeremans, Benoit; Dautrebande, Sylvia

    1998-12-01

    The aim of the present project was to identify the capabilities of multitemporal ERS SAR interferometric coherence and PRI images to evaluate soil moisture, to estimate crop height and to identify crops for four crop types (winter wheat, potato, sugar beet and maize) and for different pilot fields. The coherence images acquired during the winter and spring seasons can be used to identify bare or nearly bare fields with a threshold value, and then PRI images were used to quantify soil moisture value for each bare field. The coherence images acquired during the growing season were used to evaluate crop height for each studied crop type. Moreover, the coherence image provided some additional information to PRI images for the crop type identification. This study was carried out in the framework of the PRODEX program financed by the Belgian Federal Office for Scientific, Technical and Cultural affairs (OSTC) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  1. Kalman Filter Based Feature Analysis for Tracking People from Airborne Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirmacek, B.; Reinartz, P.

    2011-09-01

    Recently, analysis of man events in real-time using computer vision techniques became a very important research field. Especially, understanding motion of people can be helpful to prevent unpleasant conditions. Understanding behavioral dynamics of people can also help to estimate future states of underground passages, shopping center like public entrances, or streets. In order to bring an automated solution to this problem, we propose a novel approach using airborne image sequences. Although airborne image resolutions are not enough to see each person in detail, we can still notice a change of color components in the place where a person exists. Therefore, we propose a color feature detection based probabilistic framework in order to detect people automatically. Extracted local features behave as observations of the probability density function (pdf) of the people locations to be estimated. Using an adaptive kernel density estimation method, we estimate the corresponding pdf. First, we use estimated pdf to detect boundaries of dense crowds. After that, using background information of dense crowds and previously extracted local features, we detect other people in non-crowd regions automatically for each image in the sequence. We benefit from Kalman filtering to track motion of detected people. To test our algorithm, we use a stadium entrance image data set taken from airborne camera system. Our experimental results indicate possible usage of the algorithm in real-life man events. We believe that the proposed approach can also provide crucial information to police departments and crisis management teams to achieve more detailed observations of people in large open area events to prevent possible accidents or unpleasant conditions.

  2. Airborne far-IR minefield imaging system (AFIRMIS): description and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Jean-Robert; Mathieu, Pierre; Larochelle, Vincent; Bonnier, Deni

    1998-09-01

    In minefield detection, two main types of operation can be identified. First, there is the detection of surface-laid minefield. This scenario is encountered largely in tactical operations (troop movement, beach landing) where the speed at which the minefield is deployed or the strategic barrier that they represent exceed the need to bury them. Second, there is the detection of buried minefield which is encountered mainly in peacekeeping missions or clearance operations. To address these two types of minefield detection process, we propose an airborne far-infrared minefield imaging system (AFIRMIS). This passive and active imaging system fuses the information from the emissivity, the reflectivity and the 3-dimensional profile of the target/background scene in order to improve the probability of detection and to reduce the false alarm rate. This paper describes the proposed imaging system and presents early active imaging results of surface-laid mines.

  3. Bistatic receiver model for airborne lidar returns incident on an imaging array from underwater objects.

    PubMed

    Cadalli, Nail; Munson, David C; Singer, Andrew C

    2002-06-20

    We develop a bistatic model for airborne lidar returns collected by an imaging array from underwater objects, incorporating additional returns from the surrounding water medium and ocean bottom. Our results provide a generalization of the monostatic model by Walker and McLean. In the bistatic scheme the transmitter and receiver are spatially separated or are not coaligned. This generality is necessary for a precise description of an imaging array such as a CCD, which may be viewed as a collection of receiver elements, with each transmitter-element pair forming a bistatic configuration. More generally, the receiver may consist of photomultiplier tubes, photodiodes, or any of a variety of optical receivers, and the imaging array can range in size from a CCD array to a multiple-platform airborne lidar system involving multiple aircraft. The majority of this research is devoted to a derivation of the bistatic lidar equations, which account for multiple scattering and absorption in the water column. We then describe the application of these equations to the modeling and simulation of an imaging array. We show an example of a simulated lidar return and compare it with a real ocean lidar return, obtained by a CCD array. PMID:12078691

  4. Multifrequency and multipolarization radar scatterometry of sand dunes and comparison with spaceborne and airborne radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blom, Ronald; Elachi, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Airborne radar scatterometer data on sand dunes, acquired at multiple frequencies and polarizations, are reported. Radar backscatter from sand dunes is very sensitive to the imaging geometry. At small incidence angles the radar return is mainly due to quasi-specular reflection from dune slopes favorably oriented toward the radar. A peak return usually occurs at the incidence angle equal to the angle of repose for the dunes. The peak angle is the same at all frequencies as computed from specular reflection theory. At larger angles the return is significantly weaker. The scatterometer measurements verified observations made with airborne and spaceborne radar images acquired over a number of dune fields in the U.S., central Africa, and the Arabian peninsula. The imaging geometry constraints indicate that possible dunes on other planets, such as Venus, will probably not be detected in radar images unless the incidence angle is less than the angles of repose of such dunes and the radar look direction is approximately orthogonal to the dune trends.

  5. Preliminary assessment of airborne imaging spectrometer and airborne thematic mapper data acquired for forest decline areas in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Karin; Ammer, Ulrich; Rock, Barrett; Paley, Helen N.

    1988-01-01

    This study evaluated the utility of data collected by the high-spectral resolution airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS-2, tree mode, spectral range 0.8-2.2 microns) and the broad-band Daedalus airborne thematic mapper (ATM, spectral range 0.42-13.0 micron) in assessing forest decline damage at a predominantly Scotch pine forest in the FRG. Analysis of spectral radiance values from the ATM and raw digital number values from AIS-2 showed that higher reflectance in the near infrared was characteristic of high damage (heavy chlorosis, limited needle loss) in Scotch pine canopies. A classification image of a portion of the AIS-2 flight line agreed very well with a damage assessment map produced by standard aerial photointerpretation techniques.

  6. Software for Generating Strip Maps from SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry; Madsen, Soren; Chapin, Elaine; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    2004-01-01

    Jurassicprok is a computer program that generates strip-map digital elevation models and other data products from raw data acquired by an airborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system. This software can process data from a variety of airborne SAR systems but is designed especially for the GeoSAR system, which is a dual-frequency (P- and X-band), single-pass interferometric SAR system for measuring elevation both at the bare ground surface and top of the vegetation canopy. Jurassicprok is a modified version of software developed previously for airborne-interferometric- SAR applications. The modifications were made to accommodate P-band interferometric processing, remove approximations that are not generally valid, and reduce processor-induced mapping errors to the centimeter level. Major additions and other improvements over the prior software include the following: a) A new, highly efficient multi-stage-modified wave-domain processing algorithm for accurately motion compensating ultra-wideband data; b) Adaptive regridding algorithms based on estimated noise and actual measured topography to reduce noise while maintaining spatial resolution; c) Exact expressions for height determination from interferogram data; d) Fully calibrated volumetric correlation data based on rigorous removal of geometric and signal-to-noise decorrelation terms; e) Strip range-Doppler image output in user-specified Doppler coordinates; f) An improved phase-unwrapping and absolute-phase-determination algorithm; g) A more flexible user interface with many additional processing options; h) Increased interferogram filtering options; and i) Ability to use disk space instead of random- access memory for some processing steps.

  7. Bistatic SAR: Proof of Concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, David A.; Doren, Neall E.; Bacon, Terry A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Eichel, Paul H.; Jakowatz, Charles V,; Delaplain, Gilbert G.; Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.; White, Kyle R.

    2014-10-01

    Typical synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) imaging employs a co-located RADAR transmitter and receiver. Bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. A bistatic SAR configuration allows for the transmitter and receiver(s) to be in a variety of geometric alignments. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) / New Mexico proposed the deployment of a ground-based RADAR receiver. This RADAR receiver was coupled with the capability of digitizing and recording the signal collected. SNL proposed the possibility of creating an image of targets the illuminating SAR observes. This document describes the developed hardware, software, bistatic SAR configuration, and its deployment to test the concept of a ground-based bistatic SAR. In the proof-of-concept experiments herein, the RADAR transmitter will be a commercial SAR satellite and the RADAR receiver will be deployed at ground level, observing and capturing RADAR ground/targets illuminated by the satellite system.

  8. Development of the second generation Hyperspectral Airborne Terrestrial Imager (HATI): HATI - 2500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandor-Leahy, S.; Thordarson, S.; Baldauf, B.; Figueroa, M.; Helmlinger, M.; Miller, H.; Reynolds, T.; Shepanski, J.

    2010-08-01

    Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) has a long legacy developing and fielding hyperspectral sensors, including airborne and space based systems covering the visible through Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) wavelength ranges. Most recently NGAS has developed the Hyperspectral Airborne Terrestrial Instrument (HATI) family of hyperspectral sensors, which are compact airborne hyperspectral imagers designed to fly on a variety of platforms and be integrated with other sensors in NGAS's instrument suite. The current sensor under development is the HATI-2500, a full range Visible Near Infrared (VNIR) through Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) instrument covering the 0.4 - 2.5 micron wavelength range with high spectral resolution (3nm). The system includes a framing camera integrated with a GPS/INS to provide high-resolution multispectral imagery and precision geolocation. Its compact size and flexible acquisition parameters allow HATI-2500 to be integrated on a large variety of aerial platforms. This paper describes the HATI-2500 sensor and subsystems and its expected performance specifications.

  9. Millimeter wave radar system on a rotating platform for combined search and track functionality with SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulenbacher, Uwe; Rech, Klaus; Sedlmeier, Johannes; Pratisto, Hans; Wellig, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Ground based millimeter wave radar sensors offer the potential for a weather-independent automatic ground surveillance at day and night, e.g. for camp protection applications. The basic principle and the experimental verification of a radar system concept is described, which by means of an extreme off-axis positioning of the antenna(s) combines azimuthal mechanical beam steering with the formation of a circular-arc shaped synthetic aperture (SA). In automatic ground surveillance the function of search and detection of moving ground targets is performed by means of the conventional mechanical scan mode. The rotated antenna structure designed as a small array with two or more RX antenna elements with simultaneous receiver chains allows to instantaneous track multiple moving targets (monopulse principle). The simultaneously operated SAR mode yields areal images of the distribution of stationary scatterers. For ground surveillance application this SAR mode is best suited for identifying possible threats by means of change detection. The feasibility of this concept was tested by means of an experimental radar system comprising of a 94 GHz (W band) FM-CW module with 1 GHz bandwidth and two RX antennas with parallel receiver channels, placed off-axis at a rotating platform. SAR mode and search/track mode were tested during an outdoor measurement campaign. The scenery of two persons walking along a road and partially through forest served as test for the capability to track multiple moving targets. For SAR mode verification an image of the area composed of roads, grassland, woodland and several man-made objects was reconstructed from the measured data.

  10. A pattern recognition system for locating small volvanoes in Magellan SAR images of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, M. C.; Fayyad, U. M.; Smyth, P.; Aubele, J. C.; Crumpler, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    The Magellan data set constitutes an example of the large volumes of data that today's instruments can collect, providing more detail of Venus than was previously available from Pioneer Venus, Venera 15/16, or ground-based radar observations put together. However, data analysis technology has not kept pace with data collection and storage technology. Due to the sheer size of the data, complete and comprehensive scientific analysis of such large volumes of image data is no longer feasible without the use of computational aids. Our progress towards developing a pattern recognition system for aiding in the detection and cataloging of small-scale natural features in large collections of images is reported. Combining classical image processing, machine learning, and a graphical user interface, the detection of the 'small-shield' volcanoes (less than 15km in diameter) that constitute the most abundant visible geologic feature in the more that 30,000 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the surface of Venus are initially targeted. Our eventual goal is to provide a general, trainable tool for locating small-scale features where scientists specify what to look for simply by providing examples and attributes of interest to measure. This contrasts with the traditional approach of developing problem specific programs for detecting Specific patterns. The approach and initial results in the specific context of locating small volcanoes is reported. It is estimated, based on extrapolating from previous studies and knowledge of the underlying geologic processes, that there should be on the order of 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 6) of these volcanoes visible in the Magellan data. Identifying and studying these volcanoes is fundamental to a proper understanding of the geologic evolution of Venus. However, locating and parameterizing them in a manual manner is forbiddingly time-consuming. Hence, the development of techniques to partially automate this task were undertaken. The primary

  11. A pattern recognition system for locating small volcanoes in Magellan SAR images of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burl, M. C.; Fayyad, U. M.; Smyth, P.; Aubele, J. C.; Crumpler, L. S.

    1993-03-01

    The Magellan data set constitutes an example of the large volumes of data that today's instruments can collect, providing more detail of Venus than was previously available from Pioneer Venus, Venera 15/16, or ground-based radar observations put together. However, data analysis technology has not kept pace with data collection and storage technology. Due to the sheer size of the data, complete and comprehensive scientific analysis of such large volumes of image data is no longer feasible without the use of computational aids. Our progress towards developing a pattern recognition system for aiding in the detection and cataloging of small-scale natural features in large collections of images is reported. Combining classical image processing, machine learning, and a graphical user interface, the detection of the 'small-shield' volcanoes (less than 15km in diameter) that constitute the most abundant visible geologic feature in the more that 30,000 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the surface of Venus are initially targeted. Our eventual goal is to provide a general, trainable tool for locating small-scale features where scientists specify what to look for simply by providing examples and attributes of interest to measure. This contrasts with the traditional approach of developing problem specific programs for detecting Specific patterns. The approach and initial results in the specific context of locating small volcanoes is reported. It is estimated, based on extrapolating from previous studies and knowledge of the underlying geologic processes, that there should be on the order of 105 to 106 of these volcanoes visible in the Magellan data. Identifying and studying these volcanoes is fundamental to a proper understanding of the geologic evolution of Venus. However, locating and parameterizing them in a manual manner is forbiddingly time-consuming. Hence, the development of techniques to partially automate this task were undertaken. The primary constraints for

  12. Science Results from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR): Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L. (Editor); Plaut, Jeffrey (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is the most advanced imaging radar system to fly in Earth orbit. Carried in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Endeavour in April and October of 1994, SIR-C/X-SAR simultaneously recorded SAR data at three wavelengths (L-, C-, and X-bands; 23.5, 5.8, and 3.1 cm, respectively). The SIR-C/X-SAR Science Team consists of 53 investigator teams from more than a dozen countries. Science investigations were undertaken in the fields of ecology, hydrology, ecology, and oceanography. This report contains 44 investigator team reports and several additional reports from coinvestigators and other researchers.

  13. Polarization effects and multipolarization SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    Imaging radar polarimeters are usually implemented using a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) approach to give a high resolution image in two dimensions: range and azimuth. For each pixel in the image a polarimetric SAR gives sufficient information to characterize the polarimetric scattering properties of the imaged area (or target) as seen by the radar. Using a polarimetric SAR system as opposed to a single-polarization SAR system provides significantly more information about the target scattering mechanisms and allows better discrimination between different types of surfaces. In these notes a brief overview of SAR polarimetry is offered. The notes are intended as a text to accompany a lecture on SAR polarimetry as part of an AGARD-NATO course. Covered in the notes are the following: the polarization properties of electromagnetic waves; the concepts of radar scattering and measuring radar backscatter with a SAR; polarization synthesis; scattering matrix, Stokes matrix, and covariance matrix representations of polarimetric SAR data; polarization signature plots; design and calibration of polarimetric SAR systems; polarization filtering for target detection; fitting a simple model to polarimetric SAR measurements of naturally occurring features; and supervised classification of polarimetric SAR data.

  14. Fusion of airborne laserscanning point clouds and images for supervised and unsupervised scene classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Markus; Xiao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Automatic urban object detection from airborne remote sensing data is essential to process and efficiently interpret the vast amount of airborne imagery and Laserscanning (ALS) data available today. This paper combines ALS data and airborne imagery to exploit both: the good geometric quality of ALS and the spectral image information to detect the four classes buildings, trees, vegetated ground and sealed ground. A new segmentation approach is introduced which also makes use of geometric and spectral data during classification entity definition. Geometric, textural, low level and mid level image features are assigned to laser points which are quantified into voxels. The segment information is transferred to the voxels and those clusters of voxels form the entity to be classified. Two classification strategies are pursued: a supervised method, using Random Trees and an unsupervised approach, embedded in a Markov Random Field framework and using graph-cuts for energy optimization. A further contribution of this paper concerns the image-based point densification for building roofs which aims to mitigate the accuracy problems related to large ALS point spacing. Results for the ISPRS benchmark test data show that to rely on color information to separate vegetation from non-vegetation areas does mostly lead to good results, but in particular in shadow areas a confusion between classes might occur. The unsupervised classification strategy is especially sensitive in this respect. As far as the point cloud densification is concerned, we observe similar sensitivity with respect to color which makes some planes to be missed out, or false detections still remain. For planes where the densification is successful we see the expected enhancement of the outline.

  15. The Danish SAR system - Design and initial tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Soren N.; Christensen, Erik L.; Skou, Niels; Dall, Jorgen

    1991-01-01

    In January 1986, the design of a high-resolution airborne C-band SAR started at the Electromagnetics Institute of the Technical University of Denmark. The initial system test flights took place in November and December 1989. The authors describe the design of the system, its implementation, and its performance. They show how digital technology has been utilized to realize a very flexible radar with variable resolution, swath-width, and imaging geometry. The motion-compensation algorithms implemented to obtain the high resolution and the special features built into the system to ensure proper internal calibration are outlined. The data processing system, developed for image generation and quality assurance, is sketched, with special emphasis on the flexibility of the system. Sample images and a preliminary performance evaluation are presented, demonstrating that the design goals have been met. The ongoing system upgrades and the planned scientific utilization of the C-band SAR are described.

  16. Design of an Airborne Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) for the Coastal Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, P.; vanGorp, B.; Green, R. O.; Cohen, D.; Wilson, D.; Randall, D.; Rodriguez, J.; Polanco, O.; Dierssen, H.; Balasubramanian, K.; Vargas, R.; Hein, R.; Sobel, H.; Eastwood, M.

    2010-01-01

    PRISM is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer currently under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, intended to address the needs of airborne coastal ocean science research. We describe here the instrument design and the technologies that enable it to achieve its distinguishing characteristics. PRISM covers the 350-1050 nm range with a 3.1 nm sampling and a 33(deg) field of view. The design provides for high signal to noise ratio, high uniformity of response, and low polarization sensitivity. The complete instrument also incorporates two additional wavelength bands at 1240 and 1610 nm in a spot radiometer configuration to aid with atmospheric correction.

  17. First results from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg

    1987-01-01

    After engineering flights aboard the NASA U-2 research aircraft in the winter of 1986 to 1987 and spring of 1987, extensive data collection across the United States was begun with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) in the summer of 1987 in support of a NASA data evaluation and technology assessment program. This paper presents some of the first results obtained from AVIRIS. Examples of spectral imagery acquired over Mountain View and Mono Lake, California, and the Cuprite Mining District in western Nevada are presented. Sensor performance and data quality are described, and in the final section of this paper, plans for the future are discussed.

  18. A multi-scale registration of urban aerial image with airborne lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shuo; Chen, Siying; Zhang, Yinchao; Guo, Pan; Chen, He

    2015-11-01

    This paper presented a multi-scale progressive registration method of airborne LiDAR data with aerial image. The cores of the proposed method lie in the coarse registration with road networks and the fine registration method using regularized building corners. During the two-stage registration, the exterior orientation parameters (EOP) are continually refined. By validation of the actual flight data of Dunhuang, the experimental result shows that the proposed method can obtain accurate results with low-precision initial EOP, also improve the automatic degree of registration.

  19. Efficient method for the determination of image correspondence in airborne applications using inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Woods, Matthew; Katsaggelos, Aggelos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient method for the measurement of a dense image correspondence vector field using supplementary data from an inertial navigation sensor (INS). The application is suited to airborne imaging systems, such as an unmanned air vehicle, where size, weight, and power restrictions limit the amount of onboard processing available. The limited processing will typically exclude the use of traditional, but computationally expensive, optical flow and block matching algorithms, such as Lucas-Kanade, Horn-Schunck, or the adaptive rood pattern search. Alternatively, the measurements obtained from an INS, on board the platform, lead to a closed-form solution to the correspondence field. Airborne platforms are well suited to this application because they already possess INSs and global positioning systems as part of their existing avionics package. We derive the closed-form solution for the image correspondence vector field based on the INS data. We then show, through both simulations and real flight data, that the closed-form inertial sensor solution outperforms traditional optical flow and block matching methods. PMID:23456006

  20. Radiometric Normalization of Large Airborne Image Data Sets Acquired by Different Sensor Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, S.; Beshah, B. T.

    2016-06-01

    Generating seamless mosaics of aerial images is a particularly challenging task when the mosaic comprises a large number of im-ages, collected over longer periods of time and with different sensors under varying imaging conditions. Such large mosaics typically consist of very heterogeneous image data, both spatially (different terrain types and atmosphere) and temporally (unstable atmo-spheric properties and even changes in land coverage). We present a new radiometric normalization or, respectively, radiometric aerial triangulation approach that takes advantage of our knowledge about each sensor's properties. The current implementation supports medium and large format airborne imaging sensors of the Leica Geosystems family, namely the ADS line-scanner as well as DMC and RCD frame sensors. A hierarchical modelling - with parameters for the overall mosaic, the sensor type, different flight sessions, strips and individual images - allows for adaptation to each sensor's geometric and radiometric properties. Additional parameters at different hierarchy levels can compensate radiome-tric differences of various origins to compensate for shortcomings of the preceding radiometric sensor calibration as well as BRDF and atmospheric corrections. The final, relative normalization is based on radiometric tie points in overlapping images, absolute radiometric control points and image statistics. It is computed in a global least squares adjustment for the entire mosaic by altering each image's histogram using a location-dependent mathematical model. This model involves contrast and brightness corrections at radiometric fix points with bilinear interpolation for corrections in-between. The distribution of the radiometry fixes is adaptive to each image and generally increases with image size, hence enabling optimal local adaptation even for very long image strips as typi-cally captured by a line-scanner sensor. The normalization approach is implemented in HxMap software. It has been