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Sample records for airborne scatterometer measurements

  1. Comparison of surface wind stress measurements - Airborne radar scatterometer versus sonic anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brucks, J. T.; Leming, T. D.; Jones, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Sea surface wind stress measurements recorded by a sonic anemometer are correlated with airborne scatterometer measurements of ocean roughness (cross section of radar backscatter) to establish the accuracy of remotely sensed data and assist in the definition of geophysical algorithms for the scatterometer sensor aboard Seasat A. Results of this investigation are as follows: Comparison of scatterometer and sonic anemometer wind stress measurements are good for the majority of cases; however, a tendency exists for scatterometer wind stress to be somewhat high for higher wind conditions experienced in this experiment (6-9 m/s). The scatterometer wind speed algorithm tends to overcompute the higher wind speeds by approximately 0.5 m/s. This is a direct result of the scatterometer overestimate of wind stress from which wind speeds are derived. Algorithmic derivations of wind speed and direction are, in most comparisons, within accuracies defined by Seasat A scatterometer sensor specifications.

  2. Measurement of soil moisture trends with airborne scatterometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author had identified the following significant results. Repeated looks at surfaces that maintain constant roughness can provide an estimate of soil moisture in the surface, when appropriate radar look angles are used. Significant influence due to differences in soil moisture can be detected in the 13.3 GHz and 1.6 GHz scatterometer returns. Effects of normal crop densities have little influence on the surface soil moisture estimate, when appropriate look angles are used. It appears that different look angles are optimum for different frequencies to avoid effects from vegetation. Considering the frequency and look angles used on the Seasat-A imaging radar, differences in soil moisture should produce as much as 9 db difference in return on that system.

  3. Measurements of ocean wave spectra and modulation transfer function with the airborne two frequency scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer function of ocean waves can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, wave orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.

  4. Airborne test flight of HY-2A satellite microwave scatterometer and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Juhong; Guo, Maohua; Cui, Songxue; Zhou, Wu

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces the background, aim, experimental design, configuration and data processing for an airborne test flight of the HY-2 Microwave scatterometer (HSCAT). The aim was to evaluate HSCAT performance and a developed data processing algorithm for the HSCAT before launch. There were three test flights of the scatterometer, on January 15, 18 and 22, 2010, over the South China Sea near Lingshui, Hainan. The test flights successfully generated simultaneous airborne scatterometer normalized radar cross section (NRCS), ASCAT wind, and ship-borne-measured wind datasets, which were used to analyze HSCAT performance. Azimuthal dependence of the NRCS relative to the wind direction was nearly cos(2w), with NRCS minima at crosswind directions, and maxima near upwind and downwind. The NRCS also showed a small diff erence between upwind and downwind directions, with upwind crosssections generally larger than those downwind. The dependence of airborne scatterometer NRCS on wind direction and speed showed favorable consistency with the NASA scatterometer geophysical model function (NSCAT GMF), indicating satisfactory HSCAT performance.

  5. Standard deviation of scatterometer measurements from space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The standard deviation of scatterometer measurements has been derived under assumptions applicable to spaceborne scatterometers. Numerical results are presented which show that, with sufficiently long integration times, input signal-to-noise ratios below unity do not cause excessive degradation of measurement accuracy. The effects on measurement accuracy due to varying integration times and changing the ratio of signal bandwidth to IF filter-noise bandwidth are also plotted. The results of the analysis may resolve a controversy by showing that in fact statistically useful scatterometer measurements can be made from space using a 20-W transmitter, such as will be used on the S-193 experiment for Skylab-A.

  6. Ground registration of data from an airborne scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    A portion of the data for the agricultural soil moisture experiment, conducted near Colby, Kansas, was collected from four scatterometers mounted on an aircraft. A method is outlined for locating the scatterometer footprints with respect to a ground-based coordinate system. The method requires the airplane's flight parameters along with aerial photography acquired simultaneously with the scatterometer data. Listings of the programs used in the registration process are included.

  7. Measuring wind and stress under tropical cyclones with scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. Timothy

    2016-07-01

    Ocean surface stress, the turbulent transport of momentum, is largely derived from wind through a drag coefficient. In tropical cyclones (TC), scatterometers have difficulty in measuring strong wind and there is large uncertainty in the drag coefficient. We postulate that the microwave backscatter from ocean surface roughness, which is in equilibrium with local stress, does not distinguish weather systems. The reduced sensitivity of scatterometer wind retrieval algorithm under the strong wind is an air-sea interaction problem that is caused by a change in the behavior of the drag coefficient and not a sensor problem. Under this assumption, we applied a stress retrieval algorithm developed over a moderate wind range to retrieve stress under the strong winds of TCs. Over a moderate wind range, the abundant wind measurements and more established drag coefficient value allow sufficient stress data to be computed from wind to develop a stress retrieval algorithm for the scatterometer. Using unprecedented large amount of stress retrieved from the scatterometer coincident with strong winds in TC, we showed that the drag coefficient decreases with wind speed at a much steeper rate than previously revealed, for wind speeds over 25 m/s. The result implies that the ocean applies less drag to inhibit TC intensification and the TC causes less ocean mixing and surface cooling than previous studies indicated. With continuous and extensive coverage from constellations of scatterometers for several decades, the impact of tropical cyclones on the ocean and the feedback from the ocean are examined.

  8. Design of an Airborne L-Band Cross-Track Scanning Scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, Lawrence M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we describe the design of an airborne L-band cross-track scanning scatterometer suitable for airborne operation aboard the NASA P-3 aircraft. The scatterometer is being designed for joint operation with existing L-band radiometers developed by NASA for soil moisture and ocean salinity remote sensing. In addition, design tradeoffs for a space-based radar system have been considered, with particular attention given to antenna architectures suitable for sharing the antenna between the radar and radiometer. During this study, we investigated a number of imaging techniques, including the use of real and synthetic aperture processing in both the along track and cross-track dimensions. The architecture selected will permit a variety of beamforming algorithms to be implemented, although real aperture processing, with hardware beamforming, provides better sidelobe suppression than synthetic array processing and superior signal-to-noise performance. In our discussions with the staff of NASA GSFC, we arrived at an architecture that employs complete transmit/receive modules for each subarray. Amplitude and phase control at each of the transmit modules will allow a low-sidelobe transmit pattern to be generated over scan angles of +/- 50 degrees. Each receiver module will include all electronics necessary to downconvert the received signal to an IF offset of 30 MHz where it will be digitized for further processing.

  9. An operational satellite scatterometer for wind vector measurements over the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. L.; Bracalente, E. M.; Jones, W. L.; Schrader, J. H.; Schroeder, L. C.; Mitchell, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Performance requirements and design characteristics of a microwave scatterometer wind sensor for measuring surface winds over the oceans on a global basis are described. Scatterometer specifications are developed from user requirements of wind vector measurement range and accuracy, swath width, resolution cell size and measurement grid spacing. A detailed analysis is performed for a baseline fan-beam scatterometer design, and its performance capabilities for meeting the SeaSat-A user requirements. Various modes of operation are discussed which will allow the resolution of questions concerning the effects of sea state on the scatterometer wind sensing ability and to verify design boundaries of the instrument.

  10. The development of a power spectral density processor for C and L band airborne radar scatterometer sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. A., III; Chladek, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    A real-time signal processor was developed for the NASA/JSC L-and C-band airborne radar scatterometer sensor systems. The purpose of the effort was to reduce ground data processing costs. Conversion of two quadrature channels of data (like and cross polarized) was made to obtain Power Spectral Density (PSD) values. A chirp-z transform (CZT) approach was used to filter the Doppler return signal and improved high frequency and angular resolution was realized. The processors have been tested with record signals and excellent results were obtained. CZT filtering can be readily applied to scatterometers operating at other wavelengths by altering the sample frequency. The design of the hardware and software and the results of the performance tests are described in detail.

  11. Polarimetric Ku-Band Scatterometer for High Accuracy, Large Swath Global Wind Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Wu-Yang; Nghiem, Son V.; Huddleston, James; Spencer, Michael; Stiles, Bryan; West, Richard

    2000-01-01

    In the past, wind measurements from space using fan-beam antennas, such as Seasat Scatterometer (SASS-1), ERS-1 &2, and NASA scatterometer (NSCAT), required up to six large stick-like antennas and suffered a nadir gap of up to 400 km. In the near future, a spinning pencil-beam scatterometer system is to be used for the SeaWinds scatterometer on QuikSCAT (QSCAT) and on ADEOS-2 (SeaWinds). This scatterometer, though offering wind measurements in the nadir region, still suffers from degraded performance in the nadir and outer swath. The purpose of this paper is to present an advanced polarimetric spinning pencil-beam scatterometer system, which can significantly improve the wind performance across the entire swath. The polarimetric scatterometer simultaneously measures co-polarized backscatter and the polarimetric correlation of co- and cross-polarized radar returns from the ocean surface. The advantage over the conventional scatterometer system is that, while the co-polarization radar returns are even function of the wind direction, the polarimetric correlation is an odd function of wind direction due to the reflection symmetry of the wind roughened surface. Therefore, this polarimetric scatterometer system can provide additional, equivalent measurements at azimuth angle 45degree away from the corresponding co-polarization measurements. The combined co-polarization and correlation measurements enable good wind performance across the whole swath to be obtained. In this paper, we will first present the theoretical formulation of all of the key components required for designing a polarimetric scatterometer. Then, we show that good wind performance can be achieved by a slight improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the current QSCAT/SeaWinds design. We then present the predicated wind performance using computer simulation based on a model function for the co-polarized backscatter obtained from actual spaceborne scatterometer data and an estimated model function for

  12. Seasat A Satellite Scatterometer measurements of equatorial surface winds

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, D. )

    1989-04-15

    Seasat A Satellite Scatterometer measurements of surface wind components were made under normal weather conditions with unsurpassed space and time resolutions during August and September 1978. Longitudinal distributions of the monthly mean zonal component were markedly different in each ocean: in the Pacific the zonal profile resembled a semicircle; a linear change occurred in the Atlantic, and quasi-uniform values prevailed in the Indian Ocean. Only in the Atlantic and Pacific was the prevailing direction of the zonal component westward. In the Pacific the monthly mean standard deviations increased towards the west. This indicated that the larger day-to-day wind variability observed at the western islands compared to moored buoy measurements in the eastern region was a natural phenomenon and not caused by islands. The average monthly mean slope of the wave number spectra throughout the 550- to 2,200-km wavelength band was {minus}1.7, which was approximately equal to the {minus}5/3 power law associated with turbulent motions. That the spectra levels of the zonal wind, but not the meridional component, were substantially different in each equatorial ocean represents an enigma. Largest spectral values occurred in the Atlantic where variances were nearly 10 times greater than in the Pacific, which contained the smallest values.

  13. Assessment of the biophysical characteristics of rangeland community using scatterometer and optical measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.; Asrar, Ghassem; Myneni, Ranga; Martin, Robert, Jr.; Burnett, R. Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Research activities for the following study areas are summarized: single scattering of parallel direct and axially symmetric diffuse solar radiation in vegetative canopies; the use of successive orders of scattering approximations (SOSA) for treating multiple scattering in a plant canopy; reflectance of a soybean canopy using the SOSA method; and C-band scatterometer measurements of the Konza tallgrass prairie.

  14. Two-frequency /Delta k/ microwave scatterometer measurements of ocean wave spectra from an aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. W.; Jones, W. L.; Weissman, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for remotely sensing the large-scale gravity wave spectrum on the ocean surface using a two frequency (Delta k) microwave scatterometer has been demonstrated from stationary platforms and proposed from moving platforms. This measurement takes advantage of Bragg type resonance matching between the electromagnetic wavelength at the difference frequency and the length of the large-scale surface waves. A prominent resonance appears in the cross product power spectral density (PSD) of the two backscattered signals. Ku-Band aircraft scatterometer measurements were conducted by NASA in the North Sea during the 1979 Maritime Remote Sensing (MARSEN) experiment. Typical examples of cross product PSD's computed from the MARSEN data are presented. They demonstrate strong resonances whose frequency and bandwidth agree with the surface characteristics and the theory. Directional modulation spectra of the surface reflectivity are compared to the gravity wave spectrum derived from surface truth measurements.

  15. The nature of multiple solutions for surface wind speed over the oceans from scatterometer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The satellite SEASAT-A will carry a radar scatterometer in order to measure microwave backscatter from the sea surface. From pairs of radar measurements at angles separated by 90 deg in azimuth the surface wind speed and direction may be inferred, though not uniquely. The character of the solutions for wind speed and direction is displayed, as well as the nature of the ambiguities of these solutions. An economical procedure for handling such data is described, plus a criterion for the need for conventional (surface) data in order to resolve the ambiguities of solutions.

  16. Gridded wind fields derived from scatterometer, altimeter, and SSM/I wind measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bentamy, A.; Gohin, F.; Queffeulou, P.; Quilfen, Y.; Katsaros, K.

    1994-12-31

    The sea surface wind is an important variable in the study of the interactions between ocean and atmosphere. Wind over the ocean modulates air-sea fluxes of heat, moisture, gases and particulates, thus regulating the crucial coupling between atmosphere and ocean that establishes and maintains global and regional climates. In this paper, the authors are concerned with three instruments which provide an estimate of the wind speed over the sea surface at different scales. The scatterometer, which is a dedicated wind instrument, and the altimeter are mounted on the ERS-1 satellite. The third instrument is the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) which is deployed on board the Defense Meteorological Satellites Program (DMSP) satellites F10 and F11. The main aim of the use of the derived wind speed from these three instruments is to compute an accurate regularly wind field over an ocean region with high space and time resolution which will be used to force an ocean circulation model. Furthermore, the combination of passive and active microwave satellite instruments yields new insights into the study of some atmospheric systems as the evolution of fronts and tropical cyclones. The authors will present the quality of the altimeter and SSM/I wind speed estimates by comparison with wind speeds derived from the ERS-1 scatterometer. They will discuss the results of the intercomparison between the winds inferred from the three sensors along with colocated buoy wind measurements.

  17. Comparison between laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2006-08-01

    Samples from soil and leaf litter were obtained at a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza; 25.0°S, 31.5°E) and their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) were measured using the out-of-plane scatterometer located in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Diffuser Calibration Facility (DCaF). BRDF was measured using P and S incident polarized light over a range of incident and scatter angles. A monochromator-based broadband light source was used in the ultraviolet (uv) and visible (vis) spectral ranges. The diffuse scattered light was collected using an uv-enhanced silicon photodiode detector with output fed to a computer-controlled lock-in amplifier. Typical measurement uncertainties of the reported laboratory BRDF measurements are found to be less than 1% (k=1). These laboratory results were compared with airborne measurements of BRDF from NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) instrument over the same general site where the samples were obtained. This study presents preliminary results of the comparison between these laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements and identifies areas for future laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements. This paper presents initial results in a study to try to understand BRDF measurements from laboratory, airborne, and satellite measurements in an attempt to improve the consistency of remote sensing models.

  18. Estimates of oceanic surface wind speed and direction using orthogonal beam scatterometer measurements and comparison of recent sea scattering theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.; Dome, G. J.; Birrer, I. J.

    1978-01-01

    The wind direction properties of radar backscatter from the sea were empirically modelled using a cosine Fourier series through the 4th harmonic in wind direction (referenced to upwind). A comparison with 1975 JONSWAP (Joint North Sea Wave Project) scatterometer data, at incidence angles of 40 and 65, indicates that effects to third and fourth harmonics are negligible. Another important result is that the Fourier coefficients through the second harmonic are related to wind speed by a power law expression. A technique is also proposed to estimate the wind speed and direction over the ocean from two orthogonal scattering measurements. A comparison between two different types of sea scatter theories, one type presented by the work of Wright and the other by that of Chan and Fung, was made with recent scatterometer measurements. It demonstrates that a complete scattering model must include some provisions for the anisotropic characteristics of the sea scatter, and use a sea spectrum which depends upon wind speed.

  19. A physical-model-based, field-wise and self-contained algorithm for removing directional ambiguities of ocean surface winds retrieved from scatterometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Joon

    2000-09-01

    An algorithm is introduced to remove the directional ambiguities in ocean surface winds measured by scatterometers, which requires scatterometer data only. It is based on two versions of PBL (planetary boundary layer) models and a low-pass filter. A pressure field is first derived from the median-filtered scatterometer winds, is then noise-filtered, and is finally converted back to the winds, respectively, by an inverted PBL model, a smoothing algorithm, and a PBL model. The derived wind field is used to remove the directional ambiguities in the scatterometer data. This new algorithm is applied to Hurricane Eugene and produces results comparable to those from the current standard ambiguity removal algorithm for NASA/JPL SeaWinds project, which requires external numerical weather forecast/analyses data.

  20. Soil moisture detection by Skylab's microwave sensors. [radiometer/scatterometer measurements of Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator); Barr, J. C.; Sobti, A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Terrain microwave backscatter and emission response to soil moisture variations were investigated using Skylab's 13.9 GHz RADSCAT (radiometer/scatterometer) system. Data acquired on June 5, 1973, over a test site in west-central Texas indicated a fair degree of correlation with composite rainfall. The scan made was cross-track contiguous (CTC) with a pitch of 29.4 deg and no roll effect. Vertical polarization was employed with both radiometer and scatterometer. The composite rainfall was computed according to the flood prediction technique using rainfall data supplied by weather reporting stations.

  1. Four frequency ground scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, E. T.

    1982-01-01

    The FM-CW Radar, used as a microwave scatterometer is described. Scatterometer system design, scatterometer system calibration, parameter calculation and correction for data acquisition, ground scatterometer data acquistion at Jornada Experimental Range, and Kansas radar cross-calibration test are discussed.

  2. Model-based estimation of wind fields over the ocean from wind scatterometer measurements. I - Development of the wind field model. II - Model parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, David G.; Mendel, Jerry M.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques for the determination of near-surface mesoscale ocean wind fields on the basis of satellite scatterometer data are developed and demonstrated. The derivation of normal-boundary and parameterized-boundary-condition (PBC) wind-field models is outlined, and results from a simulation performed to estimate the model errors are presented in tables. It is shown that the PBC model provides accurate results while minimizing the number of unknowns. After a review of the principles of scatterometry and an analysis of scatterometer measurement noise, an objective function for the measurement parameters is developed and optimized on the basis of gradient search with initial values computed from pointwise wind estimates. The model is then applied to data from a simulation of the NASA Scatterometer (Li et al., 1984), and the results are presented in extensive graphs. The feasibility of model-based wind-field estimation and the appropriateness of the PBC model are demonstrated.

  3. Preliminary report on measurements of forest canopies with C-band radar scatterometer at NASA/NSTL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S.-T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of C-band radar scatterometer measurements of forest canopies of southeastern forests in the vicinity of NASA/NSTL. The results are as follows: radar backscattering coefficients (BSCs) of deciduous forests are higher than those of coniferous forests at a large incidence angle by ranging measurement, the VV polarization BSCs obtain peak value at the first few meters from the canopy top and decrease rather quickly, while the HH polarization BSCs obtain peak value at longer distances from the canopy top and decrease rather slowly through the canopy; and tree canopies with higher attenuations have higher BSCs for all three polarizations, with VV polarization containing the largest differential (2.2 dB).

  4. A preliminary report on the measurements of forest canopies with C-band radar scatterometer at NASA/NSTL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of C-band radar scatterometer measurements of forest canopies of southeastern forests in the vicinity of NASA/NSTL. The results are as follows: (1) the radar backscattering coefficients (BSC) of deciduous forests such as oak, maple, blackgum, and cypress are higher than those of coniferous forests such as slash pine plantation and natural pine; (2) at a large incidence angle, where polarization effect is significant, and by ranging measurement, the VV polarization BSC obtain peak value at the first few meters from the canopy top and decrease rather quickly, while the HH polarization BSC obtain peak value at longer distances from the canopy top and decrease rather slowly through the canopy; and (3) using the active radar calibrator for tree canopy attenuation measurement of a dense and a sparse live oak, it is found that the tree canopies with higher attenuations have higher BSC for all three polarizations, with VV polarization containing the largest differential (2.2 dB).

  5. Evaluation of High-Resolution Ocean Surface Vector Winds Measured by QuikSCAT Scatterometer in Coastal Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Wenqing; Liu, W. Timothy; Stiles, Bryan W.

    2004-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT covers approximately 90% of the global ocean under clear and cloudy condition in 24 h, and the standard data product has 25-km spatial resolution. Such spatial resolution is not sufficient to resolve small-scale processes, especially in coastal oceans. Based on range-compressed normalized backscatter and a modified wind retrieval algorithm, a coastal wind dataset at 12.5-km resolution was produced. Even with larger error, the high-resolution winds, in medium to high strength, would still be useful over coastal ocean. Using measurements from moored buoys from the National Buoy Data Center, the high-resolution QuikSCAT wind data are found to have similar accuracy as standard data in the open ocean. The accuracy of both high- and standard-resolution winds, particularly in wind directions, is found to degrade near shore. The increase in error is likely caused by the inadequacy of the geophysical model function/ambiguity removal scheme in addressing coastal conditions and light winds situations. The modified algorithm helps to bring the directional accuracy of the high-resolution winds to the accuracy of the standard-resolution winds in near-shore regions, particularly in the nadir and far zones across the satellite track.

  6. Measurement of soil moisture trends with airborne scatterometers. [Guymon, Oklahoma and Dalhart, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. L.; Mcfarland, M. J.; Rosethal, W. D.; Theis, S. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    In an effort to investigate aircraft multisensor responses to soil moisture and vegetation in agricultural fields, an intensive ground sampling program was conducted in Guymon, Oklahoma and Dalhart, Texas in conjunction with aircraft data collected for visible/infrared and passive and active microwave systems. Field selections, sampling techniques, data processing, and the aircraft schedule are discussed for both sites. Field notes are included along with final (normalized and corrected) data sets.

  7. Measurement of soil moisture trends with airborne scatterometers. [Guymon, Oklahoma and Sublett, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Cursory examination of the data indicates that the listed row tillage practices at 90 deg to the radar beam are approximately 12.5db higher than other comparable agricultural land. The Seasat radar data show evidence that the high return occurs only at a narrow range in look direction near the 90 deg. Such a high increase in return compared to a 15db range in film response would indicate that rows seen crosswise would saturate optically processed data. This response to row direction will have an adverse effect on monitoring agricultural lands with L band radar systems. Preliminary examination indicates that there is no sensitivity to soil moisture at the 5 deg look angle when using a like-polarized L band system. Some sensitivity was evident at a look angle of 20 deg and only a weak sensitivity was indicated at 40 deg look angle. At both 20 deg and 40 deg there is a significant response to soil moisture and none to row direction. Steep angles or the 5 deg look angle using cross polarized (HB) L band system appear insensitive to row direction and soil moisture.

  8. Continuation of measurement of hydrologic soil-cover complex with airborne scatterometers. [Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.; Nieber, J. L.; Blanchard, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of radar scatterometry data obtained over five flight lines in Texas by NASA C-130 aircraft demonstrated that multivariant radar data can be used to distinguish difference in land use, and hence be an indicator of surface runoff characteristics. The capability of using microwave sensors to detect flood inundation of timbered land was also determined.

  9. Aquarius Scatterometer Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueh, S. H.; Fore, A.; Freedman, A. P.; Neumann, G.; Tang, W.; Brown, S.; Chaubell, M. J.; Jones, L.; Lagerloef, G. S.; LeVine, D.; Dinnat, E. P.; Meissner, T.; Wentz, F. J.; Vandemark, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Aquarius is a combined passive/active L-band microwave instrument developed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The data will support studies of the coupling between ocean circulation, the global water cycle, and climate. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 km and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu globally on a monthly basis. The measurement principle is based on the response of the L-band (1.413 GHz) sea surface brightness temperatures to sea surface salinity. To achieve the required 0.2 psu accuracy, the impact of sea surface roughness (e.g. wind-generated ripples and waves), along with several additional factors impacting the observed brightness temperature, must be corrected to better than a few tenths of a degree Kelvin. To this end, Aquarius includes a scatterometer to help correct for this surface roughness effect. The Aquarius/SACD was launched successfully on June 10, 2011, and the instrument is expected to be turned on in August. The prelaunch tests of Aquarius showed that the instrument should be extremely stable at the week-to-month time scale with drift of less than 0.1 K for the radiometer and 0.1 dB for the scatterometer. The current baseline algorithm for Aquarius is to use the scatterometer data in conjunction with the NCEP wind direction to derive the ocean surface wind speed and then a radiometer roughness correction. The pre-launch simulations predict 1 m/s wind speed accuracy. This will be tested using the Aquarius data collected in the coming few months. To quantify the benefits of combining passive and active microwave sensors for ocean salinity remote sensing, the Passive/Active L-band Sensor (PALS) was used to acquire data over a wide range of ocean surface wind conditions during the High Ocean Wind (HOW) Campaign in 2009. The PALS brightness

  10. Absolute calibration of the RADSCAT scatterometer using precision spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. L.; Schroeder, L. C.; Mitchell, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Tests using precision sphere targets suspended from balloons were conducted to calibrate the received-power/transmitted-power tatio of the RADSCAT scatterometer. Comparisons were made of these measured results with theoretical return from spheres. The RADSCAT scatterometer measurements at 13.9 GHz should be corrected by -2.4 dB, and those at 9.3 GHz, by -4.3 dB. The techniques described should be generally applicable to calibration of scatterometers where measurement precision is of prime importance. Inferred from the magnitude of these RADSCAT corrections was the present state of technology in building precision scatterometers.

  11. Regional airborne flux measurements in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioli, B.; Miglietta, F.; Vaccari, F. P.; Zaldei, A.; Hutjes, R. W. A.

    2003-04-01

    The problem of identifying the spatial and temporal distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 is the subject of considerable scientific and political debate. Even if it is now possible to estimate within reasonable accuracy the sink strength of European forests at the local scale, difficulties still exist in determining the partitioning of the sinks at the global and regional scales. The aim of the EU-project RECAB (Regional Assessment of the Carbon Balance in Europe) that is coordinated by Alterra, Wageningen (NL), is to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements and continental scale inversion models by a generic modelling effort and measurement program, focussing on a limited number of selected regions in Europe for which previous measurements exists. This required the establishment of a European facility for airborne measurement of surface fluxes of CO2 at very low altitude, and a research aircraft capable of performing airborne eddy covariance measurements has been acquired by this project and used on several occasions at the different RECAB sites. The aircraft is the italian Sky Arrows ERA (Environmental Research Aircraft) equipped with the NOAA/ARA Mobile Flux Platform (MFP), and a commercial open-path infrared gas analyser. Airborne eddy covariance measurements were made from June 2001 onwards in Southern Spain near Valencia (June and December 2001), in Central Germany near Jena (July 2001), in Sweden near Uppsala (August 2001), in The Netherlands near Wageningen (January and July 2002) and in Italy near Rome (June 2002). Flux towers were present at each site to provide a validation of airborne eddy covariance measurements. This contribution reports some validation results based on the comparison between airborne and ground based flux measurements and some regional scale results for different locations and different seasons, in a wide range of meteorological and ecological settings.

  12. The measurement of the winds near the ocean surface with a radiometer-scatterometer on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, W. J.; Moore, R. K.; Mcclain, E. P. (Principal Investigator); Cardone, V. J.; Young, J. D.; Greenwood, J. A.; Greenwood, C.; Fung, A. K.; Salfi, R.; Chan, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. There were a total of twenty-six passes in the ZLV mode that yielded useful data. Six were in the in-track noncontiguous mode; all others were in the cross-track noncontiguous mode. The wind speed and direction, as effectively determined in a neutral atmosphere at 19.5 m above the sea surface, were found for each cell scanned by S193. It is shown how the passive microwave measurements were used both to compute the attenuation of the radar beam and to determine those cells where the backscatter measurement was suspect. Given the direction of the wind from some independent source, with the typical accuracy of measurement by available meteorological methods, a backscatter measurement at a nadir angle of 50, 43, or 32 deg can be used to compute the speed of the wind averaged over the illuminated area.

  13. JSME scatterometer data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A software system was developed which processes digitized scatterometer data from the 13.3 GHz, 1.6 GHz and 400 MHz scatterometer systems. In addition to this, the hardware capability has been developed to recover the raw analog radar signals and the aircraft parameters from an ADAS data stream in a digital format for processing by the software package. Software for the preparation of data reports and chart presentation of scattering coefficients time histories has also been developed. This report documents the development of the software, describes key components of the processing system and presents examples of the processed data and procedure for software operation.

  14. BOREAS RSS-12 Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Lobitz, Brad; Spanner, Michael; Wrigley, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-12 team collected both ground and airborne sunphotometer measurements for use in characterizing the aerosol optical properties of the atmosphere during the BOREAS data collection activities. These measurements are to be used to: 1) measure the magnitude and variability of the aerosol optical depth in both time and space; 2) determine the optical properties of the boreal aerosols; and 3) atmospherically correct remotely sensed data acquired during BOREAS. This data set contains airborne tracking sunphotometer data that were acquired from the C-130 aircraft during its flights over the BOREAS study areas. The data cover selected days and times from May to September 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  15. Ring laser scatterometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, Mark; Diels, Jean-Claude

    2005-06-28

    A scatterometer utilizes the dead zone resulting from lockup caused by scatter from a sample located in the optical path of a ring laser at a location where counter-rotating pulses cross. The frequency of one pulse relative to the other is varied across the lockup dead zone.

  16. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  17. Objective Interpolation of Scatterometer Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Wenquing; Liu, W. Timothy

    1996-01-01

    Global wind fields are produced by successive corrections that use measurements by the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) scatterometer. The methodology is described. The wind fields at 10-meter height provided by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) are used to initialize the interpolation process. The interpolated wind field product ERSI is evaluated in terms of its improvement over the initial guess field (ECMWF) and the bin-averaged ERS-1 wind field (ERSB). Spatial and temporal differences between ERSI, ECMWF and ERSB are presented and discussed.

  18. Scanning-Pencil-Beam Radar Scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, David G.; Freilich, Michael H.; Leotta, Daniel F.; Noon, Don E.

    1992-01-01

    SCANSCAT conceptual scanning radar scatterometer placed in nearly polar orbit around Earth at altitude of 705 km aboard Spacecraft B of NASA's Earth Observing System. Measures radar backscattering from surface of ocean. Data processed on ground into normalized radar-backscattering cross sections, then processed into velocities of winds near surface of ocean by use of empirical mathematical model of relationship between normalized backscattering cross section, wind vector at scanned spot, and angle of incidence and azimuth angle of radar beam. Accuracy and coverage exceeds those of fan-beam scatterometer. Modified versions of scanning plan useful in laser inspection of surface finishes on machined parts.

  19. Errors in airborne flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Jakob; Lenschow, Donald H.

    1994-07-01

    We present a general approach for estimating systematic and random errors in eddy correlation fluxes and flux gradients measured by aircraft in the convective boundary layer as a function of the length of the flight leg, or of the cutoff wavelength of a highpass filter. The estimates are obtained from empirical expressions for various length scales in the convective boundary layer and they are experimentally verified using data from the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Experiment) Field Experiment (FIFE), the Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX), and the Electra Radome Experiment (ELDOME). We show that the systematic flux and flux gradient errors can be important if fluxes are calculated from a set of several short flight legs or if the vertical velocity and scalar time series are high-pass filtered. While the systematic error of the flux is usually negative, that of the flux gradient can change sign. For example, for temperature flux divergence the systematic error changes from negative to positive about a quarter of the way up in the convective boundary layer.

  20. Airborne Methane Measurements using Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riris, H.; Numata, K.; Li, S.; Wu, S.; Ramanathan, A.; Dawsey, M.; Abshire, J. B.; Kawa, S. R.; Mao, J.

    2012-12-01

    We report on airborne methane measurements with an active sensing instrument using widely tunable, seeded optical parametric generation (OPG). Methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Earth and it is also a potential biogenic marker on Mars and other planetary bodies. Methane in the Earth's atmosphere survives for a shorter time than CO2 but its impact on climate change can be larger than CO2. Carbon and methane emissions from land are expected to increase as permafrost melts exposing millennial-age carbon stocks to respiration (aerobic-CO2 and anaerobic-CH4) and fires. Methane emissions from clathrates in the Arctic Ocean and on land are also likely to respond to climate warming. However, there is considerable uncertainty in present Arctic flux levels, as well as how fluxes will change with the changing environment and more measurements are needed. In this paper we report on an airborne demonstration of atmospheric methane column optical depth measurements at 1.65 μm using widely tunable, seeded optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and a photon counting detector. Our results show good agreement between the experimentally derived optical depth measurements and theoretical calculations and follow the expected changes for aircraft altitudes from 3 to 11 km. The technique has also been used to measure carbon dioxide and monoxide, water vapor, and other trace gases in the near and mid-infrared spectral regions on the ground.

  1. Agricultural terrain scatterometer observations with emphasis on soil moisture variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, C.

    1973-01-01

    Airborne scatterometer observations were made for agricultural terrain in May and June, 1970 at a NASA test site near Garden City, Kansas. Data from 13.3 GHz and 400 MHz scatterometer were analyzed. It was observed that for incidence angle less than 40 degrees, the 13.3 GHz data showed a difference in backscatter from wet and dry fields of the order of 7 db. The averages of the various crop types were within a spread of only 5 db. Other ground parameters such as cultivation pattern and vegetation row effects showed even less distinguishing characteristics on the backscatter. The 400 MHz data also showed a slight moisture dependency.

  2. Airborne intercomparisons of carbon monoxide measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, James M., Jr.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Mcdougal, David S.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, Gerald F.; Condon, Estelle P.

    1987-01-01

    Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of carbon monoxide (CO) are discussed. The intercomparison was conducted as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment and included a laser differential absorption method and two grab sample/gas chromatograph methods. Measurements were obtained during approximately 90 flight hours, during which the CO mixing ratios ranged from about 60 to 140 ppbv. The level of agreement observed for the ensemble of measurements was well within the overall accuracy stated for each instrument. The correlation observed between the measurements from the respective pairs of instruments ranged from 0.85 to 0.98, with no evidence for the presence of either a constant or proportional bias between any of the instruments.

  3. Application of Spaceborne Scatterometer for Mapping Freeze-Thaw State in Northern Landscapes as a Measure of Ecological and Hydrological Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Zimmermann, Reiner; Way, JoBea; Frolking, Steve; Running, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Landscape freeze/thaw transitions coincide with marked shifts in albedo, surface energy and mass exchange, and associated snow dynamics. Monitoring landscape freeze/thaw dynamics would improve our ability to quantify the interannual variability of boreal hydrology and river runoff/flood dynamics. The annual duration of frost-free period also bounds the period of photosynthetic activity in boreal and arctic regions thus affecting the annual carbon budget and the interannual variability of regional carbon fluxes. In this study, we use the NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) to monitor the temporal change in the radar backscatter signature across selected ecoregions of the boreal zone. We have measured vegetation tissue temperatures, soil temperature profiles, and micrometeorological parameters in situ at selected sites along a north-south transect extending across Alaska from Prudhoe Bay to the Kenai Peninsula and in Siberia near the Yenisey River. Data from these stations have been used to quantify the scatterometer's sensitivity to freeze/thaw state under a variety of terrain and landcover conditions. Analysis of the NSCAT temporal response over the 1997 spring thaw cycle shows a 3 to 5 dB change in measured backscatter that is well correlated with the landscape springtime thaw process. Having verified the instrument's capability to monitor freeze/thaw transitions, regional scale mosaicked data are applied to derive temporal series of freeze/thaw transition maps for selected circumpolar high latitude regions. These maps are applied to derive areal extent of frozen and thawed landscape and demonstrate the utility of spaceborne radar for operational monitoring of seasonal freeze-thaw dynamics and associated biophysical processes for the circumpolar high latitudes.

  4. Design study for future satellite microwave scatterometers, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized simulation analysis for a number of scatterometer antenna configuration and polarization modes including the Seasat scatterometer (SASS) is presented. The results of the simulations were expressed in terms of performance statistics. These statistics relate to the wind direction alias removal capability and to the rms sensing errors for friction velocity and wind direction X. The statistics are analyzed, and optimum scatterometer configurations are recommended. The accuracy of the SASS in measuring U* and X, and its capability to resolve wind direction aliases are assessed.

  5. Ground truth measurement for the analysis of airborne SAR data recorded over Oberpfaffenhofen, FRG, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayer, T.; Wieneke, F.; Winter, R.

    1990-01-01

    As a preliminary investigation to the joint multiparameter SIR-C/X-SAR shuttle experiment of NASA/JPL (USA), DLR (FRG), and PSN (Italy) which is scheduled for the year 1992 an airborne SAR campaign was conducted over Oberpfaffenhofen, FRG, in August 1989. Primarily this campaign was planned to test and verify equipment and algorithms developed at the DLR to calibrate multifrequency polarimetric SAR data. Oberpfaffenhofen is designated as one of the super test sites for the SIR-C/X-SAR experiment which will be imaged under all circumstances except severe mission errors. A super test site drives radar parameters and look directions and the recorded SAR data will be calibrated. In addition ancillary data will be available for the site. During the airborne STAR campaign conducted in the week of August 14th 1989 various sensor types were used to record remote sensing data over the calibration test site and its vicinity: the polarimetric DC-8 JPL-SAR (P-, L-, C-band), the DLR airborne SAR (C-, X-band), color infrared aerial photography (DLR), and the truck-mounted scatterometer (C- and X-band) of the Institute for Navigation, University of Stuttgart (INS). Because of this variety of different sensor types used and out of the fact that sufficiently large forested and agriculturally used areas were planned to be covered by these sensors, the interest of several German research groups involved in investigations concerning SAR land applications arose. The following groups carried out different ground-truth measurements: University of Bonn, Institute for plant cultivation (plant morphology and moisture content); University of Braunschweig, Institute for Geography (soil moisture and surface roughness); University of Freiburg, Institute for Geography (dielectric soil properties, landuse); and University of Munich, Institute for Geography (landuse inventory, plant, surface, and soil parameters). This paper presents the joint ground truth activities of the Institute for Geography

  6. Analysis of satellite and airborne wind measurements during the SEMAPHORE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tournadre, J.; Hauser, D.

    1994-12-31

    During the SEMAPHORE experiment Intensive Observation Period (IOP), held in October and November 1993 in the Azores-Madeira region, two airplanes, instrumented for atmospheric research, and two oceanographic research vessels have conducted in situ measurements in a 500km x 500km domain. Within the framework of SEMAPHORE, the SOFIA program is dedicated to the study of the air-sea fluxes and interactions from local scale up to mesoscale. The analysis of the structure of the wind and wave fields and their relations to the surface fluxes (especially near oceanic fronts) and the validation of the satellite data are two of the main goals of the SOFIA program. During the IOP, the experiment domain was regularly overflown by the ERS-1 and Topex-Poseidon (TP) satellites. This study presents a preliminary analysis of the ERS-1 and TP altimeter wind and wave measurement and ERS-1 scatterometer wind fields. The data from the airborne RESSAC (a radar ocean wave spectrometer) are also presented.

  7. Airborne gamma radiation soil moisture measurements over short flight lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Carrol, Thomas R.; Lipinski, Daniel M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture condition, carried out along short flight lines as part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE). Data were collected over an area in Kansas during the summers of 1987 and 1989. The airborne surveys, together with ground measurements, provide the most comprehensive set of airborne and ground truth data available in the U.S. for calibrating and evaluating airborne gamma flight lines. Analysis showed that, using standard National Weather Service weights for the K, Tl, and Gc radiation windows, the airborne soil moisture estimates for the FIFE lines had a root mean square error of no greater than 3.0 percent soil moisture. The soil moisture estimates for sections having acquisition time of at least 15 sec were found to be reliable.

  8. Airborne measured analytic signal for UXO detection

    SciTech Connect

    Gamey, T.J.; Holladay, J.S.; Mahler, R.

    1997-10-01

    The Altmark Tank Training Range north of Haldensleben, Germany has been in operation since WWI. Weapons training and testing has included cavalry, cannon, small arms, rail guns, and tank battalions. Current plans are to convert the area to a fully digital combat training facility. Instead of using blank or dummy ordnance, hits will be registered with lasers and computers. Before this can happen, the 25,000 ha must be cleared of old debris. In support of this cleanup operation, Aerodat Inc., in conjunction with IABG of Germany, demonstrated a new high resolution magnetic survey technique involving the measurement of 3-component magnetic gradient data. The survey was conducted in May 1996, and covered 500 ha in two blocks. The nominal line spacing was 10 m, and the average sensor altitude was 7 m. The geologic column consisted of sands over a sedimentary basin. Topographic relief was generally flat with approximately 3 m rolling dunes and occasional man-made features such as fox holes, bunkers, tank traps and reviewing stands. Trees were sparse and short (2-3 metres) due to frequent burn off and tank activity. As such, this site was nearly ideal for low altitude airborne surveying.

  9. Wind Field Measurements With Airborne Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    In collaboration with lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, we have developed and flown the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) lidar on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. The scientific motivations for this effort are: to obtain measurements of subgrid scale (i.e. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in global/regional-scale models; to improve understanding and predictive capabilities on the mesoscale; and to assess the performance of Earth-orbiting Doppler lidar for global tropospheric wind measurements. MACAWS is a scanning Doppler lidar using a pulsed transmitter and coherent detection; the use of the scanner allows 3-D wind fields to be produced from the data. The instrument can also be radiometrically calibrated and used to study aerosol, cloud, and surface scattering characteristics at the lidar wavelength in the thermal infrared. MACAWS was used to study surface winds off the California coast near Point Arena, with an example depicted in the figure below. The northerly flow here is due to the Pacific subtropical high. The coastal topography interacts with the northerly flow in the marine inversion layer, and when the flow passes a cape or point that juts into the winds, structures called "hydraulic expansion fans" are observed. These are marked by strong variation along the vertical and cross-shore directions. The plots below show three horizontal slices at different heights above sea level (ASL). Bottom plots are enlargements of the area marked by dotted boxes above. The terrain contours are in 200-m increments, with the white spots being above 600-m elevation. Additional information is contained in the original.

  10. Exploratory Meeting on Airborne Doppler Lidar Wind Velocity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, G. H. (Editor); Kaufman, J. W. (Editor); Vaughan, W. W. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The scientific interests and applications of the Airborne Doppler Lidar Wind Velocity Measurement System to severe storms and local weather are discussed. The main areas include convective phenomena, local circulation, atmospheric boundary layer, atmospheric dispersion, and industrial aerodynamics.

  11. The First Russian Orbit-Borne Scatterometer: Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaev, V. Yu.; Panfilova, M. A.; Titchenko, Yu. A.; Meshkov, E. M.; Balandina, G. N.; Kuznetsov, Yu. V.; Shlaferov, A. L.

    2016-04-01

    We have chosen a "SeaWinds" scatterometer with an orbital altitude of about 800 km as a prototype of the first Russian orbital scatterometer. An involuntary decrease in the orbit altitude to 650 km made us choose between conservation of the initial swath width 1800 km or the incidence angles with the swath-width decrease to 1500 km. A wider swath width has the advantage of a better coverage of the world-ocean surface. However, it leads to an increase in the local incidence angles and, hence, a decrease in the reflected-signal power. As a result, the signalto-noise ratio decreases and an error in the wind velocity and direction reconstruction because of the equipment noise increases. The error of the wind-velocity vector reconstruction for the same drive and antenna is the choice criterion. During the study, the mathematical model of the scatterometer is developed, the numerical simulation for both swath widths is performed, the data are processed, and the reconstruction accuracies of the wind velocity and direction are compared. It is shown that the reconstruction accuracy can significantly be improved if the measurement for two polarizations is used. The results obtained also show that the wind velocity is sufficiently well reconstructed for both swaths, while the wind-direction reconstruction accuracy in the case of a wider swath is worse than that required by the technical specifications for the scatterometer. Therefore, the swath width of the new scatterometer should be 1500 km.

  12. Airborne microwave measurements of the southern Greenland ice sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, C.T.; Hayes, P.S.; Herd, J.S.; Jones, W.L.; Delmore, V.E.

    1985-02-01

    Microwave remote sensing measurements were collected over Greenland with the NASA C-130 aircraft used as a platform. The principal instruments were a C band radiometer and an X band scatterometer, which simultaneously collected both active and passive microwave remote sensing data. The data collected fully support the conclusions drawn by others that volume scattering from subsurface ice lenses and glands is the major influence on microwave signature. Both thermal emission and radar backscattering results are self-consistent with rather simple theories of volume scattering. The remote sensing measurements also provide a relative measure of the number density of scatterers; however, additional theoretical work is required to establish the cross section per scatterer in order to measure absolute number density. Along this avenue of thought, the data rule out Rayleigh scattering and strongly support a high frequency model. The measured anisotropy over the ice cap appears to be a new observation, and future exploitation of remote sensing techniques may provide information relating to the average shape of subsurface patterns and information relative to glacial flow. 14 references, 10 figures.

  13. Probability distribution of wind retrieval error for the NASA scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leotta, Daniel F.; Long, David G.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) is a spaceborne scatterometer scheduled to be deployed in the mid-1990s. An analysis of the wind retrieval error distribution for wind estimates based on backscatter measurements made by the NSCAT instrument is presented. The results are based on an end-to-end simulation of the scatterometer instrument and data processing. In general, the distribution of the wind speed error, when normalized, is independent of the true wind speed and direction. The wind speed error can be characterized by a normal distribution. The wind direction error is independent of the true wind speed, but depends on the true wind direction. Details for wind vectors with true wind speeds from 3 m/s to 33 m/s and true wind directions from 0 to 360 deg are presented.

  14. C-band polarimetric scatterometer for soil studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessio, Angelo C.; Mongelli, Antonio; Notarnicola, Claudia; Paparella, Giuseppina; Posa, Francesco; Sabatelli, Vincenzo

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the performances of a polarimetric scatterometer. This sensor can measure the module of the electromagnetic backscattering matrix elements. The knowledge of this matrix permits the computation of all the possible polarisation combinations of transmitted and received signals through a Polarisation Synthesis approach. Scatterometer data are useful for monitoring a large number of soil physical parameters. In particular, the sensitivity of a C-band radar to different growing conditions of vegetation depends on the wave polarisation. As consequences, the possibility of acquiringi both polarisation components presents a great advantage in the vegetarian studies. In addition, this type of ground sensor can permit a fast coverage of the areas of interest. A first test of the polarimetric scatterometer has been performed over an asphalt surface, which has a well-known electromagnetic response. Moreover, a calibration procedure has been tested using both passive (Trihedral Corner Reflector, TCR) and active (Active Radar Calibrator, ARC) radar calibrator.

  15. ARM Airborne Continuous carbon dioxide measurements

    DOE Data Explorer

    Biraud, Sebastien

    2013-03-26

    The heart of the AOS CO2 Airborne Rack Mounted Analyzer System is the AOS Manifold. The AOS Manifold is a nickel coated aluminum analyzer and gas processor designed around two identical nickel-plated gas cells, one for reference gas and one for sample gas. The sample and reference cells are uniquely designed to provide optimal flushing efficiency. These cells are situated between a black-body radiation source and a photo-diode detection system. The AOS manifold also houses flow meters, pressure sensors and control valves. The exhaust from the analyzer flows into a buffer volume which allows for precise pressure control of the analyzer. The final piece of the analyzer is the demodulator board which is used to convert the DC signal generated by the analyzer into an AC response. The resulting output from the demodulator board is an averaged count of CO2 over a specified hertz cycle reported in volts and a corresponding temperature reading. The system computer is responsible for the input of commands and therefore works to control the unit functions such as flow rate, pressure, and valve control.The remainder of the system consists of compressors, reference gases, air drier, electrical cables, and the necessary connecting plumbing to provide a dry sample air stream and reference air streams to the AOS manifold.

  16. Influence of suspended inorganic sediment on airborne laser fluorosensor measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, L. R.; Esaias, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of Poole and Esaias (1982) are presently extended to an examination of the influence of inorganic sediment on the water Raman normalization procedure, as well as an assessment of the potential for using the Raman signal to monitor surface water attenuation properties. An optically perfect lidar system is assumed which has geometric properties representative of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar, and is mounted on an airborne platform flying at an altitude of 150 m above the water surface. The results obtained suggest that caution should be exercised in attempts to quantitatively monitor changes in optical attenuation by means of remote measurements of the Raman scattering signal.

  17. Medium Earth Orbit Scatterometer (MEOScat) Concept Phase Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    In this report, advanced scatterometer concept options to operate in the post-SeaWinds era are examined. In order to meet the future requirements of scientific and operational users, a variety of scatterometer systems capable of producing improved wind vector products are evaluated. Special emphasis is placed on addressing concept options that operate at higher altitudes in order to improve the temporal revisit time. A preliminary set of generalized wind measurement goals designed to meet the future needs of both scientific and operational communities is put forth. Geophysically based measurement constraints (such as allowable carrier frequencies and measurement incidence angles) are identified. It was found that a potential key constraint at higher satellite altitudes is the longer time required to make all of the azimuth measurements. The revisit and coverage characteristics of a variety of platform orbits throughout the MEO range is studied in detail, and a discussion of the associated increase in radiation is presented. The "trade space" of scatterometer architectures and design options, along with associated advantages and disadvantages, is described for mission options in the MEO range. Finally, key technology studies that will enable further development of a MEO scatterometer mission are identified.

  18. Airborne Measurement of Ecosystem Carbon Dynamics over Heterogeneous Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, T. J.; Hill, T. C.; Clement, R.; Moncrieff, J.; Disney, M.; Nichol, C. J.; Williams, M. D.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon sinks are currently believed to account for the removal and storage of approximately 25% of anthropogenic carbon emissions from the atmosphere. The processes involved are numerous and complex and many feedbacks are at play. The ability to study the dynamics of different ecosystems at scales meaningful to climatic forcing is essential for understanding the key processes involved and identifying crucial sensitivities and thresholds. Airborne platforms with the requisite instrumentation offer the opportunity to directly measure biological processes and atmospheric structures at scales that are not achievable by ground measurements alone. The current generation of small research aircraft such as the University of Edinburgh’s Diamond HK36TTC ECO Dimona present excellent platforms for measurement of both the atmosphere and terrestrial surface. In this study we present results from airborne CO2/H2O flux measuring campaigns in contrasting climatic systems to quantify spatial patterns in ecosystem photosynthesis. Several airborne campaigns were undertaken in Arctic Finland, as part of the Arctic Biosphere Atmosphere Coupling at Multiple Scales (ABACUS) project (2008), and mainland UK as part of the UK Population Biology Network (UKPopNet) 2009 project, to explore the variability in surface CO2 flux across spatial scales larger than captured using conventional ground based eddy covariance. We discuss the application of our aircraft platform as a tool to address the challenge of understanding carbon dynamics within landscapes of heterogeneous vegetation class, terrain and hydrology using complementary datasets acquired from airborne eddy covariance and remote sensing.

  19. Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of C02 Column Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Weaver, Clark J.; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William E.; Rodriquez, Michael; Browell, Edward V.

    2011-01-01

    We report on airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column density for an approach being developed as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. It uses a pulsed dual-wavelength lidar measurement based on the integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) technique. We demonstrated the approach using the CO2 measurement from aircraft in July and August 2009 over four locations. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. The 2009 measurements have been analyzed in detail and the results show approx.1 ppm random errors for 8-10 km altitudes and approx.30 sec averaging times. Airborne measurements were also made in 2010 with stronger signals and initial analysis shows approx. 0.3 ppm random errors for 80 sec averaging times for measurements at altitudes> 6 km.

  20. A system analysis of the 13.3 GHz scatterometer. [antenna patterns and signal transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of the 13.3 GHz airborne scatterometer system which is used as a microwave remote sensor to detect moisture content of soil is analyzed with respect to its antenna pattern, the signal flow in the receiver data channels, and the errors in the signal outputs. The operational principle and the sensitivity of the system, as well as data handling are also described. The dielectric property of the terrain surface, as far as the scatterometer is concerned, is contained in the assumed forms of the functional dependence of the backscattering coefficient of the incident angle.

  1. Assessment of the corrected CMOD6 GMF using scatterometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyouncha, Anis; Neyt, Xavier; Stoffelen, Ad; Verspeek, Jeroen

    2015-10-01

    An assessment of the agreement between the ERS scatterometers (ERS-1 and ERS-2) and the Metop scatterometers (ASCAT-A and ASCAT-B) is essential for the consistency of the C-band scatterometry dataset. ERS-1, ERS-2, ASCAT-A and ASCAT-B are C-band fan-beam radar scatterometers covering a range of common incidence angles. During these C-band scatterometry missions, different calibration campaigns have been carried out mainly relying on active ground transponders and natural distributed targets such as the rainforest. Additionally, these missions differ in time with some overlapping periods. Therefore, an assessment of the agreement between ERS and ASCAT measurements is an important and challenging task. This assessment is usually performed over the rainforest but only considering the common incidence angles. In order to perform the comparison over the whole incidence angle range of both radars, a Geophysical Model Function (GMF) is needed. An empirical correction of the CMOD5.n GMF has been suggested recently by KNMI resulting in a new GMF called CMOD6. This correction was derived from the comparison of the ASCAT backscatter measurements and the CMOD5.n model. Taking ASCAT's measurements as reference, the differences between the CMOD5.n and ASCAT measurements were attributed to GMF errors. Additionally, an overview of the existing C-band models is given. The comparison of these models shows relatively large differences. The aim of this paper is the assessment of the CMOD6 GMF using ERS-1 and ERS-2 ocean backscatter measurements and the validation of the applicability of the corrected GMF to the whole C-band scatterometry dataset. Finally, a method is suggested to calibrate the residual bias of all the C-band scatterometers w.r.t CMOD6. It is shown that after calibration a consistent scatterometer data model is obtained.

  2. Scatterometer-Calibrated Stability Verification Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWatters, Dalia A.; Cheetham, Craig M.; Huang, Shouhua; Fischman, Mark A.; CHu, Anhua J.; Freedman, Adam P.

    2011-01-01

    The requirement for scatterometer-combined transmit-receive gain variation knowledge is typically addressed by sampling a portion of the transmit signal, attenuating it with a known-stable attenuation, and coupling it into the receiver chain. This way, the gain variations of the transmit and receive chains are represented by this loop-back calibration signal, and can be subtracted from the received remote radar echo. Certain challenges are presented by this process, such as transmit and receive components that are outside of this loop-back path and are not included in this calibration, as well as the impracticality for measuring the transmit and receive chains stability and post fabrication separately, without the resulting measurement errors from the test set up exceeding the requirement for the flight instrument. To cover the RF stability design challenge, the portions of the scatterometer that are not calibrated by the loop-back, (e.g., attenuators, switches, diplexers, couplers, and coaxial cables) are tightly thermally controlled, and have been characterized over temperature to contribute less than 0.05 dB of calibration error over worst-case thermal variation. To address the verification challenge, including the components that are not calibrated by the loop-back, a stable fiber optic delay line (FODL) was used to delay the transmitted pulse, and to route it into the receiver. In this way, the internal loopback signal amplitude variations can be compared to the full transmit/receive external path, while the flight hardware is in the worst-case thermal environment. The practical delay for implementing the FODL is 100 s. The scatterometer pulse width is 1 ms so a test mode was incorporated early in the design phase to scale the 1 ms pulse at 100-Hz pulse repetition interval (PRI), by a factor of 18, to be a 55 s pulse with 556 s PRI. This scaling maintains the duty cycle, thus maintaining a representative thermal state for the RF components. The FODL consists

  3. Separability of agricultural crops with airborne scatterometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, N. C.

    1983-01-01

    Backscattering measurements were acquired with airborne scatterometers over a site in Cass County, North Dakota on four days in the 1981 crop growing season. Data were acquired at three frequencies (L-, C- and Ku-bands), two polarizations (like and cross) and ten incidence angles (5 degrees to 50 degrees in 5 degree steps). Crop separability is studied in an hierarchical fashion. A two-class separability measure is defined, which compares within-class to between-class variability, to determine crop separability. The scatterometer channels with the best potential for crop separability are determined, based on this separability measure. Higher frequencies are more useful for discriminating small grains, while lower frequencies tend to separate non-small grains better. Some crops are more separable when row direction is taken into account. The effect of pixel purity is to increase the separability between all crops while not changing the order of useful scatterometer channels. Crude estimates of separability errors are calculated based on these analyses. These results are useful in selecting the parameters of active microwave systems in agricultural remote sensing.

  4. Ground and Airborne Methane Measurements with an Optical Parametric Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    We report on ground and airborne atmospheric methane measurements with a differential absorption lidar using an optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Earth and its accurate global mapping is urgently needed to understand climate change. We are developing a nanosecond-pulsed OPA for remote measurements of methane from an Earth-orbiting satellite. We have successfully demonstrated the detection of methane on the ground and from an airplane at approximately 11-km altitude.

  5. Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Weaver, Clark J.; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William E.; Kawa, S. Randoph; Biraud, Sebastien

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT We report initial measurements of atmospheric CO2 column density using a pulsed airborne lidar operating at 1572 nm. It uses a lidar measurement technique being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a candidate for the CO2 measurement in the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission. The pulsed multiple-wavelength lidar approach offers several new capabilities with respect to passive spectrometer and other lidar techniques for high-precision CO2 column density measurements. We developed an airborne lidar using a fibre laser transmitter and photon counting detector, and conducted initial measurements of the CO2 column absorption during flights over Oklahoma in December 2008. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals. These follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 1.5 to 7.1 km, and are in good agreement with column number density estimates calculated from nearly coincident airborne in-situ measurements.

  6. The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) Arctic Campaign (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafimovich, A.; Metzger, S.; Hartmann, J.; Kohnert, K.; Sachs, T.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most pressing questions with regard to climate feedback processes in a warming Arctic is the regional-scale methane release from Arctic permafrost areas. The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) campaign is designed to quantitatively and spatially explicitly address this question. Ground-based eddy covariance (EC) measurements provide continuous in-situ observations of the surface-atmosphere exchange of methane. However, these observations are rare in the Arctic permafrost zone and site selection is bound by logistical constraints among others. Consequently, these observations cover only small areas that are not necessarily representative of the region of interest. Airborne measurements can overcome this limitation by covering distances of hundreds of kilometers over time periods of a few hours. Here, we present the potential of environmental response functions (ERFs) for quantitatively linking methane flux observations in the atmospheric surface layer to meteorological and biophysical drivers in the flux footprints. For this purpose thousands of kilometers of AIRMETH data across the Alaskan North Slope are utilized, with the aim to extrapolate the airborne EC methane flux observations to the entire North Slope. The data were collected aboard the research aircraft POLAR 5, using its turbulence nose boom and fast response methane and meteorological sensors. After thorough data pre-processing, Reynolds averaging is used to derive spatially integrated fluxes. To increase spatial resolution and to derive ERFs, we then use wavelet transforms of the original high-frequency data. This enables much improved spatial discretization of the flux observations, and the quantification of continuous and biophysically relevant land cover properties in the flux footprint of each observation. A machine learning technique is then employed to extract and quantify the functional relationships between the methane flux observations and the meteorological and

  7. Airborne Spectral Measurements of Ocean Directional Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; King, Michael D.; Lyapustin, Alexei; Arnold, G. Thomas; Redemann, Jens

    2004-01-01

    During summer of 2001 NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) obtained measurement of ocean angular distribution of reflected radiation or BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) aboard the University of Washington Convair CV-580 research aircraft under cloud-free conditions. The measurements took place aver the Atlantic Ocean off the eastern seaboard of the U.S. in the vicinity of the Chesapeake Light Tower and at nearby National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Buoy Stations. The measurements were in support of CLAMS, Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites, field campaign that was primarily designed to validate and improve NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite data products being derived from three sensors: MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectro-Radiometer), MISR (Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) and CERES (Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System). Because of the high resolution of the CAR measurements and its high sensitivity to detect weak ocean signals against a noisy background, results of radiance field above the ocean are seen in unprecedented detail. The study also attempts to validate the widely used Cox-Munk model for predicting reflectance from a rough ocean surface.

  8. Coastal and rain-induced wind variability depicted by scatterometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portabella, M.; Lin, W.; Stoffelen, A.; Turiel, A.; Verhoef, A.; Verspeek, J.; Ballabrera, J.; Vogelzang, J.

    2012-04-01

    conditions, using collocations with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) rain data, and the tropical moored buoy wind and precipitation data. It turns out that the effect of low and moderate rain appears mainly in increasing the wind variability near the surface and, unlike for Ku-band scatterometers, the rain rate itself does not appear clearly as a limiting factor in ASCAT wind quality. Moreover, the downburst patterns as observed by ASCAT are unique and have large implications for air-sea exchange. At the conference, the main progress in scatterometer wind data processing will be shown.

  9. Water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Frederick, E. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system. The results of initial base-line field test results of NASA airborne oceanographic lidar in the bathymetry mode are given, with water-truth measurements of depth and beam attenuation coefficients by boat taken at the same time as overflights to aid in determining the system's operational performance. The nadir-angle tests and field-of-view data are presented; this laser bathymetry system is an improvement over prior models in that (1) the surface-to-bottom pulse waveform is digitally recorded on magnetic tape, and (2) wide-swath mapping data may be routinely acquired using a 30 deg full-angle conical scanner.

  10. Frontogenesis Illustrated by Scatterometer Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patoux, J.; Brown, R. A.

    2001-12-01

    The 25-km grid-spacing and the swath coverage of the SeaWinds-on-QuikSCAT scatterometer are ideal for the study of midlatitude cyclones and their associated fronts. Used in conjunction with a PBL model, they reveal the structure and evolution of cold fronts, as well as the role played by boundary layer processes, in particular surface vorticity, divergence and ageostrophic components. The Northern and Southern Pacific are compared. The dynamics of the Southern Ocean are illustrated, with an emphasis on the maintenance of cold fronts for two or three days after the decay of the mother-storm.

  11. Microwave radiometer and scatterometer design for the aquarius sea surface Salinity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Yueh, Simon H.; Pellerano, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of sea surface salinity with L-band microwave radiometers is a very challenging task. Since the L-band brightness temperature variations associated with salinity changes are small, it is necessary to have a very sensitive and stable radiometer. In addition, the corrections for the ocean surface roughness require real time scatterometer measurements. The designs of the Aquarius radiometer and scatterometer are described in this paper.

  12. Radon measurements aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritz, Mark A.; Rosner, Stefan W.

    1995-01-01

    We have carried out three (piggyback) radon-related projects aboard the KAO. The first, which was limited to upper tropospheric measurements while in level flight, revealed the systematic occurrence of unexpectedly high radon concentrations in this region of the atmosphere. The second project was an instrument development project, which led to the installation of an automatic radon measurement system aboard the NASA ER-2 High Altitude Research Aircraft. In the third, we installed a new system capable of collecting samples during the normal climb and descent of the KAO. The results obtained in these projects have resulted in significant contributions to our knowledge of atmospheric transport processes, and are currently playing a key role in the validation of global circulation and transport models.

  13. The INTEGRAL scatterometer SPI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandrou, P.; Vedrenne, G.; Jean, P.; Kandel, B.; vonBallmoos, P.; Albernhe, F.; Lichti, G.; Schoenfelder, V.; Diehl, R.; Georgii, R.; Teegarden, B.; Mandrou, P.; Vedrenne, G.; Kirchner, T.; Durouchoux, P.; Cordier, B.; Diallo, N.; Sanchez, F.; Payne, B.; Leleux, P.; Caraveo, P.; Matteson, J.; Slassi-Sennon, S.; Lin, R. P.; Skinner, G.

    1997-01-01

    The INTErnational Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission's onboard spectrometer, the INTEGRAL spectrometer (SPI), is described. The SPI constitutes one of the four main mission instruments. It is optimized for detailed measurements of gamma ray lines and for the mapping of diffuse sources. It combines a coded aperture mask with an array of large volume, high purity germanium detectors. The detectors make precise measurements of the gamma ray energies over the 20 keV to 8 MeV range. The instrument's characteristics are described and the Monte Carlo simulation of its performance is outlined. It will be possible to study gamma ray emission from compact objects or line profiles with a high energy resolution and a high angular resolution.

  14. Analyzers Measure Greenhouse Gases, Airborne Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    In complete darkness, a NASA observatory waits. When an eruption of boiling water billows from a nearby crack in the ground, the observatory s sensors seek particles in the fluid, measure shifts in carbon isotopes, and analyze samples for biological signatures. NASA has landed the observatory in this remote location, far removed from air and sunlight, to find life unlike any that scientists have ever seen. It might sound like a scene from a distant planet, but this NASA mission is actually exploring an ocean floor right here on Earth. NASA established a formal exobiology program in 1960, which expanded into the present-day Astrobiology Program. The program, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2010, not only explores the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe, but also examines how life begins and evolves, and what the future may hold for life on Earth and other planets. Answers to these questions may be found not only by launching rockets skyward, but by sending probes in the opposite direction. Research here on Earth can revise prevailing concepts of life and biochemistry and point to the possibilities for life on other planets, as was demonstrated in December 2010, when NASA researchers discovered microbes in Mono Lake in California that subsist and reproduce using arsenic, a toxic chemical. The Mono Lake discovery may be the first of many that could reveal possible models for extraterrestrial life. One primary area of interest for NASA astrobiologists lies with the hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. These vents expel jets of water heated and enriched with chemicals from off-gassing magma below the Earth s crust. Also potentially within the vents: microbes that, like the Mono Lake microorganisms, defy the common characteristics of life on Earth. Basically all organisms on our planet generate energy through the Krebs Cycle, explains Mike Flynn, research scientist at NASA s Ames Research Center. This metabolic process breaks down sugars for energy

  15. Study of cloud properties using airborne and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscornea, Andreea; Stefan, Sabina; Vajaiac, Sorin Nicolae

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigates cloud microphysics properties using aircraft and satellite measurements. Cloud properties were drawn from data acquired both from in situ measurements with state of the art airborne instrumentation and from satellite products of the MODIS06 System. The used aircraft was ATMOSLAB - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Atmospheric Research, property of the National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS), Bucharest, Romania, which is specially equipped for this kind of research. The main tool of the airborne laboratory is a Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer - CAPS (30 bins, 0.51- 50 μm). The data was recorded during two flights during the winter 2013-2014, over a flat region in the south-eastern part of Romania (between Bucharest and Constanta). The analysis of cloud particle size variations and cloud liquid water content provided by CAPS can explain cloud processes, and can also indicate the extent of aerosols effects on clouds. The results, such as cloud coverage and/or cloud types, microphysical parameters of aerosols on the one side and the cloud microphysics parameters obtained from aircraft flights on the other side, was used to illustrate the importance of microphysics cloud properties for including the radiative effects of clouds in the regional climate models.

  16. Airborne measurements of spatial NO2 distributions during AROMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Andreas Carlos; Seyler, André; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Lindemann, Carsten; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides, NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry. In addition to their directly harmful effects on the respiratory system of living organisms, they influence the levels of tropospheric ozone and contribute to acid rain and eutrophication of ecosystems. As they are produced in combustion processes, they can serve as an indicator for anthropogenic air pollution. In September 2014 several European research groups conducted the ESA funded Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign to test and intercompare newly developed airborne observation sytsems dedicated to air quality satellite validation studies. The IUP Bremen contributed to this campaign with its Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) on board a Cessna 207 turbo, operated by the FU Berlin. AirMAP allows the retrieval of integrated NO2 column densities in a stripe below the aircraft at a fine spatial resolution of up to 30 x 80 m2, at a typical flight altitude. Measurements have been performed over the city of Bucharest, creating for the first time high spatial resolution maps of Bucharest's NO2 distribution in a time window of approx. 2 hours. The observations were synchronised with ground-based car MAX-DOAS measurements for comparison. In addition, measurements were taken over the city of Berlin, Germany and at the Rovinari power plant, Romania. In this work the results of the research flights will be presented and conclusions will be drawn on the quality of the measurements, their applicability for satellite data validation and possible improvements for future measurements.

  17. Measurement of airborne {sup 218}Po - A Bayesian approach

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, P.G.; Lo, Y.

    1996-12-01

    The standard mathematical treatment of the buildup and decay of airborne radionuclides on a filter paper uses the solutions of the so-called bateman equations adapted to the sampling process. The equations can be interpreted as differential equations for the expectation of an underlying stochastic process, which describes the random fluctuations in the accumulation and decay of the sampled radioactive atoms. The process for the buildup and decay of airborne {sup 218}Po can be characterized as an {open_quotes}immigration-death process{close_quotes} in the widely adopted, biologically based jargon. The probability distribution for the number of {sup 218}Po atoms, accumulated after sampling time t, is Poisson. We show that the distribution of the number of counts, registered by a detector with efficiency {epsilon} during a counting period T after the end of sampling, it also Poisson, with mean dependent on {epsilon},t,T, the flowrate and N{sub o}, the number of airborne {sup 218}Po atoms per unit volume. This Poisson distribution was used to construct the likelihood given the observed number of counts. After inversion with Bayes` Theorem we obtained the posterior density for N{sub o}. This density characterizes the remaining uncertainty about the measured under of {sup 218}Po atoms per unit volume of air. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Functional requirements document for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Criddle, J.D. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    This document states the functional requirements and procedures for systems making measurements of radioactive airborne emissions from facilities at the Hanford Site. The following issues are addressed in this document: Definition of the program objectives; Selection of the overall approach to collecting the samples; Sampling equipment design; Sampling equipment maintenance, and quality assurance issues. The intent of this document is to assist WHC in demonstrating a high quality of air emission measurements with verified system performance based on documented system design, testing, inspection, and maintenance.

  19. Airborne measurements of NO2 shipping emissions using imaging DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Andreas C.; Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Seyler, André; Ruhtz, Thomas; Lindemann, Carsten; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    2014-05-01

    NOx (NO and NO2) play a key role in tropospheric chemistry and affect human health and the environment. Shipping emissions contribute substantially to the global emissions of anthropogenic NOx. Due to globalization and increased trade volume, the relative importance emissions from ships gain even more importance. The Airborne imaging DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP), developed at IUP Bremen, has been used to perform measurements of NO2 in the visible spectral range. The observations allow the determination of spatial distributions of column densities of NO2 below the aircraft. Airborne measurements were performed over Northern Germany and adjacent coastal waters during the NOSE (NO2 from Shipping Emissions) campaign in August 2013. The focus of the campaign activities was on shipping emissions, but NO2 over cities and power plants has been measured as well. The measurements have a spatial resolution below the order of 100 × 30 m2, and they reveal the large spatial variability of NO2 and the evolution of NO2 plumes behind point sources. Shipping lanes as well as plumes of individual ships are detected by the AirMAP instrument. In this study, first results from the NOSE campaign are presented for selected measurement areas.

  20. Transmitter Pulse Estimation and Measurements for Airborne TDEM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.; Mejzr, I.

    2013-12-01

    The processing and interpretation of Airborne Time Domain EM data requires precise description of the transmitter parameters, including shape, amplitude and length of the transmitted pulse. There are several ways to measure pulse shape of the transmitter loop. Transmitted pulse can be recorded by a current monitor installed on the loop. The current monitor readings do not give exact image due to own time-domain physical characteristics of the current monitor. Another way is to restore the primary pulse shape from the receiver data recorded on-time, if such is possible. The receiver gives exact image of the primary field projection combined with the ground response, which can be minimized at high altitude pass, usually with a transmitter elevation higher than 1500 ft from the ground. The readings on the receiver are depending on receiver position and orientation. Modeling of airborne TDEM transmitter pulse allows us to compare estimated and measured shape of the pulse and apply required corrections. Airborne TDEM system transmitter pulse shape has been studied by authors while developing P-THEM system. The data has been gathered during in-doors and out-doors ground tests in Canada, as well as during flight tests in Canada and in India. The P-THEM system has three-axes receiver that is suspended on a tow-cable in the midpoint between the transmitter and the helicopter. The P-THEM receiver geometry does not require backing coils to dump the primary field. The system records full-wave data from the receiver and current monitor installed on the transmitter loop, including on-time and off-time data. The modeling of the transmitter pulse allowed us to define the difference between estimated and measured values. The higher accuracy pulse shape can be used for better data processing and interpretation. A developed model can be applied to similar systems and configurations.

  1. Analysis of Arctic Sea ice coverage in 2012 using multi-source scatterometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, M.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic sea ice extent, regarded as an indicator of climate change, has been declining for the past few decades and reached the lowest ice extent in satellite record during the summer of 2012. Scatterometers can be used in sea ice identification, due to its ability to measure the backscatter characteristics of surface coverage. Thus, daily scatterometer data can be used in Arctic sea ice monitoring. In this paper, we compared the similarity and difference of three different scatterometer datasets, including ASCAT(METOP-A/B Advanced scatterometer) data, OSCAT(Oceansat-2 scatterometer)data and China's HY-2 scatterometer data, and then evaluated their performance in Artic sea ice investigation. We also constructed the sea ice coverage time series in 2012 using different scatterometer data and analyzed its temporal and spatial variation. Preliminary Results show that the maximum extent was set on 19 March, 2012. Cracks started to appear in Arctic sea ice coverage near New Siberian Islands on 18,May. Later, melt process accelerates in July and August. The northeast passage is not open until late August. On 18 September, the extent reached the minimum level and the refreezing process began. The duration of melting season is slightly shorter than the average level over the period of 1978 to 2012(ERS-1/2 scattermeter and Quickscat scatterometer data are used as supplementary records). The record low extent is likely resulted from (1)Arctic dipole pressure pattern, bringing in warm southerly winds and enhancing arctic ice discharge in Fram Strait and (2)relatively warm conditions over the Arctic areas.

  2. Airborne Measurements of Coarse Mode Aerosol Composition and Abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froyd, K. D.; Murphy, D. M.; Brock, C. A.; Ziemba, L. D.; Anderson, B. E.; Wilson, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Coarse aerosol particles impact the earth's radiative balance by direct scattering and absorption of light and by promoting cloud formation. Modeling studies suggest that coarse mode mineral dust and sea salt aerosol are the dominant contributors to aerosol optical depth throughout much of the globe. Lab and field studies indicate that larger aerosol particles tend to be more efficient ice nuclei, and recent airborne measurements confirm the dominant role of mineral dust on cirrus cloud formation. However, our ability to simulate coarse mode particle abundance in large scale models is limited by a lack of validating measurements above the earth's surface. We present airborne measurements of coarse mode aerosol abundance and composition over several mid-latitude, sub-tropical, and tropical regions from the boundary layer to the stratosphere. In the free troposphere the coarse mode constitutes 10-50% of the total particulate mass over a wide range of environments. Above North America mineral dust typically dominates the coarse mode, but biomass burning particles and sea salt also contribute. In remote environments coarse mode aerosol mainly consists of internally mixed sulfate-organic particles. Both continental and marine convection can enhance coarse aerosol mass through direct lofting of primary particles and by secondary accumulation of aerosol material through cloud processing.

  3. Scanning wind-vector scatterometers with two pencil beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirimoto, T.; Moore, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    A scanning pencil-beam scatterometer for ocean windvector determination has potential advantages over the fan-beam systems used and proposed heretofore. The pencil beam permits use of lower transmitter power, and at the same time allows concurrent use of the reflector by a radiometer to correct for atmospheric attenuation and other radiometers for other purposes. The use of dual beams based on the same scanning reflector permits four looks at each cell on the surface, thereby improving accuracy and allowing alias removal. Simulation results for a spaceborne dual-beam scanning scatterometer with a 1-watt radiated power at an orbital altitude of 900 km is described. Two novel algorithms for removing the aliases in the windvector are described, in addition to an adaptation of the conventional maximum likelihood algorithm. The new algorithms are more effective at alias removal than the conventional one. Measurement errors for the wind speed, assuming perfect alias removal, were found to be less than 10%.

  4. Airborne Measurements of Atmospheric Methane Using Pulsed Laser Transmitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Riris, Haris; Wu, Stewart; Gonzalez, Brayler; Rodriguez, Michael; Hasselbrack, William; Fahey, Molly; Yu, Anthony; Stephen, Mark; Mao, Jianping; Kawa, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with approximately 25 times the radiative forcing of carbon dioxide (CO2) per molecule. At NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) we have been developing a laser-based technology needed to remotely measure CH4 from orbit. We report on our development effort for the methane lidar, especially on our laser transmitters and recent airborne demonstration. Our lidar transmitter is based on an optical parametric process to generate near infrared laser radiation at 1651 nanometers, coincident with a CH4 absorption. In an airborne flight campaign in the fall of 2015, we tested two kinds of laser transmitters --- an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The output wavelength of the lasers was rapidly tuned over the CH4 absorption by tuning the seed laser to sample the CH4 absorption line at several wavelengths. This approach uses the same Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) technique we have used for our CO2 lidar for ASCENDS. The two laser transmitters were successfully operated in the NASAs DC-8 aircraft, measuring methane from 3 to 13 kilometers with high precision.

  5. Airborne Particle Size Distribution Measurements at USDOE Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Chittaporn, P.; Heikkinen, M.; Medora, R.; Merrill, R.

    2003-03-27

    There are no long term measurements of the particle size distribution and concentration of airborne radionuclides at any USDOE facility except Fernald. Yet the determinant of lung dose is the particle size, determining the airway and lower lung deposition. Beginning in 2000, continuous (6 to 8 weeks) measurements of the aerosol particle size distribution have been made with a miniature sampler developed under EMSP. Radon gas decays to a chain of four short lived solid radionuclides that attach immediately to the resident atmospheric aerosol. These in turn decay to long lived polonium 210. Alpha emitting polonium is a tracer for any atmospheric aerosol. Six samplers at Fernald and four at QC sites in New Jersey show a difference in both polonium concentration and size distribution with the winter measurements being higher/larger than summer by almost a factor of two at all locations. EMSP USDOE Contract DE FG07 97ER62522.

  6. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  7. Simultaneous Red - Blue Lidar and Airborne Impactor Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormick, M. P.; Blifford, I. H.; Fuller, W. H.; Grams, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Simultaneous two-color (0.6943 micrometers and 0.3472 micrometers) LIDAR measurements were made in the troposphere and lower stratosphere over Boulder, Colorado during March 1973. In addition, on the evening of March 26, airborne single-stage impactor measurements were made at four altitudes-- 10,500, 25,000, 33,000 and 43,000 feet MSL. These data were integrated at constant altitude for 15,45, 45, and 60 minutes respectively. The LIDAR data were taken with Langley's 48" LIDAR using a dichroic beamsplitter to separate the return at 0.6943 micrometers and 0.3472 micrometers. The analog waveforms for both colors were digitized simultaneously; one on an NCAR data acquisition system and the other on the 48" Langley data acquisition system. A discussion of the preliminary results from these measurements will be presented.

  8. Ground and Airborne Methane Measurements using Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, K.; Riris, H.; Li, S.; Wu, S.; Kawa, S. R.; Abshire, J. B.; Dawsey, M.; Ramanathan, A.

    2011-12-01

    We report on ground and airborne methane measurements with an active sensing instrument using widely tunable, seeded optical parametric generation (OPG). The technique has been used to measure methane, CO2, water vapor, and other trace gases in the near and mid-infrared spectral regions. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Earth and it is also a potential biogenic marker on Mars and other planetary bodies. Methane in the Earth's atmosphere survives for a shorter time than CO2 but its impact on climate change can be larger than CO2. Carbon and methane emissions from land are expected to increase as permafrost melts exposing millennial-age carbon stocks to respiration (aerobic-CO2 and anaerobic-CH4) and fires. Methane emissions from clathrates in the Arctic Ocean and on land are also likely to respond to climate warming. However, there is considerable uncertainty in present Arctic flux levels, as well as how fluxes will change with the changing environment. For Mars, methane measurements are of great interest because of its potential as a strong biogenic marker. A remote sensing instrument that can measure day and night over all seasons and latitudes can localize sources of biogenic gas plumes produced by subsurface chemistry or biology, and aid in the search for extra-terrestrial life. In this paper we report on remote sensing measurements of methane using a high peak power, widely tunable optical parametric generator (OPG) operating at 3.3 um and 1.65 um. We have demonstrated detection of methane at 3.3 μm and 1650 nm in an open path and compared them to accepted standards. We also report on preliminary airborne demonstration of methane measurements at 1.65 um.

  9. Ground and Airborne Methane Measurements Using Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Riris, Haris; Li, Steve; Wu, Stewart; Kawa, Stephan R.; Abshire, James Brice; Dawsey, Martha; Ramanathan, Anand

    2011-01-01

    We report on ground and airborne methane measurements with an active sensing instrument using widely tunable, seeded optical parametric generation (OPG). The technique has been used to measure methane, CO2, water vapor, and other trace gases in the near and mid-infrared spectral regions. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Earth and it is also a potential biogenic marker on Mars and other planetary bodies. Methane in the Earth's atmosphere survives for a shorter time than CO2 but its impact on climate change can be larger than CO2. Carbon and methane emissions from land are expected to increase as permafrost melts exposing millennial-age carbon stocks to respiration (aerobic-CO2 and anaerobic-CH4) and fires. Methane emissions from c1athrates in the Arctic Ocean and on land are also likely to respond to climate warming. However, there is considerable uncertainty in present Arctic flux levels, as well as how fluxes will change with the changing environment. For Mars, methane measurements are of great interest because of its potential as a strong biogenic marker. A remote sensing instrument that can measure day and night over all seasons and latitudes can localize sources of biogenic gas plumes produced by subsurface chemistry or biology, and aid in the search for extra-terrestrial life. In this paper we report on remote sensing measurements of methane using a high peak power, widely tunable optical parametric generator (OPG) operating at 3.3 micrometers and 1.65 micrometers. We have demonstrated detection of methane at 3.3 micrometers and 1650 nanometers in an open path and compared them to accepted standards. We also report on preliminary airborne demonstration of methane measurements at 1.65 micrometers.

  10. Impact of Scatterometer Ocean Wind Vector Data on NOAA Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelenak, Z.; Chang, P.; Brennan, M. J.; Sienkiewicz, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Near real-time measurements of ocean surface vector winds (OSVW), including both wind speed and direction from non-NOAA satellites, are being widely used in critical operational NOAA forecasting and warning activities. The scatterometer wind data data have had major operational impact in: a) determining wind warning areas for mid-latitude systems (gale, storm,hurricane force); b) determining tropical cyclone 34-knot and 50-knot wind radii. c) tracking the center location of tropical cyclones, including the initial identification of their formation. d) identifying and warning of extreme gap and jet wind events at all latitudes. e) identifying the current location of frontal systems and high and low pressure centers. f) improving coastal surf and swell forecasts Much has been learned about the importance and utility of satellite OSVW data in operational weather forecasting and warning by exploiting OSVW research satellites in near real-time. Since December 1999 when first data from QuikSCAT scatterometer became available in near real time NOAA operations have been benefiting from ASCAT scatterometer observations on MetOp-A and B, Indian OSCAT scatterometer on OceanSat-3 and lately NASA's RapidScat mission on International Space Station. With oceans comprising over 70 percent of the earth's surface, the impacts of these data have been tremendous in serving society's needs for weather and water information and in supporting the nation's commerce with information for safe, efficient, and environmentally sound transportation and coastal preparedness. The satellite OSVW experience that has been gained over the past decade by users in the operational weather community allows for realistic operational OSVW requirements to be properly stated for future missions. Successful model of transitioning research data into operation implemented by Ocean Winds Team in NOAA's NESDIS/STAR office and subsequent data impacts will be presented and discussed.

  11. Airborne compact rotational Raman lidar for temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Decheng; Wang, Zhien; Wechsler, Perry; Mahon, Nick; Deng, Min; Glover, Brent; Burkhart, Matthew; Kuestner, William; Heesen, Ben

    2016-09-01

    We developed an airborne compact rotational Raman lidar (CRL) for use on the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) aircraft to obtain two-dimensional (2D) temperature disman tributions. It obtained fine-scale 2D temperature distributions within 3 km below the aircraft for the first time during the PECAN (Plains Elevated Convection At Night) campaign in 2015. The CRL provided nighttime temperature measurements with a random error of <0.5 K within 800 m below aircraft at 45 m vertical and 1000 m horizontal resolution. The temperatures obtained by the CRL and a radiosonde agreed. Along with water vapor and aerosol measurements, the CRL provides critical parameters on the state of the lower atmosphere for a wide range of atmospheric research. PMID:27607724

  12. An airborne study of microwave surface sensing and boundary layer heat and moisture fluxes for FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogineni, S. P.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to perform imaging radar and scatterometer measurements over the Konza Prairie as a part of the First International land surface climatology project Field Experiments (EIFE) and to develop an mm-wave radiometer and the data acquisition system for this radiometer. We collected imaging radar data with the University of Kansas Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) operating at 9.375 GHz and scatterometer data with a helicopter-mounted scatterometer at 5.3 and 9.6 GHz. We also developed a 35-GHz null-balancing radiometer and data acquisition system. Although radar images showed good delineation of various features of the FIFE site, the data were not useful for quantitative analysis for extracting soil moisture information because of day-to-day changes in the system transfer characteristics. Our scatterometer results show that both C and X bands are sensitive to soil moisture variations over grass-covered soils. Scattering coefficients near vertical are about 4 dB lower for unburned areas because of the presence of a thatch layer, in comparison with those for burned areas. The results of the research have been documented in reports, oral presentations, and published papers.

  13. Spacewire on Earth orbiting scatterometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Alex; Lang, Minh; Lux, James; Steffke, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The need for a high speed, reliable and easy to implement communication link has led to the development of a space flight oriented version of IEEE 1355 called SpaceWire. SpaceWire is based on high-speed (200 Mbps) serial point-to-point links using Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS). SpaceWIre has provisions for routing messages between a large network of processors, using wormhole routing for low overhead and latency. {additionally, there are available space qualified hybrids, which provide the Link layer to the user's bus}. A test bed of multiple digital signal processor breadboards, demonstrating the ability to meet signal processing requirements for an orbiting scatterometer has been implemented using three Astrium MCM-DSPs, each breadboard consists of a Multi Chip Module (MCM) that combines a space qualified Digital Signal Processor and peripherals, including IEEE-1355 links. With the addition of appropriate physical layer interfaces and software on the DSP, the SpaceWire link is used to communicate between processors on the test bed, e.g. sending timing references, commands, status, and science data among the processors. Results are presented on development issues surrounding the use of SpaceWire in this environment, from physical layer implementation (cables, connectors, LVDS drivers) to diagnostic tools, driver firmware, and development methodology. The tools, methods, and hardware, software challenges and preliminary performance are investigated and discussed.

  14. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties During SAFARI-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) operated onboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft during the SAFARI-2000 field campaign. The CPL provided high spatial resolution measurements of aerosol optical properties at both 1064 nm and 532 nm. We present here results of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol optical depth analysis and profiles of aerosol extinction. Variation of optical depth and extinction are examined as a function of regional location. The wide-scale aerosol mapping obtained by the CPL is a unique data set that will aid in future studies of aerosol transport. Comparisons between the airborne CPL and ground-based MicroPulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net) sites are shown to have good agreement.

  15. Diode - Pumped Nd:YAG Lidar for Airborne Cloud Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehnert, A.; Halldorsson, TH.; Herrmann, H.; Haering, R.; Krichbaumer, W.; Streicher, J.; Werner, CH.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the experimental method used to separate scattering and to use it for the determination of cloud microphysical parameters. It is also the first airborne test of a lidar version related to the ATLID Program - ESA's scheduled spaceborne lidar. The already tested DLR microlidar was modified with the new diode-pumped laser and a faster data recording system was added. The system was used during the CLEOPATRA campaign in the DLR research aircraft Falcon 20 to measure cloud parameters. The diode pumped Nd:YAG laser we developed for the microlidar is a modification of the laser we introduced at the Lidar Congress at 'Laser 1991' in Munich. Various aspects of this work are discussed.

  16. An Intercomparison of Airborne VOC and PAN Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Flocke, F.; Weinheimer, A.; Fall, R.; Goldan, P.; Hübler, G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2002-12-01

    As part of the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000) an informal airborne intercomparison has been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the-art of fast-response, in-situ methods for analyzing Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Instrumentation included a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), the Tropospheric Airborne Chromatograph for Oxy-hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbons (TACOH) and a gas chromatograph for PAN detection using electron capture (GC/ECD). The measurements were made in the Greater Houston area and East Texas in August/September 2000 during 13 flights with the NSF/NCAR ELECTRA aircraft. The intercomparison was conducted mainly in the boundary layer but included some encounters with air masses from the free troposphere. Final results from the intercomparison show that measurements of acetaldehyde, isoprene, the sum\\textsuperscript{*} of acetone and propanal, the sum\\textsuperscript{*} methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (\\textsuperscript{*} PTR-MS does not distinguish between isobaric species) and toluene agree very well. Poor agreement was achieved in the case of methanol and the underlying sensitivity problem in the PTR-MS or TACOH system is under investigation. The results of the PAN intercomparison indicate that the PTR-MS technique suffered from an interference most likely associated with the presence of peracetic acid in photochemically aged air. If this interfering signal was traced by periodically inserting a selective PAN scrubber (thermal decomposition) into the sample air stream and subtracted from the original signal, the corrected PTR-MS PAN data are in very good agreement with the GC/ECD results.

  17. Infrared heterodyne radiometer for airborne atmospheric transmittance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolczok, J. M.; Lange, R. A.; Dinardo, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    An infrared heterodyne radiometer (IHR) was used to measure atmospheric transmittance at selected hydrogen fluoride (2.7 micrometer) and deuterium fluoride (3.8 micrometer) laser transitions. The IHR was installed aboard a KC-135 aircraft for an airborne atmospheric measurements program that used the sun as a backlighting source for the transmission measurements. The critical components are: a wideband indium antimonide (1nSb) photomixer, a CW HF/DF laser L0, a radiometric processor, and a 1900 K blackbody reference source. The measured heterodyne receiver sensitivity (NEP) is 1.3 x 10 to the -19th power W/Hz, which yields a calculated IHR temperature resolution accuracy of delta I sub S/-3 sub S = 0.005 for a source temperature of 1000 K and a total transmittance of 0.5. Measured atmospheric transmittance at several wavelengths and aircraft altitudes from 9.14 km (30,000 ft) to 13.72 km (45,000 ft) were obtained during the measurements program and have been compared with values predicted by the AFGL Atmospheric Line Parameter Compilation.

  18. Airborne flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds over California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Karl, T.; Weber, R.; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, A. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-03-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK + MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over ∼10 000 km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions of isoprene. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate "instantaneous" fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Vertical flux divergence of isoprene is expected due to its relatively short lifetime and was measured directly using "racetrack" profiles at multiple altitudes. It was found to be linear and in the range 5% to 30% depending on the ratio of aircraft altitude to PBL height (z / zi). Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently at 400 ± 50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to Basal Emission Factor (BEF) landcover datasets used to drive biogenic VOC (BVOC) emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. While isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and

  19. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements VI (ACME VI) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S

    2015-12-01

    From October 1 through September 30, 2016, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility will deploy the Cessna 206 aircraft over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, collecting observations of trace-gas mixing ratios over the ARM’s SGP facility. The aircraft payload includes two Atmospheric Observing Systems, Inc., analyzers for continuous measurements of CO2 and a 12-flask sampler for analysis of carbon cycle gases (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, 13CO2, 14CO2, carbonyl sulfide, and trace hydrocarbon species, including ethane). The aircraft payload also includes instrumentation for solar/infrared radiation measurements. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s ARM Climate Research Facility and Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Program and builds upon previous ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) missions. The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange at the SGP site, 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative forcing, convective processes and CO2 concentrations over the SGP site, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  20. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  1. OPTIMIZING THE PAKS METHOD FOR MEASURING AIRBORNE ACROLEIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne acrolein is produced from the combustion of fuel and tobacco and is of concern due to its potential for respiratory tract irritation and other adverse health effects. DNPH active-sampling is a method widely used for sampling airborne aldehydes and ketones (carbonyls); ...

  2. Comparison of airborne lidar measurements with 420 kHz echo-sounder measurements of zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Churnside, James H; Thorne, Richard E

    2005-09-10

    Airborne lidar has the potential to survey large areas quickly and at a low cost per kilometer along a survey line. For this reason, we investigated the performance of an airborne lidar for surveys of zooplankton. In particular, we compared the lidar returns with echo-sounder measurements of zooplankton in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Data from eight regions of the Sound were compared, and the correlation between the two methods was 0.78. To obtain this level of agreement, a threshold was applied to the lidar return to remove the effects of scattering from phytoplankton. PMID:16161666

  3. Airborne microwave Doppler measurements of ocean wave directional spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Reeves, A. B.; Uliana, E. A.; Johnson, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    A technique is presented for measuring ocean wave directional spectra from aircraft using microwave Doppler radar. The technique involves backscattering coherent microwave radiation from a patch of sea surface which is small compared to dominant ocean wavelengths in the antenna look direction, and large compared to these lengths in the perpendicular (azimuthal) direction. The mean Doppler shift of the return signal measured over short time intervals is proportional to the mean sea surface velocity of the illuminated patch. Variable sea surface velocities induced by wave motion therefore produce time-varying Doppler shifts in the received signal. The large azimuthal dimension of the patch implies that these variations must be produced by surface waves traveling near the horizontal antenna look direction thus allowing determination of the direction of wave travel. Linear wave theory is used to convert the measured velocities into ocean wave spectral densities. Spectra measured simultaneously with this technique and two laser profilometers, and nearly simultaneous with this technique and two laser profilometers, and nearly simultaneous with a surface buoy, are presented. Applications and limitations of this airborne Doppler technique are discussed.

  4. Enhancement of Directional Ambiguity Removal Skill in Scatterometer Data Processing Using Planetary Boundary Layer Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young-Joon; Pak, Kyung S.; Dunbar, R. Scott; Hsiao, S. Vincent; Callahan, Philip S.

    2000-01-01

    Planetary boundary layer (PBL) models are utilized to enhance directional ambiguity removal skill in scatterometer data processing. The ambiguity in wind direction retrieved from scatterometer measurements is removed with the aid of physical directional information obtained from PBL models. This technique is based on the observation that sea level pressure is scalar and its field is more coherent than the corresponding wind. An initial wind field obtained from the scatterometer measurements is used to derive a pressure field with a PBL model. After filtering small-scale noise in the derived pressure field, a wind field is generated with an inverted PBL model. This derived wind information is then used to remove wind vector ambiguities in the scatterometer data. It is found that the ambiguity removal skill can be improved when the new technique is used properly in conjunction with the median filter being used for scatterometer wind dealiasing at JPL. The new technique is applied to regions of cyclone systems which are important for accurate weather prediction but where the errors of ambiguity removal are often large.

  5. Relating Hyperspectral Airborne Data to Ground Measurements in a Complex and Discontinuous Canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calleja, Javier F.; Hellmann, Christine; Mendiguren, Gorka; Punalekar, Suvarna; Peón, Juanjo; MacArthur, Alasdair; Alonso, Luis

    2015-12-01

    The work described in this paper is aimed at validating hyperspectral airborne reflectance data collected during the Regional Experiments For Land-atmosphere EXchanges (REFLEX) campaign. Ground reflectance data measured in a vineyard were compared with airborne reflectance data. A sampling strategy and subsequent ground data processing had to be devised so as to capture a representative spectral sample of this complex crop. A linear model between airborne and ground data was tried and statistically tested. Results reveal a sound correspondence between ground and airborne reflectance data (R2 > 0.97), validating the atmospheric correction of the latter.

  6. Using an A-10 Aircraft for Airborne measurements of TGFs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Christian, Hugh, J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Grove, J. Eric; Chektman, Alexandre; Jonsson, Haflidi; Detwiler, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Plans are underway to convert an A-10 combat attack aircraft into a research aircraft for thunderstorm research. This aircraft would be configured and instrumented for flights into large, convective thunderstorms. It would have the capabilities of higher altitude performance and protection for thunderstorm conditions that exceed those of aircraft now in use for this research. One area of investigation for this aircraft would be terrestrial gamma ]ray flashes (TGFs), building on the pioneering observations made by the Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) project several years ago. A new and important component of the planned investigations are the continuous, detailed correlations of TGFs with the electric fields near the aircraft, as well as detailed measurements of nearby lightning discharges. Together, the x-and gamma-radiation environments, the electric field measurements, and the lightning observations (all measured on microsecond timescales) should provide new insights into this TGF production mechanism. The A -10 aircraft is currently being modified for thunderstorm research. It is anticipated that the initial test flights for this role will begin next year.

  7. Airborne measurements of total reactive odd nitrogen (NO(y))

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebler, G.; Fahey, D. W.; Ridley, B. A.; Gregory, G. L.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne total reactive odd nitrogen measurements were made during August and September 1986 over the continental United States and off the west coast over the Pacific Ocean during NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 2 program. Measurements were made in the marine and continental boundary layer and the free troposphere up to 6.1 km altitude. NO(y) mixing ratios between 24 pptv and more than 1 ppbv were found, with median values of 101 pptv in the marine boundary layer, 298 pptv in the marine free troposphere, and 288 pptv in the continental free troposphere, respectively. The marine troposphere exhibited layered structure which was also seen in the simultaneously measured ozone mixing ratio and dew point temperature. The averaged vertical NO(y) profile over the ocean does not show a distinct gradient. The NO(y) mixing ratio over the continent decreases with increasing altitude. The latter is consistent with our understanding that the continents are the major source region for these gases.

  8. Ground and Airborne Methane Measurements using Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riris, Haris; Numata, Kenji; Li, Steve; Wu, Stewart; Kawa, Stephan R.; Abshire, James; Dawsey, Martha; Ramanathan, Anand

    2012-01-01

    We report on an initial airborne demonstration of atmospheric methane column measurements at 1.65 micrometers using a widely tunable, seeded optical parametric amplifier (OPA) lidar and a photon counting detector. Methane is an important greenhouse gas and accurate knowledge of its sources and sinks is needed for climate modeling. Our lidar system uses 20 pulses at increasing wavelengths and integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) to map a methane line at 1650.9 nanometers. The wavelengths are generated by using a Nd:YAG pump laser at 1064.5 nanometers and distributed feedback diode laser at 1650.9 nanometers and a periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal. The pulse width was 3 nanoseconds and the pulse repetition rate was 6.28 KHz. The outgoing energy was approximately 13 microJoules/pulse. A commercial 20 nanometer diameter fiber-coupled telescope with a photon counting detector operated in analog mode with a 0.8 nanometer bandpass filter was used as the lidar receiver. The lidar system was integrated on NASA's DC-8 flying laboratory, based at Dryden Airborne operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale CA. Three flights were performed in the central valley of California. Each flight lasted about 2.5 hours and it consisted of several flight segments at constant altitudes at approximately 3, 4.5, 6, 7.6, 9.1, 10.6 km (l0, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 kft). An in-situ cavity ring down spectrometer made by Picarro Inc. was flown along with the lidar instrument provided us with the "truth" i.e. the local CH4, CO2 and H2O concentrations at the constant flight altitude segments. Using the aircraft's altitude, GPS, and meteorological data we calculated the theoretical differential optical depth of the methane absorption at increasing altitudes. Our results showed good agreement between the experimentally derived optical depth measurements from the lidar instrument and theoretical calculations as the flight altitude was increased from 3 to 10.6 kilometers, assuming a

  9. Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Size Distributions During PACDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, D. C.; Gandrud, B.; Campos, T.; Kok, G.; Stith, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Pacific Dust Experiment (PACDEX) is an airborne project that attempts to characterize the indirect aerosol effect by tracing plumes of dust and pollution across the Pacific Ocean. This project occurred during April-May 2007 and used the NSF/NCAR HIAPER research aircraft. When a period of strong generation of dust particles and pollution was detected by ground-based and satellite sensors, then the aircraft was launched from Colorado to Alaska, Hawaii, and Japan. Its mission was to intercept and track these plumes from Asia, across the Pacific Ocean, and ultimately to the edges of North America. For more description, see the abstract by Stith and Ramanathan (this conference) and other companion papers on PACDEX. The HIAPER aircraft carried a wide variety of sensors for measuring aerosols, cloud particles, trace gases, and radiation. Sampling was made in several weather regimes, including clean "background" air, dust and pollution plumes, and regions with cloud systems. Altitude ranges extended from 100 m above the ocean to 13.4 km. This paper reports on aerosol measurements made with a new Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS), a Radial Differential Mobility Analyzer (RDMA), a water-based CN counter, and a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP). These cover the size range 10 nm to 10 um diameter. In clear air, dust was detected with the UHSAS and CDP. Polluted air was identified with high concentrations of carbon monoxide, ozone, and CN. Aerosol size distributions will be presented, along with data to define the context of weather regimes.

  10. Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Ren, X.; Brune, W. H.; Olson, J. R.; Crawford, J. H.; Fried, A.; Huey, L. G.; Cohen, R. C.; Heikes, B.; Singh, H. B.; Blake, D. R.; Sachse, G. W.; Diskin, G. S.; Hall, S. R.; Shetter, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of OH reactivity, the inverse of the OH lifetime, provides a powerful tool to investigate atmospheric photochemistry. A new airborne OH reactivity instrument was designed and deployed for the first time on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the second phase of Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B (INTEX-B) campaign, which was focused on the Asian pollution outflow over Pacific Ocean and was based in Hawaii and Alaska. The OH reactivity was measured by adding OH, generated by photolyzing water vapor with 185 nm UV light in a moveable wand, to the flow of ambient air in a flow tube and measuring the OH signal with laser induced fluorescence. As the wand was pulled back away from the OH detector, the OH signal decay was recorded; the slope of -Δln(signal)/Δ time was the OH reactivity. The overall absolute uncertainty at the 2σ confidence levels is about 1 s-1 at low altitudes (for decay about 6 s-1), and 0.7 s-1 at high altitudes (for decay about 2 s-1). From the median vertical profile obtained in the second phase of INTEX-B, the measured OH reactivity (4.0±1.0 s-1) is higher than the OH reactivity calculated from assuming that OH was in steady state (3.3±0.8 s-1), and even higher than the OH reactivity that was calculated from the total measurements of all OH reactants (1.6±0.4 s-1). Model calculations show that the missing OH reactivity is consistent with the over-predicted OH and under-predicted HCHO in the boundary layer and lower troposphere. The over-predicted OH and under-predicted HCHO suggest that the missing OH sinks are most likely related to some highly reactive VOCs that have HCHO as an oxidation product.

  11. Airborne flux measurements of Biogenic Isoprene over California

    SciTech Connect

    Misztal, P.; Karl, Thomas G.; Weber, Robin; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2014-10-10

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK+MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over ~10,000-km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions of isoprene. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate "instantaneous" fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Vertical flux divergence of isoprene is expected due to its relatively short lifetime and was measured directly using "racetrack" profiles at multiple altitudes. It was found to be linear and in the range 5% to 30% depending on the ratio of aircraft altitude to PBL height (z/zi). Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently 1 at 400 m ±50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to Basal Emission Factor (BEF) landcover datasets used to drive biogenic VOC (BVOC) emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. While isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and

  12. Coordinated airborne and satellite measurements of equatorial plasma depletions

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.J.; Brinton, H.C.; Buchau, J.; Moore, J.G.

    1982-12-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in December 1979 to investigate the structure of plasma depletions in the low latitude, nightime ionosphere. The measurements included all sky imaging photometer (ASIP), ionosonde and amplitude scintillation observations from the AFGL Airborne Ionospheric Observatory (AIO), and in situ ion density measurements from the Atmosphere Explorer (AE-E) Bennett Ion Mass Spectrometer (BIMS). The AIO performed two flights along the Ascension Island (-18/sup 0/ MLAT) magnetic meridian: one in the southern hemisphere and one near the Ascension conjugate point in the northern hemisphere. During these flights, measurements from the AE-E satellite at 434 km altitude are compared with simultaneous remote ionospheric measurements from the AIO. Density biteouts of approximately one order of magnitude in the dominant ion O/sup +/, were mapped to lower altitudes along magnetic field lines for comparison with 6300-A and 7774-A O I airglow depletions. Because of the different airglow production mechanisms (dissociative recombination of O/sup +//sub 2/ for 6300 A and radiative recombination of O/sup +/ for 7774 A) the 6300-A depletions reflect plasma depletions near the bottomside of the F layer, while those at 7774 A are located near the peak of the layer. The O/sup +/ biteouts map directly into the 7774-A airglow depletions in the same hemisphere and also when traced into the opposite hemisphere, which indicates magnetic flux tube alignment over north-south distances of approx.2220 km. The 6300-A (bottomside) depletions are wider in longitude than the 7774-A (F-peak) depletions near the equatorward edge of the Appleton anomaly. This difference in topside and bottomside structure is used to infer large-scale structure near the anomaly and to relate this to structure, commonly observed near the magnetic equator by the ALTAIR radar.

  13. Using airborne LIDAR to measure tides and river slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talke, S. A.; Hudson, A.; Chickadel, C. C.; Farquharson, G.; Jessup, A. T.

    2014-12-01

    The spatial variability of tides and the tidally-averaged water-level is often poorly resolved in shallow waters, despite its importance in validating models and interpreting dynamics. In this contribution we explore using airborne LIDAR to remotely observe tides and along-river slope in the Columbia River estuary (CRE). Using an airplane equipped with LIDAR, differential GPS, and an infra-red camera, we flew 8 longitudinal transects over a 50km stretch of the CRE over a 14 hour period in June 2013. After correcting for airplane elevation, pitch and roll and median filtering over 1km blocks, a spatially-resolved data set of relative water level was generated. Results show the tide (amplitude 2m) propagating upstream at the expected phase velocity. A sinusoid with 2 periods (12.4 and 24 hours) was next fit to data to produce a smooth tide and extract the mean slope. Comparison with 4 tide gauges indicates first order agreement with measured tides (rms error 0.1m), and confirms that a substantial sub-tidal gradient exists in the CRE. This proof-of-concept experiment indicates that remote sensing of tides in coastal areas is feasible, with possible applications such as improving bathymetric surveys or inferring water depths.

  14. Science opportunities using the NASA scatterometer on N-ROSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freilich, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration scatterometer (NSCAT) is to be flown as part of the Navy Remote Ocean Sensing System (N-ROSS) scheduled for launch in 1989. The NSCAT will provide frequent accurate and high-resolution measurements of vector winds over the global oceans. NSCAT data will be applicable to a wide range of studies in oceanography, meteorology, and instrument science. The N-ROSS mission, is outlined, are described. The capabilities of the NSCAT flight instrument and an associated NASA research ground data-processing and distribution system, and representative oceanographic meteorological, and instrument science studies that may benefit from NSCAT data are surveyed.

  15. Prediction of coastal winds using scatterometer and tower observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Satheesan, K.; Basu, Sujit; Rama, G. V.

    2006-12-01

    Possibility of predicting surface boundary layer winds over coastal land and ocean has been explored in this paper. Prediction has been effected using a modern nonlinear data-fitting algorithm known as genetic algorithm (GA) based on the Darwinian evolutionary theory. Time series of tower-mounted anemometer measured wind speed has been used for carrying out forecast over land while time series of satellite scatterometer derived winds has been used for forecast over coastal ocean. The prediction over land can feed into weather advisories required for rocket launching stations while prediction over coastal ocean can be of use in offshore industries.

  16. Design and construction of a Ka-band scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoll, Michael

    1994-10-01

    This report provides documentation of a Ka-band scatterometer designed and constructed for the Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station. The system is designed to work in conjunction with a Hewlett-Packard 8510 network analyzer to provide fully polarimetric measurements of back-scatter from terrain. It operates over a 2-GHz bandwidth and can be operated in a monostatic, quasimonostatic, or bistatic configuration. The design, theory of operation, and characteristics are provided as a means to assist the operator or to provide information to others wishing to construct their own.

  17. Observing Ocean Surface Wind-stress With Spacebased Scatterometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.

    2007-12-01

    Seven microwave scatterometers have been launched since the short life span of Seasat in 1978; they have provided ocean surface wind-stress vectors, night and days, under clear and cloudy conditions. The evolution of their capability will be summarized. The unique capability of measuring stress, as distinguished from winds, will be clarified, and major impact on scientific research and operational application will be highlighted. Potential increase in spatial resolution, reduction in directional ambiguities, improvement in strong wind retieval, and reduction rain attenuation will be discussed. Future international constellation in meeting the operational weather application requirement of six-hourly revisit time will be described.

  18. Mapping methane emission sources over California based on airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T.; Guha, A.; Peischl, J.; Misztal, P. K.; Jonsson, H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Ryerson, T. B.

    2011-12-01

    The California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32) has created a need to accurately characterize the emission sources of various greenhouse gases (GHGs) and verify the existing state GHG inventory. Methane (CH4) is a major GHG with a global warming potential of 20 times that of CO2 and currently constitutes about 6% of the total statewide GHG emissions on a CO2 equivalent basis. Some of the major methane sources in the state are area sources where methane is biologically produced (e.g. dairies, landfills and waste treatment plants) making bottom-up estimation of emissions a complex process. Other potential sources include fugitive emissions from oil extraction processes and natural gas distribution network, emissions from which are not well-quantified. The lack of adequate field measurement data to verify the inventory and provide independently generated estimates further contributes to the overall uncertainty in the CH4 inventory. In order to gain a better perspective of spatial distribution of major CH4 sources in California, a real-time measurement instrument based on Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) was installed in a Twin Otter aircraft for the CABERNET (California Airborne BVOC Emissions Research in Natural Ecosystems Transects) campaign, where the driving research goal was to understand the spatial distribution of biogenic VOC emissions. The campaign took place in June 2011 and encompassed over forty hours of airborne CH4 and CO2 measurements during eight unique flights which covered much of the Central Valley and its eastern edge, the Sacramento-San Joaquin delta and the coastal range. The coincident VOC measurements, obtained through a high frequency proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTRMS), aid in CH4 source identification. High mixing ratios of CH4 (> 2000 ppb) are observed consistently in all the flight transects above the Central Valley. These high levels of CH4 are accompanied by high levels of methanol which is an important

  19. Biweekly Maps of Wind Stress for the North Pacific from the ERS-1 Scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The European Remote-sensing Satellite (ERS-1) was launched in July 1991 and contained several instruments for observing the Earth's ocean including a wind scatterometer. The scatterometer measurements were processed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). JPL reprocessed (Freilich and Dunbar, 1992) the ERS-1 backscatter measurements to produced a 'value added' data set that contained the ESA wind vector as well as a set of up to four ambiguities. These ambiguities were further processed using a maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE) and a median filter to produce a 'selected vector.' This report describes a technique developed to produce time-averaged wind field estimates with their expected errors using only scatterometer wind vectors. The processing described in this report involved extracting regions of interest from the data tapes, checking the quality and creating the wind field estimate. This analysis also includes the derivation of biweekly average wind vectors over the North Pacific Ocean at a resolution of 0.50 x 0.50. This was done with an optimal average algorithm temporally and an over-determined biharmonic spline spatially. There have been other attempts at creating gridded wind files from ERS-1 winds, e.g., kriging techniques (Bentamy et al., 1996) and successive corrections schemes (Tang and Liu, 1996). There are several inherent problems with the ERS-1 scatterometer. Since this is a multidisciplinary mission, the satellite is flown in different orbits optimized for each phase of the mission. The scatterometer also shares several sub-systems with the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and cannot be operated while the SAR is in operation. The scatterometer is also a single-sided instrument and only measures backscatter along the right side of the satellite. The processing described here generates biweekly wind maps during the wktwo years analysis period regardless of the satellite orbit or missing data.

  20. Alexandrite laser transmitter development for airborne water vapor DIAL measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyba, Thomas H.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Higdon, Noah S.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Browell, Edward V.

    1995-01-01

    In the DIAL technique, the water vapor concentration profile is determined by analyzing the lidar backscatter signals for laser wavelengths tuned 'on' and 'off' a water vapor absorption line. Desired characteristics of the on-line transmitted laser beam include: pulse energy greater than or equal to 100 mJ, high-resolution tuning capability (uncertainty less than 0.25 pm), good spectral stability (jitter less than 0.5 pm about the mean), and high spectral purity (greater than 99 percent). The off-line laser is generally detuned less than 100 pm away from the water vapor line. Its spectral requirements are much less stringent. In our past research, we developed and demonstrated the airborne DIAL technique for water vapor measurements in the 720-nm spectral region using a system based on an alexandrite laser as the transmitter for the on-line wavelength and a Nd:YAG laser-pumped dye laser for the off-line wavelength. This off-line laser has been replaced by a second alexandrite laser. Diode lasers are used to injection seed both lasers for frequency and linewidth control. This eliminates the need for the two intracavity etalons utilized in our previous alexandrite laser and thereby greatly reduces the risk of optical damage. Consequently, the transmitted pulse energy can be substantially increased, resulting in greater measurement range, higher data density, and increased measurement precision. In this paper, we describe the diode injection seed source, the two alexandrite lasers, and the device used to line lock the on-line seed source to the water vapor absorption feature.

  1. Measurement of airborne particle concentrations near the Sunset Crater volcano, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Benke, Roland R; Hooper, Donald M; Durham, James S; Bannon, Donald R; Compton, Keith L; Necsoiu, Marius; McGinnis, Ronald N

    2009-02-01

    Direct measurements of airborne particle mass concentrations or mass loads are often used to estimate health effects from the inhalation of resuspended contaminated soil. Airborne particle mass concentrations were measured using a personal sampler under a variety of surface-disturbing activities within different depositional environments at both volcanic and nonvolcanic sites near the Sunset Crater volcano in northern Arizona. Focused field investigations were performed at this analog site to improve the understanding of natural and human-induced processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The level of surface-disturbing activity was found to be the most influential factor affecting the measured airborne particle concentrations, which increased over three orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. As the surface-disturbing activity level increased, the particle size distribution and the majority of airborne particle mass shifted from particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 mum (0.00039 in) to particles with aerodynamic diameters greater than 10 mum (0.00039 in). Under ambient conditions, above average wind speeds tended to increase airborne particle concentrations. In contrast, stronger winds tended to decrease airborne particle concentrations in the breathing zone during light and heavy surface-disturbing conditions. A slight increase in the average airborne particle concentration during ambient conditions was found above older nonvolcanic deposits, which tended to be finer grained than the Sunset Crater tephra deposits. An increased airborne particle concentration was realized when walking on an extremely fine-grained deposit, but the sensitivity of airborne particle concentrations to the resuspendible fraction of near-surface grain mass was not conclusive in the field setting when human activities disturbed the bulk of near-surface material. Although the limited sample size precluded detailed statistical analysis, the differences in airborne particle

  2. Airborne measurement of peroxy radicals in the lower troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés Hernández, Maria Dolores; Horstjann, Markus; Kartal, Deniz; Krebsbach, Marc; Linke, Christian; Lichtenstern, Michael; Andrey, Javier; Burrows, John P.

    2013-04-01

    The importance of peroxy radicals in the tropospheric chemistry is well recognized in the scientific literature. Hydroxy- and organic peroxy radicals (HO2 and RO2, R being an organic chain) are key intermediates in the OH radical initiated oxidation of CO and SO2, of volatile organic compounds (VOC), in the ozonolysis of alkenes and photo-oxidation of carbonyl species. Peroxy radicals are responsible for the ozone production in the troposphere, the formation of peroxides and other oxidants. Although radical chemistry in the troposphere has been subject of intensive research in the past three decades, it is still very few known about the vertical distribution of peroxy radicals. Airborne observations are scarce in spite of their particular importance to improve the understanding of the tropospheric chemistry and the oxidising capacity of the atmosphere at different altitudes. In situ trace gas measurements were carried out in summer 2010 on board of the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnicas Aeroespaciales) C212 aircraft over Spain in the frame of the EUFAR project VERDRILLT (VERtical Distribution of Radicals In the Lower Layers of the Troposphere), and in cooperation with the DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt), the University of Wuppertal, the CEAM (Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo) and the UPV-EHU University in Bilbao. VERDRILLT aimed at getting a deeper understanding of the vertical distribution of peroxy radicals in the lower layers of the troposphere. Measurements were taken over urban areas and extensions of different vegetation under meteorological conditions favouring active photochemistry and convection from the ground into close atmospheric layers. Results and main findings will be presented and discussed.

  3. Airborne particle concentrations at schools measured at different spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, G.; Fuoco, F. C.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.

    2013-03-01

    Potential adverse effects on children health may result from school exposure to airborne particles. To address this issue, measurements in terms of particle number concentration, particle size distribution and black carbon (BC) concentrations were performed in three school buildings in Cassino (Italy) and its suburbs, outside and inside of the classrooms during normal occupancy and use. Additional time resolved information was gathered on ventilation condition, classroom activity, and traffic count data around the schools were obtained using a video camera. Across the three investigated school buildings, the outdoor and indoor particle number concentration monitored down to 4 nm and up to 3 μm ranged from 2.8 × 104 part cm-3 to 4.7 × 104 part cm-3 and from 2.0 × 104 part cm-3 to 3.5 × 104 part cm-3, respectively. The total particle concentrations were usually higher outdoors than indoors, because no indoor sources were detected. I/O measured was less than 1 (varying in a relatively narrow range from 0.63 to 0.74), however one school exhibited indoor concentrations higher than outdoor during the morning rush hours. Particle size distribution at the outdoor site showed high particle concentrations in different size ranges, varying during the day; in relation to the starting and finishing of school time two modes were found. BC concentrations were 5 times higher at the urban school compared with the suburban and suburban-to-urban differences were larger than the relative differences of ultrafine particle concentrations.

  4. Airborne flux measurements of biogenic isoprene over California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Karl, T.; Weber, R.; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, A. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Biogenic isoprene fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene over 7400 km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes of isoprene over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate instantaneous isoprene fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently at 400 m ± 50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence determined in the racetrack-stacked profiles. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to basal emission factor (BEF) land-cover data sets used to drive BVOC emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. Even though the isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and coniferous forests were extremely low, observations at the Walnut Grove tower south of Sacramento demonstrate that isoprene oxidation products from the high emitting regions in the surrounding oak woodlands accumulate at night in

  5. Simple method for measuring vibration amplitude of high power airborne ultrasonic transducer: using thermo-couple.

    PubMed

    Saffar, Saber; Abdullah, Amir

    2014-03-01

    Vibration amplitude of transducer's elements is the influential parameters in the performance of high power airborne ultrasonic transducers to control the optimum vibration without material yielding. The vibration amplitude of elements of provided high power airborne transducer was determined by measuring temperature of the provided high power airborne transducer transducer's elements. The results showed that simple thermocouples can be used both to measure the vibration amplitude of transducer's element and an indicator to power transmission to the air. To verify our approach, the power transmission to the air has been investigated by other common method experimentally. The experimental results displayed good agreement with presented approach.

  6. Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements by Airborne Sun Photometer in SOLVE II: Comparisons to SAGE III, POAM III and Airborne Spectrometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Livingston, J.; Schmid, B.; Eilers, J.; Kolyer, R.; Redemann, J.; Ramirez, S.; Yee, J-H.; Swartz, W.; Shetter, R.

    2004-01-01

    The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) measured solar-beam transmission on the NASA DC-8 during the Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II). This paper presents AATS-14 results for multiwavelength aerosol optical depth (AOD), including its spatial structure and comparisons to results from two satellite sensors and another DC-8 instrument. These are the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement III (POAM III) and the Direct beam Irradiance Airborne Spectrometer (DIAS).

  7. Column Closure Studies of Lower Tropospheric Aerosol and Water Vapor During ACE-Asia Using Airborne Sunphotometer, Airborne In-Situ and Ship-Based Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Hegg, A.; Wang, J.; Bates, D.; Redemann, J.; Russells, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Jonsson, H. H.; Welton, E. J.; Seinfield, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    We assess the consistency (closure) between solar beam attenuation by aerosols and water vapor measured by airborne sunphotometry and derived from airborne in-situ, and ship-based lidar measurements during the April 2001 Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia). The airborne data presented here were obtained aboard the Twin Otter aircraft. Comparing aerosol extinction o(550 nm) from four different techniques shows good agreement for the vertical distribution of aerosol layers. However, the level of agreement in absolute magnitude of the derived aerosol extinction varied among the aerosol layers sampled. The sigma(550 nm) computed from airborne in-situ size distribution and composition measurements shows good agreement with airborne sunphotometry in the marine boundary layer but is considerably lower in layers dominated by dust if the particles are assumed to be spherical. The sigma(550 nm) from airborne in-situ scattering and absorption measurements are about approx. 13% lower than those obtained from airborne sunphotometry during 14 vertical profiles. Combining lidar and the airborne sunphotometer measurements reveals the prevalence of dust layers at altitudes up to 10 km with layer aerosol optical depth (from 3.5 to 10 km altitude) of approx. 0.1 to 0.2 (500 nm) and extinction-to-backscatter ratios of 59-71 sr (523 nm). The airborne sunphotometer aboard the Twin Otter reveals a relatively dry atmosphere during ACE- Asia with all water vapor columns less than 1.5 cm and water vapor densities w less than 12 g/cu m. Comparing layer water vapor amounts and w from the airborne sunphotometer to the same quantities measured with aircraft in-situ sensors leads to a high correlation (r(sup 3)=0.96) but the sunphotometer tends to underestimate w by 7%.

  8. Definition and fabrication of an airborne scatterometer radar signal processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A hardware/software system which incorporates a microprocessor design and software for the calculation of normalized radar cross section in real time was developed. Interface is provided to decommutate the NASA ADAS data stream for aircraft parameters used in processing and to provide output in the form of strip chart and pcm compatible data recording.

  9. Probabilities and statistics for backscatter estimates obtained by a scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Willard J., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for the recovery of winds near the surface of the ocean from measurements of the normalized radar backscattering cross section must recognize and make use of the statistics (i.e., the sampling variability) of the backscatter measurements. Radar backscatter values from a scatterometer are random variables with expected values given by a model. A model relates backscatter to properties of the waves on the ocean, which are in turn generated by the winds in the atmospheric marine boundary layer. The effective wind speed and direction at a known height for a neutrally stratified atmosphere are the values to be recovered from the model. The probability density function for the backscatter values is a normal probability distribution with the notable feature that the variance is a known function of the expected value. The sources of signal variability, the effects of this variability on the wind speed estimation, and criteria for the acceptance or rejection of models are discussed. A modified maximum likelihood method for estimating wind vectors is described. Ways to make corrections for the kinds of errors found for the Seasat SASS model function are described, and applications to a new scatterometer are given.

  10. Airborne measurements of peroxy radicals using the PERCA technique.

    PubMed

    Green, Timothy J; Reeves, Claire E; Brough, Neil; Edwards, Gavin D; Monks, Paul S; Penkett, Stuart A

    2003-02-01

    The Peroxy Radical Chemical Amplifier (PERCA) technique is a proven method for measurement of ambient levels of peroxy radicals at ground level, but there are no published instances of the technique being used on an aerial platform. Here we describe deployment of a PERCA on the former UK Meteorological Office C-130 Hercules research aircraft. The instrument uses the established method of chemical amplification and conversion of peroxy radicals to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by doping the sample air-flow matrix with CO and NO, subsequently measuring the NO2 yield with an improved 'Luminox' LMA-3 NO2 detector. NO2 from the amplification chemistry is distinguished from other sources of NO2 reaching the detector by periodically injecting CO approximately 1 s downstream of the NO injection point (termination mode). Chain lengths (CL's) for the amplification chemistry were typically approximately 260 (ground level) to approximately 200 (7,000 m). This variation with altitude is less than the variation associated with the 'age' of the PFA inlet material where the amplification chemistry occurs; CL's of approximately 200 with old tubing to approximately 300 with new clean tubing were typical (ground level values). The CL determinations were made in-flight using an onboard calibration unit based on the 254 nm photolysis of 7.5 to 10 parts per billion (by volume, ppbv) of CH3I in air, producing CH3O2 in a quantitative manner. The noise-equivalent detection limit for peroxy radicals (HO2 + RO2) is 2 parts per trillion (by volume, pptv) at 3,650 m when the background ambient ozone levels are stable, based on a 5 min average of five 30 s amplification cycles and five 30 s termination cycles. This detection limit is a function of several factors but is most seriously degraded when there is large variability in the ambient ozone concentration. This paper describes the instrument design, considers its performance and proposes design improvements. It concludes that the performance of an

  11. An improved hurricane wind vector retrieval algorithm using SeaWinds scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laupattarakasem, Peth

    Over the last three decades, microwave remote sensing has played a significant role in ocean surface wind measurement, and several scatterometer missions have flown in space since early 1990's. Although they have been extremely successful for measuring ocean surface winds with high accuracy for the vast majority of marine weather conditions, unfortunately, the conventional scatterometer cannot measure extreme winds condition such as hurricane. The SeaWinds scatterometer, onboard the QuikSCAT satellite is NASA's only operating scatterometer at present. Like its predecessors, it measures global ocean vector winds; however, for a number of reasons, the quality of the measurements in hurricanes are significantly degraded. The most pressing issues are associated with the presence of precipitation and Ku-band saturation effects, especially in extreme wind speed regime such as tropical cyclones (hurricanes and typhoons). Under this dissertation, an improved hurricane ocean vector wind retrieval approach, named as Q-Winds, was developed using existing SeaWinds scatterometer data. This unique data processing algorithm uses combined SeaWinds active and passive measurements to extend the use of SeaWinds for tropical cyclones up to approximately 50 m/s (Hurricane Category-3). Results show that Q-Winds wind speeds are consistently superior to the standard SeaWinds Project Level 2B wind speeds for hurricane wind speed measurement, and also Q-Winds provides more reliable rain flagging algorithm for quality assurance purposes. By comparing to H*Wind, Q-Winds achieves ˜9% of error, while L2B-12.5km exhibits wind speed saturation at ˜30 m/s with error of ˜31% for high wind speed (>40 m/s).

  12. Qualification of an integrated scatterometer for CD measurements of sub-100nm resist structures in a high-volume 300mm DRAM production environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschner, Thomas; Fleischer, Goeran; Fuchs, Stefan; Friedrich, Michael; Kramer, Uwe; Voigt, Matthias; Hetzer, Dave

    2005-05-01

    In our work, Tokyo Electron's iODP103 (integrated Optical Digital Profilometry) technology is used for integrated measurements on a next-generation Lithius Clean Track on after develop inspect (ADI) 300mm wafers. We show that single tool precision and tool-to-tool matching of three integrated systems fulfill the precision requirements of the 70nm DRAM technology node. Further results from a long-term pilot test using integrated scatterometry in a full-volume DRAM production of the 110nm technology node on 300mm wafers are also discussed. The data from our experiment is collected and charted in fab monitored statistical process control (SPC) charts, and compared to the charts from the POR CD-SEM measurements. The sampling plans are optimized in such a way as to perform fully integrated measurements on all wafers per lot, without throughput loss of the litho cluster. We demonstrate that the possibility of measuring all wafers per lot directly after development, in combination with the sensitivity of the method, allows the identification of effects that could not previously be identified by CD-SEM measurements alone.

  13. Objective Operational Utilization of Satellite Microwave Scatterometer Observations of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardone, Vincent J.; Cox, Andrew T.

    2000-01-01

    This study has demonstrated that high-resolution scatterometer measurements in tropical cyclones and other high-marine surface wind regimes may be retrieved accurately for wind speeds up to about 35 mls (1-hour average at 10 m) when the scatterometer data are processed through a revised geophysical model function, and a spatial adaptive algorithm is applied which utilizes the fact that wind direction is so tightly constrained in tile inner core of severe marine storms that wind direction may be prescribed from conventional data. This potential is demonstrated through case studies with NSCAT data in a severe West Pacific Typhoon (Violet, 1996) and an intense North Atlantic hurricane (Lili, 1996). However, operational scatterometer winds from NSCAT and QuickScat in hurricanes and severe winter storms are biased low in winds above 25 m/s. We have developed an inverse model to specify the entire surface wind field about a tropical cyclone from operational QuickScat scatterometer measurements within 150 nm of a storm center with the restriction that only wind speeds up to 20 m/s are used until improved model function are introduced. The inverse model is used to specify the wind field over the entire life-cycle of Hurricane Floyd (1999) for use to drive an ocean wave model. The wind field compares very favorably with wind fields developed from the copious aircraft flight level winds obtained in this storm.

  14. Airborne measurements of cloud forming nuclei and aerosol particles at Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radke, L. F.; Langer, G.; Hindman, E. E., II

    1978-01-01

    Results of airborne measurements of the sizes and concentrations of aerosol particles, ice nuclei, and cloud condensation nuclei that were taken at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are presented along with a detailed description of the instrumentation and measuring capabilities of the University of Washington airborne measuring facility (Douglas B-23). Airborne measurements made at Ft. Collins, Colorado, and Little Rock, Arkansas, during the ferry of the B-23 are presented. The particle concentrations differed significantly between the clean air over Ft. Collins and the hazy air over Little Rock and Kennedy Space Center. The concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei over Kennedy Space Center were typical of polluted eastern seaboard air. Three different instruments were used to measure ice nuclei: one used filters to collect the particles, and the others used optical and acoustical methods to detect ice crystals grown in portable cloud chambers. A comparison of the ice nucleus counts, which are in good agreement, is presented.

  15. Hydrometeor discrimination in melting layer using multiparameter airborne radar measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumagai, H.; Meneghini, R.; Kozu, T.

    1992-01-01

    Results from a multiparameter airborne radar/radiometer experiment (the Typhoon experiment) are presented. The experiment was conducted in the western Pacific with the NASA DC-8 aircraft, in which a dual-wavelength at X-band and Ka-band and dual-polarization at X-band radar was installed. The signatures of dBZ(X), dBZ(Ka), LDR (linear depolarization ratio) at X-band and DZ=dBZ(X)-dBZ(Ka) are discussed for the data obtained in the penetration of the typhoon Flo. With emphasis on discrimination of hydrometeor particles, some statistical features of the brightband in stratiform rain are discussed.

  16. Airborne tunable diode laser system for trace gas measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, G. W.; Hill, G. F.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Sachse et al. (1976) have reported the development of an airborne tunable diode laser (TDL) system, named the Differential Absorption CO Monitor (DACOM). The absorption path was 10 m long and located in the free airstream along the fuselage of a C-54 aircraft. The present investigation is concerned with a modification of the DACOM instrument. Differences between the new instrument and the original one are related to a replacement of the external absorption path with a White cell. The instrument has the capability to suppress TDL excess noise. The laser refrigerator has been redesigned to permit an alternative method of cooling the TDL when electric power is not available.

  17. Airborne 2-Micron Double Pulsed Direct Detection IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Reithmaier, Karl; Remus, Ruben; Singh, Upendra; Johnson, Will; Boyer, Charlie; Fay, James; Johnston, Susan; Murchison, Luke

    2015-01-01

    An airborne 2-micron double-pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar has been developed for atmospheric CO2 measurements. This new 2-miron pulsed IPDA lidar has been flown in spring of 2014 for total ten flights with 27 flight hours. It provides high precision measurement capability by unambiguously eliminating contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  18. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Leifer, I.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M.; Fladeland, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Kratwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Thorpe, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of the NASA/ESA CO2 and Methane Experiment (COMEX) campaign in California during June and August/September 2014. COMEX was a multi-platform campaign to measure CH4 plumes released from anthropogenic sources including oil and gas infrastructure. We discuss principles for real-time spectral signature detection and measurement, and report performance on the NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG). AVIRIS-NG successfully detected CH4 plumes in real-time at Gb s-1 data rates, characterizing fugitive releases in concert with other in situ and remote instruments. The teams used these real-time CH4 detections to coordinate measurements across multiple platforms, including airborne in situ, airborne non-imaging remote sensing, and ground-based in situ instruments. To our knowledge this is the first reported use of real-time trace gas signature detection in an airborne science campaign, and presages many future applications.

  19. Sampling and analysis method for measuring airborne coal dust mass in mixtures with limestone (rock) dust.

    PubMed

    Barone, T L; Patts, J R; Janisko, S J; Colinet, J F; Patts, L D; Beck, T W; Mischler, S E

    2016-01-01

    Airborne coal dust mass measurements in underground bituminous coal mines can be challenged by the presence of airborne limestone dust, which is an incombustible dust applied to prevent the propagation of dust explosions. To accurately measure the coal portion of this mixed airborne dust, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed a sampling and analysis protocol that used a stainless steel cassette adapted with an isokinetic inlet and the low temperature ashing (LTA) analytical method. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) routinely utilizes this LTA method to quantify the incombustible content of bulk dust samples collected from the roof, floor, and ribs of mining entries. The use of the stainless steel cassette with isokinetic inlet allowed NIOSH to adopt the LTA method for the analysis of airborne dust samples. Mixtures of known coal and limestone dust masses were prepared in the laboratory, loaded into the stainless steel cassettes, and analyzed to assess the accuracy of this method. Coal dust mass measurements differed from predicted values by an average of 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1% for samples containing 20%, 91%, and 95% limestone dust, respectively. The ability of this method to accurately quantify the laboratory samples confirmed the validity of this method and allowed NIOSH to successfully measure the coal fraction of airborne dust samples collected in an underground coal mine.

  20. Airborne volcanic plume measurements using a FTIR spectrometer, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, K.A.; Gerlach, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    A prototype closed-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer system (FTIK), operating from battery power and with a Stirling engine microcooler for detector cooling, was successfully used for airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide at Kilauea volcano. Airborne profiles of the volcanic plume emanating from the erupting Pu'u 'O'o vent on the East Rift of Kilauea revealed levels of nearly 3 ppm SO2 in the core of the plume. An emission rate of 2,160 metric tons per day of sulfur dioxide was calculated from the FTIR data, which agrees closely with simultaneous measurements by a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC). The rapid spatial sampling possible from an airborne platform distinguishes the methodology described here from previous FTIR measurements.

  1. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor: Recent Measurements and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Howell, James N.; Darby, Lisa S.; Tratt, David M.; Menzies, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    The coherent Doppler lidar, when operated from an airborne platform, offers a unique measurement capability for study of atmospheric dynamical and physical properties. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are at a disadvantage in terms of spatial resolution and coverage. Recent experience suggests airborne coherent Doppler lidar can yield unique wind measurements of--and during operation within--extreme weather phenomena. This paper presents the first airborne coherent Doppler lidar measurements of hurricane wind fields. The lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory jointly developed an airborne lidar system, the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS). The centerpiece of MACAWS is the lidar transmitter from the highly successful NOAA Windvan. Other field-tested lidar components have also been used, when feasible, to reduce costs and development time. The methodology for remotely sensing atmospheric wind fields with scanning coherent Doppler lidar was demonstrated in 1981; enhancements were made and the system was reflown in 1984. MACAWS has potentially greater scientific utility, compared to the original airborne scanning lidar system, owing to a factor of approx. 60 greater energy-per-pulse from the NOAA transmitter. MACAWS development was completed and the system was first flown in 1995. Following enhancements to improve performance, the system was re-flown in 1996 and 1998. The scientific motivation for MACAWS is three-fold: obtain fundamental measurements of subgrid scale (i.e., approx. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in hydrological, climate, and general

  2. Airborne lidar measurements of wave energy dissipation in a coral reef lagoon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhi-Cheng; Reineman, Benjamin D.; Lenain, Luc; Melville, W. Kendall; Middleton, Jason H.

    2012-03-01

    Quantification of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate in the water column, ɛ, is very important for assessing nutrient uptake rates of corals and therefore the health of coral reef lagoon systems. However, the availability of such data is limited. Recently, at Lady Elliot Island (LEI), Australia, we showed that there was a strong correlation between in situ measurements of surface-wave energy dissipation and ɛ. Previously, Reineman et al. (2009), we showed that a small airborne scanning lidar system could measure the surface wavefield remotely. Here we present measurements demonstrating the use of the same airborne lidar to remotely measure surface wave energy fluxes and dissipation and thereby estimate ɛ in the LEI reef-lagoon system. The wave energy flux and wave dissipation rate across the fore reef and into the lagoon are determined from the airborne measurements of the wavefield. Using these techniques, observed spatial profiles of energy flux and wave energy dissipation rates over the LEI reef-lagoon system are presented. The results show that the high lidar backscatter intensity and point density coming from the high reflectivity of the foam from depth-limited breaking waves coincides with the high wave-energy dissipation rates. Good correlations between the airborne measurements and in situ observations demonstrate that it is feasible to apply airborne lidar systems for large-scale, long-term studies in monitoring important physical processes in coral reef environments. When added to other airborne techniques, the opportunities for efficient monitoring of large reef systems may be expanded significantly.

  3. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor: Recent Measurements and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Howell, Burgess F.; Hardesty, Robert M.; Tratt, David M.; Darby, Lisa S.

    1999-01-01

    The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center jointly developed an airborne scanning coherent Doppler Lidar. We describe the system, present recent measurement (including the first wind fields measured within a hurricane using Doppler lidar), and describe prospective instrument improvements and research applications.

  4. Airborne 2-Micron Double Pulsed Direct Detection IPDA Lidar for Atmospheric CO2 Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Reithmaier, Karl; Remus, Ruben; Singh, Upendra; Johnson, Will; Boyer, Charlie; Fay, James; Johnston, Susan; Murchison, Luke

    2016-06-01

    An airborne 2-micron double-pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar has been developed for atmospheric CO2 measurements. This new instrument has been flown in spring of 2014 for a total of ten flights with 27 flight hours. This IPDA lidar provides high precision measurement capability by unambiguously eliminating contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the results.

  5. Airborne lidar measurements of ozone and aerosols during the pacific exploratory mission-tropics A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenn, Marta A.; Browell, Edward V.; Grant, William B.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.; Clayton, Marian B.; Brackett, Vincent G.; Gregory, Gerald L.

    1998-01-01

    Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol and ozone distributions from the surface to above the tropopause over the South Pacific Ocean are presented. The measurements illustrate large-scale features of the region, and are used to quantify the relative contributions of different ozone sources to the tropospheric ozone budget in this remote region.

  6. Column CO2 Measurement From an Airborne Solid-State Double-Pulsed 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, U. N.; Yu, J.; Petros, M.; Refaat, T. F.; Remus, R.; Fay, J.; Reithmaier, K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micrometers IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  7. Development of Airborne Eddy-Correlation Flux Measurement Capabilities for Reactive Oxides of Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandholm, Scott

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses the Tropospheric Trace Gas and Airborne Measurement Group (TTGAMG) endeavors to continue to push the evolution of the Georgia Institute of Technology's Airborne Laser Induced Fluorescence Experiment (GITALIFE) into a sensor capable of making airborne eddy correlation measurements of nitrogen oxides. It will mainly address the TTGAMG successes and failures as well as its participation in the summer 1998 Wallops Island test flights on board the P3-B. Due to the restructuring and reorganization of the TTGAMG since the original funding of this grant, some of the objectives and the deliverables can not be achieved as proposed in the original funding of this grant. Most of these changes have been driven by the passing away of John Bradshaw, the original principal investigator.

  8. Aircraft scatterometer observations of soil moisture on rangeland watersheds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive studies conducted by several researchers using truck-mounted active microwave sensors have shown the sensitivity of these sensors to soil moisture variations. The logical extension of these results is the evaluation of similar systems at lower resolutions typical of operational systems. Data collected during a series of aircraft flights in 1978 and 1980 over four rangeland watersheds located near Chickasha, Oklahoma, were analyzed in this study. These data included scatterometer measurements made at 1.6 and 4.75 GHz using a NASA aircraft and ground observations of soil moisture for a wide range of moisture conditions. Data were analyzed for consistency and compared to previous truck and aircraft results. Results indicate that the sensor system is capable of providing consistent estimates of soil moisture under the conditions tested.

  9. S-193 scatterometer backscattering cross section precision/accuracy for Skylab 2 and 3 missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, K.; Pounds, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Procedures for measuring the precision and accuracy with which the S-193 scatterometer measured the background cross section of ground scenes are described. Homogeneous ground sites were selected, and data from Skylab missions were analyzed. The precision was expressed as the standard deviation of the scatterometer-acquired backscattering cross section. In special cases, inference of the precision of measurement was made by considering the total range from the maximum to minimum of the backscatter measurements within a data segment, rather than the standard deviation. For Skylab 2 and 3 missions a precision better than 1.5 dB is indicated. This procedure indicates an accuracy of better than 3 dB for the Skylab 2 and 3 missions. The estimates of precision and accuracy given in this report are for backscattering cross sections from -28 to 18 dB. Outside this range the precision and accuracy decrease significantly.

  10. Results of a study on polarization mix selection for the NSCAT scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, David G.; Dunbar, R. Scott; Shaffer, Scott; Freilich, Michael H.; Hsiao, S. Vincent

    1989-01-01

    The NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) is an instrument designed to measure the radar backscatter of the ocean's surface for estimating the near-surface wind velocity. A given resolution element is observed from several different azimuth angles. From these measurements the near-surface vector wind over the ocean may be inferred using a geophysical model function relating the normalized radar backscatter coefficient (sigma0) to the near-surface wind. The results of a study to select a polarization mix for NSCAT using an end-to-end simulation of the NSCAT scatterometer and ground processing of the sigma0 measurements into unambiguous wind fields using a median-filter-based ambiguity-removal algorithm are presented. The system simulation was used to compare the wind measurement accuracy and ambiguity removal skill over a set of realistic mesoscale wind fields for various polarization mixes. Considerations in the analysis and simulation are discussed, and a recommended polarization mix is given.

  11. High Energy 2-Micron Solid-State Laser Transmitter for NASA's Airborne CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin

    2012-01-01

    A 2-micron pulsed, Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar instrument for ground and airborne atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements via direct detection method is being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This instrument will provide an alternate approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations with significant advantages. A high energy pulsed approach provides high-precision measurement capability by having high signal-to-noise level and unambiguously eliminates the contamination from aerosols and clouds that can bias the IPDA measurement.

  12. Airborne VLF measurements and mapping of ground conductivity in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Laust B.; Persson, Lena; Bastani, Mehrdad; Byström, Sören

    2009-03-01

    Airborne VLF data are routinely collected by The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) as part of its bedrock mapping programme. In this paper we demonstrate that the novel Tensor VLF technique developed at Uppsala University and SGU can provide useful qualitative and quantitative information about the electrical conductivity distribution in the upper few hundred meters. Single transmitter scalar VLF maps emphasize those conductive structures that have dominant strikes in the direction of the transmitter. The tensor tipper (essentially the vertical magnetic field from currents along the strike direction) calculated from multiple transmitters is dependent only upon the underlying conductivity structure. Transformation of the tipper into the peaker (the horizontal divergence) has proven to enhance the lateral resolution while the transformation to the apparent resistivity can be used to discriminate different rock types. Two case histories from the application of VLF data are presented in this study. Two dimensional structures can be quantitatively modelled by modern inversion methods developed originally for deep electromagnetic MT soundings. Direct inversion of the real and imaginary parts of the tipper provides more quantitative information about the subsurface resistivity distribution.

  13. Utilizing The Synergy of Airborne Backscatter Lidar and In-Situ Measurements for Evaluating CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekeri, Alexandra; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marenco, Franco; Marinou, Eleni; Rosenberg, Phil; Solomos, Stavros; Trembath, Jamie; Allan, James; Bacak, Asan; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-06-01

    Airborne campaigns dedicated to satellite validation are crucial for the effective global aerosol monitoring. CALIPSO is currently the only active remote sensing satellite mission, acquiring the vertical profiles of the aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients. Here we present a method for CALIPSO evaluation from combining lidar and in-situ airborne measurements. The limitations of the method have to do mainly with the in-situ instrumentation capabilities and the hydration modelling. We also discuss the future implementation of our method in the ICE-D campaign (Cape Verde, August 2015).

  14. Measurements of Solar Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence at 685 nm by Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, F.; Yee, J. H.; Boldt, J.; Cook, W. B.; Corp, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) by terrestrial vegetation is linked closely to photosynthetic efficiency that can be exploited to monitor the plant health status and to assess the terrestrial carbon budget from space. The weak, broad continuum ChlF signal can be detected from the fill-in of strong O2 absorption lines or solar Fraunhofer lines in the reflected spectral radiation. The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS) is a triple etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer designed and optimized specifically for the ChlF sensing from an airborne platform using this line fill-in technique. In this paper, we will present the results of APFS ChlF measurements obtained from a NASA Langley King Air during two airborne campaigns (12/12 in 2014 and 5/20 in 2015) over various land, river, and vegetated targets in Virginia during stressed and growth seasons.

  15. Experimental feasibility of the airborne measurement of absolute oil fluorescence spectral conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne lidar oil spill experiments carried out to determine the practicability of the AOFSCE (absolute oil fluorescence spectral conversion efficiency) computational model are described. The results reveal that the model is suitable over a considerable range of oil film thicknesses provided the fluorescence efficiency of the oil does not approach the minimum detection sensitivity limitations of the lidar system. Separate airborne lidar experiments to demonstrate measurement of the water column Raman conversion efficiency are also conducted to ascertain the ultimate feasibility of converting such relative oil fluorescence to absolute values. Whereas the AOFSCE model is seen as highly promising, further airborne water column Raman conversion efficiency experiments with improved temporal or depth-resolved waveform calibration and software deconvolution techniques are thought necessary for a final determination of suitability.

  16. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, B.; Davis, K.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Browell, E. V.; Chen, G.; Dobler, J. T.; Fried, A.; Lauvaux, T.; Lin, B.; McGill, M. J.; Miles, N. L.; Nehrir, A. R.; Obland, M. D.; O'Dell, C.; Sweeney, C.; Yang, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital - 2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT - America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT - America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2 and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  17. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, Byron; Davis, Ken; Barrick, John; Browell, Edward; Chen, Gao; Dobler, Jeremy; Fried, Alan; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lin, Bing; McGill, Matt; Miles, Natasha; Nehrir, Amin; Obland, Michael; O'Dell, Chris; Sweeney, Colm; Yang, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital -2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport -America (ACT -America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT -America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  18. Comparison of multispectral airborne scanner reflectance images with ground surface reflectance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kollewe, M.; Bienlein, J.; Kollewe, T.; Spitzer, H.

    1996-11-01

    Simultaneously with an airborne data taking campaign near the city of Nurnberg (FRG), performed with an imaging 11-channel scanner of type Daedalus AADS 1268, ground reference measurements of reflectance spectra were conducted with a spectrally high resolving spectroradiometer of type IRIS at selected test sites. Based on a method developed reflectance images are calculated from the aerial raw data. Thus, physical quantities of the surfaces are generated, which are independent of illumination and registration conditions. The airborne scanner reflectance images are compared with ground reference reflectance measurements. The comparison yields deviations up to 35%. They can partially be explained by an inaccurate calibration of the airborne scanner. In addition, errors appear during calculation of the reflectances due to simplifying model assumptions and an inexact knowledge of the values of the model input parameters. It is shown that calibration of the airborne scanner data with the ground reference measurements improves the results, as compared to calibration based on laboratory testbench measurements. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Airborne measurements in the longwave infrared using an imaging hyperspectral sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, Jean-Pierre; Chamberland, Martin; Farley, Vincent; Marcotte, Frédérick; Rolland, Matthias; Vallières, Alexandre; Villemaire, André

    2008-07-01

    Emerging applications in Defense and Security require sensors with state-of-the-art sensitivity and capabilities. Among these sensors, the imaging spectrometer is an instrument yielding a large amount of rich information about the measured scene. Standoff detection, identification and quantification of chemicals in the gaseous state is one important application. Analysis of the surface emissivity as a means to classify ground properties and usage is another one. Imaging spectrometers have unmatched capabilities to meet the requirements of these applications. Telops has developed the FIRST, a LWIR hyperspectral imager. The FIRST is based on the Fourier Transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. The FIRST, a man portable sensor, provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at 0.35mrad spatial resolution over the 8-12 μm spectral range at spectral resolutions of up to 0.25cm-1. The FIRST has been used in several field campaigns, including the demonstration of standoff chemical agent detection [http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.788027.1]. More recently, an airborne system integrating the FIRST has been developed to provide airborne hyperspectral measurement capabilities. The airborne system and its capabilities are presented in this paper. The FIRST sensor modularity enables operation in various configurations such as tripod-mounted and airborne. In the airborne configuration, the FIRST can be operated in push-broom mode, or in staring mode with image motion compensation. This paper focuses on the airborne operation of the FIRST sensor.

  20. Magnetic Approaches to Measuring and Mitigating Airborne Particulate Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, B.

    2014-12-01

    Human exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) generates adverse human health impacts at all life stages from the embryonic to the terminal, including damage to respiratory and cardiovascular health, and neurodevelopment and cognitive function. Detailed understanding of the causal links between PM exposure and specific health impacts, and possible means to reduce PM exposure require knowledge of PM concentrations, compositions and sources at the fine-scale; i.e. beyond the current resolution of spatially-sparse conventional PM monitoring, non-unique elemental analyses, or poorly-validated PM modelling. Magnetically-ordered iron oxide minerals appear to be a ubiquitous component of urban PM. These minerals derive partly from the presence of iron impurities in fuels, which form, upon combustion, a non-volatile residue, often dominated by magnetite, within glassy, spherical condensates. Iron-rich, magnetic PM also arises from abrasion from vehicle components, including disk brakes, and road dust. The ubiquity and diversity of these magnetic PM phases, and the speed and sensitivity of magnetic analyses (down to trace concentrations), makes possible rapid, cost-effective magnetic characterization and quantification of PM, a field of study which has developed rapidly across the globe over the last 2 decades. Magnetic studies of actively-sampled PM, on filters, and passively-sampled PM, on tree leaves and other depositional surfaces, can be used to: monitor and map at high spatial resolution ambient PM concentrations; address the controversial issue of the efficacy of PM capture by vegetation; and add a new, discriminatory dimension to PM source apportionment.

  1. Real-time remote detection and measurement for airborne imaging spectroscopy: a case study with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Leifer, I.; Bovensmann, H.; Eastwood, M.; Fladeland, M.; Frankenberg, C.; Gerilowski, K.; Green, R. O.; Kratwurst, S.; Krings, T.; Luna, B.; Thorpe, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    Localized anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain and temporally variable. Airborne remote measurement is an effective method to detect and quantify these emissions. In a campaign context, the science yield can be dramatically increased by real-time retrievals that allow operators to coordinate multiple measurements of the most active areas. This can improve science outcomes for both single- and multiple-platform missions. We describe a case study of the NASA/ESA CO2 and MEthane eXperiment (COMEX) campaign in California during June and August/September 2014. COMEX was a multi-platform campaign to measure CH4 plumes released from anthropogenic sources including oil and gas infrastructure. We discuss principles for real-time spectral signature detection and measurement, and report performance on the NASA Next Generation Airborne Visible Infrared Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG). AVIRIS-NG successfully detected CH4 plumes in real-time at Gb s-1 data rates, characterizing fugitive releases in concert with other in situ and remote instruments. The teams used these real-time CH4 detections to coordinate measurements across multiple platforms, including airborne in situ, airborne non-imaging remote sensing, and ground-based in situ instruments. To our knowledge this is the first reported use of real-time trace-gas signature detection in an airborne science campaign, and presages many future applications. Post-analysis demonstrates matched filter methods providing noise-equivalent (1σ) detection sensitivity for 1.0 % CH4 column enhancements equal to 141 ppm m.

  2. Integrated Airborne and In-Situ Measurements over Land-Fast Ice near Barrow, AK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozena, J. M.; Gardner, J. M.; Liang, R.; Ball, D.; Richter-Menge, J.; Claffey, K. J.; Abelev, A.; Hebert, D. A.; Jones, K.

    2014-12-01

    During March of 2014, the Naval Research Laboratory and the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory collected an integrated set of airborne and in-situ measurements over two areas of floating, but land-fast ice near the coast of Barrow, AK. The near-shore site was just north of Point Barrow, and the "offshore" site was ~ 20 km east of Point Barrow. The in-situ data provided ground-truth for airborne measurements from a scanning LiDAR (Riegl Q 560i), digital photogrammetry (Applanix DSS-439) and a snow radar procured from the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets of the University of Kansas. The objective of the survey was to aid our understanding of the use of the airborne data to calibrate/validate Cryosat-2 data. Sampling size or "footprint" plays a critical role in the attempt to compare in-situ measurements with airborne (or satellite) measurements. Thus the in-situ data were arranged to minimize aliasing. Ground measurements were collected along transects at both sites consisting of a 2 km long profile of snow depth and ice thickness measurements with periodic boreholes. A 60 m x 400 m swath of snow depth measurements was centered on this profile. Airborne data were collected on five overflights of the two transect areas. The LiDAR measured total freeboard (ice + snow) referenced to leads in the ice, and produced swaths 200-300 m wide. The radar measured snow thickness. The freeboard and snow thickness measurements are used to estimate ice thickness via isostasy and density estimates. The central swath of in situ snow depth data allows examination of the effects of cross-track variations considering the relatively large footprint of the snow radar. Assuming a smooth, flat surface the radar range resolution in air is < 4 cm, but the along-track sampling distance is ~ 3 m after unfocussed SAR processing. The width of the footprint varies from ~ 9 m up to about 40 m (beam-limited) for uneven surfaces. However, the radar could not resolve snow thickness

  3. Integrated Airborne and In-Situ Measurements Over Land-Fast Ice Near Barrow, AK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. M.; Brozena, J. M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Abelev, A.; Liang, R.; Ball, D.; Claffey, K. J.; Hebert, D. A.; Jones, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory has collected two field seasons of integrated airborne and in-situ measurements over multiple sites of floating, but land-fast ice north of Barrow, AK. During the first season in March of 2014 the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory led the on-ice group including NRL personnel and Naval Academy midshipmen. The second season (March 2015) included only NRL scientists and midshipmen. The in-situ data provided ground-truth for airborne measurements from a scanning LiDAR (Riegl Q 560i), digital photogrammetry (Applanix DSS-439), a low-frequency SAR (P-band in 2014 and P and L bands in 2015) and a snow/Ku radar procured from the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets of the University of Kansas. The CReSIS radar was updated in 2015 to integrate the snow and Ku radars into a single continuous chirp, thus improving resolution. The objective of the survey was to aid our understanding of the use of the airborne data to calibrate/validate Cryosat-2 data. Sampling size or "footprint" plays a critical role in the attempt to compare in-situ measurements with airborne (or satellite) measurements. Thus the in-situ data were arranged to minimize aliasing. Ground measurements were collected along transects a sites generally consisting of a 2 km long profile of Magnaprobe and EM31 measurements with periodic boreholes. A 60 m x 400 m swath of Magnaprobe measurements was centered on this profile. Airborne data were collected on multiple overflights of the transect areas. The LiDAR measured total freeboard (ice + snow) referenced to leads in the ice, and produced swaths 200-300 m wide. The SAR imaged the ice beneath the snow and the snow/Ku radar measured snow thickness. The freeboard measurements and snow thickness are used to estimate ice thickness via isostasy and density estimates. Comparisons and processing methodology will be shown. The results of this ground-truth experiment will inform our analysis of grids of airborne data collected

  4. Atmospheric Airborne Pressure Measurements Using the Oxygen A Band for the ASCENDS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Riris, H.; Abshire, J. B.; Allan, G. R.; Stephen, M.; Hasselbrack, W.; Mao, J.

    2012-12-01

    We report on airborne atmospheric pressure measurements using fiber-based laser technology and the oxygen A-band at 765 nm. Remote atmospheric temperature and pressure measurements are needed for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions Over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. ASCENDS will measure atmospheric CO2 dry mixing ratios on a global scale. Remote atmospheric pressure measurements are necessary to normalize ASCENDS CO2 measurements. Our work, funded by the ESTO IIP program, uses erbium doped fiber optic amplifiers and non-linear optics technology to tune laser radiation over the Oxygen A-band between 764.5 nm and 765 nm. Surface reflections are fiber-coupled from a receiver telescope to photon counting detectors. Our pulsed, time gated approach resolves ground reflections from cloud returns. This system successfully recorded O2 absorption spectra during two airborne campaigns aboard a NASA DC-8. Airborne data has been analyzed and fitted to HITRAN reference spectra based upon aircraft meteorological data. Our algorithm linearly scales the HITRAN reference until measurement errors are minimized. Atmospheric pressure changes are estimated by comparing the differential optical depth of the optimum scaled HITRAN spectra to the differential optical depth of the nominal HITRAN spectra. On flights over gradually sloping terrain, these results compare favorably with ground-based observations and predictions from computer models. Measurement uncertainty is commensurate with photon counting noise. We plan to reduce measurement uncertainty in future campaigns by improving transmitter pulse energy and increasing wavelength sweep frequency.

  5. Airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture during FIFE: Activities and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Soil moisture measurements were obtained during the summer of 1987 and 1989 near Manhattan, Kansas, using the National Weather Service (NWS) airborne gamma radiation system. A network of 24 flight lines were established over the research area. Airborne surveys were flown daily during two intensive field campaigns. The data collected was sufficient to modify the NWS standard operational method for estimating soil moisture for the Field Experiment (FIFE) flight lines. The average root mean square error of the soil moisture estimates for shorter FIFE flight lines was found to be 2.5 percent, compared with a reported value of 3.9 percent for NWS flight lines. Techniques were developed to compute soil moisture estimates for portions of the flight lines. Results of comparisons of the airborne gamma radiation soil moisture estimates with those obtained using the NASA Pushbroom Microwave Radiation (PBMR) system and hydrological model are presented. The airborne soil moisture measurements, and real averages computed using all remotely sensed and ground data, have been in support of the research of the many FIFE investigators whose overall goal was the upscale integration of models and the application of satellite remote sensing.

  6. Assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Remote measurement of chlorophyll concentrations to determine extent of water pollution is discussed. Construction and operation of radiometer to provide measurement capability are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

  7. Airborne high spectral resolution lidar for measuring aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients.

    PubMed

    Esselborn, Michael; Wirth, Martin; Fix, Andreas; Tesche, Matthias; Ehret, Gerhard

    2008-01-20

    An airborne high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) based on an iodine absorption filter and a high-power frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser has been developed to measure backscatter and extinction coefficients of aerosols and clouds. The instrument was operated aboard the Falcon 20 research aircraft of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment in May-June 2006 to measure optical properties of Saharan dust. A detailed description of the lidar system, the analysis of its data products, and measurements of backscatter and extinction coefficients of Saharan dust are presented. The system errors are discussed and airborne HSRL results are compared to ground-based Raman lidar and sunphotometer measurements.

  8. Airborne 2-Micron Double-Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for Column CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Fay, James J.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Double-pulse 2-micron lasers have been demonstrated with energy as high as 600 millijouls and up to 10 Hz repetition rate. The two laser pulses are separated by 200 microseconds and can be tuned and locked separately. Applying double-pulse laser in DIAL system enhances the CO2 measurement capability by increasing the overlap of the sampled volume between the on-line and off-line. To avoid detection complicity, integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar provides higher signal-to-noise ratio measurement compared to conventional range-resolved DIAL. Rather than weak atmospheric scattering returns, IPDA rely on the much stronger hard target returns that is best suited for airborne platforms. In addition, the IPDA technique measures the total integrated column content from the instrument to the hard target but with weighting that can be tuned by the transmitter. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. Currently, NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micron IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  9. Device and method for accurately measuring concentrations of airborne transuranic isotopes

    DOEpatents

    McIsaac, C.V.; Killian, E.W.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Kynaston, R.L.; Johnson, L.O.; Randolph, P.D.

    1996-09-03

    An alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) with two silicon alpha detectors and three sample collection filters is described. This alpha CAM design provides continuous sampling and also measures the cumulative transuranic (TRU), i.e., plutonium and americium, activity on the filter, and thus provides a more accurate measurement of airborne TRU concentrations than can be accomplished using a single fixed sample collection filter and a single silicon alpha detector. 7 figs.

  10. Device and method for accurately measuring concentrations of airborne transuranic isotopes

    DOEpatents

    McIsaac, Charles V.; Killian, E. Wayne; Grafwallner, Ervin G.; Kynaston, Ronnie L.; Johnson, Larry O.; Randolph, Peter D.

    1996-01-01

    An alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) with two silicon alpha detectors and three sample collection filters is described. This alpha CAM design provides continuous sampling and also measures the cumulative transuranic (TRU), i.e., plutonium and americium, activity on the filter, and thus provides a more accurate measurement of airborne TRU concentrations than can be accomplished using a single fixed sample collection filter and a single silicon alpha detector.

  11. All-Fiber Airborne Coherent Doppler Lidar to Measure Wind Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiqiao; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Diao, Weifeng; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Yuan; Bi, Decang; Jiang, Liyuan; Shi, Wei; Zhu, Xiaolei; Chen, Weibiao

    2016-06-01

    An all-fiber airborne pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) prototype at 1.54μm is developed to measure wind profiles in the lower troposphere layer. The all-fiber single frequency pulsed laser is operated with pulse energy of 300μJ, pulse width of 400ns and pulse repetition rate of 10kHz. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest pulse energy of all-fiber eye-safe single frequency laser that is used in airborne coherent wind lidar. The telescope optical diameter of monostatic lidar is 100 mm. Velocity-Azimuth-Display (VAD) scanning is implemented with 20 degrees elevation angle in 8 different azimuths. Real-time signal processing board is developed to acquire and process the heterodyne mixing signal with 10000 pulses spectra accumulated every second. Wind profiles are obtained every 20 seconds. Several experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of the lidar. We have carried out airborne wind lidar experiments successfully, and the wind profiles are compared with aerological theodolite and ground based wind lidar. Wind speed standard error of less than 0.4m/s is shown between airborne wind lidar and balloon aerological theodolite.

  12. Airborne Cloud Microphysical Measurements During The Baltex Bridge Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, S.; Wendisch, M.; Jaekel, E.

    The purpose of the Baltex Bridge Campaign (BBC) was to study the effects of spatial and temporal variability of clouds on solar radiative transfer. The BBC was conducted in the Netherlands in September 2001. Ground-based measurements with several remote sensing instruments (radar, radiometers) were realised in conjunction with microphysical and radiative measurements by three aircraft. The aim is to extract 3-dimensional microphysical cloud parameters such as liquid water content (LWC) and droplet effective radius (Re) and to use these data in dynamical and radiative transfer models whose output is then compared with radiation measurements. In this presentation, the analysis of microphysical data from one of the aircraft is reported. Two different optical instruments were flown: The PVM-100A (Particle Volume Monitor) measures LWC and Re by analysing the scattering signal of a droplet population within the sample volume of a laser beam. It was run at a sampling frequency of 200 Hz, allowing a spatial resolution down to 30 cm. The PVM was complemented by the Fast FSSP (Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe), a droplet sizing counter storing interarrival times, durations and diameters (2-40 µm) of droplets entering the sampling volume of a He-Ne laser beam. Spatial resolution is limited by the sampling statistics only. PVM and Fast FSSP measurements are compared. LWC, Re, concentration and size distribution are statistically analysed in order to find typical spatial scales in the observed clouds.

  13. Tropospheric ozone distributions measured with an airborne laser absorption spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of tropospheric ozone have been made in the southern and middle California regions and over the Pacific Ocean during two series of flights in February and May 1977. The data were obtained by using a laser absorption spectrometer, a nadir-viewing instrument which remotely measures the ozone column abundance between ground level and aircraft altitude by interacting with ozone at specific wavelengths near 9.5 microns. The measurements indicate significantly lower ozone abundances above the Mojave Desert region as compared with farm, forest, and urban areas. The average tropospheric column density was found to be 0.0027 atm cm/km over the California region and 0.0035 atm cm/km over the Pacific Ocean region 1000-2000 km west of the coast of Mexico.

  14. Reconciling In Situ Foliar Nitrogen and Vegetation Structure Measurements with Airborne Imagery Across Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagg, C.

    2015-12-01

    Over the next 30 years the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will monitor environmental and ecological change throughout North America. NEON will provide a suite of standardized data from several ecological topics of interest, including net primary productivity and nutrient cycling, from 60+ sites across 20 eco-climatic domains when fully operational in 2017. The breadth of sampling includes ground-based measurements of foliar nitrogen and vegetation structure, ground-based spectroscopy, airborne LIDAR, and airborne hyperspectral surveys occurring within narrow overlapping time intervals once every five years. While many advancements have been made in linking and scaling in situ data with airborne imagery, establishing these relationships across dozens of highly variable sites poses significant challenges to understanding continental-wide processes. Here we study the relationship between foliar nitrogen content and airborne hyperspectral imagery at different study sites. NEON collected foliar samples from three sites in 2014 as part of a prototype study: Ordway Swisher Biological Station (pine-oak savannah, with active fire management), Jones Ecological Research Center (pine-oak savannah), and San Joaquin Experimental Range (grass-pine oak woodland). Leaf samples and canopy heights of dominant and co-dominant species were collected from trees located within 40 x 40 meter sampling plots within two weeks of aerial LIDAR and hyperspectral surveys. Foliar canopy samples were analyzed for leaf mass per area (LMA), stable isotopes of C and N, C/N content. We also examine agreement and uncertainty between ground based canopy height and airborne LIDAR derived digital surface models (DSM) for each site. Site-scale maps of canopy nitrogen and canopy height will also be presented.

  15. Changes in airborne bacteria during a tropical burning season are correlated with satellite aerosol measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mims, F., III

    Agricultural burning in the tropics generates vast quantities of smoke that can blanket entire countries and attenuate photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Thick smoke also reduces the solar ultraviolet-B wavelengths that synthesize vitamin-D precur- sors in vertebrates and suppress many viruses and non-pigmented bacteria. As many pathogenic bacteria are non-pigmented, the latter finding may explain some of the in- creases in respiratory and other diseases that occur during episodes of severe aerosol loading. At Alta Floresta, Brazil, during the 1997 burning season, the correlation (r^2) of UV-B measured at the surface with the ratio of non-pigmented to total airborne bacteria colony forming units (CFUs) was 0.83. The correlation of the aerosol index measured from orbit by TOMS with the ratio of non-pigmented to total airborne bac- teria CFUs was 0.71. These findings suggest the application of satellite measurements of optical depth as a first approximation epidemiological tool for remote regions that have seasonally smokey skies. Further comparisons are warranted of surface measure- ments of airborne bacteria, UV-B and PAR with TOMS and MODIS observations of optical depth during severe air pollution events.

  16. Aerosol Profile Measurements from the NASA Langley Research Center Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obland, Michael D.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, John W.; Roers, Raymond R.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cook, Anthony L.; Harper, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Since achieving first light in December of 2005, the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) has been involved in seven field campaigns, accumulating over 450 hours of science data across more than 120 flights. Data from the instrument have been used in a variety of studies including validation and comparison with the Cloud- Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite mission, aerosol property retrievals combining passive and active instrument measurements, aerosol type identification, aerosol-cloud interactions, and cloud top and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height determinations. Measurements and lessons learned from the HSRL are leading towards next-generation HSRL instrument designs that will enable even further studies of aerosol intensive and extensive parameters and the effects of aerosols on the climate system. This paper will highlight several of the areas in which the NASA Airborne HSRL is making contributions to climate science.

  17. Direct Measurement of Atmospheric Ammonia from an Airborne Miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (miniCIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casados, K.; Schill, S.; Freeman, S.; Zoerb, M.; Bertram, T. H.; Lefer, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia is emitted into the atmosphere from a variety of sources such as trees, ocean, diary fields, biomass burning, and fuel emissions. Previous studies have investigated the environmental impacts of atmospheric ammonia which can include chemical reactivity, nucleation of fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5 ), and implications for human health, but its chemical nature and relatively short lifetime make direct measurement of atmospheric ammonia difficult. During the 2015 NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) an airborne miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (miniCIMS) was deployed on the NASA DC-8 flying laboratory in the Southern California region. The spatial and temporal variability of measured atmospheric ammonia concentrations will be discussed.

  18. Correlative Stratospheric Ozone Measurements with the Airborne UV DIAL System during TOTE/VOTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.; Fenn, Marta A.; Browell, Edward V.; McGee, Thomas J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Gross, Michael R.; McDermid, I. Stuart; Froidevaux, Lucien; Wang, Pi-Huang

    1998-01-01

    The airborne UV differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system participated in the Tropical Ozone Transport Experiment/Vortex Ozone Transport Experiment (TOTE/VOTE) in late 1995/early 1996. This mission afforded the opportunity to compare the DIAL system's stratospheric ozone measuring capability with other remote-sensing instruments through correlative measurements over a latitude range from the tropics to the Arctic. These instruments included ground-based DIAL and space-based stratospheric instruments: HALOE; MLS; and SAGE II. The ozone profiles generally agreed within random error estimates for the various instruments in the middle of the profiles in the tropics, but regions of significant systematic differences, especially near or below the tropopause or at the higher altitudes were also found. The comparisons strongly suggest that the airborne UV DIAL system can play a valuable role as a mobile lower-stratospheric ozone validation instrument.

  19. Airborne lidar measurements of the soufriere eruption of 17 april 1979.

    PubMed

    Fuller, W H; Sokol, S; Hunt, W H

    1982-06-01

    At the time of the Soufriere, St. Vincent, volcanic eruption of 17 April 1979, a NASA P-3 aircraft with an uplooking lidar (light detection and ranging) system onboard was airborne 130 kilometers east of the island. Lidar measurements of the fresh volcanic ash were made approximately 2 hours after the eruption, 120 kilometers to the northeast and east. On the evening of 18 April, the airborne lidar, on a southerly flight track, detected significant amounts of stratospheric material in layers at 16, 17, 18, and 19.5 kilometers. These data, and measurements to the north on 19 April, indicate that the volcanic plume penetrated the stratosphere to an altitude of about 20 kilometers and moved south during the first 48 hours after the eruption.

  20. Antecedent Wetness Conditions based on ERS scatterometer data in support to rainfall-runoff modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocca, L.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.

    2009-04-01

    , the SWI has been found quite reliable in representing the soil moisture at layer depth of 15 cm with average correlation coefficient equal to 0.81 and a root mean square error of ~ 0.04 m3/m3. In terms of AWC assessment at the catchment scale, the SWI has been found highly correlated with the observed S parameter with correlation coefficient equal to -0.90. Besides, SWI outperformed both API indices, poorly representative of AWC, and BFI. The methodology delineated in this study can be considered as a simple and entirely new approach to validate the remotely sensed soil moisture estimates at the catchment scale, mainly for coarse resolution sensors as scatterometers and radiometers. The obtained results indirectly reveal the usefulness of the SWI both for flood forecasting applications and for prediction in ungauged basins. Moreover, the correlation of in-situ soil moisture measurements with the SWI reveals the potential of scatterometer data, particularly considering the higher spatial resolution provided by the successor of ERS scatterometer, the Advanced Scatterometer, ASCAT, on board of the meteorological operational platforms, METOP.

  1. A new flexible scatterometer for critical dimension metrology.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Matthias; Pilarski, Frank; Bodermann, Bernd

    2010-02-01

    At Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the National Metrology Institute of Germany, a new type of deep ultraviolet scatterometer has been developed and set up. The concept of the system is very variable and versatile, so that many different types of measurements, e.g., classical scatterometry, ellipsometric scatterometry, polarization-dependent reflectometry, and ellipsometry can be performed. The main application is the characterization of linewidth/critical dimension (CD), grating period (pitch), and edge profile of periodically nanostructured surfaces mainly, but not only, on photomasks. Different operation wavelength between 840 and 193 nm can be used, giving also access to a variety of different at-wavelength metrology connected with state-of-the-art photolithography. It allows to adapt and to vary the measurand and measurement geometry to optimize the sensitivity and the unambiguity for the measurement problem. In this paper the concept, design, and performance of the system is described in detail. First measurement examples are shown and current and future applications are discussed. PMID:20192496

  2. A new flexible scatterometer for critical dimension metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurm, Matthias; Pilarski, Frank; Bodermann, Bernd

    2010-02-01

    At Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the National Metrology Institute of Germany, a new type of deep ultraviolet scatterometer has been developed and set up. The concept of the system is very variable and versatile, so that many different types of measurements, e.g., classical scatterometry, ellipsometric scatterometry, polarization-dependent reflectometry, and ellipsometry can be performed. The main application is the characterization of linewidth/critical dimension (CD), grating period (pitch), and edge profile of periodically nanostructured surfaces mainly, but not only, on photomasks. Different operation wavelength between 840 and 193 nm can be used, giving also access to a variety of different at-wavelength metrology connected with state-of-the-art photolithography. It allows to adapt and to vary the measurand and measurement geometry to optimize the sensitivity and the unambiguity for the measurement problem. In this paper the concept, design, and performance of the system is described in detail. First measurement examples are shown and current and future applications are discussed.

  3. Airborne measurements of gas and particle pollutants during CAREBeijing-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Zhu, T.; Yang, W.; Bai, Z.; Sun, Y. L.; Xu, Y.; Yin, B.; Zhao, X.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of gaseous pollutants - including ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX = NO + NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particle number concentrations (5.6-560 nm and 0.47-30 μm) - and meteorological parameters (T, RH, P) were conducted during the Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Regions in 2008 (CAREBeijing-2008), from 27 August through 13 October 2008. The data from a total 18 flights (70 h flight time) from near the surface to 2100 m altitude were obtained with a Yun-12 aircraft in the southern surrounding areas of Beijing (38-40° N, 114-118° E). The objectives of these measurements were to characterize the regional variation of air pollution during and after the Olympics of 2008, determine the importance of air mass trajectories and to evaluate of other factors that influence the pollution characteristics. The results suggest that there are primarily four distinct sources that influenced the magnitude and properties of the pollutants in the measured region based on back-trajectory analysis: (1) southerly transport of air masses from regions with high pollutant emissions, (2) northerly and northeasterly transport of less pollutant air from further away, (3) easterly transport from maritime sources where emissions of gaseous pollutant are less than from the south but still high in particle concentrations, and (4) the transport of air that is a mixture from different regions; that is, the air at all altitudes measured by the aircraft was not all from the same sources. The relatively long-lived CO concentration is shown to be a possible transport tracer of long-range transport from the northwesterly direction, especially at the higher altitudes. Three factors that influenced the size distribution of particles - i.e., air mass transport direction, ground source emissions and meteorological influences - are also discussed.

  4. Airborne Validation of Spatial Properties Measured by the CALIPSO Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Trepte, Charles Reginald; Hart, William D.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Winker, David M.; Keuhn, Ralph

    2007-01-01

    The primary payload onboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite is a dual-wavelength backscatter lidar designed to provide vertical profiling of clouds and aerosols. Launched in April 2006, the first data from this new satellite was obtained in June 2006. As with any new satellite measurement capability, an immediate post-launch requirement is to verify that the data being acquired is correct lest scientific conclusions begin to be drawn based on flawed data. A standard approach to verifying satellite data is to take a similar, or validation, instrument and fly it onboard a research aircraft. Using an aircraft allows the validation instrument to get directly under the satellite so that both the satellite instrument and the aircraft instrument are sensing the same region of the atmosphere. Although there are almost always some differences in the sampling capabilities of the two instruments, it is nevertheless possible to directly compare the measurements. To validate the measurements from the CALIPSO lidar, a similar instrument, the Cloud Physics Lidar, was flown onboard the NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft during July- August 2006. This paper presents results to demonstrate that the CALIPSO lidar is properly calibrated and the CALIPSO Level 1 data products are correct. The importance of the results is to demonstrate to the research community that CALIPSO Level 1 data can be confidently used for scientific research.

  5. Airborne time-series measurement of soil moisture using terrestrial gamma radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Thomas R.; Lipinski, Daniel M.; Peck, Eugene L.

    1988-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma radiation data and independent ground-based core soil moisture data are analyzed. They reveal the possibility of using natural terrestrial gamma radiation collected from a low-flying aircraft to make reliable real-time soil moisture measurements for the upper 20 cm of soil. The airborne data were compared to the crude ground-based soil moisture data set collected at the core sites.

  6. Radiative flux measurements during the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) Guam Deployment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindel, B. C.; Pilewskie, P.; Schmidt, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment was a field program utilizing the NASA Global Hawk aircraft, to make extensive measurements of tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over the Pacific Ocean. In February and March of 2014, the NASA Global Hawk was deployed to Guam and flew six long duration science flights. The aircraft was outfitted with a suite of instruments to study the composition of the TTL. Measurements included: water vapor amount, cloud particle size and shape, various gaseous species (e.g. CO, CH4, CO2, O3), and radiation measurements. The radiation measurements were comprised of the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) that made spectrally resolved measurements of upwelling and downwelling solar irradiance from 350 to 2200 nm and thermal broadband (4μm to 42 μm) upwelling and downwelling irradiance. Once airborne, the Global Hawk made numerous vertical profiles (14 - 18 km) through the TTL. In this work we present results of combined solar spectral irradiance and broadband thermal irradiance measurements. Solar spectral measurements are correlated, wavelength-by-wavelength, with broadband thermal measurements. The radiative impact in the TTL of water vapor and cirrus clouds are examined both in the solar and thermal wavelengths from both upwelling and downwelling irradiances. The spectral measurements are used in an attempt to attribute physical mechanisms to the thermal (spectrally integrated) measurements. Measurements of heating rates are also presented, highlighting the difficultly in obtaining reliable results from aircraft measurements.

  7. Airborne Spectral Measurements of Ocean Anisotropy during CLAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; King, M. D.; Arnold, G. T.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) aboard the University of Washington Convair CV-580 research aircraft obtained bidirectional reflectance-distribution function (BRDF) of Atlantic Ocean and Dismal Swamp between July 10 and August 2, 2001. The BRDF measurements (15 in total, 8 uncontaminated by clouds) obtained under a variety of sun angles and wind conditions, will be used to characterize ocean anisotropy in support of Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) science objectives principally to validate products from NASA's EOS satellites, and to parameterize and validate BRDF models of the ocean. In this paper we present results of BRDF of the Ocean under different sun angles and wind conditions. The CAR is capable of measuring scattered light in fourteen spectral bands. The scan mirror, rotating at 100 rpm, directs the light into a Dall-Kirkham telescope where the beam is split into nine paths. Eight light beams pass through beam splitters, dichroics, and lenses to individual detectors (0.34-1.27 micron), and finally are registered by eight data channels. They are sampled simultaneously and continuously. The ninth beam passes through a spinning filter wheel to an InSb detector cooled by a Stirling cycle cooler. Signals registered by the ninth data channel are selected from among six spectral channels (1.55-2.30 micron). The filter wheel can either cycle through all six spectral bands at a prescribed interval (usually changing filter every fifth scan line), or lock onto any one of the six spectral bands and sample it continuously. To measure the BRF of the surface-atmosphere system, the University of Washington CV-580 had to fly in a circle about 3 km in diameter above the surface for roughly two minutes. Replicated observations (multiple circular orbits) were acquired over selected surfaces so that average BRF smooth out small-scale surface and atmospheric inhomogeneities. At an altitude of 600 m above the targeted surface area and

  8. Airborne Spectral Measurements of Ocean Anisotropy during CLAMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; King, M. D.; Arnold, G. T.

    2002-05-01

    The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) aboard the University of Washington Convair CV-580 research aircraft obtained bidirectional reflectance-distribution function (BRDF) of Atlantic ocean off eastern USA and Dismal Swamp between July 10 and August 2, 2001. The BRDF measurements (15 in total, 8 uncontaminated by clouds) obtained under a variety of sun angles and wind conditions, will be used to characterize ocean anisotropy in support of Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) science objectives principally to validate products from NASA's EOS satellites, and to parameterize and validate BRDF models of the ocean. In this paper we present results of BRDF of the Ocean under different sun angles and wind conditions. The CAR is capable of measuring scattered light in fourteen spectral bands. The scan mirror, rotating at 100 rpm, directs the light into a Dall-Kirkham telescope where the beam is split into nine paths. Eight light beams pass through beam splitters, dichroics, and lenses to individual detectors (0.34-1.27 μ m), and finally are registered by eight data channels. They are sampled simultaneously and continuously. The ninth beam passes through a spinning filter wheel to an InSb detector cooled by a Stirling cycle cooler. Signals registered by the ninth data channel are selected from among six spectral channels (1.55-2.30 μ m). The filter wheel can either cycle through all six spectral bands at a prescribed interval (usually changing filter every fifth scan line), or lock onto any one of the six spectral bands and sample it continuously. To measure the BRF of the surface-atmosphere system, the University of Washington CV-580 had to fly in a circle about 3 km in diameter above the surface for roughly two minutes. Replicated observations (multiple circular orbits) were acquired over selected surfaces so that average BRF smooth out small-scale surface and atmospheric inhomogeneities. For example, at an altitude of 600 m above the

  9. Correcting airborne scanning infrared radiometer measurements for atmospheric effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boudreau, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Two techniques were developed for determining atmospheric corrections from observations made by a scanning radiometer. Both techniques depend on knowing the radiometer's limb function. The limb function for an RS-18 scanning radiometer is derived from calculations made with a radiation model and used to demonstrate the techniques. One technique requires observations made over an isothermal water surface within the area being remotely sensed. The other technique does not depend on an isothermal water surface but requires a boat measurement of radiometric sea surface temperature within the area being remotely sensed. The radiation model used to derive the limb function does not account for the effects of atmospheric particulates on the correction. It is hypothesized that the effect of particulates on the limb function derived in this study is negligible, and therefore the technique essentially obtains the total correction. The techniques developed can be used over land provided that a section of isothermal land exists within the experiment area or that a radiometric measurement of surface temperature is made at the surface.

  10. Lidar System for Airborne Measurement of Clouds and Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew; Scott, V. Stanley; Izquierdo, Luis Ramos; Marzouk, Joe

    2008-01-01

    A lidar system for measuring optical properties of clouds and aerosols at three wavelengths is depicted. The laser transmitter is based on a Nd:YVO4 laser crystal pumped by light coupled to the crystal via optical fibers from laser diodes that are located away from the crystal to aid in dissipating the heat generated in the diodes and their drive circuits. The output of the Nd:YVO4 crystal has a wavelength of 1064 nm, and is made to pass through frequency-doubling and frequency-tripling crystals. As a result, the net laser output is a collinear superposition of beams at wavelengths of 1064, 532, and 355 nm. The laser operates at a pulse-repetition rate of 5 kHz, emitting per-pulse energies of 50 microJ at 1064 nm, 25 microJ at 532 nm and 50 microJ at 355 nm. An important feature of this system is an integrating sphere located between the laser output and the laser beam expander lenses. The integrating sphere collects light scattered from the lenses. Three energy-monitor detectors are located at ports inside the integrating sphere. Each of these detectors is equipped with filters such that the laser output energy is measured independently for each wavelength. The laser output energy is measured on each pulse to enable the most accurate calibration possible. The 1064-nm and 532-nm photodetectors are, more specifically, single photon-counting modules (SPCMs). When used at 1064 nm, these detectors have approximately 3% quantum efficiency and low thermal noise (fewer than 200 counts per second). When used at 532 nm, the SPCMs have quantum efficiency of about 60%. The photodetector for the 355-nm channel is a photon-counting photomultiplier tube having a quantum efficiency of about 20%. The use of photon-counting detectors is made feasible by the low laser pulse energy. The main advantage of photon-counting is ease of inversion of data without need for complicated calibration schemes like those necessary for analog detectors. The disadvantage of photon-counting detectors

  11. Airborne measurements of organosulfates over the continental U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jin; Froyd, Karl D; Murphy, Daniel M; Keutsch, Frank N; Yu, Ge; Wennberg, Paul O; St Clair, Jason M; Crounse, John D; Wisthaler, Armin; Mikoviny, Tomas; Jimenez, Jose L; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A; Hu, Weiwei; Ryerson, Thomas B; Pollack, Ilana B; Peischl, Jeff; Anderson, Bruce E; Ziemba, Luke D; Blake, Donald R; Meinardi, Simone; Diskin, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Organosulfates are important secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components and good tracers for aerosol heterogeneous reactions. However, the knowledge of their spatial distribution, formation conditions, and environmental impact is limited. In this study, we report two organosulfates, an isoprene-derived isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) (2,3-epoxy-2-methyl-1,4-butanediol) sulfate and a glycolic acid (GA) sulfate, measured using the NOAA Particle Analysis Laser Mass Spectrometer (PALMS) on board the NASA DC8 aircraft over the continental U.S. during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3) and the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS). During these campaigns, IEPOX sulfate was estimated to account for 1.4% of submicron aerosol mass (or 2.2% of organic aerosol mass) on average near the ground in the southeast U.S., with lower concentrations in the western U.S. (0.2–0.4%) and at high altitudes (<0.2%). Compared to IEPOX sulfate, GA sulfate was more uniformly distributed, accounting for about 0.5% aerosol mass on average, and may be more abundant globally. A number of other organosulfates were detected; none were as abundant as these two. Ambient measurements confirmed that IEPOX sulfate is formed from isoprene oxidation and is a tracer for isoprene SOA formation. The organic precursors of GA sulfate may include glycolic acid and likely have both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Higher aerosol acidity as measured by PALMS and relative humidity tend to promote IEPOX sulfate formation, and aerosol acidity largely drives in situ GA sulfate formation at high altitudes. This study suggests that the formation of aerosol organosulfates depends not only on the appropriate organic precursors but also on emissions of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2), which contributes to aerosol acidity. Key Points IEPOX sulfate is an isoprene SOA tracer at acidic and low NO conditions Glycolic acid sulfate

  12. Determination of precipitation profiles from airborne passive microwave radiometric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerow, Christian; Hakkarinen, Ida M.; Pierce, Harold F.; Weinman, James A.

    1991-01-01

    This study presents the first quantitative retrievals of vertical profiles of precipitation derived from multispectral passive microwave radiometry. Measurements of microwave brightness temperature (Tb) obtained by a NASA high-altitude research aircraft are related to profiles of rainfall rate through a multichannel piecewise-linear statistical regression procedure. Statistics for Tb are obtained from a set of cloud radiative models representing a wide variety of convective, stratiform, and anvil structures. The retrieval scheme itself determines which cloud model best fits the observed meteorological conditions. Retrieved rainfall rate profiles are converted to equivalent radar reflectivity for comparison with observed reflectivities from a ground-based research radar. Results for two case studies, a stratiform rain situation and an intense convective thunderstorm, show that the radiometrically derived profiles capture the major features of the observed vertical structure of hydrometer density.

  13. Airborne Measurements of CO by MOPITT-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jounot, L.; Drummond, J.; Dufour, D.; Mikhailov, O.; Irvine, R.; Gero, J.; Deschambault, R.; Taylor, J.

    2004-05-01

    MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere) is a carbon monoxide and methane remote sounder launched in 1999 on the Terra spacecraft. An aircraft version of MOPITT (MOPITT-A) has been developed at the University of Toronto to perform validation of MOPITT radiances as well as small scale pollution studies. MOPITT-A is based on the engineering model of MOPITT, modified for flight in NASA's ER-2 research aircraft. In August and September 2000, it participated in the SAFARI 2000 field campaign in South Africa, monitoring CO emissions from biomass burning. This talk will describe the method used to retrieve carbon monoxide concentrations from longwave channel radiances. Special attention will be paid to the September 7th 2000 mission, the highlight of which was the overflight of a large prescribed fire in the vicinity of the Kruger National Park. MOPITT-A is financed by the Canadian Space Agency and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.

  14. AgI plumes in WRF LES simulations versus airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L.; Rasmussen, R.; Breed, D. W.

    2011-12-01

    Inadequate or uncertain targeting of seedable clouds from silver iodide (AgI) ground-based generators has been a complex and hence a long-standing problem in winter orographic cloud seeding programs. To address this issue within the Wyoming Weather Modification Pilot Program (WWMPP), a focused field experiment was conducted between 9 February and 1 March 2011. Airborne measurements of AgI-generated ice nuclei (IN) plumes from ground-based generators were carried out by Weather Modification Inc. using a Piper Cheyenne II research aircraft equipped with an updated NCAR acoustic IN counter. The airborne data were collected over the Wyoming Medicine Bow and Sierra Madre mountain ranges on nine different days within the experimental period. This study explores the ability of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to reproduce reasonable AgI plumes by comparing the model results with these airborne measurements. A suite of WRF simulations, including 2.5 km and 500 m runs along with two 100-m resolution Large Eddy Simulations (LES), have been conducted for the 16 February case over the Medicine Bow range. Two different sets of gridded data, the North America Regional Reanalysis data and the WWMPP Real-Time Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation WRF forecast data, were used to drive the model independently. An AgI point-source module was applied to represent the release of AgI from the ground generators. A detailed description of the WRF LES results and comparisons with the airborne measurements will be presented at the conference.

  15. Airborne measurements in the infrared using FTIR-based imaging hyperspectral sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckrin, E.; Turcotte, C. S.; Lahaie, P.; Dubé, D.; Farley, V.; Lagueux, P.; Marcotte, F.; Chamberland, M.

    2009-05-01

    Hyperspectral ground mapping is being used in an ever-increasing extent for numerous applications in the military, geology and environmental fields. The different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum help produce information of differing nature. The visible, near-infrared and short-wave infrared radiation (400 nm to 2.5 μm) has been mostly used to analyze reflected solar light, while the mid-wave (3 to 5 μm) and long-wave (8 to 12 μm or thermal) infrared senses the self-emission of molecules directly, enabling the acquisition of data during night time. Push-broom dispersive sensors have been typically used for airborne hyperspectral mapping. However, extending the spectral range towards the mid-wave and long-wave infrared brings performance limitations due to the self emission of the sensor itself. The Fourier-transform spectrometer technology has been extensively used in the infrared spectral range due to its high transmittance as well as throughput and multiplex advantages, thereby reducing the sensor self-emission problem. Telops has developed the Hyper-Cam, a rugged and compact infrared hyperspectral imager. The Hyper-Cam is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides passive signature measurement capability, with up to 320x256 pixels at spectral resolutions of up to 0.25 cm-1. The Hyper-Cam has been used on the ground in several field campaigns, including the demonstration of standoff chemical agent detection. More recently, the Hyper-Cam has been integrated into an airplane to provide airborne measurement capabilities. A special pointing module was designed to compensate for airplane attitude and forward motion. To our knowledge, the Hyper-Cam is the first commercial airborne hyperspectral imaging sensor based on Fourier-transform infrared technology. The first airborne measurements and some preliminary performance criteria for the Hyper-Cam are presented in

  16. Airborne measurements in the infrared using FTIR-based imaging hyperspectral sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckrin, E.; Turcotte, C. S.; Lahaie, P.; Dubé, D.; Lagueux, P.; Farley, V.; Marcotte, F.; Chamberland, M.

    2009-09-01

    Hyperspectral ground mapping is being used in an ever-increasing extent for numerous applications in the military, geology and environmental fields. The different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum help produce information of differing nature. The visible, near-infrared and short-wave infrared radiation (400 nm to 2.5 μm) has been mostly used to analyze reflected solar light, while the mid-wave (3 to 5 μm) and long-wave (8 to 12 μm or thermal) infrared senses the self-emission of molecules directly, enabling the acquisition of data during night time. Push-broom dispersive sensors have been typically used for airborne hyperspectral mapping. However, extending the spectral range towards the mid-wave and long-wave infrared brings performance limitations due to the self emission of the sensor itself. The Fourier-transform spectrometer technology has been extensively used in the infrared spectral range due to its high transmittance as well as throughput and multiplex advantages, thereby reducing the sensor self-emission problem. Telops has developed the Hyper-Cam, a rugged and compact infrared hyperspectral imager. The Hyper-Cam is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides passive signature measurement capability, with up to 320x256 pixels at spectral resolutions of up to 0.25 cm-1. The Hyper-Cam has been used on the ground in several field campaigns, including the demonstration of standoff chemical agent detection. More recently, the Hyper-Cam has been integrated into an airplane to provide airborne measurement capabilities. A special pointing module was designed to compensate for airplane attitude and forward motion. To our knowledge, the Hyper-Cam is the first commercial airborne hyperspectral imaging sensor based on Fourier-transform infrared technology. The first airborne measurements and some preliminary performance criteria for the Hyper-Cam are presented in

  17. Validation of Airborne FMCW Radar Measurements of Snow Thickness Over Sea Ice in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galin, Natalia; Worby, Anthony; Markus, Thorsten; Leuschen, Carl; Gogineni, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Antarctic sea ice and its snow cover are integral components of the global climate system, yet many aspects of their vertical dimensions are poorly understood, making their representation in global climate models poor. Remote sensing is the key to monitoring the dynamic nature of sea ice and its snow cover. Reliable and accurate snow thickness data are currently a highly sought after data product. Remotely sensed snow thickness measurements can provide an indication of precipitation levels, predicted to increase with effects of climate change in the polar regions. Airborne techniques provide a means for regional-scale estimation of snow depth and distribution. Accurate regional-scale snow thickness data will also facilitate an increase in the accuracy of sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite altimeter freeboard estimates. The airborne data sets are easier to validate with in situ measurements and are better suited to validating satellite algorithms when compared with in situ techniques. This is primarily due to two factors: better chance of getting coincident in situ and airborne data sets and the tractability of comparison between an in situ data set and the airborne data set averaged over the footprint of the antennas. A 28-GHz frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar loaned by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets to the Australian Antarctic Division is used to measure snow thickness over sea ice in East Antarctica. Provided with the radar design parameters, the expected performance parameters of the radar are summarized. The necessary conditions for unambiguous identification of the airsnow and snowice layers for the radar are presented. Roughnesses of the snow and ice surfaces are found to be dominant determinants in the effectiveness of layer identification for this radar. Finally, this paper presents the first in situ validated snow thickness estimates over sea ice in Antarctica derived from an FMCW radar on a helicopterborne platform.

  18. Scanning holographic scatterometer for wafer surface inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klooster, Alex; Marks, James; Hanson, Kael; Sawatari, Takeo

    2004-05-01

    The semiconductor industry requires ever smaller semiconductor structures with faster response times and more function per unit area of each chip. In addition, the industry is changing from 200 mm to 300 mm diameter wafers with fewer defects and rapid detection at all processing stages. To meet these needs, defect data must be processed in near-real-time to expedite correction of processing problems at the earliest possible stage. Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, sponsored by the Air Force Manufacturing Technology Division at Wright Laboratory, Dayton, Ohio, Sentec Corporation has developed a revolutionary technology for contaminant particle detection on unpatterned semiconductor wafers. A key to the Sentec technology is detection, not of the intensity of backscattered energy from particles or defects, but of the amplitude of the electro-magneitc field of this backscattered energy. This new technology will allow the detection of particles that are significantly smaller than those which can be reliably located using current scatterometers. The technical concepts for a stand-alone particle detection tool have been created. It uses a continuous scanning mechanism to perform high-speed examinations of target wafers. This tool, also, has the capability of quantifying the microroughness or background haze of a subject wafer and presenting that information separate from the contamination particle data. During the course of this project, three patent applications were filed.

  19. Measurement of chlorophyll a fluorescence with an airborne fluorosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, O., Jr.; Brown, C. A., Jr.; Campbell, J. W.; Houghton, W. M.; Poole, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    Phytoplankton biomass and diversity among various algal species are important for marine productivity assessments. The spatial heterogeneity of phytoplankton in coastal and estuarine environments complicates estimates of total biomass using conventional surface sampling techniques. Since synoptic or near-synoptic data can be quite useful in these studies, this area is a natural focal point for development of remote sensors. However, it is very difficult to sense phytoplankton density and diversity with spacecraft-borne passive sensors primarily because modulation in the signal due to phytoplankton is of the same order as that of atmospheric effects. The same sensors mounted on aircraft may be able to detect and quantify high concentrations of phytoplankton (blooms), but the current lack of knowledge about the spectral reflectance signatures of the major phytoplankton color groups rules out any diversity measurements by this type of sensor. An active fluorosensor mounted on a low-flying aircraft or helicopter is not limited by any of these constraints. A brief survey of the four currently active systems is presented.

  20. Footprint prediction of scalar fluxes - Reliability and implications for airborne flux measurements over the FIFE site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuepp, P. H.; Desjardins, R. L.; Macpherson, J. I.; Leclerc, M. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of the location and extension of the upwind ground area that affects flux observations most directly are examined to determine the reliability of airborne versus near-ground flux measurements. The theoretical issues regarding the 'footprint' are examined, and specific observations are analyzed by studying the data over a grid regarding sensible heat, latent heat, CO2, and greenness. The grid is footprint-corrected to correlate better with independently observed surface characteristics, and an optimized footprint is developed that satisfies the relationships between the observed variables. Optimized mapping of the surface flux is given which demonstrates the importance of considering local advection to correlate airborne and ground-based flux observations. The technique is particularly applicable to situations in which significant variations in the surface flux density exist.

  1. Aerosol-fluorescence spectrum analyzer: real-time measurement of emission spectra of airborne biological particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Steven C.; Pinnick, Ronald G.; Nachman, Paul; Chen, Gang; Chang, Richard K.; Mayo, Michael W.; Fernandez, Gilbert L.

    1995-10-01

    We have assembled an aerosol-fluorescence spectrum analyzer (AFS), which can measure the fluorescence spectra and elastic scattering of airborne particles as they flow through a laser beam. The aerosols traverse a scattering cell where they are illuminated with intense (50 kW/cm 2) light inside the cavity of an argon-ion laser operating at 488 nm. This AFS can obtain fluorescence spectra of individual dye-doped polystyrene microspheres as small as 0.5 mu m in diameter. The spectra obtained from microspheres doped with pink and green-yellow dyes are clearly different. We have also detected the fluorescence spectra of airborne particles (although not single particles) made from various

  2. Airborne lidar measurements of pollution transport in central and southern California during CalNEX 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senff, C. J.; Alvarez, R. J., II; Hardesty, R.; Langford, A. O.; Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Davies, F.; Sandberg, S.; Marchbanks, R.; Weickmann, A.

    2010-12-01

    During the CalNEX experiment from May through July 2010, we co-deployed NOAA’s airborne ozone and aerosol lidar TOPAZ and the University of Leeds scanning Doppler wind lidar on a Twin Otter aircraft. We flew a total of 46 missions over central and southern California, focusing primarily on the Los Angeles Basin and Sacramento areas. The downward-looking lidars provided highly resolved measurements of ozone concentration, aerosol backscatter, and wind speed and direction in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere. We will use the airborne lidar data to characterize transport of ozone and aerosols on regional and local scales. In particular, we will focus on pollutant transport between air basins and the role of flow patterns in complex terrain, such as gap flows and orographic lifting and venting along mountain slopes, on pollutant distribution.

  3. Downsizing of Georgia Tech's Airborne Fluorescence Spectrometer (AFS) for the Measurement of Nitrogen Oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandholm, Scott

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses the Tropospheric Trace Gas and Airborne Measurements (TTGAMG) endeavors to further downsize and stabilize the Georgia Institute of Technology's Airborne Laser Induced Fluorescence Experiment (GITALIFE). It will mainly address the TTGAMG successes and failures as participants in the summer 1998 Wallops Island test flights on board the P3-B. Due to the restructuring and reorganization of the TTGAMG since the original funding of this grant, some of the objectives and time lines of the deliverables have been changed. Most of these changes have been covered in the preceding annual report. We are anticipating getting back on track with the original proposal's downsizing effort this summer, culminating in the GITALIFE no longer occupying a high bay rack and the loss of several hundred pounds.

  4. Airborne flux measurements of trace species in an Arctic boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Barrick, J.D.W.; Sachse, G.W.; Gregory, G.L.; Woerner, M.A.; Watson, C.E.; Hill, G.F.; Collins, J.E. Jr. Science and Technology Corp., Hampton, VA )

    1992-10-01

    In situ airborne flux values for O[sub 3], CO, an CH[sub 4] over selected wetlands of Alaska are reported, and airborne CH[sub 4] flux measurements are presented for the first time. The source/sink distribution over the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) is qualitatively correlated with surface vegetation type. The CH[sub 4] source strength over the YKD ranged from 25 to 85 mg/sq m/d. A spatially averaged, seasonally adjusted source strength of 51 mg/sq m/d was established for the YKD. Indirect CH4 flux estimates obtained over the Alaskan North Slope indicate a much lower source strength. The global CH[sub 4] emission from tundra are estimated to be 44 Tg/a at an upper limit. Airborne CO flux measurements over the YKD indicate low negative flux values over the coastal areas, while some positive fluxes were observed in the inland sparsely forested regions. An inspection of the cospectrum of CO with vertical velocity for sample runs in coastal areas indicate the possibility of in situ photochemical destruction/production of CO. 64 refs.

  5. Airborne Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration Pressure Measurements with Computational Fluid Dynamics Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Murray, James E.; Purifoy, Dana D.; Graham, David H.; Meredith, Keith B.; Ashburn, Christopher E.; Stucky, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration project showed for the first time that by careful design of aircraft contour the resultant sonic boom can maintain a tailored shape, propagating through a real atmosphere down to ground level. In order to assess the propagation characteristics of the shaped sonic boom and to validate computational fluid dynamics codes, airborne measurements were taken of the pressure signatures in the near field by probing with an instrumented F-15B aircraft, and in the far field by overflying an instrumented L-23 sailplane. This paper describes each aircraft and their instrumentation systems, the airdata calibration, analysis of the near- and far-field airborne data, and shows the good to excellent agreement between computational fluid dynamics solutions and flight data. The flights of the Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration aircraft occurred in two phases. Instrumentation problems were encountered during the first phase, and corrections and improvements were made to the instrumentation system for the second phase, which are documented in the paper. Piloting technique and observations are also given. These airborne measurements of the Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration aircraft are a unique and important database that will be used to validate design tools for a new generation of quiet supersonic aircraft.

  6. Double-Pulse Two-Micron IPDA Lidar Simulation for Airborne Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta

    2015-01-01

    An advanced double-pulsed 2-micron integrated path differential absorption lidar has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center for measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide. The instrument utilizes a state-of-the-art 2-micron laser transmitter with tunable on-line wavelength and advanced receiver. Instrument modeling and airborne simulations are presented in this paper. Focusing on random errors, results demonstrate instrument capabilities of performing precise carbon dioxide differential optical depth measurement with less than 3% random error for single-shot operation from up to 11 km altitude. This study is useful for defining CO2 measurement weighting, instrument setting, validation and sensitivity trade-offs.

  7. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Pressure Made Using the Oxygen A-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riris, Haris; Rodriquez, Michael; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Stephen, Mark A.; Abshire, James B.

    2011-01-01

    We report on airborne measurements of atmospheric pressure using a fiber-laser based lidar operating in the oxygen A-band near 765 nm and the integrated path differential absorption measurement technique. Our lidar uses fiber optic technology and non-linear optics to generate tunable laser radiation at 765 nm, which overlaps an absorption line pair in the Oxygen A-band. We use a pulsed time resolved technique, which rapidly steps the laser wavelength across the absorption line pair, a 20 cm telescope and photon counting detector to measure Oxygen concentrations.

  8. Aerosol Backscatter and Extinction Retrieval from Airborne Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, F.; Reitebuch, O.; Groß, S.; Rahm, S.; Freudenthaler, V.; Toledano, C.; Weinzierl, B.

    2016-06-01

    A novel method for coherent Doppler wind lidars (DWLs) calibration is shown in this work. Concurrent measurements of a ground based aerosol lidar operating at 532 nm and an airborne DWL at 2 μm are used in combination with sun photometer measurements for the retrieval of backscatter and extinction profiles. The presented method was successfully applied to the measurements obtained during the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE: http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/saltrace), which aimed to characterize the Saharan dust long range transport between Africa and the Caribbean.

  9. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  10. Terrestrial and Airborne LIDAR: Comparison of Coincident Datasets for Measuring Ground Deformation and Topographic Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayen, R. E.; Stewart, J. P.; Lembo, A. J.; Hu, J.; Davis, C. A.; Hogue, T.; Collins, B. D.; Minasian, D.; Louis-Kayen, N. M.; O'Rourke, T. D.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results from a controlled study on the use of pulse-based terrestrial lidar and phase-based airborne lidar to detect topographic change and ground deformation in areas of earthquake- and storm- induced landslides. Terrestrial and airborne lidar scans were performed at three sites in Los Angeles County and their accuracy was gauged using coincident total station survey measurements as the control. The study was supported by the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP). Horizontal accuracy was evaluated through the measurement of Northing and Easting residuals, standardized to WGS84. Assessment of accuracy was made on lengths and heights of well-defined objects in the lidar scans, such as LADWP buildings and water tanks. The bias and dispersion of lidar height measurements, standardized to NGVD88, were assessed at the Mulholland Tank adjacent to Hollywood Reservoir, the Owens Aqueduct Penstock at Power Plant 2 (PP2) in San Francisquito Canyon, and a flat un-vegetated site near the Los Angeles Reservoir before and after carefully measured trenching. At the vegetated slopes near PP2 and the Hollywood Reservoir site, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and a standard deviation of approximately 50 cm, whereas terrestrial lidar demonstrated large bias and dispersion (on order of meters) due to the inability of ground-based lidar to penetrate heavy vegetation. Both systems were able to assess heights and lengths on unobstructed man made structures at the sub-decimeter scale. At the trench site, airborne lidar showed decimeter scale bias of -23.6 cm for flat ground to -8.7 cm for trenched ground, and dispersion of 5.6 for flat ground to 20 cm for trenched ground. Terrestrial lidar was nearly unbiased (~0 cm for flat or trenched ground) and with very low dispersion of 4.1 and 6.5 cm for flat and trenched ground, respectively

  11. Portable Airborne Laser System Measures Forest-Canopy Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Ross

    2005-01-01

    (PALS) is a combination of laser ranging, video imaging, positioning, and data-processing subsystems designed for measuring the heights of forest canopies along linear transects from tens to thousands of kilometers long. Unlike prior laser ranging systems designed to serve the same purpose, the PALS is not restricted to use aboard a single aircraft of a specific type: the PALS fits into two large suitcases that can be carried to any convenient location, and the PALS can be installed in almost any local aircraft for hire, thereby making it possible to sample remote forests at relatively low cost. The initial cost and the cost of repairing the PALS are also lower because the PALS hardware consists mostly of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) units that can easily be replaced in the field. The COTS units include a laser ranging transceiver, a charge-coupled-device camera that images the laser-illuminated targets, a differential Global Positioning System (dGPS) receiver capable of operation within the Wide Area Augmentation System, a video titler, a video cassette recorder (VCR), and a laptop computer equipped with two serial ports. The VCR and computer are powered by batteries; the other units are powered at 12 VDC from the 28-VDC aircraft power system via a low-pass filter and a voltage converter. The dGPS receiver feeds location and time data, at an update rate of 0.5 Hz, to the video titler and the computer. The laser ranging transceiver, operating at a sampling rate of 2 kHz, feeds its serial range and amplitude data stream to the computer. The analog video signal from the CCD camera is fed into the video titler wherein the signal is annotated with position and time information. The titler then forwards the annotated signal to the VCR for recording on 8-mm tapes. The dGPS and laser range and amplitude serial data streams are processed by software that displays the laser trace and the dGPS information as they are fed into the computer, subsamples the laser range and

  12. Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Rush, Kurt; Rabenhorst, Scott; Welch, Wayne; Cadirola, Martin; McIntire, Gerry; Russo, Felicita; Adam, Mariana; Venable, Demetrius; Connell, Rasheen; Veselovskii, Igor; Forno, Ricardo; Mielke, Bernd; Stein, Bernhard; Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, Stuart; Voemel, Holger

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance Raman lidar operating in the UV portion of the spectrum has been used to acquire, for the first time using a single lidar, simultaneous airborne profiles of the water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscatter, aerosol extinction, aerosol depolarization and research mode measurements of cloud liquid water, cloud droplet radius, and number density. The Raman Airborne Spectroscopic Lidar (RASL) system was installed in a Beechcraft King Air B200 aircraft and was flown over the mid-Atlantic United States during July August 2007 at altitudes ranging between 5 and 8 km. During these flights, despite suboptimal laser performance and subaperture use of the telescope, all RASL measurement expectations were met, except that of aerosol extinction. Following the Water Vapor Validation Experiment Satellite/Sondes (WAVES_2007) field campaign in the summer of 2007, RASL was installed in a mobile trailer for groundbased use during the Measurements of Humidity and Validation Experiment (MOHAVE-II) field campaign held during October 2007 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory s Table Mountain Facility in southern California. This ground-based configuration of the lidar hardware is called Atmospheric Lidar for Validation, Interagency Collaboration and Education (ALVICE). During theMOHAVE-II field campaign, during which only nighttime measurements were made, ALVICE demonstrated significant sensitivity to lower-stratospheric water vapor. Numerical simulation and comparisons with a cryogenic frost-point hygrometer are used to demonstrate that a system with the performance characteristics of RASL ALVICE should indeed be able to quantify water vapor well into the lower stratosphere with extended averaging from an elevated location like Table Mountain. The same design considerations that optimize Raman lidar for airborne use on a small research aircraft are, therefore, shown to yield significant dividends in the quantification of lower-stratospheric water vapor. The MOHAVE

  13. Development of airborne eddy-correlation flux measurement capabilities for reactive oxides of nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, John (Principal Investigator); Zheng, Xiaonan; Sandholm, Scott T.

    1996-01-01

    This research is aimed at producing a fundamental new research tool for characterizing the source strength of the most important compound controlling the hemispheric and global scale distribution of tropospheric ozone. Specifically, this effort seeks to demonstrate the proof-of-concept of a new general purpose laser-induced fluorescence based spectrometer for making airborne eddy-correlation flux measurements of nitric oxide (NO) and other reactive nitrogen compounds. The new all solid-state laser technology being used in this advanced sensor will produce a forerunner of the type of sensor technology that should eventually result in highly compact operational systems. The proof-of-concept sensor being developed will have over two orders-of-magnitude greater sensitivity than present-day instruments. In addition, this sensor will offer the possibility of eventual extension to airborne eddy-correlation flux measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and possibly other compounds, such as ammonia (NH3), peroxyradicals (HO2), nitrateradicals (NO3) and several iodine compounds (e.g., I and IO). Demonstration of the new sensor's ability to measure NO fluxes will occur through a series of laboratory and field tests. This proof-of-concept demonstration will show that not only can airborne fluxes of important ultra-trace compounds be made at the few parts-per-trillion level, but that the high accuracy/precision measurements currently needed for predictive models can also. These measurement capabilities will greatly enhance our current ability to quantify the fluxes of reactive nitrogen into the troposphere and significantly impact upon the accuracy of predictive capabilities to model O3's distribution within the remote troposphere. This development effort also offers a timely approach for producing the reactive nitrogen flux measurement capabilities that will be needed by future research programs such as NASA's planned 1999 Amazon Biogeochemistry and Atmospheric Chemistry

  14. Airborne system for fast measurements of upwelling and downwelling spectral actinic flux densities.

    PubMed

    Jäkel, Evelyn; Wendisch, Manfred; Kniffka, Anke; Trautmann, Thomas

    2005-01-20

    An airborne system for fast measurements of spectral actinic flux densities in the wavelength range 305-700 nm is introduced. The system is called the Actinic Flux Density Meter (AFDM). The AFDM utilizes the diode array technique and measures downwelling and upwelling spectral actinic flux densities separately with a time resolution of less than 1 s. For airborne measurements this means a spatial resolution of approximately 60 m, assuming an average aircraft velocity of 60 m/s. Thus the AFDM resolves fast changes in the actinic radiation field, which are of special importance for conditions of inhomogeneous clouds or surface reflection. Laboratory characterization measurements of the AFDM are presented, and a method to correct the nonideal angular response of the optical inlets is introduced. Furthermore, exemplar field data sampled simultaneously with spectral irradiance measurements are shown. The horizontal variability of the measured spectra of actinic flux density is quantified, and profile measurements for overcast situations are presented. Finally, the effects of clouds on the spectral actinic flux density are discussed.

  15. On the impact of a refined stochastic model for airborne LiDAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Glennie, Craig

    2016-09-01

    Accurate topographic information is critical for a number of applications in science and engineering. In recent years, airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has become a standard tool for acquiring high quality topographic information. The assessment of airborne LiDAR derived DEMs is typically based on (i) independent ground control points and (ii) forward error propagation utilizing the LiDAR geo-referencing equation. The latter approach is dependent on the stochastic model information of the LiDAR observation components. In this paper, the well-known statistical tool of variance component estimation (VCE) is implemented for a dataset in Houston, Texas, in order to refine the initial stochastic information. Simulations demonstrate the impact of stochastic-model refinement for two practical applications, namely coastal inundation mapping and surface displacement estimation. Results highlight scenarios where erroneous stochastic information is detrimental. Furthermore, the refined stochastic information provides insights on the effect of each LiDAR measurement in the airborne LiDAR error budget. The latter is important for targeting future advancements in order to improve point cloud accuracy.

  16. Improved Beach Zone Segmentation From Airborne Lidar Measurements Using Intensity Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starek, M. J.; Vemula, R. K.; Slatton, C.; Shrestha, R. L.; Carter, W. E.

    2007-05-01

    In an effort to monitor beach zone stability along the St. Augustine Beach region of Florida, high-resolution airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) data are routinely acquired by the University of Florida's Geosensing and Engineering Mapping (GEM) Center. ALSM, often referred to as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), systems enable sub-meter sampling of the near-shore coastal topography and the subsequent creation of digital elevation images with rms errors of less than 10cm over minimally-vegetated surfaces, such as beaches. Currently, there are seven collection dates spanning August 2003 to February 2007. This high spatial resolution coupled with the multiple acquisitions through time provided several results: two separate beach nourishment efforts were captured in the data allowing sediment spreading rate to be modeled and volume loss quantified, shoreline change rates were estimated for temporal scales ranging from a few months to over two years at various spatial frequencies from < 5m to > 300m, storm and seasonal wave climate induced shoreline response were modeled, and novel approaches to morphological feature extraction and identification of localized erosional hot- spots were developed. All previous analyses are based on range measurements; however, the ALSM system also records the intensity (peak voltage from the APD) for each return. Intensity has traditionally been under utilized as a feature for image classification because it does not represent true terrain radiance. We show that in areas with minimal topographic relief, such as beaches, intensity measures have great potential for improved beach zone segmentation. Segmentation of the beach zone is important for several factors including identification of the wet-dry line for traditional shoreline comparison and change-detection, and removal of water points to allow analysis of beach-only zones. Several intensity-based features are extracted from ALSM training data collected along the St. Augustine

  17. Airborne Measurements of Atmospheric Methane Column Abundance Made Using a Pulsed IPDA Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riris, Haris; Numata, Kenji; Li, Steve; Wu, Stewart; Ramanathan, Anamd; Dawsey, Martha; Mao, Jianping; Kawa, Randolph; Abshire, James B.

    2012-01-01

    We report airborne measurements of the column abundance of atmospheric methane made over an altitude range of 3-11 km using a direct detection IPDA lidar with a pulsed laser emitting at 1651 nm. The laser transmitter was a tunable, seeded optical parametric amplifier (OPA) pumped by a Nd:YAG laser and the receiver used a photomultiplier detector and photon counting electronics. The results follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude and the measured line shapes and optical depths show good agreement with theoretical calculations.

  18. Pressure Measurements Using an Airborne Differential Absorption Lidar. Part 1; Analysis of the Systematic Error Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamant, Cyrille N.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Korb, C. Laurence; Evans, Keith D.; Palm, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    Remote airborne measurements of the vertical and horizontal structure of the atmospheric pressure field in the lower troposphere are made with an oxygen differential absorption lidar (DIAL). A detailed analysis of this measurement technique is provided which includes corrections for imprecise knowledge of the detector background level, the oxygen absorption fine parameters, and variations in the laser output energy. In addition, we analyze other possible sources of systematic errors including spectral effects related to aerosol and molecular scattering interference by rotational Raman scattering and interference by isotopic oxygen fines.

  19. Comparison of Retracking Algorithms Using Airborne Radar and Laser Altimeter Measurements of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, Ellen J.; Swift, Calvin T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares four continental ice sheet radar altimeter retracking algorithms using airborne radar and laser altimeter data taken over the Greenland ice sheet in 1991. The refurbished Advanced Application Flight Experiment (AAFE) airborne radar altimeter has a large range window and stores the entire return waveform during flight. Once the return waveforms are retracked, or post-processed to obtain the most accurate altitude measurement possible, they are compared with the high-precision Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) altimeter measurements. The AAFE waveforms show evidence of varying degrees of both surface and volume scattering from different regions of the Greenland ice sheet. The AOL laser altimeter, however, obtains a return only from the surface of the ice sheet. Retracking altimeter waveforms with a surface scattering model results in a good correlation with the laser measurements in the wet and dry-snow zones, but in the percolation region of the ice sheet, the deviation between the two data sets is large due to the effects of subsurface and volume scattering. The Martin et al model results in a lower bias than the surface scattering model, but still shows an increase in the noise level in the percolation zone. Using an Offset Center of Gravity algorithm to retrack altimeter waveforms results in measurements that are only slightly affected by subsurface and volume scattering and, despite a higher bias, this algorithm works well in all regions of the ice sheet. A cubic spline provides retracked altitudes that agree with AOL measurements over all regions of Greenland. This method is not sensitive to changes in the scattering mechanisms of the ice sheet and it has the lowest noise level and bias of all the retracking methods presented.

  20. Airborne in-situ spectral characterization and concentration estimates of fluorescent organics as a function of depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittle, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    The primary purpose of many in-situ airborne light scattering experiments in natural waters is to spectrally characterize the subsurface fluorescent organics and estimate their relative concentrations. This is often done by shining a laser beam into the water and monitoring its subsurface return signal. To do this with the proper interpretation, depth must be taken into account. If one disregards depth dependence when taking such estimates, both their spectral characteristics and their concentrations estimates can be rather ambiguous. A simple airborne lidar configuration is used to detect the subsurface return signal from a particular depth and wavelength. Underwater scatterometer were employed to show that in-situ subsurface organics are very sensitive to depth, but they also require the use of slow moving boats to cover large sample areas. Also, their very entry into the water disturbs the sample it is measuring. The method described is superior and simplest to any employed thus far.

  1. Characterization of shallow marine convection in subtropical regions by airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Silke; Gutleben, Manuel; Schäfler, Andreas; Kiemle, Christoph; Wirth, Martin; Hirsch, Lutz; Ament, Felix

    2016-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges in present day climate research is still the quantification of cloud feedbacks in climate models. Especially the feedback from marine cumulus clouds in the boundary layer with maximum cloud top heights of 4 km introduces large uncertainties in climate sensitivity. Therefore a better understanding of these shallow marine clouds, as well as of their interaction with aerosols and the Earth's energy budget is demanded. To improve our knowledge of shallow marine cumulus convection, measurements onboard the German research aircraft HALO were performed during the NARVAL (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-sensing for Validation studies) mission in December 2013. During NARVAL an EarthCARE equivalent remote sensing payload, with the DLR airborne high spectral resolution and differential absorption lidar system WALES and the cloud radar of the HAMP (HALO Microwave Package) as its core instrumentation, was deployed. To investigate the capability of spaceborne lidar measurements for this kind of study several CALIOP underflights were performed. We will present a comparison of airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements, and we will present the vertical and horizontal distribution of the clouds during NARVAL based on lidar measurements. In particular we investigate the cloud top distribution and the horizontal cloud and cloud gap length. Furthermore we study the representativeness of the NARVAL data by comparing them to and analysing a longer time series and measurements at different years and seasons.

  2. Dual-aureole and sun spectrometer system for airborne measurements of aerosol optical properties.

    PubMed

    Zieger, Paul; Ruhtz, Thomas; Preusker, Rene; Fischer, Jürgen

    2007-12-10

    We have designed an airborne spectrometer system for the simultaneous measurement of the direct sun irradiance and the aureole radiance in two different solid angles. The high-resolution spectral radiation measurements are used to derive vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties. Combined measurements in two solid angles provide better information about the aerosol type without additional and elaborate measuring geometries. It is even possible to discriminate between absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosol types. Furthermore, they allow to apply additional calibration methods and simplify the detection of contaminated data (e.g., by thin cirrus clouds). For the characterization of the detected aerosol type a new index is introduced that is the slope of the aerosol phase function in the forward scattering region. The instrumentation is a flexible modular setup, which has already been successfully applied in airborne and ground-based field campaigns. We describe the setup as well as the calibration of the instrument. In addition, example vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties--including the aureole measurements--are shown and discussed.

  3. Airborne Lidar measurements of the atmospheric pressure profile with tunable Alexandrite lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Dombrowski, M.; Milrod, J.; Walden, H.

    1986-01-01

    The first remote measurements of the atmospheric pressure profile made from an airborne platform are described. The measurements utilize a differential absorption lidar and tunable solid state Alexandrite lasers. The pressure measurement technique uses a high resolution oxygen A band where the absorption is highly pressure sensitive due to collision broadening. Absorption troughs and regions of minimum absorption were used between pairs of stongly absorption lines for these measurements. The trough technique allows the measurement to be greatly desensitized to the effects of laser frequency instabilities. The lidar system was set up to measure pressure with the on-line laser tuned to the absorption trough at 13147.3/cm and with the reference laser tuned to a nonabsorbing frequency near 13170.0/cm. The lidar signal returns were sampled with a 200 range gate (30 vertical resoltion) and averaged over 100 shots.

  4. Airborne measurements performed by a light aircraft during Pegasos spring 2013 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väänänen, Riikka; Krejci, Radovan; Manninen, Hanna E.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Kangasluoma, Juha; Pohja, Toivo; Aalto, Pasi P.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    To fully understand the chemical and physical processes in atmosphere, measuring only on-ground is not sufficient. To extend the measurements into the lower troposphere, the University of Helsinki has performed airborne campaigns since 2009. During spring 2013, a light aircraft was used to measure the aerosol size distribution over boreal forests as a part of the Pegasos 'Norhern Mission'. The aims of the measurements were to quantify the vertical profiles of aerosols up to the altitude of 3.5 km, to study the new particle formation in the lower troposphere, to measure the planetary boundary layer evolution, and to support the measurements performed by Zeppelin NT. We used a Cessna 172 light aircraft as a platform. An aerosol and gas inlet was mounted under the right wing and the sample air was conducted inside the cabin where most of the instruments were placed. The aerosol measurement instruments included a TSI 3776 condensation particle counter (CPC) with a cut-off size of 3 nm, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), with a size range of 10-350 nm, and a Particle Size Magnifier (PSM) connected with a TSI 3772 condensation particle counter. As the properties of the PSM measuring in airborne conditions were still under testing during the campaign, the setups of the PSM varied between the measurements. Other instruments on board included a Li-Cor Li-840 H2O/Co2-analyzer, a temperature sensor, a relative humidity sensor, and a GPS receiver. Total amount of 45 flights with 118 flight hours were performed between 24th April and 15th June 2013. The majority of the flights were flown around SMEAR II station located in Hyytiälä, and when possible, the flights were synchronized with the Zeppelin flights. Simultaneously, an extensive field campaign to measure aerosol and gas properties was performed on-ground at SMEAR II station. A time series of airborne aerosol data of around 1.5 months allows us to construct statistical vertical profiles of aerosol size

  5. The impact of scatterometer wind data on global weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, D.; Baker, W. E.; Kalnay, E.; Halem, M.; Woiceshyn, P. M.; Peteherych, S.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of SEASAT-A scatterometer (SASS) winds on coarse resolution atmospheric model forecasts was assessed. The scatterometer provides high resolution winds, but each wind can have up to four possible directions. One wind direction is correct; the remainder are ambiguous or "aliases'. In general, the effect of objectively dealiased-SASS data was found to be negligible in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, the impact was larger and primarily beneficial when vertical temperature profile radiometer (VTPR) data was excluded. However, the inclusion of VTPR data eliminates the positive impact, indicating some redundancy between the two data sets.

  6. Characterization of surface wind and stress in tropical cyclone with scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. T.; Tang, W.; Xie, X.

    2014-12-01

    Wind is air in motion and stress is the momentum exchange between ocean and atmosphere. While the strong wind of a tropical cyclone (TC) causes destruction at landfall, it is the surface stress that drags down the TC. The relations that were established to retrieve moderate wind speeds from the normalized radar cross-section, or backscatter power, measured by Ku-band and C-band scatterometers do not apply well to TC-scale winds. It has been difficult to establish new relations at strong winds because credible strong winds coincident with scatterometer measurements are not sufficient. We will give credence to our hypothesis that there is no distinct physics of radar backscatter from ocean surface for weather phenomenon like the TC. The relation between backscatter and surface roughness or stress does not change under TC, and the same retrieval algorithm can be extended to the TC. The need for changes in wind retrieval algorithm is explained through the change of the drag coefficient that relates wind to stress in TC. We aspire to separate the sensor parameters that affect backscatter, such as, incident angle, azimuth angle, polarization and backscatter frequencies, from the secondary factors related to the physics of the air-sea interface and turbulent transport, such as air stability (shear and buoyance), air density, sea states, and sea sprays, so that we can establish a simple approximation of surface stress from the backscatter averaged over the relevant spatial and temporal scales. We established a relation between backscatter and surface stress over a moderate range of wind speed, where wind measurements coincident with satellite observations are abundant, and the drag coefficient is well established to convert wind measurements to stress. This relation is applied to retrieve stress from the scatterometer measurement in the high wind range of TC. The characteristic of the drag coefficient in TC-scale winds will be discussed. The difference between wind and

  7. Laser measurement of extinction coefficients of highly absorbing liquids. [airborne oil spill monitoring application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Kincaid, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    A coaxial dual-channel laser system has been developed for the measurement of extinction coefficients of highly absorbing liquids. An empty wedge-shaped sample cell is first translated laterally through a He-Ne laser beam to measure the differential thickness using interference fringes in reflection. The wedge cell is carefully filled with the oil sample and translated through the coaxially positioned dye laser beam for the differential attenuation or extinction measurement. Optional use of the instrumentation as a single-channel extinction measurement system and also as a refractometer is detailed. The system and calibration techniques were applied to the measurement of two crude oils whose extinction values were required to complete the analysis of airborne laser data gathered over four controlled spills.

  8. Initial Field Measurements with the Multisensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) High Purity Germanium (HPGe) Detector Array

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, James E.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Jensen, Jeffrey L.; Morris, Scott J.; Orrell, John L.; Pitts, W. Karl; Rohrer, John S.; Todd, Lindsay C.

    2010-06-29

    Abstract: The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) project has developed a new single cryostat detector array design for high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma ray spectrometers that achieves the high detection efficiency required for stand-off detection and actionable characterization of radiological threats. This approach is necessary since a high efficiency HPGe detector can only be built as an array due to limitations in growing large germanium crystals. The system is ruggedized and shock mounted for use in a variety of field applications. This paper reports on results from initial field measurements conducted in a truck and on two different boats.

  9. Prediction and performance measures of atmospheric disturbances on an airborne imaging platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Kovacs, Mark A.; Cardani, Joseph C.; Maia, Francisco; Aflalo, Tyson; Shilko, Michael L., Sr.

    2004-02-01

    A series of airborne imaging experiments have been conducted on the island of Maui. The imaging platform was a Twin Otter aircraft, which circled ground target sites. The typical platform altitude was 3000 meters, with a slant range to the target of 9000 meters. This experiment was performed during the day using solar illuminated target buildings, and at night with spotlights used to simulate point sources. Imaging system performance predictions were calculated using standard atmospheric turbulence models, and aircraft boundary layer models. Several different measurement approaches were then used to estimate the actual system performance, and make comparisons with the calculations.

  10. Remotely Measured Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence Using Airborne G-LiHT and APFS Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, W. B.; Yee, J. H.; Corp, L. A.; Cook, B. D.; Huemmrich, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    In September 2014 the Goddard Lidar, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) and the APL/JHU Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS) were flown together on a NASA Langley King Air over vegetated targets in North Carolina and Virginia. The instruments provided high spatial and spectral resolution data in the visible and near infrared, down-welling irradiance, elevation maps, and thermal imagery. Ground validation data was also collected concurrently. Here we report the results of these measurements and show the feasibility of using these types of instruments for collection the fluorescence and other information essential for ecological and carbon cycle studies.

  11. Measurement of backscattering from sea with an airborne radar at L band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xianyun; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Yin, Zhiying; Sun, Fang; Kang, Shifeng; Wang, Laibu; Yu, Yunchao; Wen, Fangru

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic backscattering from sea surface at L band have been done with airborne side-looking radar system. Several flights are made for various sea states. Coherent radar data ta HH polarization and some truth data such as wave height, wind velocity and direction, temperature of sea water are recorded. Corner reflectors and active backscattering coefficient can be derived from the radar data and the cinematic data. The result presented in this paper include scattering coefficient and statistical analysis of radar echo with typical probability distribution functions such as Rayleigh, Weibull, Log-normal and K distribution.

  12. Initial evaluation of airborne water vapour measurements by the IAGOS-GHG CRDS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filges, Annette; Gerbig, Christoph; Smit, Herman G. J.; Krämer, Martina; Spelten, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    Accurate and reliable airborne measurements of water vapour are still a challenge. Presently, no airborne humidity sensor exists that covers the entire range of water vapour content between the surface and the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region with sufficient accuracy and time resolution. Nevertheless , these data are a pre-requisite to study the underlying processes in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. The DENCHAR project (Development and Evaluation of Novel Compact Hygrometer for Airborne Research) addresses this deficit by developing and characterizing novel or improved compact airborne hygrometers for different airborne applications within EUFAR (European Facility for Airborne Research). As part of the DENCHAR inter-comparison campaign in Hohn (Germany), 23 May - 1 June 2011, a commercial gas analyzer (G2401-m, Picarro Inc.,US), based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), was installed on a Learjet to measure water vapour, CO2, CH4 and CO. The CRDS components are identical to those chosen for integration aboard commercial airliner within IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System). Thus the campaign allowed for the initial assessment validation of the long-term IAGOS H2O measurements by CRDS against reference instruments with a long performance record (FISH, the Fast In-situ Stratospheric Hygrometer, and CR2 frostpoint hygrometer, both research centre Juelich). The inlet system, a one meter long 1/8" FEP-tube connected to a Rosemount TAT housing (model 102BX, deiced) installed on a window plate of the aircraft, was designed to eliminate sampling of larger aerosols, ice particles, and water droplets, and provides about 90% of ram-pressure. In combination with a lowered sample flow of 0.1 slpm (corresponding to a 4 second response time), this ensured a fully controlled sample pressure in the cavity of 140 torr throughout an aircraft altitude operating range up to 12.5 km without the need of an upstream sampling pump

  13. Toward the Direct Measurement of Coronal Magnetic Fields: An Airborne Infrared Spectrometer for Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samra, J.; DeLuca, E. E.; Golub, L.; Cheimets, P.

    2014-12-01

    The solar magnetic field enables the heating of the corona and provides its underlying structure. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections (CME) and provides the ultimate source of energy for space weather. Therefore, direct measurements of the coronal magnetic field have significant potential to enhance understanding of coronal dynamics and improve solar forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of coronal field lines in the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on the origin of the slow solar wind. While current instruments routinely observe only the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, a proposed airborne spectrometer will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. The targeted lines are four forbidden magnetic dipole transitions between 2 and 4 μm. The airborne system will consist of a telescope, grating spectrometer, and pointing/stabilization system to be flown on the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) during the August 2017 total solar eclipse. The project incorporates several optical engineering challenges, centered around maintaining adequate spectral and spatial resolution in a compact and inexpensive package and on a moving platform. Design studies are currently underway to examine the tradeoffs between various optical geometries and control strategies for the pointing/stabilization system. The results will be presented and interpreted in terms of the consequences for the scientific questions. In addition, results from a laboratory prototype and simulations of the final system will be presented.

  14. Source Impact Determination using Airborne and Ground Measurements of Industrial Plumes.

    PubMed

    Leoni, Cecilia; Hovorka, Jan; Dočekalová, Veronika; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Marvanová, Soňa

    2016-09-20

    Industrial particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposing nearby residential areas forms several European air pollution hot-spots. One of these hot-spot is the residential district of Ostrava Radvanice-Bartovice with frequent exceedances for PM and benzo[a]pyrene B[a]P, a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) of MW > 228 amu. Such PAHs are highly bonded to the ultrafine particles (UFPs), the smallest PM size fraction, which deposits most efficiently in the alveolar region of human lungs. Airborne measurements identified UFP point sources in the adjacent metallurgical complex and mapped limited horizontal and vertical dispersion of industrial plumes enriched with UFPs (3.2 × 10(5)cm(-3)). The plumes, episodes of simultaneous peaks of UFPs (1.4 × 10(5)cm(-3)), SO2 (88.2 ppb), and CO (11.3 ppm), were recorded on the ground downwind in the residential district when wind speeds >1 ms(-1). In the plumes, UFPs were mostly 19-44 nm in diameter, enriched with PAHs/B[a]P up to 43.8/3.5 mg·g(-1). Electron microscopy showed that these plume UFPs were mostly agglomerates of spherules of 30-50 nm in diameter. These source impact measurements, that combine airborne and ground-level measurements, are applicable to clearly identify specific industrial air pollution sources and provide information to assess their possible impact to human health in similar hot-spots worldwide. PMID:27548014

  15. Analysis of Airborne Radar Altimetry Measurements of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, Ellen J.

    1994-01-01

    This dissertation presents an analysis of airborne altimetry measurements taken over the Greenland ice sheet with the 13.9 GHz Advanced Application Flight Experiment (AAFE) pulse compression radar altimeter. This Ku-band instrument was refurbished in 1990 by the Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Massachusetts to obtain high-resolution altitude measurements and to improve the tracking, speed, storage and display capabilities of the radar. In 1991 and 1993, the AAFE altimeter took part in the NASA Multisensor Airborne Altimetry Experiments over Greenland, along with two NASA laser altimeters. Altitude results from both experiments are presented along with comparisons to the laser altimeter and calibration passes over the Sondrestroem runway in Greenland. Although it is too early to make a conclusion about the growth or decay of the ice sheet, these results show that the instrument is capable of measuring small-scale surface changes to within 14 centimeters. In addition, results from these experiments reveal that the radar is sensitive to the different diagenetic regions of the ice sheet. Return waveforms from the wet- snow, percolation and dry-snow zones show varying effects of both surface scattering and sub-surface or volume scattering. Models of each of the diagenetic regions of Greenland are presented along with parameters such as rms surface roughness, rms surface slope and attenuation coefficient of the snow pack obtained by fitting the models to actual return waveforms.

  16. The correlation and quantification of airborne spectroradiometer data to turbidity measurements at Lake Powell, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merry, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    A water sampling program was accomplished at Lake Powell, Utah, during June 1975 for correlation to multispectral data obtained with a 500-channel airborne spectroradiometer. Field measurements were taken of percentage of light transmittance, surface temperature, pH and Secchi disk depth. Percentage of light transmittance was also measured in the laboratory for the water samples. Analyses of electron micrographs and suspended sediment concentration data for four water samples located at Hite Bridge, Mile 168, Mile 150 and Bullfrog Bay indicated differences in the composition and concentration of the particulate matter. Airborne spectroradiometer multispectral data were analyzed for the four sampling locations. The results showed that: (1) as the percentage of light transmittance of the water samples decreased, the reflected radiance increased; and (2) as the suspended sediment concentration (mg/l) increased, the reflected radiance increased in the 1-80 mg/l range. In conclusion, valuable qualitative information was obtained on surface turbidity for the Lake Powell water spectra. Also, the reflected radiance measured at a wavelength of 0.58 micron was directly correlated to the suspended sediment concentration.

  17. Modelling climate change effects on a Dutch coastal groundwater system using airborne electromagnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faneca Sànchez, M.; Gunnink, J. L.; van Baaren, E. S.; Oude Essink, G. H. P.; Siemon, B.; Auken, E.; Elderhorst, W.; de Louw, P. G. B.

    2012-12-01

    The forecast of climate change effects on the groundwater system in coastal areas is of key importance for policy makers. The Dutch water system has been deeply studied because of its complex system of low-lying areas, dunes, land won to the sea and dikes, but nowadays large efforts are still being done to find out the best techniques to describe complex fresh-brackish-saline groundwater dynamic systems. In this paper, we describe a methodology consisting of high-resolution airborne electromagnetic (EM) measurements used in a 3-D variable-density transient groundwater model for a coastal area in the Netherlands. We used the airborne EM measurements in combination with borehole-logging data, electrical conductivity cone penetration tests and groundwater samples to create a 3-D fresh-brackish-saline groundwater distribution of the study area. The EM measurements proved to be an improvement compared to older techniques and provided quality input for the model. With the help of the built 3-D variable-density groundwater model, we removed the remaining inaccuracies of the 3-D chloride field and predicted the effects of three climate scenarios on the groundwater and surface water system. Results showed significant changes in the groundwater system, and gave direction for future water policy. Future research should provide more insight in the improvement of data collection for fresh-brackish-saline groundwater systems as it is of high importance to further improve the quality of the model.

  18. Modelling climate change effects on a Dutch coastal groundwater system using airborne Electro Magnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faneca Sànchez, M.; Gunnink, J. L.; van Baaren, E. S.; Oude Essink, G. H. P.; Siemon, B.; Auken, E.; Elderhorst, W.; de Louw, P. G. B.

    2012-05-01

    The forecast of climate change effects on the groundwater system in coastal areas is of key importance for policy makers. The Dutch water system has been deeply studied because of its complex system of low-lying areas, dunes, land won to the sea and dikes, but nowadays large efforts are still being done to find out the best techniques to describe complex fresh-brackish-saline groundwater dynamic systems. In this article, we describe a methodology consisting of high-resolution airborne Electro Magnetic (EM) measurements used in a 3-D variable-density transient groundwater model for a coastal area in the Netherlands. We used the Airborne EM measurements in combination with borehole-logging data, Electrical Conductivity Cone Penetration Tests and groundwater samples to create a 3-D fresh-brackish-saline groundwater distribution of the study area. The EM measurements proved to be an improvement compared to older techniques and provided quality input for the model. With the help of the built 3-D variable-density groundwater model, we removed the remaining inaccuracies of the 3-D chloride field and predicted the effects of three climate scenarios on the groundwater and surface water system. Results showed significant changes in the groundwater system, and gave direction for future water policy. Future research should provide more insight in the improvement of data collection for fresh-brackish-saline groundwater systems as it is of high importance to further improve the quality of the model.

  19. Overview and Initial Results from the DEEPWAVE Airborne and Ground-Based Measurement Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritts, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    The deep-propagating gravity wave experiment (DEEPWAVE) was performed on and over New Zealand, the Tasman Sea, and the Southern Ocean with core airborne measurements extending from 5 June to 21 July 2014 and supporting ground-based measurements spanning a longer interval. The NSF/NCAR GV employed standard flight-level measurements and new airborne lidar and imaging measurements of gravity waves (GWs) from sources at lower altitudes throughout the stratosphere and into the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The new GV lidars included a Rayleigh lidar measuring atmospheric density and temperature from ~20-60 km and a sodium resonance lidar measuring sodium density and temperature at ~75-105 km. An airborne Advanced Mesosphere Temperature Mapper (AMTM) and two IR "wing" cameras imaged the OH airglow temperature and/or intensity fields extending ~900 km across the GV flight track. The DLR Falcon was equipped with its standard flight-level instruments and an aerosol Doppler lidar measuring radial winds below the Falcon. DEEPWAVE also included extensive ground-based measurements in New Zealand, Tasmania, and Southern Ocean Islands. DEEPWAVE performed 26 GV flights and 13 Falcon flights, and ground-based measurements occurred whether or not the aircraft were flying. Collectively, many diverse cases of GW forcing, propagation, refraction, and dissipation spanning altitudes of 0-100 km were observed. Examples include strong mountain wave (MW) forcing and breaking in the lower and middle stratosphere, weak MW forcing yielding MW penetration into the MLT having very large amplitudes and momentum fluxes, MW scales at higher altitudes ranging from ~10-250 km, large-scale trailing waves from orography refracting into the polar vortex and extending to high altitudes, GW generation by deep convection, large-scale GWs arising from jet stream sources, and strong MWs in the MLT arising from strong surface flow over a small island. DEEPWAVE yielded a number of surprises, among

  20. The importance of altimeter and scatterometer data for ocean prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlburt, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    The prediction of ocean circulation using satellite altimeter data is discussed. Three classes of oceanic response to atmospheric forcing are outlined and examined. Storms, surface waves, eddies, and ocean currents were evaluated in terms of forecasting time requirements. Scatterometer and radiometer applications to ocean prediction are briefly reviewed.

  1. Topographic Signatures in Aquarius Radiometer/Scatterometer Response: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utku, C.; LeVine, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of topography on remote sensing at L-band is examined using the co-located Aquarius radiometer and scatterometer observations over land. A correlation with slope standard deviation is demonstrated for both the radiometer and scatterometer at topographic scales. Although the goal of Aquarius is remote sensing of sea surface salinity, the radiometer and scatterometer are on continuously and collect data for remote sensing research over land. Research is reported here using the data over land to determine if topography could have impact on the passive remote sensing at L-band. In this study, we report observations from two study regions: North Africa between 15 deg and 30 deg Northern latitudes and Australia less the Tasmania Island. Common to these two regions are the semi-arid climate and low population density; both favorable conditions to isolate the effect of topography from other sources of scatter and emission such as vegetation and urban areas. Over these study regions, topographic scale slopes within each Aquarius pixel are computed and their standard deviations are compared with Aquarius scatterometer and radiometer observations over a 36 day period between days 275 and 311 of 2011.

  2. Effect of precipitation on choice of frequency for SEASAT scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dome, G.

    1975-01-01

    Precipitation backscatter limits the effectiveness of a remote sensing radar in a satellite. Scatterometer operation on SEASAT is considered in one of the following frequency ranges: 12.5 GHz; 13.4-14.0 GHz; and 14.4-15.35 GHz. The effect of backscatter from precipitation in these frequency ranges is compared.

  3. ATLAS: Airborne Tunable Laser Absorption Spectrometer for stratospheric trace gas measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Strahan, Susan E.

    1990-01-01

    The ATLAS instrument is an advanced technology diode laser based absorption spectrometer designed specifically for stratospheric tracer studies. This technique was used in the acquisition of N2O tracer data sets on the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. These data sets have proved valuable for comparison with atmospheric models, as well as in assisting in the interpretation of the entire ensemble of chemical and meteorological data acquired on these two field studies. The N2O dynamical tracer data set analysis revealed several ramifications concerning the polar atmosphere: the N2O/NO(y) correlation, which is used as a tool to study denitrification in the polar vertex; the N2O Southern Hemisphere morphology, showing subsidence in the winter polar vortex; and the value of the N2O measurements in the interpretation of ClO, O3, and NO(y) measurements and of the derived dynamical tracer, potential vorticity. Field studies also led to improved characterization of the instrument and to improved accuracy.

  4. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Aerosol Measurements during MILAGRO and TEXAQS/GOMACCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, Richard; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John; Cook Anthony; Harper, David; Burton, Sharon; Clayton, Marian; Clarke, Antony; Russell, Phil; Redemann, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Two1 field experiments conducted during 2006 provided opportunities to investigate the variability of aerosol properties near cities and the impacts of these aerosols on air quality and radiative transfer. The Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) /Megacity Aerosol Experiment in Mexico City (MAX-MEX)/Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B (INTEX-B) joint experiment conducted during March 2006 investigated the evolution and transport of pollution from Mexico City. The Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS)/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) (http://www.al.noaa.gov/2006/) conducted during August and September 2006 investigated climate and air quality in the Houston/Gulf of Mexico region. During both missions, the new NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 King Air aircraft and measured profiles of aerosol extinction, backscattering, and depolarization to: 1) characterize the spatial and vertical distributions of aerosols, 2) quantify aerosol extinction and optical thickness contributed by various aerosol types, 3) investigate aerosol variability near clouds, 4) evaluate model simulations of aerosol transport, and 5) assess aerosol optical properties derived from a combination of surface, airborne, and satellite measurements.

  5. Airborne Lidar for Simultaneous Measurement of Column CO2 and Water Vapor in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Antill, Charles W.; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    The 2-micron wavelength region is suitable for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements due to the existence of distinct absorption feathers for the gas at this particular wavelength. For more than 20 years, researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have developed several high-energy and high repetition rate 2-micron pulsed lasers. This paper will provide status and details of an airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. The development of this active optical remote sensing IPDA instrument is targeted for measuring both CO2 and water vapor (H2O) in the atmosphere from an airborne platform. This presentation will focus on the advancement of the 2-micron triple-pulse IPDA lidar development. Updates on the state-of-the-art triple-pulse laser transmitter will be presented including the status of seed laser locking, wavelength control, receiver telescope, detection system and data acquisition. Future plans for the IPDA lidar system for ground integration, testing and flight validation will also be presented.

  6. Comparison of airborne measurements of greenhouse gases over Railroad Valley, Nevada to satellite and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Johnson, M. S.; Lopez, J.; Loewenstein, M.; Gore, W.; Tadic, J.; Kuze, A.; Kawakami, S.

    2014-12-01

    As part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) we have measured vertical profiles of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (i.e., carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) over Railroad Valley, NV (RRV) on a monthly basis since 2011. These GHG measurements are conducted to quantify trends of climatically important gases and to validate satellite-based GHG column estimates from Greenhouse Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2).The vertical profiles of GHGs observed over RRV show relatively uniform features below and above the boundary layer, and mixing ratios are increasing every year. Strong enhancements in the free troposphere are seen in these profiles in some instances. To assess possible sources of these enhancements and their effects on the GHG column average, GHG vertical profiles calculated by the 3-D GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (v9-01-03) and back-trajectory analysis from the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) are compared with airborne measurements. The main results that we will show are 1) the comparison of vertical GHG distribution calculated from GEOS-Chem and that measured by AJAX, 2) total column GHG values from the model, AJAX, and GOSAT, and 3) demonstrate the source apportionment in GHGs profiles measured at RRV.The RRV playa is a flat high altitude desert site where local sources and sinks of carbon-species are expected to be minimal except for a small oil field. RRV is a radiometrically flat region and has been used to calibrate various satellite radiometers before. These measurements are conducted as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) which regularly measures GHGs, ozone, and 3-D winds over California and Nevada. The Alpha Jet is operated from NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field and airborne instruments are installed in an unpressurized wing pod.

  7. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Pressure Made Using the Oxygen A-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riris, Haris; Rodriquez, Michael D.; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Mao, Jianping; Stephen, Mark A.; Abshire, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of greenhouse gas mixing ratios on a global scale are currently needed to gain a better understanding of climate change and its possible impact on our planet. In order to remotely measure greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere with regard to dry air, the air number density in the atmosphere is also needed in deriving the greenhouse gas concentrations. Since oxygen is stable and uniformly mixed in the atmosphere at 20.95%, the measurement of an oxygen absorption in the atmosphere can be used to infer the dry air density and used to calculate the dry air mixing ratio of a greenhouse gas, such as carbon dioxide or methane. OUT technique of measuring Oxygen uses integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) with an Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDF A) laser system and single photon counting module (SPCM). It measures the absorbance of several on- and off-line wavelengths tuned to an O2 absorption line in the A-band at 764.7 nm. The choice of wavelengths allows us to maximize the pressure sensitivity using the trough between two absorptions in the Oxygen A-band. Our retrieval algorithm uses ancillary meteorological and aircraft altitude information to fit the experimentally obtained lidar O2 line shapes to a model atmosphere and derives the pressure from the profiles of the two lines. We have demonstrated O2 measurements from the ground and from an airborne platform. In this paper we will report on our airborne measurements during our 2011 campaign for the ASCENDS program.

  8. Airborne methane remote measurements reveal heavy-tail flux distribution in Four Corners region

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Andrew K.; Thompson, David R.; Hulley, Glynn; Kort, Eric Adam; Vance, Nick; Borchardt, Jakob; Krings, Thomas; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Sweeney, Colm; Conley, Stephen; Bue, Brian D.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Hook, Simon; Green, Robert O.

    2016-01-01

    Methane (CH4) impacts climate as the second strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air quality by influencing tropospheric ozone levels. Space-based observations have identified the Four Corners region in the Southwest United States as an area of large CH4 enhancements. We conducted an airborne campaign in Four Corners during April 2015 with the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (near-infrared) and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (thermal infrared) imaging spectrometers to better understand the source of methane by measuring methane plumes at 1- to 3-m spatial resolution. Our analysis detected more than 250 individual methane plumes from fossil fuel harvesting, processing, and distributing infrastructures, spanning an emission range from the detection limit ∼ 2 kg/h to 5 kg/h through ∼ 5,000 kg/h. Observed sources include gas processing facilities, storage tanks, pipeline leaks, and well pads, as well as a coal mine venting shaft. Overall, plume enhancements and inferred fluxes follow a lognormal distribution, with the top 10% emitters contributing 49 to 66% to the inferred total point source flux of 0.23 Tg/y to 0.39 Tg/y. With the observed confirmation of a lognormal emission distribution, this airborne observing strategy and its ability to locate previously unknown point sources in real time provides an efficient and effective method to identify and mitigate major emissions contributors over a wide geographic area. With improved instrumentation, this capability scales to spaceborne applications [Thompson DR, et al. (2016) Geophys Res Lett 43(12):6571–6578]. Further illustration of this potential is demonstrated with two detected, confirmed, and repaired pipeline leaks during the campaign. PMID:27528660

  9. Airborne methane remote measurements reveal heavy-tail flux distribution in Four Corners region.

    PubMed

    Frankenberg, Christian; Thorpe, Andrew K; Thompson, David R; Hulley, Glynn; Kort, Eric Adam; Vance, Nick; Borchardt, Jakob; Krings, Thomas; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Sweeney, Colm; Conley, Stephen; Bue, Brian D; Aubrey, Andrew D; Hook, Simon; Green, Robert O

    2016-08-30

    Methane (CH4) impacts climate as the second strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air quality by influencing tropospheric ozone levels. Space-based observations have identified the Four Corners region in the Southwest United States as an area of large CH4 enhancements. We conducted an airborne campaign in Four Corners during April 2015 with the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (near-infrared) and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (thermal infrared) imaging spectrometers to better understand the source of methane by measuring methane plumes at 1- to 3-m spatial resolution. Our analysis detected more than 250 individual methane plumes from fossil fuel harvesting, processing, and distributing infrastructures, spanning an emission range from the detection limit [Formula: see text] 2 kg/h to 5 kg/h through [Formula: see text] 5,000 kg/h. Observed sources include gas processing facilities, storage tanks, pipeline leaks, and well pads, as well as a coal mine venting shaft. Overall, plume enhancements and inferred fluxes follow a lognormal distribution, with the top 10% emitters contributing 49 to 66% to the inferred total point source flux of 0.23 Tg/y to 0.39 Tg/y. With the observed confirmation of a lognormal emission distribution, this airborne observing strategy and its ability to locate previously unknown point sources in real time provides an efficient and effective method to identify and mitigate major emissions contributors over a wide geographic area. With improved instrumentation, this capability scales to spaceborne applications [Thompson DR, et al. (2016) Geophys Res Lett 43(12):6571-6578]. Further illustration of this potential is demonstrated with two detected, confirmed, and repaired pipeline leaks during the campaign. PMID:27528660

  10. ERS-1 Investigations of Southern Ocean Sea Ice Geophysics Using Combined Scatterometer and SAR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, M.; Early, D.; Long, D.

    1994-01-01

    Coregistered ERS-1 SAR and Scatterometer data are presented for the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Calibrated image backscatter statistics are extracted from data acquired in regions where surface measurements were made during two extensive international Weddell Sea experiments in 1992. Changes in summer ice-surface conditions, due to temperature and wind, are shown to have a large impact on observed microwave backscatter values. Winter calibrated backscatter distributions are also investigated as a way of describing ice thickness conditions in different location during winter. Coregistered SAR and EScat data over a manned drifting ice station are used to illustrate the seasonal signature changes occurring during the fall freeze-up transition.

  11. On error sources during airborne measurements of the ambient electric field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evteev, B. F.

    1991-01-01

    The principal sources of errors during airborne measurements of the ambient electric field and charge are addressed. Results of their analysis are presented for critical survey. It is demonstrated that the volume electric charge has to be accounted for during such measurements, that charge being generated at the airframe and wing surface by droplets of clouds and precipitation colliding with the aircraft. The local effect of that space charge depends on the flight regime (air speed, altitude, particle size, and cloud elevation). Such a dependence is displayed in the relation between the collector conductivity of the aircraft discharging circuit - on one hand, and the sum of all the residual conductivities contributing to aircraft discharge - on the other. Arguments are given in favor of variability in the aircraft electric capacitance. Techniques are suggested for measuring from factors to describe the aircraft charge.

  12. Validation of Monte Carlo model of HPGe detector for field-station measurement of airborne radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šolc, J.; Kovář, P.; Dryák, P.

    2016-03-01

    A Monte Carlo (MC) model of a mechanically-cooled High Purity Germanium detection system IDM-200-V™ manufactured by ORTEC® was created, optimized and validated within the scope of the Joint Research Project ENV57 ``Metrology for radiological early warning networks in Europe''. The validation was performed for a planar source homogeneously distributed on a filter placed on top of the detector end cap and for point sources positioned farther from the detector by comparing simulated full-energy peak (FEP) detection efficiencies with the ones measured with two or three different pieces of the IDM detector. True coincidence summing correction factors were applied to the measured FEP efficiencies. Relative differences of FEP efficiencies laid within 8% that is fully satisfactory for the intended use of the detectors as instruments for airborne radioactivity measurement in field-stations. The validated MC model of the IDM-200-V™ detector is now available for further MC calculations planned in the ENV57 project.

  13. Assessment of NOAA Processed OceanSat-2 Scatterometer Ocean Surface Vector Wind Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, P.; Jelenak, Z.; Soisuvarn, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) launched the Oceansat-2 satellite on 23 September 2009. Oceansat-2 carries a radar scatterometer instrument (OSCAT) capable of measuring ocean surface vector winds (OSVW) and an ocean color monitor (OCM), which will retrieve sea spectral reflectance. Oceansat-2 is ISRO's second in a series of satellites dedicated to ocean research. It will provide continuity to the services and applications of the Oceansat-1 OCM data along with additional data from a Ku-band pencil beam scatterometer. Oceansat-2 is a three-axis, body stabilized spacecraft placed into a near circular sun-synchronous orbit, at an altitude of 720 kilometers (km), with an equatorial crossing time of around 1200 hours. ISRO, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) share the common goal of optimizing the quality and maximizing the utility of the Oceansat-2 data for the benefit of future global and regional scientific and operational applications. NOAA, NASA and EUMETSAT have been collaboratively working with ISRO on the assessment and analysis of OSCAT data to help facilitate continuation of QuikSCAT's decade-long Ku-band scatterometer data record. NOAA's interests are focused on the utilization of OSCAT data to support operational weather forecasting and warning in the marine environment. OSCAT has the potential to significantly mitigate the loss of NASA's QuikSCAT, which has negatively impacted NOAA's marine forecasting and warning services. Since March 2011 NOAA has been receiving near real time OSCAT measurements via EumetSat. NOAA has developed its own OSCAT wind processor. This processor produces ocean surface vector winds with resolution of 25km. Performance of NOAA OSCAT product will and its availability to larger user community will be presented and discussed.

  14. Continental-Scale Trace Gas Measurements During COBRA and the Case for Airborne Flask Measurements in the NACP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. B.; Stephens, B. B.; Bakwin, P.; Tans, P. P.; Gerbig, C.; Lin, J.; Wofsy, S.; Andrews, A.; Daube, B.

    2002-12-01

    Intensive airborne sampling of trace gases is envisioned as a major component of the planned North American Carbon Program (NACP). During August 2000 we sampled air between the surface and 10,000 m in the eastern two thirds of the conterminous United States as part of the CO2 Budget and Rectification-Airborne (COBRA) study. Our experience from COBRA can help inform our airborne sampling strategy for the NACP. In COBRA, CO2 and CO were measured in situ by continuous instrumentation, and CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, H2, SF6 and δ13CO2 were measured in the laboratory. Although the data density of the continuous measurements is much higher than that of the flask-based ones, flasks samples are an important complement to the in situ. Laboratory measurements of CO2 and CO provide quality control, while high precision measurements of CH4, δ13CO2 and other species cannot be made in situ. Significant vertical gradients were observed for all species as a result of emissions from biogenic, fossil-fuel related and biomass burning sources. Simultaneously measuring multiple species can help isolate the biogenic component from this mix. For example, if we know emission ratios, measurements of CO and SF6 can be used to identify the fossil fuel and biomass burning contributions to observed CO2. Measurements indicate substantial surface sources of both CH4 and N2O, and a surface sink for H2, in different parts of the United States. As is the case for CO2, the magnitudes and signs of the fluxes are geographically variable. When combined, the vertical gradients CO2 and δ13C can be related to the extent of isotopic discrimination that takes place during plant photosynthesis. This, in turn, is related to plant type and metabolism. Within the data assimilation context of the NACP, measurements of these biologically mediated trace gases will add information on the functioning of the biosphere and thus help to constrain estimates of CO2 fluxes. How much information is lost by taking flask samples

  15. Measurements of Ocean Surface Scattering Using an Airborne 94-GHz Cloud Radar: Implication for Calibration of Airborne and Spaceborne W-band Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Li-Hua; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Racette, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering properties of the Ocean surface have been widely used as a calibration reference for airborne and spaceborne microwave sensors. However, at millimeter-wave frequencies, the ocean surface backscattering mechanism is still not well understood, in part, due to the lack of experimental measurements. During the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE), measurements of ocean surface backscattering were made using a 94-GHz (W-band) cloud radar onboard a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The measurement set includes the normalized Ocean surface cross section over a range of the incidence angles under a variety of wind conditions. Analysis of the radar measurements shows good agreement with a quasi-specular scattering model. This unprecedented dataset enhances our knowledge about the Ocean surface scattering mechanism at 94 GHz. The results of this work support the proposition of using the Ocean surface as a calibration reference for airborne millimeter-wave cloud radars and for the ongoing NASA CloudSat mission, which will use a 94-GHz spaceborne cloud radar for global cloud measurements.

  16. Design of an in-line, digital holographic imaging system for airborne measurement of clouds.

    PubMed

    Spuler, Scott M; Fugal, Jacob

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the design and performance of an airborne (underwing) in-line digital holographic imaging system developed for characterizing atmospheric cloud water droplets and ice particles in situ. The airborne environment constrained the design space to the simple optical layout that in-line non-beam-splitting holography affords. The desired measurement required the largest possible sample volume in which the smallest desired particle size (∼5 μm) could still be resolved, and consequently the magnification requirement was driven by the pixel size of the camera and this particle size. The resulting design was a seven-element, double-telecentric, high-precision optical imaging system used to relay and magnify a hologram onto a CCD surface. The system was designed to preserve performance and high resolution over a wide temperature range. Details of the optical design and construction are given. Experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of recording holograms that can be reconstructed with resolution of better than 6.5 μm within a 15 cm(3) sample volume.

  17. A day-to-day comparison study of Seasat scatterometer winds with winds observed from islands in the tropical Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Jerry; Harrison, D. E.

    1989-01-01

    The winds derived from the Seasat-A Satellite Scatterometer (SASS) measurements have been the subject of great interest since the 1978 mission, because of the promise of radically improved wind observations over the world ocean. Due to the early end of the mission, only a few of the planned ground truth validation experiments could be made, and the subsequent lack of sufficient high quality independent wind data for comparison has limited the ability to resolve critical issues regarding the scatterometer's performance and the correct interpretation of its signal. Operational weather observations were made of ocean winds independent of Seasat mission plans during the Seasat mission period; the results are reported of a comparison study using such observations. Previous verification with in situ winds has been primarily in middle latitudes (GOASEX, JASIN, and NDBO buoys); winds observed from nine tropical Pacific islands are compared with nearly contemporaneous measurements taken by SASS during overpasses of the islands.

  18. Construction of surface pressure field from scatterometer wind field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtele, Morton G.; Hsu, Carol H.; Cunningham, Glen F.; Woiceshyn, Peter M.

    1989-01-01

    An account of the construction of surface pressure fields from Seasat-A satellite scatterometer (SASS) winds as carried out by different methods, and the comparison of these pressure fields with those derived from in situ ship observations is presented. On the assumption that the pressure adjusts itself instantaneously to the motion field, it may be computed by various methods. One of these makes use of planetary boundary theory, and of the possible techniques in this category a two-layer iterative scheme admitting of the parametrization of diabatic and baroclinic effects and of secondary flow was chosen. A second method involves the assumption of zero two-dimensional divergence, leading to a Laplace's equation (the balance equation) in pressure, with the wind field serving as a forcing function. This method does not accommodate adiabatic or baroclinic effects, and requires a knowledge of the pressure at all boundary points. Two comparison fields are used for validation: the conventional operational analyses of the US National Meteorological Center (NMC), and the special analyses of the Gulf of Alaska Experiment (GOASEX), which were done by hand. The results of the computations were as follows: (1) The pressure fields, as computed from the SASS winds alone, closely approximated the NMC fields in regions where reasonable in situ coverage was available (typically, one or two mb differences over most of the chart, three to four mb in extreme cases); (2) In some cases the SASS-derived pressure fields displayed high-resolution phenomena not detected by the NMC fields, but evident in the GOASEX data; and, (3) As expected, the pressure fields derived from the balance equation were much smoother and less well resolved than the SASS-derived or NMC fields. The divergence as measured from the SASS winds is smaller than, but of the same order of magnitude as, the vorticity.

  19. Mapping methane sources and emissions over California from direct airborne flux and VOC source tracer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, A.; Misztal, P. K.; Peischl, J.; Karl, T.; Jonsson, H. H.; Woods, R. K.; Ryerson, T. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying the contributions of methane (CH4) emissions from anthropogenic sources in the Central Valley of California is important for validation of the statewide greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory and subsequent AB32 law implementation. The state GHG inventory is largely based on activity data and emission factor based estimates. The 'bottom-up' emission factors for CH4 have large uncertainties and there is a lack of adequate 'top-down' measurements to characterize emission rates. Emissions from non-CO2 GHG sources display spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, and are thus, often, poorly characterized. The Central Valley of California is an agricultural and industry intensive region with large concentration of dairies and livestock operations, active oil and gas fields and refining operations, as well as rice cultivation all of which are known CH4 sources. In order to gain a better perspective of the spatial distribution of major CH4 sources in California, airborne measurements were conducted aboard a Twin Otter aircraft for the CABERNET (California Airborne BVOC Emissions Research in Natural Ecosystems Transects) campaign, where the driving research goal was to understand the spatial distribution of biogenic VOC emissions. The campaign took place in June 2011 and encompassed over forty hours of low-altitude and mixed layer airborne CH4 and CO2 measurements alongside coincident VOC measurements. Transects during eight unique flights covered much of the Central Valley and its eastern edge, the Sacramento-San Joaquin delta and the coastal range. We report direct quantification of CH4 fluxes using real-time airborne Eddy Covariance measurements. CH4 and CO2 were measured at 1-Hz data rate using an instrument based on Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) along with specific VOCs (like isoprene, methanol, acetone etc.) measured at 10-Hz using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer - Eddy Covariance (PTRMS-EC) flux system. Spatially resolved eddy covariance

  20. A Micro Aerosol Sensor for the Measurement of Airborne Ultrafine Particles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Particle number concentration and particle size are the two key parameters used to characterize exposure to airborne nanoparticles or ultrafine particles that have attracted the most attention. This paper proposes a simple micro aerosol sensor for detecting the number concentration and particle size of ultrafine particles with diameters from 50 to 253 nm based on electrical diffusion charging. The sensor is composed of a micro channel and a couple of planar electrodes printed on two circuit boards assembled in parallel, which thus integrate charging, precipitating and measurement elements into one chip, the overall size of which is 98 × 38 × 25 mm³. The experiment results demonstrate that the sensor is useful for measuring monodisperse aerosol particles with number concentrations from 300 to 2.5 × 10⁴ /cm³ and particle sizes from 50 to 253 nm. The aerosol sensor has a simple structure and small size, which is favorable for use in handheld devices. PMID:26999156

  1. Airborne Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer for IPDA Measurements of Tropospheric CO2: Recent Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, Gary D.; Menzies, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    The National Research Council's decadal survey on Earth Science and Applications from Space[1] recommended the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission for launch in 2013-2016 as a logical follow-on to the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) which is scheduled for launch in late 2008 [2]. The use of a laser absorption measurement technique provides the required ability to make day and night measurements of CO2 over all latitudes and seasons. As a demonstrator for an approach to meeting the instrument needs for the ASCENDS mission we have developed the airborne Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) which uses the Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) Spectrometer [3] technique operating in the 2 micron wavelength region.. During 2006 a short engineering checkout flight of the CO2LAS was conducted and the results presented previously [4]. Several short flight campaigns were conducted during 2007 and we report results from these campaigns.

  2. Oil film thickness measurement using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    The use of laser-induced water Raman backscatter for remote thin oil film detection and thickness measurement is reported here for the first time. A 337.1-nm nitrogen laser was used to excite the 3400-cm-1 OH stretch band of natural ocean water beneath the oil slick from an altitude of 150 m. The signal strength of the 381-nm water Raman backscatter was always observed to depress when the oil was encountered and then return to its original undepressed value after complete aircraft traversal of the floating slick. After removal of background and oil fluorescence contributions, the ratio of the depressed-to-undepressed airborne water Raman signal intensities, together with laboratory measured oil extinction coefficients, is used to calculate the oil film thickness.

  3. Measurements of total reactive nitrogen during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Fahey, D. W.; Anderson, L. C.; Loewenstein, M.; Chan, K. R.

    1990-01-01

    Composite distributions of measured total reactive nitrogen NO(y), from the NASA ER-2 during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition are presented. The observed features of these distributions are discussed in terms of the controlling dynamical, chemical and microphysical processes. In the latitudinal profile from 58 deg N to within about 4 deg poleward of the polar vortex boundary, NO(y) conforms closely to predictions of NO(y) based on N2O measurements. Poleward of 5 deg of latitude within the boundary, the average NO(y) decreases sharply and is significantly lower than that predicted from N2O. This feature is consistent with loss of NO(y) through sedimentation of particles containing NO(y) in polar stratospheric clouds.

  4. Airborne Measurements of Formaldehyde Employing a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer During TRACE-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fried, Alan; Drummond, James

    2003-01-01

    This final report summarizes the progress achieved over the entire 3-year proposal period including two extensions spanning 1 year. These activities include: 1) Preparation for and participation in the NASA 2001 TRACE-P campaign using our airborne tunable diode laser system to acquire measurements of formaldehyde (CH2O); 2) Comprehensive data analysis and data submittal to the NASA archive; 3) Follow up data interpretation working with NASA modelers to place our ambient CH2O measurements into a broader photochemical context; 4) Publication of numerous JGR papers using this data; 5) Extensive follow up laboratory tests on the selectivity and efficiency of our CH20 scrubbing system; and 6) An extensive follow up effort to assess and study the mechanical stability of our entire optical system, particularly the multipass absorption cell, with aircraft changes in cabin pressure.

  5. Derivation of Cumulus Cloud Dimensions and Shape from the Airborne Measurements by the Research Scanning Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Emde, Claudia; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Ottaviani, Matteo; Wasilewski, Andrzej P.

    2016-01-01

    The Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) is an airborne instrument, whose measurements have been extensively used for retrievals of microphysical properties of clouds. In this study we show that for cumulus clouds the information content of the RSP data can be extended by adding the macroscopic parameters of the cloud, such as its geometric shape, dimensions, and height above the ground. This extension is possible by virtue of the high angular resolution and high frequency of the RSP measurements, which allow for geometric constraint of the cloud's 2D cross section between a number of tangent lines of view. The retrieval method is tested on realistic 3D radiative transfer simulations and applied to actual RSP data.

  6. A new measurement method for separating airborne and structureborne noise radiated by aircraft type panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgary, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical basis for and experimental validation of a measurement method for separating airborne and structure borne noise radiated by aircraft type panels are presented. An extension of the two microphone, cross spectral, acoustic intensity method combined with existing theory of sound radiation of thin shell structures of various designs, is restricted to the frequency range below the coincidence frequency of the structure. Consequently, the method lends itself to low frequency noise problems such as propeller harmonics. Both an aluminum sheet and two built up aircraft panel designs (two aluminum panels with frames and stringers) with and without added damping were measured. Results indicate that the method is quick, reliable, inexpensive, and can be applied to thin shell structures of various designs.

  7. A Micro Aerosol Sensor for the Measurement of Airborne Ultrafine Particles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Particle number concentration and particle size are the two key parameters used to characterize exposure to airborne nanoparticles or ultrafine particles that have attracted the most attention. This paper proposes a simple micro aerosol sensor for detecting the number concentration and particle size of ultrafine particles with diameters from 50 to 253 nm based on electrical diffusion charging. The sensor is composed of a micro channel and a couple of planar electrodes printed on two circuit boards assembled in parallel, which thus integrate charging, precipitating and measurement elements into one chip, the overall size of which is 98 × 38 × 25 mm3. The experiment results demonstrate that the sensor is useful for measuring monodisperse aerosol particles with number concentrations from 300 to 2.5 × 104 /cm3 and particle sizes from 50 to 253 nm. The aerosol sensor has a simple structure and small size, which is favorable for use in handheld devices. PMID:26999156

  8. Polarized Imaging Nephelometer for in situ airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering.

    PubMed

    Dolgos, Gergely; Martins, J Vanderlei

    2014-09-01

    Global satellite remote sensing of aerosols requires in situ measurements to enable the calibration and validation of algorithms. In order to improve our understanding of light scattering by aerosol particles, and to enable routine in situ airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering, we have developed an instrument, called the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph). We designed and built the PI-Neph at the Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics (LACO) of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). This portable instrument directly measures the ambient scattering coefficient and phase matrix elements of aerosols, in the field or onboard an aircraft. The measured phase matrix elements are the P(11), phase function, and P(12). Lasers illuminate the sampled ambient air and aerosol, and a wide field of view camera detects scattered light in a scattering angle range of 3° to 176°. The PI-Neph measures an ensemble of particles, supplying the relevant quantity for satellite remote sensing, as opposed to particle-by-particle measurements that have other applications. Comparisons with remote sensing measurements will have to consider aircraft inlet effects. The PI-Neph first measured at a laser wavelength of 532nm, and was first deployed successfully in 2011 aboard the B200 aircraft of NASA Langley during the Development and Evaluation of satellite ValidatiOn Tools by Experimenters (DEVOTE) project. In 2013, we upgraded the PI-Neph to measure at 473nm, 532nm, and 671nm nearly simultaneously. LACO has deployed the PI-Neph on a number of airborne field campaigns aboard three different NASA aircraft. This paper describes the PI-Neph measurement approach and validation by comparing measurements of artificial spherical aerosols with Mie theory. We provide estimates of calibration uncertainties, which show agreement with the small residuals between measurements of P(11) and -P(12)/P(11) and Mie theory. We demonstrate the capability of the PI-Neph to measure

  9. Polarized Imaging Nephelometer for in situ airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering.

    PubMed

    Dolgos, Gergely; Martins, J Vanderlei

    2014-09-01

    Global satellite remote sensing of aerosols requires in situ measurements to enable the calibration and validation of algorithms. In order to improve our understanding of light scattering by aerosol particles, and to enable routine in situ airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering, we have developed an instrument, called the Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph). We designed and built the PI-Neph at the Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics (LACO) of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). This portable instrument directly measures the ambient scattering coefficient and phase matrix elements of aerosols, in the field or onboard an aircraft. The measured phase matrix elements are the P(11), phase function, and P(12). Lasers illuminate the sampled ambient air and aerosol, and a wide field of view camera detects scattered light in a scattering angle range of 3° to 176°. The PI-Neph measures an ensemble of particles, supplying the relevant quantity for satellite remote sensing, as opposed to particle-by-particle measurements that have other applications. Comparisons with remote sensing measurements will have to consider aircraft inlet effects. The PI-Neph first measured at a laser wavelength of 532nm, and was first deployed successfully in 2011 aboard the B200 aircraft of NASA Langley during the Development and Evaluation of satellite ValidatiOn Tools by Experimenters (DEVOTE) project. In 2013, we upgraded the PI-Neph to measure at 473nm, 532nm, and 671nm nearly simultaneously. LACO has deployed the PI-Neph on a number of airborne field campaigns aboard three different NASA aircraft. This paper describes the PI-Neph measurement approach and validation by comparing measurements of artificial spherical aerosols with Mie theory. We provide estimates of calibration uncertainties, which show agreement with the small residuals between measurements of P(11) and -P(12)/P(11) and Mie theory. We demonstrate the capability of the PI-Neph to measure

  10. Airborne Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds and NOx over a European megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Marvin; Lee, James; Davison, Brian; Misztal, Pawel; Karl, Thomas; Hewitt, Nick; Lewis, Alistair

    2014-05-01

    Ground level ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are priority pollutants whose concentrations are closely regulated by European Union Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC. O3 is a secondary pollutant, produced from a complex chemical interplay between oxides of nitrogen (NOx = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Whilst the basic atmospheric chemistry leading to O3 formation is generally well understood, there are substantial uncertainties associated with the magnitude of emissions of both VOCs and NOx. At present our knowledge of O3 precursor emissions in the UK is primarily derived from National Atmospheric Emission inventories (NAEI) that provide spatially disaggregated estimates at 1x1km resolution, and these are not routinely tested at city or regional scales. Uncertainties in emissions propagate through into uncertainties in predictions of air quality in the future, and hence the likely effectiveness of control policies on both background and peak O3 and NO2 concentrations in the UK. The Ozone Precursor Fluxes in the Urban Environment (OPFUE) project aims to quantify emission rates for NOx and selected VOCs in and around the megacity of London using airborne eddy covariance (AEC). The mathematical foundation for AEC has been extensively reviewed and AEC measurements of ozone, dimethyl sulphide, CO2 and VOCs have been previously reported. During the summer of 2013, approximately 30 hours of airborne flux measurements of toluene, benzene, NO and NO2 were obtained from the NERC Airborne Research and Survey Facility's (ARSF) Dornier-228 aircraft. Over SE England, flights involved repeated south west to north east transects of ~50 km each over Greater London and it's surrounding suburbs and rural areas, flying at the aircraft's minimum operating flight altitude and airspeed (~300m, 80m/s). Mixing ratios of benzene and toluene were acquired at 2Hz using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and compared to twice hourly whole air canister

  11. Measurements of Ultra-fine and Fine Aerosol Particles over Siberia: Large-scale Airborne Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Stohl, Andreas; Belan, Boris; Ciais, Philippe; Nédélec, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of in-situ measurements of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles carried out in the troposphere from 500 to 7000 m in the framework of several International and Russian State Projects. Number concentrations of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles measured during intensive airborne campaigns are presented. Measurements carried over a great part of Siberia were focused on particles with diameters from 3 to 21 nm to study new particle formation in the free/upper troposphere over middle and high latitudes of Asia, which is the most unexplored region of the Northern Hemisphere. Joint International airborne surveys were performed along the following routes: Novosibirsk-Salekhard-Khatanga-Chokurdakh-Pevek-Yakutsk-Mirny-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB/PLARCAT2008 Project) and Novosibirsk-Mirny-Yakutsk-Lensk-Bratsk-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB Project). The flights over Lake Baikal was conducted under Russian State contract. Concentrations of ultra-fine and fine particles were measured with automated diffusion battery (ADB, designed by ICKC SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) modified for airborne applications. The airborne ADB coupled with CPC has an additional aspiration unit to compensate ambient pressure and changing flow rate. It enabled to classify nanoparticles in three size ranges: 3-6 nm, 6-21 nm, and 21-200 nm. To identify new particle formation events we used similar specific criteria as Young et al. (2007): (1) N3-6nm >10 cm-3, (2) R1=N3-6/N621 >1 and R2=N321/N21200 >0.5. So when one of the ratios R1 or R2 tends to decrease to the above limits the new particle formation is weakened. It is very important to notice that space scale where new particle formation was observed is rather large. All the events revealed in the FT occurred under clean air conditions (low CO mixing ratios). Measurements carried out in the atmospheric boundary layer over Baikal Lake did not reveal any event of new particle formation. Concentrations of ultra

  12. Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes over Mid-Latitude and Sub-Arctic Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, J.; Sachs, T.

    2012-04-01

    For a quantification of the natural GHG budget of the atmosphere the emission of methane from the vast arctic wetlands need to be assessed accurately. The conventional methods of flux measurements made by closed chambers and eddy towers need to be upscaled, introducing a potentially large source of uncertainty, due to the heterogeneity of the emitting sources at the surface. In order to obtain a large area coverage and thus a higher spacial representativeness we performed airborne measurements of methane fluxes over mid-latitude and sub-arctic wetlands, for flight legs of tens of kilometres length. We installed a fast trace gas analyser, a Los Gatos RMT200, in the research aircraft Polar 5, together with the noseboom mounted turbulence sensor package. Measurement flights have been carried out in June 2011 over wetlands in Germany and in northern Finland in a convectively mixed boundary layer. Reference data have been optained at the surface by tower mounted eddy correlation measurements. A spectral analysis of the first measurements shows that the system is well suitable to measure the vertical flux of methane from natural surfaces transported by the dominating eddies in the convective boundary layer. Our flux measurements compare well to those obtained at the surface. On the high-frequency end of the spectrum the measurement accuracy is not sufficient to resolve the inertial subrange.

  13. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption in the ASCENDS 2011 Airborne Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Ramanathan, Anand; Hasselbrack, William E.; Mao, Jianping; Weaver, Clark; Browell, Edward V.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated an efficient pulsed, wavelength-resolved IPDA lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. Our team participated in the 2010 ASCENDS airborne campaigns we flew airborne version of the CO2 and O2 lidar on the NASA DC-8. The CO2 lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and shape of the 1572.33 nm absorption line using 250 mW average laser power, 30 wavelength samples per scan and 300 scans per second. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps to greater than 12 km, and clear CO2 line shapes were observed at all altitudes. Our post-flight analysis estimated the Iidar range and pulse energies at each wavelength every second. We then solved for the best-fit CO2 absorption line shape, and calculated the Differential Optical Depth (DOD) at the line peak. We compared these to CO2 DODs calculated from spectroscopy based on HITRAN 2008 and the conditions from airborne in-situ readings. Analysis of the 2010 measurements over the Pacific Ocean and Lamont OK shows the expected -linear change of the peak DOD with altitude. For measurements at altitudes greater than 6 km the random errors were approximately 0.3 ppm for 80 sec averaging times. After the 2010 flights we improved the airborne lidar's scan uniformity, calibration and receiver sensitivity. Our team participated in the seven ASCENDS science flights during late July and August 2011. These flights were made over a wide variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US, including over the central valley of California, over several mountain ranges, over both broken and solid stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, snow patches on mountain tops, over thin and broken clouds above the US Southwest and Iowa, and over forests near the WLEF tower in Wisconsin. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range and CO2 column absorption, as wen as estimates of CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly

  14. Airborne IPDA Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Methane in Support of MERLIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiemle, C.; Amediek, A.; Wirth, M.; Ehret, G.

    2015-12-01

    Space-based lidar missions targeting greenhouse gases are expected to close observational gaps, e.g., over subarctic permafrost and tropical wetlands, where in-situ and passive remote sensing techniques have difficulties. Consequently, a "Methane Remote Lidar Mission" (MERLIN) was proposed by the German and French space agencies DLR and CNES. MERLIN is now in Phase B, in which all mission components are planned in detail; launch is foreseen in 2020. An integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar will measure weighted columns of atmospheric methane (XCH4) along the satellite track. Primary objective is to provide accurate global observations of methane concentration gradients for inverse numerical models in order to better quantify regional fluxes. DLR has developed an airborne demonstrator, CHARM-F, for technology demonstration and validation purposes. First successful flights on-board the German HALO research aircraft have been performed in May 2015 over Central Europe. The measurements are expected to help solve general retrieval issues for future space-borne IPDA lidars. For example, the CHARM-F flights over ocean and lakes help assess the strength and variability of backscatter from water surfaces. The IPDA weighting function, or measurement sensitivity, is dependent on atmospheric pressure and temperature, in particular close to the surface. We use ECMWF analyses interpolated in space and time to the aircraft track that provide these auxiliary data at 14 km horizontal resolution. Due to the coarse representation of orography the model's pressure and temperature profiles have to be extrapolated down to the true lidar's scattering surface elevation, which generates uncertainties that we assess. We also assess biases by spectroscopic uncertainties in the methane absorption lines' parameters. Overall, the airborne results will support the development of advanced processing algorithms for future space lidar missions such as MERLIN.

  15. Hurricane Wind Field Measurements with Scanning Airborne Doppler Lidar During CAMEX-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, D. R.; Howell, J. N.; Darby, L. S.; Hardesty, R. M.; Traff, D. M.; Menzies, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    During the 1998 Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3), the first hurricane wind field measurements with Doppler lidar were achieved. Wind fields were mapped within the eye, along the eyewall, in the central dense overcast, and in the marine boundary layer encompassing the inflow region. Spatial coverage was determined primarily by cloud distribution and opacity. Within optically-thin cirrus slant range of 20- 25 km was achieved, whereas no propagation was obtained during penetration of dense cloud. Measurements were obtained with the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. MACAWS was developed and operated cooperatively by the atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A pseudo-dual Doppler technique ("co-planar scanning") is used to map the horizontal component of the wind at several vertical levels. Pulses from the laser are directed out the left side of the aircraft in the desired directions using computer-controlled rotating prisms. Upon exiting the aircraft, the beam is completely eyesafe. Aircraft attitude and speed are taken into account during real-time signal processing, resulting in determination of the ground-relative wind to an accuracy of about 1 m/s magnitude and about 10 deg direction. Beam pointing angle errors are about 0.1 deg, equivalent to about 17 m at 10 km. Horizontal resolution is about 1 km (along-track) for typical signal processor and scanner settings; vertical resolution varies with range. Results from CAMEX-3 suggest that scanning Doppler wind lidar can complement airborne Doppler radar by providing wind field measurements in regions that are devoid of hydrometeors. At present MACAWS observations are being assimilated into experimental forecast models and satellite Doppler wind lidar simulations to evaluate the relative impact.

  16. Precipitation susceptibility in marine stratocumulus and shallow cumulus from airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eunsil; Albrecht, Bruce A.; Sorooshian, Armin; Zuidema, Paquita; Jonsson, Haflidi H.

    2016-09-01

    Precipitation tends to decrease as aerosol concentration increases in warm marine boundary layer clouds at fixed liquid water path (LWP). The quantitative nature of this relationship is captured using the precipitation susceptibility (So) metric. Previously published works disagree on the qualitative behavior of So in marine low clouds: So decreases monotonically with increasing LWP or cloud depth (H) in stratocumulus clouds (Sc), while it increases and then decreases in shallow cumulus clouds (Cu). This study uses airborne measurements from four field campaigns on Cu and Sc with similar instrument packages and flight maneuvers to examine if and why So behavior varies as a function of cloud type. The findings show that So increases with H and then decreases in both Sc and Cu. Possible reasons for why these results differ from those in previous studies of Sc are discussed.

  17. Airborne measurements of organic bromine compounds in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Maria A; Atlas, Elliot L; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Kinnison, Douglas E; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Filus, Michal; Harris, Neil R P; Meneguz, Elena; Ashfold, Matthew J; Manning, Alistair J; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schauffler, Sue M; Donets, Valeria

    2015-11-10

    Very short-lived brominated substances (VSLBr) are an important source of stratospheric bromine, an effective ozone destruction catalyst. However, the accurate estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of bromine and the input to the stratosphere remains uncertain. Here, we report near-tropopause measurements of organic brominated substances found over the tropical Pacific during the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment campaigns. We combine aircraft observations and a chemistry-climate model to quantify the total bromine loading injected to the stratosphere. Surprisingly, despite differences in vertical transport between the Eastern and Western Pacific, VSLBr (organic + inorganic) contribute approximately similar amounts of bromine [∼6 (4-9) parts per trillion] [corrected] to the stratospheric input at the tropical tropopause. These levels of bromine cause substantial ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere, and any increases in future abundances (e.g., as a result of aquaculture) will lead to larger depletions. PMID:26504212

  18. Wind field measurements for the mitigation of airborne health threats in a complex urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arend, Mark; Santoro, David; Abdelazim, Sameh; Moshary, Fred; Ahmed, Sam

    2009-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) sponsored Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) resulted in the strategic placement of weather instruments in New York City (NYC) and the transition of some instruments to the City College of New York (CCNY) operated NYC MetNet to provide timely and accurate information on "skimming field" winds above city building tops. In order to extend the observational capabilities of the NYC MetNet, a cost effective portable eye safe fiber optic based coherent wind lidar system is currently under development in CCNY laboratories. Wind lidar measurements, coupled with the continuous observations from the NYC MetNet, should support the initialization, feedback and development of plume models that would be used after an initial detection of airborne toxins. An overview of the lidar system design and the NYC MetNet will be given.

  19. Diode-pumped Nd:YAG lidar for airborne cloud measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehnert, A.; Halldorsson, Th.; Herrmann, H.; Haering, R.; Krichbaumer, W.; Streicher, J.; Werner, Ch.

    1992-07-01

    This work is concerned with the experimental method used to separate scattering and to use it for the determination of cloud microphysical parameters. It is also the first airborne test of a lidar version related to the ATLID Program - ESA's scheduled spaceborne lidar. The already tested DLR microlidar was modified with the new diode-pumped laser and a faster data recording system was added. The system was used during the CLEOPATRA campaign in the DLR research aircraft Falcon 20 to measure cloud parameters. The diode pumped Nd:YAG laser we developed for the microlidar is a modification of the laser we introduced at the Lidar Congress at 'Laser 1991' in Munich. Various aspects of this work are discussed.

  20. Airborne measurements of organic bromine compounds in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Maria A; Atlas, Elliot L; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Kinnison, Douglas E; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Filus, Michal; Harris, Neil R P; Meneguz, Elena; Ashfold, Matthew J; Manning, Alistair J; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schauffler, Sue M; Donets, Valeria

    2015-11-10

    Very short-lived brominated substances (VSLBr) are an important source of stratospheric bromine, an effective ozone destruction catalyst. However, the accurate estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of bromine and the input to the stratosphere remains uncertain. Here, we report near-tropopause measurements of organic brominated substances found over the tropical Pacific during the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment campaigns. We combine aircraft observations and a chemistry-climate model to quantify the total bromine loading injected to the stratosphere. Surprisingly, despite differences in vertical transport between the Eastern and Western Pacific, VSLBr (organic + inorganic) contribute approximately similar amounts of bromine [∼6 (4-9) parts per trillion] [corrected] to the stratospheric input at the tropical tropopause. These levels of bromine cause substantial ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere, and any increases in future abundances (e.g., as a result of aquaculture) will lead to larger depletions.

  1. Airborne measurements of surface layer turbulence over the ocean during cold air outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Shien; Yeh, Eueng-Nan

    1987-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of surface layer turbulence for the near-shore cloud street regions over the Atlantic Ocean were examined using 50-m level data of airborne measurements of atmospheric turbulence spectra above the western Atlantic Ocean during cold air outbreaks. The present study, performed for the Mesoscale Air-Sea Exchange (MASEX) experiment, extends and completes the preliminary analyses of Chou and Yeh (1987). In the inertial subrange, a near 4/3 ratio was observed between velocity spectra normal to and those along the aircraft heading. A comparison of the turbulent kinetic energy budgets with those of Wyngaard and Cote (1971) and Caughey and Wyngaard (1979) data indicates that the turbulent kinetic energy in the surface layer is dissipated less in the MASEX data than in data obtained by the previous groups.

  2. Airborne measurements of organic bromine compounds in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Maria A.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Filus, Michal; Harris, Neil R. P.; Meneguz, Elena; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Manning, Alistair J.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schauffler, Sue M.; Donets, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Very short-lived brominated substances (VSLBr) are an important source of stratospheric bromine, an effective ozone destruction catalyst. However, the accurate estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of bromine and the input to the stratosphere remains uncertain. Here, we report near-tropopause measurements of organic brominated substances found over the tropical Pacific during the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment campaigns. We combine aircraft observations and a chemistry−climate model to quantify the total bromine loading injected to the stratosphere. Surprisingly, despite differences in vertical transport between the Eastern and Western Pacific, VSLBr (organic + inorganic) contribute approximately similar amounts of bromine [∼6 (4−9) parts per thousand] to the stratospheric input at the tropical tropopause. These levels of bromine cause substantial ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere, and any increases in future abundances (e.g., as a result of aquaculture) will lead to larger depletions. PMID:26504212

  3. SeaWinds Scatterometer Wind Vector Retrievals Within Hurricanes Using AMSR and NEXRAD to Perform Corrections for Precipitation Effects: Comparison of AMSR and NEXRAD Retrievals of Rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, David E.; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla; Callahan, Philip

    2006-01-01

    The opportunity provided by satellite scatterometers to measure ocean surface winds in strong storms and hurricanes is diminished by the errors in the received backscatter (SIGMA-0) caused by the attenuation, scattering and surface roughening produced by heavy rain. Providing a good rain correction is a very challenging problem, particularly at Ku band (13.4 GHz) where rain effects are strong. Corrections to the scatterometer measurements of ocean surface winds can be pursued with either of two different methods: empirical or physical modeling. The latter method is employed in this study because of the availability of near simultaneous and collocated measurements provided by the MIDORI-II suite of instruments. The AMSR was designed to measure atmospheric water-related parameters on a spatial scale comparable to the SeaWinds scatterometer. These quantities can be converted into volumetric attenuation and scattering at the Ku-band frequency of SeaWinds. Optimal estimates of the volume backscatter and attenuation require a knowledge of the three dimensional distribution of reflectivity on a scale comparable to that of the precipitation. Studies selected near the US coastline enable the much higher resolution NEXRAD reflectivity measurements evaluate the AMSR estimates. We are also conducting research into the effects of different beam geometries and nonuniform beamfilling of precipitation within the field-of-view of the AMSR and the scatterometer. Furthermore, both AMSR and NEXRAD estimates of atmospheric correction can be used to produce corrected SIGMA-0s, which are then input to the JPL wind retrieval algorithm.

  4. Retrieval of Snow and Rain From Combined X- and W-B and Airborne Radar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert; Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, Gerald M.

    2008-01-01

    Two independent airborne dual-wavelength techniques, based on nadir measurements of radar reflectivity factors and Doppler velocities, respectively, are investigated with respect to their capability of estimating microphysical properties of hydrometeors. The data used to investigate the methods are taken from the ER-2 Doppler radar (X-band) and Cloud Radar System (W-band) airborne Doppler radars during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment campaign in 2002. Validity is assessed by the degree to which the methods produce consistent retrievals of the microphysics. For deriving snow parameters, the reflectivity-based technique has a clear advantage over the Doppler-velocity-based approach because of the large dynamic range in the dual-frequency ratio (DFR) with respect to the median diameter Do and the fact that the difference in mean Doppler velocity at the two frequencies, i.e., the differential Doppler velocity (DDV), in snow is small relative to the measurement errors and is often not uniquely related to Do. The DFR and DDV can also be used to independently derive Do in rain. At W-band, the DFR-based algorithms are highly sensitive to attenuation from rain, cloud water, and water vapor. Thus, the retrieval algorithms depend on various assumptions regarding these components, whereas the DDV-based approach is unaffected by attenuation. In view of the difficulties and ambiguities associated with the attenuation correction at W-band, the DDV approach in rain is more straightforward and potentially more accurate than the DFR method.

  5. Evaluating standard airborne sound insulation measures in terms of annoyance, loudness, and audibility ratings.

    PubMed

    Park, H K; Bradley, J S

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an evaluation of the merits of standard airborne sound insulation measures with respect to subjective ratings of the annoyance and loudness of transmitted sounds. Subjects listened to speech and music sounds modified to represent transmission through 20 different walls with sound transmission class (STC) ratings from 34 to 58. A number of variations in the standard measures were also considered. These included variations in the 8-dB rule for the maximum allowed deficiency in the STC measure as well as variations in the standard 32-dB total allowed deficiency. Several spectrum adaptation terms were considered in combination with weighted sound reduction index (R(w)) values as well as modifications to the range of included frequencies in the standard rating contour. A STC measure without an 8-dB rule and an R(w) rating with a new spectrum adaptation term were better predictors of annoyance and loudness ratings of speech sounds. R(w) ratings with one of two modified C(tr) spectrum adaptation terms were better predictors of annoyance and loudness ratings of transmitted music sounds. Although some measures were much better predictors of responses to one type of sound than were the standard STC and R(w) values, no measure was remarkably improved for predicting annoyance and loudness ratings of both music and speech sounds. PMID:19603878

  6. Evaluating signal-to-noise ratios, loudness, and related measures as indicators of airborne sound insulation.

    PubMed

    Park, H K; Bradley, J S

    2009-09-01

    Subjective ratings of the audibility, annoyance, and loudness of music and speech sounds transmitted through 20 different simulated walls were used to identify better single number ratings of airborne sound insulation. The first part of this research considered standard measures such as the sound transmission class the weighted sound reduction index (R(w)) and variations of these measures [H. K. Park and J. S. Bradley, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126, 208-219 (2009)]. This paper considers a number of other measures including signal-to-noise ratios related to the intelligibility of speech and measures related to the loudness of sounds. An exploration of the importance of the included frequencies showed that the optimum ranges of included frequencies were different for speech and music sounds. Measures related to speech intelligibility were useful indicators of responses to speech sounds but were not as successful for music sounds. A-weighted level differences, signal-to-noise ratios and an A-weighted sound transmission loss measure were good predictors of responses when the included frequencies were optimized for each type of sound. The addition of new spectrum adaptation terms to R(w) values were found to be the most practical approach for achieving more accurate predictions of subjective ratings of transmitted speech and music sounds. PMID:19739735

  7. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Arlen F.; Allen, Robert J.; Mayo, M. Neale; Butler, Carolyn F.; Grossman, Benoist E.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Higdon, Noah S.; Mayor, Shane D.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Hueser, Alene W.

    1994-01-01

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and greater than 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H2O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H2O absorption-line parameters were performed to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H2O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H2O radiosondes. The H2O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by less than 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  8. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Higdon, N S; Browell, E V; Ponsardin, P; Grossmann, B E; Butler, C F; Chyba, T H; Mayo, M N; Allen, R J; Heuser, A W; Grant, W B; Ismail, S; Mayor, S D; Carter, A F

    1994-09-20

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H(2)O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and > 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H(2)O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H(2)O absorption-line parameters were perfo med to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H(2)O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H(2)O radiosondes. The H(2)O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by ≤ 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  9. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Higdon, N S; Browell, E V; Ponsardin, P; Grossmann, B E; Butler, C F; Chyba, T H; Mayo, M N; Allen, R J; Heuser, A W; Grant, W B; Ismail, S; Mayor, S D; Carter, A F

    1994-09-20

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H(2)O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and > 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H(2)O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H(2)O absorption-line parameters were perfo med to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H(2)O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H(2)O radiosondes. The H(2)O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by ≤ 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions. PMID:20941181

  10. A new method for GPS-based wind speed determinations during airborne volcanic plume measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doukas, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Begun nearly thirty years ago, the measurement of gases in volcanic plumes is today an accepted technique in volcano research. Volcanic plume measurements, whether baseline gas emissions from quiescent volcanoes or more substantial emissions from volcanoes undergoing unrest, provide important information on the amount of gaseous output of a volcano to the atmosphere. Measuring changes in gas emission rates also allows insight into eruptive behavior. Some of the earliest volcanic plume measurements of sulfur dioxide were made using a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC). The COSPEC, developed originally for industrial pollution studies, is an upward-looking optical spectrometer tuned to the ultraviolet absorption wavelength of sulfur dioxide (Millán and Hoff, 1978). In airborne mode, the COSPEC is mounted in a fixed-wing aircraft and flown back and forth just underneath a volcanic plume, perpendicular to the direction of plume travel (Casadevall and others, 1981; Stoiber and others, 1983). Similarly, for plumes close to the ground, the COSPEC can be mounted in an automobile and driven underneath a plume if a suitable road system is available (Elias and others, 1998). The COSPEC can also be mounted on a tripod and used to scan a volcanic plume from a fixed location on the ground, although the effectiveness of this configuration declines with distance from the plume (Kyle and others, 1990). In the 1990’s, newer airborne techniques involving direct sampling of volcanic plumes with infrared spectrometers and electrochemical sensors were developed in order to measure additional gases such as CO2 and H2S (Gerlach and others, 1997; Gerlach and others, 1999; McGee and others, 2001). These methods involve constructing a plume cross-section from several measurement traverses through the plume in a vertical plane. Newer instruments such as open-path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers are now being used to measure the gases in volcanic plumes mostly from fixed

  11. Airborne boundary layer flux measurements of trace species over Canadian boreal forest and northern wetland regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, John A.; Barrick, John D. W.; Watson, Catherine E.; Sachse, Glen W.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Woerner, Mary A.; Collins, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Airborne heat, moisture, O3, CO, and CH4 flux measurements were obtained over the Hudson Bay lowlands (HBL) and northern boreal forest regions of Canada during July-August 1990. The airborne flux measurements were an integral part of the NASA/Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B field experiment executed in collaboration with the Canadian Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES). Airborne CH4 flux measurements were taken over a large portion of the HBL. The surface level flux of CH4 was obtained from downward extrapolations of multiple-level CH4 flux measurements. Methane source strengths ranged from -1 to 31 mg m2- d-1, with the higher values occurring in relatively small, isolated areas. Similar measurements of the CH4 source strength in the boreal forest region of Schefferville, Quebec, ranged from 6 to 27 mg m-2 d-1 and exhibited a diurnal dependence. The CH4 source strengths found during the ABLE 3B expedition were much lower than the seasonally averaged source strength of 51 mg m-2 d-1 found for the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska during the previous ABLE 3A study. Large positive CO fluxes (0.31 to 0.53 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) m s-1) were observed over the inland, forested regions of the HBL study area, although the mechanism for the generation of these fluxes was not identified. Repetitive measurements along the same ground track at various times of day near the Schefferville site also suggested a diurnal dependence for CO emissions. Measurements of surface resistance to the uptake of O3 (1.91 to 0.80 s cm-1) for the HBL areas investigated were comparable to those observed near the Schefferville site (3.40 to 1.10s cm-1). Surface resistance values for the ABLE 3B study area were somewhat less than those observed over the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta during the previous ABLE 3A study. The budgets for heat, moisture, O3, CO, and CH4 were evaluated. The residuals from these budget studies indicated, for the cases selected, a moderate net photochemical

  12. Airborne boundary layer flux measurements of trace species over Canadian boreal forest and northern wetland regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, John A.; Barrick, John D. W.; Watson, Catherine E.; Sachse, Glen W.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Woerner, Mary A.; Collins, James E., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Airborne heat, moisture, O3, CO, and CH4 flux measurements were obtained over the Hudson Bay lowlands (HBL) and northern boreal forest regions of Canada during July - August 1990. The airborne flux measurements were an integral part of the NASA/Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B field experiment executed in collaboration with the Canadian Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES). Airborne CH4 flux measurements were taken over a large portion of the HBL. The surface level flux of CH4 was obtained from downward extrapolations of multiple-level CH4 flux measurements. Methane source strengths ranged from -1 to 31 mg m(exp -2)/d, with the higher values occurring in relatively small, isolated areas. Similar measurements of the CH4 source strength in the boreal forest region of Schefferville, Quebec, ranged from 6 to 27 mg m(exp -2)/d and exhibited a diurnal dependence. The CH4 source strengths found during the ABLE 3B expedition were much lower than the seasonally averaged source strength of 51 mg m(exp -2)/d found for the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska during the previous ABLE 3A study. Large positive CO fluxes (0.31 to 0.53 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) m/s) were observed over the inland, forested regions of the HBL study area, although the mechanism for the generation of these fluxes was not identified. Repetitive measurements along the same ground track at various times of day near the Schefferville site also suggested a diurnal dependence for CO emissions. Measurements of surface resistance to the uptake of O3 (1.91 to 0.80 s/cm) for the HBL areas investigated were comparable to those observed near the Schefferville site (3.40 to 1.10 s/cm). Surface resistance values for the ABLE 3B study area were somewhat less than those observed over the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta during the previous ABLE 3A study. The budgets for heat, moisture, O3, CO, and CH4 were evaluated. The residuals from these budget studies indicated, for the cases selected, a moderate net

  13. Airborne vacuum ultraviolet resonance fluorescence instrument for in situ measurement of CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.; Kondo, Y.; Matsumi, Y.; Parrish, D. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Koike, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Toriyama, N.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

    2001-10-01

    An airborne instrument for fast-response, high-precision measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) was developed using a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) resonance fluorescence technique. The excitation radiation is obtained by a DC discharge CO resonance lamp combined with an optical filter for the CO fourth positive band emission around 150 nm. The optical filter consists of a VUV monochromator and a crystalline quartz window (<147-nm cutoff). The crystalline quartz window ensures a sharp discrimination against wavelengths below 135.7 nm that yield a positive interference from water vapor. Laboratory tests showed that the optical system achieved a precision of 1.1 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at a CO concentration of 100 ppbv for a 1-s integration period, and the flow system provided a response time (1/e time constant) of ˜2 s. The aircraft measurement campaign Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment-phase B (BIBLE-B) was conducted between August and September 1999 over the western Pacific and Australia. The flight data obtained during this campaign were used to demonstrate the high precision and fast response of the instrument. An intercomparison of the VUV CO measurement and a gas chromatographic CO measurement was conducted during BIBLE-B. Overall, these two independent measurements showed good agreement, within the experimental uncertainties.

  14. High-Resolution Cassini RADAR Scatterometer Images of Titan's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wye, Lauren C.; Zebker, H. A.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2006-09-01

    The Cassini RADAR scatterometer has acquired observations to date of about 40% of Titan's surface at resolutions averaging just under 100 km, where the resolution cell size is set by the real aperture of the radar antenna. Finer resolution (0.3-1 km) images have been acquired by RADAR in synthetic-aperture (SAR) mode of about 10% of the surface. Additional techniques have been developed to use the SAR processor at larger distances (denoted High-SAR) for increased high-resolution (2-3 km) coverage, though with very narrow swath sizes (see West et al., this conference). In this paper, we demonstrate that complex processing methods, specifically range compression and unfocused SAR processing, can also be applied to the data collected in rastered scatterometer mode, achieving resolutions near 15 km and maintaining 10 or more radar "looks.” Despite poorer resolution, rastered scatterometry has two advantages over SAR and High-SAR: 1) greater surface coverage is possible with less data volume, and 2) the surface is sampled over a wider range of incidence angles, so that important characteristics like dielectric constant and surface slope may be estimated. Improving the resolution of the scatterometer's near-global backscatter maps will significantly enhance the unique knowledge that RADAR contributes to the understanding of Titan and its fascinating surface. Here, we present examples of scatterometer coverage of Titan at its highest resolution. This work was carried out at Stanford University, under contract with the Cassini Project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) / National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  15. *Evaluating the toxicity of airborne particulate matter and nanoparticles by measuring oxidative strett potential - A workshop report and consensus statement

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: There is a strong need for laboratory in vitro test systems for the toxicity of airborne particulate matter and nanoparticles. The measurement of oxidative stress potential offers a promising way forward. OBJECTIVES: A workshop was convened involving leading workers f...

  16. Potential scientific research which will benefit from an airborne Doppler lidar measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.

    1980-01-01

    Areas of research which can be significantly aided by the Doppler lidar airborne system are described. The need for systematic development of the airborne Doppler lidar is discussed. The technology development associated with the systematic development of the system will have direct application to satellite systems for which the lidar also promises to be an effective instrument for atmospheric research.

  17. Circumventing rain-related errors in scatterometer wind observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, Thomas J.; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Satellite scatterometer observations of surface winds over the global oceans are critical for climate research and applications like weather forecasting. However, rain-related errors remain an important limitation, largely precluding satellite study of winds in rainy areas. Here we utilize a novel technique to compute divergence and curl from satellite observations of surface winds and surface wind stress in rainy areas. This technique circumvents rain-related errors by computing line integrals around rainy patches, using valid wind vector observations that border the rainy patches. The area-averaged divergence and wind stress curl inside each rainy patch are recovered via the divergence and curl theorems. We process the 10 year Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) data set and show that the line-integral method brings the QuikSCAT winds into better agreement with an atmospheric reanalysis, largely removing both the "divergence bias" and "anticyclonic curl bias" in rainy areas noted in previous studies. The corrected QuikSCAT wind stress curl reduces the North Pacific midlatitude Sverdrup transport by 20-30%. We test several methods of computing divergence and curl on winds from an atmospheric model simulation and show that the line-integral method has the smallest errors. We anticipate that scatterometer winds processed with the line-integral method will improve ocean model simulations and help illuminate the coupling between atmospheric convection and circulation.

  18. Remote estimation of canopy nitrogen content in winter wheat using airborne hyperspectral reflectance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Kong, Weiping; Ye, Huichun; Luo, Juhua; Chen, Pengfei

    2016-11-01

    Timely and accurate assessment of canopy nitrogen content (CNC) provides valuable insight into rapid and real-time nitrogen status monitoring in crops. A semi-empirical approach based on spectral index was extensively used for nitrogen content estimation. However, in many cases, due to specific vegetation types or local conditions, the applicability and robustness of established spectral indices for nitrogen retrieval were limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal spectral index for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) CNC estimation using Pushbroom Hyperspectral Imager (PHI) airborne hyperspectral data. Data collected from two different field experiments that were conducted during the major growth stages of winter wheat in 2002 and 2003 were used. Our results showed that a significant linear relationship existed between nitrogen and chlorophyll content at the canopy level, and it was not affected by cultivars, growing conditions and nutritional status of winter wheat. Nevertheless, it varied with growth stages. Periods around heading stage mainly worsened the relationship and CNC estimation, and CNC assessment for growth stages before and after heading could improve CNC retrieval accuracy to some extent. CNC assessment with PHI airborne hyperspectra suggested that spectral indices based on red-edge band including narrowband and broadband CIred-edge, NDVI-like and ND705 showed convincing results in CNC retrieval. NDVI-like and ND705 were sensitive to detect CNC changes less than 5 g/m2, narrowband and broadband CIred-edge were sensitive to a wide range of CNC variations. Further evaluation of CNC retrieval using field measured hyperspectra indicated that NDVI-like was robust and exhibited the highest accuracy in CNC assessment, and spectral indices (CIred-edge and CIgreen) that established on narrow or broad bands showed no obvious difference in CNC assessment. Overall, our study suggested that NDVI-like was the optimal indicator for winter

  19. A reassessment of Antarctic plateau reactive nitrogen based on ANTCI 2003 airborne and ground based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Douglas D.; Seelig, Jon; Huey, Greg; Crawford, Jim; Chen, Gao; Wang, Yuhang; Buhr, Marty; Helmig, Detlev; Neff, William; Blake, Don; Arimoto, Rich; Eisele, Fred

    The first airborne measurements of nitric oxide (NO) on the Antarctic plateau have demonstrated that the previously reported elevated levels of this species extend well beyond the immediate vicinity of South Pole. Although the current database is still relatively weak and critical laboratory experiments are still needed, the findings here suggest that the chemical uniqueness of the plateau may be substantially greater than first reported. For example, South Pole ground-based findings have provided new evidence showing that the dominant process driving the release of nitrogen from the snowpack during the spring/summer season (post-depositional loss) is photochemical in nature with evaporative processes playing a lesser role. There is also new evidence suggesting that nitrogen, in the form of nitrate, may undergo multiple recycling within a given photochemical season. Speculation here is that this may be a unique property of the plateau and much related to its having persistent cold temperatures even during summer. These conditions promote the efficient adsorption of molecules like HNO 3 (and very likely HO 2NO 2) onto snow-pack surface ice where we have hypothesized enhanced photochemical processing can occur, leading to the efficient release of NO x to the atmosphere. In addition, to these process-oriented tentative conclusions, the findings from the airborne studies, in conjunction with modeling exercises suggest a new paradigm for the plateau atmosphere. The near-surface atmosphere over this massive region can be viewed as serving as much more than a temporary reservoir or holding tank for imported chemical species. It defines an immense atmospheric chemical reactor which is capable of modifying the chemical characteristics of select atmospheric constituents. This reactor has most likely been in place over geological time, and may have led to the chemical modulation of some trace species now found in ice cores. Reactive nitrogen has played a critical role in both

  20. Airborne Sunphotometer Studies of Aerosol Properties and Effects, Including Closure Among Satellite, Suborbital Remote, and In situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russlee, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne sunphotometry has been used to measure aerosols from North America, Europe, and Africa in coordination with satellite and in situ measurements in TARFOX (1996), ACE-2 (1997), PRIDE (2000), and SAFARI 2000. Similar coordinated measurements of Asian aerosols are being conducted this spring in ACE-Asia and are planned for North American aerosols this summer in CLAMS. This paper summarizes the approaches used, key results, and implications for aerosol properties and effects, such as single scattering albedo and regional radiative forcing. The approaches exploit the three-dimensional mobility of airborne sunphotometry to access satellite scenes over diverse surfaces (including open ocean with and without sunglint) and to match exactly the atmospheric layers sampled by airborne in situ measurements and other radiometers. These measurements permit tests of the consistency, or closure, among such diverse measurements as aerosol size-resolved chemical composition; number or mass concentration; light extinction, absorption, and scattering (total, hemispheric back and 180 deg.); and radiative fluxes. In this way the airborne sunphotometer measurements provide a key link between satellite and in situ measurements that helps to understand any discrepancies that are found. These comparisons have led to several characteristic results. Typically these include: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements than between remote and in situ measurements. (2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements. (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux radiometry than from in situ measurements. Aerosol intensive properties derived from these closure studies have been combined with satellite-retrieved fields of optical depth to produce fields of regional radiative forcing. We show results for the North Atlantic derived from AVHRR optical depths and aerosol intensive properties from TARFOX and ACE-2. Companion papers

  1. Validation of Temperature Measurements from the Airborne Raman Ozone Temperature and Aerosol Lidar During SOLVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burris, John; McGee, Thomas; Hoegy, Walter; Lait, Leslie; Twigg, Laurence; Sumnicht, Grant; Heaps, William; Hostetler, Chris; Bui, T. Paul; Neuber, Roland; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Airborne Raman Ozone, Temperature and Aerosol Lidar (AROTEL) participated in the recent Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) by providing profiles of aerosols, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), ozone and temperature with high vertical and horizontal resolution. Temperatures were derived from just above the aircraft to approximately 60 kilometers geometric altitude with a reported vertical resolution of between 0.5 and 1.5 km. The horizontal footprint varied from 4 to 70 km. This paper explores the measurement uncertainties associated with the temperature retrievals and makes comparisons with independent, coincident, measurements of temperature. Measurement uncertainties range from 0.1 K to approximately 4 K depending on altitude and integration time. Comparisons between AROTEL and balloon sonde temperatures retrieved under clear sky conditions using both Rayleigh and Raman scattered data showed AROTEL approximately 1 K colder than sonde values. Comparisons between AROTEL and the Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) on NASA's ER-2 show AROTEL being from 2-3 K colder for altitudes ranging from 14 to 18 km. Temperature comparisons between AROTEL and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office's model showed differences of approximately 1 K below approximately 25 km and a very strong cold bias of approximately 12 K at altitudes between 30 and 35 km.

  2. Atmospheric Airborne Pressure Measurements using the Oxygen A Band for the ASCENDS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riris, H.; Rodriguez, M.

    2014-12-01

    We report on an airborne demonstration of atmospheric oxygen optical depth measurements with an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar using a fiber-based laser system and a photon counting detector. Accurate knowledge of atmospheric temperature and pressure is required for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission, and climate modeling studies. The lidar uses a doubled Erbium Doped Fiber amplifier and single photon counting detector to measure oxygen absorption at 765 nm. Our approach uses a sequence of laser pulses at increasing wavelengths that sample a pair of absorption lines in the Oxygen A-band at 764.7 nm. The O2 lines were selected after careful spectroscopic analysis to minimize the O2 line temperature dependence and the availability of the transmitter and receiver technology to maximize transmitter power, doubling efficiency, and detector sensitivity. We compare our 2013 and 2014 Oxygen IPDA lidar measurements and evaluate the impact of receiver dynamic range, transmitter stability and signal to noise ratio on the differential optical depth measurements.

  3. Aspects regarding vertical distribution of greenhouse gases resulted from in situ airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscornea, Andreea; Sorin Vajaiac, Nicolae; Ardelean, Magdalena; Benciu, Silviu Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades the air quality, as well as other components of the environment, has been severely affected by uncontrolled emissions of gases - most known as greenhouse gases (GHG). The main role of GHG is given by the direct influence on the Earth's radiative budget, through Sun light scattering and indirectly by participating in cloud formation. Aldo, many efforts were made for reducing the high levels of these pollutants, e.g., International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) initiatives, Montreal Protocol, etc., this issue is still open. In this context, this study aims to present several aspects regarding the vertical distribution in the lower atmosphere of some greenhouse gases: water vapours, CO, CO2 and methane. Bucharest and its metropolitan area is one of the most polluted regions of Romania due to high traffic. For assessing the air quality of this area, in situ measurements of water vapours, CO, CO2 and CH4 were performed using a Britten Norman Islander BN2 aircraft equipped with a Picarro gas analyser, model G2401-mc, able to provide precised, continuous and accurate data in real time. This configuration consisting in aircraft and airborne instruments was tested for the first time in Romania. For accomplishing the objectives of the measurement campaign, there were proposed several flight strategies which included vertical and horizontal soundings from 105 m to 3300 m and vice-versa around Clinceni area (20 km West of Bucharest). During 5 days (25.08.2015 - 31.08.2015) were performed 7 flights comprising 10h 18min research flight hours. The measured concentrations of GHS ranged between 0.18 - 2.2 ppm for water vapours with an average maximum value of 1.7 ppm, 0.04 - 0.53 ppm for CO with an average maximum value of 0.21 ppm, 377 - 437.5 ppm for CO2 with an average maximum value of 397 ppm and 1.7 - 6.1 ppm for CH4 with an average maximum value of 2.195 ppm. It was noticed that measured concentrations of GHG are decreasing for high values of sounding

  4. Cloud shortwave radiative effect and cloud properties estimated from airborne measurements of transmitted and reflected light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, Samuel E.; Redemann, Jens; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Kacenelenbogen, Meloë; Shinozuka, Yohei; Flynn, Connor; Russell, Philip; Schmid, Beat; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Pilewskie, Peter; Song, Shi

    2015-04-01

    from aircraft by using the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) instrument. The 4STAR instrument was deployed on an airborne platform during SEAC4RS and TCAP. During SEAC4RS, the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) was also deployed alongside 4STAR. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius from the retrieval based on transmitted shortwave radiation are compared to cloud properties obtained from above the cloud by using reflected shortwave radiation measured with SSFR, with the enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator (eMAS), with the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), and from in situ cloud probes. For TCAP, we compare cloud properties retrieved using 4STAR and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS).

  5. Validating CERES Radiative Fluxes in the Arctic with Airborne Radiative Flux Measurements from the ARISE Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, J.; Bucholtz, A.; Kato, S.; Rose, F. G.; Smith, W. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on board NASA's Terra, Aqua, and Soumi-NPP satellites provide the only measurements of reflected solar shortwave and emitted longwave radiative flux over the Arctic. Various methods have shown the uncertainty of CERES fluxes over sea ice to be higher than other scene types. However validation against an independent radiative flux measurement has never been attempted. We present here an attempt to better quantify the uncertainty of time-and-space averaged CERES flux measurements using airborne measurements from the Arctic Radiation - IceBridge Sea Ice Experiment (ARISE). The ARISE campaign took place during September of 2014 based out of Fairbanks, Alaska, with most of the measurements taken in the vicinity of the sea ice edge between 125°W and 150°W, and 71°N to 77°N. For six of the flights, measurements were taken in a lawnmower type pattern over either 100 x 200 km box regions at a constant altitude of >6 km, or 100 x 100 km box regions at an altitude of between 200 m to 500 m. They were designed to resemble the CERES Level 3 spatial averaging grids, and were located and timed to coincide with a high number of CERES overpasses. On board the aircraft were a set of upward and downward facing shortwave and longwave broadband radiometers (BBR), along with other instruments measuring meteorological conditions and cloud properties. We have compared the broadband radiative fluxes from BBR with those from CERES for the three days where the aircraft was flying the high altitude pattern. We use the Fu-Liou radiative transfer model to account for differences in the measurement altitude between BBR and CERES. We will present results of the comparisons between the computed fluxes and the measured longwave and shortwave radiative fluxes.

  6. Airborne Sun Photometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth during SOLVE II: Comparison with SAGE III and POAM III Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Livingston, J.; Schmid, B.; Eilers, J.; Kolyer, R.; Redemann, J.; Yee, J.-H.; Trepte, C.; Thomason, L.; Zawodny, J.

    2003-01-01

    The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) was operated aboard the NASA DC-8 during the Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II) and obtained successful measurements during the sunlit segments of eight science flights. These included six flights out of Kiruna, Sweden, one flight out of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), and the Kiruna-DFRC return transit flight. Values of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), columnar ozone and columnar water vapor have been derived from the AATS-14 measurements. In this paper, we focus on AATS-14 AOD data. In particular, we compare AATS-14 AOD spectra with temporally and spatially near-coincident measurements by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) and the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement III (POAM III) satellite sensors. We examine the effect on retrieved AOD of uncertainties in relative optical airmass (the ratio of AOD along the instrument-to-sun slant path to that along the vertical path) at large solar zenith angles. Airmass uncertainties result fiom uncertainties in requisite assumed vertical profiles of aerosol extinction due to inhomogeneity along the viewing path or simply to lack of available data. We also compare AATS-14 slant path solar transmission measurements with coincident measurements acquired from the DC-8 by the NASA Langley Research Center Gas and Aerosol Measurement Sensor (GAMS).

  7. The detection and measurement of microburst wind shear by an airborne lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Paul A.; Bowles, Roland L.; Targ, Russell

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) Coherent Lidar Airborne Shear Sensor (CLASS) employs coherent lidar technology as a basis for a forward-looking predictive wind shear detection system. Line of sight wind velocities measured ahead of the aircraft are combined with aircraft state parameters to relate the measured wind change (or shear) ahead of an aircraft to its performance loss or gain. In this way the system can predict whether a shear detected ahead of the aircraft poses a significant threat to the aircraft and provide an advance warning to the flight crew. Installed aboard NASA's Boeing 737 research aircraft, the CLASS system is flown through convective microburst wind shears in Denver, Co., and Orlando, Fl. Some preliminary flight test results are presented. It is seen that the system was able to detect and measure wind shears ahead of the aircraft in the relatively dry Denver environment, but its performance was degraded in the high humidity and heavy rain in Orlando.

  8. Preliminary results from multiparameter airborne rain radar measurement in the western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from multiparameter airborne radar measurements of tropical storms. The experiment was conducted in the western Pacific in September 1990 with the NASA DC-8 aircraft that was equipped with a dual-wavelength radar at X and Ka bands and several microwave radiometers. The modification to dual-polarization at X-band radar enabled measurements of the linear depolarization ratio (LDR). Vertical profiles of dual-polarization and dual-frequency observables for an example of stratiform rain and three examples of convective rain cells are examined. It is shown that at nadir incidence the LDR measurement often can be used to distinguish the phase states of the hydrometeors and to identify the melting layer. In addition to the information concerning particle shape and orientation from LDR, the ratio of the radar reflectivity factors in two frequency bands (X and Ka bands) provides insight into particle size. The capabilities of dual-wavelength and dual-polarization radar in the identification of particle size and phase will be important considerations in the design of future spaceborne weather radars.

  9. Preliminary Results from Multiparameter Airborne Rain Radar Measurement in the Western Pacific.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary results are presented from multiparameter airborne radar measurements of tropical storms. The experiment was conducted in the western Pacific in September 1990 with the NASA DC-8 aircraft that was equipped with a dual-wavelength radar at X and Ka bands and several microwave radiometers. The modification to dual-polarization at X-band radar enabled measurements of the linear depolarization ratio (LDR). Vertical profiles of dual-polarization and dual-frequency observables for an example of stratiform rain and three examples of convective rain cells are examined. It is shown that at nadir incidence the LDR measurement often can be used to distinguish the phase states of the hydrometeors and to identify the melting layer. In addition to the information concerning particle shape and orientation from LDR, the ratio of the radar reflectivity factors in two frequency bands (X and Ka bands) provides insight into particle size. The capabilities of dual-wavelength and dual-polarization radar in the identification of particle size and phase will be important considerations in the design of future spaceborne weather radars.

  10. First Airborne Lidar Measurements of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Applying the MERLIN Demonstrator CHARM-F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amediek, Axel; Büdenbender, Christian; Ehret, Gerhard; Fix, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Kiemle, Chritstoph; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Wirth, Martin

    2016-04-01

    CHARM-F is the new airborne four-wavelengths lidar for simultaneous soundings of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Due to its high technological conformity it is also a demonstrator for MERLIN, the French-German satellite mission providing a methane lidar. MERLIN's Preliminary Design Review was successfully passed recently. The launch is planned for 2020. First CHARM-F measurements were performed in Spring 2015 onboard the German research aircraft HALO. The aircraft's maximum flight altitude of 15 km and special features of the lidar, such as a relatively large laser ground spot, result in data similar to those obtained by a spaceborne system. The CHARM-F and MERLIN lidars are designed in the IPDA (integrated path differential absorption) configuration using short double pulses, which gives column averaged gas mixing ratios between the system and ground. The successfully completed CHARM-F flight measurements provide a valuable dataset, which supports the retrieval algorithm development for MERLIN notably. Furthermore, the dataset allows detailed analyses of measurement sensitivities, general studies on the IPDA principle and on system design questions. These activities are supported by another instrument onboard the aircraft during the flight campaign: a cavity ring down spectrometer, providing in-situ data of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor with high accuracy and precision, which is ideal for validation purposes of the aircraft lidar. For the near future, detailed characterizations of CHARM-F are planned, further support of the MERLIN design, as well as the scientific aircraft campaign CoMet.

  11. Measurement Techniques for Respiratory Tract Deposition of Airborne Nanoparticles: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Winfried; Pagels, Joakim H.; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Swietlicki, Erik; Schmid, Otmar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Determination of the respiratory tract deposition of airborne particles is critical for risk assessment of air pollution, inhaled drug delivery, and understanding of respiratory disease. With the advent of nanotechnology, there has been an increasing interest in the measurement of pulmonary deposition of nanoparticles because of their unique properties in inhalation toxicology and medicine. Over the last century, around 50 studies have presented experimental data on lung deposition of nanoparticles (typical diameter≤100 nm, but here≤300 nm). These data show a considerable variability, partly due to differences in the applied methodologies. In this study, we review the experimental techniques for measuring respiratory tract deposition of nano-sized particles, analyze critical experimental design aspects causing measurement uncertainties, and suggest methodologies for future studies. It is shown that, although particle detection techniques have developed with time, the overall methodology in respiratory tract deposition experiments has not seen similar progress. Available experience from previous research has often not been incorporated, and some methodological design aspects that were overlooked in 30–70% of all studies may have biased the experimental data. This has contributed to a significant uncertainty on the absolute value of the lung deposition fraction of nanoparticles. We estimate the impact of the design aspects on obtained data, discuss solutions to minimize errors, and highlight gaps in the available experimental set of data. PMID:24151837

  12. Regular, Fast and Accurate Airborne In-Situ Methane Measurements Around the Tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyroff, Christoph; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Schuck, Tanja J.; Zahn, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    We present a laser spectrometer for automated monthly measurements of methane (CH4) mixing ratios aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft. The instrument is based on a commercial fast methane analyzer (FMA, Los Gatos Res.), which was modified for fully unattended employment. A laboratory characterization was performed and the results with emphasis on the precision, cross sensitivity to H2O, and accuracy are presented. An in-flight calibration strategy is described, that utilizes CH4 measurements obtained from flask samples taken during the same flights. By statistical comparison of the in-situ measurements with the flask samples we derive a total uncetrainty estimate of ~ 3.85 ppbv (1?) around the tropopause, and ~ 12.4 ppbv (1?) during aircraft ascent and descent. Data from the first two years of airborne operation are presented that span a large part of the northern hemispheric upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere, with occasional crossings of the tropics on flights to southern Africa. With its high spatial resolution and high accuracy this data set is unprecedented in the highly important atmospheric layer of the tropopause.

  13. Characterization of cloud microphysical parameters using airborne measurements by the research scanning polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Emde, Claudia

    2013-05-01

    We present the retrievals of cloud droplet size distribution parameters (effective radius and variance) from the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) measurements made during the recent field campaign Development and Evaluation of satellite Validation Tools by Experimenters (DEVOTE, 2011). The RSP is an airborne prototype for the Aerosol Polarimetery Sensor (APS), which was built for the NASA Glory Mission project. This instrument measures both polarized and total reflectances in 9 spectral channels with wavelengths ranging from 410 to 2250 nm. For cloud droplet size retrievals we utilize the polarized reflectances in the scattering range between 135° and 165° where they exhibit the rainbow, the shape of which is determined mainly by single-scattering properties of the cloud particles. Two different retrieval methods were used: standard fitting of the observations with a model based on pre-assumed gamma distribution shape, and a novel non-parametric technique Rainbow Fourier Transform (RFT), which does not require any a priori assumptions about the droplet size distribution. The RSP measurements over cumulus clouds also allow for estimation of their geometry (cloud length, top and base heights), which, combined with the droplet size, can provide further insight into cloud processes.

  14. How Cities Breathe: Ground-Referenced, Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging Precursor Measurements To Space-Based Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, Ira; Tratt, David; Quattrochi, Dale; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John

    2013-01-01

    the complex and often aerosol laden, humid, urban microclimates, atmospheric transport and profile monitoring, spatial resolution, temporal cycles (diurnal and seasonal which involve interactions with the surrounding environment diurnal and seasonal cycles) and representative measurement approaches given traffic realities. Promising approaches incorporate contemporaneous airborne remote sensing and in situ measurements, nocturnal surface surveys, with ground station measurement

  15. Airborne Dust Cloud Measurements at the INL National Security Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Abbott; Norm Stanley; Larry Radke; Charles Smeltzer

    2007-09-01

    On July 11, 2007, a surface, high-explosive test (<20,000 lb TNT-equivalent) was carried out at the National Security Test Range (NSTR) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. Aircraft-mounted rapid response (1-sec) particulate monitors were used to measure airborne PM-10 concentrations directly in the dust cloud and to develop a PM-10 emission factor that could be used for subsequent tests at the NSTR. The blast produced a mushroom-like dust cloud that rose approximately 2,500–3,000 ft above ground level, which quickly dissipated (within 5 miles of the source). In general, the cloud was smaller and less persistence than expected, or that might occur in other areas, likely due to the coarse sand and subsurface conditions that characterize the immediate NSTR area. Maximum short time-averaged (1-sec) PM-10 concentrations at the center of the cloud immediately after the event reached 421 µg m-3 but were rapidly reduced (by atmospheric dispersion and fallout) to near background levels (~10 µg m-3) after about 15 minutes. This occurred well within the INL Site boundary, about 8 km (5 miles) from the NSTR source. These findings demonstrate that maximum concentrations in ambient air beyond the INL Site boundary (closest is 11.2 km from NSTR) from these types of tests would be well within the 150 µg m-3 24-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM-10. Aircraft measurements and geostatistical techniques were used to successfully quantify the initial volume (1.64E+9 m3 or 1.64 km3) and mass (250 kg) of the PM-10 dust cloud, and a PM-10 emission factor (20 kg m-3 crater soil volume) was developed for this specific type of event at NSTR. The 250 kg of PM-10 mass estimated from this experiment is almost seven-times higher than the 36 kg estimated for the environmental assessment (DOE-ID 2007) using available Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1995) emission factors. This experiment demonstrated that advanced aircraft-mounted instruments operated by

  16. Designing Scatterometer Constellations for Sampling Global Ocean Vector Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Chelton, D. B.; Stoffelen, A.; Schlax, M.

    2012-12-01

    The rapid temporal variations in ocean vector winds make it impossible to obtain synoptic global snapshots of winds and wind stress from a single spaceborne sensor. Even when multiple sensors are present, the peculiarities of the resulting space-time sampling pattern require that significant smoothing in space and time be performed to limit spatially and temporally inhomogeneous error characteristics in the merged data. Based on the collected common experience in its member states, the World Meteorological Organization collects requirements for spatio-temporal sampling in meteorological applications such as global and regional Numerical Weather Prediction, nowcasting, and climate. An additional concern, when constructing data sets from sun-synchronous missions, is that undersampling of diurnal and sub-diurnal variability may result in aliasing of the climate data record. Indeed, examination of climatologies constructed from different satellite missions, such as NASA's QuikSCAT and EUMETSAT's ASCAT scatterometers, show systematic differences that cannot be explained as being due solely to unresolved incoherent diurnal and sub-diurnal variability. Some of these differences, especially in the tropics, are probably explained by systematic diurnal and sub-diurnal variations. Other differences may be due to the difficulty of cross-calibrating sun-synchronous satellites with different local times. Forthcoming satellite missions may offer the possibility of overcoming or mitigating the space-time sampling and calibration challenges using multiple coordinated platforms. In the next decade, there is an expectation that ocean vector winds will be measured simultaneously by multiple satellites from the European community, India, China, and the United States. The coordination and suitable merging of the data from these satellites to produce a climate data record will be a challenge to the ocean vector winds community. In this presentation, we use climatologies constructed from

  17. Atmospheric Airborne Pressure Measurements Using the Oxygen A Band for the ASCENDS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riris, Haris; Rodriguez, Mike; Stephen, Mark; Hasselbrack, William; Allan, Graham; Mao, Jianping; Kawa, Stephen R.; Weaver, Clark J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on airborne atmospheric pressure measurements using new fiber-based laser technology and the oxygen A-band at 765 nm. Remote measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure are required for a number of NASA Earth science missions and specifically for the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions Over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. Accurate measurements of tropospheric CO2 on a global scale are very important in order to better understand its sources and sinks and to improve predictions on any future climate change. The ultimate goal of a CO2 remote sensing mission, such as ASCENDS, is to derive the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere in terms of mole fraction in unit of parts-per-million (ppmv) with regard to dry air. Therefore, both CO2 and the dry air number of molecules in the atmosphere are needed in deriving this quantity. O2 is a stable molecule and uniformly mixed in the atmosphere. Measuring the O2 absorption in the atmosphere can thus be used to infer the dry air number of molecules and then used to calculate CO2 concentration. With the knowledge of atmospheric water vapor, we can then estimate the total surface pressure needed for CO2 retrievals. Our work, funded by the ESTO IIP program, uses fiber optic technology and non-linear optics to generate 765 nm laser radiation coincident with the Oxygen A-band. Our pulsed, time gated technique uses several on- and off-line wavelengths tuned to the O2 absorption line. The choice of wavelengths allows us to measure the pressure by using two adjacent O2 absorptions in the Oxygen A-band. Our retrieval algorithm fits the O2 lineshapes and derives the pressure. Our measurements compare favorably with a local weather monitor mounted outside our laboratory and a local weather station.

  18. Atmospheric Airborne Pressure Measurements Using the Oxygen A Band for the ASCENDS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riris, Haris; Rodriguez, Mike; Stephen, Mark; Hasselbrack, William; Allan, Graham; Mao, Jiamping,; Kawa, Stephan R.; Weaver, Clark J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on airborne atmospheric pressure measurements using new fiber-based laser technology and the oxygen A-band at 765 nm. Remote measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure are required for a number of NASA Earth science missions and specifically for the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions Over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. Accurate measurements of tropospheric CO2 on a global scale are very important in order to better understand its sources and sinks and to improve predictions on any future climate change. The ultimate goal of a CO2 remote sensing mission, such as ASCENDS, is to derive the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere in terms of mole fraction in unit of parts-per-million (ppmv) with regard to dry air. Therefore, both CO2 and the dry air number of molecules in the atmosphere are needed in deriving this quantity. O2 is a stable molecule and uniformly mixed in the atmosphere. Measuring the O2 absorption in the atmosphere can thus be used to infer the dry air number of molecules and then used to calculate CO2 concentration. With the knowledge of atmospheric water vapor, we can then estimate the total surface pressure needed for CO2 retrievals. Our work, funded by the ESTO IIP program, uses fiber optic technology and non-linear optics to generate 765 nm laser radiation coincident with the Oxygen A-band. Our pulsed, time gated technique uses several on- and off-line wavelengths tuned to the O2 absorption line. The choice of wavelengths allows us to measure the pressure by using two adjacent O2 absorptions in the Oxygen A-band. Our retrieval algorithm fits the O2 lineshapes and derives the pressure. Our measurements compare favorably with a local weather monitor mounted outside our laboratory and a local weather station.

  19. HONO emission and production determined from airborne measurements over the Southeast U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuman, J. A.; Trainer, M.; Brown, S. S.; Min, K.-E.; Nowak, J. B.; Parrish, D. D.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Veres, P. R.

    2016-08-01

    The sources and distribution of tropospheric nitrous acid (HONO) were examined using airborne measurements over the Southeast U.S. during the Southeast Nexus Experiment in June and July 2013. HONO was measured once per second using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer on the NOAA WP-3D aircraft to assess sources that affect HONO abundance throughout the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The aircraft flew at altitudes between 0.12 and 6.4 km above ground level on 18 research flights that were conducted both day and night, sampling emissions from urban and power plant sources that were transported in the PBL. At night, HONO mixing ratios were greatest in plumes from agricultural burning, where they exceeded 4 ppbv and accounted for 2-14% of the reactive nitrogen emitted by the fires. The HONO to carbon monoxide ratio in these plumes from flaming stage fires ranged from 0.13 to 0.52%. Direct HONO emissions from coal-fired power plants were quantified using measurements at night, when HONO loss by photolysis was absent. These direct emissions were often correlated with total reactive nitrogen with enhancement ratios that ranged from 0 to 0.4%. HONO enhancements in power plant plumes measured during the day were compared with a Lagrangian plume dispersion model, showing that HONO produced solely from the gas phase reaction of OH with NO explained the observations. Outside of recently emitted plumes from known combustion sources, HONO mixing ratios measured several hundred meters above ground level were indistinguishable from zero within the 15 parts per trillion by volume measurement uncertainty. The results reported here do not support the existence of a ubiquitous unknown HONO source that produces significant HONO concentrations in the lower troposphere.

  20. Airborne Measurements of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in the Oil Sands Region of Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Hayden, K.; Liu, P.; Leithead, A.; Moussa, S. G.; Staebler, R. M.; Gordon, M.; O'brien, J.; Li, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Alberta oil sands (OS) region represents a strategic natural resource and is a key driver of economic development. Its rapid expansion has led to a need for a more comprehensive understanding of the associated potential cumulative environmental impacts. In summer 2013, airborne measurements of various gaseous and particulate substances were made in the Athabasca oil sands region between August 13 and Sept 7, 2013. In particular, organic aerosol mass and composition measurements were performed with a High Resolution Time of flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) supported by gaseous measurements of organic aerosol precursors with Proton Transfer Reaction (PTR) and Chemical Ionization (CI) mass spectrometers. These measurement data on selected flights were used to estimate the potential for local anthropogenic OS emissions to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) downwind of precursor sources, and to investigate the importance of the surrounding biogenic emissions to the overall SOA burden in the region. The results of several flights conducted to investigate these transformations demonstrate that multiple distinct plumes were present downwind of OS industrial sources, each with differing abilities to form SOA depending upon factors such as NOx level, precursor VOC composition, and oxidant concentration. The results indicate that approximately 100 km downwind of an OS industrial source most of the measured organic aerosol (OA) was secondary in nature, forming at rates of ~6.4 to 13.6 μgm-3hr-1. Positive matrix factor (PMF) analysis of the HR-ToF-AMS data suggests that the SOA was highly oxidized (O/C~0.6) resulting in a measured ΔOA (difference above regional background OA) of approximately 2.5 - 3 despite being 100 km away from sources. The relative contribution of biogenic SOA to the total SOA and the factors affecting SOA formation during a number of flights in the OS region will be described.

  1. Results of airborne measurements in the plume near and far from the 2014 Bardarbunga-Holuhraun eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnason, Gylfi; Eliasson, Jonas; Weber, Konradin; Boehlke, Christoph; Palsson, Thorgeir; Rognvaldsson, Olafur; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Platt, Ulrich; Tirpitz, Lukas; Jones, Roderic L.; Smith, Paul D.

    2015-04-01

    The Volcanic Ash Research (VAR) group is focused on airborne measurement of ash contamination to support safe air travel. In relations to the recent eruption, the group measured ash and several gaseous species in the plume 10-300 km from the volcano. The eruption emitted ash turned out to be mostly in the fine aerosol range (much less than 10 micrometers in diameter). Our highest measured concentrations were lower than 1 mg/m3 indicating that commercial air traffic was not threatened (greater than 2 mg/m3) by the ash contamination. But we measured sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) up to 90 mg/m3, which presented a potentially dangerous pollution problem. However, airborne measurements indicate that the sulfur concentration decays (probably due to scavenging) as the plume is carried by the wind from the volcano, which limits the area of immediate danger to the public. Here we present size distribution for particulate matter collected during flights, near and far from the crater at various times. The particle data is then compared with simultaneously collected sulfur dioxide data and the rate of decay of is estimated. Sulfur and particle concentration variations with height in the far plume are presented. Some airborne measurements for H2S, NO, NO2 and CO2 will also be presented. This includes correlation matrices for simultaneous measurements of these gases and comparison to National Air Quality Standards and background values.

  2. Taking Stock of Circumboreal Forest Carbon With Ground Measurements, Airborne and Spaceborne LiDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neigh, Christopher S. R.; Nelson, Ross F.; Ranson, K. Jon; Margolis, Hank A.; Montesano, Paul M.; Sun, Guoqing; Kharuk, Viacheslav; Naesset, Erik; Wulder, Michael A.; Andersen, Hans-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The boreal forest accounts for one-third of global forests, but remains largely inaccessible to ground-based measurements and monitoring. It contains large quantities of carbon in its vegetation and soils, and research suggests that it will be subject to increasingly severe climate-driven disturbance. We employ a suite of ground-, airborne- and space-based measurement techniques to derive the first satellite LiDAR-based estimates of aboveground carbon for the entire circumboreal forest biome. Incorporating these inventory techniques with uncertainty analysis, we estimate total aboveground carbon of 38 +/- 3.1 Pg. This boreal forest carbon is mostly concentrated from 50 to 55degN in eastern Canada and from 55 to 60degN in eastern Eurasia. Both of these regions are expected to warm >3 C by 2100, and monitoring the effects of warming on these stocks is important to understanding its future carbon balance. Our maps establish a baseline for future quantification of circumboreal carbon and the described technique should provide a robust method for future monitoring of the spatial and temporal changes of the aboveground carbon content.

  3. Evidence for subsidence in the 1989 Arctic winter stratosphere from airborne infrared composition measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, G. C.; Farmer, C. B.; Schaper, P. W.; Lowes, L. L.; Norton, R. H.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Lait, L. R.; Newman, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of the stratospheric burdens of CO2, HCN, N2O, CH4, OCS, CF2Cl2, CFCl3, CHF2Cl and HF were made by the Jet propulsion Laboratory MkIV interferometer on board the NASA DC-8 aircraft during January and early February 1989 as part of the Airborne Arctic Stratosphere Experiment. Data were acquired on 11 flights at altitudes of up to 12 km over a geographic region covering the NE Atlantic Ocean, Iceland and Greenland. The results obtained show large variations in the burdens of these tracers due to the effects of transport. The tropospheric source gas burdens were reduced inside the polar vortex, suggesting that the air had subsided with respect to the surrounding midlatitude air. Increased HF burdens inside the vortex support this interpretation. The results obtained from the different tracers are highly consistent with each other and indicate that in the 15- to 20-km altitude range inside the vortex, surfaces of constant volume mixing ratio were located some 5-6 km lower in absolute altitude than outside the vortex. The results also indicate that the magnitude of this subsidence increases with altitude. These conclusions are consistent with other measurements.

  4. Surface and airborne measurements of organosulfur and methanesulfonate over the western United States and coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Crosbie, Ewan; Maudlin, Lindsay C.; Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Shingler, Taylor; Ortega, Amber M.; Hersey, Scott; Woods, Roy K.

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on ambient measurements of organosulfur (OS) and methanesulfonate (MSA) over the western United States and coastal areas. Particulate OS levels are highest in summertime and generally increase as a function of sulfate (a precursor) and sodium (a marine tracer) with peak levels at coastal sites. The ratio of OS to total sulfur is also highest at coastal sites, with increasing values as a function of normalized difference vegetation index and the ratio of organic carbon to elemental carbon. Correlative analysis points to significant relationships between OS and biogenic emissions from marine and continental sources, factors that coincide with secondary production, and vanadium due to a suspected catalytic role. A major OS species, methanesulfonate (MSA), was examined with intensive field measurements, and the resulting data support the case for vanadium's catalytic influence. Mass size distributions reveal a dominant MSA peak between aerodynamic diameters of 0.32-0.56 µm at a desert and coastal site with nearly all MSA mass (≥84%) in submicrometer sizes; MSA:non-sea-salt sulfate ratios vary widely as a function of particle size and proximity to the ocean. Airborne data indicate that relative to the marine boundary layer, particulate MSA levels are enhanced in urban and agricultural areas and also the free troposphere when impacted by biomass burning. Some combination of fires and marine-derived emissions leads to higher MSA levels than either source alone. Finally, MSA differences in cloud water and out-of-cloud aerosol are discussed.

  5. In situ real-time measurement of physical characteristics of airborne bacterial particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun

    2013-12-01

    Bioaerosols, including aerosolized bacteria, viruses, and fungi, are associated with public health and environmental problems. One promising control method to reduce the harmful effects of bioaerosols is thermal inactivation via a continuous-flow high-temperature short-time (HTST) system. However, variations in bioaerosol physical characteristics - for example, the particle size and shape - during the continuous-flow inactivation process can change the transport properties in the air, which can affect particle deposition in the human respiratory system or the filtration efficiency of ventilation systems. Real-time particle monitoring techniques are a desirable alternative to the time-consuming process of microscopic analysis that is conventionally used in sampling and particle characterization. Here, we report in situ real-time optical scattering measurements of the physical characteristics of airborne bacteria particles following an HTST process in a continuous-flow system. Our results demonstrate that the aerodynamic diameter of bacterial aerosols decreases when exposed to a high-temperature environment, and that the shape of the bacterial cells is significantly altered. These variations in physical characteristics using optical scattering measurements were found to be in agreement with the results of scanning electron microscopy analysis.

  6. Measuring methane concentrations from anthropogenic and natural sources using airborne imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Roberts, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Two quantitative retrieval techniques were developed for measuring methane (CH4) enhancements for concentrated plumes using high spatial and moderate spectral resolution data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). An Iterative Maximum a Posteriori Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS) algorithm performed well for a homogenous ocean scene containing natural CH4 emissions from the Coal Oil Point (COP) seeps near Santa Barbara, California. A hybrid approach using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) was particularly effective for terrestrial surfaces given it could better account for highly variable surface reflectance of complex urban environments. These techniques permitted mapping of a distinct plume at COP consistent with known seep locations and local wind direction, with maximum near surface enhancements of 2.85 ppm CH4 above background. At the Inglewood Oil Field, a CH4 plume was observed immediately downwind of two hydrocarbon storage tanks with a maximum concentration of 8.45 ppm above background. Results from a field campaign using the next generation sensor (AVIRISng) and controlled CH4 releases will also be discussed. AVIRIS-like sensors offer the potential to better constrain both CH4 and CO2 emissions on local and regional scales, including sources of increasing concern like industrial point source emissions and fugitive CH4 from the oil and gas industry. Fig. 1. CH4 plumes and measured enhancements for the COP seeps (top) and hydrocarbon storage tanks (bottom).

  7. Airborne Measurements of Trace Gases and Aerosols in Northern China: EAST-AIRE IOP 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Dickerson, R. R.; Li, Z.; Stehr, J. W.; Chen, H.; Marufu, L. T.

    2005-12-01

    To characterize the emission, transport and removal of pollutants and aerosols emitted from East Asia, a US-China joint field campaign was conducted from February to April in China under the EAST-AIRE project. Surface and airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols were made at different locations in northern China. In early April, eight research flights were conducted around Shenyang, an industrialized city with a population of about 6 million, 600 km northeast of Beijing. Parameters measured include SO2, CO, O3, aerosol size distribution, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients. During 4 of the 8 flights, the research aircraft made spirals over two suburban locations (~50 km south and north of the downtown area of Shenyang) to determine the detailed vertical distribution of trace gases and aerosols. Various weather patterns were encountered, allowing an examination of the roles of atmospheric circulation in transporting local pollutants to much larger areas. For example, the flights made ahead of the cold front showed fairly high concentrations of pollutants above the planetary boundary layer, probably lifted by the upward motion associated with the approaching cold fronts. On the other hand, much lower pollutant levels were found for the flights made behind the cold front. Also observed in one cold-sector flight is a level (~3000 m) with enhanced aerosol scattering but almost undetectable SO2. Back trajectory analysis using NOAA-HYSPLIT model suggests possible dust transport from source regions.

  8. Ground and Airborne Aerosol Composition Measurements of California Coastal Chaparral Smoke Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, J. S.; Sorooshian, A.; Hersey, S. P.; Metcalf, A. R.; Schilling-Fahnestock, K.; Newman, S.; Akagi, S. K.; Taylor, J.; McMeeking, G.; Coe, H.; Tang, P.; Cocker, D. R., III; Yokelson, R. J.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfire smoke has large local to global pollution impacts. We present aerosol composition data from two fires in southern California. We measured organic aerosol (OA) of nascent and aged (4 h) smoke from the Williams Fire during the 2009 airborne San Luis Obispo Biomass Burning Campaign (SLOBB). The net ΔOA/ΔCO2 decreased by ~20%; however, positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the organic mass spectra supports two factors that enable the OA emissions to be separated into fresh and oxidized OA. The Δfresh BBOA/ΔCO2 had a steeper decline than the ΔOA/ΔCO2 consistent with outgassing of semi-voltile organic compounds (SVOCs) due to dilution, whereas the Δoxidized BBOA/ΔCO2 increased from its initial value, consist with formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We compare these fresh and oxidized mass spectral signatures, along with chaparral smoke samples measured in the Missoula Fire Lab, to ground-based aerosol measurements made during the Station Fire that occurred one month earlier than the Williams Fire during the Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory Campaign (PACO). Night and daytime aerosol smoke emissions were sampled for one week during the Station Fire. Daytime organic aerosol smoke emissions exhibited larger variability both in mass concentration and composition than nighttime smoke emissions. Both levoglucosan and potassium, known biomass burning tracers, were measured and had distinct time series, supporting diversity in the flaming vs. smoldering initial burning conditions. Similar to the Williams Fire, PMF of the Station Fire mass spectra also reveal two biomass burning factors, one that is less oxidized and correlates strongly with levoglucosan measurements and one that is heavily oxidized and correlates in time with the potassium signal. These two campaigns have allowed us to probe fresh and oxidized smoke in both night and daytime conditions, and PMF results have revealed that at least two emission factors are useful to

  9. Airborne Sunphotometer and Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer Measurements During INTEX/ITCT 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Pilewski, P.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Kahn, R.; Livingston, J.; Chu, A.; Eilers, J.; Pommier, J.; Howard, S.

    2005-01-01

    During the period 12 July - 8 August 2004, the NASA Ames 14-channel Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (MTS-14) and Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) were operated aboard a Jetstream 31 (J31) aircraft and acquired measurements during nineteen science flights (approx. 53 flight hours) over the Gulf of Maine in support of the INTEX-NA (INtercontinental chemical Transport Experiment-North America) and ITCT (Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation of anthropogenic pollution) field studies. In this paper, we will present results from analyses of those data sets. AATS-14 measures the direct solar beam transmission at fourteen discrete wavelengths (354-2138 nm), and provides instantaneous measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and water vapor column content, in addition to vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and water vapor density during suitable aircraft ascents and descents. SSFR consists of separate nadir and zenith viewing hemispheric FOV sensors that yield measurements of up- and downwelling solar irradiance at a spectral resolution of approx. 8-12 nm over the wavelength range 300-1700 nm. The objectives of the J31-based measurements during INTEX/ITCT were to provide AOD data for the evaluation of MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and MISR (Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) AOD retrievals, quantify sea surface spectral albedo (which can contribute the largest uncertainty to satellite aerosol retrievals for low aerosol loading), test closure (consistency) among suborbital results, test chemical-transport models using AOD profiles, and assess regional radiative forcing by combining satellite and suborbital results. Specific J31 flight patterns were designed to achieve these objectives, and they included a mixture of vertical profiles (spiral and ramped ascents and descents) and constant altitude horizontal transects at a variety of altitudes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  10. Validating SWE reconstruction using Airborne Snow Observatory measurements in the Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bair, N.; Rittger, K.; Davis, R. E.; Dozier, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) program offers high resolution estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) in several small basins across California during the melt season. Primarily, water managers use this information to model snowmelt runoff into reservoirs. Another, and potentially more impactful, use of ASO SWE measurements is in validating and improving satellite-based SWE estimates which can be used in austere regions with no ground-based snow or water measurements, such as Afghanistan's Hindu Kush. Using the entire ASO dataset to date (2013-2015) which is mostly from the Upper Tuolumne basin, but also includes measurements from 2015 in the Kings, Rush Creek, Merced, and Mammoth Lakes basins, we compare ASO measurements to those from a SWE reconstruction method. Briefly, SWE reconstruction involves downscaling energy balance forcings to compute potential melt energy, then using satellite-derived estimates of fractional snow covered area (fSCA) to estimate snow melt from potential melt. The snowpack can then be built in reverse, given a remotely-sensed date of snow disappearance (fSCA=0). Our model has improvements over previous iterations in that it: uses the full energy balance (compared to a modified degree-day) approach, models bulk and surface snow temperatures, accounts for ephemeral snow, and uses a remotely-sensed snow albedo adjusted for impurities. To check that ASO provides accurate snow measurements, we compare fSCA derived from ASO snow depth at 3 m resolution with fSCA from a spectral unmixing algorithm for LandSAT at 30 m, and from binary SCA estimates from Geoeye at 0.5 m from supervised classification. To conclude, we document how our reconstruction model has evolved over the years and provide specific examples where improvements have been made using ASO and other verification sources.

  11. Filter measurements of chemical composition during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandrud, B. W.; Sperry, P. D.; Sanford, L.

    1988-01-01

    During the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment campaign, a filter sampler was flown to measure the bulk composition of aerosol and gas phases. The background sulfate aerosol was measured in regions inside and outside of the chemically perturbed region (CPR) of the polar vortex. The mass ratio of sulfate outside to inside was 2.8. This is indicative of a cleansing mechanism effecting the CPR or of a different air mass inside versus outside. The absolute value of the sulfate mixing ratio shows that the background aerosol has not been influenced by recent volcanic eruptions. The sulfate measured on the ferry flight returning to NASA Ames shows a decrease towards the equator with increasing concentrations in the northern hemisphere. Nitrate in the aerosol phase was observed on two flights. The largest amount of nitrate measured in the aerosol was 44 percent of the total amount of nitrate observed. Other samples on the same flights show no nitrate in the aerosol phase. The presence of nitrate in the aerosol is correlated with the coldest temperatures observed on a given flight. Total nitrate (aerosol plus acidic vapor nitrate) concentrations were observed to increase at flight altitude with increasing latitude north and south of the equator. Total nitrate was lower inside the CPR than outside. Chloride and flouride were not detected in the aerosol phase. From the concentrations of acidic chloride vapor, the ratio of acidic vapor Cl to acidic vapor F and a summing of the individual chloride containing species to yield a total chloride concentration, there is a suggestion that some of the air sampled was dechlorinated. Acidic vapor phase fluoride was observed to increase at flight altitude with increasing latitude both north and south of the equator. The acidic vapor phase fluoride was the only compound measured with the filter technique that exhibited larger concentrations inside the CPR than outside.

  12. Technical Note: Characterisation of a DUALER instrument for the airborne measurement of peroxy radicals during AMMA 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartal, D.; Andrés-Hernández, M. D.; Reichert, L.; Schlager, H.; Burrows, J. P.

    2010-03-01

    A DUALER (dual-channel airborne peroxy radical chemical amplifier) instrument has been developed and optimised for the airborne measurement of the total sum of peroxy radicals during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) measurement campaign which took place in Burkina Faso in August 2006. The innovative feature of the instrument is that both reactors are sampling simultaneously from a common pre-reactor nozzle while the whole system is kept at a constant pressure to ensure more signal stability and accuracy. Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise the stability of the NO2 detector signal and the chain length with the pressure. The results show that airborne measurements using chemical amplification require constant pressure at the luminol detector. Wall losses of main peroxy radicals HO2 and CH3O2 were investigated. The chain length was experimentally determined for different ambient mixtures and compared with simulations performed by a chemical box model. The DUALER instrument was successfully mounted within the German DLR-Falcon. The analysis of AMMA data utilises a validation procedure based on the O3 mixing ratios simultaneously measured onboard. The validation and analysis procedure is illustrated by means of the data measured during the AMMA campaign. The detection limit and the accuracy of the ambient measurements are also discussed.

  13. Comparing ground-based and airborne aerosol measurements during the Houston and Colorado DISCOVER-AQ field deployments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornhill, K. L., II; Anderson, B. E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Winstead, E.; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Corr, C.; Chen, G.; Hudgins, C.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Martin, R.; Jordan, C. E.; Brown, M.; Hite, J. R.; Nenes, A.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between airborne and ground-based measurements is one of the key questions that the DISCOVER-AQ series of field deployments hope to be able to answer. To address this question, the NASA P-3B systematically conducted vertical profiles over at least six ground sites sampling down to about 1000 feet over ground level. This data is combined with missed approaches at local airports which provide vertically resolved information between the lowest spiral altitude and the ground-based measurements. During the last two DISCOVER-AQ field deployments (Houston September 2013 and Colorado (July-August 2014), NASA Langley had aerosol measurements both onboard the NASA P-3B and in a mobile laboratory. Coincident measurements included aerosol number concentration, size distributions, along with optical properties such as aerosol scattering, extinction, and hygroscopicity. We present a comparison between the airborne and ground-based measurements made in two very different environments. The Houston area had much higher aerosol concentrations we sampled a variety of airmasses, from clean marine-air to emissions from the local refineries. In Colorado, most of the sampling was done in low aerosol concentration environments, away from local sources. Combined, the two field experiments provide at least 60 comparisons between airborne and ground-based aerosol measurements.

  14. Comparison of Continuous Wave CO2 Doppler Lidar Calibration Using Earth Surface Targets in Laboratory and Airborne Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana

    1999-01-01

    Routine backscatter, beta, measurements by an airborne or space-based lidar from designated earth surfaces with known and fairly uniform beta properties can potentially offer lidar calibration opportunities. This can in turn be used to obtain accurate atmospheric aerosol and cloud beta measurements on large spatial scales. This is important because achieving a precise calibration factor for large pulsed lidars then need not rest solely on using a standard hard target procedure. Furthermore, calibration from designated earth surfaces would provide an inflight performance evaluation of the lidar. Hence, with active remote sensing using lasers with high resolution data, calibration of a space-based lidar using earth's surfaces will be extremely useful. The calibration methodology using the earth's surface initially requires measuring beta of various earth surfaces simulated in the laboratory using a focused continuous wave (CW) CO2 Doppler lidar and then use these beta measurements as standards for the earth surface signal from airborne or space-based lidars. Since beta from the earth's surface may be retrieved at different angles of incidence, beta would also need to be measured at various angles of incidences of the different surfaces. In general, Earth-surface reflectance measurements have been made in the infrared, but the use of lidars to characterize them and in turn use of the Earth's surface to calibrate lidars has not been made. The feasibility of this calibration methodology is demonstrated through a comparison of these laboratory measurements with actual earth surface beta retrieved from the same lidar during the NASA/Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission on NASA's DC8 aircraft from 13 - 26 September, 1995. For the selected earth surface from the airborne lidar data, an average beta for the surface was established and the statistics of lidar efficiency was determined. This was compared with the actual lidar efficiency

  15. Boundary Layer CO2 mixing ratio measurements by an airborne pulsed IPDA lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, A. K.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Allan, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Since the primary signature of CO2 fluxes at the surface occurs in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), remote sensing measurements of CO2 that can resolve the CO2 absorption in the PBL separate from the total column are more sensitive to fluxes than those that can only measure a total column. The NASA Goddard CO2 sounder is a pulsed, range-resolved lidar that samples multiple (presently 30) wavelengths across the 1572.335 nm CO2 absorption line. The range resolution and line shape measurement enable CO2 mixing ratio measurements to be made in two or more altitude layers including the PBL via lidar cloud-slicing and multi-layer retrievals techniques. The pulsed lidar approach allows range-resolved backscatter of scattering from ground and cloud tops. Post flight data analysis can be used split the vertical CO2 column into layers (lidar cloud-slicing) and solve for the CO2 mixing ratio in each layer. We have demonstrated lidar cloud slicing with lidar measurements from a flight over Iowa, USA in August 2011 during the corn-growing season, remotely measuring a ≈15 ppm drawdown in the PBL CO2. We will present results using an improved lidar cloud slicing retrieval algorithm as well as preliminary measurements from the upcoming ASCENDS 2014 flight campaign. The CO2 absorption line is also more pressure broadened at lower altitudes. Analyzing the line shape also allows solving for some vertical resolution in the CO2 distribution. By allowing the retrieval process to independently vary the column concentrations in two or more altitude layers, one can perform a best-fit retrieval to obtain the CO2 mixing ratios in each of the layers. Analysis of airborne lidar measurements (in 2011) over Iowa, USA and Four Corners, New Mexico, USA show that for altitudes above 8 km, the CO2 sounder can detect and measure enhanced or diminished CO2 mixing ratios in the PBL even in the absence of clouds. We will present these results as well as preliminary measurements from the upcoming

  16. Testing of a Two-Micron Double-Pulse IPDA Lidar Instrument for Airborne Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Petros, M.; Refaat, T. F.; Remus, R.; Singh, U. N.

    2015-12-01

    Utilizing a tunable two-micron double-pulse laser transmitter, an airborne IPDA lidar system has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center for atmospheric carbon dioxide column measurements. The instrument comprises a receiver with 0.4 m telescope and InGaAs pin detectors coupled to 12-bit, 200 MS/s waveform digitizers. For on-site ground testing, the 2-μm CO2 IPDA lidar was installed inside a trailer located where meteorological data and CO2 mixing ratio profiles were obtained from CAPABLE and LiCoR in-suite sampling, respectively. IPDA horizontal ground testing with 860 m target distance indicated CO2 sensitivity of 2.24 ppm with -0.43 ppm offset, while operating at 3 GHz on-line position from the R30 line center. Then, the IPDA lidar was integrated inside the NASA B-200 aircraft, with supporting instrumentation, for airborne testing and validation. Supporting instruments included in-situ LiCoR sensor, GPS and video recorder for target identification. Besides, aircraft built-in sensors provided altitude, pressure, temperature and relative humidity sampling during flights. The 2-mm CO2 IPDA lidar airborne testing was conducted through ten daytime flights (27 hours flight time). Airborne testing included different operating and environmental conditions for flight altitude up to 7 km, different ground target conditions such as vegetation, soil, ocean, snow and sand and different cloud conditions. Some flights targeted power plant incinerators for investigating IPDA sensitivity to CO2 plums. Relying on independent CO2 in-situ sampling, conducted through NOAA, airborne IPDA CO2 sensitivity of 4.15 ppm with 1.14 ppm offset were observed at 6 km altitude and 4 GHz on-line offset frequency. This validates the 2-μm double-pulse IPDA lidar for atmospheric CO2 measurement.

  17. Measurement of Airborne Fission Products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA from the Kukushima Dai-ichi Reactor Accident

    SciTech Connect

    MacMullin, S.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Henning, R.; Holmes, R.; Vorren, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present measurement results of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA, from 62 d following the March 11, 2011, accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Airborne particle samples were collected daily in air filters and radio-assayed with two high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The fission products 131I and 137Cs were measured with maximum activity concentrations of 4.2 0.6 mBq/m3 and 0.42 0.07 mBq/m3 respectively. Additional activity from 131,132I, 134,136,137Cs and 132Te were measured in the same air filters using a low-background HPGe detector at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF).

  18. Airborne MAX-DOAS Measurements Over California: Testing the NASA OMI Tropospheric NO2 Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oetjen, Hilke; Baidar, Sunil; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Lechner, Michael; Volkamer, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Airborne Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (AMAX-DOAS) measurements of NO2 tropospheric vertical columns were performed over California for two months in summer 2010. The observations are compared to the NASA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) tropospheric vertical columns (data product v2.1) in two ways: (1) Median data were compared for the whole time period for selected boxes, and the agreement was found to be fair (R = 0.97, slope = 1.4 +/- 0.1, N= 10). (2) A comparison was performed on the mean of coincident AMAX-DOAS measurements within the area of the corresponding OMI pixels with the tropospheric NASA OMI NO2 assigned to that pixel. The effects of different data filters were assessed. Excellent agreement and a strong correlation (R = 0.85, slope = 1.05 +/- 0.09, N= 56) was found for (2) when the data were filtered to eliminate large pixels near the edge of the OMI orbit, the cloud radiance fraction was<50%, the OMI overpass occurred within 2 h of the AMAX-DOAS measurements, the flight altitude was>2 km, and a representative sample of the footprint was taken by the AMAX-DOAS instrument. The AMAX-DOAS and OMI data sets both show a reduction of NO2 tropospheric columns on weekends by 38 +/- 24% and 33 +/- 11%, respectively. The assumptions in the tropospheric satellite air mass factor simulations were tested using independent measurements of surface albedo, aerosol extinction, and NO2 profiles for Los Angeles for July 2010 indicating an uncertainty of 12%.

  19. Seagrass biomass and productivity in the Florida Keys, USA: ground-level and airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarbro, L.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; McHan, C.; Carlson, D. F.; Hu, C.; Danielson, T.; Durnan, B.; English, D. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Herwitz, S.; Merrill, J.; Mewes, T.

    2013-12-01

    Seagrass communities serve as essential habitat for fish and shellfish, and recent research indicates that they can play a significant role in reducing ocean acidification. As part of a collaborative project funded by the NASA ROSES program and administered by the NASA UAV Collaborative, we collected hyperspectral imagery of seagrass beds and measured productivity of Thalassia testudinum at Sugarloaf Key, Florida, in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. Our primary goal was to evaluate the utility of hyperspectral sensors, in general, and UAV platforms, in specific, to measure seagrass health and productivity. Airborne measurements using the AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system were carried out simultaneously with ground measurements of Thalassia fluorescence, oxygen metabolism, growth, and biomass, as well as remote sensing reflectance and several in situ optical properties. Water depths at the study site ranged from less than 1 m to 5 m. Phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentrations (0.09-0.72 ug l-1), ag(440) (0-0.02 m-1), and turbidity (0.12-4.1 ntu) were relatively low for all three deployments, facilitating the collection of excellent imagery and application of water-column radiative-transfer corrections. Aboveground Thalassia and macroalgal biomass, at 18 sites in the study area, ranged from 210 to 690 and 11 to 590 gDW m-2, respectively. One-sided green leaf area index of Thalassia ranged from 0.7 to 3.0. Preliminary findings show that the sensitivity of relationships between seagrass productivity and biomass parameters and remotely-sensed habitat spectra is reduced with increasing water depth and, even in shallow water, is complicated by epiphytic algae and sediment coverage of leaf surfaces.

  20. Airborne measurements of different trace gases during the AROMAT-2 campaign with an Avantes spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bösch, Tim; Meier, Andreas; Schönhardt, Anja; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Burrows, John

    2016-04-01

    Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) is a well-known, versatile, and frequently used technique for the analysis of trace gases within the atmosphere. Although DOAS has been used for several decades, airborne DOAS has become more popular during the last years because of the possibility of measuring in high lateral resolutions with the help of imaging instruments. Here, we present results of the AROMAT-2 campaign in Romania in summer 2015. The introduced measurements were taken using a nadir viewing Avantes spectrometer on board of a Cessna aircraft which flew over Bucharest and the Turceni power plant in Romania. The instrument covers the wavelength region of 287 - 551nm at a spectral resolution of 0.13nm and has a temporal resolution of 0.5s, translating to about 450m in flight direction at 3000m flight attitude. The field of view of the instrument was set to 8.1 degrees, resulting in a pixel size across track of about 420m. Compared to the imaging DOAS instrument AirMAP which was also operated from the aircraft, the signal to noise ratio of the simple nadir viewing spectrometer is slightly better, which allows an analysis of less abundant species and interesting spectral features. The results show a day-to-day variation of NO2 over the city of Bucharest as well as spectral features over lakes in the city, which can be attributed to algae. Furthermore, we were able to measure large emission plumes of NO2 and SO2 over the Turceni power plant, which could be observed over long spatial distances. In addition, the results from the Avantes instrument were used for comparison with measurements of the imaging spectrometer AirMAP and good agreement was found, providing independent verification of the imager data.

  1. Photon-counting multikilohertz microlaser altimeters for airborne and spaceborne topographic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, John J.

    2002-11-01

    We consider the optimum design of photon-counting microlaser altimeters operating from airborne and spaceborne platforms under both day and night conditions. Extremely compact, passively Q-switched microlaser transmitters produce trains of low energy pulses at multi-kHz rates and can easily generate subnanosecond pulsewidths for precise ranging. To guide the design, we have modeled the solar noise background and developed simple algorithms, based on post-detection Poisson filtering (PDPF), to optimally extract the weak altimeter signal from a high noise background during daytime operations. The advantages of photon-counting detector arrays followed by multichannel timing receivers for high resolution topographic mapping are discussed. Practical technology issues, such as detector and/or receiver dead times and their impact on signal detection and ranging accuracy and resolution, have also been considered in the analysis. The theoretical results are reinforced by data from an airborne microlaser altimeter, developed under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. The latter instrument has operated at several kHz rates from aircraft cruise altitudes up to 6.7 km with laser pulse energies on the order of a few microjoules. The instrument has successfully recorded decimeter accuracy or better single photon returns from man-made structures, tree canopies and underlying terrain and has demonstrated shallow water bathymetry at depths to a few meters. We conclude the discussion by analyzing a photon counting instrument designed to produce, over a mission life of 3 years, a globally contiguous map of the Martian surface, with 5 m horizontal resolution and decimeter vertical accuracy, from an altitude of 300 km. The transmitter power-receive aperture product required is comparable to the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) but the number of individual range measurements to the surface is increased by three to four orders of magnitude. For more modest scientific goals, on a

  2. Simulations of an airborne laser absorption spectrometer for atmospheric CO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, B.; Ismail, S.; Harrison, F. W.; Browell, E. V.; Dobler, J. T.; Refaat, T.; Kooi, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric column amount of carbon dioxide (CO2), a major greenhouse gas of the atmosphere, has significantly increased from a preindustrial value of about 280 parts per million (ppm) to more than 390 ppm at present. Our knowledge about the spatiotemporal change and variability of the greenhouse gas, however, is limited. Thus, a near-term space mission of the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) is crucial to increase our understanding of global sources and sinks of CO2. Currently, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and ITT Exelis are jointly developing and testing an airborne laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a prototype instrument for the mission. To assess the space capability of accurate atmospheric CO2 measurements, accurate modeling of the instrument and practical evaluation of space applications are the keys for the success of the ASCENDS mission. This study discusses the simulations of the performance of the airborne instrument and its CO2 measurements. The LAS is a multi-wavelength spectrometer operating on a 1.57 um CO2 absorption line. The Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) approach is implemented in the instrument. To reach accurate CO2 measurements, transmitted signals are monitored internally as reference channels. A model of this kind of instrument includes all major components of the spectrometer, such as modulation generator, fiber amplifier, telescope, detector, transimpedance amplifier, matched filter, and other signal processors. The characteristics of these components are based on actual laboratory tests, product specifications, and general understanding of the functionality of the components. For simulations of atmospheric CO2 measurements, environmental conditions related to surface reflection, atmospheric CO2 and H2O profiles, thin clouds, and aerosol layers, are introduced into the model. Furthermore, all major noise sources such as those from detectors, background radiation, speckle, and

  3. Identification of Thermally Driven Valley Wind From Ground Based and Airborne Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampanelli, G.; de Franceschi, M.; Zardi, D.

    A peculiar valley wind, the so called Ora del Garda, has been adopted as a test case of thermally driven wind. The latter occurs on fair weather days, when it starts blowing during the late morning along the northern shore of Garda Lake as a typical lake breeze and thence channels in the Sarca Valley and Lakes Valley nearby, until it finally reaches, through an elevated saddle, the River Adige Valley, where it appears as a strong gusty wind. A statistical analysis of time series recorded by a network of meteorological ground station located in the above valleys allowed detailed identifi- cation of peculiar features. Further understanding has been gained from specific field observations including both ground based and airborne measurements performed with a light airplane within and above the valley boundary layer. A geostatistical analy- sis (kriging) of data allowed evaluation of vertical profiles at various locations. Deviations from the averaged vertical profile due to horizontal temperature gradients within the valley atmosphere were also evaluated and the underlying statistical struc- ture estimated in terms of suitable variogram function of the monitored variables. Fi- nally the procedure allowed an estimate potential temperature anomalies throughout the valley volume and the identification of basic thermal structures within the convec- tive boundary layer.

  4. In situ measurements of NO(x) in the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Mary Anne; Montzka, Denise D.; Hubler, Gerhard; Kelly, Kenneth K.; Gregory, Gerald L.

    1990-01-01

    In situ measurements of NO and NO2 were made simultaneously from the NASA DC-8 aircraft as part of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. Mixing ratios of NO(x) (NO + NO2) were typically higher in the arctic troposphere than in the stratosphere, with median values of 59 and 40 pptv, respectively. In the stratosphere, there tended to be a positive correlation between NO(x) and water vapor and negative correlations between NO(x) and ozone and between NO(x) and total reactive odd-nitrogen, NO(y). The ratio of NO(x) to NO(y), in conjunction with NO(y), appears to be an excellent tracer of tropospheric or stratospheric air at northern latitudes during winter. Tropospheric NO(x) was typically 10 to 50 percent of gas-phase NO(y), while in the stratosphere, NO(x) was typically less than 10 percent, and frequently less than 5 percent of gas-phase NO(y).

  5. Measuring Geophysical Parameters of the Greenland Ice Sheet using Airborne Radar Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, Ellen J.; Swift. Calvin T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents radar-altimeter scattering models for each of the diagenetic zones of the Greenland ice sheet. AAFE radar- altimeter waveforms obtained during the 1991 and 1993 NASA multi-sensor airborne altimetry experiments over Greenland reveal that the Ku-band return pulse changes significantly with the different diagenetic zones. These changes are due to varying amounts of surface and volume scattering in the return waveform. In the ablation and soaked zones, where surface scattering dominates the AAFE return, geophysical parameters such as rms surface height and rms surface slope are obtained by fitting the waveforms to a surface-scattering model. Waveforms from the percolation zone show that the sub-surface ice features have a much more significant effect on the return pulse than the surrounding snowpack. Model percolation waveforms, created using a combined surface- and volume-scattering model and an ice-feature distribution obtained during the 1993 field season, agree well with actual AAFE waveforms taken in the same time period. Using a combined surface- and volume-scattering model for the dry-snow-zone return waveforms, the rms surface height and slope and the attenuation coefficient of the snowpack are obtained. These scattering models not only allow geophysical parameters of the ice sheet to be measured but also help in the understanding of satellite radar-altimeter data.

  6. Airborne water vapor DIAL system and measurements of water and aerosol profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Noah S.; Browell, Edward V.

    1991-01-01

    The Lidar Applications Group at NASA Langley Research Center has developed a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system for the remote measurement of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols from an aircraft. The airborne H2O DIAL system is designed for extended flights to perform mesoscale investigations of H2O and aerosol distributions. This DIAL system utilizes a Nd:YAG-laser-pumped dye laser as the off-line transmitter and a narrowband, tunable Alexandrite laser as the on-line transmitter. The dye laser has an oscillator/amplifier configuration which incorporates a grating and prism in the oscillator cavity to narrow the output linewidth to approximately 15 pm. This linewidth can be maintained over the wavelength range of 725 to 730 nm, and it is sufficiently narrow to satisfy the off-line spectral requirements. In the Alexandrite laser, three intracavity tuning elements combine to produce an output linewidth of 1.1 pm. These spectral devices include a five-plate birefringent tuner, a 1-mm thick solid etalon and a 1-cm air-spaced etalon. A wavelength stability of +/- 0.35 pm is achieved by active feedback control of the two Fabry-Perot etalons using a frequency stabilized He-Ne laser as a wavelength reference. The three tuning elements can be synchronously scanned over a 150 pm range with microprocessor-based scanning electronics. Other aspects of the DIAL system are discussed.

  7. Water Raman normalization of airborne laser fluorosensor measurements - A computer model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, L. R.; Esaias, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The technique for normalizing airborne lidar measurements of chlorophyll fluoresence by the water Raman scattering signal is investigated for laser-excitation wavelengths of 480 and 532 nm using a semianalytic Monte Carlo methodology (SALMON). The signal-integration depth for chlorophyll fluorescence Z(90,F), is found to be insensitive to excitation wavelength and ranges from a maximum of 4.5 m in clearest waters to less than 1 m at a chlorophyll concentration of 20 microgram/liter. For excitation at 532 nm, the signal-integration depth for Raman scattering, Z(90,R), is comparable to Z(90,F). For excitation at 480 nm, Z(90,R) is four times as large as Z(90,F) in clearest waters but nearly equivalent at chlorophyll concentrations greater than 2-3 microgram/liter. Absolute signal levels are stronger with excitation at 480 nm than with excitation at 532 nm, but this advantage must be weighed against potential ambiguities resulting from different integration depths for the fluorescence and Raman scattering signals in clearer waters. To the precision of the simulations, Raman normalization produces effectively linear response to chlorophyll concentration for both excitation wavelengths.

  8. Composition measurements of the 1989 Arctic winter stratosphere by airborne infrared solar absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, G. C.; Farmer, C. B.; Schaper, P. W.; Lowes, L. L.; Norton, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports simultaneous measurements of the stratospheric burdens of H2O, HDO, OCS, CO2, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, CF2Cl2, CFCl3, CHF2Cl, C2H6, HCN, NO, NO2, HNO3, ClNO3, HOCl, HCl, and HF made by the JPL MkIV interferometer on board the NASA DC-8 aircraft during January and early February 1989 as part of the Airborne Arctic Stratosphere Experiment. Data were obtained on 11 flights at altitudes of up to 12 km over a geographic region covering the NE Atlantic Ocean, Iceland, and Greenland. Analyses of the chemically active gases reveal highly perturbed conditions within the vortex. The ClNO3 abundance was chemically enhanced near the edge of the vortex but was then depleted inside. NO2 was severely depleted inside the vortex. In contrast to Antarctica, H2O and HNO3 were both more abundant inside the vortex than outside. It is suggested that although the Arctic vortex did not get cold enough to produce any dehydration, or as vertically extensive denitrification as occurred in Antarctica, nevertheless, enough heterogeneous chemistry occurred to convert over 90 percent of the inorganic chlorine to active forms in the 14- to 27-km altitude range by early February 1989.

  9. Ship emissions of SO2 and NO2: DOAS measurements from airborne platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, N.; Mellqvist, J.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Balzani, J.

    2012-05-01

    A unique methodology to measure gas fluxes of SO2 and NO2 from ships using optical remote sensing is described and demonstrated in a feasibility study. The measurement system is based on Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy using reflected skylight from the water surface as light source. A grating spectrometer records spectra around 311 nm and 440 nm, respectively, with the telescope pointed downward at a 30° angle from the horizon. The mass column values of SO2 and NO2 are retrieved from each spectrum and integrated across the plume. A simple geometric approximation is used to calculate the optical path. To obtain the total emission in kg h-1 the resulting total mass across the plume is multiplied with the apparent wind, i.e. a dilution factor corresponding to the vector between the wind and the ship speed. The system was tested in two feasibility studies in the Baltic Sea and Kattegat, from a CASA-212 airplane in 2008 and in the North Sea outside Rotterdam from a Dauphin helicopter in an EU campaign in 2009. In the Baltic Sea the average SO2 emission out of 22 ships was (54 ± 13) kg h-1, and the average NO2 emission was (33 ± 8) kg h-1, out of 13 ships. In the North Sea the average SO2 emission out of 21 ships was (42 ± 11) kg h-1, NO2 was not measured here. The detection limit of the system made it possible to detect SO2 in the ship plumes in 60% of the measurements when the described method was used. A comparison exercise was carried out by conducting airborne optical measurements on a passenger ferry in parallel with onboard measurements. The comparison shows agreement of (-30 ± 14)% and (-41 ± 11)%, respectively, for two days, with equal measurement precision of about 20%. This gives an idea of the measurement uncertainty caused by errors in the simple geometric approximation for the optical light path neglecting scattering of the light in ocean waves and direct and multiple scattering in the exhaust plume under various conditions. A tentative

  10. Addressing sub-scan variability of tundra snow properties in ground-based Ku- and X-band scatterometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. M.; Kasurak, A.; Kelly, R. E.; Duguay, C. R.; Derksen, C.; Rutter, N.; Sandells, M.; Watts, T.

    2012-12-01

    During the winter of 2010-2011 ground-based Ku- (17.2 GHz) and X-band (9.6 GHz) scatterometers were deployed near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada to evaluate the potential for dual-frequency observation of tundra snow properties. Field-based scatterometer observations when combined with in-situ snowpack properties and physically based models, provide the means necessary to develop and evaluate local scale property retrievals. To form meaningful analysis of the observed physical interaction space, potential sources of bias and error in the observed backscatter must be identified and quantified. This paper explores variation in observed Ku- and X-band backscatter in relation to the physical complexities of shallow tundra snow whose properties evolve at scales smaller than the observing instrument. The University of Waterloo scatterometer (UW-Scat) integrates observations over wide azimuth sweeps, several meters in length, to minimize errors resulting from radar fade and poor signal-to-noise ratios. Under ideal conditions, an assumption is made that the observed snow target is homogeneous. Despite an often-outward appearance of homogeneity, topographic elements of the Canadian open tundra produce significant local scale variability in snow properties, including snow water equivalent (SWE). Snow at open tundra sites observed during this campaign was found to vary by as much as 20 cm in depth and 40 mm in SWE within the scatterometer field of view. Previous studies suggest that changes in snow properties on this order will produce significant variation in backscatter, potentially introducing bias into products used for analysis. To assess the influence of sub-scan variability, extensive snow surveys were completed within the scatterometer field of view immediately after each scan at 32 sites. A standardized sampling protocol captured a grid of geo-located measurements, characterizing the horizontal variability of bulk properties including depth, density, and SWE. Based upon

  11. On-board Polarimetric Calibration of Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Harten, G.; Diner, D. J.; Bull, M. A.; Tkatcheva, I. N.; Jovanovic, V. M.; Seidel, F. C.; Garay, M. J.; Xu, F.; Davis, A. B.; Rheingans, B. E.; Chipman, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) aims at characterizing atmospheric aerosols and clouds using highly accurate imaging polarimetry. The instrument is deployed regularly onboard the NASA ER2 high-altitude aircraft, which is an ideal testbed for satellite remote sensing. Flying at 20 km altitude, AirMSPI's pushbroom camera typically provides 11×11 km images at 10 m resolution. The target is observed from multiple along-track angles within ±67° using a gimbal mount. Eight spectral bands within 355-935 nm are recorded simultaneously in different detector rows, 3 of which also measure linear polarization: 470, 660 and 865 nm. Photoelastic modulators (PEMs) encode the polarized and total intensities in each polarimetric pixel as the amplitude and offset of a wavelike intensity pattern, such that the ratio of the two is insensitive to pixel-to-pixel differences. This enables an accuracy in the degree of linear polarization of ~0.001, as measured in the lab. To maintain this accuracy in-flight, an optical probe continuously monitors the PEMs' retardances and controls their driving signals. Before and after observing a target, the instrument also observes a validator, which is an extended, polarized light source, located inside the instrument housing. These data are now incorporated in the data processing pipeline to further improve the calibration of the modulation functions. Highly polarized pixels in Earth data are utilized to transfer the validator results to meet the illumination in Earth scenes, as well as to make fine adjustments at higher temporal resolution. The reprocessed polarization products for the PODEX campaign show significant improvements when intercompared with the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP, Goddard Institute for Space Studies). We currently evaluate the impact of the on-board polarimetric calibration on aerosol retrievals, and compare against AERONET reference measurements.

  12. Airborne cloud condensation nuclei measurements during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asa-Awuku, Akua; Moore, Richard H.; Nenes, Athanasios; Bahreini, Roya; Holloway, John S.; Brock, Charles A.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Decarlo, Peter F.; Hecobian, Arsineh; Weber, Rodney J.; Stickel, Robert; Tanner, Dave J.; Huey, Lewis G.

    2011-06-01

    Airborne measurements of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) were conducted aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration WP-3D platform during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS/GoMACCS). The measurements were conducted in regions influenced by industrial and urban sources. Observations show significant local variability of CCN activity (CCN/CN from 0.1 to 0.5 at s = 0.43%), while variability is less significant across regional scales (˜100 km × 100 km; CCN/CN is ˜0.1 at s = 0.43%). CCN activity can increase with increasing plume age and oxygenated organic fraction. CCN measurements are compared to predictions for a number of mixing state and composition assumptions. Mixing state assumptions that assumed internally mixed aerosol predict CCN concentrations well. Assuming organics are as hygroscopic as ammonium sulfate consistently overpredicted CCN concentrations. On average, the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) fraction is 60 ± 14% of the organic aerosol. We show that CCN closure can be significantly improved by incorporating knowledge of the WSOC fraction with a prescribed organic hygroscopicity parameter (κ = 0.16 or effective κ ˜ 0.3). This implies that the hygroscopicity of organic mass is primarily a function of the WSOC fraction. The overall aerosol hygroscopicity parameter varies between 0.08 and 0.88. Furthermore, droplet activation kinetics are variable and 60% of particles are smaller than the size characteristic of rapid droplet growth.

  13. An airborne spectrometer with three infrared lasers for trace gas measurements applied to convection case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catoire, V.; Krysztofiak, G.; Robert, C.; Chartier, M.

    2012-12-01

    An infrared absorption spectrometer named SPIRIT (SPectromètre InfraRouge In situ Toute altitude) has been built for airborne simultaneous online measurements of trace gases. SPIRIT is based on two recent technological advances, leading to optimal performances and miniaturization: continuous wave quantum cascade lasers (CW-QCL) operating near room temperature coupled to a new, patented, multipass optical cell (Robert, Appl. Optics, 2007). An essential electronic development allows the sequential use of three QCLs with the same single cell. With judicious selected spectral micro-windows, this potentially leads to the measurements of at least four species at 0.7 Hz frequency. The first deployment of SPIRIT was made onboard the DLR Falcon-20 aircraft during the campaign associated to the EU SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project in Nov.-Dec. 2011 over Malaysia. In the present paper, the flight of 19 Nov. is presented in detail as an example of the SPIRIT performances, with CO, CO2, CH4 and N2O as measured species. The aircraft crossed four times the anvil of a severe thunderstorm from 11.3 km to 12.8 km altitude corresponding to a large convective system near Borneo island (6.0°N-115.5°E). During the crossing, carbon monoxide mixing ratios increase by 5 to 10 ppbv from the ambient cloud free environment to the anvil cloud correlated with an increase of CH4 mixing ratio. Using these observations, the fraction of boundary layer air contained in fresh convective outflow has been calculated. Other convection cases were detected, allowing for other fractions to be calculated, with results ranging between 0.15 and 0.55 and showing the variability of the mixing taking place during convective transport.

  14. Using in situ airborne measurements to evaluate three cloud phase products derived from CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesana, G.; Chepfer, H.; Winker, D.; Getzewich, B.; Cai, X.; Jourdan, O.; Mioche, G.; Okamoto, H.; Hagihara, Y.; Noel, V.; Reverdy, M.

    2016-05-01

    We compare the cloud detection and cloud phase determination of three independent climatologies based on Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) to airborne in situ measurements. Our analysis of the cloud detection shows that the differences between the satellite and in situ measurements mainly arise from three factors. First, averaging CALIPSO Level l data along track before cloud detection increases the estimate of high- and low-level cloud fractions. Second, the vertical averaging of Level 1 data before cloud detection tends to artificially increase the cloud vertical extent. Third, the differences in classification of fully attenuated pixels among the CALIPSO climatologies lead to differences in the low-level Arctic cloud fractions. In another section, we compare the cloudy pixels detected by colocated in situ and satellite observations to study the cloud phase determination. At midlatitudes, retrievals of homogeneous high ice clouds by CALIPSO data sets are very robust (more than 94.6% of agreement with in situ). In the Arctic, where the cloud phase vertical variability is larger within a 480 m pixel, all climatologies show disagreements with the in situ measurements and CALIPSO-General Circulation Models-Oriented Cloud Product (GOCCP) report significant undefined-phase clouds, which likely correspond to mixed-phase clouds. In all CALIPSO products, the phase determination is dominated by the cloud top phase. Finally, we use global statistics to demonstrate that main differences between the CALIPSO cloud phase products stem from the cloud detection (horizontal averaging, fully attenuated pixels) rather than the cloud phase determination procedures.

  15. Southern Hemispheric nitrous oxide measurements obtained during 1987 airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolske, J. R.; Loewenstein, M.; Strahan, S. E.; Chan, K. Roland

    1988-01-01

    The chemical lifetime of N2O is about 150 years, which makes it an excellent dynamical tracer of air motion on the time scale of the ozone depletion event. For these reasons it was chosen to help test whether dynamical theories of ozone loss over Antarctica were plausible, particularly the theory that upwelling ozone-poor air from the troposphere was replacing ozone-rich stratospheric air. The N2O measurements were made with the Airborne Tunable Laser Absorption Spectrometer (ATLAS) aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. The detection technique involves measuring the diffential absorption of the IR laser radiation as it is rapidly scanned over an N2O absorption feature. For the AAOE mission, the instrument was capable of making measurements with a 1 ppb sensitivity, 1 second response time, over an altitude range of 10 to 20 kilometers. The AAOE mission consisted of a series of 12 flights from Punta Arenas (53S) into the polar vortex (approximately 72S) at which time a vertical profile from 65 to 45 km and back was performed. Comparison of the observed profiles inside the vortex with N2O profiles obtained by balloon flights during the austral summer showed that an overall subsidence had occurred during the winter of about 5 to 6 km. Also, over the course of the mission (mid-August to late September), no trend in the N2O vertical profile, either upward or downward, was discernible, eliminating the possibility that upwelling was the cause of the observed ozone decrease.

  16. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D.; Blake, D.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2008-07-01

    Toluene and benzene are used for assessing the ability to measure disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) on aircraft. Statistically significant correlation between vertical wind speed and mixing ratios suggests that airborne VOC eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements using PTR-MS are feasible. City-average midday toluene and benzene fluxes are calculated to be on the order of 15.5±4.0 mg/m2/h and 4.7±2.3 mg/m2/h respectively. These values argue for an underestimation of toluene and benzene emissions in current inventories used for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Wavelet analysis of instantaneous toluene and benzene measurements during city overpasses is tested as a tool to assess surface emission heterogeneity. High toluene to benzene flux ratios above an industrial district (e.g. 10 15) including the International airport (e.g. 3 5) and a mean flux (concentration) ratio of 3.2±0.5 (3.9±0.3) across Mexico City indicate that evaporative fuel and industrial emissions play an important role for the prevalence of aromatic compounds. Based on a tracer model, which was constrained by BTEX (Benzene/Toluene/Ethylbenzene/m,p,o-Xylenes) compound concentration ratios, the fuel marker methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE) and the biomass burning marker acetonitrile (CH3CN), we show that a combination of industrial, evaporative fuel, and exhaust emissions account for >90% of all BTEX sources. Our observations suggest that biomass burning emissions play a minor role for the abundance of BTEX compounds (0 10%) in the MCMA.

  17. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D.; Blake, D. R.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Toluene and benzene are used for assessing the ability to measure disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) on aircraft. Statistically significant correlation between vertical wind speed and mixing ratios suggests that airborne VOC eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements using PTR-MS are feasible. City-median midday toluene and benzene fluxes are calculated to be on the order of 14.1±4.0 mg/m2/h and 4.7±2.3 mg/m2/h, respectively. For comparison the adjusted CAM2004 emission inventory estimates toluene fluxes of 10 mg/m2/h along the footprint of the flight-track. Wavelet analysis of instantaneous toluene and benzene measurements during city overpasses is tested as a tool to assess surface emission heterogeneity. High toluene to benzene flux ratios above an industrial district (e.g. 10-15 g/g) including the International airport (e.g. 3-5 g/g) and a mean flux (concentration) ratio of 3.2±0.5 g/g (3.9±0.3 g/g) across Mexico City indicate that evaporative fuel and industrial emissions play an important role for the prevalence of aromatic compounds. Based on a tracer model, which was constrained by BTEX (BTEX- Benzene/Toluene/Ethylbenzene/m, p, o-Xylenes) compound concentration ratios, the fuel marker methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE) and the biomass burning marker acetonitrile (CH3CN), we show that a combination of industrial, evaporative fuel, and exhaust emissions account for >87% of all BTEX sources. Our observations suggest that biomass burning emissions play a minor role for the abundance of BTEX compounds in the MCMA (2-13%).

  18. The design of an onboard digital Doppler processor for a spaceborne scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, David G.; Chi, Chong-Yung; Li, Fuk K.

    1988-01-01

    A digital Doppler processor, which will permit the Doppler center frequency of the measurement cell bandwidths to be adjusted to compensate for the effects of the earth's rotation, will be used in the next NASA spaceborn scatterometer known as NSCAT. The authors describe the design and genesis of the NSCAT digital Doppler processor and discusses the performance tradeoff issues that were evaluated during the design phase. In this FFT (fast Fourier transform)-based technique, computation of the adjustment to the cell center frequencies will be done onboard using an approximate expression for the Doppler shift of the cell center versus orbit time. This technique also permits modification of the parameters used to locate the radar-backscatter-coefficient measurement cells by ground command in response to orbit changes.

  19. COMET: a planned airborne mission to simultaneously measure CO2 and CH4 columns using airborne remote sensing and in-situ techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fix, A.; Amediek, A.; Büdenbender, C.; Ehret, G.; Wirth, M.; Quatrevalet, M.; Rapp, M.; Gerilowski, K.; Bovensmann, H.; Gerbig, C.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Zöger, M.; Giez, A.

    2013-12-01

    To better predict future trends in the cycles of the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases, CO2 and CH4, there is a need to measure and understand their distribution and variation on various scales. To address these requirements it is envisaged to deploy a suite of state-of-the-art airborne instruments that will be capable to simultaneously measure the column averaged dry-air mixing ratios (XGHG) of both greenhouse gases along the flight path. As the measurement platform serves the research aircraft HALO, a modified Gulfstream G550, operated by DLR. This activity is dubbed CoMet (CO2 and Methane Mission). The instrument package of CoMet will consist of active and passive remote sensors as well as in-situ instruments to complement the column measurements by highly-resolved profile information. As an active remote sensing instrument CHARM-F, the integrated-path differential absorption lidar currently under development at DLR, will provide both, XCO2 and XCH4, below flight altitude. The lidar instrument will be complemented by MAMAP which is a NIR/SWIR absorption spectrometer developed by University of Bremen and which is also capable to derive XCH4 and XCO2. As an additional passive instrument, mini-DOAS operated by University of Heidelberg will contribute with additional context information about the investigated air masses. In order to compare the remote sensing instruments with integrated profile information, in-situ instrumentation is indispensable. The in-situ package will therefore comprise wavelength-scanned Cavity-Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) for the detection of CO2, CH4, CO and H2O and a flask sampler for collection of atmospheric samples and subsequent laboratory analysis. Furthermore, the BAsic HALO Measurement And Sensor System (BAHAMAS) will provide an accurate set of meteorological and aircraft state parameters for each scientific flight. Within the frame of the first CoMet mission scheduled for the 2015 timeframe it is planned to concentrate

  20. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles; airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouch, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2013-09-01

    The MEGAPOLI experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) giving detailed information of the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of BC, measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP), was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA), black carbon and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ΔOA / ΔBC and ΔOA / ΔCO increase with increasing photochemical age (-log(NOx / NOy). Plotting the equivalent ratios for the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resolved species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA) illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Within Paris the changes in the ΔOA / ΔCO are similar to those observed during other studies in Mexico city, Mexico and in New England, USA. Using the measured VOCs species together with recent organic aerosol formation yields we predicted ~ 50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the formation of OA

  1. Analyzing carbon dioxide and methane emissions in California using airborne measurements and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Jeong, S.; Fischer, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have increased over the past decades and are linked to global temperature increases and climate change. These changes in climate have been suggested to have varying effects, and uncertain consequences, on agriculture, water supply, weather, sea-level rise, the economy, and energy. To counteract the trend of increasing atmospheric concentrations of GHGs, the state of California has passed the California Global Warming Act of 2006 (AB-32). This requires that by the year 2020, GHG (e.g., carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) emissions will be reduced to 1990 levels. To quantify GHG fluxes, emission inventories are routinely compiled for the State of California (e.g., CH4 emissions from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) Project). The major sources of CO2 and CH4 in the state of California are: transportation, electricity production, oil and gas extraction, cement plants, agriculture, landfills/waste, livestock, and wetlands. However, uncertainties remain in these emission inventories because many factors contributing to these processes are poorly quantified. To alleviate these uncertainties, a synergistic approach of applying air-borne measurements and chemical transport modeling (CTM) efforts to provide a method of quantifying local and regional GHG emissions will be performed during this study. Additionally, in order to further understand the temporal and spatial distributions of GHG fluxes in California and the impact these species have on regional climate, CTM simulations of daily variations and seasonality of total column CO2 and CH4 will be analyzed. To assess the magnitude and spatial variation of GHG emissions and to identify local 'hot spots', airborne measurements of CH4 and CO2 were made by the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) over the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in January and February 2013 during the Discover-AQ-CA study. High mixing ratios of GHGs were

  2. Microwave Radiometer/Scatterometer and Altimeter - Skylab Experiment S193

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 photograph shows Skylab's Microwave Radiometer/Scatterometer and Altimeter, one of the major components for an Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP). It was designed to study varying ocean surface, soil erosion, sea and lake ice, snow cover, seasonal vegetational changes, flooding, rainfall and soil types. The overall purpose of the EREP was to test the use of sensors that operated in the visible, infrared, and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to monitor and study Earth resources. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  3. Coordinated Airborne, Spaceborne, and Ground-Based Measurements of Massive, Thick Aerosol Layers During the Dry Season in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Hobbs, P. V.; Hlavka, D. L.; McGill, M. J.; Holben, B. N.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J.; Torres, O.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the dry-season airborne campaign of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000), unique coordinated observations were made of massive, thick aerosol layers. These layers were often dominated by aerosols from biomass burning. We report on airborne Sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth (lambda=354-1558 nm), columnar water vapor, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and water vapor density that were obtained aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft. We compare these with ground-based AERONET Sun/sky radiometer results, with ground based lidar data MPL-Net), and with measurements from a downward-pointing lidar aboard the high-flying NASA ER-2 aircraft. Finally, we show comparisons between aerosol optical depths from the Sunphotometer and those retrieved over land and over water using four spaceborne sensors (TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), MISR (Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer) and ATSR-2 (Along Track Scanning Radiometer)).

  4. Coordinated Airborne, Spaceborne and Ground-based Measurements of Massive Thick Aerosol Layers during the Dry Season in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Hobbs, P. V.; Hlavka, D. L.; McGill, M. J.; Holben, B. N.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Torres, O.

    2003-01-01

    During the dry season airborne campaign of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000), coordinated observations were made of massive thick aerosol layers. These layers were often dominated by aerosols from biomass burning. We report on airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth (lambda = 0.354- 1.557 microns), columnar water vapor, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and water vapor density that were obtained aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft. We compare these with ground-based AERONET Sun/sky radiometer results, with ground based lidar data (MPL-Net), and with measurements from a downward pointing lidar aboard the high-flying NASA ER-2 aircraft. Finally, we show comparisons between aerosol optical depths fiom the Sun photometer and those retrieved over land and over water using four spaceborne sensors (TOMS, MODIS, MISR, and ATSR-2).

  5. The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX):High-Altitude Aircraft Measurements in the Tropical Western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E. J.; Pfister, L.; Jordan, D. E.; Bui, T. V.; Ueyama, R.; Singh, H. B.; Lawson, P.; Thornberry, T.; Diskin, G.; McGill, M.; Pittman, J.; Atlas, E.; Kim, J.

    2016-01-01

    The February through March 2014 deployment of the NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) provided unique in situ measurements in the western Pacific Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). Six flights were conducted from Guam with the long-range, high-altitude, unmanned Global Hawk aircraft. The ATTREX Global Hawk payload provided measurements of water vapor, meteorological conditions, cloud properties, tracer and chemical radical concentrations, and radiative fluxes. The campaign was partially coincident with the CONTRAST and CAST airborne campaigns based in Guam using lower-altitude aircraft The ATTREX dataset is being used for investigations of TTL cloud, transport, dynamical, and chemical processes as well as for evaluation and improvement of global-model representations of TTL processes.

  6. A Transport Analysis of In Situ Airborne Ozone Measurements from the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkinson, H. L.; Brent, L. C.; He, H.; Loughner, C.; Stehr, J. W.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Baltimore and Washington are currently designated as nonattainment areas with respect to the 2008 EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for 8-hour Ozone (O3). Tropospheric O3 is the dominant component of summertime photochemical smog, and at high levels, has deleterious effects on human health, ecosystems, and materials. The University of Maryland (UMD) Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling and Prediction Program (RAMMPP) strives to improve understanding of air quality in the Mid-Atlantic States and to elucidate contributions of pollutants such as O3 from regional transport versus local sources through a combination of modeling and in situ measurements. The NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) project investigates the connection between column measurements and surface conditions to explore the potential of remote sensing observations in diagnosing air quality at ground level where pollutants can affect human health. During the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign, in situ airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols were performed along the Interstate 95 corridor between Baltimore and Washington from the NASA P3B aircraft. To augment this data and provide regional context, measurements of trace gases and aerosols were also performed by the RAMMPP Cessna 402B aircraft over nearby airports in Maryland and Virginia. This work presents an analysis of O3 measurements made by the Ultraviolet (UV) Photometric Ambient O3 Analyzer on the RAMMPP Cessna 402B and by the NCAR 4-Channel Chemiluminescence instrument on the NASA P3B. In this analysis, spatial and temporal patterns of O3 data are examined within the context of forward and backward trajectories calculated from 12-km North American Mesoscale (NAM) meteorological data using the NOAA Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Model and from a high resolution Weather Research and

  7. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles: airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouche, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Bourianne, T.; Gomes, L.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2014-02-01

    yields, we were able to predict ~50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the formation of OA and have an impact on aerosol composition on a regional scale.

  8. Airborne Polarimetric, Two-Color Laser Altimeter Measurements of Lake Ice Cover: A Pathfinder for NASA's ICESat-2 Spaceflight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David; Dabney, Philip; Valett, Susan; Yu, Anthony; Vasilyev, Aleksey; Kelly, April

    2011-01-01

    The ICESat-2 mission will continue NASA's spaceflight laser altimeter measurements of ice sheets, sea ice and vegetation using a new measurement approach: micropulse, single photon ranging at 532 nm. Differential penetration of green laser energy into snow, ice and water could introduce errors in sea ice freeboard determination used for estimation of ice thickness. Laser pulse scattering from these surface types, and resulting range biasing due to pulse broadening, is assessed using SIMPL airborne data acquired over icecovered Lake Erie. SIMPL acquires polarimetric lidar measurements at 1064 and 532 nm using the micropulse, single photon ranging measurement approach.

  9. Surface and Airborne Measurements of Organosulfur and Methanesulfonate Over the Western United States and Coastal Areas

    PubMed Central

    Sorooshian, Armin; Crosbie, Ewan; Maudlin, Lindsay C.; Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Shingler, Taylor; Ortega, Amber M.; Hersey, Scott; Woods, Roy K.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on ambient measurements of organosulfur (OS) and methanesulfonate (MSA) over the western United States and coastal areas. Particulate OS levels are highest in summertime, and generally increase as a function of sulfate (a precursor) and sodium (a marine tracer) with peak levels at coastal sites. The ratio of OS to total sulfur (TS) is also highest at coastal sites, with increasing values as a function of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the ratio of organic carbon to elemental carbon. Correlative analysis points to significant relationships between OS and biogenic emissions from marine and continental sources, factors that coincide with secondary production, and vanadium due to a suspected catalytic role. A major OS species, methanesulfonate (MSA), was examined with intensive field measurements and the resulting data support the case for vanadium’s catalytic influence. Mass size distributions reveal a dominant MSA peak between aerodynamic diameters of 0.32—0.56 μm at a desert and coastal site with nearly all MSA mass (≥ 84%) in sub-micrometer sizes; MSA:non-sea salt sulfate ratios vary widely as a function of particle size and proximity to the ocean. Airborne data indicate that relative to the marine boundary layer, particulate MSA levels are enhanced in urban and agricultural areas, and also the free troposphere when impacted by biomass burning. Some combination of fires and marine-derived emissions leads to higher MSA levels than either source alone. Finally, MSA differences in cloud water and out-of-cloud aerosol are discussed. PMID:26413434

  10. Inherent optical properties of the ocean: retrieval of the absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter from airborne laser spectral fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Vodacek, Anthony; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.; Blough, Neil V.

    1995-10-01

    The absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) at 355 nm has been retrieved from airborne laser-induced and water Raman-normalized CDOM fluorescence. Four combined airborne and ship field experiments have demonstrated that (1) the airborne CDOM fluorescence-to--water Raman ratio is linearly related to concurrent quinine-sulfate-standardized CDOM shipboard fluorescence measurements over a wide range of water masses (coastal to blue water); (2) the vicarious calibration of the airborne fluorosensor in units traceable to a fluorescence standard can be established and then maintained over an extended time period by tungsten lamp calibration; (3) the vicariously calibrated airborne CDOM fluorescence-to-water Raman ratio can be directly applied to previously developed

  11. Airborne FTIR Measurements Obtained Aboard the UW CV-580 During SAFARI-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Bertschi, I.; Christian, T. J.; Hobbs, P. V.; Ward, D. E.; Hao, W. M.

    2001-12-01

    The University of Montana/Forest Service airborne FTIR (AFTIR) was installed on the University of Washington Convair-580 for 19 flights between 14 August and 14 September 2000. We quantified the major trace gases in minutes-old biomass burning smoke (namely CO2, CO, CH4, C2H4, C2H2, CH2O, CH3OH, CH3COOH, HCOOH, NH3, NO, NO2, and HCN) from 9 fires in both arid and humid, wooded savannas where most global biomass burning occurs. Several of these measurements coincided with TERRA/ER2 overpasses. The AFTIR fire measurements confirmed the importance of oxygenated organic compounds in tropical smoke and provided an emission factor for HCN (a potential biomass burning tracer) that is 20 times higher than previously thought. AFTIR also documented some rapid post-emission chemical transformations in smoke. We measured actual formation rates for ozone and acetic acid in smoke downwind from two savanna fires. The ratio of excess ozone to excess CO reached 9% after a few hours of photochemical processing. The similar ratio for acetic acid increased from 1.4 to approximately 5% over the same time period. We observed cloud scavenging of methanol, ammonia, and acetic acid from smoke and a simultaneous, cloud-related source of formaldehyde in the plumes from two other savanna fires. To our knowledge, the SAFARI-2000 flights provided the first comprehensive characterization of savanna fire smoke samples with explicitly known smoke ages and post-emission processing scenarios. We also measured vertical profiles for CO2, CO, CH4, and H2O under TERRA/ER2 at 5 locations in the southern African gyre, one location in the continental outflow over the Atlantic, and one location in the inflow adjacent to the Indian Ocean. During a 3-aircraft intercomparison we observed trace gas enhancement in the free troposphere due to deep cumulus convection. Finally, we measured high NOx emission factors for ships off Namibia. Taken together, our FTIR-based measurements of the emissions from ships

  12. Airborne-Measured Spatially-Averaged Temperature and Moisture Turbulent Structure Parameters Over a Heterogeneous Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platis, Andreas; Martinez, Daniel; Bange, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Turbulent structure parameters of temperature and humidity can be derived from scintillometer measurements along horizontal paths of several 100 m to several 10 km. These parameters can be very useful to estimate the vertical turbulent heat fluxes at the surface (applying MOST). However, there are many assumptions required by this method which can be checked using in situ data, e.g. 1) Were CT2 and CQ2 correctly derived from the initial CN2 scintillometer data (structure parameter of density fluctuations or refraction index, respectively)? 2) What is the influence of the surround hetereogeneous surface regarding its footprint and the weighted averaging effect of the scintillometer method 3) Does MOST provide the correct turbulent fluxes from scintillometer data. To check these issues, in situ data from low-level flight measurements are well suited, since research aircraft cover horizontal distances in very short time (Taylor's hypothesis of a frozen turbulence structure can be applyed very likely). From airborne-measured time series the spatial series are calculated and then their structure functions that finally provide the structure parameters. The influence of the heterogeneous surface can be controlled by the definition of certain moving-average window sizes. A very useful instrument for this task are UAVs since they can fly very low and maintain altitude very precisely. However, the data base of such unmanned operations is still quite thin. So in this contribution we want to present turbulence data obtained with the Helipod, a turbulence probe hanging below a manned helicopter. The structure parameters of temperature and moisture, CT2 and CQ2, in the lower convective boundary layer were derived from data measured using the Helipod in 2003. The measurements were carried out during the LITFASS03 campaign over a heterogeneous land surface around the boundary-layer field site of the Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory-Richard-Aßmann-Observatory (MOL) of the

  13. Dual-channel photoacoustic hygrometer for airborne measurements: background, calibration, laboratory and in-flight intercomparison tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tátrai, D.; Bozóki, Z.; Smit, H.; Rolf, C.; Spelten, N.; Krämer, M.; Filges, A.; Gerbig, C.; Gulyás, G.; Szabó, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a tunable diode laser-based dual-channel photoacoustic (PA) humidity measuring system primarily designed for aircraft-based environment research. It is calibrated for total pressure and water vapor (WV) volume mixing ratios (VMRs) possible during airborne applications. WV VMR is calculated by using pressure-dependent calibration curves and a cubic spline interpolation method. Coverage of the entire atmospheric humidity concentration range that might be encountered during airborne measurements is facilitated by applying an automated sensitivity mode switching algorithm. The calibrated PA system was validated through laboratory and airborne intercomparisons, which proved that the repeatability, the estimated accuracy and the response time of the system are 0.5 ppmV or 0.5% of the actual reading (whichever value is the greater), 5% of the actual reading within the VMR range of 1-12 000 ppmV and 2 s, respectively. The upper detection limit of the system is theoretically about 85 000 ppmV, limited only by condensation of water vapor on the walls of the 318 K heated PA cells and inlet lines, and was experimentally verified up to 20 000 ppmV. The unique advantage of the presented system is its applicability for simultaneous water vapor and total water volume mixing ratio measurements.

  14. ACE-Asia Aerosol Optical Depth and Water Vapor Measured by Airborne Sunphotometers and Related to Other Measurements and Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Eilers, J. A.; Ramirez, S. A.; Kahn, R.; Hegg, D.; Pilewskie, P.; Anderson, T.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In the Spring 2001 phase of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the 6-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated on 15 of the 19 research flights of the NCAR C-130, while its 14-channel counterpart (AATS- 14) flew successfully on all 18 research flights of the CIRPAS Twin Otter. ACE-Asia studied aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. It was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models so as to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. AATS-6 and AATS-14 measured solar beam transmission at 6 and 14 wavelengths (380-1021 and 354-1558 nm, respectively), yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and column water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction spectra and water vapor concentration. The wavelength dependence of these AOD and extinction spectra indicates that supermicron dust was often a major component of the ACE-Asia aerosol. Frequently this dust-containing aerosol extended to high altitudes. For example, in AATS- 14 profiles analyzed to date, 36% of full-column AOD at 525 nm was above 3 km. In contrast, only 10% of CWV was above 3 km. Analyses and applications of AATS-6 and AATS-14 data to date include comparisons to (i) extinction products derived using in situ measurements, (ii) extinction profiles derived from lidar measurements, and (iii) AOD retrievals from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) aboard the TERRA satellite. Other planned collaborative studies include comparisons to results from size spectrometers, chemical measurements, other satellite sensors, flux radiometers, and chemical transport models. Early results of these studies will be presented.

  15. Aquarius L-band scatterometer and radiometer observations over a Tibetan Plateau site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; van der Velde, Rogier; Su, Zhongbo; Wen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the impact of freeze-thaw, soil moisture and vegetation on L-band backscatter and emission is studied using Aquarius scatterometer/radiometer measurements collected from August 2011 to May 2013 over the northeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau. The study area is the Maqu region that holds a regional-scale monitoring network consisting of twenty soil moisture/temperature stations, which is selected as one of the core international Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) sites for NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. Comparisons of Aquarius scatterometer/radiometer measurements with soil moisture recorded by capacitance probes installed at a 5-cm soil depth illustrate that (i) L-band microwave observations are also sensitive to the amount of liquid water in soil below freezing point, and (ii) the sensitivity of Aquarius observations over the Maqu area dissipates above soil moisture contents of 0.3 m3 m-3. Further effects of vegetation become directly noticeable only within passive microwave observations at moisture levels larger than 0.4 m3 m-3. The impact of vegetation is studied in more detail through analysis of the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI). Although seasonal variability is captured, the dynamic range of the RVI is insufficient for a meaningful signal-to-noise. Further vegetation optical depth (τ) is estimated using the τ-ω concept by reconstructing the Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) derived from Aquarius radiometer data. Peaks in the τ estimates are noted in the months January/February and July/August. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of τ is a measure for the frost depth when temperatures are below freezing point whereas the behavior of τ in the warm season is in line with the vegetation dynamics.

  16. Oceanographic measurement capabilities of the NASA P-3 aircraft. [ERS-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollo-Christensen, Erik; Jackson, F. C.; Walsh, E. J.; Hoge, F.

    1986-01-01

    Instrumentation on NASA P3 aircraft available to provide ground truth for ERS-1 is described. The wave sensors include the 36 GHz Surface Contour Radar (SCR), the Ku-band Radar Ocean Wave Spectrometer (ROWS), and the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar. The other sensors include a C-band scatterometer, video camera, radiation thermometer, and AXRTs. The SCR and ROWS directional spectrum measurements are discussed. When planning for an underflight mission, the limited endurance of the aircraft (6 hr) and flight cost (2.7 K$/hr) must be considered. The advantage of the redundancy afforded by the several wave instruments is another important consideration.

  17. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Concentration in the ASCENDS 2014 Airborne Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Mao, J.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Chen, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    We report progress in demonstrating a pulsed, wavelength-resolved IPDA lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. The CO2 lidar flies on NASA's DC-8 aircraft and measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and shape of the 1572.33 nm absorption line by using 30 wavelength samples distributed across the lube. Our post-flight analysis estimates the lidar range and pulse energies at each wavelength 10 times per second. The retrievals solve for the optimum CO2 absorption line shape and the column average CO2 concentrations using radiative transfer calculations based on HITRAN, the aircraft altitude, range to the scattering surface, and the atmospheric conditions. We compare these to CO2 concentrations sampled by in-situ sensors on the aircraft. The number of wavelength samples can be reduced in the retrievals. During the ASCENDS airborne campaign in 2013 two flights were made in February over snow in the Rocky Mountains and the Central Plains allowing measurement of snow-covered surface reflectivity. Several improvements were made to the lidar for the 2014 campaign. These included using a new step-locked laser diode source, and incorporating a new HgCdTe APD detector and analog digitizer into the lidar receiver. Testing showed this detector had higher sensitivity, analog response, and a more linear dynamic range than the PMT detector used previously. In 2014 flights were made in late August and early September over the California Central Valley, the redwood forests along the California coast, two desert areas in Nevada and California, and two flights above growing agriculture in Iowa. Two flights were also made under OCO-2 satellite ground tracks. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range and CO2 column absorption, and mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, and through thin clouds and aerosol scattering. The lidar measurements clearly

  18. In Situ Airborne Measurement of Formaldehyde with a New Laser Induced Fluorescence Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkinson, H.; Hanisco, T. F.; Cazorla, M.; Fried, A.; Walega, J.

    2012-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a highly reactive and ubiquitous compound in the atmosphere that originates from primary emissions and secondary formation by photochemical oxidation of volatile organic compounds. HCHO is an important precursor to the formation of ozone and an ideal tracer for the transport of boundary layer pollutants to higher altitudes. In situ measurements of HCHO are needed to improve understanding of convective transport mechanisms and the effects of lofted pollutants on ozone production and cloud microphysics in the upper troposphere. The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Project (DC3) field campaign addressed the effects of deep, midlatitude continental convective clouds on the upper troposphere by examining vertical transport of fresh emissions and water aloft and by characterizing subsequent changes in composition and chemistry. Observations targeting convective storms were conducted over Colorado, Alabama, and Texas and Oklahoma. We present measurements of the In Situ Airborne Formaldehyde instrument (ISAF), which uses laser induced fluorescence to achieve the high sensitivity and fast time response required to detect low concentrations in the upper troposphere and capture the fine structure characteristic of convective storm outflow. Preliminary results from DC3 indicate that the ISAF is able to resolve concentrations ranging from under 35 ppt to over 35 ppb, spanning three orders of magnitude, in less than a few minutes. Frequent, abrupt changes in HCHO captured by the ISAF are corroborated by similar patterns observed by simultaneous trace gas and aerosol measurements. Primary HCHO emissions are apparent in cases when the DC-8 flew over combustion sources or biomass burning, and secondary HCHO formation is suggested by observations of enhanced HCHO concurrent with other elevated hydrocarbons. Vertical transport of HCHO is indicated by measurements of over 6 ppb from outflow in the upper troposphere. The DC-8 payload also included the

  19. Using airborne measurements and modelling to determine the leak rate of the Elgin platform in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobbs, Stephen D.; Bauguitte, Stephane J.-B.; Wellpott, Axel; O'Shea, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    On the 25th March 2012 the French multinational oil and gas company Total reported a gas leak at the Elgin gas field in the North Sea following an operation on well G4 on the wellhead platform. During operations to plug and decommission the well methane leaked out which lead to the evacuation of the platform. Total made immense efforts to quickly stop the leak and on the 16th May 2012 the company announced the successful "Top kill". The UK's National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) supported the Total response to the leak with flights of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft. Between the 3rd of April and the 4th of May five missions were flown. The FAAM aircraft was equipped with a Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA, Model RMT-200, Los Gatos Research Inc., US) to measure CH4 mixing ratios with an accuracy of 0.07±2.48 ppbv. The measurement strategy used followed closely NOAA's during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. The basis of the method is to sample the cross-wind structure of the plume at different heights downwind of the source. The measurements were then fitted to a Gaussian dispersion model which allowed the calculation of the leak rate. The first mission was flown on the 30th March 2012 only 5 days after Total reported the leak. On this day maximum CH4 concentrations exceeded 2800 ppbv. The plume was very distinct and narrow especially near the platform (10km) and it showed almost perfect Gaussian characteristics. Further downwind the plume was split up into several filaments. On this day the CH4 leak rate was estimated to be 1.1 kg/s. Between the 1st and 2nd mission (03/04/2012) the leak rate decreased significantly to about 0.5 kg/s. From the 2nd flight onwards only a minor decrease in leak rate was calculated. The last mission - while the platform was still leaking - was flown on the 4th of May, when the leak rate was estimated to be 0.3 kg/s. The FAAM aircraft measurements

  20. SEASAT: A satellite scatterometer illumination times of selected in situ sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, L. C.; Goodridge, D. R.; Boberly, J. C.; Hughes, J. K.; Sweet, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    A list of times that the SEASAT A Satellite Scatterometer (SASS) illuminated from directly above or directly abeam, selected surface sites where in situ winds were measured is provided. The list is ordered by the Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) of the midpoint of the illumination period (hit time) for a given surface site. The site identification, the orbit number and the direction from the subtrack in which the truth lies are provided. The accuracy of these times depends in part upon the ascending node times, which are estimated to be within +.1 sec, and on the illumination time relative to the ascending node, which is estimated to be within +6 seconds. The uncertainties in the times provided were judged to be sufficiently small to allow efficient and accurate extraction of SASS and in situ data at the selected surface sites. The list contains approximately six thousand hit times from 61 geographically dispersed sites.

  1. Development and usage of a false color display technique for presenting Seasat-A scatterometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    A computer generated false color program which creates digital multicolor graphics to display geophysical surface parameters measured by the Seasat-A satellite scatterometer (SASS) is described. The data is incrementally scaled over the range of acceptable values and each increment and its data points are assigned a color. The advantage of the false color display is that it visually infers cool or weak data versus hot or intense data by using the rainbow of colors. For example, with wind speeds, levels of yellow and red could be used to imply high winds while green and blue could imply calmer air. The SASS data is sorted into geographic regions and the final false color images are projected onto various world maps with superimposed land/water boundaries.

  2. Airborne measurement of tropospheric ice nuclei aerosols using the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C.; Stetzer, O.; Sierau, B.; Lohmann, U.

    2009-04-01

    Ice clouds and mixed phase clouds have different microphysical and radiative properties that need to be assessed in order to understand their impact on the climate. Indeed, on one hand ice crystals found in the ice phase have the ability to scatter incoming solar radiation and absorb terrestrial radiation. On the other hand, about 70% of the tropical precipitation forms via the ice-phase, this means an impact on the hydrological cycle. Investigation of the ability of an aerosol to act as Ice Nuclei (IN) requires knowledge of the thermodynamics conditions, i.e. relative humidity and temperature at which this aerosol form ice crystal. The PerformPINC project was a research campaign within the Education & Training program of the EUropean Fleet for Airborne Research (EUFAR). The project objectives were to measure the number concentration of IN in free and upper troposphere using the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC) recently developed by the Institute for Atmospheric Climate Sciences at the ETH Zürich, and thus as a primary objective, testing the technical performance of the instrument during in-situ airborne measurements at different conditions within the chamber. The PINC is the portable version of the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber (ZINC) (Stetzer et al., 2008) and is meant for in-situ measurements. Both ZINC and PINC follow the same principle as the Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber of the Colorado University (Rogers, 1988) that has proven to be of good performance in previous airborne in-situ campaigns (DeMott et al., 2003a). Unlike the CFDC, the PINC has a flat design composed of a main chamber, and an evaporation part. The cooling system of the PINC is also different and consists for the warm side of two BD120 compressors mounted in parallel. For the cold side, it is four BD120 compressors in parallel mounted to another BD120 compressor in serial, thus allowing us to reach lower temperature than the warm side. Aerosols are collected through an inlet where

  3. Airborne measurement of tropospheric ice nuclei aerosols using the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C.; Stetzer, O.; Sierau, B.; Lohmann, U.

    2009-04-01

    Ice clouds and mixed phase clouds have different microphysical and radiative properties that need to be assessed in order to understand their impact on the climate. Indeed, on one hand ice crystals found in the ice phase have the ability to scatter incoming solar radiation and absorb terrestrial radiation. On the other hand, about 70% of the tropical precipitation forms via the ice-phase, this means an impact on the hydrological cycle. Investigation of the ability of an aerosol to act as Ice Nuclei (IN) requires knowledge of the thermodynamics conditions, i.e. relative humidity and temperature at which this aerosol form ice crystal. The PerformPINC project was a research campaign within the Education & Training program of the EUropean Fleet for Airborne Research (EUFAR). The project objectives were to measure the number concentration of IN in free and upper troposphere using the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC) recently developed by the Institute for Atmospheric Climate Sciences at the ETH Zürich, and thus as a primary objective, testing the technical performance of the instrument during in-situ airborne measurements at different conditions within the chamber. The PINC is the portable version of the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber (ZINC) (Stetzer et al., 2008) and is meant for in-situ measurements. Both ZINC and PINC follow the same principle as the Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber of the Colorado University (Rogers, 1988) that has proven to be of good performance in previous airborne in-situ campaigns (DeMott et al., 2003a). Unlike the CFDC, the PINC has a flat design composed of a main chamber, and an evaporation part. The cooling system of the PINC is also different and consists for the warm side of two BD120 compressors mounted in parallel. For the cold side, it is four BD120 compressors in parallel mounted to another BD120 compressor in serial, thus allowing us to reach lower temperature than the warm side. Aerosols are collected through an inlet where

  4. Tropospheric ozone and aerosols measured by airborne lidar during the 1988 Arctic boundary layer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Ozone (O3) and aerosol distributions were measured from an aircraft using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system as part of the 1988 NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment - Arctic Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE-3A) to study the sources and sinks of gases and aerosols over the tundra regions of Alaska during the summer. The tropospheric O3 budget over the Arctic was found to be strongly influenced by stratospheric intrusions. Regions of low aerosol scattering and enhanced O3 mixing ratios were usually correlated with descending air from the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere. Several cases of continental polar air masses were examined during the experiment. The aerosol scattering associated with these air masses was very low, and the atmospheric distribution of aerosols was quite homogeneous for those air masses that had been transported over the ice for greater than or = 3 days. The transition in O3 and aerosol distributions from tundra to marine conditions was examined several times. The aerosol data clearly show an abrupt change in aerosol scattering properties within the mixed layer from lower values over the tundra to generally higher values over the water. The distinct differences in the heights of the mixed layers in the two regions was also readily apparent. Several cases of enhanced O3 were observed during ABLE-3 in conjunction with enhanced aerosol scattering in layers in the free atmosphere. Examples are presented of the large scale variations of O3 and aerosols observed with the airborne lidar system from near the surface to above the tropopause over the Arctic during ABLE-3.

  5. Airborne measurements of the atmospheric emissions from a fuel ethanol refinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouw, J. A.; McKeen, S. A.; Aikin, K. C.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.; Gilman, J. B.; Graus, M.; Hanisco, T.; Holloway, J. S.; Kaiser, J.; Keutsch, F. N.; Lerner, B. M.; Liao, J.; Markovic, M. Z.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Min, K.-E.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Welti, A.; Wolfe, G. M.

    2015-05-01

    Ethanol made from corn now constitutes approximately 10% of the fuel used in gasoline vehicles in the U.S. The ethanol is produced in over 200 fuel ethanol refineries across the nation. We report airborne measurements downwind from Decatur, Illinois, where the third largest fuel ethanol refinery in the U.S. is located. Estimated emissions are compared with the total point source emissions in Decatur according to the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI-2011), in which the fuel ethanol refinery represents 68.0% of sulfur dioxide (SO2), 50.5% of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), 67.2% of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and 95.9% of ethanol emissions. Emissions of SO2 and NOx from Decatur agreed with NEI-2011, but emissions of several VOCs were underestimated by factors of 5 (total VOCs) to 30 (ethanol). By combining the NEI-2011 with fuel ethanol production numbers from the Renewable Fuels Association, we calculate emission intensities, defined as the emissions per ethanol mass produced. Emission intensities of SO2 and NOx are higher for plants that use coal as an energy source, including the refinery in Decatur. By comparing with fuel-based emission factors, we find that fuel ethanol refineries have lower NOx, similar VOC, and higher SO2 emissions than from the use of this fuel in vehicles. The VOC emissions from refining could be higher than from vehicles, if the underestimated emissions in NEI-2011 downwind from Decatur extend to other fuel ethanol refineries. Finally, chemical transformations of the emissions from Decatur were observed, including formation of new particles, nitric acid, peroxyacyl nitrates, aldehydes, ozone, and sulfate aerosol.

  6. Analysis of airborne Doppler lidar, Doppler radar and tall tower measurements of atmospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluestein, H. B.; Doviak, R. J.; Eilts, M. D.; Mccaul, E. W.; Rabin, R.; Sundara-Rajan, A.; Zrnic, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    The first experiment to combine airborne Doppler Lidar and ground-based dual Doppler Radar measurements of wind to detail the lower tropospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather was conducted in central Oklahoma during four days in June-July 1981. Data from these unique remote sensing instruments, coupled with data from conventional in-situ facilities, i.e., 500-m meteorological tower, rawinsonde, and surface based sensors, were analyzed to enhance understanding of wind, waves and turbulence. The purposes of the study were to: (1) compare winds mapped by ground-based dual Doppler radars, airborne Doppler lidar, and anemometers on a tower; (2) compare measured atmospheric boundary layer flow with flows predicted by theoretical models; (3) investigate the kinematic structure of air mass boundaries that precede the development of severe storms; and (4) study the kinematic structure of thunderstorm phenomena (downdrafts, gust fronts, etc.) that produce wind shear and turbulence hazardous to aircraft operations. The report consists of three parts: Part 1, Intercomparison of Wind Data from Airborne Lidar, Ground-Based Radars and Instrumented 444 m Tower; Part 2, The Structure of the Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer as Revealed by Lidar and Doppler Radars; and Part 3, Doppler Lidar Observations in Thunderstorm Environments.

  7. Airborne measurements of cloud condensation nuclei using a new continuous-flow streamwise thermal-gradient CCN chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G. C.; Nenes, A.; Vanreken, T.; Rissman, T.; Conant, W. C.; Varutbangkul, V.; Jonsson, H. H.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Ramanathan, V.

    2003-04-01

    A light-weight continuous-flow thermal gradient diffusion chamber was developed for autonomous operation in airborne studies employing a novel technique of generating a supersaturation along the streamwise axis of the instrument. A vertical cylindrical column, whose surfaces are wetted and exposed to an increasing temperature gradient along the vertical axis, constitutes the chamber volume. This design exploits the differences in diffusion between water vapor and heat to maintain a uniform supersaturation along the streamwise axis of the chamber, which maximizes the growth rate of activated droplets; thereby enhancing the performance of the instrument. The current CCN instrument provides measurements of CCN between 0.13% and 3% supersaturation at a sampling rate sufficient for airborne operation. We have successfully tested the instrument on airborne experiments during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) in July 2002. The results from the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign have yielded a remarkably good aerosol/CCN closure at 0.2 and 0.8% supersaturation. CCN concentrations were measured with a sampling resolution of 1Hz at a fixed supersaturation and compared to dry aerosol size distributions on one-minute intervals. An aerosol-cloud microphysical closure was also performed using the observed updraft velocity and below-cloud aerosol properties in a detailed adiabatic cloud activation model. The model accurately predicts the cloud drop concentration 100 m above cloud base in warm tropical cumulus.

  8. Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric optical depth using the Oxygen A-band at 765 nm.

    PubMed

    Riris, Haris; Rodriguez, Michael; Allan, Graham R; Hasselbrack, William; Mao, Jianping; Stephen, Mark; Abshire, James

    2013-09-01

    We report on an airborne demonstration of atmospheric oxygen optical depth measurements with an IPDA lidar using a fiber-based laser system and a photon counting detector. Accurate knowledge of atmospheric temperature and pressure is required for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission, and climate modeling studies. The lidar uses a doubled erbium-doped fiber amplifier and single photon-counting detector to measure oxygen absorption at 765 nm. Our results show good agreement between the experimentally derived differential optical depth measurements with the theoretical predictions for aircraft altitudes from 3 to 13 km.

  9. Unmanned Airborne System Deployment at Turrialba Volcano for Real Time Eruptive Cloud Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, J. A.; Pieri, D. C.; Fladeland, M. M.; Bland, G.; Corrales, E.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Kolyer, R.

    2015-12-01

    The development of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) with a variety of instrument packages enables in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes, even when the active conditions of the volcano do not allow volcanologists and emergency response personnel to get too close to the erupting crater. This has been demonstrated this year by flying a sUAS through the heavy ash driven erupting volcanic cloud of Turrialba Volcano, while conducting real time in situ measurement of gases over the crater summit. The event also achieved the collection of newly released ash samples from the erupting volcano. The interception of the Turrialba ash cloud occurred during the CARTA 2015 field campaign carried out as part of an ongoing program for remote sensing satellite calibration and validation purposes, using active volcanic plumes. These deployments are timed to support overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite on a bimonthly basis using airborne platforms such as tethered balloons, free-flying fixed wing small UAVs at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within about a 5km radius of the summit crater. The onboard instrument includes the MiniGas payload which consists of an array of single electrochemical and infrared gas detectors (SO2, H2S CO2), temperature, pressure, relative humidity and GPS sensors, all connected to an Arduino-based board, with data collected at 1Hz. Data are both stored onboard and sent by telemetry to the ground operator within a 3 km range. The UAV can also carry visible and infrared cameras as well as other payloads, such as a UAV-MS payload that is currently under development for mass spectrometer-based in situ measurements. The presentation describes the ongoing UAV- based in situ remote sensing validation program at Turrialba Volcano, the results of a fly-through the eruptive cloud, as well as future plans to continue these efforts. Work presented here was

  10. Measuring Radiant Emissions from Entire Prescribed Fires with Ground, Airborne and Satellite Sensors RxCADRE 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Matthew B.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Zajkowski, Thomas; Loudermilk, E. Louise; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Ellison, Luke; Kremens, Robert L.; Holley, William; Martinez, Otto; Paxton, Alexander; Bright, Benjamin C.; O'Brien, Joseph J.; Hornsby, Benjamin; Ichoku, Charles; Faulring, Jason; Gerace, Aaron; Peterson, David; Mauceri, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Characterising radiation from wildland fires is an important focus of fire science because radiation relates directly to the combustion process and can be measured across a wide range of spatial extents and resolutions. As part of a more comprehensive set of measurements collected during the 2012 Prescribed Fire Combustion and Atmospheric Dynamics Research (RxCADRE) field campaign, we used ground, airborne and spaceborne sensors to measure fire radiative power (FRP) from whole fires, applying different methods to small (2 ha) and large (.100 ha) burn blocks. For small blocks (n1/46), FRP estimated from an obliquely oriented long-wave infrared (LWIR) camera mounted on a boom lift were compared with FRP derived from combined data from tower-mounted radiometers and remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS). For large burn blocks (n1/43), satellite FRP measurements from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensors were compared with near-coincident FRP measurements derived from a LWIR imaging system aboard a piloted aircraft. We describe measurements and consider their strengths and weaknesses. Until quantitative sensors exist for small RPAS, their use in fire research will remain limited. For oblique, airborne and satellite sensors, further FRP measurement development is needed along with greater replication of coincident measurements, which we show to be feasible.

  11. Effect of spectral time-lag correlation coefficient and signal averaging on airborne CO2 DIAL measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-David, Avishai; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Gotoff, Steven W.; D'Amico, Francis M.

    1997-10-01

    The effects of flight geometry, signal averaging and time- lag correlation coefficient on airborne CO2 dial lidar measurements are shown in simulations and field measurements. These factors have implications for multi- vapor measurements and also for measuring a shingle vapor with a wide absorption spectra for which one would like to make DIAL measurements at many wavelengths across the absorption spectra of the gas. Thus it is of interest to know how many wavelengths and how many groups of wavelengths can be used effectively in DIAL measurements. Our data indicate that for our lidar about 80 wavelengths can be used for DIAL measurements of a stationary vapor. The lidar signal is composed of fluctuations with three time scales: a very short time scale due to system noise which is faster than the data acquisition sampling rate of the receiver, a medium time scale due to atmospheric turbulence, and a long time scale due to slow atmospheric transmission drift from aerosol in homogeneities. The decorrelation time scale of fluctuations for airborne lidar measurements depends on the flight geometry.

  12. Detection of soil properties with airborne hyperspectral measurements of bare fields.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airborne remote sensing data, using a hyperspectral (HSI) camera, were collected for a flight over two fields with a total of 128 ha. of recently seeded and nearly bare soil. The within-field spatial distribution of several soil properties was found by using multiple linear regression to select the ...

  13. Airborne Measurements of Atmospheric Pressure made Using an IPDA Lidar Operating in the Oxygen A-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riris, Haris; Abshire, James B.; Stephen, Mark; Rodriquez, Michael; Allan, Graham; Hasselbrack, William; Mao, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    We report airborne measurements of atmospheric pressure made using an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar that operates in the oxygen A-band near 765 nm. Remote measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure are needed for NASA s Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions Over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission to measure atmospheric CO2. Accurate measurements of tropospheric CO2 on a global scale are very important in order to better understand its sources and sinks and to improve our predictions of climate change. The goal of ASCENDS is to determine the CO2 dry mixing ratio with lidar measurements from space at a level of 1 ppm. Analysis to date shows that with current weather models, measurements of both the CO2 column density and the column density of dry air are needed. Since O2 is a stable molecule that uniformly mixed in the atmosphere, measuring O2 absorption in the atmosphere can be used to infer the dry air density. We have developed an airborne (IPDA) lidar for Oxygen, with support from the NASA ESTO IIP program. Our lidar uses DFB-based seed laser diodes, a pulsed modulator, a fiber laser amplifier, and a non-linear crystal to generate wavelength tunable 765 nm laser pulses with a few uJ/pulse energy. The laser pulse rate is 10 KHz, and average transmitted laser power is 20 mW. Our lidar steps laser pulses across a selected line O2 doublet near 764.7 nm in the Oxygen A-band. The direct detection lidar receiver uses a 20 cm diameter telescope, a Si APD detector in Geiger mode, and a multi-channel scalar to detect and record the time resolved laser backscatter in 40 separate wavelength channels. Subsequent analysis is used to estimate the transmission line shape of the doublet for the laser pulses reflected from the ground. Ground based data analysis allows averaging from 1 to 60 seconds to increase SNR in the transmission line shape of the doublet. Our retrieval algorithm fits the expected O2 lineshapes against the measurements and

  14. A Coordinated Ice-based and Airborne Snow and Ice Thickness Measurement Campaign on Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter-Menge, J.; Farrell, S.; Elder, B. C.; Gardner, J. M.; Brozena, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    A rare opportunity presented itself in March 2011 when the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and NASA IceBridge teamed with scientists from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) to coordinate a multi-scale approach to mapping snow depth and sea ice thickness distribution in the Arctic. Ground-truth information for calibration/validation of airborne and CryoSat-2 satellite data were collected near a manned camp deployed in support of the US Navy's Ice Expedition 2011 (ICEX 2011). The ice camp was established at a location approximately 230 km north of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, at the edge of the perennial ice zone. The suite of measurements was strategically organized around a 9-km-long survey line that covered a wide range of ice types, including refrozen leads, deformed and undeformed first year ice, and multiyear ice. A highly concentrated set of in situ measurements of snow depth and ice thickness were taken along the survey line. Once the survey line was in place, NASA IceBridge flew a dedicated mission along the survey line, collecting data with an instrument suite that included the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), a high precision, airborne scanning laser altimeter; the Digital Mapping System (DMS), nadir-viewing digital camera; and the University of Kansas ultra-wideband Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) snow radar. NRL also flew a dedicated mission over the survey line with complementary airborne radar, laser and photogrammetric sensors (see Brozena et al., this session). These measurements were further leveraged by a series of CryoSat-2 under flights made in the region by the instrumented NRL and NASA planes, as well as US Navy submarine underpasses of the 9-km-long survey line to collect ice draft measurements. This comprehensive suite of data provides the full spectrum of sampling resolutions from satellite, to airborne, to ground-based, to submarine and will allow for a careful determination of

  15. Airborne gravity measurement over sea-ice: The western Weddel Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Brozena, J.; Peters, M. ); LaBrecque, J.; Bell, R.; Raymond, C. )

    1990-10-01

    An airborne gravity study of the western Weddel Sea, east of the Antarctic Peninsula, has shown that floating pack-ice provides a useful radar altimetric reference surface for altitude and vertical acceleration corrections surface for alititude and vertical acceleration corrections to airborne gravimetry. Airborne gravimetry provides an important alternative to satellite altimetry for the sea-ice covered regions of the world since satellite alimeters are not designed or intended to provide accurate geoidal heights in areas where significant sea-ice is present within the radar footprint. Errors in radar corrected airborne gravimetry are primarily sensitive to the variations in the second derivative of the sea-ice reference surface in the frequency pass-band of interest. With the exception of imbedded icebergs the second derivative of the pack-ice surface closely approximates that of the mean sea-level surface at wavelengths > 10-20 km. With the airborne method the percentage of ice coverage, the mixture of first and multi-year ice and the existence of leads and pressure ridges prove to be unimportant in determining gravity anomalies at scales of geophysical and geodetic interest, provided that the ice is floating and not grounded. In the Weddell study an analysis of 85 crosstrack miss-ties distributed over 25 data tracks yields an rms error of 2.2 mGals. Significant structural anomalies including the continental shelf and offsets and lineations interpreted as fracture zones recording the early spreading directions within the Weddell Sea are observed in the gravity map.

  16. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption in the ASCENDS 2011 Airborne Campaign: Measurement Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, A.; Mao, J.; Allan, G. R.; Weaver, C. J.; Hasselbrack, W.; Riris, H.; Sun, X.; Abshire, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Trace gas LIDAR has the potential to actively sense greenhouse gas concentrations in the earth's atmosphere continuously without being affected by day or night. This will enable identifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks, which will help better predict future atmospheric trends of these gases. However, in order to ensure reliable and accurate measurements, it is important to establish metrics to quantify performance. As part of the ASCENDS (Active Sensing of Co2 over Nights, Days and Seasons) program, we conducted an airborne campaign of our CO2 pulsed LIDAR system in August 2011, flying over a variety of terrain and conditions, including snow, ocean, clouds, desert and mountains. Our instrument uses an IPDA (Integrated Path Differential Absorption) approach probing 30 wavelengths across a 1572 nm CO2 absorption line. Our multi-wavelength approach provides redundancy for evaluating the stability of the instrument, and also allows us to perform spectroscopic analysis of the atmosphere. Here, we present our detailed analysis and results. Tracking long-term stability of our instrument by using the Allan deviation formalism for wavelengths away from the absorption line-center, we find that the measured pulse energy (normalized to eliminate ground reflectivity) is stable down to 0.2% across varying terrain, surface reflectivity, flight altitude and LIDAR range. Comparing our measured CO2 absorption line-shape (at regions of constant, known CO2 concentrations) with the predicted line-shape based on the LIDAR range, flight altitude and relevant atmosphere parameters (based on in situ measurements by instruments aboard the aircraft), we find the agreement to be better than 1% (RMS error), once we average 50 s to eliminate shot noise. Our multi-wavelength approach also allows us to track the position of the line-center. The altitude dependence of the atmospheric pressure causes a shift in the CO2 absorption as a function of aircraft altitude. Our measured pressure shift

  17. Geltape method for measurement of work related surface contamination with cobalt containing dust: correlation between surface contamination and airborne exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, O M; Olsen, E; Christensen, J M; Vinzent, P; Petersen, O H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The geltape method is a new method for optical measurement of total amount of dust on surfaces. The objectives were to study the potential applicability of this method to measurements of work related cobalt exposure during painting of plates with cobalt dye. METHODS--Consecutive series of work related geltape prints were taken from surfaces inside and outside the ventilation cabins of two plate painters during two full working days. The amount of dust picked up by the geltapes was measured optically with a field monitor. Also, personal air samples were collected on filters at the different work processes. In the laboratory the contents of cobalt on the geltape prints and the filters were measured with inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. RESULTS--The key results were: (a) when the geltape prints were taken from surfaces inside the cabins the optically measured area of the geltapes covered with total dust (area (%)) correlated well with the chemically measured amount of cobalt present on the geltapes. Linear correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.91 for geltape prints taken on the floor and 0.94 for prints taken on the ceiling; (b) the cumulative airborne cobalt exposure, calculated from data on work related exposure by personal sampling, correlated with the area (%) of geltape prints taken from the ceiling of the cabin (R2 = 0.98); (c) the geltape method could be used to distinguish both between work processes with different levels of cobalt exposure, and between plate painters subjected to significant differences in airborne cobalt exposure. CONCLUSION--The geltape method could produce measures of the work related exposures as well as whole day exposure for cobalt. The geltape results correlated with measurements of personal airborne cobalt exposure. In this industry the profile of exposure is well-defined in time, and it seems reasonable to apply this fast and low cost method in routine exposure surveillance to obtain a more detailed

  18. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Distributions and Properties during the NASA DISCOVER-AQ Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Scarino, A. J.; Burton, S. P.; Harper, D. B.; Cook, A. L.; Berkoff, T.; Rogers, R. R.; Seaman, S. T.; Fenn, M. A.; Sawamura, P.; Clayton, M.; Mueller, D.; Chemyakin, E.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crawford, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars, HSRL-1 and HSRL-2, were deployed for the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) missions. DISCOVER-AQ provided systematic and concurrent observations of column-integrated, surface, and vertically-resolved distributions of aerosols and trace gases to improve the interpretation of satellite observations related to air quality. HSRL-1, deployed during the first DISCOVER-AQ mission over the Washington DC-Baltimore region, measured profiles of aerosol backscatter and depolarization (532, 1064 nm) and aerosol extinction and optical thickness (AOT) (532 nm). HSRL-2, the first airborne multiwavelength HSRL, was deployed for the following three DISCOVER-AQ missions over the California Central Valley, Houston, and Denver. HSRL-2 measures profiles of aerosol backscatter and depolarization (355, 532, 1064 nm) and aerosol extinction and AOT (355, 532 nm). Additional HSRL-2 data products include aerosol type, mixed layer depth, and range-resolved aerosol microphysical parameters. The HSRL measurements reveal the temporal, spatial, and vertical variability of aerosol optical properties over these locations. HSRL measurements show that surface PM2.5 concentrations were better correlated with near surface aerosol extinction than AOT scaled by the mixed layer height. During the missions over Washington DC-Baltimore, Houston, and Denver, only about 20-65% of AOT was within the mixed layer. In contrast, nearly all of the AOT was within the mixed layer over the California Central Valley. HSRL-2 retrievals of aerosol fine mode volume concentration and effective radius compare well with coincident airborne in situ measurements and vary with relative humidity. HSRL-2 retrievals of aerosol fine mode volume concentration were also used to derive PM2.5 concentrations which compare well with surface PM2.5 measurements.

  19. Automatic Extraction of Optimal Endmembers from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery Using Iterative Error Analysis (IEA) and Spectral Discrimination Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ahram; Chang, Anjin; Choi, Jaewan; Choi, Seokkeun; Kim, Yongil

    2015-01-01

    Pure surface materials denoted by endmembers play an important role in hyperspectral processing in various fields. Many endmember extraction algorithms (EEAs) have been proposed to find appropriate endmember sets. Most studies involving the automatic extraction of appropriate endmembers without a priori information have focused on N-FINDR. Although there are many different versions of N-FINDR algorithms, computational complexity issues still remain and these algorithms cannot consider the case where spectrally mixed materials are extracted as final endmembers. A sequential endmember extraction-based algorithm may be more effective when the number of endmembers to be extracted is unknown. In this study, we propose a simple but accurate method to automatically determine the optimal endmembers using such a method. The proposed method consists of three steps for determining the proper number of endmembers and for removing endmembers that are repeated or contain mixed signatures using the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) images obtained from Iterative Error Analysis (IEA) and spectral discrimination measurements. A synthetic hyperpsectral image and two different airborne images such as Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Application (AISA) and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) data were tested using the proposed method, and our experimental results indicate that the final endmember set contained all of the distinct signatures without redundant endmembers and errors from mixed materials. PMID:25625907

  20. Design and Performance Assessment of a Stable Astigmatic Herriott Cell for Trace Gas Measurements on Airborne Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyroff, Christoph; Fried, Alan; Richter, Dirk; Walega, James G.; Zahniser, Mark S.; McManus, J. Barry

    2005-01-01

    The present paper discusses a new, more stable, astigmatic Herriott cell employing carbon fiber stabilizing rods. Laboratory tests using a near-IR absorption feature of CO at 1564.168-nm revealed a factor of two improvement in measurement stability compared with the present commercial design when the sampling pressure was changed by +/-2 Torr around 50 Torr. This new cell should significantly enhance our efforts to measure trace gases employing pathlengths of 100 to 200-meters on airborne platforms with minimum detectable line center absorbances of less than 10(exp -6).

  1. Airborne measurements of solar and planetary near ultraviolet radiation during the NASA/ESA CV-900 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivjee, G. G.

    1977-01-01

    Results from a comparative study of the feasibility of employing experiment operators on the space shuttle to acquire scientifically worthwhile data are presented. The experiments performed during these tests included spectral observations of the Sun and Venus in the near ultraviolet region. The solar measurements were analyzed to determine ozone abundance in the terrestrial atmosphere. Using a detailed spectral matching technique to compare airborne solar UV measurements with synthetic spectral profiles of sunlight, it is deduced that in winter the total atmospheric ozone abundance is about 0.33 atm/cm at midlatitudes in the northern hemisphere.

  2. Global Tropical Cyclone Winds from the QuikSCAT and OceanSAT-2 Scatterometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiles, B. W.; Danielson, R. E.; Poulsen, W. L.; Fore, A.; Brennan, M. J.; Shen, T. J.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    We have produced a comprehensive set of tropical cyclone storm wind retrieval scenes for all ten years of QuikSCAT data and one year of OceanSAT-2 data. The wind speeds were corrected for rain and optimized to avoid saturation at high winds using an artificial neural network method similar to that in [1] and [2]. The QuikSCAT wind imagery and the quantitative speed, direction, and backscatter data can be obtained at http://tropicalcyclone.jpl.nasa.gov. The QuikSCAT wind speeds have been validated against best track intensity (i.e., maximum wind speeds), H*WIND tropical cyclone wind model analysis fields, and wind speeds from aircraft overflights (GPS drop wind sondes and step frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR) wind measurements). Storms from all basins are included for a total of 21600 scenes over the ten years of nominal QuikSCAT operations. Of these, 11435 scenes include the best track center of the cyclone in the retrieved wind field. Among these, 3295 were of tropical storms and 788, 367, 330, 289, and 55 were of category 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hurricanes, respectively, on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. In addition to the QuikSCAT hurricane winds, we have also processed one year of wind fields from the Indian Space Research organization (ISRO) OceanSAT-2 satellite. OceanSAT-2 employs a scanning pencil beam Ku-band scatterometer with a design similar to QuikSCAT. JPL and NOAA have been working extensively with ISRO to aid in cross calibration between OceanSAT-2 and QuikSCAT. Toward this end the QuikSCAT instrument has been repointed in order to acquire data at the OceanSAT-2 incidence angles, and several meetings in India between the teams have taken place. The neural network that was trained on QuikSCAT data was used to retrieve OceanSAT-2 winds. The backscatter inputs to the network were transformed to match the histograms of the corresponding values in the QuikSCAT data set. We examine the scatterometer winds to investigate the relationship between

  3. Polarimetric analysis of snow-covered and bare lake ice from Ku and X-band scatterometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Khadhra, K.; Gunn, G. E.; Duguay, C. R.; Kelly, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Lake ice plays a key role in regional climate, and has significant physical, biological and socio-economic impacts (e.g. fish overwintering habitat, winter-road transportation, public safety). In the last two decades, there has been growing interest by the international remote sensing community to explore radar polarimetry for glaciological investigations, mainly for glaciers and ice sheet. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) could be a potential tool for lake ice cover mapping and ice thickness estimation. In this paper, we represent results from the first investigation of fully polarimetric Ku and X-band (9.6 and 17.2 GHz, respectively) scatterometer data collected over lake near Churchill, Manitoba. Several controlled and calibrated experimental measurements were carried out during winter 2010-2011, as a contribution to the Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O) candidate mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). Scatterometer scans were made on several occasions at five undisturbed static sites on Ramsey Lake. Measurements characterizing snow and ice properties were also gathered immediately after scatterometer scans. Snow depth and density, snow water equivalent, gain size, ice thickness, ice composition and air inclusion in ice volume were determined at each site. This field data set was very important for the interpretation of the polarimetric parameters, e.g. the copolarization ratio, the copolarization phase and the depolarization ratio. First, the polarimetric parameters have been analysed for the two layers (snow and ice) covariance matrix and where snow subsequently removed. Thus, the influence of the snow layer on the polarimetric data could be quantified. Also, the Pauli and Cloude/Pottier polarimetric decompositions were applied for the two-layer and one-layer scattering mechanisms (removed snow) to quantify the effectiveness of these decompositions. Results show that the polarimetric SAR could explain the different

  4. Radiative characteristics of clouds embedded in smoke derived from airborne multiangular measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Ritesh; Gatebe, Charles K.; Singh, Manoj K.; Várnai, Tamás.; Poudyal, Rajesh

    2016-08-01

    Clouds in the presence of absorbing aerosols result in their apparent darkening, observed at the top of atmosphere (TOA), which is associated with the radiative effects of aerosol absorption. Owing to the large radiative effect and potential impacts on regional climate, above-cloud aerosols have recently been characterized in multiple satellite-based studies. While satellite data are particularly useful in showing the radiative impact of above-cloud aerosols at the TOA, recent literature indicates large uncertainties in satellite retrievals of above-cloud aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA), which are among the most important parameters in the assessment of associated radiative effects. In this study, we analyze radiative characteristics of clouds in the presence of wildfire smoke using airborne data primarily from NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer, collected during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites campaign in Canada during the 2008 summer season. We found a strong positive reflectance (R) gradient in the UV-visible (VIS)-near infrared (NIR) spectrum for clouds embedded in dense smoke, as opposed to an (expected) negative gradient for cloud-free smoke and a flat spectrum for smoke-free cloud cover. Several cases of clouds embedded in thick smoke were found, when the aircraft made circular/spiral measurements, which not only allowed the complete characterization of angular distribution of smoke scattering but also provided the vertical distribution of smoke and clouds (within 0.5-5 km). Specifically, the largest darkening by smoke was found in the UV/VIS, with R0.34μm reducing to 0.2 (or 20%), in contrast to 0.8 at NIR wavelengths (e.g., 1.27 µm). The observed darkening is associated with large AODs (0.5-3.0) and moderately low SSA (0.85-0.93 at 0.53 µm), resulting in a significantly large instantaneous aerosol forcing efficiency of 254 ± 47 W m-2 τ-1. Our observations of smoke

  5. Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric optical depth using the Oxygen A-band at 765 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riris, H.; Rodriguez, M.; Allan, G. R.; Mao, J.; Hasselbrack, W.; Abshire, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    We report on an airborne demonstration of atmospheric oxygen (O2) optical depth measurements with an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar using a fiber-based laser system and a photon counting detector. Accurate atmospheric temperature and pressure measurements are required for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission. Since O2 in uniformly mixed in the atmosphere, its absorption spectra can be used to estimate atmospheric pressure. In its airborne configuration, the IPDA lidar uses a doubled Erbium Doped Fiber amplifier and single photon counting detector to measure oxygen absorption at multiple discrete wavelengths in the oxygen A-band near 765 nm. This instrument has been deployed three times aboard NASA's DC-8 airborne laboratory as part of campaigns to measure CO2 mixing ratios over a wide range of topography and weather conditions from altitudes between 3 km and 13 km. The O2 IPDA lidar flew seven flights in 2011 and six flights in 2013 in the continental United States and British Columbia, Canada. Our results from 2011 showed good agreement between the experimentally derived differential optical depth measurements with the theoretical predictions for aircraft altitudes from 3 to 13 km after a systematic bias correction of approximately 8% was applied. The random noise component was 2.5-3.0 %. The most recent data recorded in 2013 show better agreement between experimental optical depth measurements and theoretical predictions and much smaller systematic errors. The random error remained comparable with 2011 at 2-3%. The main source of random error is primarily the low energy (power) of the laser transmitter and the high solar background. We are in the process of addressing this issue with a new, higher energy amplifier that we anticipate will reduce the random noise component by a factor of 3-5 to less than 0.5%. The results from these flights show that the IPDA technique is a viable method

  6. A first attempt to derive soil erosion rates from 137Cs airborne gamma measurements in two Alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bucher, Benno; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers is currently one of the most promising and effective approach for evaluating soil erosion magnitudes in mountainous grasslands. Conventional assessment or measurement methods are laborious and constrained by the topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. The 137Cs (half-life = 30.2 years) is the most frequently used FRN to study soil redistribution. However the application of 137Cs in alpine grasslands is compromised by the high heterogeneity of the fallout due to the origin of 137Cs fallout in the Alps, which is linked to single rain events occurring just after the Chernobyl accident when most of the Alpine soils were still covered by snow. The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the 137Cs distribution in two study areas in the Central Swiss Alps: the Ursern valley (Canton Uri), and the Piora valley (Canton Ticino). In June 2015, a helicopter equipped with a NaI gamma detector flew over the two study sites and screened the 137Cs activity of the top soil. The use of airborne gamma measurements is particularly efficient in case of higher 137Cs concentration in the soil. Due to their high altitude and high precipitation rates, the Swiss Alps are expected to be more contaminated by 137Cs fallout than other parts of Switzerland. The airborne gamma measurements have been related to several key parameters which characterize the areas, such as soil properties, slopes, expositions and land uses. The ground truthing of the airborne measurements (i.e. the 137Cs laboratory measurements of the soil samples collected at the same points) returned a good fit. The obtained results offer an overview of the 137Cs concentration in the study areas, which allowed us to identify suitable reference sites, and to analyse the relationship between the 137Cs distribution and the above cited parameters. The authors also derived a preliminary qualitative and a quantitative assessment of soil redistribution

  7. Airborne lidar measurements of smoke plume distribution, vertical transmission, and particle size.

    PubMed

    Uthe, E E; Morley, B M; Nielsen, N B

    1982-02-01

    Observations were made of a dense smoke plume downwind from a forest fire using the ALPHA-1 two-wavelength downward-looking airborne lidar system. Facsimile displays derived from lidar signatures depict plume dimensions, boundary layer height, and underlying terrain elevation. Surface returns are interpreted in terms of vertical transmission as function of cross-plume distance. Results show significantly greater plume attenuation at 0.53-microm wavelength than at 1.06-microm, indicating ~0.1-microm mean particle diameters or the presence of gaseous constituents that absorb the visible radiation. These results demonstrate the potential of multiple-wavelength airborne lidar for quantitative analysis of atmospheric particulate and gaseous constituents. PMID:20372478

  8. AgRISTARS. Supporting research: MARS x-band scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator); Gabel, P. F., Jr.; Brunfeldt, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The design, construction, and data collection procedures of the mobile agricultural radar sensor (MARS) x band scatterometer are described. This system is an inexpensive, highly mobile, truck mounted FM-CW radar operating at a center frequency of 10.2 GHz. The antennas, which allow for VV and VH polarizations, are configured in a side looking mode that allows for drive by data collection. This configuration shortens fieldwork time considerably while increasing statistical confidence in the data. Both internal calibration, via a delay line, and external calibration with a Luneberg lens are used to calibrate the instrument in terms of sigma(o). The radar scattering cross section per unit area, sigma(o), is found using the radar equation.

  9. Personalized ventilation as a control measure for airborne transmissible disease spread

    PubMed Central

    Pantelic, Jovan; Sze-To, Gin Nam; Tham, Kwok Wai; Chao, Christopher Y. H.; Khoo, Yong Chuan Mike

    2009-01-01

    The protective role of personalized ventilation (PV) against plausible airborne transmissible disease was investigated using cough droplets released from a ‘coughing machine’ simulating the human cough at different distances (1, 1.75 and 3 m) from the PV user. Particle image velocimetry was used to characterize and visualize the interaction between the cough-generated multiphase flow and PV-induced flow in the inhalation zone of the thermal breathing manikin. A dose–response model for unsteady imperfectly mixed environment was used to estimate the reduction in infection risk of two common diseases that can be transmitted by airborne mode. PV was able to both reduce the peak aerosol concentration levels and shorten the exposure time at all the examined injection distances. PV could reduce the infection risks of two diseases, influenza A and tuberculosis, by between 27 and 65 per cent. The protection offered by PV is less effective at a distance of 1.75 m than the other distances, as shown in the risk assessment results, as the PV-generated flow was blown off by the cough-generated flow for the longest time. Results of this study demonstrate the ability of desktop PV to mitigate the infection risk of airborne transmissible disease. PMID:19812074

  10. Personalized ventilation as a control measure for airborne transmissible disease spread.

    PubMed

    Pantelic, Jovan; Sze-To, Gin Nam; Tham, Kwok Wai; Chao, Christopher Y H; Khoo, Yong Chuan Mike

    2009-12-01

    The protective role of personalized ventilation (PV) against plausible airborne transmissible disease was investigated using cough droplets released from a 'coughing machine' simulating the human cough at different distances (1, 1.75 and 3 m) from the PV user. Particle image velocimetry was used to characterize and visualize the interaction between the cough-generated multiphase flow and PV-induced flow in the inhalation zone of the thermal breathing manikin. A dose-response model for unsteady imperfectly mixed environment was used to estimate the reduction in infection risk of two common diseases that can be transmitted by airborne mode. PV was able to both reduce the peak aerosol concentration levels and shorten the exposure time at all the examined injection distances. PV could reduce the infection risks of two diseases, influenza A and tuberculosis, by between 27 and 65 per cent. The protection offered by PV is less effective at a distance of 1.75 m than the other distances, as shown in the risk assessment results, as the PV-generated flow was blown off by the cough-generated flow for the longest time. Results of this study demonstrate the ability of desktop PV to mitigate the infection risk of airborne transmissible disease.

  11. Aerosol, Cloud and Trace Gas Observations Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions. The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. Dunagan et al. [2013] present results establishing the performance of the instrument, along with calibration, engineering flight test, and preliminary scientific field data. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS [Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys] experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE [Department of Energy]-sponsored TCAP [Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013] experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft (Shinozuka et al., 2013), and acquired a wealth of data in support of mission objectives on all SEAC4RS and TCAP research flights. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2; Segal-Rosenheimer et al., 2014), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In addition, 4STAR measured zenith radiances underneath cloud decks for retrievals of cloud optical depth and effective diameter. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new

  12. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  13. Investigation of Ozone Sources in California Using AJAX Airborne Measurements and Models: Implications for Stratospheric Intrusion and Long Range Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Johnson, Matthew S.; Iraci, Laura T.; Yates, Emma L.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Gore, Warren

    2015-01-01

    High ozone concentrations at low altitudes near the surface were detected from airborne Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) measurements on May 30, 2012. We investigate the causes of the elevated ozone concentrations using the airborne measurements and various models. GEOS-chem and WRF-STILT model simulations show that the contribution from local sources is small. From MERRA reanalysis, it is found that high potential vorticity (PV) is observed at low altitudes. This high PV appears to be only partially coming through the stratospheric intrusions because the air inside the high PV region is moist, which shows that mixing appears to be enhanced in the low altitudes. Considering that diabatic heating can also produce high PV in the lower troposphere, high ozone is partially coming through stratospheric intrusion, but this cannot explain the whole ozone concentration in the target areas of the western U.S. A back-trajectory model is utilized to see where the air masses originated. The air masses of the target areas came from the lower stratosphere (LS), upper (UT), mid- (MT), and lower troposphere (LT). The relative number of trajectories coming from LS and UT is low (7.7 and 7.6, respectively) compared to that from LT (64.1), but the relative ozone concentration coming from LS and UT is high (38.4 and 20.95, respectively) compared to that from LT (17.7). The air mass coming from LT appears to be mostly coming from Asia. Q diagnostics show that there is sufficient mixing along the trajectory to indicate that ozone from the different origins is mixed and transported to the western U.S. This study shows that high ozone concentrations can be detected by airborne measurements, which can be analyzed by integrated platforms such as models, reanalysis, and satellite data.

  14. Investigating Ozone Sources in California Using AJAX Airborne Measurements and Models: Implications for Stratospheric Intrusion and Long Range Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Johnson, Matthew S.; Iraci, Laura T.; Yates, Emma L.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Gore, Warren

    2016-01-01

    High ozone concentrations at low altitudes near the surface were detected from airborne Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) measurements on May 30, 2012. We investigate the causes of the elevated ozone concentrations using the airborne measurements and various models. GEOSchem and WRF-STILT model simulations show that the contribution from local sources is small. From MERRA reanalysis, it is found that high potential vorticity (PV) is observed at low altitudes. This high PV appears to be only partially coming through the stratospheric intrusions because the air inside the high PV region is moist, which shows that mixing appears to be enhanced in the low altitudes. Considering that diabatic heating can also produce high PV in the lower troposphere, high ozone is partially coming through stratospheric intrusion, but this cannot explain the whole ozone concentration in the target areas of the western U.S. A back-trajectory model is utilized to see where the air masses originated. The air masses of the target areas came from the lower stratosphere (LS), upper (UT), mid- (MT), and lower troposphere (LT). The relative number of trajectories coming from LS and UT is low (7.7% and 7.6%, respectively) compared to that from LT (64.1%), but the relative ozone concentration coming from LS and UT is high (38.4% and 20.95%, respectively) compared to that from LT (17.7%). The air mass coming from LT appears to be mostly coming from Asia. Q diagnostics show that there is sufficient mixing along the trajectory to indicate that ozone from the different origins is mixed and transported to the western U.S. This study shows that high ozone concentrations can be detected by airborne measurements, which can be analyzed by integrated platforms such as models, reanalysis, and satellite data.

  15. Aerosol Properties Derived from Airborne Sky Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent NASA and DoE Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Russell, P. B.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; LeBlanc, S.; Schmidt, S.; Pilewskie, P.; Song, S.

    2014-01-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions.The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE (Department of Energy)-sponsored TCAP (Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013) experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new 4STAR capabilities, with an emphasis on 26 high-quality sky radiance measurements carried out by 4STAR in SEAC4RS. We compare collocated 4STAR and AERONET sky radiances, as well as their retrievals of aerosol microphysical properties for a subset of the available case studies. We summarize the particle property and air-mass characterization studies made possible by the combined 4STAR direct beam and sky radiance

  16. Aerosol properties derived from airborne sky radiance and direct beam measurements in recent NASA and DoE field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Russell, P. B.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Schmidt, S.; Pilewskie, P.; Song, S.

    2014-12-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions. The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS [Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys] experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE [Department of Energy]-sponsored TCAP [Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013] experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new 4STAR capabilities, with an emphasis on 26 high-quality sky radiance measurements carried out by 4STAR in SEAC4RS. We compare collocated 4STAR and AERONET sky radiances, as well as their retrievals of aerosol microphysical properties for a subset of the available case studies. We summarize the particle property and airmass characterization studies made possible by the combined 4STAR direct beam and sky radiance observations.

  17. Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar. Part 2; Ground Based

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Cadirola, Martin; Venable, Demetrius; Connell, Rasheen; Rush, Kurt; Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The same RASL hardware as described in part I was installed in a ground-based mobile trailer and used in a water vapor lidar intercomparison campaign, hosted at Table Mountain, CA, under the auspices of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). The converted RASL hardware demonstrated high sensitivity to lower stratospheric water vapor indicating that profiling water vapor at those altitudes with sufficient accuracy to monitor climate change is possible. The measurements from Table Mountain also were used to explain the reason, and correct , for sub-optimal airborne aerosol extinction performance during the flight campaign.

  18. Seasat over-land scatterometer data. II - Selection of extended area land-target sites for the calibration of spaceborne scatterometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennett, Rosemary G.; Li, Fuk K.

    1989-01-01

    The post-launch performance verification for future scatterometers can use extended area land targets to calibrate antenna gain patterns and to verify and monitor deployment configurations. For the Ku-band Seasat scatterometer, a region of tropical rain forest in the Amazon basin was used as a homogeneous extended-area land target. As this region is continuously being deforested, other regions are investigated for calibrating scatterometers. The global backscatter coefficients (sigma0) are compared to classifications of natural vegetation and cultivation intensity and the variability with time during the three-month mission is studied. The statistical variability of sigma0 is compared with prior estimates resulting from the known variability of the instrument parameters and communication noise. Data from selected forested regions with relatively homogeneous sigma0 and little time-dependence are presented.

  19. SeaSat-A Satellite Scatterometer Mission Summary and Engineering Assessment Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. W.; Lee, W. H.; Williams, L. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The SeaSat-A satellite was launched on June 26, 1978 and operated in orbit through October 9, 1978. The SeaSat-A satellite scatterometer ocean surface wind field sensor began taking data on July 10, 1978 with virtually continuous operation for 95-1/2 days. A review of mission events significant to the scatterometer and a report on the hardware and software engineering assessment are presented.

  20. Airborne measurements of CO2, CH4 and HCN in boreal biomass burning plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Sebastian J.; Bauguitte, Stephane; Muller, Jennifer B. A.; Le Breton, Michael; Archibald, Alex; Gallagher, Martin W.; Allen, Grant; Percival, Carl J.

    2013-04-01

    Biomass burning plays an important role in the budgets of a variety of atmospheric trace gases and particles. For example, fires in boreal Russia have been linked with large growths in the global concentrations of trace gases such as CO2, CH4 and CO (Langenfelds et al., 2002; Simpson et al., 2006). High resolution airborne measurements of CO2, CH4 and HCN were made over Eastern Canada onboard the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft FAAM BAe-146 from 12 July to 4 August 2011. These observations were made as part of the BORTAS project (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites). Flights were aimed at transecting and sampling the outflow from the commonly occurring North American boreal forest fires during the summer months and to investigate and identify the chemical composition and evolution of these plumes. CO2 and CH4 dry air mole fractions were determined using an adapted system based on a Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA, Model RMT-200) from Los Gatos Research Inc, which uses the cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy technique. In-flight calibrations revealed a mean accuracy of 0.57 ppmv and 2.31 ppbv for 1 Hz observations of CO2 and CH4, respectively, during the BORTAS project. During these flights a number of fresh and photochemically-aged plumes were identified using simultaneous HCN measurements. HCN is a distinctive and useful marker for forest fire emissions and it was detected using chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS). In the freshest plumes, strong relationships were found between CH4, CO2 and other tracers for biomass burning. From this we were able to estimate that 8.5 ± 0.9 g of CH4 and 1512 ± 185 g of CO2 were released into the atmosphere per kg of dry matter burnt. These emission factors are in good agreement with estimates from previous studies and can be used to calculate budgets for the region. However for aged plumes the correlations between CH4 and other

  1. First Airborne PTR-ToF-MS Measurements of VOCs in a Biomass Burning Plume: Primary Emissions and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Markus; Eichler, Philipp; Mikoviny, Tomas; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Crawford, James H.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Yang, Melissa; Yokelson, Robert; Weinheimer, Andrew; Fried, Alan; Wisthaler, Armin

    2015-04-01

    The NASA DISCOVER-AQ mission saw the first airborne deployment of a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS). The newly developed instrument records full mass spectra at 10 Hz and resolves pure hydrocarbons from their oxygenated isobars (e.g. isoprene and furan). Airborne measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at high spatio-temporal resolution (0.1 s or 10 m) improve our capabilities in characterizing primary emissions from fires and in studying chemical transformations in aging plumes. A biomass-burning plume from a forest understory fire was intercepted by the NASA P-3B near Dublin, GA, USA on September 29, 2013. VOCs were measured at high time resolution along with CO, CO2, NOx, O3, HCHO, aerosols and other air quality and meteorological parameters. Repeated measurements in the immediate proximity of the fire were used to determine VOC emission ratios and their temporal variations. Repeated longitudinal and transversal plume transects were carried out to study plume aging within the first hour of emission. We will discuss the observed OH-NOx-VOC chemistry (including O3 formation), the observed changes in the elemental composition of VOCs (e.g. O:C ratios) and the observed formation of SOA.

  2. First Airborne PTR-ToF-MS Measurements of VOCs in a Biomass Burning Plume: Primary Emissions and Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisthaler, A.; Müller, M.; Eichler, P.; Mikoviny, T.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Crawford, J. H.; Diskin, G. S.; Yang, M. M.; Yokelson, R. J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Fried, A.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA DISCOVER-AQ mission saw the first airborne deployment of a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS). The newly developed instrument records full mass spectra at 10 Hz and resolves pure hydrocarbons from their oxygenated isobars (e.g. isoprene and furan). Airborne measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at high spatio-temporal resolution (0.1 s or 10 m) improve our capabilities in characterizing primary emissions from fires and in studying chemical transformations in aging plumes. A biomass-burning plume from a forest understory fire was intercepted by the NASA P-3B near Dublin, GA, USA on September 29, 2013. VOCs were measured at high time resolution along with CO, CO2, NOx, O3, HCHO, aerosols and other air quality and meteorological parameters. Repeated measurements in the immediate proximity of the fire were used to determine VOC emission ratios and their temporal variations. Repeated longitudinal and transversal plume transects were carried out to study plume aging within the first hour of emission. We will discuss the observed OH-NOx-VOC chemistry (including O3 formation), the observed changes in the elemental composition of VOCs (e.g. O:C ratios) and the observed formation of SOA.

  3. Towards Using Radar to Detect Water Stress: Observations of an Agricultural Maize Canopy from the SnowScat Scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Werner, C. L.; Wiesmann, A.; van Emmerik, T. H. M.; Van De Giesen, N.

    2014-12-01

    Recent field experiments and numerical simulations have demonstrated that leaf water content can vary considerably in response to plant water status and that these variations have a significant impact on backscatter, particularly at higher frequencies (>5GHz). The goal of this study is to characterize the radar backscatter response of vegetation in response to natural variations in moisture availability. This is an essential step to determine if there is role for radar in the detection and monitoring of water stress in vegetation. The SnowScat scatterometer was installed on a tower above a maize canopy in Flevoland in the Netherlands from July to September 2013. Snowscat is a ground-based, fully polarimetric, coherent stepped frequency continuous wave scatterometer operating in the range of 9-18GHz. Since 2009, it has been employed in several field campaigns in Switzerland and Finland to investigate the backscatter characteristics of snow. This study is its first deployment in an agricultural setting. Backscatter was measured hourly at a range of azimuth and elevation angles. Regular destructive vegetation sampling and dielectric property measurements are used to monitor variations in the canopy water content, dielectric properties, and canopy growth. Meteorological data, soil moisture and temperature profiles, canopy air temperature profiles and NDVI data were also collected. Results will be presented to show the influence of canopy growth, hydrometeorological conditions and the canopy moisture content distribution on the radar backscatter as a function of frequency, polarization and elevation angle.

  4. Identifying a Sea Breeze Circulation Pattern Over the Los Angeles Basin Using Airborne In Situ Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brannan, A. L.; Schill, S.; Trousdell, J.; Heath, N.; Lefer, B. L.; Yang, M. M.; Bertram, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Los Angeles Basin in Southern California is an optimal location for a circulation study, due to its location between the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Santa Monica and San Gabriel mountain ranges to the east, as well as its booming metropolitan population. Sea breeze circulation carries air at low altitudes from coastal to inland regions, where the air rises and expands before returning back towards the coast at higher altitudes. As a result, relatively clean air is expected at low altitudes over coastal regions, but following the path of sea breeze circulation should increase the amount of anthropogenic influence. During the 2014 NASA Student Airborne Research Program, a highly modified DC-8 aircraft completed flights from June 23 to 25 in and around the LA Basin, including missed approaches at four local airports—Los Alamitos and Long Beach (coastal), Ontario and Riverside (inland). Because carbon dioxide (CO2) is chemically inert and well-suited as a conserved atmospheric tracer, the NASA Langley Atmospheric Vertical Observations of CO2 in the Earth's Troposphere (AVOCET) instrument was used to make airborne in situ carbon dioxide measurements. Combining measured wind speed and direction data from the aircraft with CO2 data shows that carbon dioxide can be used to trace the sea breeze circulation pattern of the Los Angeles basin.

  5. The analysis of in situ and retrieved aerosol properties measured during three airborne field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corr, Chelsea A.

    Aerosols can directly influence climate, visibility, and photochemistry by scattering and absorbing solar radiation. Aerosol chemical and physical properties determine how efficiently a particle scatters and/or absorbs incoming short-wave solar radiation. Because many types of aerosol can act as nuclei for cloud droplets (CCN) and a smaller population of airborne particles facilitate ice crystal formation (IN), aerosols can also alter cloud-radiation interactions which have subsequent impacts on climate. Thus aerosol properties determine the magnitude and sign of both the direct and indirect impacts of aerosols on radiation-dependent Earth System processes. This dissertation will fill some gaps in our understanding of the role of aerosol properties on aerosol absorption and cloud formation. Specifically, the impact of aerosol oxidation on aerosol spectral (350nm < lambda< 500nm) absorption was examined for two biomass burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-S aircraft during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission in Spring and Summer 2008. Spectral aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) retrieved using actinic flux measured aboard the NASA DC-8 was used to calculate the aerosol absorption Angstrom exponents (AAE) for a 6-day-old plume on April 17 th and a 3-hour old plume on June 29th. Higher AAE values for the April 17th plume (6.78+/-0.38) indicate absorption by aerosol was enhanced in the ultraviolet relative to the visible portion of the short-wave spectrum in the older plume compared to the fresher plume (AAE= 3.34 0.11). These differences were largely attributed to the greater oxidation of the organic aerosol in the April 17th plume which can arise either from the aging of primary organic aerosol or the formation of spectrally-absorbing secondary organic aerosol. The validity of the actinic flux retrievals used above were also evaluated in this work by the comparison of SSA retrieved using

  6. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) and ARM-ACME 2.5 Final Campaign Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S. C.; Tom, M. S.; Sweeney, C.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 5-year multi-institution and multi-agency airborne study of atmospheric composition and carbon cycling at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, with scientific objectives that are central to the carbon-cycle and radiative-forcing goals of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) SGP region; 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative-forcing, convective processes, and CO2 concentrations over the ARM SGP region, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  7. NASA Airborne Snow Observatory: Measuring Spatial Distribution of Snow Water Equivalent and Snow Albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, M.; Painter, T. H.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Laidlaw, R.; Bormann, K. J.; Skiles, M.; Richardson, M.; Berisford, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    The two most critical properties for understanding snowmelt runoff and timing are the spatial and temporal distributions of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow albedo. Despite their importance in controlling volume and timing of runoff, snowpack albedo and SWE are still largely unquantified in the US and not at all in most of the globe, leaving runoff models poorly constrained. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in partnership with the California Department of Water Resources, has developed the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO), an imaging spectrometer and scanning LiDAR system, to quantify SWE and snow albedo, generate unprecedented knowledge of snow properties for cutting edge cryospheric science, and provide complete, robust inputs to water management models and systems of the future. This poster will describe the NASA Airborne Snow Observatory, its outputs and their uses and applications, along with recent advancements to the system and plans for the project's future. Specifically, we will look at how ASO uses its imaging spectrometer to quantify spectral albedo, broadband albedo, and radiative forcing by dust and black carbon in snow. Additionally, we'll see how the scanning LiDAR is used to determine snow depth against snow-free acquisitions and to quantify snow water equivalent when combined with in-situ constrained modeling of snow density.

  8. Metrology capabilities and performance of the new DUV scatterometer of the PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurm, Matthias; Bodermann, Bernd; Pilarski, Frank

    2007-02-01

    At PTB a new type of DUV scatterometer has been developed and set up. The concept of the system is very variable, so that many different types of measurements like e. g. goniometric scatterometry, ellipsometric scatterometry, polarisation dependent reflectometry and ellipsometry can be performed. The main applications are CD, pitch and edge profile characterisation of nano-structured surfaces mainly, but not only, on photomasks. Different operation wavelength down to 193nm can be used. The system is not only a versatile tool for a variety of different at-wavelength metrology connected with state-of-the-art photolithography. It allows also to adapt and to vary the measurand and measurement geometry to optimise the sensitivity and the unambiguity for the measurement problem. In this paper the system is presented and described in detail for the first time. Additionally first measurements of grating test structures on a 193nm CoG photomasks are presented. The measurements have to be evaluated by solving the inverse diffraction problem. We finally give a short overview of the evaluation method developed and used by us.

  9. Extreme-Wind Observation Capability for a Next Generation Satellite Wind Scatterometer Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffelen, Ad; van Zadelhoff, Gerd Jan; Belmonte, Maria; Chang, Paul; Vachon, Paris; Lin, Chung-Chi; Accadia, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    The ocean surface vector wind information, derived from satellite-based wind scatterometer observations, is one of the essential inputs for operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) services. The local wind speed and direction are retrieved from accurate measurements of the ocean surface backscatter, performed from at least three largely-spaced satellite positions during an over-flight. As a result, each of the wind resolution cells is characterised by a set of radar backscatter coefficients which are associated with their respective observation angles in azimuth and elevation with respect to the cell. The azimuth anisotropy of the backscatter coefficient with respect to the wind direction and its magnitude as a function of the wind speed, as captured in a so-called geophysical model function (GMF), are exploited in order to retrieve a unique vector wind. The current generation of scatterometer instruments operate at C-band with a single vertical polarisation (i.e. VV), or at Ku-band with VV for the first beam and HH for the second beam. The co-polarised radar backscatter, i.e., VV and to a lesser extend HH, saturate above a wind speed of about 25 to 30 m/s, which imposes a serious limitation on the capability of the existing observation systems. Such a limitation leads, e.g., to misestimation of extreme winds, errors in storm predictions and limitations in weather prediction warnings. Recently, observations of storm events along the North American coasts by Radarsat-2 and comparisons with in-situ buoy data revealed a high sensitivity of C-band cross-polarised backscatter signal intensity (i.e. VH or HV) with high wind speeds. This prompted the ocean vector wind community to further explore the limit of the cross-polar response. Establishing a new GMF requires accurate in-situ information of the vector wind field together with collocated scatterometer observation data, but these are extremely rare at extreme winds. A more successful collocation approach

  10. Reliability and validity of expert assessment based on airborne and urinary measures of nickel and chromium exposure in the electroplating industry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Coble, Joseph B; Deziel, Nicole C.; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Lu, Wei; Stewart, Patricia A; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-01-01

    The reliability and validity of six experts’ exposure ratings were evaluated for 64 nickel-exposed and 72 chromium-exposed workers from six Shanghai electroplating plants based on airborne and urinary nickel and chromium measurements. Three industrial hygienists and three occupational physicians independently ranked the exposure intensity of each metal on an ordinal scale (1–4) for each worker's job in two rounds: the first round was based on responses to an occupational history questionnaire and the second round also included responses to an electroplating industry-specific questionnaire. Spearman correlation (rs) was used to compare each rating's validity to its corresponding subject-specific arithmetic mean of four airborne or four urinary measurements. Reliability was moderately-high (weighted kappa range=0.60–0.64). Validity was poor to moderate (rs= -0.37–0.46) for both airborne and urinary concentrations of both metals. For airborne nickel concentrations, validity differed by plant. For dichotomized metrics, sensitivity and specificity were higher based on urinary measurements (47–78%) than airborne measurements (16–50%). Few patterns were observed by metal, assessment round, or expert type. These results suggest that, for electroplating exposures, experts can achieve moderately-high agreement and (reasonably) distinguish between low and high exposures when reviewing responses to in-depth questionnaires used in population-based case-control studies. PMID:24736099

  11. Reliability and validity of expert assessment based on airborne and urinary measures of nickel and chromium exposure in the electroplating industry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Coble, Joseph B; Deziel, Nicole C; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Lu, Wei; Stewart, Patricia A; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-11-01

    The reliability and validity of six experts' exposure ratings were evaluated for 64 nickel-exposed and 72 chromium-exposed workers from six Shanghai electroplating plants based on airborne and urinary nickel and chromium measurements. Three industrial hygienists and three occupational physicians independently ranked the exposure intensity of each metal on an ordinal scale (1-4) for each worker's job in two rounds: the first round was based on responses to an occupational history questionnaire and the second round also included responses to an electroplating industry-specific questionnaire. The Spearman correlation (r(s)) was used to compare each rating's validity to its corresponding subject-specific arithmetic mean of four airborne or four urinary measurements. Reliability was moderately high (weighted kappa range=0.60-0.64). Validity was poor to moderate (r(s)=-0.37-0.46) for both airborne and urinary concentrations of both metals. For airborne nickel concentrations, validity differed by plant. For dichotomized metrics, sensitivity and specificity were higher based on urinary measurements (47-78%) than airborne measurements (16-50%). Few patterns were observed by metal, assessment round, or expert type. These results suggest that, for electroplating exposures, experts can achieve moderately high agreement and (reasonably) distinguish between low and high exposures when reviewing responses to in-depth questionnaires used in population-based case-control studies.

  12. Testbed for development of a DSP-based signal processing subsystem for an Earth-orbiting radar scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Douglas J.; Lux, James P.; Shirbacheh, Mike

    2002-01-01

    A testbed for evaluation of general-purpose digital signal processors in earth-orbiting radar scatterometers is discussed. Because general purpose DSP represents a departure from previous radar signal processing techniques used on scatterometers, there was a need to demonstrate key elements of the system to verify feasibility for potential future scatterometer instruments. Construction of the testbed also facilitated identification of an appropriate software development environment and the skills mix necessary to perform the work.

  13. Cigarettes vs. e-cigarettes: Passive exposure at home measured by means of airborne marker and biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Ballbè, Montse; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Sureda, Xisca; Fu, Marcela; and others

    2014-11-15

    Background: There is scarce evidence about passive exposure to the vapour released or exhaled from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) under real conditions. The aim of this study is to characterise passive exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes' vapour and conventional cigarettes' smoke at home among non-smokers under real-use conditions. Methods: We conducted an observational study with 54 non-smoker volunteers from different homes: 25 living at home with conventional smokers, 5 living with nicotine e-cigarette users, and 24 from control homes (not using conventional cigarettes neither e-cigarettes). We measured airborne nicotine at home and biomarkers (cotinine in saliva and urine). We calculated geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviations (GSD). We also performed ANOVA and Student's t tests for the log-transformed data. We used Bonferroni-corrected t-tests to control the family error rate for multiple comparisons at 5%. Results: The GMs of airborne nicotine were 0.74 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=4.05) in the smokers’ homes, 0.13 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=2.4) in the e-cigarettes users’ homes, and 0.02 μg/m{sup 3} (GSD=3.51) in the control homes. The GMs of salivary cotinine were 0.38 ng/ml (GSD=2.34) in the smokers’ homes, 0.19 ng/ml (GSD=2.17) in the e-cigarettes users’ homes, and 0.07 ng/ml (GSD=1.79) in the control homes. Salivary cotinine concentrations of the non-smokers exposed to e-cigarette's vapour at home (all exposed ≥2 h/day) were statistically significant different that those found in non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke ≥2 h/day and in non-smokers from control homes. Conclusions: The airborne markers were statistically higher in conventional cigarette homes than in e-cigarettes homes (5.7 times higher). However, concentrations of both biomarkers among non-smokers exposed to conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes’ vapour were statistically similar (only 2 and 1.4 times higher, respectively). The levels of airborne nicotine and cotinine

  14. Mass spectrometric airborne measurements of submicron aerosol and cloud residual composition in tropic deep convection during ACRIDICON-CHUVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Christiane; Schneider, Johannes; Mertes, Stephan; Kästner, Udo; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Sauer, Daniel; Fütterer, Daniel; Walser, Adrian; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Airborne measurements of submicron aerosol and cloud particles were conducted in the region of Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil) during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign in September 2014. ACRIDICON-CHUVA aimed at the investigation of convective cloud systems in order to get a better understanding and quantification of aerosol-cloud-interactions and radiative effects of convective clouds. For that, data from airborne measurements within convective cloud systems are combined with satellite and ground-based data. We used a C-ToF-AMS (Compact-Time-of-Flight-Aerosol-Mass-Spectrometer) to obtain information on aerosol composition and vertical profiles of different aerosol species, like organics, sulphate, nitrate, ammonium and chloride. The instrument was operated behind two different inlets: The HASI (HALO Aerosol Submicrometer Inlet) samples aerosol particles, whereas the CVI (Counterflow Virtual Impactor) samples cloud droplets and ice particles during in-cloud measurements, such that cloud residual particles can be analyzed. Differences in aerosol composition inside and outside of clouds and cloud properties over forested or deforested region were investigated. Additionally, the in- and outflow of convective clouds was sampled on dedicated cloud missions in order to study the evolution of the clouds and the processing of aerosol particles. First results show high organic aerosol mass concentrations (typically 15 μg/m3 and during one flight up to 25 μg/m3). Although high amounts of organic aerosol in tropic air over rainforest regions were expected, such high mass concentrations were not anticipated. Next to that, high sulphate aerosol mass concentrations (about 4 μg/m3) were measured at low altitudes (up to 5 km). During some flights organic and nitrate aerosol was observed with higher mass concentrations at high altitudes (10-12 km) than at lower altitudes, indicating redistribution of boundary layer particles by convection. The cloud residuals measured during in

  15. Validating MODIS above-cloud aerosol optical depth retrieved from "color ratio" algorithm using direct measurements made by NASA's airborne AATS and 4STAR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethva, Hiren; Torres, Omar; Remer, Lorraine; Redemann, Jens; Livingston, John; Dunagan, Stephen; Shinozuka, Yohei; Kacenelenbogen, Meloe; Segal Rosenheimer, Michal; Spurr, Rob

    2016-10-01

    We present the validation analysis of above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) retrieved from the "color ratio" method applied to MODIS cloudy-sky reflectance measurements using the limited direct measurements made by NASA's airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) and Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) sensors. A thorough search of the airborne database collection revealed a total of five significant events in which an airborne sun photometer, coincident with the MODIS overpass, observed partially absorbing aerosols emitted from agricultural biomass burning, dust, and wildfires over a low-level cloud deck during SAFARI-2000, ACE-ASIA 2001, and SEAC4RS 2013 campaigns, respectively. The co-located satellite-airborne matchups revealed a good agreement (root-mean-square difference < 0.1), with most matchups falling within the estimated uncertainties associated the MODIS retrievals (about -10 to +50 %). The co-retrieved cloud optical depth was comparable to that of the MODIS operational cloud product for ACE-ASIA and SEAC4RS, however, higher by 30-50 % for the SAFARI-2000 case study. The reason for this discrepancy could be attributed to the distinct aerosol optical properties encountered during respective campaigns. A brief discussion on the sources of uncertainty in the satellite-based ACAOD retrieval and co-location procedure is presented. Field experiments dedicated to making direct measurements of aerosols above cloud are needed for the extensive validation of satellite-based retrievals.

  16. EMAG2: A 2-arc min resolution Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid compiled from satellite, airborne, and marine magnetic measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maus, S.; Barckhausen, U.; Berkenbosch, H.; Bournas, N.; Brozena, J.; Childers, V.; Dostaler, F.; Fairhead, J.D.; Finn, C.; von Frese, R.R.B; Gaina, C.; Golynsky, S.; Kucks, R.; Lu, Hai; Milligan, P.; Mogren, S.; Muller, R.D.; Olesen, O.; Pilkington, M.; Saltus, R.; Schreckenberger, B.; Thebault, E.; Tontini, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    A global Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2) has been compiled from satellite, ship, and airborne magnetic measurements. EMAG2 is a significant update of our previous candidate grid for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map. The resolution has been improved from 3 arc min to 2 arc min, and the altitude has been reduced from 5 km to 4 km above the geoid. Additional grid and track line data have been included, both over land and the oceans. Wherever available, the original shipborne and airborne data were used instead of precompiled oceanic magnetic grids. Interpolation between sparse track lines in the oceans was improved by directional gridding and extrapolation, based on an oceanic crustal age model. The longest wavelengths (>330 km) were replaced with the latest CHAMP satellite magnetic field model MF6. EMAG2 is available at http://geomag.org/models/EMAG2 and for permanent archive at http://earthref.org/ cgi-bin/er.cgi?s=erda.cgi?n=970. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Initial Results from the DEEPWAVE Airborne and Ground-Based Measurement Program in New Zealand in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritts, Dave; Smith, Ron; Taylor, Mike; Doyle, Jim; Eckermann, Steve; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Rapp, Markus; Williams, Biff; Bossert, Katrina; Pautet, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    The deep-propagating gravity wave experiment (DEEPWAVE) was performed on and over New Zealand, Tasmania, the Tasman Sea, and the Southern Ocean with core airborne measurements extending from 5 June to 21 July 2014 and supporting ground-based measurements beginning in late May and extending beyond the airborne component. DEEPWAVE employed two aircraft, the NSF/NCAR GV and the German DLR Falcon. The GV carried the standard flight-level instruments, dropsondes, and the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP). It also hosted new airborne lidar and imaging instruments built specifically to allow quantification of gravity waves (GWs) from sources at lower altitudes (e.g., orography, convection, jet streams, fronts, and secondary GW generation) throughout the stratosphere and into the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The new GV lidars included a Rayleigh lidar measuring atmospheric density and temperature from ~20-60 km and a sodium resonance lidar measuring sodium density and temperature at ~75-100 km. An airborne Advanced Mesosphere Temperature Mapper (AMTM) was also developed for the GV, and together with additional IR "wing" cameras, imaged the OH airglow temperature and/or intensity fields extending ~900 km across the GV flight track. The DLR Falcon was equipped with its standard flight-level instruments and an aerosol Doppler lidar able to measure radial winds below the Falcon where aerosol backscatter was sufficient. Additional ground-based instruments included a 449 MHz boundary layer radar, balloons at multiple sites, two ground-based Rayleigh lidars, a second ground-based AMTM, a Fabry Perot interferometer measuring winds and temperatures at ~87 and 95 km, and a meteor radar measuring winds from ~80-100 km. DEEPWAVE performed 26 GV flights, 13 Falcon flights, and an extensive series of ground-based measurements whether or not the aircraft were flying. Together, these observed many diverse cases of GW forcing, propagation, refraction, and dissipation

  18. A comparison of LOWTRAN-7 corrected Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data with ground spectral measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Peng-Yang; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Atmospheric correction of imaging spectroscopy data is required for quantitative analysis. Different models were proposed for atmospheric correction of these data. LOWTRAN-7 is a low-resolution model and computer code for predicting atmospheric transmittance and background radiance from 0 to 50,00 cm(sup -1) which was developed by the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data used are radiometrically calibrated and include the 28 Sep. 1989 Providence Fan flight line segment 07, California. It includes a dark gravel surface defined as a calibration site by the Geologic Remote Sensing Field Experiment (GRSFE). Several ground measurements of portable spectrometer DAEDALUS AA440 Spectrafax were taken during the GRSFE, July 1989 field campaign. Comparisons of the LOWTRAN-7 corrected AVIRIS data with the ground spectrometer measurement were made.

  19. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter as an indicative measure of atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Ducatti, Adriana; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2003-09-01

    Mutagenic activity of organic extracts of airborne particulate matter at four different sites within the urban area of the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, was investigated using the Salmonella/microsome assay, with the Kado microsuspension method. The extracts were obtained by sonication, sequentially extracted according to polarity, with cyclohexane (CX) and dichloromethane (DCM) solvents. The different fractions were tested for mutagenicity with the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6, without S9 mix metabolic activation. A positive frameshift mutagenic response was observed for non-polar (CX) and/or moderately polar (DCM) compounds at the different sites. The responses varied at different seasons of the year, and the highest revertants per m3 (rev/m3) values were observed at the site subject to the strongest influence of automotive vehicles (site 3) in spring (17.13 rev/m3) in DCM fractions, and in summer (13.01 rev/m3) in CX fractions. The responses observed for the TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6 strains suggest the contribution of nitrocompounds to the mutagenic activity observed. Although there appears to be an indicative association between the increased mass per unit volume of air (TSP) and the mutagenicity of organic extracts of airborne particulate matter in the present study, the Salmonella/microsome assay was a sensitive method to define areas contaminated by genotoxic compounds, even in samples that present TPS values acceptable by the environmental quality standards established by law. PMID:12972059

  20. First Airborne IPDA Lidar Measurements of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Applying the DLR Greenhouse Gas Sounder CHARM-F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amediek, A.; Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Wirth, M.; Quatrevalet, M.; Büdenbender, C.; Kiemle, C.; Loehring, J.; Gerbig, C.

    2015-12-01

    First airborne measurement using CHARM-F, the four-wavelengths lidar for simultaneous soundings of atmospheric CO2 and CH4, were performed in Spring 2015 onboard the German research aircraft HALO. The lidar is designed in the IPDA (integrated path differential absorption) configuration using short double pulses, which gives column averaged gas mixing ratios between aircraft and ground. HALO's maximum flight altitude of 15 km and special features of the lidar, such as a relatively large laser ground spot, enable the CHARM-F system to be an airborne demonstrator for future spaceborne greenhouse gas lidars. Due to a high technological conformity this applies in particular to the French-German satellite mission MERLIN, the spaceborne methane IPDA lidar. The successfully completed flight measurements provide a valuable dataset, which supports the retrieval algorithm development for MERLIN notably. The flights covered different ground cover types, different orography types as well as the sea. Additionally, we captured different cloud conditions, at which the broken cloud case is a matter of particular interest. This dataset allows detailed analyses of measurement sensitivities, general studies on the IPDA principle and on technical details of the system. These activities are supported by another instrument onboard: a cavity ring down spectrometer, providing in-situ data of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor with high accuracy and precision, which is ideal for validation purposes of the lidar. Additionally the onboard instrumentation of HALO gives information about pressure and temperature for cross-checking the ECMWF data, which are intended to be used for calculating the weighting function, the key quantity for the retrieval of gas column mixing ratios from the measured gas optical depths. In combination with dedicated descents into the boundary layer and subsequent ascents, a self-contained dataset for characterizations of CHARM-F is available.

  1. Analyzing source apportioned methane in northern California during Discover-AQ-CA using airborne measurements and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T.; Loewenstein, Max; Tadić, Jovan M.; Wecht, Kevin J.; Jeong, Seongeun; Fischer, Marc L.

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzes source apportioned methane (CH4) emissions and atmospheric mixing ratios in northern California during the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign using airborne measurement data and model simulations. Source apportioned CH4 emissions from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) version 4.2 were applied in the 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and analyzed using airborne measurements taken as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment over the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and northern San Joaquin Valley (SJV). During the time period of the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign EDGAR inventory CH4 emissions were ∼5.30 Gg day-1 (Gg = 1.0 × 109 g) (equating to ∼1.90 × 103 Gg yr-1) for all of California. According to EDGAR, the SFBA and northern SJV region contributes ∼30% of total CH4 emissions from California. Source apportionment analysis during this study shows that CH4 mixing ratios over this area of northern California are largely influenced by global emissions from wetlands and local/global emissions from gas and oil production and distribution, waste treatment processes, and livestock management. Model simulations, using EDGAR emissions, suggest that the model under-estimates CH4 mixing ratios in northern California (average normalized mean bias (NMB) = -5.2% and linear regression slope = 0.20). The largest negative biases in the model were calculated on days when large amounts of CH4 were measured over local emission sources and atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios reached values >2.5 parts per million. Sensitivity emission studies conducted during this research suggest that local emissions of CH4 from livestock management processes are likely the primary source of the negative model bias. These results indicate that a variety, and larger quantity, of measurement data needs to be obtained and additional research is necessary to better quantify source apportioned CH4 emissions in California.

  2. Analyzing Source Apportioned Methane in Northern California During DISCOVER-AQ-CA Using Airborne Measurements and Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes source apportioned methane (CH4) emissions and atmospheric concentrations in northern California during the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign using airborne measurement data and model simulations. Source apportioned CH4 emissions from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) version 4.2 were applied in the 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and analyzed using airborne measurements taken as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment over the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and northern San Joaquin Valley (SJV). During the time period of the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign EDGAR inventory CH4 emissions were 5.30 Gg/day (Gg 1.0 109 grams) (equating to 1.9 103 Gg/yr) for all of California. According to EDGAR, the SFBA and northern SJV region contributes 30 of total emissions from California. Source apportionment analysis during this study shows that CH4 concentrations over this area of northern California are largely influenced by global emissions from wetlands and local/global emissions from gas and oil production and distribution, waste treatment processes, and livestock management. Model simulations, using EDGAR emissions, suggest that the model under-estimates CH4 concentrations in northern California (average normalized mean bias (NMB) -5 and linear regression slope 0.25). The largest negative biases in the model were calculated on days when hot spots of local emission sources were measured and atmospheric CH4 concentrations reached values 3.0 parts per million (model NMB -10). Sensitivity emission studies conducted during this research suggest that local emissions of CH4 from livestock management processes are likely the primary source of the negative model bias. These results indicate that a variety, and larger quantity, of measurement data needs to be obtained and additional research is necessary to better quantify source apportioned CH4 emissions in California and further the understanding of the physical processes

  3. Hurricane Isabel, AIRS Infrared and SeaWinds Scatterometer Data Combined

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    These two images show Hurricane Isabel as viewed by AIRS and each of the two SeaWinds scatterometers on the ADEOS-2 and QuikScat satellites, all JPL-managed experiments. AIRS data are used to create global three-dimensional maps of temperature, humidity and clouds, while scatterometers measure surface wind speed and direction.

    Figure 1 shows Isabel on September 13, 2003, when it was a Category 5 storm threatening the Caribbean and southern United States. At the time Isabel was the strongest Atlantic storm since hurricane Mitch killed thousands in central America in 1997. The red vectors in the image show Isabel's surface winds as measured by SeaWinds on ADEOS-2, and the background colors show the temperature of clouds and surface, as viewed in the infrared by AIRS. The hurricane's powerful swirling winds are apparent. These winds circle the hurricane's eye, seen as the red dot near the middle top of the image. Light blue areas shows adjacent cold clouds tops associated with strong thunderstorms embedded within the storm.

    Figure 2 shows Isabel as it approached landfall on the outer banks of North Carolina on September 18. The hurricane weakened in the five days since the earlier image was observed, as indicated by a less clearly defined eye. Nevertheless, it was still a powerful storm. The winds blowing onshore north of the eye knocked over trees, blew roofs off buildings, and drove large waves that breached the coastal barrier islands in many places. Water, transportation and power are still not fully restored to many of the areas in the image. The winds apparently blowing away from the eye of the storm are an artifact of one of the hurricane's other destructive phenomena: rain. The darkest blue clouds observed by AIRS show the most intense thunderstorms, and hence the heaviest rains. Hard rain fools the the SeaWinds on Quik

  4. Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Line Shapes from 3-13 km Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham; Weaver, Clark; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's planned ASCENDS space mission. Our technique uses two pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band and surface height and backscatter. The lidar measures the energy and time of flight of the laser echoes reflected from the atmosphere and surface. The lasers are rapidly and precisely stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line region during the measurement. The direct detection receiver uses a telescope and photon counting detectors, and measures the background light and energies of the laser echoes from the surface along with scattering from any aerosols in the path. The gas extinction and column densities for the CO2 and O2 gases are estimated from the ratio of the on- and off- line signals via the DIAL technique. Time gating is used to isolate the laser echo signals from the surface, and to reject laser photons scattered in the atmosphere. The time of flight of the laser pulses are also used to estimate the height of the scattering surface and to identify cases of mixed cloud and ground scattering. We have developed an airborne lidar to demonstrate the CO2 measurement from the NASA Glenn Lear-25 aircraft. The airborne lidar steps the pulsed laser's wavelength across the selected CO2 line with 20 steps per scan. The line scan rate is 450 Hz, the laser pulse widths are 1 usec, and laser pulse energy is 24 uJ. The time resolved laser backscatter is collected by a 20 cm telescope, detected by a photomultiplier and is recorded by a photon counting system. We made initial airborne measurements on flights during fall 2008. Laser backscatter and absorption measurements were made over a variety of land and water surfaces and through thin clouds. The atmospheric CO2 column measurements using the 1572.33 nm CO2 lines. Two flights were made above the

  5. On High-Resolution Scatterometer Winds near the Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffelen, Ad; Verhoef, Anton; Vogelzang, Jur; Portabella, Marcos; Figa, Julia

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT) operational processing uses spatial filtering with a Hamming window to avoid noise due to aliasing. The spatial extent of the Hamming windows prevents processing near the coast line. However, sea surface winds near the coast are very important, given that activities related to shipping and transport, off-shore resource exploitation, wind parks and tourism are most intense near the coast. Furthermore, coastal winds are also important for monitoring ecological and erosion processes. To provide ASCAT winds closer to the coast, three different products have been generated with spatial filtering over a circular box, and subjected to validation both in coastal and open ocean areas. The product made with a backscatter averaging cut-off radius Rmax = 15 km closely resembles the operational ASCAT 12.5-km product. However, the smaller spatial averaging extent of the box compared to the Hamming window, not only allows retrieving winds closer to the coast, but also captures smaller ocean wind variability and it is consequently providing greater consistency of the ASCAT backscatter triplet with the wind Geophysical Model Function (GMF), as observed by a reduced elimination of points by the Quality Control (QC). Due to the low noise observed in this product, we anticipate that in cases with high wind gradients, such as near tropical cyclones, even higher resolution winds than the ones presented here may be worthwhile retrieving.

  6. Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Line Shapes from 3-13 km Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Weaver, C.; Hasselbrack, W.; Sun, X.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric C02 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's planned ASCENDS mission. Our technique uses two pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a C02 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, 02 extinction in the Oxygen A-band and surface height and backscatter. The lidar measures the energy and time of flight of the laser echoes reflected from the atmosphere and surface. The lasers are stepped in wavelength across the C02 line and an 02 line region during the measurement. The receiver uses a telescope and photon counting detectors, and measures the background light and energies of the laser echoes from the surface along with scattering from any aerosols in the path. The gas extinction and column densities for the C02 and 02 gases are estimated from the ratio of the on- and off- line signals via the DIAL technique. Time gating is used to isolate the laser echo signals from the surface, and to reject laser photons scattered in the atmosphere. We have developed an airborne lidar to demonstrate the C02 measurement from the NASA Glenn Lear 25 aircraft. The airborne lidar steps the pulsed laser's wavelength across a selected C02 line with 20 steps per scan. The line scan rate is 450 Hz and laser pulse widths are I usec. The time resolved laser backscatter is collected by a 20 cm telescope, detected by a photomultiplier and is recorded by a photon counting system. We made initial airborne measurements on flights during October and December 2008. Laser backscatter and absorption measurements were made over a variety of land and water surfaces and through thin and broken clouds. Atmospheric C02 column measurements using the 1571.4, 1572.02 and 1572.33 nm C02 lines. Two flights were made above the DOE SGP ARM site at altitudes from 3-8 km. These nights were coordinated with DOE investigators who Hew an in-situ C02 sensor on a Cessna aircraft under the path. The increasing C02 line absorptions with

  7. Fast in situ airborne and ground-based flux measurement of ammonia using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leen, J. B.; Yu, X.; Hubbe, J.; Kluzek, C. D.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Fischer, M. L.; Reichl, K.; Gupta, M.

    2012-12-01

    A pair of new ammonia (NH3) spectrometers were developed based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy. These ammonia gas analyzers consist of an optical cell, a quantum-cascade laser, a HgCdTe detector, gas sampling system, electronics for control and data acquisition, and data-analysis software. The NH3 mixing ratio is determined from high-resolution NH3 absorption line shapes by tuning the laser wavelength over the fundamental vibration band near 9.6 μm. Excellent linearity is obtained in a wide range (0- 500 ppb) with a precision of 75 ppt (1σ in 1 second). The analyzers' 1/e response time to step changes in ammonia concentration are 2.4 Hz and 8.1 Hz for the airborne and flux instruments, respectively. Feasibility was demonstrated in airborne test flights in the troposphere on board of the Department of Energy (DOE) Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft. Two research flights were conducted over Sunnyside, Washington. In the first test flight, the ammonia gas sensor was used to identify signatures of feedstock from local dairy farms with high vertical spatial resolution under low wind and stable atmospheric conditions. In the second flight, the NH3 spectrometer showed high sensitivity in capturing feedstock emission signals under windy and less stable conditions. Mixing ratios aloft were measured between 0.75 ppb above the boundary layer and 100 ppb over large feedlots. Eddy covariance estimates of NH3 flux from a manure slurry amendment were performed in a pasture near Two Rock, California from May 18, 2012 to July 5, 2012. Measurement spanned pasture conditions from forage growth, cut-to-ground, manure slurry amendment (estimated to be 95 ± 33% kg NH3-N ha-1) and re-growth. An exponential decay fit to the NH3 flux data after slurry amendment provides an estimate of cumulative emission of 6.6 ± 0.5 kg NH3-N ha-1 (or 7 ± 0.24% of the total applied nitrogen) as a result of the slurry amendment. These results demonstrate that the new ammonia spectrometers

  8. Double-pulse 2-μm integrated path differential absorption lidar airborne validation for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurement.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Tamer F; Singh, Upendra N; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Ismail, Syed

    2016-05-20

    Field experiments were conducted to test and evaluate the initial atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement capability of airborne, high-energy, double-pulsed, 2-μm integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. This IPDA was designed, integrated, and operated at the NASA Langley Research Center on-board the NASA B-200 aircraft. The IPDA was tuned to the CO2 strong absorption line at 2050.9670 nm, which is the optimum for lower tropospheric weighted column measurements. Flights were conducted over land and ocean under different conditions. The first validation experiments of the IPDA for atmospheric CO2 remote sensing, focusing on low surface reflectivity oceanic surface returns during full day background conditions, are presented. In these experiments, the IPDA measurements were validated by comparison to airborne flask air-sampling measurements conducted by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory. IPDA performance modeling was conducted to evaluate measurement sensitivity and bias errors. The IPDA signals and their variation with altitude compare well with predicted model results. In addition, off-off-line testing was conducted, with fixed instrument settings, to evaluate the IPDA systematic and random errors. Analysis shows an altitude-independent differential optical depth offset of 0.0769. Optical depth measurement uncertainty of 0.0918 compares well with the predicted value of 0.0761. IPDA CO2 column measurement compares well with model-driven, near-simultaneous air-sampling measurements from the NOAA aircraft at different altitudes. With a 10-s shot average, CO2 differential optical depth measurement of 1.0054±0.0103 was retrieved from a 6-km altitude and a 4-GHz on-line operation. As compared to CO2 weighted-average column dry-air volume mixing ratio of 404.08 ppm, derived from air sampling, IPDA measurement resulted in a value of 405.22±4.15  ppm with 1.02% uncertainty and

  9. Measurement of snow depth distribution in the upper basin in the Japanese Alps using an airborne laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Sasaki, Akihiko

    2016-04-01

    In the Japanese Alps region, large amounts of precipitation in the form of snow constitute a more important water resource than rain. During the winter, precipitation that is deposited as snowfall accumulates in the river basins, and it forms natural dams known as "white dams." A quantitative understanding of snow depth distribution in these mountainous areas is important not only for evaluating water resource volume, but also for understanding the effects of snow in terms of its impact on landforms and its effect on the distribution of vegetation. However, it is not easy to perform a quantitative evaluation of snow depth distribution in mountainous areas. Several methods have been proposed for clarifying snow depth distribution. The most widely used of these is a method of inserting a sounding rod into the snow to measure its depth at each geographic position. Another method is to dig a trench in the snow and then perform an observational measurement of the side of the trench. These methods enable accurate measurement of the snow depth; however, when the snow is several meters deep, the methods may be limited by the measuring capacity of the equipment, or by the time restrictions of the survey. For these reasons, wide area measurement of the spatial distribution of snow is very difficult, and it is not suitable for investigating snow depth distribution in river basins. In recent years, a measurement technology has been developed that uses laser scanners mounted on aircraft. This method enables researchers to obtain ground surface coordinate data with high precision over a wide area from the air. Using such a scanner to measure the ground surface during snow coverage and during no snow coverage, and then finding the differences between the surface elevations, has made it possible to ascertain snow depth with high precision. Airborne laser measurement enables high-precision measurements over a wide area and in a short amount of time, and measurements can be made

  10. Double-pulse 2-μm integrated path differential absorption lidar airborne validation for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurement.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Tamer F; Singh, Upendra N; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Ismail, Syed

    2016-05-20

    Field experiments were conducted to test and evaluate the initial atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement capability of airborne, high-energy, double-pulsed, 2-μm integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. This IPDA was designed, integrated, and operated at the NASA Langley Research Center on-board the NASA B-200 aircraft. The IPDA was tuned to the CO2 strong absorption line at 2050.9670 nm, which is the optimum for lower tropospheric weighted column measurements. Flights were conducted over land and ocean under different conditions. The first validation experiments of the IPDA for atmospheric CO2 remote sensing, focusing on low surface reflectivity oceanic surface returns during full day background conditions, are presented. In these experiments, the IPDA measurements were validated by comparison to airborne flask air-sampling measurements conducted by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory. IPDA performance modeling was conducted to evaluate measurement sensitivity and bias errors. The IPDA signals and their variation with altitude compare well with predicted model results. In addition, off-off-line testing was conducted, with fixed instrument settings, to evaluate the IPDA systematic and random errors. Analysis shows an altitude-independent differential optical depth offset of 0.0769. Optical depth measurement uncertainty of 0.0918 compares well with the predicted value of 0.0761. IPDA CO2 column measurement compares well with model-driven, near-simultaneous air-sampling measurements from the NOAA aircraft at different altitudes. With a 10-s shot average, CO2 differential optical depth measurement of 1.0054±0.0103 was retrieved from a 6-km altitude and a 4-GHz on-line operation. As compared to CO2 weighted-average column dry-air volume mixing ratio of 404.08 ppm, derived from air sampling, IPDA measurement resulted in a value of 405.22±4.15  ppm with 1.02% uncertainty and

  11. Analysis of Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption from 3-13 km Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Weaver, Clark J.; Riris, Haris; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William; Browell, Edward V.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS space mission [1]. It uses two pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a CO2 absorption line in the 1575 nm band, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band, surface height and backscatter profile. The lasers are precisely stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line region during the measurement. The direct detection receiver measures the energies of the laser echoes from the surface along with the range profile of scattering in the path. The column densities for the CO2 and O2 gases are estimated from the ratio of the on- and off-line signals via the integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) technique. The time of flight of the laser pulses is used to estimate the height of the scattering surface and to reject laser photons scattered in the atmosphere. We developed an airborne lidar to demonstrate an early version of the CO2 measurement from the NASA Glenn Lear-25 aircraft. The airborne lidar stepped the pulsed laser's wavelength across the selected CO2 line with 20 wavelength steps per scan. The line scan rate is 450 Hz, the laser pulse widths are 1 usec, and laser pulse energy is 24 uJ. The time resolved laser backscatter is collected by a 20 cm telescope, detected by a NIR photomultiplier and is recorded on every other reading by a photon counting system [2]. During August 2009 we made a series of 2.5 hour long flights and measured the atmospheric CO2 absorption and line shapes using the 1572.33 nm CO2 line. Measurements were made at stepped altitudes from 3-13 km over locations in the US, including the SGP ARM site in Oklahoma, central Illinois, north-eastern North Carolina, and over the Chesapeake Bay and the eastern shore of Virginia. Although the received signal energies were weaker than expected for ASCENDS, clear CO2 line shapes were observed at all altitudes, and some measurements were made

  12. Extended volume and surface scatterometer for optical characterization of 3D-printed elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, Florian; Uebeler, Denise; Weiß, Jürgen; Pescoller, Lukas; Weyer, Cornelia; Hahlweg, Cornelius

    2015-09-01

    The use of 3d printing technology seems to be a promising way for low cost prototyping, not only of mechanical, but also of optical components or systems. It is especially useful in applications where customized equipment repeatedly is subject to immediate destruction, as in experimental detonics and the like. Due to the nature of the 3D-printing process, there is a certain inner texture and therefore inhomogeneous optical behaviour to be taken into account, which also indicates mechanical anisotropy. Recent investigations are dedicated to quantification of optical properties of such printed bodies and derivation of corresponding optimization strategies for the printing process. Beside mounting, alignment and illumination means, also refractive and reflective elements are subject to investigation. The proposed measurement methods are based on an imaging nearfield scatterometer for combined volume and surface scatter measurements as proposed in previous papers. In continuation of last year's paper on the use of near field imaging, which basically is a reflective shadowgraph method, for characterization of glossy surfaces like printed matter or laminated material, further developments are discussed. The device has been extended for observation of photoelasticity effects and therefore homogeneity of polarization behaviour. A refined experimental set-up is introduced. Variation of plane of focus and incident angle are used for separation of various the images of the layers of the surface under test, cross and parallel polarization techniques are applied. Practical examples from current research studies are included.

  13. Development of an Airborne Triple-Pulse 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) for Simultaneous Airborne Column Measurements of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Yu, Jirong; Antill, Charles W.; Remus, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will provide status and details of an airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar being developed at NASA Langley Research Center with support from NASA ESTO Instrument Incubator Program. The development of this active optical remote sensing IPDA instrument is targeted for measuring both atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere from an airborne platform. This presentation will focus on the advancement of the 2-micron triple-pulse IPDA lidar development. Updates on the state-of-the-art triple-pulse laser transmitter will be presented including the status of seed laser locking, wavelength control, receiver and detector upgrades, laser packaging and lidar integration. Future plan for IPDA lidar system for ground integration, testing and flight validation will also be presented.

  14. Photon-Counting Multikilohertz Microlaser Altimeters for Airborne and Spaceborne Topographic Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We consider the optimum design of photon-counting microlaser altimeters operating from airborne and spaceborne platforms under both day and night conditions. Extremely compact Q-switched microlaser transmitters produce trains of low energy pulses at multi-kHz rates and can easily generate subnanosecond pulse-widths for precise ranging. To guide the design, we have modeled the solar noise background and developed simple algorithms, based on Post-Detection Poisson Filtering (PDPF), to optimally extract the weak altimeter signal from a high noise background during daytime operations. Practical technology issues, such as detector and/or receiver dead times, have also been considered in the analysis. We describe an airborne prototype, being developed under NASA's instrument Incubator Program, which is designed to operate at a 10 kHz rate from aircraft cruise altitudes up to 12 km with laser pulse energies on the order of a few microjoules. We also analyze a compact and power efficient system designed to operate from Mars orbit at an altitude of 300 km and sample the Martian surface at rates up to 4.3 kHz using a 1 watt laser transmitter and an 18 cm telescope. This yields a Power-Aperture Product of 0.24 W-square meter, corresponding to a value almost 4 times smaller than the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (0. 88W-square meter), yet the sampling rate is roughly 400 times greater (4 kHz vs 10 Hz) Relative to conventional high power laser altimeters, advantages of photon-counting laser altimeters include: (1) a more efficient use of available laser photons providing up to two orders of magnitude greater surface sampling rates for a given laser power-telescope aperture product; (2) a simultaneous two order of magnitude reduction in the volume, cost and weight of the telescope system; (3) the unique ability to spatially resolve the source of the surface return in a photon counting mode through the use of pixellated or imaging detectors; and (4) improved vertical and

  15. Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer Measurements of CO2 Column Mixing Ratios: Source and Sink Detection in the Atmospheric Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Spiers, Gary D.; Jacob, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    The JPL airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer instrument has been flown several times in the 2007-2011 time frame for the purpose of measuring CO2 mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. The four most recent flight campaigns were on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft, in support of the NASA ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) mission formulation studies. This instrument operates in the 2.05-μm spectral region. The Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) method is used to retrieve weighted CO2 column mixing ratios. We present key features of the CO2LAS signal processing, data analysis, and the calibration/validation methodology. Results from flights in various U.S. locations during the past three years include observed mid-day CO2 drawdown in the Midwest, also cases of point-source and regional plume detection that enable the calculation of emission rates.

  16. Airborne laser-induced oceanic chlorophyll fluorescence: solar-induced quenching corrections by use of concurrent downwelling irradiance measurements.

    PubMed

    Hoge, F E; Wright, C W; Swift, R N; Yungel, J K

    1998-05-20

    Airborne laser-induced (and water Raman-normalized) spectral fluorescence emissions from oceanic chlorophyll were obtained during variable downwelling irradiance conditions induced by diurnal variability and patchy clouds. Chlorophyll fluorescence profiles along geographically repeated inbound and outbound flight track lines, separated in time by approximately 3-6 h and subject to overlying cloud movement, were found to be identical after corrections made with concurrent downwelling irradiance measurements. The corrections were accomplished by a mathematical model containing an exponential of the ratio of the instantaneous-to-average downwelling irradiance. Concurrent laser-induced phycoerythrin fluorescence and chromophoric dissolved organic matter fluorescence were found to be invariant to downwelling irradiance and thus, along with sea-surface temperature, established the near constancy of the oceanic surface layer during the experiment and validated the need for chlorophyll fluorescence quenching corrections over wide areas of the ocean.

  17. Airborne measurements of stratospheric constituents over Antarctica in the austral spring, 1987. II - Halogen and nitrogen trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, William G.; Goldman, Aaron

    1989-01-01

    The IR absorption spectra of the polar stratosphere, recorded by a Fourier transform spectrometer aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, were used to derive vertical column amounts above flight altitude of HCl, HF, NO, NO2, ClONO2, and HNO3 in the region of disturbed ozone chemistry during September 1987. Significant reductions in the amounts of HCl, NO, NO2, and HNO3 were observed within the confines of the polar vortex, compared with amounts outside the vortex. When compared with the springtime observations by the same instrument in the Northern Hemisphere, the HCl and NO2 species displayed the most dramatic depletions. The results obtained are generally in agreement with the earlier ground measurements conducted at the McMurdo Station.

  18. Measurement of IgG antibody and airborne antigen to control an industrial outbreak of hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, C.E.; Swanson, M.C.; Lopez, M.; Ford, A.M.; Major, J.; Witmer, W.B.; Valdes, T.B.

    1983-03-01

    An outbreak of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a textile plant was attributed on epidemiological grounds to a chilled water air-conditioning system where a slime was growing in the chilled water sump and on demister vanes. All of the patients and about 80% of their asymptomatic co-workers had strongly positive precipitin tests to extracts of the slime. An adaptation of a radioiodinated staphylococcal protein A solid-phase radioimmunoassay was applied to monitor antigen and specific antibody. To control the outbreak, a variety of cleaning and water treatment measures were taken between 1977 and 1979 to reduce the amount of antigen in the water and in the air. The amount of slime in the water was greatly reduced though the antigen content per gram of slime did not change. Airborne antigen in the affected work areas decreased progressively.

  19. Measurement of airborne 131I, 134)Cs and 137Cs due to the Fukushima reactor incident in Milan (Italy).

    PubMed

    Clemenza, M; Fiorini, E; Previtali, E; Sala, E

    2012-12-01

    After the earthquake and the tsunami occurred in Japan on March 2011, four of the Fukushima reactors had released in air a large amount of radioactive isotopes that diffused all over the world. The presence of airborne (131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs in air particulate due to this accident were detected and measured in the Low Radioactivity Laboratory operating in the Department of Environmental Sciences of the University of Milano-Bicocca. The sensitivity of the detecting apparatus is of 0.2 uBq/m(3) of air. Concentration and time distribution of these radiocontaminations ranging from a few to 400 uBq/m(3) for the (131)I and of a few tens of uBq/m(3) for the (137)Cs and (134)Cs.

  20. Probabilities and statistics for backscatter estimates obtained by a scatterometer with applications to new scatterometer design data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Willard J., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The values of the Normalized Radar Backscattering Cross Section (NRCS), sigma (o), obtained by a scatterometer are random variables whose variance is a known function of the expected value. The probability density function can be obtained from the normal distribution. Models for the expected value obtain it as a function of the properties of the waves on the ocean and the winds that generated the waves. Point estimates of the expected value were found from various statistics given the parameters that define the probability density function for each value. Random intervals were derived with a preassigned probability of containing that value. A statistical test to determine whether or not successive values of sigma (o) are truly independent was derived. The maximum likelihood estimates for wind speed and direction were found, given a model for backscatter as a function of the properties of the waves on the ocean. These estimates are biased as a result of the terms in the equation that involve natural logarithms, and calculations of the point estimates of the maximum likelihood values are used to show that the contributions of the logarithmic terms are negligible and that the terms can be omitted.

  1. Airborne measurements of O3, CO, CH4 and NMHCs over the Bay of Bengal during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Shuchita; Lal, S.; Venkataramani, S.; Guha, I.; Bala Subrahamanyam, D.

    2012-11-01

    As part of the Winter phase of Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (WICARB), airborne measurements of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), ethene (C2H4), acetylene (C2H2), propane (C3H8) and n-butane (n-C4H10) were conducted over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) at two altitude levels, 750 m and 1500 m, from Visakhapatnam, Chennai and Port Blair during January 2009. Airborne measurements, first of its kind over the BoB, revealed distinct chemical characteristics at these two altitudes over the eastern sector of Visakhapatnam away from the coastline. This feature is attributed to the presence of marine boundary layer inversion between the two altitudes that inhibited the vertical mixing. A comparative study of trace gas distributions during all air sorties showed enhanced mixing ratios of these gases over east of Visakhapatnam and south of Port Blair in comparison to the north/north-east and west of Port Blair and east of Chennai. The back-trajectory analysis showed the outflow from the highly polluted Indo-Gangetic Plain over eastern side of Visakhapatnam. The air masses showed lower photochemical processing (higher C2H2/CO ratio ˜ 4-4.5 pptv ppbv-1) with the age of ˜ 3-4 days over this location in comparison to other sorties. Chemical characteristics over south of Port Blair seem to be controlled by the outflow from Southeast Asian countries. The results presented in this work would serve as valuable inputs for the atmospheric chemistry transport models and will be helpful in reducing the uncertainty in the budget estimation of trace gases over tropical marine region.

  2. Airborne flux measurements of methane and volatile organic compounds over the Haynesville and Marcellus shale gas production regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bin; Kaser, Lisa; Karl, Thomas; Graus, Martin; Peischl, Jeff; Campos, Teresa L.; Shertz, Steve; Apel, Eric C.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Hills, Alan; Gilman, Jessica B.; Lerner, Brian M.; Warneke, Carsten; Flocke, Frank M.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Guenther, Alex B.; Gouw, Joost A.

    2015-06-01

    Emissions of methane (CH4) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oil and gas production may have large impacts on air quality and climate change. Methane and VOCs were measured over the Haynesville and Marcellus shale gas plays on board the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and NOAA WP-3D research aircraft in June-July of 2013. We used an eddy covariance technique to measure in situ fluxes of CH4 and benzene from both C-130 flights with high-resolution data (10 Hz) and WP-3D flights with low-resolution data (1 Hz). Correlation (R = 0.65) between CH4 and benzene fluxes was observed when flying over shale gas operations, and the enhancement ratio of fluxes was consistent with the corresponding concentration observations. Fluxes calculated by the eddy covariance method show agreement with a mass balance approach within their combined uncertainties. In general, CH4 fluxes in the shale gas regions follow a lognormal distribution, with some deviations for relatively large fluxes (>10 µg m-2 s-1). Statistical analysis of the fluxes shows that a small number of facilities (i.e., ~10%) are responsible for up to ~40% of the total CH4 emissions in the two regions. We show that the airborne eddy covariance method can also be applied in some circumstances when meteorological conditions do not favor application of the mass balance method. We suggest that the airborne eddy covariance method is a reliable alternative and complementary analysis method to estimate emissions from oil and gas extraction.

  3. Remote sensing measurements of the CO2 mixing ratio in the planetary boundary layer using cloud slicing with airborne lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Anand K.; Mao, Jianping; Abshire, James B.; Allan, Graham R.

    2015-03-01

    We have measured the CO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using cloud slicing with an airborne pulsed integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar from flight altitudes of up to 13 km. During a flight over Iowa in summer 2011, simultaneous measurement of the optical range and CO2 absorption to clouds and the ground were made using time-resolved detection of pulse echoes from each scattering surface. We determined the CO2 absorption in the PBL by differencing the two lidar-measured absorption line shapes, one to a broken shallow cumulus cloud layer located at the top of the PBL and the other to the ground. Solving for the CO2 VMR in the PBL and that of the free troposphere, we measured a ≈15 ppm (4%) drawdown in the PBL. Both CO2 VMRs were within ≈3 ppm of in situ CO2 profile measurements. We have also demonstrated cloud slicing using scatter from thin, diffuse cirrus clouds and cumulus clouds, which allowed solving for the CO2 VMR for three vertical layers. The technique and retrieval algorithm are applicable to a space-based lidar instrument as well as to lidar IPDA measurements of other trace gases. Thus, lidar cloud slicing also offers promise toward space-based remote sensing of vertical trace gas profiles in the atmosphere using a variety of clouds.

  4. Studying the influence of temperature and pressure on microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds using airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreea, Boscornea; Sabina, Stefan; Sorin-Nicolae, Vajaiac; Mihai, Cimpuieru

    2015-04-01

    One cloud type for which the formation and evolution process is not well-understood is the mixed-phase type. In general mixed-phase clouds consist of liquid droplets and ice crystals. The temperature interval within both liquid droplets and ice crystals can potentially coexist is limited to 0 °C and - 40 °C. Mixed-phase clouds account for 20% to 30% of the global cloud coverage. The need to understand the microphysical characteristics of mixed-phase clouds to improve numerical forecast modeling and radiative transfer calculation is of major interest in the atmospheric community. In the past, studies of cloud phase composition have been significantly limited by a lack of aircraft instruments capable of discriminating between the ice and liquid phase for a wide range of particle sizes. Presently, in situ airborne measurements provide the most accurate information about cloud microphysical characteristics. This information can be used for verification of both numerical models and cloud remote-sensing techniques. The knowledge of the temperature and pressure variation during the airborne measurements is crucial in order to understand their influence on the cloud dynamics and also their role in the cloud formation processes like accretion and coalescence. Therefore, in this paper is presented a comprehensive study of cloud microphysical properties in mixed-phase clouds in focus of the influence of temperature and pressure variation on both, cloud dynamics and the cloud formation processes, using measurements performed with the ATMOSLAB - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Atmospheric Research in property of the National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS). The airborne laboratory equipped for special research missions is based on a Hawker Beechcraft - King Air C90 GTx aircraft and is equipped with a sensors system CAPS - Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (30 bins, 0.51-50 µm) and a HAWKEYE cloud probe. The analyzed data in this

  5. Comparison of Continuous-Wave CO2 Lidar Calibration by use of Earth-Surface Targets in Laboratory and Airborne Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana

    1998-01-01

    Backscatter of several Earth surfaces was characterized in the laboratory as a function of incidence angle with a focused continuous-wave 9.1 micro meter CO2 Doppler lidar for use as possible calibration targets. Some targets showed negligible angular dependence, while others showed a slight increase with decreasing angle. The Earth-surface signal measured over the complex Californian terrain during a 1995 NASA airborne mission compared well with laboratory data. Distributions of the Earth's surface signal shows that the lidar efficiency can be estimated with a fair degree of accuracy, preferably with uniform Earth-surface targets during flight for airborne or space-based lidar.

  6. Airborne and ground based measurements of volatile organic compounds using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry in Texas and Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Edward Charles

    Measurements of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) are reported from recent airborne and surface based field campaigns. The Southeast Texas Tetroon Study (SETTS) was a project within the TEXAQS 2005 field campaign, conducting airborne measurements that investigated the nocturnal Lagrangian transport of industrial plumes downwind of the Houston, Texas metropolitan area. On the evening of July 26-27, a polluted air mass with elevated mass 43, mass 45 and mass 57 VOCs along with elevated O3, CO, and NOx was tracked from the Houston metropolitan area to an area northwest of Shreveport, LA, a distance of over 200 miles. This campaign demonstrated that the PTR-MS is capable of tracking a VOC plume over large distances and these measurements indicate that transport of VOCs, particularly light alkenes and their oxidation products, out of the Houston metropolitan area may need to be considered by areas downwind of the Houston area when they are determining how to attain their air quality goals. During the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 VOCs were measured by PTR-MS instrumentation on a rooftop in the urban mixed residential and industrial area north northeast of downtown Mexico City. Diurnal profiles of weekday and weekend/holiday aromatic VOC concentrations clearly show the influence of vehicular traffic during the morning rush hour time period and during the afternoon hours although a separate late afternoon peak is not seen. Plumes of toluene elevated as much as 216 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) and ethyl acetate elevated as much as 183 ppbv above background levels were observed during the late night and early morning hours. These plumes indicate the probability of significant industrial sources of these two compounds in the region. The high levels of toluene measured by our PTR-MS exceed levels that would be predicted by examination of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) emission inventory and

  7. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Absorption and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Weaver, Clark J.; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We report on airborne CO2 column absorption measurements made in 2009 with a pulsed direct-detection lidar operating at 1572.33 nm and utilizing the integrated path differential absorption technique. We demonstrated these at different altitudes from an aircraft in July and August in flights over four locations in the central and eastern United States. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. The lidar measurement statistics were also calculated for each flight as a function of altitude. The optical depth varied nearly linearly with altitude, consistent with calculations based on atmospheric models. The scatter in the optical depth measurements varied with aircraft altitude as expected, and the median measurement precisions for the column varied from 0.9 to 1.2 ppm. The altitude range with the lowest scatter was 810 km, and the majority of measurements for the column within it had precisions between 0.2 and 0.9 ppm.

  8. Calibration And Validation Of The Advanced Scatterometer On MetOp-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Craig; Figa-Saldana, Julia; Wison, Julian; Bauch, Helmut; Duff, Colin; Miller, James

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) is a six beam radar instrument operating at C band with vertical polarisation. It is designed to accurately measure the surface backscatter allowing the retrieval of wind fields over the ocean. The data it provides is also used by a number of other applications including sea ice monitoring and soil moisture retrieval. An ASCAT is carried on each of the ESA/EUMETSAT METOP satellites. The ASCAT on board the METOP-B satellite (ASCAT-B) became operational in 2013. We describe the calibration process using three ground-based transponders and present an analysis which estimates the calibration accuracy to be ±0.04 dB. The ASCAT carried by the METOP-A satellite (ASCAT-A) has been operational since 2007 and flies in the same orbit as ASCAT-B but with a lead of around 50 minutes. A comparison of the data from the two instruments over ocean and rainforest natural targets is presented and shows that they agree to a very high level. These results indicate that the data from the two ASCAT instruments is calibrated to a high quality and can be used interchangeably for most applications.

  9. Design Data Collection with Skylab Microwave Radiometer-Scatterometer S-193, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Ulaby, F. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Observations with S-193 have provided radar design information for systems to be flown on spacecraft, but only at 13.9 GHz and for land areas over the United States and Brazil plus a few other areas of the world for which this kind of analysis was not made. Observations only extended out to about 50 deg angle of incidence. The value of a sensor with such a gross resolution for most overland resource and status monitoring systems seems marginal, with the possible exception of monitoring soil moisture and major vegetation variations. The complementary nature of the scatterometer and radiometer systems was demonstrated by the correlation analysis. Although radiometers must have spatial resolutions dictated by antenna size, radars can use synthetic aperture techniques to achieve much finer resolutions. Multiplicity of modes in the S-193 sensors complicated both the system development and its employment. An attempt was made in the design of the S-193 to arrange optimum integration times for each angle and type of measurement. This unnecessarily complicated the design of the instrument, since the gains in precision achieved in this way were marginal. Either a software-controllable integration time or a set of only two or three integration times would have been better.

  10. Nitrogen dioxide observations from the Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument: Retrieval algorithm and measurements during DISCOVER-AQ Texas 2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument is a test bed for upcoming air quality satellite instruments that will measure backscattered ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light from geostationary orbit. GeoTASO flew on the NASA F...

  11. Butterfly wing coloration studied with a novel imaging scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavenga, Doekele

    2010-03-01

    Animal coloration functions for display or camouflage. Notably insects provide numerous examples of a rich variety of the applied optical mechanisms. For instance, many butterflies feature a distinct dichromatism, that is, the wing coloration of the male and the female differ substantially. The male Brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni, has yellow wings that are strongly UV iridescent, but the female has white wings with low reflectance in the UV and a high reflectance in the visible wavelength range. In the Small White cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, the wing reflectance of the male is low in the UV and high at visible wavelengths, whereas the wing reflectance of the female is higher in the UV and lower in the visible. Pierid butterflies apply nanosized, strongly scattering beads to achieve their bright coloration. The male Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor, has dorsal wings with scales functioning as thin film gratings that exhibit polarized iridescence; the dorsal wings of the female are matte black. The polarized iridescence probably functions in intraspecific, sexual signaling, as has been demonstrated in Heliconius butterflies. An example of camouflage is the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi, where photonic crystal domains exist in the ventral wing scales, resulting in a matte green color that well matches the color of plant leaves. The spectral reflection and polarization characteristics of biological tissues can be rapidly and with unprecedented detail assessed with a novel imaging scatterometer-spectrophotometer, built around an elliptical mirror [1]. Examples of butterfly and damselfly wings, bird feathers, and beetle cuticle will be presented. [4pt] [1] D.G. Stavenga, H.L. Leertouwer, P. Pirih, M.F. Wehling, Optics Express 17, 193-202 (2009)

  12. The effect of extraction, storage, and analysis techniques on the measurement of airborne endotoxin from a large dairy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to fill in additional knowledge gaps with respect to the extraction, storage, and analysis of airborne endotoxin, with a specific focus on samples from a dairy production facility. We utilized polycarbonate filters to collect total airborne endotoxins, sonication as ...

  13. Assessing spaceborne lidar detection and characterization of aerosols near clouds using coincident airborne lidar and other measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)