Science.gov

Sample records for airborne sensor systems

  1. Airborne laser sensors and integrated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Gardi, Alessandro; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2015-11-01

    The underlying principles and technologies enabling the design and operation of airborne laser sensors are introduced and a detailed review of state-of-the-art avionic systems for civil and military applications is presented. Airborne lasers including Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), Laser Range Finders (LRF), and Laser Weapon Systems (LWS) are extensively used today and new promising technologies are being explored. Most laser systems are active devices that operate in a manner very similar to microwave radars but at much higher frequencies (e.g., LIDAR and LRF). Other devices (e.g., laser target designators and beam-riders) are used to precisely direct Laser Guided Weapons (LGW) against ground targets. The integration of both functions is often encountered in modern military avionics navigation-attack systems. The beneficial effects of airborne lasers including the use of smaller components and remarkable angular resolution have resulted in a host of manned and unmanned aircraft applications. On the other hand, laser sensors performance are much more sensitive to the vagaries of the atmosphere and are thus generally restricted to shorter ranges than microwave systems. Hence it is of paramount importance to analyse the performance of laser sensors and systems in various weather and environmental conditions. Additionally, it is important to define airborne laser safety criteria, since several systems currently in service operate in the near infrared with considerable risk for the naked human eye. Therefore, appropriate methods for predicting and evaluating the performance of infrared laser sensors/systems are presented, taking into account laser safety issues. For aircraft experimental activities with laser systems, it is essential to define test requirements taking into account the specific conditions for operational employment of the systems in the intended scenarios and to verify the performance in realistic environments at the test ranges. To support the

  2. Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayworth, Don

    The total system capability, including all the special purpose and general purpose hardware comprising the Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation (AEOSS) System, is described. The functional relationship between hardware portions is described together with interface to the software portion of the computer image generation. Supporting rationale…

  3. An automated data exploitation system for airborne sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2014-06-01

    Advanced wide area persistent surveillance (WAPS) sensor systems on manned or unmanned airborne vehicles are essential for wide-area urban security monitoring in order to protect our people and our warfighter from terrorist attacks. Currently, human (imagery) analysts process huge data collections from full motion video (FMV) for data exploitation and analysis (real-time and forensic), providing slow and inaccurate results. An Automated Data Exploitation System (ADES) is urgently needed. In this paper, we present a recently developed ADES for airborne vehicles under heavy urban background clutter conditions. This system includes four processes: (1) fast image registration, stabilization, and mosaicking; (2) advanced non-linear morphological moving target detection; (3) robust multiple target (vehicles, dismounts, and human) tracking (up to 100 target tracks); and (4) moving or static target/object recognition (super-resolution). Test results with real FMV data indicate that our ADES can reliably detect, track, and recognize multiple vehicles under heavy urban background clutters. Furthermore, our example shows that ADES as a baseline platform can provide capability for vehicle abnormal behavior detection to help imagery analysts quickly trace down potential threats and crimes.

  4. Simulating and testing autonomous behaviour in multiple airborne sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Moira I.; Hernandez, Marcel L.; Cooper, Matthew

    2007-04-01

    The Multiple Airborne Sensor Targeting and Evaluation Rig (MASTER) is a high fidelity simulation environment in which data fusion, tracking and sensor management algorithms developed within QinetiQ Ltd. can be demonstrated and evaluated. In this paper we report an observer trajectory planning tool that adds considerable functionality to MASTER. This planning tool can coordinate multiple sensor platforms in tracking highly manoeuvring targets. It does this by applying instantaneous thrusts to each platform, the magnitude of which is chosen to gain maximum observability of the target. We use an efficient search technique to determine the thrust that should be applied to each platform at each time step, and the planning horizon can either be one-step (greedy) or two-step. The measure of performance used in evaluating each potential sensor manoeuvre (thrust) is the posterior Cramer-Rao lower bound (PCRLB), which gives the best possible (lowest mean square error) tracking performance. We exploit a recent novel approach to approximating the PCRLB for manoeuvring target tracking (the "best-fitting Gaussian" (BFG) approach: Hernandez et al., 2005). A closed-form expression gives the BFG approximation at each sampling time. Hence, the PCRLB can be approximated with a very low computational overhead. As a result, the planning tool can be implemented as an aid to decision-making in real-time, even in this time-critical airborne domain. The functionality of MASTER enables one to access the performance of the planning tool in a range of sensor-target scenarios, enabling one to determine the minimal sensor requirement in order to satisfy mission requirements.

  5. Global Test Range: Toward Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.; Freudinger, Larry; DelFrate John H.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned global sensor network that will monitor the Earth's climate, and resources using airborne sensor systems. The vision is an intelligent, affordable Earth Observation System. Global Test Range is a lab developing trustworthy services for airborne instruments - a specialized Internet Service Provider. There is discussion of several current and planned missions.

  6. Michigan experimental multispectral mapping system: A description of the M7 airborne sensor and its performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of a multispectral band scanner for an airborne mapping system are discussed. The sensor operates in the ultraviolet, visual, and infrared frequencies. Any twelve of the bands may be selected for simultaneous, optically registered recording on a 14-track analog tape recorder. Multispectral imagery recorded on magnetic tape in the aircraft can be laboratory reproduced on film strips for visual analysis or optionally machine processed in analog and/or digital computers before display. The airborne system performance is analyzed.

  7. Airborne Digital Sensor System and GPS-aided inertial technology for direct geopositioning in rough terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution airborne digital cameras with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) technology may offer a real-time means to gather accurate topographic map information by reducing ground control and eliminating aerial triangulation. Past evaluations of this integrated system over relatively flat terrain have proven successful. The author uses Emerge Digital Sensor System (DSS) combined with Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing to examine the positional mapping accuracy in rough terrain. The positional accuracy documented in this study did not meet large-scale mapping requirements owing to an apparent system mechanical failure. Nonetheless, the findings yield important information on a new approach for mapping in Antarctica and other remote or inaccessible areas of the world.

  8. Linking morphology to ecosystem structure using air-borne sensors for monitoring the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taramelli, A.; Giardino, C.; Valentini, E.; Bresciani, M.; Gasperini, L.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal Landscape, and how they change over time, provide the template on which the emerging role of Earth system science (ESS) closely linked with the development of space-borne sensors can stand in the center of a newly emerging science of the Earth's surface, where strong couplings links human dynamics, biology, biochemistry, geochemistry, geomorphology, and fluid dynamics including climate change. Modern views on the behavior of complex systems like the coastal one, allow the interpretation of phenomenological coastal landscape as a stationary landscape-state that correspond to a dynamic equilibrium, and to a self-organized exogenic order of the edge of the chaos. Therefore is essential for a thoroughly understanding of spatiotemporal variations in coastal dynamics and habitat distribution for the source of nonlinearity and complexity in geomorphic system make gathering data appropriate for use in developing and testing models of biological and physical process interacting across a wide range of scale. In this paper a physics based approach was applied to MIVIS (Multi-spectral IR and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) airborne data, simultaneously acquired on 12 May 2009 in order to integrate geomorphological and ecological observations into a detailed macrophytes map of Lake Trasimeno (Italy). Shallow water vegetation, in fact, plays an essential role in determining how coastal morphology and ecosystems dynamics respond to feedbacks between biological and physical processes. An accurate field campaign was carried out during the airborne survey and a collection of different biophysical parameter has been achieved. The purposes of the field observations were twofold. First, field observations allowed identification of biophysical habitats and properties associated both to radiometric and limnological features. Secondly, field reconnaissance allowed identifying significant parameters involved in optical interpretation of the

  9. Sensor System Performance Evaluation and Benefits from the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larar, A.; Zhou, D.; Smith, W.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced satellite sensors are tasked with improving global-scale measurements of the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface to enable enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring, and environmental change detection. Validation of the entire measurement system is crucial to achieving this goal and thus maximizing research and operational utility of resultant data. Field campaigns employing satellite under-flights with well-calibrated FTS sensors aboard high-altitude aircraft are an essential part of this validation task. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I) has been a fundamental contributor in this area by providing coincident high spectral/spatial resolution observations of infrared spectral radiances along with independently-retrieved geophysical products for comparison with like products from satellite sensors being validated. This paper focuses on some of the challenges associated with validating advanced atmospheric sounders and the benefits obtained from employing airborne interferometers such as the NAST-I. Select results from underflights of the Aqua Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) obtained during recent field campaigns will be presented.

  10. Nano-based chemical sensor array systems for uninhabited ground and airborne vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, Christina; Ruffin, Paul B.; Edwards, Eugene

    2009-03-01

    In a time when homemade explosive devices are being used against soldiers and in the homeland security environment, it is becoming increasingly evident that there is an urgent need for high-tech chemical sensor packages to be mounted aboard ground and air vehicles to aid soldiers in determining the location of explosive devices and the origin of bio-chemical warfare agents associated with terrorist activities from a safe distance. Current technologies utilize relatively large handheld detection systems that are housed on sizeable robotic vehicles. Research and development efforts are underway at the Army Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) to develop novel and less expensive nano-based chemical sensors for detecting explosives and chemical agents used against the soldier. More specifically, an array of chemical sensors integrated with an electronics control module on a flexible substrate that can conform to and be surface-mounted to manned or unmanned vehicles to detect harmful species from bio-chemical warfare and other explosive devices is being developed. The sensor system under development is a voltammetry-based sensor system capable of aiding in the detection of any chemical agent and in the optimization of sensor microarray geometry to provide nonlinear Fourier algorithms to characterize target area background (e.g., footprint areas). The status of the research project is reviewed in this paper. Critical technical challenges associated with achieving system cost, size, and performance requirements are discussed. The results obtained from field tests using an unmanned remote controlled vehicle that houses a CO2/chemical sensor, which detects harmful chemical agents and wirelessly transmits warning signals back to the warfighter, are presented. Finally, the technical barriers associated with employing the sensor array system aboard small air vehicles will be discussed.

  11. Cyberinfrastructure for Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004 the NASA Airborne Science Program has been prototyping and using infrastructure that enables researchers to interact with each other and with their instruments via network communications. This infrastructure uses satellite links and an evolving suite of applications and services that leverage open-source software. The use of these tools has increased near-real-time situational awareness during field operations, resulting in productivity improvements and the collection of better data. This paper describes the high-level system architecture and major components, with example highlights from the use of the infrastructure. The paper concludes with a discussion of ongoing efforts to transition to operational status.

  12. Benefits of Sharing Information from Commercial Airborne Forward-Looking Sensors in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Philip R.; Harrah, Steven; Neece, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    The air transportation system of the future will need to support much greater traffic densities than are currently possible, while preserving or improving upon current levels of safety. Concepts are under development to support a Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that by some estimates will need to support up to three times current capacity by the year 2025. Weather and other atmospheric phenomena, such as wake vortices and volcanic ash, constitute major constraints on airspace system capacity and can present hazards to aircraft if encountered. To support safe operations in the NextGen environment advanced systems for collection and dissemination of aviation weather and environmental information will be required. The envisioned NextGen Network Enabled Weather (NNEW) infrastructure will be a critical component of the aviation weather support services, providing access to a common weather picture for all system users. By taking advantage of Network Enabled Operations (NEO) capabilities, a virtual 4-D Weather Data Cube with aviation weather information from many sources will be developed. One new source of weather observations may be airborne forward-looking sensors, such as the X-band weather radar. Future sensor systems that are the subject of current research include advanced multi-frequency and polarimetric radar, a variety of Lidar technologies, and infrared imaging spectrometers.

  13. The development of a power spectral density processor for C and L band airborne radar scatterometer sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. A., III; Chladek, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    A real-time signal processor was developed for the NASA/JSC L-and C-band airborne radar scatterometer sensor systems. The purpose of the effort was to reduce ground data processing costs. Conversion of two quadrature channels of data (like and cross polarized) was made to obtain Power Spectral Density (PSD) values. A chirp-z transform (CZT) approach was used to filter the Doppler return signal and improved high frequency and angular resolution was realized. The processors have been tested with record signals and excellent results were obtained. CZT filtering can be readily applied to scatterometers operating at other wavelengths by altering the sample frequency. The design of the hardware and software and the results of the performance tests are described in detail.

  14. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  15. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  16. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  17. Field of view selection for optimal airborne imaging sensor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Tristan M.; Barnard, P. Werner; Fildis, Halidun; Erbudak, Mustafa; Senger, Tolga; Alpman, Mehmet E.

    2014-05-01

    The choice of the Field of View (FOV) of imaging sensors used in airborne targeting applications has major impact on the overall performance of the system. Conducting a market survey from published data on sensors used in stabilized airborne targeting systems shows a trend of ever narrowing FOVs housed in smaller and lighter volumes. This approach promotes the ever increasing geometric resolution provided by narrower FOVs, while it seemingly ignores the influences the FOV selection has on the sensor's sensitivity, the effects of diffraction, the influences of sight line jitter and collectively the overall system performance. This paper presents a trade-off methodology to select the optimal FOV for an imaging sensor that is limited in aperture diameter by mechanical constraints (such as space/volume available and window size) by balancing the influences FOV has on sensitivity and resolution and thereby optimizing the system's performance. The methodology may be applied to staring array based imaging sensors across all wavebands from visible/day cameras through to long wave infrared thermal imagers. Some examples of sensor analysis applying the trade-off methodology are given that highlights the performance advantages that can be gained by maximizing the aperture diameters and choosing the optimal FOV for an imaging sensor used in airborne targeting applications.

  18. Airborne Sensor Thermal Management Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K. K.

    2015-06-03

    The customer wants to outfit aircraft (de Havilland Twin Otter) with optical sensors. In previous product generations the sensor line-of-sight direction was fixed – the sensor’s direction relied on the orientation of the aircraft. The next generation sensor will be packaged in a rotatable turret so that the line-of-sight is reasonably independent of the aircraft’s orientation. This turret will be mounted on a boom protruding from the side of the aircraft. The customer wants to outfit aircraft (de Havilland Twin Otter) with optical sensors. In previous product generations the sensor line-of-sight direction was fixed – the sensor’s direction relied on the orientation of the aircraft. The next generation sensor will be packaged in a rotatable turret so that the line-of-sight is reasonably independent of the aircraft’s orientation. This turret will be mounted on a boom protruding from the side of the aircraft.

  19. Innovativ Airborne Sensors for Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altan, M. O.; Kemper, G.

    2016-06-01

    Modern Disaster Management Systems are based on 3 columns, crisis preparedness, early warning and the final crisis management. In all parts, special data are needed in order to analyze existing structures, assist in the early warning system and in the updating after a disaster happens to assist the crises management organizations. How can new and innovative sensors assist in these tasks? Aerial images have been frequently used in the past for generating spatial data, however in urban structures not all information can be extracted easily. Modern Oblique camera systems already assist in the evaluation of building structures to define rescue paths, analyze building structures and give also information of the stability of the urban fabric. For this application there is no need of a high geometric accurate sensor, also SLC Camera based Oblique Camera system as the OI X5, which uses Nikon Cameras, do a proper job. Such a camera also delivers worth full information after a Disaster happens to validate the degree of deformation in order to estimate stability and usability for the population. Thermal data in combination with RGB give further information of the building structure, damages and potential water intrusion. Under development is an oblique thermal sensor with 9 heads which enables nadir and oblique thermal data acquisition. Beside the application for searching people, thermal anomalies can be created out of humidity in constructions (transpiration effects), damaged power lines, burning gas tubes and many other dangerous facts. A big task is in the data analysis which should be made automatically and fast. This requires a good initial orientation and a proper relative adjustment of the single sensors. Like that, many modern software tools enable a rapid data extraction. Automated analysis of the data before and after a disaster can highlight areas of significant changes. Detecting anomalies are the way to get the focus on the prior area. Also Lidar supports

  20. MAPSAR Image Simulation Based on L-band Polarimetric Data from the SAR-R99B Airborne Sensor (SIVAM System)

    PubMed Central

    Mura, José Claudio; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Dutra, Luciano Vieira; dos Santos, João Roberto; Rudorff, Bernardo Friedrich Theodor; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon; da Silva, Mario Marcos Quintino; da Silva, Wagner Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology applied to generate simulated multipolarized L-band SAR images of the MAPSAR (Multi-Application Purpose SAR) satellite from the airborne SAR R99B sensor (SIVAM System). MAPSAR is a feasibility study conducted by INPE (National Institute for Space Research) and DLR (German Aerospace Center) targeting a satellite L-band SAR innovative mission for assessment, management and monitoring of natural resources. Examples of simulated products and their applications are briefly discussed. PMID:22389590

  1. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  2. Coherent lidar airborne windshear sensor: performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Targ, R; Kavaya, M J; Huffaker, R M; Bowles, R L

    1991-05-20

    National attention has focused on the critical problem of detecting and avoiding windshear since the crash on 2 Aug. 1985 of a Lockheed L-1011 at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. As part of the NASA/FAA National Integrated Windshear Program, we have defined a measurable windshear hazard index that can be remotely sensed from an aircraft, to give the pilot information about the wind conditions he will experience at some later time if he continues along the present flight path. A technology analysis and end-to-end performance simulation measuring signal-to-noise ratios and resulting wind velocity errors for competing coherent laser radar (lidar) systems have been carried out. The results show that a Ho:YAG lidar at a wavelength of 2.1 microm and a CO(2) lidar at 10.6 microm can give the pilot information about the line-of-sight component of a windshear threat from his present position to a region extending 2-4 km in front of the aircraft. This constitutes a warning time of 20-40 s, even in conditions of moderately heavy precipitation. Using these results, a Coherent Lidar Airborne Shear Sensor (CLASS) that uses a Q-switched CO(2) laser at 10.6 microm is being designed and developed for flight evaluation in the fall of 1991.

  3. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  4. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  5. CLASS: Coherent Lidar Airborne Shear Sensor. Windshear avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Targ, Russell

    1991-01-01

    The coherent lidar airborne shear sensor (CLASS) is an airborne CO2 lidar system being designed and developed by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc. (LMSC) under contract to NASA Langley Research Center. The goal of this program is to develop a system with a 2- to 4-kilometer range that will provide a warning time of 20 to 40 seconds, so that the pilot can avoid the hazards of low-altitude wind shear under all weather conditions. It is a predictive system which will warn the pilot about a hazard that the aircraft will experience at some later time. The ability of the system to provide predictive warnings of clear air turbulence will also be evaluated. A one-year flight evaluation program will measure the line-of-sight wind velocity from a wide variety of wind fields obtained by an airborne radar, an accelerometer-based reactive wind-sensing system, and a ground-based Doppler radar. The success of the airborne lidar system will be determined by its correlation with the windfield as indicated by the onboard reactive system, which indicates the winds actually experienced by the NASA Boeing 737 aircraft.

  6. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV.

  7. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV. PMID:26773821

  8. Improved Airborne Gravity Results Using New Relative Gravity Sensor Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravity data has contributed greatly to our knowledge of subsurface geophysics particularly in rugged and otherwise inaccessible areas such as Antarctica. Reliable high quality GPS data has renewed interest in improving the accuracy of airborne gravity systems and recent improvements in the electronic control of the sensor have increased the accuracy and ability of the classic Lacoste and Romberg zero length spring gravity meters to operate in turbulent air conditions. Lacoste and Romberg type gravity meters provide increased sensitivity over other relative gravity meters by utilizing a mass attached to a horizontal beam which is balanced by a ';zero length spring'. This type of dynamic gravity sensor is capable of measuring gravity changes on the order of 0.05 milliGals in laboratory conditions but more commonly 0.7 to 1 milliGal in survey use. The sensor may have errors induced by the electronics used to read the beam position as well as noise induced by unwanted accelerations, commonly turbulence, which moves the beam away from its ideal balance position otherwise known as the reading line. The sensor relies on a measuring screw controlled by a computer which attempts to bring the beam back to the reading line position. The beam is also heavily damped so that it does not react to most unwanted high frequency accelerations. However this heavily damped system is slow to react, particularly in turns where there are very high Eotvos effects. New sensor technology utilizes magnetic damping of the beam coupled with an active feedback system which acts to effectively keep the beam locked at the reading line position. The feedback system operates over the entire range of the system so there is now no requirement for a measuring screw. The feedback system operates at very high speed so that even large turbulent events have minimal impact on data quality and very little, if any, survey line data is lost because of large beam displacement errors. Airborne testing

  9. Improved Airborne System for Sensing Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeown, Donald; Richardson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Wildfire Airborne Sensing Program (WASP) is engaged in a continuing effort to develop an improved airborne instrumentation system for sensing wildfires. The system could also be used for other aerial-imaging applications, including mapping and military surveillance. Unlike prior airborne fire-detection instrumentation systems, the WASP system would not be based on custom-made multispectral line scanners and associated custom- made complex optomechanical servomechanisms, sensors, readout circuitry, and packaging. Instead, the WASP system would be based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment that would include (1) three or four electronic cameras (one for each of three or four wavelength bands) instead of a multispectral line scanner; (2) all associated drive and readout electronics; (3) a camera-pointing gimbal; (4) an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver for measuring the position, velocity, and orientation of the aircraft; and (5) a data-acquisition subsystem. It would be necessary to custom-develop an integrated sensor optical-bench assembly, a sensor-management subsystem, and software. The use of mostly COTS equipment is intended to reduce development time and cost, relative to those of prior systems.

  10. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  11. Auxiliary DCP data acquisition system. [airborne system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. V.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne DCP Data Aquisition System has been designed to augment the ERTS satellite data recovery system. The DCP's are data collection platforms located at pertinent sites. With the appropriate sensors they are able to collect, digitally encode and transmit environmental parameters to the ERTS satellite. The satellite in turn relays these transmissions to a ground station for processing. The satellite is available for such relay duty a minimum of two times in a 24-hour period. The equipment is to obtain continuous DCP data during periods of unusual environmental activity--storms, floods, etc. Two circumstances contributed to the decision to design such a system; (1) Wallops Station utilizes surveillance aircraft in support of rocket launches and also in support of earth resources activities; (2) the area in which Wallops is located, the Delaware and Chesapeake Bay areas, are fertile areas for DCP usage. Therefore, by developing an airborne DCP receiving station and installing it on aircraft more continuous DCP data can be provided from sites in the surrounding areas at relatively low cost.

  12. Airborne system for testing multispectral reconnaissance technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Doergeloh, Heinrich; Keil, Heiko; Wetjen, Wilfried

    1999-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for future airborne reconnaissance systems to obtain aerial images for tactical or peacekeeping operations. Especially Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensor system and with real time jam resistant data transmission capabilities are of high interest. An airborne experimental platform has been developed as testbed to investigate different concepts of reconnaissance systems before their application in UAVs. It is based on a Dornier DO 228 aircraft, which is used as flying platform. Great care has been taken to achieve the possibility to test different kinds of multispectral sensors. Hence basically it is capable to be equipped with an IR sensor head, high resolution aerial cameras of the whole optical spectrum and radar systems. The onboard equipment further includes system for digital image processing, compression, coding, and storage. The data are RF transmitted to the ground station using technologies with high jam resistance. The images, after merging with enhanced vision components, are delivered to the observer who has an uplink data channel available to control flight and imaging parameters.

  13. Cross-calibration between airborne SAR sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zink, Manfred; Olivier, Philippe; Freeman, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    As Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system performance and experience in SAR signature evaluation increase, quantitative analysis becomes more and more important. Such analyses require an absolute radiometric calibration of the complete SAR system. To keep the expenditure on calibration of future multichannel and multisensor remote sensing systems (e.g., X-SAR/SIR-C) within a tolerable level, data from different tracks and different sensors (channels) must be cross calibrated. The 1989 joint E-SAR/DC-8 SAR calibration campaign gave a first opportunity for such an experiment, including cross sensor and cross track calibration. A basic requirement for successful cross calibration is the stability of the SAR systems. The calibration parameters derived from different tracks and the polarimetric properties of the uncalibrated data are used to describe this stability. Quality criteria for a successful cross calibration are the agreement of alpha degree values and the consistency of radar cross sections of equally sized corner reflectors. Channel imbalance and cross talk provide additional quality in case of the polarimetric DC-8 SAR.

  14. An integrated decision model for the application of airborne sensors for improved response to accidental and terrorist chemical vapor releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapitan, Loginn

    This research created a new model which provides an integrated approach to planning the effective selection and employment of airborne sensor systems in response to accidental or intentional chemical vapor releases. The approach taken was to use systems engineering and decision analysis methods to construct a model architecture which produced a modular structure for integrating both new and existing components into a logical procedure to assess the application of airborne sensor systems to address chemical vapor hazards. The resulting integrated process model includes an internal aggregation model which allowed differentiation among alternative airborne sensor systems. Both models were developed and validated by experts and demonstrated using appropriate hazardous chemical release scenarios. The resultant prototype integrated process model or system fills a current gap in capability allowing improved planning, training and exercise for HAZMAT teams and first responders when considering the selection and employment of airborne sensor systems. Through the research process, insights into the current response structure and how current airborne capability may be most effectively used were generated. Furthermore, the resultant prototype system is tailorable for local, state, and federal application, and can potentially be modified to help evaluate investments in new airborne sensor technology and systems. Better planning, training and preparedness exercising holds the prospect for the effective application of airborne assets for improved response to large scale chemical release incidents. Improved response will result in fewer casualties and lives lost, reduced economic impact, and increased protection of critical infrastructure when faced with accidental and intentional terrorist release of hazardous industrial chemicals. With the prospect of more airborne sensor systems becoming available, this prototype system integrates existing and new tools into an effective

  15. Airborne seeker evaluation and test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jollie, William B.

    1991-08-01

    The Airborne Seeker Evaluation Test System (ASETS) is an airborne platform for development, test, and evaluation of air-to-ground seekers and sensors. ASETS consists of approximately 10,000 pounds of equipment, including sixteen racks of control, display, and recording electronics, and a very large stabilized airborne turret, all carried by a modified C- 130A aircraft. The turret measures 50 in. in diameter and extends over 50 in. below the aircraft. Because of the low ground clearance of the C-130, a unique retractor mechanism was designed to raise the turret inside the aircraft for take-offs and landings, and deploy the turret outside the aircraft for testing. The turret has over 7 cubic feet of payload space and can accommodate up to 300 pounds of instrumentation, including missile seekers, thermal imagers, infrared mapping systems, laser systems, millimeter wave radar units, television cameras, and laser rangers. It contains a 5-axis gyro-stabilized gimbal system that will maintain a line of sight in the pitch, roll, and yaw axes to an accuracy better than +/- 125 (mu) rad. The rack-mounted electronics in the aircraft cargo bay can be interchanged to operate any type of sensor and record the data. Six microcomputer subsystems operate and maintain all of the system components during a test mission. ASETS is capable of flying at altitudes between 200 and 20,000 feet, and at airspeeds ranging from 100 to 250 knots. Mission scenarios can include air-to-surface seeker testing, terrain mapping, surface target measurement, air-to-air testing, atmospheric transmission studies, weather data collection, aircraft or missile tracking, background signature measurements, and surveillance. ASETS is fully developed and available to support test programs.

  16. Miniature Sensors for Airborne Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our group is working to design a small,lightweight, low-cost real-time particulate matter(PM) sensor to enable better monitoring of PMconcentrations in air, with the goal of informingpolicymakers and regulators to provide betterpublic health. The sensor reads the massconcentratio...

  17. Airborne measurements in the longwave infrared using an imaging hyperspectral sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, Jean-Pierre; Chamberland, Martin; Farley, Vincent; Marcotte, Frédérick; Rolland, Matthias; Vallières, Alexandre; Villemaire, André

    2008-07-01

    Emerging applications in Defense and Security require sensors with state-of-the-art sensitivity and capabilities. Among these sensors, the imaging spectrometer is an instrument yielding a large amount of rich information about the measured scene. Standoff detection, identification and quantification of chemicals in the gaseous state is one important application. Analysis of the surface emissivity as a means to classify ground properties and usage is another one. Imaging spectrometers have unmatched capabilities to meet the requirements of these applications. Telops has developed the FIRST, a LWIR hyperspectral imager. The FIRST is based on the Fourier Transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. The FIRST, a man portable sensor, provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at 0.35mrad spatial resolution over the 8-12 μm spectral range at spectral resolutions of up to 0.25cm-1. The FIRST has been used in several field campaigns, including the demonstration of standoff chemical agent detection [http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.788027.1]. More recently, an airborne system integrating the FIRST has been developed to provide airborne hyperspectral measurement capabilities. The airborne system and its capabilities are presented in this paper. The FIRST sensor modularity enables operation in various configurations such as tripod-mounted and airborne. In the airborne configuration, the FIRST can be operated in push-broom mode, or in staring mode with image motion compensation. This paper focuses on the airborne operation of the FIRST sensor.

  18. Sensors and Sensory Processing for Airborne Vibrations in Silk Moths and Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Insects use airborne vibrations caused by their own movements to control their behaviors and produce airborne vibrations to communicate with conspecific mates. In this review, I use two examples to introduce how insects use airborne vibrations to accurately control behavior or for communication. The first example is vibration-sensitive sensilla along the wing margin that stabilize wingbeat frequency. There are two specialized sensors along the wing margin for detecting the airborne vibration caused by wingbeats. The response properties of these sensors suggest that each sensor plays a different role in the control of wingbeats. The second example is Johnston's organ that contributes to regulating flying speed and perceiving vector information about food sources to hive-mates. There are parallel vibration processing pathways in the central nervous system related with these behaviors, flight and communication. Both examples indicate that the frequency of airborne vibration are filtered on the sensory level and that on the central nervous system level, the extracted vibration signals are integrated with other sensory signals for executing quick adaptive motor response. PMID:23877129

  19. Detection in urban scenario using combined airborne imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renhorn, Ingmar; Axelsson, Maria; Benoist, Koen; Bourghys, Dirk; Boucher, Yannick; Briottet, Xavier; De Ceglie, Sergio; Dekker, Rob; Dimmeler, Alwin; Dost, Remco; Friman, Ola; Kåsen, Ingebjørg; Maerker, Jochen; van Persie, Mark; Resta, Salvatore; Schwering, Piet; Shimoni, Michal; Haavardsholm, Trym Vegard

    2012-06-01

    The EDA project "Detection in Urban scenario using Combined Airborne imaging Sensors" (DUCAS) is in progress. The aim of the project is to investigate the potential benefit of combined high spatial and spectral resolution airborne imagery for several defense applications in the urban area. The project is taking advantage of the combined resources from 7 contributing nations within the EDA framework. An extensive field trial has been carried out in the city of Zeebrugge at the Belgian coast in June 2011. The Belgian armed forces contributed with platforms, weapons, personnel (soldiers) and logistics for the trial. Ground truth measurements with respect to geometrical characteristics, optical material properties and weather conditions were obtained in addition to hyperspectral, multispectral and high resolution spatial imagery. High spectral/spatial resolution sensor data are used for detection, classification, identification and tracking.

  20. CARABAS - an airborne VHF SAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, B.; Frolined, P.O.; Gustavsson, A.

    1996-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in imaging radar systems operating at low frequencies, Examples of civilian and military applications are detection of stealth-designed man-made objects, targets hidden under foliage, biomass estimation, and penetration into glaciers or ground. CARABAS (Coherent All Radio Band Sensing) is a new airborne SAR system developed by FOA. It is designed for operation in the lowest part of the VHF band (20-90 NHz), using horizontal polarisation. This frequency region gives the system a good ability to penetrate vegetation and to some extent ground. CARABAS is the first known SAR sensor with a capability of diffraction limited imaging, i.e. a resolution in magnitude of the adopted wavelengths. A Sabreliner business jet aircraft is used as the airborne platform. Critical parts in the development have been the antenna system, the receiver and the processing algorithms. Based upon the experiences gained with CARABAS I a major system upgrade is now taking place. The new CARABAS II system is scheduled to fly in May 1996. This system is designed to give operational performance while CARABAS I was used to verify the feasibility. The first major field campaigns are planned for the second half of 1996. CARABAS II is jointly developed by FOA and Ericsson Microwave Systems AB in Sweden. This paper will give an overview of the system design and data collected with the current radar system, including some results for forested regions. The achieved system performance will be discussed, with a presentation of the major modifications made in the new CARABAS 11 system. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.

    2002-01-01

    In response to recommendations from the National Aviation Weather Program Council, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working with industry to develop an electronic pilot reporting capability for small aircraft. This paper describes the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) sensor development effort. NASA is working with industry to develop a sensor capable of measuring temperature, relative humidity, magnetic heading, pressure, icing, and average turbulence energy dissipation. Users of the data include National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) forecast modelers, air traffic controllers, flight service stations, airline operation centers, and pilots. Preliminary results from flight tests are presented.

  2. Airborne Relay-Based Regional Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyuman; Noh, Hongjun; Lim, Jaesung

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based pseudolite systems have some limitations, such as low vertical accuracy, multipath effects and near-far problems. These problems are not significant in airborne-based pseudolite systems. However, the monitoring of pseudolite positions is required because of the mobility of the platforms on which the pseudolites are mounted, and this causes performance degradation. To address these pseudolite system limitations, we propose an airborne relay-based regional positioning system that consists of a master station, reference stations, airborne relays and a user. In the proposed system, navigation signals are generated from the reference stations located on the ground and are relayed via the airborne relays. Unlike in conventional airborne-based systems, the user in the proposed system sequentially estimates both the locations of airborne relays and his/her own position. Therefore, a delay due to monitoring does not occur, and the accuracy is not affected by the movement of airborne relays. We conducted several simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. Based on the simulation results, we demonstrated that the proposed system guarantees a higher accuracy than airborne-based pseudolite systems, and it is feasible despite the existence of clock offsets among reference stations. PMID:26029953

  3. Airborne change detection system for the detection of route mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzelli, Thomas P.; Jackson, Larry; Yeshnik, Mark; Petty, Thomas E.

    2003-09-01

    The US Army is interested in technologies that will enable it to maintain the free flow of traffic along routes such as Main Supply Routes (MSRs). Mines emplaced in the road by enemy forces under cover of darkness represent a major threat to maintaining a rapid Operational Tempo (OPTEMPO) along such routes. One technique that shows promise for detecting enemy mining activity is Airborne Change Detection, which allows an operator to detect suspicious day-to-day changes in and around the road that may be indicative of enemy mining. This paper presents an Airborne Change Detection that is currently under development at the US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD). The system has been tested using a longwave infrared (LWIR) sensor on a vertical take-off and landing unmanned aerial vehicle (VTOL UAV) and a midwave infrared (MWIR) sensor on a fixed wing aircraft. The system is described and results of the various tests conducted to date are presented.

  4. Multisensor airborne imagery collection and processing onboard small unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linne von Berg, Dale; Anderson, Scott A.; Bird, Alan; Holt, Niel; Kruer, Melvin; Walls, Thomas J.; Wilson, Michael L.

    2010-04-01

    FEATHAR (Fusion, Exploitation, Algorithms, and Targeting for High-Altitude Reconnaissance) is an ONR funded effort to develop and test new tactical sensor systems specifically designed for small manned and unmanned platforms (payload weight < 50 lbs). This program is being directed and executed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in conjunction with the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL). FEATHAR has developed and integrated EyePod, a combined long-wave infrared (LWIR) and visible to near infrared (VNIR) optical survey & inspection system, with NuSAR, a combined dual band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. These sensors are being tested in conjunction with other ground and airborne sensor systems to demonstrate intelligent real-time cross-sensor cueing and in-air data fusion. Results from test flights of the EyePod and NuSAR sensors will be presented.

  5. Collation of earth resources data collected by ERIM airborne sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Earth resources imagery from nine years of data collection with developmental airborne sensors is cataloged for reference. The imaging sensors include single and multiband line scanners and side-looking radars. The operating wavelengths of the sensors include ultraviolet, visible and infrared band scanners, and X- and L-band radar. Imagery from all bands (radar and scanner) were collected at some sites and many sites had repeated coverage. The multiband scanner data was radiometrically calibrated. Illustrations show how the data can be used in earth resource investigations. References are made to published reports which have made use of the data in completed investigations. Data collection sponsors are identified and a procedure described for gaining access to the data.

  6. An airborne remote sensing system for urban air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, L. J.; Friedman, E. J.; Keitz, E. L.; Ward, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several NASA sponsored remote sensors and possible airborne platforms were evaluated. Outputs of dispersion models for SO2 and CO pollution in the Washington, D.C. area were used with ground station data to establish the expected performance and limitations of the remote sensors. Aircraft/sensor support requirements are discussed. A method of optimum flight plan determination was made. Cost trade offs were performed. Conclusions about the implementation of various instrument packages as parts of a comprehensive air quality monitoring system in Washington are presented.

  7. Prediction and removal of rotation noise in airborne EM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratzer, Terence 12Macnae, James

    2014-03-01

    We aim to eliminate or reduce significant impediments to conductive target detection and conductive cover penetration in airborne electromagnetic (AEM) systems. Existing limitations come from the very high noise encountered at low base frequencies, caused by rotations of vector magnetic field sensors in the Earth's magnetic field. We use the output of tri-axial rotation-rate sensors to predict and subtract the rotation noise from rigidly coupled ARMIT magnetic field sensors. The approach is successful in reducing rotation noise by one to two orders of magnitude at low frequencies.

  8. Calibration, Sensor Model Improvements and Uncertainty Budget of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueni, A.

    2015-12-01

    ESA's Airborne Imaging Spectrometer APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) was developed under the PRODEX (PROgramme de Développement d'EXpériences scientifiques) program by a Swiss-Belgian consortium and entered its operational phase at the end of 2010 (Schaepman et al., 2015). Work on the sensor model has been carried out extensively within the framework of European Metrology Research Program as part of the Metrology for Earth Observation and Climate (MetEOC and MetEOC2). The focus has been to improve laboratory calibration procedures in order to reduce uncertainties, to establish a laboratory uncertainty budget and to upgrade the sensor model to compensate for sensor specific biases. The updated sensor model relies largely on data collected during dedicated characterisation experiments in the APEX calibration home base but includes airborne data as well where the simulation of environmental conditions in the given laboratory setup was not feasible. The additions to the model deal with artefacts caused by environmental changes and electronic features, namely the impact of ambient air pressure changes on the radiometry in combination with dichroic coatings, influences of external air temperatures and consequently instrument baffle temperatures on the radiometry, and electronic anomalies causing radiometric errors in the four shortwave infrared detector readout blocks. Many of these resolved issues might be expected to be present in other imaging spectrometers to some degree or in some variation. Consequently, the work clearly shows the difficulties of extending a laboratory-based uncertainty to data collected under in-flight conditions. The results are hence not only of interest to the calibration scientist but also to the spectroscopy end user, in particular when commercial sensor systems are used for data collection and relevant sensor characteristic information tends to be sparse. Schaepman, et al, 2015. Advanced radiometry measurements and Earth science

  9. Persistent unmanned airborne network support for cooperative sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Ajay; Fernandes, Ronald

    2013-05-01

    In future we expect that UAV platoon based military / civilian missions would require persistent airborne network support for command, control and communication needs for the mission. Highly-dynamic mobile-wireless sensor networks operating in a large region present unique challenges in end-to-end communication for sensor data sharing and data fusion, particularly caused by the time varying connectivity of high-velocity nodes combined with the unreliability of the wireless communication channel. To establish an airborne communication network, a UAV must maintain a link(s) with other UAV(s) and/or base stations. A link between two UAVs is deemed to be established when the linked UAVs are in line of sight as well as within the transmission range of each other. Ideally, all the UAVs as well as the ground stations involved in command, control and communication operations must be fully connected. However, the continuous motion of UAVs poses a challenge to ensure full connectivity of the network. In this paper we explore the dynamic topological network configuration control under mission-related constraints in order to maintain connectivity among sensors enabling data sharing.

  10. A multiprocessor airborne lidar data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, C. W.; Bailey, S. A.; Heath, G. E.; Piazza, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    A new multiprocessor data acquisition system was developed for the existing Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL). This implementation simultaneously utilizes five single board 68010 microcomputers, the UNIX system V operating system, and the real time executive VRTX. The original data acquisition system was implemented on a Hewlett Packard HP 21-MX 16 bit minicomputer using a multi-tasking real time operating system and a mixture of assembly and FORTRAN languages. The present collection of data sources produce data at widely varied rates and require varied amounts of burdensome real time processing and formatting. It was decided to replace the aging HP 21-MX minicomputer with a multiprocessor system. A new and flexible recording format was devised and implemented to accommodate the constantly changing sensor configuration. A central feature of this data system is the minimization of non-remote sensing bus traffic. Therefore, it is highly desirable that each micro be capable of functioning as much as possible on-card or via private peripherals. The bus is used primarily for the transfer of remote sensing data to or from the buffer queue.

  11. Covariance analysis of the airborne laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, T. S., Jr.; Hammond, C. L.; Gibbs, B. P.

    1981-01-01

    The requirements and limitations of employing an airborne laser ranging system for detecting crustal shifts of the Earth within centimeters over a region of approximately 200 by 400 km are presented. The system consists of an aircraft which flies over a grid of ground deployed retroreflectors, making six passes over the grid at two different altitudes. The retroreflector baseline errors are assumed to result from measurement noise, a priori errors on the aircraft and retroreflector positions, tropospheric refraction, and sensor biases.

  12. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some remote-sensing applications require advanced airborne multi-sensor systems to provide high performance reflective and emissive spectral imaging measurement rapidly over large areas. The key or unique problem of characteristics is associated with a black box back-end system that operates a suite of cutting-edge imaging sensors to collect simultaneously the high throughput reflective and emissive spectral imaging data with precision georeference. This back-end system needs to be portable, easy-to-use, and reliable with advanced onboard processing. The innovation of the black box backend is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS integrates a complex embedded system of systems with dedicated power and signal electronic circuits inside to serve a suite of configurable cutting-edge electro- optical (EO), long-wave infrared (LWIR), and medium-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras, a hyperspectral imaging scanner, and a GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for atmospheric and surface remote sensing. Its compatible sensor packages include NASA s 1,024 1,024 pixel LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) imager; a 60.5 megapixel BuckEye EO camera; and a fast (e.g. 200+ scanlines/s) and wide swath-width (e.g., 1,920+ pixels) CCD/InGaAs imager-based visible/near infrared reflectance (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer. MAICSS records continuous precision georeferenced and time-tagged multisensor throughputs to mass storage devices at a high aggregate rate, typically 60 MB/s for its LWIR/EO payload. MAICSS is a complete stand-alone imaging server instrument with an easy-to-use software package for either autonomous data collection or interactive airborne operation. Advanced multisensor data acquisition and onboard processing software features have been implemented for MAICSS. With the onboard processing for real time image development, correction, histogram-equalization, compression, georeference, and

  13. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  14. Commercial Applications Multispectral Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birk, Ronald J.; Spiering, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is funding a multispectral sensor system to be used in the development of remote sensing applications. The Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) is designed to provide versatility in acquiring spectral and spatial information. The ATLAS system will be a test bed for the development of specifications for airborne and spaceborne remote sensing instrumentation for dedicated applications. This objective requires spectral coverage from the visible through thermal infrared wavelengths, variable spatial resolution from 2-25 meters; high geometric and geo-location accuracy; on-board radiometric calibration; digital recording; and optimized performance for minimized cost, size, and weight. ATLAS is scheduled to be available in 3rd quarter 1992 for acquisition of data for applications such as environmental monitoring, facilities management, geographic information systems data base development, and mineral exploration.

  15. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor: Recent Measurements and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Howell, James N.; Darby, Lisa S.; Tratt, David M.; Menzies, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    The coherent Doppler lidar, when operated from an airborne platform, offers a unique measurement capability for study of atmospheric dynamical and physical properties. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are at a disadvantage in terms of spatial resolution and coverage. Recent experience suggests airborne coherent Doppler lidar can yield unique wind measurements of--and during operation within--extreme weather phenomena. This paper presents the first airborne coherent Doppler lidar measurements of hurricane wind fields. The lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory jointly developed an airborne lidar system, the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS). The centerpiece of MACAWS is the lidar transmitter from the highly successful NOAA Windvan. Other field-tested lidar components have also been used, when feasible, to reduce costs and development time. The methodology for remotely sensing atmospheric wind fields with scanning coherent Doppler lidar was demonstrated in 1981; enhancements were made and the system was reflown in 1984. MACAWS has potentially greater scientific utility, compared to the original airborne scanning lidar system, owing to a factor of approx. 60 greater energy-per-pulse from the NOAA transmitter. MACAWS development was completed and the system was first flown in 1995. Following enhancements to improve performance, the system was re-flown in 1996 and 1998. The scientific motivation for MACAWS is three-fold: obtain fundamental measurements of subgrid scale (i.e., approx. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in hydrological, climate, and general

  16. Multi Sensor and Platforms Setups for Various Airborne Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, G.; Vasel, R.

    2016-06-01

    To combine various sensors to get a system for specific use became popular within the last 10 years. Metric mid format cameras meanwhile reach the 100 MPix and entered the mapping market to compete with the big format sensors. Beside that also other sensors as SLR Cameras provide high resolution and enter the aerial surveying market for orthophoto production or monitoring applications. Flexibility, purchase-costs, size and weight are common aspects to design multi-sensor systems. Some sensors are useful for mapping while others are part of environmental monitoring systems. Beside classical surveying aircrafts also UL Airplanes, Para/Trikes or UAVs make use of multi sensor systems. Many of them are customer specific while other already are frequently used in the market. This paper aims to show some setup, their application, what are the results and what are the pros and cons of them are.

  17. 76 FR 50808 - Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... standard for GPS sensors not augmented by satellite-based or ground- based systems (i.e., TSO-C129a Class B and Class C). The FAA has also published two GPS TSOs augmented by the satellite-based augmentation system (TSO-C145c, Airborne Navigation Sensors Using the Global Positioning System Augmented by...

  18. Real-time sensor mapping display for airborne imaging sensor test with the adaptive infrared imaging spectroradiometer (AIRIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Megan M.; Cruger, William E.; Gittins, Christopher; Kindle, Harry; Ricks, Timothy P.

    2005-11-01

    Captive flight testing (CFT) of sensors and seekers requires accurate data collection and display for sensor performance evaluation. The U.S. Army Redstone Technical Test Center (RTTC), in support of the U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), has developed a data collection suite to facilitate airborne test of hyperspectral chemical/biological sensors. The data collection suite combines global positioning system (GPS) tracking, inertial measurement unit (IMU) data, accurate timing streams, and other test scenario information. This data collection suite also contains an advanced real-time display of aircraft and sensor field-of-view information. The latest evolution of this system has been used in support of the Adaptive InfraRed Imaging Spectroradiometer (AIRIS), currently under development by Physical Sciences Incorporated for ECBC. For this test, images from the AIRIS sensor were overlaid on a digitized background of the test area, with latencies of 1 second or less. Detects of surrogate chemicals were displayed and geo-referenced. Video overlay was accurate and reliable. This software suite offers great versatility in the display of imaging sensor data; support of future tests with the AIRIS sensor are planned as the system evolves.

  19. Airborne optical tracking control system design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-09-01

    The Kestrel LOS Tracking Program involves the development of a computer and algorithms for use in passive tracking of airborne targets from a high altitude balloon platform. The computer receivers track error signals from a video tracker connected to one of the imaging sensors. In addition, an on-board IRU (gyro), accelerometers, a magnetometer, and a two-axis inclinometer provide inputs which are used for initial acquisitions and course and fine tracking. Signals received by the control processor from the video tracker, IRU, accelerometers, magnetometer, and inclinometer are utilized by the control processor to generate drive signals for the payload azimuth drive, the Gimballed Mirror System (GMS), and the Fast Steering Mirror (FSM). The hardware which will be procured under the LOS tracking activity is the Controls Processor (CP), the IRU, and the FSM. The performance specifications for the GMS and the payload canister azimuth driver are established by the LOS tracking design team in an effort to achieve a tracking jitter of less than 3 micro-rad, 1 sigma for one axis.

  20. Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) data management overview

    SciTech Connect

    Wiberg, J.D.; Blough, D.K.; Daugherty, W.R.; Hucks, J.A.; Gerhardstein, L.H.; Meitzler, W.D.; Melton, R.B.; Shoemaker, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    An overview of the Data Management Plan for the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) pro-grain is provided in this document. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been assigned the responsibility of data management for the program, which includes defining procedures for data management and data quality assessment. Data management is defined as the process of planning, acquiring, organizing, qualifying and disseminating data. The AMPS program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Arms Control and Non-Proliferation (DOE/AN) and is integrated into the overall DOE AN-10.1 technology development program. Sensors used for collecting the data were developed under the on-site inspection, effluence analysis, and standoff sensor program, the AMPS program interacts with other technology programs of DOE/NN-20. This research will be conducted by both government and private industry. AMPS is a research and development program, and it is not intended for operational deployment, although the sensors and techniques developed could be used in follow-on operational systems. For a complete description of the AMPS program, see {open_quotes}Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) Program Plan{close_quotes}. The primary purpose of the AMPS is to collect high-quality multisensor data to be used in data fusion research to reduce interpretation problems associated with data overload and to derive better information than can be derived from any single sensor. To collect the data for the program, three wing-mounted pods containing instruments with sensors for collecting data will be flight certified on a U.S. Navy RP-3A aircraft. Secondary objectives of the AMPS program are sensor development and technology demonstration. Pod system integrators and instrument developers will be interested in the performance of their deployed sensors and their supporting data acquisition equipment.

  1. Airborne Systems Technology Application to the Windshear Threat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Lewis, Michael S.; Hinton, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The general approach and products of the NASA/FAA Airborne Windshear Program conducted by NASA Langley Research Center are summarized, with references provided for the major technical contributions. During this period, NASA conducted 2 years of flight testing to characterize forward-looking sensor performance. The NASA/FAA Airborne Windshear Program was divided into three main elements: Hazard Characterization, Sensor Technology, and Flight Management Systems. Simulation models developed under the Hazard Characterization element are correlated with flight test data. Flight test results comparing the performance and characteristics of the various Sensor Technologies (microwave radar, lidar, and infrared) are presented. Most of the activities in the Flight Management Systems element were conducted in simulation. Simulation results from a study evaluating windshear crew procedures and displays for forward-looking sensor-equipped airplanes are discussed. NASA Langley researchers participated heavily in the FAA process of generating certification guidelines for predictive windshear detection systems. NASA participants felt that more valuable technology products were generated by the program because of this interaction. NASA involvement in the process and the resulting impact on products and technology transfer are discussed in this paper.

  2. Airborne space laser communication system and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-Xin

    2015-11-01

    Airborne space laser communication is characterized by its high speed, anti-electromagnetic interference, security, easy to assign. It has broad application in the areas of integrated space-ground communication networking, military communication, anti-electromagnetic communication. This paper introduce the component and APT system of the airborne laser communication system design by Changchun university of science and technology base on characteristic of airborne laser communication and Y12 plan, especially introduce the high communication speed and long distance communication experiment of the system that among two Y12 plans. In the experiment got the aim that the max communication distance 144Km, error 10-6 2.5Gbps - 10-7 1.5Gbps capture probability 97%, average capture time 20s. The experiment proving the adaptability of the APT and the high speed long distance communication.

  3. Experimental Validation of a Compound Control Scheme for a Two-Axis Inertially Stabilized Platform with Multi-Sensors in an Unmanned Helicopter-Based Airborne Power Line Inspection System.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Jia, Yuan; Zhao, Qiang; Yu, Ruixia

    2016-01-01

    A compound control scheme is proposed to achieve high control performance for a two-axis inertially stabilized platform (ISP) with multi-sensors applied to an unmanned helicopter (UH)-based airborne power line inspection (APLI) system. Compared with the traditional two closed-loop control scheme that is composed of a high-bandwidth rate loop and a lower bandwidth position loop, a new current loop inside rate loop is particularly designed to suppress the influences of voltage fluctuation from power supply and motor back electromotive force (BEMF) on control precision. In this way, the stabilization accuracy of the ISP is greatly improved. The rate loop, which is the middle one, is used to improve sensor's stability precision through compensating for various disturbances. To ensure the pointing accuracy of the line of sight (LOS) of multi-sensors, the position loop is designed to be the outer one and acts as the main feedback path, by which the accurate pointing angular position is achieved. To validate the scheme, a series of experiments were carried out. The results show that the proposed compound control scheme can achieve reliable control precision and satisfy the requirements of real APLI tasks. PMID:26978371

  4. The NASA Airborne Science Data And Telemetry System (NASDAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, C. E.; Forgione, J.; Barnes, C.

    2011-12-01

    A system providing a common core set of facility data services across the NASA Airborne Science Program research aircraft fleet is described. The NASA Airborne Science Data And Telemetry System (NASDAT) is a rugged avionics box that fits in a standard aeronautical radio rack mounting tray, and provides both aircraft and experimenter data interfaces. Ethernet, satcom, and legacy connections are supported. Standardized protocols allow this system to serve as an abstraction layer for interfacing any instrument to any aircraft. Built-in Iridium modems allow low rate baseline global data communications. Built on open standards and dynamically reconfigurable, the NASDAT enables any research platform to participate in the wider sensor web, such that remote experimenters can control their instruments, and display applications can receive near real time data. The production NASDAT was built this year, based in part on prototypes which have been flying on several research aircraft such as the NASA DC-8 and Global Hawk.

  5. Simulation system of airborne FLIR searcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kefeng; Li, Yu; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jilong; Xie, Junhu; Ding, Na; Sun, Dandan

    2014-11-01

    Airborne Forward looking infra-red (FLIR) searcher simulation system can provide multi-mode simulated test environment that almost actual field environment, and can simulate integrated performance and external interface of airborne FLIR simulation system. Furthermore, the airborne FLIR searcher simulation system can support the algorithm optimization of image processing, and support the test and evaluation of electro-optical system, and also support the line test of software and evaluate the performance of the avionics system. The detailed design structure and information cross-linking relationship of each component are given in this paper. The simulation system is composed of the simulation center, the FLIR actuator, the FLIR emulator, and the display control terminal. The simulation center can generate the simulated target and aircraft flying data in the operation state of the airborne FLIR Searcher. The FLIR actuator can provide simulation scene. It can generate the infrared target and landform based scanning scene, response to the commands from simulation center and the FLIR actuator and operation control unit. The infrared image generated by the FLIR actuator can be processed by the FLIR emulator using PowerPC hardware framework and processing software based on VxWorks system. It can detect multi-target and output the DVI video and the multi-target detection information which corresponds to the working state of the FLIR searcher. Display control terminal can display the multi-target detection information in two-dimension situation format, and realize human-computer interaction function.

  6. Airborne electronics for automated flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, G. B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The increasing importance of airborne electronics for use in automated flight systems is briefly reviewed with attention to both basic aircraft control functions and flight management systems for operational use. The requirements for high levels of systems reliability are recognized. Design techniques are discussed and the areas of control systems, computing and communications are considered in terms of key technical problems and trends for their solution.

  7. An airborne laser polarimeter system (ALPS) for terrestrial physics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalshoven, James E., Jr.; Dabney, Philip W.

    1988-01-01

    The design of a multispectral polarized laser system for characterizing the depolarization properties of the earth's surface is described. Using a laser as the light source, this airborne system measures the Stokes parameters of the surface to simultaneously arrive at the polarization degree, azimuthal angle, and ellipticity for each wavelength. The technology will be studied for the feasibility of expansion of the sensor to do surface polarization imaging. The data will be used in support of solar polarization studies and to develop laser radiometry as a tool in environmental remote sensing.

  8. Self-refreshing characteristics of an airborne particle sensor using a bridged paddle oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsuk; Lee, Seung-Beck; Park, Bonghyun; Sul, Onejae

    2016-05-01

    We report on the self-refreshing characteristics of a micromachined airborne particle sensor. The sensor consists of a bridge-type beam having an oscillating paddle-type particle collector at its center. When a positive potential is applied to the paddle, the sensor is able to attract and collect negatively charged airborne particles while oscillating close to its resonant frequency and thereby measure their density from the change in the oscillating phase at ˜10 pg resolution. When the applied potential is removed, the collected particles are detached from the sensor due to momentum transfer from the oscillating paddle, thus demonstrating a self-refreshing capability.

  9. Experimental Validation of a Compound Control Scheme for a Two-Axis Inertially Stabilized Platform with Multi-Sensors in an Unmanned Helicopter-Based Airborne Power Line Inspection System

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Jia, Yuan; Zhao, Qiang; Yu, Ruixia

    2016-01-01

    A compound control scheme is proposed to achieve high control performance for a two-axis inertially stabilized platform (ISP) with multi-sensors applied to an unmanned helicopter (UH)-based airborne power line inspection (APLI) system. Compared with the traditional two closed-loop control scheme that is composed of a high-bandwidth rate loop and a lower bandwidth position loop, a new current loop inside rate loop is particularly designed to suppress the influences of voltage fluctuation from power supply and motor back electromotive force (BEMF) on control precision. In this way, the stabilization accuracy of the ISP is greatly improved. The rate loop, which is the middle one, is used to improve sensor’s stability precision through compensating for various disturbances. To ensure the pointing accuracy of the line of sight (LOS) of multi-sensors, the position loop is designed to be the outer one and acts as the main feedback path, by which the accurate pointing angular position is achieved. To validate the scheme, a series of experiments were carried out. The results show that the proposed compound control scheme can achieve reliable control precision and satisfy the requirements of real APLI tasks. PMID:26978371

  10. An airborne real-time hyperspectral target detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauli, Torbjorn; Haavardsholm, Trym V.; Kåsen, Ingebjørg; Arisholm, Gunnar; Kavara, Amela; Opsahl, Thomas Olsvik; Skaugen, Atle

    2010-04-01

    An airborne system for hyperspectral target detection is described. The main sensor is a HySpex pushbroom hyperspectral imager for the visible and near-infrared spectral range with 1600 pixels across track, supplemented by a panchromatic line imager. An optional third sensor can be added, either a SWIR hyperspectral camera or a thermal camera. In real time, the system performs radiometric calibration and georeferencing of the images, followed by image processing for target detection and visualization. The current version of the system implements only spectral anomaly detection, based on normal mixture models. Image processing runs on a PC with a multicore Intel processor and an Nvidia graphics processing unit (GPU). The processing runs in a software framework optimized for large sustained data rates. The platform is a Cessna 172 aircraft based close to FFI, modified with a camera port in the floor.

  11. Efficient method for the determination of image correspondence in airborne applications using inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Woods, Matthew; Katsaggelos, Aggelos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient method for the measurement of a dense image correspondence vector field using supplementary data from an inertial navigation sensor (INS). The application is suited to airborne imaging systems, such as an unmanned air vehicle, where size, weight, and power restrictions limit the amount of onboard processing available. The limited processing will typically exclude the use of traditional, but computationally expensive, optical flow and block matching algorithms, such as Lucas-Kanade, Horn-Schunck, or the adaptive rood pattern search. Alternatively, the measurements obtained from an INS, on board the platform, lead to a closed-form solution to the correspondence field. Airborne platforms are well suited to this application because they already possess INSs and global positioning systems as part of their existing avionics package. We derive the closed-form solution for the image correspondence vector field based on the INS data. We then show, through both simulations and real flight data, that the closed-form inertial sensor solution outperforms traditional optical flow and block matching methods.

  12. CALIOPE airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system design

    SciTech Connect

    Mietz, D.; Archuleta, B.; Archuleta, J.

    1997-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently developing an airborne CO{sub 2} Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system based on second generation technology demonstrated last summer at NTS. The CALIOPE Airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system requirements have been compiled based on the mission objectives and SONDIAL model trade studies. Subsystem designs have been developed based on flow down from these system requirements, as well as experience gained from second generation ground tests and N-ABLE (Non-proliferation AirBorne Lidar Experiments) airborne experiments. This paper presents the CACDI mission objectives, system requirements, the current subsystem design, and provides an overview of the airborne experimental plan.

  13. Performance metrics for an airborne imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.

    2004-11-01

    A series of airborne imaging experiments have been conducted on the island of Maui and at North Oscura Peak in New Mexico. Two platform altitudes were considered 3000 meters and 600 meters, both with a slant range to the target up to 10000 meters. The airborne imaging platform was a Twin Otter aircraft, which circled ground target sites. The second was a fixed platform on a mountain peak overlooking a valley 600 meters below. The experiments were performed during the day using solar illuminated target buildings. Imaging system performance predictions were calculated using standard atmospheric turbulence models, and aircraft boundary layer models. Several different measurement approaches were then used to estimate the actual system performance, and make comparisons with the calculations.

  14. Airborne HCl - CO sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartle, E. R.; Hall, G.

    1977-01-01

    A system for measuring air pollutants in-situ using an aircraft was designed, fabricated, and tested. The system is based upon a technique called Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) which provides for high sensitivity and specificity in the presence of interfering species. This particular system was designed for measuring hydrochloric acid and carbon monoxide gases emitted from rocket exhaust effluents.

  15. A multisensor system for airborne surveillance of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Ketchal, R.; Catoe, C.

    1973-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is developing a prototype airborne oil surveillance system for use in its Marine Environmental Protection Program. The prototype system utilizes an X-band side-looking radar, a 37-GHz imaging microwave radiometer, a multichannel line scanner, and a multispectral low light level system. The system is geared to detecting and mapping oil spills and potential pollution violators anywhere within a 25 nmi range of the aircraft flight track under all but extreme weather conditions. The system provides for false target discrimination and maximum identification of spilled materials. The system also provides an automated detection alarm, as well as a color display to achieve maximum coupling between the sensor data and the equipment operator.

  16. Laboratory and field portable system for calibrating airborne multispectral scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlow, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Manufacturers of airborne multispectral scanners suggest procedures for calibration and alignment that are usually awkward and even questionable. For example, the procedures may require: separating the scanner from calibration and alignment sources by 100 feet or more, employing folding mirrors, tampering with the detectors after the procedures are finished, etc. Under the best of conditions such procedures require about three hours yielding questionable confidence in the results; under many conditions, however, procedures commonly take six to eight hours, yielding no satisfactory results. EG and G, Inc. has designed and built a calibration and alignment system for airborne scanners which solves those problems, permitting the procedures to be carried out in about two to three hours. This equipment can be quickly disassembled, transported with the scanner in all but the smallest single engine aircraft, and reassembled in a few hours. The subsystems of this equipment are commonly available from manufacturers of optical and electronic equipment. The other components are easily purchased, or fabricated. The scanner discussed is the Model DS-1260 digital line scanner manufactured by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. It is a dual-sensor system which is operated in one of two combination of sensors: one spectrometer head (which provides simultaneous coverage in ten visible channels) and one thermal infrared detector, or simply two thermal infrared detectors.

  17. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  18. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on airborne wind shear detection and warning systems are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: terms of reference; case study; flight management; sensor fusion and flight evaluation; Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data link/display; heavy rain aerodynamics; and second generation reactive systems.

  19. Smart Sensor Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Stetter, J. R.; Hesketh, P. J.; Liu, C. C.

    Sensors and sensor systems are vital to our awareness of our surroundings and provide safety, security, and surveillance, as well as enable monitoring of our health and environment. A transformative advance in the field of sensor technology has been the development of "Smart Sensor Systems". The definition of a Smart Sensor may vary, but typically at a minimum a Smart Sensor is the combination of a sensing element with processing capabilities provided by a microprocessor. That is, Smart Sensors are basic sensing elements with embedded intelligence. The sensor signal is fed to the microprocessor, which processes the data and provides an informative output to an external user. A more expansive view of a Smart Sensor System, which is used in this article, is illustrated in Fig. 19.1: a complete self-contained sensor system that includes the capabilities for logging, processing with a model of sensor response and other data, self-contained power, and an ability to transmit or display informative data to an outside user. The fundamental idea of a smart sensor is that the integration of silicon microprocessors with sensor technology cannot only provide interpretive power and customized outputs, but also significantly improve sensor system performance and capabilities.

  20. Distributed-aperture infrared sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusgard, Thomas C.

    1999-07-01

    The on-going maturation of electro-optic technology in which the advent of third generation focal plane array is being combined with the capabilities of increasingly powerful signal processing algorithm now points to a new direction in design of electro-optic sensor system for both military and non-military applications. Taking advantage of those advances. Distributed Aperture IR Sensor systems (DAIRS) are currently in development within the Defense Department for installation in a variety of platforms for utilization in a wide variety of tactical scenarios. DAIRS employs multiple fixed identical sensor to obtain the functionality that was previously obtained using specialized sensors for each function. In its role in tactical scenarios. DAIRS employs multiple fixed identical sensor to obtain the functionality that was previously obtained using specialized sensor for each function. In its role in tactical aircraft, DAIRS uses an array of six strategically located sensors which provide 4(pi) steradian sensor coverage, i.e., full sphere situational awareness (SA), to the aircrew. That awareness provides: missile threat warning, IR Search and Track, battle damage assessment, targeting assistance, and pilotage. DAIRS has applicability in providing expanded SA for surface ships, armored land vehicles and unmanned air combat vehicles. A typical sensor design has less than twenty-five percent of the weight, volume, and electrical power demand of current federated airborne IR sensor system and can become operational with a significant reduction in lifetime system cost. DAIRS, when combined with autocueing, may have a significant role in technological advancement of aircraft proximity warning system for in-flight collision avoidance. DAIRS is currently founded in part by the Office of Naval Research which will result in the IR Distributed Aperture System (MIDAS), which is funded as a Navy Advanced Technology Demonstration, the DAIRS will undergo airborne testing using four

  1. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk-jin; Jung, Jungkyo; Kang, Ki-mook; Kim, Seung Hee; Xu, Zhen; Hensley, Scott; Swan, Aaron; Duersch, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge.

  2. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk-jin; Jung, Jungkyo; Kang, Ki-mook; Kim, Seung Hee; Xu, Zhen; Hensley, Scott; Swan, Aaron; Duersch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:26437413

  3. Dedicated IR imaging fire sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeser, Hans-Peter; Jahn, Herbert; Briess, Klaus; Lorenz, Eckehard; Skrbek, Wolfgang; Walter, Ingo; Oertel, Dieter

    2000-07-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and its industrial partners are working on two new spaceborne fire missions: (1) the Bi-spectral IR Detection small satellite mission (BIRD) to be launched in autumn 2000, and (2) the Innovative Infrared Sensor System FOCUS to be flown as an early external payload of the International Space Station. Both BIRD and FOCUS will use MIR/TIR solid state pushbroom imagers with real time digital signal processing providing an adaptive and very high dynamic range in radiometry. Promising results are obtained with the BIRD Airborne Simulator which has been flown at DLR in several airborne campaigns since 1997.

  4. NASA DC-8 Airborne Scanning Lidar Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Norman B.; Uthe, Edward E.; Kaiser, Robert D.; Tucker, Michael A.; Baloun, James E.; Gorordo, Javier G.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA DC-8 aircraft is used to support a variety of in-situ and remote sensors for conducting environmental measurements over global regions. As part of the atmospheric effects of aviation program (AEAP) the DC-8 is scheduled to conduct atmospheric aerosol and gas chemistry and radiation measurements of subsonic aircraft contrails and cirrus clouds. A scanning lidar system is being developed for installation on the DC-8 to support and extend the domain of the AEAP measurements. Design and objectives of the DC-8 scanning lidar are presented.

  5. NASA DC-8 airborne scanning LIDAR sensor development

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, N.B.; Uthe, E.E.; Kaiser, R.D.

    1996-11-01

    The NASA DC-8 aircraft is used to support a variety of in-situ and remote sensors for conducting environmental measurements over global regions. As part of the atmospheric effects of aviation program (AEAP) the DC-8 is scheduled to conduct atmospheric aerosol and gas chemistry and radiation measurements of subsonic aircraft contrails and cirrus clouds. A scanning lidar system is being developed for installation on the DC-8 to support and extend the domain of the AEAP measurements. Design and objectives of the DC-8 scanning lidar are presented. 4 figs.

  6. Performance assessment of MEMS adaptive optics in tactical airborne systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Robert K.

    1999-09-01

    Tactical airborne electro-optical systems are severely constrained by weight, volume, power, and cost. Micro- electrical-mechanical adaptive optics provide a solution that addresses the engineering realities without compromising spatial and temporal compensation requirements. Through modeling and analysis, we determined that substantial benefits could be gained for laser designators, ladar, countermeasures, and missile seekers. The developments potential exists for improving seeker imagery resolution 20 percent, extending countermeasures keep-out range by a factor of 5, doubling the range for ladar detection and identification, and compensating for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft boundary layers. Innovative concepts are required for atmospheric pat hand boundary layer compensation. We have developed design that perform these tasks using high speed scene-based wavefront sensing, IR aerosol laser guide stars, and extended-object wavefront beacons. We have developed a number of adaptive optics system configurations that met the spatial resolution requirements and we have determined that sensing and signal processing requirements can be met. With the help of micromachined deformable mirrors and sensor, we will be able to integrate the systems into existing airborne pods and missiles as well as next generation electro-optical systems.

  7. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  8. The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS): An Airborne Laser Altimeter for Mapping Vegetation and Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, J.; Rabine, David L.

    1998-01-01

    The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is an airborne laser altimeter designed to quickly and extensively map surface topography as well as the relative heights of other reflecting surfaces within the laser footprint. Since 1997, this instrument has primarily been used as the airborne simulator for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, a spaceborne mission designed to measure tree height, vertical structure and ground topography (including sub-canopy topography). LVIS is capable of operating from 500 m to 10 km above ground level with footprint sizes from 1 to 60 m. Laser footprints can be randomly spaced within the 7 degree telescope field-of-view, constrained only by the operating frequency of the ND:YAG Q-switched laser (500 Hz). A significant innovation of the LVIS altimeter is that all ranging, waveform recording, and range gating are performed using a single digitizer, clock base, and detector. A portion of the outgoing laser pulse is fiber-optically fed into the detector used to collect the return signal and this entire time history of the outgoing and return pulses is digitized at 500 Msamp/sec. The ground return is then located using software digital signal processing, even in the presence of visibly opaque clouds. The surface height distribution of all reflecting surfaces within the laser footprint can be determined, for example, tree height and ground elevation. To date, the LVIS system has been used to monitor topographic change at Long Valley caldera, CA, as part of NASA's Topography and Surface Change program, and to map tree structure and sub-canopy topography at the La Selva Biological Research Station in Costa Rica, as part of the pre-launch calibration activities for the VCL mission. We present results that show the laser altimeter consistently and accurately maps surface topography, including sub-canopy topography, and vegetation height and structure. These results confirm the measurement concept of VCL and highlight the benefits of

  9. ANALYZING WATER QUALITY WITH IMAGES ACQUIRED FROM AIRBORNE SENSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring different parameters of water quality can be a time consuming and expensive activity. However, the use of airborne light-sensitive (optical) instruments may enhance the abilities of resource managers to monitor water quality in rivers in a timely and cost-effective ma...

  10. Airborne imaging sensors for environmental monitoring & surveillance in support of oil spills & recovery efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R.; Jones, James; Frystacky, Heather; Coppin, Gaelle; Leavaux, Florian; Neyt, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Collection of pushbroom sensor imagery from a mobile platform requires corrections using inertial measurement units (IMU's) and DGPS in order to create useable imagery for environmental monitoring and surveillance of shorelines in freshwater systems, coastal littoral zones and harbor areas. This paper describes a suite of imaging systems used during collection of hyperspectral imagery in northern Florida panhandle and Gulf of Mexico airborne missions to detect weathered oil in coastal littoral zones. Underlying concepts of pushbroom imagery, the needed corrections for directional changes using DGPS and corrections for platform yaw, pitch, and roll using IMU data is described as well as the development and application of optimal band and spectral regions associated with weathered oil. Pushbroom sensor and frame camera data collected in response to the recent Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster is presented as the scenario documenting environmental monitoring and surveillance techniques using mobile sensing platforms. Data was acquired during the months of February, March, April and May of 2011. The low altitude airborne systems include a temperature stabilized hyperspectral imaging system capable of up to 1024 spectral channels and 1376 spatial across track pixels flown from 3,000 to 4,500 feet altitudes. The hyperspectral imaging system is collocated with a full resolution high definition video recorder for simultaneous HD video imagery, a 12.3 megapixel digital, a mapping camera using 9 inch film types that yields scanned aerial imagery with approximately 22,200 by 22,200 pixel multispectral imagery (~255 megapixel RGB multispectral images in order to conduct for spectral-spatial sharpening of fused multispectral, hyperspectral imagery. Two high spectral (252 channels) and radiometric sensitivity solid state spectrographs are used for collecting upwelling radiance (sub-meter pixels) with downwelling irradiance fiber optic attachment. These sensors are utilized for

  11. Gulf stream ground truth project - Results of the NRL airborne sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.; Chen, D. T.; Hammond, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an airborne study of the waves in the Gulf Stream are presented. These results show that the active microwave sensors (high-flight radar and wind-wave radar) provide consistent and accurate estimates of significant wave height and surface wind speed, respectively. The correlation between the wave height measurements of the high-flight radar and a laser profilometer is excellent.

  12. 76 FR 76333 - Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES) AGENCY...,'' to airborne wind energy systems (AWES). In addition, this notice requests information from...

  13. Measuring Radiant Emissions from Entire Prescribed Fires with Ground, Airborne and Satellite Sensors RxCADRE 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Matthew B.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Zajkowski, Thomas; Loudermilk, E. Louise; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Ellison, Luke; Kremens, Robert L.; Holley, William; Martinez, Otto; Paxton, Alexander; Bright, Benjamin C.; O'Brien, Joseph J.; Hornsby, Benjamin; Ichoku, Charles; Faulring, Jason; Gerace, Aaron; Peterson, David; Mauceri, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Characterising radiation from wildland fires is an important focus of fire science because radiation relates directly to the combustion process and can be measured across a wide range of spatial extents and resolutions. As part of a more comprehensive set of measurements collected during the 2012 Prescribed Fire Combustion and Atmospheric Dynamics Research (RxCADRE) field campaign, we used ground, airborne and spaceborne sensors to measure fire radiative power (FRP) from whole fires, applying different methods to small (2 ha) and large (.100 ha) burn blocks. For small blocks (n1/46), FRP estimated from an obliquely oriented long-wave infrared (LWIR) camera mounted on a boom lift were compared with FRP derived from combined data from tower-mounted radiometers and remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS). For large burn blocks (n1/43), satellite FRP measurements from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensors were compared with near-coincident FRP measurements derived from a LWIR imaging system aboard a piloted aircraft. We describe measurements and consider their strengths and weaknesses. Until quantitative sensors exist for small RPAS, their use in fire research will remain limited. For oblique, airborne and satellite sensors, further FRP measurement development is needed along with greater replication of coincident measurements, which we show to be feasible.

  14. Bioinspired Sensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    del Valle, Manel

    2011-01-01

    This editorial summarizes and classifies the contributions presented by different authors to the special issue of the journal Sensors dedicated to Bioinspired Sensor Systems. From the coupling of sensor arrays or networks, plus computer processing abilities, new applications to mimic or to complement human senses are arising in the context of ambient intelligence. Principles used, and illustrative study cases have been presented permitting readers to grasp the current status of the field. PMID:22346637

  15. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS). Topical report, October 1993--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of the project are to construct a geophysical sensor system based on a remotely operated model helicopter (ROH) and to evaluate the efficacy of the system for characterization of hazardous environmental sites. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is a geophysical survey system that uses a ROH as the survey vehicle. We have selected the ROH because of its advantages over fixed wing and ground based vehicles. Lower air speed and superior maneuverability of the ROH make it better suited for geophysical surveys than a fixed wing model aircraft. The ROH can fly close to the ground, allowing detection of weak or subtle anomalies. Unlike ground based vehicles, the ROH can traverse difficult terrain while providing a stable sensor platform. ROH does not touch the ground during the course of a survey and is capable of functioning over water and surf zones. The ROH has been successfully used in the motion picture industry and by geology companies for payload bearing applications. The only constraint to use of the airborne system is that the ROH must remain visible to the pilot. Obstructed areas within a site can be characterized by relocating the base station to alternate positions. GAUSS consists of a ROH with radio controller, a data acquisition and processing (DAP) system, and lightweight digital sensor systems. The objective of our Phase I research was to develop a DAP and sensors suitable for ROH operation. We have constructed these subsystems and integrated them to produce an automated, hand-held geophysical surveying system, referred to as the ``pre-prototype``. We have performed test surveys with the pre-prototype to determine the functionality of the and DAP and sensor subsystems and their suitability for airborne application. The objective of the Phase II effort will be to modify the existing subsystems and integrate them into an airborne prototype. Efficacy of the prototype for geophysical survey of hazardous sites will then be determined.

  16. Optical cloud detection from a disposable airborne sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, Keri; Harrison, R. Giles; Brus, David

    2016-04-01

    In-situ measurement of cloud droplet microphysical properties is most commonly made from manned aircraft platforms due to the size and weight of the instrumentation, which is both costly and typically limited to sampling only a few clouds. This work describes the development of a small, lightweight (<200g), disposable, optical cloud sensor which is designed for use on routine radiosonde balloon flights and also small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms. The sensor employs the backscatter principle, using an ultra-bright LED as the illumination source, with a photodiode detector. Scattering of the LED light by cloud droplets generates a small optical signal which is separated from background light fluctuations using a lock-in technique. The signal to noise obtained permits cloud detection using the scattered LED light, even in daytime. During recent field tests in Pallas, Finland, the retrieved optical sensor signal has been compared with the DMT Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer (CAS) which measures cloud droplets in the size range from 0.5 to 50 microns. Both sensors were installed at the hill top observatory of Sammaltunturi during a field campaign in October and November 2015, which experienced long periods of immersion inside cloud. Preliminary analysis shows very good agreement between the CAPS and the disposable cloud sensor for cloud droplets >5micron effective diameter. Such data and calibration of the sensor will be discussed here, as will simultaneous balloon launches of the optical cloud sensor through the same cloud layers.

  17. Ultrawideband synthetic vision sensor for airborne wire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Robert J.; Larrick, J. F.; Cade, Jeffrey E.; Rivers, Eugene P., Jr.

    1998-07-01

    A low cost, miniature ultra wideband (UWB) radar has demonstrated the ability to detect suspended wires and other small obstacles at distances exceeding several hundred feet using an average output power of less than 10 microwatts. Originally developed as a high precision UWB radar altimeter for the Navy's Program Executive Office for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Cruise Missiles, an improved sensitivity version was recently developed for the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC Dahlgren Division) as part of the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory's Hummingbird program for rotary wing platforms. Utilizing a short pulse waveform of approximately 2.5 nanoseconds in duration, the receiver processor exploits the leading edge of the radar return pulse to achieve range resolutions of less than one foot. The resultant 400 MHz bandwidth spectrum produces both a broad frequency excitation for enhanced detection, as well as a low probability of intercept and detection (LPI/D) signature for covert applications. This paper describes the design and development of the ultra wideband sensor, as well as performance results achieved during field testing at NSWC's Dahlgren, VA facility. These results are compared with those achieved with a high resolution EHF radar and a laser-based detection system.

  18. Microprocessor-Based Airborne Spectrometer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kates, John C.

    1980-08-01

    A system for airborne infrared spectral signature measurements has been developed using a Fourier transform spectrometer interfaced to a microprocessor data acquisition, control and display system. The microprocessor is a DEC LSI-ll with 20KW RAM, 4KW EPROM, DMA spectrometer interface, digital magnetic tape, and dot-matrix video graphic display. A real-time executive tailored to the requirements and resources available allows concurrent data acquisition, recording, reduction and display. Using multiple buffers, acquisition of spectrometer data via DMA is overlapped with magnetic tape output. A background task selects the most recent spectrometer data and processes it using an FFT into a raw spectrum. A reference background spectrum is subtracted to isolate the data component, then a reference instrument response function is applied to obtain a calibrated absolute irradiance spectrum. The irradiance spectrum is displayed on the video graphic display and mixed with boresight camera video to show the target spectrum superimposed on the target image. Extensive selftest facilities are incorporated for testing all system components and compatibility with data reduction systems. System calibration is supported by selection of reference blackbody temperatures, apertures, and distances. The instrument response curve obtained during calibration is displayed for verification of correct spectrometer operation or diagnosis of faults.

  19. An approach to evaluating reactive airborne wind shear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Joseph P., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An approach to evaluating reactive airborne windshear detection systems was developed to support a deployment study for future FAA ground-based windshear detection systems. The deployment study methodology assesses potential future safety enhancements beyond planned capabilities. The reactive airborne systems will be an integral part of planned windshear safety enhancements. The approach to evaluating reactive airborne systems involves separate analyses for both landing and take-off scenario. The analysis estimates the probability of effective warning considering several factors including NASA energy height loss characteristics, reactive alert timing, and a probability distribution for microburst strength.

  20. Medium altitude airborne Geiger-mode mapping LIDAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifton, William E.; Steele, Bradley; Nelson, Graham; Truscott, Antony; Itzler, Mark; Entwistle, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Over the past 15 years the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and private industry have been developing airborne LiDAR systems based on arrays of Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode (GmAPD) detectors capable of detecting a single photon. The extreme sensitivity of GmAPD detectors allows operation of LiDAR sensors at unprecedented altitudes and area collection rates in excess of 1,000 km2/hr. Up until now the primary emphasis of this technology has been limited to defense applications despite the significant benefits of applying this technology to non-military uses such as mapping, monitoring critical infrastructure and disaster relief. This paper briefly describes the operation of GmAPDs, design and operation of a Geiger-mode LiDAR, a comparison of Geiger-mode and traditional linear mode LiDARs, and a description of the first commercial Geiger-mode LiDAR system, the IntelliEarth™ Geospatial Solutions Geiger-mode LiDAR sensor.

  1. Measurements of Solar Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence at 685 nm by Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, F.; Yee, J. H.; Boldt, J.; Cook, W. B.; Corp, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) by terrestrial vegetation is linked closely to photosynthetic efficiency that can be exploited to monitor the plant health status and to assess the terrestrial carbon budget from space. The weak, broad continuum ChlF signal can be detected from the fill-in of strong O2 absorption lines or solar Fraunhofer lines in the reflected spectral radiation. The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS) is a triple etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer designed and optimized specifically for the ChlF sensing from an airborne platform using this line fill-in technique. In this paper, we will present the results of APFS ChlF measurements obtained from a NASA Langley King Air during two airborne campaigns (12/12 in 2014 and 5/20 in 2015) over various land, river, and vegetated targets in Virginia during stressed and growth seasons.

  2. Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll Fluorescence by the Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, J. H.; Boldt, J.; Cook, W. B.; Morgan, F., II; Demajistre, R.; Cook, B. D.; Corp, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) by terrestrial vegetation is linked closely to photosynthetic efficiency that can be exploited to monitor the plant health status and to assess the terrestrial carbon budget from space. The weak, broad continuum ChlF signal can be detected from the amount of fill-in of strong O2 absorption lines or Fraunhofer lines in the reflected solar spectral radiation. The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS) is designed and constructed specifically for airborne and groundbased ChlF measurements using the line fill-in ChlF measurement technique. In this paper, we will present the design of this triple etalon Fabry-Perot imaging instrument and the results of its vegetation fluorescence measurements obtained from the ground in the laboratory and from a NASA Langley King Air during our 2014 airborne campaign over vegetated targets in North Carolina and Virginia.

  3. Development of a multi-sensor airborne investigation platform based on an ultra-light aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herd, Rainer; Holst, Jonathan; Lay, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In the year 2012 the chair Raw Material and Natural Resource Management of Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus, Germany started to develop, construct and assemble a multi-sensor airborne investigation system based on an ultra-light aircraft. The conceptual ideas were born several years before and triggered by the increasing demand of spatial underground information, increasing restrictions to access private property and the lack of affordable commercially operated systems for projects with small budgets. The concept of the presented system comprehends a full composite ultra-light aircraft, the Pipistrel VIRUS which combines a low minimum (65 km/h, a high crusing speed (250 km/h, a long range (1700 km) and a low noise potential. The investigation equipment which can be modified according to the investigation target comprises actually a CsI-y-spectrometer in the fuselage, 2 K-magnetometer at the wing tips and a VLF-EM-receiver underneath the tail. This configuration enables the system to operate for mineral exploration, geological mapping, detection of freshwater resources and brines and different environmental monitoring missions. The development and actual stage of the project will be presented. The first operating flight is scheduled for spring 2013.

  4. Progress in Development of an Airborne Turbulence Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David W.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft encounters with turbulence are the leading cause of in-flight injuries (Tyrvanas 2003) and have occasionally resulted in passenger and crew fatalities. Most of these injuries are caused by sudden and unexpected encounters with severe turbulence in and around convective activity (Kaplan et al 2005). To alleviate this problem, the Turbulence Prediction and Warning Systems (TPAWS) element of NASA s Aviation Safety program has investigated technologies to detect and warn of hazardous in-flight turbulence. This effort has required the numerical modeling of atmospheric convection: 1) for characterizing convectively induced turbulence (CIT) environments, 2) for defining turbulence hazard metrics, and 3) as a means of providing realistic three-dimensional data sets that can be used to test and evaluate turbulence detection sensors. The data sets are being made available to industry and the FAA for certification of future airborne turbulence-detection systems (ATDS) with warning capability. Early in the TPAWS project, a radar-based ATDS was installed and flight tested on NASA s research aircraft, a B-757. This ATDS utilized new algorithms and hazard metrics that were developed for use with existing airborne predictive windshear radars, thus avoiding the installation of new hardware. This system was designed to detect and warn of hazardous CIT even in regions with weak radar reflectivity (i.e. 5-15 dBz). Results from an initial flight test of the ATDS were discussed in Hamilton and Proctor (2002a; 2002b). In companion papers (Proctor et al 2002a; 2002b), a numerical simulation of the most significant encounter from that flight test was presented. Since the presentation of these papers a second flight test has been conducted providing additional cases for examination. In this paper, we will present results from NASA s flight test and a numerical model simulation of a turbulence environment encountered on 30 April 2002. Progress leading towards FAA certification of

  5. Next-Generation NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System.

    PubMed

    Wright, C W; Hoge, F E; Swift, R N; Yungel, J K; Schirtzinger, C R

    2001-01-20

    The complete design and flight test of the next-generation Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL-3) is detailed. The application of new technology has allowed major reductions in weight, volume, and power requirements compared with the earlier AOL sensor. Subsystem designs for the new AOL sensor include new technology in fiber optics, spectrometer detector optical train, miniature photomultiplier modules, dual-laser wavelength excitation from a single small laser source, and new receiver optical configuration. The new design reduced telescope size and maintained the same principal fluorescence and water Raman bands but essentially retained a comparable measurement accuracy. A major advancement is the implementation of single-laser simultaneous excitation of two physically separate oceanic target areas: one stimulated by 532 nm and the other by 355 nm. Backscattered fluorescence and Raman signals from both targets are acquired simultaneously by use of the same telescope and spectrometer-detector system. Two digital oscilloscopes provide temporal- and depth-resolved data from each of seven spectral emission bands.

  6. Development of a new airborne humidigraph system.

    SciTech Connect

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Schmid, Beat; Chand, Duli; Hubbe, John M.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Nelson, Danny A.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2012-12-06

    Modeling and measurements of aerosol properties is complicated by the hygroscopic behavior of the aerosols adding significant uncertainty to our best estimates of the direct effect aerosols exert on the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Airborne measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity are particularly challenging but critically needed. This motivated the development of a newly designed system which can measure the dependence of the aerosol light scattering coefficient (σsp) on relative humidity (RH), known as f(RH), in real-time at a rapid rate (<10 s) on an aerial platform. The new system has several advantages over existing systems. It consists of three integrating nephelometers and humidity conditioners for simultaneous measurement of the σsp at three different RHs. The humidity is directly controlled in exchanger cells without significant temperature disturbances and without particle dilution, heating or loss of volatile compounds. The single-wavelength nephelometers are illuminated by LED-based light sources thereby minimizing heating of the sample stream. The flexible design of the RH conditioners, consisting of a number of specially designed exchanger cells (driers or humidifiers), enables us to measure f(RH) under hydration or dehydration conditions (always starting with the aerosol in a known state) with a simple system re-configuration. These exchanger cells have been characterized for losses of particles using latex spheres and laboratory generated ammonium sulfate aerosols. Residence times of 6 - 9 s in the exchangers and subsequent lines is sufficient for most aerosols to attain equilibrium with the new water vapor content. The performance of this system has been assessed aboard DOE’s G-1 research aircraft during test flights over California, Oregon, and Washington.

  7. Modeling and performance assessment in QinetiQ of EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John W.; Potter, Gary E.

    2002-11-01

    QinetiQ are the technical authority responsible for specifying the performance requirements for the procurement of airborne reconnaissance systems, on behalf of the UK MoD. They are also responsible for acceptance of delivered systems, overseeing and verifying the installed system performance as predicted and then assessed by the contractor. Measures of functional capability are central to these activities. The conduct of these activities utilises the broad technical insight and wide range of analysis tools and models available within QinetiQ. This paper focuses on the tools, methods and models that are applicable to systems based on EO and IR sensors. The tools, methods and models are described, and representative output for systems that QinetiQ has been responsible for is presented. The principle capability applicable to EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems is the STAR (Simulation Tools for Airborne Reconnaissance) suite of models. STAR generates predictions of performance measures such as GRD (Ground Resolved Distance) and GIQE (General Image Quality) NIIRS (National Imagery Interpretation Rating Scales). It also generates images representing sensor output, using the scene generation software CAMEO-SIM and the imaging sensor model EMERALD. The simulated image 'quality' is fully correlated with the predicted non-imaging performance measures. STAR also generates image and table data that is compliant with STANAG 7023, which may be used to test ground station functionality.

  8. Airborne measurements in the infrared using FTIR-based imaging hyperspectral sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckrin, E.; Turcotte, C. S.; Lahaie, P.; Dubé, D.; Farley, V.; Lagueux, P.; Marcotte, F.; Chamberland, M.

    2009-05-01

    Hyperspectral ground mapping is being used in an ever-increasing extent for numerous applications in the military, geology and environmental fields. The different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum help produce information of differing nature. The visible, near-infrared and short-wave infrared radiation (400 nm to 2.5 μm) has been mostly used to analyze reflected solar light, while the mid-wave (3 to 5 μm) and long-wave (8 to 12 μm or thermal) infrared senses the self-emission of molecules directly, enabling the acquisition of data during night time. Push-broom dispersive sensors have been typically used for airborne hyperspectral mapping. However, extending the spectral range towards the mid-wave and long-wave infrared brings performance limitations due to the self emission of the sensor itself. The Fourier-transform spectrometer technology has been extensively used in the infrared spectral range due to its high transmittance as well as throughput and multiplex advantages, thereby reducing the sensor self-emission problem. Telops has developed the Hyper-Cam, a rugged and compact infrared hyperspectral imager. The Hyper-Cam is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides passive signature measurement capability, with up to 320x256 pixels at spectral resolutions of up to 0.25 cm-1. The Hyper-Cam has been used on the ground in several field campaigns, including the demonstration of standoff chemical agent detection. More recently, the Hyper-Cam has been integrated into an airplane to provide airborne measurement capabilities. A special pointing module was designed to compensate for airplane attitude and forward motion. To our knowledge, the Hyper-Cam is the first commercial airborne hyperspectral imaging sensor based on Fourier-transform infrared technology. The first airborne measurements and some preliminary performance criteria for the Hyper-Cam are presented in

  9. Airborne measurements in the infrared using FTIR-based imaging hyperspectral sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckrin, E.; Turcotte, C. S.; Lahaie, P.; Dubé, D.; Lagueux, P.; Farley, V.; Marcotte, F.; Chamberland, M.

    2009-09-01

    Hyperspectral ground mapping is being used in an ever-increasing extent for numerous applications in the military, geology and environmental fields. The different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum help produce information of differing nature. The visible, near-infrared and short-wave infrared radiation (400 nm to 2.5 μm) has been mostly used to analyze reflected solar light, while the mid-wave (3 to 5 μm) and long-wave (8 to 12 μm or thermal) infrared senses the self-emission of molecules directly, enabling the acquisition of data during night time. Push-broom dispersive sensors have been typically used for airborne hyperspectral mapping. However, extending the spectral range towards the mid-wave and long-wave infrared brings performance limitations due to the self emission of the sensor itself. The Fourier-transform spectrometer technology has been extensively used in the infrared spectral range due to its high transmittance as well as throughput and multiplex advantages, thereby reducing the sensor self-emission problem. Telops has developed the Hyper-Cam, a rugged and compact infrared hyperspectral imager. The Hyper-Cam is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides passive signature measurement capability, with up to 320x256 pixels at spectral resolutions of up to 0.25 cm-1. The Hyper-Cam has been used on the ground in several field campaigns, including the demonstration of standoff chemical agent detection. More recently, the Hyper-Cam has been integrated into an airplane to provide airborne measurement capabilities. A special pointing module was designed to compensate for airplane attitude and forward motion. To our knowledge, the Hyper-Cam is the first commercial airborne hyperspectral imaging sensor based on Fourier-transform infrared technology. The first airborne measurements and some preliminary performance criteria for the Hyper-Cam are presented in

  10. Assessment of lightweight mobile nuclear power systems. [for airborne vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Rom, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    A review was made of lightweight mobile nuclear power systems (LMNPS). Data cover technical feasibility studies of LMNPS and airborne vehicles, mission studies, and non-technical conditions that are required to develop and use LMNPS.

  11. Soldier systems sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Kathryne M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

  12. A Micro Aerosol Sensor for the Measurement of Airborne Ultrafine Particles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Particle number concentration and particle size are the two key parameters used to characterize exposure to airborne nanoparticles or ultrafine particles that have attracted the most attention. This paper proposes a simple micro aerosol sensor for detecting the number concentration and particle size of ultrafine particles with diameters from 50 to 253 nm based on electrical diffusion charging. The sensor is composed of a micro channel and a couple of planar electrodes printed on two circuit boards assembled in parallel, which thus integrate charging, precipitating and measurement elements into one chip, the overall size of which is 98 × 38 × 25 mm³. The experiment results demonstrate that the sensor is useful for measuring monodisperse aerosol particles with number concentrations from 300 to 2.5 × 10⁴ /cm³ and particle sizes from 50 to 253 nm. The aerosol sensor has a simple structure and small size, which is favorable for use in handheld devices. PMID:26999156

  13. A Micro Aerosol Sensor for the Measurement of Airborne Ultrafine Particles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Particle number concentration and particle size are the two key parameters used to characterize exposure to airborne nanoparticles or ultrafine particles that have attracted the most attention. This paper proposes a simple micro aerosol sensor for detecting the number concentration and particle size of ultrafine particles with diameters from 50 to 253 nm based on electrical diffusion charging. The sensor is composed of a micro channel and a couple of planar electrodes printed on two circuit boards assembled in parallel, which thus integrate charging, precipitating and measurement elements into one chip, the overall size of which is 98 × 38 × 25 mm3. The experiment results demonstrate that the sensor is useful for measuring monodisperse aerosol particles with number concentrations from 300 to 2.5 × 104 /cm3 and particle sizes from 50 to 253 nm. The aerosol sensor has a simple structure and small size, which is favorable for use in handheld devices. PMID:26999156

  14. INSENS sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.W.; Baker, J.; Benzel, D.M.; Fuess, D.A.

    1993-09-29

    This paper describes an unattended ground sensor system that has been developed for the immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The system, known as INSENS, was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for use by the United States Border Patrol. This system assists in the detection of illegal entry of aliens and contraband (illegal drugs, etc.) into the United States along its land borders. Key to the system is its flexible modular design which allows future software and hardware enhancements to the system without altering the fundamental architecture of the system. Elements of the system include a sensor system capable of processing signals from multiple directional probes, a repeater system, and a handheld monitor system. Seismic, passive infrared (PIR), and magnetic probes are currently supported. The design of the INSENS system elements and their performance are described.

  15. Electronic Nose System Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed and built an electronic nose system -- ENose -- to take on the duty of staying alert for smells that could indicate hazardous conditions in a closed spacecraft environment. Its sensors (shown here) are tailored so they conduct electricity differently when an air stream carries a particular chemical across them. JPL has designed and built a 3-pound flight version. The active parts are 32 sensors, each with a different mix of polymers saturated with carbon. When certain chemicals latch onto a sensor, they change how the sensor conducts electricity. This signal tells how much of a compound is in the air. The electronic nose flown aboard STS-95 in 1998 was capable of successfully detecting 10 toxic compounds.

  16. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  17. Vineyard zonal management for grape quality assessment by combining airborne remote sensed imagery and soil sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, I.; Martínez De Toda, F.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Vineyard variability within the fields is well known by grape growers, producing different plant responses and fruit characteristics. Many technologies have been developed in last recent decades in order to assess this spatial variability, including remote sensing and soil sensors. In this paper we study the possibility of creating a stable classification system that better provides useful information for the grower, especially in terms of grape batch quality sorting. The work was carried out during 4 years in a rain-fed Tempranillo vineyard located in Rioja (Spain). NDVI was extracted from airborne imagery, and soil conductivity (EC) data was acquired by an EM38 sensor. Fifty-four vines were sampled at véraison for vegetative parameters and before harvest for yield and grape analysis. An Isocluster unsupervised classification in two classes was performed in 5 different ways, combining NDVI maps individually, collectively and combined with EC. The target vines were assigned in different zones depending on the clustering combination. Analysis of variance was performed in order to verify the ability of the combinations to provide the most accurate information. All combinations showed a similar behaviour concerning vegetative parameters. Yield parameters classify better by the EC-based clustering, whilst maturity grape parameters seemed to give more accuracy by combining all NDVIs and EC. Quality grape parameters (anthocyanins and phenolics), presented similar results for all combinations except for the NDVI map of the individual year, where the results were poorer. This results reveal that stable parameters (EC or/and NDVI all-together) clustering outcomes in better information for a vineyard zonal management strategy.

  18. Airborne multisensor pod system (AMPS) data: Multispectral data integration and processing hints

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, T.J.; Lamb, A.

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Non-Proliferation (NN-20) has developed a suite of airborne remote sensing systems that simultaneously collect coincident data from a US Navy P-3 aircraft. The primary objective of the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) Program is {open_quotes}to collect multisensor data that can be used for data research, both to reduce interpretation problems associated with data overload and to develop information products more complete than can be obtained from any single sensor.{close_quotes} The sensors are housed in wing-mounted pods and include: a Ku-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar; a CASI Hyperspectral Imager; a Daedalus 3600 Airborne Multispectral Scanner; a Wild Heerbrugg RC-30 motion compensated large format camera; various high resolution, light intensified and thermal video cameras; and several experimental sensors (e.g. the Portable Hyperspectral Imager of Low-Light Spectroscopy (PHILLS)). Over the past year or so, the Coastal Marine Resource Assessment (CAMRA) group at the Florida Department of Environmental Protection`s Marine Research Institute (FMRI) has been working with the Department of Energy through the Naval Research Laboratory to develop applications and products from existing data. Considerable effort has been spent identifying image formats integration parameters. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.; Tsoucalas, George; Anderson, Mark; Mulally, Daniel; Moninger, William; Mamrosh, Richard

    2004-01-01

    One of the recommendations of the National Aviation Weather Program Council was to expand and institutionalize the generation, dissemination, and use of automated pilot reports (PIREPS) to the full spectrum of the aviation community, including general aviation. In response to this and other similar recommendations, NASA initiated cooperative research into the development of an electronic pilot reporting capability (Daniels 2002). The ultimate goal is to develop a small low-cost sensor, collect useful meteorological observations below 25,000 ft., downlink the data in near real time, and use the data to improve weather forecasts. Primary users of the data include pilots, who are one targeted audience for the improved weather information that will result from the TAMDAR data. The weather data will be disseminated and used to improve aviation safety by providing pilots with enhanced weather situational awareness. In addition, the data will be used to improve the accuracy and timeliness of weather forecasts. Other users include air traffic controllers, flight service stations, and airline weather centers. Additionally, the meteorological data collected by TAMDAR is expected to have a significant positive impact on forecast accuracy for ground based applications.

  20. Integrated Active Fire Retrievals and Biomass Burning Emissions Using Complementary Near-Coincident Ground, Airborne and Spaceborne Sensor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Wilfrid; Ellicott, Evan; Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke; Dickinson, Matthew B.; Ottmar, Roger D.; Clements, Craig; Hall, Dianne; Ambrosia, Vincent; Kremens, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ground, airborne and spaceborne data were collected for a 450 ha prescribed fire implemented on 18 October 2011 at the Henry W. Coe State Park in California. The integration of various data elements allowed near coincident active fire retrievals to be estimated. The Autonomous Modular Sensor-Wildfire (AMS) airborne multispectral imaging system was used as a bridge between ground and spaceborne data sets providing high quality reference information to support satellite fire retrieval error analyses and fire emissions estimates. We found excellent agreement between peak fire radiant heat flux data (less than 1% error) derived from near-coincident ground radiometers and AMS. Both MODIS and GOES imager active fire products were negatively influenced by the presence of thick smoke, which was misclassified as cloud by their algorithms, leading to the omission of fire pixels beneath the smoke, and resulting in the underestimation of their retrieved fire radiative power (FRP) values for the burn plot, compared to the reference airborne data. Agreement between airborne and spaceborne FRP data improved significantly after correction for omission errors and atmospheric attenuation, resulting in as low as 5 difference between AquaMODIS and AMS. Use of in situ fuel and fire energy estimates in combination with a collection of AMS, MODIS, and GOES FRP retrievals provided a fuel consumption factor of 0.261 kg per MJ, total energy release of 14.5 x 10(exp 6) MJ, and total fuel consumption of 3.8 x 10(exp 6) kg. Fire emissions were calculated using two separate techniques, resulting in as low as 15 difference for various species

  1. Implantable medical sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Darrow, Christopher B.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Lane, Stephen M.; Lee, Abraham P.; Wang, Amy W.

    2001-01-01

    An implantable chemical sensor system for medical applications is described which permits selective recognition of an analyte using an expandable biocompatible sensor, such as a polymer, that undergoes a dimensional change in the presence of the analyte. The expandable polymer is incorporated into an electronic circuit component that changes its properties (e.g., frequency) when the polymer changes dimension. As the circuit changes its characteristics, an external interrogator transmits a signal transdermally to the transducer, and the concentration of the analyte is determined from the measured changes in the circuit. This invention may be used for minimally invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

  2. Chemical sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Darrow, Christopher B.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Lane, Stephen M.; Lee, Abraham P.; Wang, Amy W.

    2002-01-01

    An implantable chemical sensor system for medical applications is described which permits selective recognition of an analyte using an expandable biocompatible sensor, such as a polymer, that undergoes a dimensional change in the presence of the analyte. The expandable polymer is incorporated into an electronic circuit component that changes its properties (e.g., frequency) when the polymer changes dimension. As the circuit changes its characteristics, an external interrogator transmits a signal transdermally to the transducer, and the concentration of the analyte is determined from the measured changes in the circuit. This invention may be used for minimally invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

  3. Positional Accuracy of Airborne Integrated Global Positioning and Inertial Navigation Systems for Mapping in Glen Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.; Hothem, Larry D.

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution airborne and satellite image sensor systems integrated with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) may offer a quick and cost-effective way to gather accurate topographic map information without ground control or aerial triangulation. The Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing of aerial photography was used in this project to examine the positional accuracy of integrated GPS/INS for terrain mapping in Glen Canyon, Arizona. The research application in this study yielded important information on the usefulness and limits of airborne integrated GPS/INS data-capture systems for mapping.

  4. Radiometric stability assessment of an airborne photogrammetric sensor in a test field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markelin, Lauri; Honkavaara, Eija; Hakala, Teemu; Suomalainen, Juha; Peltoniemi, Jouni

    Radiometric stability is a desired property of digital photogrammetric large-format sensors. This article presents a methodology for determining the radiometric stability of airborne imaging sensors in operational conditions in a test field and the results of stability evaluation of a large-format photogrammetric frame sensor DMC, from Intergraph. The imagery was collected in two days using nine different exposure settings, and images collected with variable exposure time and aperture were compared. The results showed promising stability in many cases, up to a level of 2% of the radiance, but less favorable results also appeared. Possible reasons for the unfavorable results could be the limitations of the experimental set-up or the instability of the sensor. DMC showed high radiometric performance potential, but high sensitivity to the exposure settings. Based on the results, recommendations for the future test field calibration and validation procedures were given. One limitation of the analysis was the insufficient information about the sensor stability potential; proposals were given to sensor manufacturers concerning the necessary information.

  5. Underground and airborne matter-wave inertial sensors: towards fundamental tests of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyer, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    Matter-wave inertial sensing relies on the capability of manipulating the coherent wave nature of matter to build an interferometer and accurately measure a phase difference. Since the massive particle associated to the matter wave senses inertial effects, the interferometer represents an accurate inertial probe. Atom interferometers have benefited from the outstanding developments of laser-cooling techniques and reached accuracies comparable to those of inertial sensors based on optical interferometry. Thanks to their long term stability, they offer a breakthrough advance in accelerometry, gyroscopy and gravimetry, for applications to inertial guidance, geoid determinations, geophysics and metrology. They are also excellent candidates for laboratory-based tests of general relativity that could compete with the current tests using astronomical or macroscopic bodies. For example, they may provide new answers to the question of whether the free fall acceleration of a particle is universal, i.e. independent of its internal composition and quantum properties. We report here the first operation of an airborne quantum inertial sensor. We highlight their promising applications to inertial navigation and Earth observation. We also describe the improvement of the quantum sensor sensitivity in weightlessness, and discuss the possibility to conduct airborne or spaceborne tests of the Universality of Free Fall with quantum objects. We finally describe a matter-wave laser based interferometric gravitational antenna (MIGA). This infrastructure will allow for measuring with unprecedented resolution variations of the Earths gravity and of the strain of space-time allowing for enhancing the capabilities of existing and future gravitational wave detectors.

  6. Overview of hyperspectral remote sensing for mapping marine benthic habitats from airborne and underwater sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.

    2013-09-01

    The seafloor, with its diverse and dynamic benthic habitats varying on meter to centimeter scales, is difficult to accurately monitor with traditional techniques. The technology used to build imaging spectrometers has rapidly advanced in recent years with the advent of smaller sensors and better signal-to-noise capabilities that has facilitated their use in mapping fine-scale benthic features. Here, the use of such sensors for hyperspectral remote sensing of the seafloor from both airborne and underwater platforms is discussed. Benthic constituents provide a so-called optical fingerprint with spectral properties that are often too subtle to be discerned with simple color photographs or multichannel spectrometers. Applications include the recent field validation of the airborne Portable Remote Imaging SpectroMeter (PRISM), a new imaging sensor package optimized for coastal ocean processes in Elkorn Slough California. In these turbid sediment-laden waters, only subtle spectral differences differentiate seafloor with sediment from that with eelgrass. The ultimate goal is to provide robust radiometric approaches that accurately consider light attenuation by the water column and are able to be applied to diverse habitats without considerable foreknowledge.

  7. Radiometric Normalization of Large Airborne Image Data Sets Acquired by Different Sensor Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, S.; Beshah, B. T.

    2016-06-01

    Generating seamless mosaics of aerial images is a particularly challenging task when the mosaic comprises a large number of im-ages, collected over longer periods of time and with different sensors under varying imaging conditions. Such large mosaics typically consist of very heterogeneous image data, both spatially (different terrain types and atmosphere) and temporally (unstable atmo-spheric properties and even changes in land coverage). We present a new radiometric normalization or, respectively, radiometric aerial triangulation approach that takes advantage of our knowledge about each sensor's properties. The current implementation supports medium and large format airborne imaging sensors of the Leica Geosystems family, namely the ADS line-scanner as well as DMC and RCD frame sensors. A hierarchical modelling - with parameters for the overall mosaic, the sensor type, different flight sessions, strips and individual images - allows for adaptation to each sensor's geometric and radiometric properties. Additional parameters at different hierarchy levels can compensate radiome-tric differences of various origins to compensate for shortcomings of the preceding radiometric sensor calibration as well as BRDF and atmospheric corrections. The final, relative normalization is based on radiometric tie points in overlapping images, absolute radiometric control points and image statistics. It is computed in a global least squares adjustment for the entire mosaic by altering each image's histogram using a location-dependent mathematical model. This model involves contrast and brightness corrections at radiometric fix points with bilinear interpolation for corrections in-between. The distribution of the radiometry fixes is adaptive to each image and generally increases with image size, hence enabling optimal local adaptation even for very long image strips as typi-cally captured by a line-scanner sensor. The normalization approach is implemented in HxMap software. It has been

  8. Extracting dynamic spatial data from airborne imaging sensors to support traffic flow estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, C. K.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    The recent transition from analog to totally digital data acquisition and processing techniques in airborne surveying represents a major milestone in the evolution of spatial information science and practice. On one hand, the improved quality of the primary sensor data can provide the foundation for better automation of the information extraction processes. This phenomenon is also strongly supported by continuously expanding computer technology, which offers almost unlimited processing power. On the other hand, the variety of the data, including rich information content and better temporal characteristics, acquired by the new digital sensors and coupled with rapidly advancing processing techniques, is broadening the applications of airborne surveying. One of these new application areas is traffic flow extraction aimed at supporting better traffic monitoring and management. Transportation mapping has always represented a significant segment of civilian mapping and is mainly concerned with road corridor mapping for design and engineering purposes, infrastructure mapping and facility management, and more recently, environmental mapping. In all these cases, the objective of the mapping is to extract the static features of the object space, such as man-made and natural objects, typically along the road network. In contrast, the traffic moving in the transportation network represents a very dynamic environment, which complicates the spatial data extraction processes as the signals of moving vehicles should be identified and removed. Rather than removing and discarding the signals, however, they can be turned into traffic flow information. This paper reviews initial research efforts to extract traffic flow information from laserscanner and digital camera sensors installed in airborne platforms.

  9. Remotely Measured Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence Using Airborne G-LiHT and APFS Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, W. B.; Yee, J. H.; Corp, L. A.; Cook, B. D.; Huemmrich, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    In September 2014 the Goddard Lidar, Hyperspectral and Thermal (G-LiHT) and the APL/JHU Airborne Plant Fluorescence Sensor (APFS) were flown together on a NASA Langley King Air over vegetated targets in North Carolina and Virginia. The instruments provided high spatial and spectral resolution data in the visible and near infrared, down-welling irradiance, elevation maps, and thermal imagery. Ground validation data was also collected concurrently. Here we report the results of these measurements and show the feasibility of using these types of instruments for collection the fluorescence and other information essential for ecological and carbon cycle studies.

  10. Welding Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A system originally designed for welding components of the huge Space Shuttle external tank led to a laser-based automated welder for industrial use. A laser sensor tracks the seam where two pieces of metal are to be joined, measures gaps, misfits and automatically corrects welding of torch distance and height. A small industrial computer translates the sensor's information to the weld head and records and displays weld data for control purposes and analysis. The system was modified for commercial use by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Martin Marietta and Applied Research, Inc., which produces the commercial system. Applications are in industrial welding processes that require repetitive operations and a high degree of reliability.

  11. Airborne Windshear Detection and Warning Systems. Fifth and Final Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Fifth (and Final) Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Airborne Windshear Review Meeting was hosted jointly by the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Hampton, Virginia, on September 28-30, 1993. The purpose of the meeting was to report on the highly successful windshear experiments conducted by government, academic institutions, and industry; to transfer the results to regulators, manufacturers, and users; and to set initiatives for future aeronautics technology research. The formal sessions covered recent developments in windshear flight testing; windshear modeling, flight management, and ground-based systems; airborne windshear detection systems; certification and regulatory issues; development and applications of sensors for wake vortex detection; and synthetic and enhanced vision systems.

  12. Airborne Windshear Detection and Warning Systems. Fifth and Final Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Fifth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Airborne Windshear Review Meeting was hosted by the NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration in Hampton, Virginia, on September 28-30, 1993. The purpose was to report on the highly successful windshear experiments conducted by government, academic institutions, and industry; to transfer the results to regulators, manufacturers, and users; and to set initiatives for future aeronautics technology research. The formal sessions covered recent developments in windshear flight testing, windshear modeling, flight management, and ground-based systems, airborne windshear detection systems, certification and regulatory issues, and development and applications of sensors for wake vortices and for synthetic and enhanced vision systems. This report was compiled to record and make available the technology updates and materials from the conference.

  13. An interactive lake survey program. [airborne multispectral sensor image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Consideration is given to the development and operation of the interactive lake survey program developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Environmental Protection Agency. The program makes it possible to locate, isolate, and store any number of water bodies on the basis of a given digital image. The stored information may be used to generate statistical analyses of each body of water including the lake surface area and the shoreline perimeter. The hardware includes a 360/65 host computer, a Ramtek G100B display controller, and a trackball cursor. The system is illustrated by the LAKELOC operation as it would be applied to a Landsat scene, noting the FARINA and STATUS programs. The water detection algorithm, which increases the accuracy with which water and land data may be separated, is discussed.

  14. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor: Recent Measurements and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Howell, Burgess F.; Hardesty, Robert M.; Tratt, David M.; Darby, Lisa S.

    1999-01-01

    The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center jointly developed an airborne scanning coherent Doppler Lidar. We describe the system, present recent measurement (including the first wind fields measured within a hurricane using Doppler lidar), and describe prospective instrument improvements and research applications.

  15. Parameterization of gaseous constituencies concentration profiles in the planetary boundary layer as required in support of airborne and satellite borne sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindle, E. C.; Condon, E.; Casas, J.

    1976-01-01

    The research to develop the capabilities for sensing air pollution constituencies using satellite or airborne remote sensors is reported. Sensor evaluation and calibration are analyzed including data reduction. The proposed follow-on research is presented.

  16. Data System for HS3 Airborne Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskey, M.; Mceniry, M.; Berendes, T.; Bugbee, K.; Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) is a NASA airborne field campaign aimed at better understanding the physical processes that control hurricane intensity change. HS3 will help answer questions related to the roles of environmental conditions and internal storm structures to storm intensification. Due to the nature of the questions that HS3 mission is addressing, it involves a variety of in-situ, satellite observations, airborne data, meteorological analyses, and simulation data. This variety of datasets presents numerous data management challenges for HS3. The methods used for airborne data management differ greatly from the methods used for space-borne data. In particular, metadata extraction, spatial and temporal indexing, and the large number of instruments and subsequent variables are a few of the data management challenges unique to airborne missions. A robust data system is required to successfully help HS3 scientist achieve their mission goals. Furthermore, the data system also needs to provide for data management that assists in broader use of HS3 data to enable future research activities. The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) is considering all these needs and designing a data system for HS3. Experience with past airborne field campaign puts GHRC in a good position to address HS3 needs. However, the scale of this mission along with science requirements separates HS3 from previous field campaigns. The HS3 data system will include automated services for geo-location, metadata extraction, discovery, and distribution for all HS3 data. To answer the science questions, the data system will include a visual data exploration tool that is fully integrated into the data catalog. The tool will allow visually augmenting airborne data with analyses and simulations. Satellite data will provide contextual information during such data explorations. All HS3 tools will be supported by an enterprise service architecture that will allow scaling, easy integration

  17. SYSIPHE system: a state of the art airborne hyperspectral imaging system: initial results from the first airborne campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset-Rouviere, Laurent; Coudrain, Christophe; Fabre, Sophie; Poutier, Laurent; Løke, Trond; Fridman, Andrei; Blaaberg, Søren; Baarstad, Ivar; Skauli, Torbjorn; Mocoeur, Isabelle

    2014-10-01

    SYSIPHE is an airborne hyperspectral imaging system, result of a cooperation between France (Onera and DGA) and Norway (NEO and FFI). It is a unique system by its spatial sampling -0.5m with a 500m swath at a ground height of 2000m- combined with its wide spectral coverage -from 0.4μm to 11.5μm in the atmospheric transmission bands. Its infrared component, named SIELETERS, consists in two high étendue imaging static Fourier transform spectrometers, one for the midwave infrared and one for the longwave infrared. These two imaging spectrometers are closely similar in design, since both are made of a Michelson interferometer, a refractive imaging system, and a large IRFPA (1016x440 pixels). Moreover, both are cryogenically cooled and mounted on their own stabilization platform which allows the line of sight to be controlled and recorded. These data are useful to reconstruct and to georeference the spectral image from the raw interferometric images. The visible and shortwave infrared component, named Hyspex ODIN-1024, consists of two spectrographs for VNIR and SWIR based on transmissive gratings. These share a common fore-optics and a common slit, to ensure perfect registration between the VNIR and the SWIR images. The spectral resolution varies from 5nm in the visible to 6nm in the shortwave infrared. In addition, the STAD, the post processing and archiving system, is developed to provide spectral reflectance and temperature products (SRT products) from calibrated georeferenced and inter-band registered spectral images at the sensor level acquired and pre-processed by SIELETERS and Hyspex ODIN-1024 systems.

  18. HySpex ODIN-1024: a new high-resolution airborne HSI system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaaberg, Søren; Løke, Trond; Baarstad, Ivar; Fridman, Andrei; Koirala, Pesal

    2014-06-01

    HySpex ODIN-1024 is a next generation state-of the-art airborne hyperspectral imaging system developed by Norsk Elektro Optikk AS. Near perfect coregistration between VNIR and SWIR is achieved by employing a novel common fore-optics design and a thermally stabilized housing. Its unique design and the use of state-of-the-art MCT and sCMOS sensors provide the combination of high sensitivity and low noise, low spatial and spectral misregistration (smile and keystone) and a very high resolution (1024 pixels in the merged data products). In addition to its supreme data quality, HySpex ODIN-1024 includes real-time data processing functionalities such as real-time georeferencing of acquired images. It also features a built-in onboard calibration system to monitor the stability of the instrument. The paper presents data and results from laboratory tests and characterizations, as well as results from airborne measurements.

  19. Formal methods and digital systems validation for airborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1993-01-01

    This report has been prepared to supplement a forthcoming chapter on formal methods in the FAA Digital Systems Validation Handbook. Its purpose is as follows: to outline the technical basis for formal methods in computer science; to explain the use of formal methods in the specification and verification of software and hardware requirements, designs, and implementations; to identify the benefits, weaknesses, and difficulties in applying these methods to digital systems used on board aircraft; and to suggest factors for consideration when formal methods are offered in support of certification. These latter factors assume the context for software development and assurance described in RTCA document DO-178B, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification,' Dec. 1992.

  20. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  1. Assess program: Interactive data management systems for airborne research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, R. M.; Reller, J. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Two data systems were developed for use in airborne research. Both have distributed intelligence and are programmed for interactive support among computers and with human operators. The C-141 system (ADAMS) performs flight planning and telescope control functions in addition to its primary role of data acquisition; the CV-990 system (ADDAS) performs data management functions in support of many research experiments operating concurrently. Each system is arranged for maximum reliability in the first priority function, precision data acquisition.

  2. Introduction to an airborne remote sensing system equipped onboard the Chinese marine surveillance plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Fang; Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Hao, Zengzhou

    2008-10-01

    The airborne remote sensing system onboard the Chinese Marine Surveillance Plane have three scanners including marine airborne multi-spectrum scanner(MAMS), airborne hyper spectral system(AISA+) and optical-electric platform(MOP) currently. MAMS is developed by Shanghai Institute of Technology and Physics CAS with 11 bands from ultraviolet to infrared and mainly used for inversion of oceanic main factors and pollution information, like chlorophyll, sea surface temperature, red tide, etc. The AISA+ made by Finnish Specim company is a push broom system, consist of a high spectrum scanner head, a miniature GPS/INS sensor and data collecting PC. It is a kind of aviation imaging spectrometer and has the ability of ground target imaging and measuring target spectrum characteristic. The MOP mainly supports for object watching, recording and track. It mainly includes 3 equipments: digital CCD with Sony-DXC390, CANON EOS film camera and digital camera Sony F717. This paper mainly introduces these three remote sensing instruments as well as the ground processing information system, involving the system's hardware and software design, related algorithm research, etc.

  3. Flight Testing of an Advanced Airborne Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn Lenz; Raymond T. Lines; Darryl Murdock; Jeffrey Owen; Steven Stearns; Michael Stoogenke

    2005-10-01

    ITT Industries Space Systems Division (Space Systems) has developed an airborne natural gas leak detection system designed to detect, image, quantify, and precisely locate leaks from natural gas transmission pipelines. This system is called the Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ANGEL) system. The ANGEL system uses a highly sensitive differential absorption Lidar technology to remotely detect pipeline leaks. The ANGEL System is operated from a fixed wing aircraft and includes automatic scanning, pointing system, and pilot guidance systems. During a pipeline inspection, the ANGEL system aircraft flies at an elevation of 1000 feet above the ground at speeds of between 100 and 150 mph. Under this contract with DOE/NETL, Space Systems was funded to integrate the ANGEL sensor into a test aircraft and conduct a series of flight tests over a variety of test targets including simulated natural gas pipeline leaks. Following early tests in upstate New York in the summer of 2004, the ANGEL system was deployed to Casper, Wyoming to participate in a set of DOE-sponsored field tests at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). At RMOTC the Space Systems team completed integration of the system and flew an operational system for the first time. The ANGEL system flew 2 missions/day for the duration for the 5-day test. Over the course of the week the ANGEL System detected leaks ranging from 100 to 5,000 scfh.

  4. Sensor system for web inspection

    DOEpatents

    Sleefe, Gerard E.; Rudnick, Thomas J.; Novak, James L.

    2002-01-01

    A system for electrically measuring variations over a flexible web has a capacitive sensor including spaced electrically conductive, transmit and receive electrodes mounted on a flexible substrate. The sensor is held against a flexible web with sufficient force to deflect the path of the web, which moves relative to the sensor.

  5. Advanced border monitoring sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobler, Ronald A.; Winston, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    McQ has developed an advanced sensor system tailored for border monitoring that has been delivered as part of the SBInet program for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Technology developments that enhance a broad range of features are presented in this paper, which address the overall goal of the system to improving unattended ground sensor system capabilities for border monitoring applications. Specifically, this paper addresses a system definition, communications architecture, advanced signal processing to classify targets, and distributed sensor fusion processing.

  6. Ion mobility sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  7. BioSAR Airborne Biomass Sensing System

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Johnson, P.

    2007-05-24

    This CRADA was developed to enable ORNL to assist American Electronics, Inc. test a new technology--BioSAR. BioSAR is a an airborne, low frequency (80-120 MHz {approx} FM radio frequencies) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology which was designed and built for NASA by ZAI-Amelex under Patrick Johnson's direction. At these frequencies, leaves and small branches are nearly transparent and the majority of the energy reflected from the forest and returned to the radar is from the tree trunks. By measuring the magnitude of the back scatter, the volume of the tree trunk and therefore the biomass of the trunks can be inferred. The instrument was successfully tested on tropical rain forests in Panama. Patrick Johnson, with American Electronics, Inc received a Phase II SBIR grant from DOE Office of Climate Change to further test and refine the instrument. Mr Johnson sought ORNL expertise in measuring forest biomass in order for him to further validate his instrument. ORNL provided ground truth measurements of forest biomass at three locations--the Oak Ridge Reservation, Weyerhaeuser Co. commercial pine plantations in North Carolina, and American Energy and Power (AEP) Co. hardwood forests in southern Ohio, and facilitated flights over these forests. After Mr. Johnson processed the signal data from BioSAR instrument, the processed data were given to ORNL and we attempted to derive empirical relationships between the radar signals and the ground truth forest biomass measurements using standard statistical techniques. We were unsuccessful in deriving such relationships. Shortly before the CRADA ended, Mr Johnson discovered that FM signal from local radio station broadcasts had interfered with the back scatter measurements such that the bulk of the signal received by the BioSAR instrument was not backscatter from the radar but rather was local radio station signals.

  8. Airborne remote sensors applied to engineering geology and civil works design investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelnett, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    The usefulness of various airborne remote sensing systems in the detection and identification of regional and specific geologic structural features that may affect the design and location of engineering structures on major civil works projects is evaluated. The Butler Valley Dam and Blue Lake Project in northern California was selected as a demonstration site. Findings derived from the interpretation of various kinds of imagery used are given.

  9. Towards a Multi-Mission, Airborne Science Data System Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crichton, D. J.; Hardman, S.; Law, E.; Freeborn, D.; Kay-Im, E.; Lau, G.; Oswald, J.

    2011-12-01

    NASA earth science instruments are increasingly relying on airborne missions. However, traditionally, there has been limited common infrastructure support available to principal investigators in the area of science data systems. As a result, each investigator has been required to develop their own computing infrastructures for the science data system. Typically there is little software reuse and many projects lack sufficient resources to provide a robust infrastructure to capture, process, distribute and archive the observations acquired from airborne flights. At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we have been developing a multi-mission data system infrastructure for airborne instruments called the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE). ACCE encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation. This includes improving data system interoperability across each instrument. A principal characteristic is being able to provide an agile infrastructure that is architected to allow for a variety of configurations of the infrastructure from locally installed compute and storage services to provisioning those services via the "cloud" from cloud computer vendors such as Amazon.com. Investigators often have different needs that require a flexible configuration. The data system infrastructure is built on the Apache's Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) suite of components which has been used for a number of spaceborne missions and provides a rich set of open source software components and services for constructing science processing and data management systems. In 2010, a partnership was formed between the ACCE team and the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission to support the data processing and data management needs

  10. Image-Based Airborne Sensors: A Combined Approach for Spectral Signatures Classification through Deterministic Simulated Annealing

    PubMed Central

    Guijarro, María; Pajares, Gonzalo; Herrera, P. Javier

    2009-01-01

    The increasing technology of high-resolution image airborne sensors, including those on board Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, demands automatic solutions for processing, either on-line or off-line, the huge amountds of image data sensed during the flights. The classification of natural spectral signatures in images is one potential application. The actual tendency in classification is oriented towards the combination of simple classifiers. In this paper we propose a combined strategy based on the Deterministic Simulated Annealing (DSA) framework. The simple classifiers used are the well tested supervised parametric Bayesian estimator and the Fuzzy Clustering. The DSA is an optimization approach, which minimizes an energy function. The main contribution of DSA is its ability to avoid local minima during the optimization process thanks to the annealing scheme. It outperforms simple classifiers used for the combination and some combined strategies, including a scheme based on the fuzzy cognitive maps and an optimization approach based on the Hopfield neural network paradigm. PMID:22399989

  11. Water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Frederick, E. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system. The results of initial base-line field test results of NASA airborne oceanographic lidar in the bathymetry mode are given, with water-truth measurements of depth and beam attenuation coefficients by boat taken at the same time as overflights to aid in determining the system's operational performance. The nadir-angle tests and field-of-view data are presented; this laser bathymetry system is an improvement over prior models in that (1) the surface-to-bottom pulse waveform is digitally recorded on magnetic tape, and (2) wide-swath mapping data may be routinely acquired using a 30 deg full-angle conical scanner.

  12. Implicit collaboration of sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Kenneth J.

    2004-08-01

    The concept of goal lattices for the evaluation of potential sensor actions can be used to cause a multiplicity of heterogeneous sensor systems to collaborate. Previously goal lattices have been used to compute the value to a sensor system of taking a particular action in terms of how well that action contributes to the accomplishment of the topmost goals. This assumes that each sensor system is autonomous and only responsible to itself. If the topmost goals of each sensor system's goal lattice has adjoined to it two additional goals, namely "collaboration" and "altruism", then the value system is extended to include servicing requests from other systems. Two aircraft on a common mission can each benefit from measurements taken by the other aircraft either to confirm their own measurements, to create a pseudo-sensor, or to extend the area of coverage. The altruism goal indicates how much weight a sensor management system (SMS) will give in responding to a measurement request from any other system. The collaboration goal indicates how much weight will be given to responding to a measurement request from specific systems which are defined as being part of a collaborating group. By varying the values of the altruism and collaboration goals of each system, either locally or globally, various levels of implicit cooperation among sensor systems can be caused to emerge.

  13. Airborne antenna polarization study for the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilreath, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the microwave landing system (MLS) airborne antenna pattern coverage requirements are investigated for a large commercial aircraft using a single omnidirectional antenna. Omnidirectional antennas having vertical and horizontal polarizations were evaluated at several different station locations on a one-eleventh scale model Boeing 737 aircraft. The results obtained during this experimental program are presented which include principal plane antenna patterns and complete volumetric coverage plots.

  14. Inter-agency Working Group for Airborne Data and Telemetry Systems (IWGADTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Chris; Freudinge, Lawrence; Sorenson, Carl; Myers, Jeff; Sullivan, Don; Oolman, Larry

    2009-01-01

    The Interagency Coordinating Committee for Airborne Geosciences Research and Applications (ICCAGRA) was established to improve cooperation and communication among agencies sponsoring airborne platforms and instruments for research and applications, and to serve as a resource for senior level management on airborne geosciences issues. The Interagency Working Group for Airborne Data and Telecommunications Systems (IWGADTS) is a subgroup to ICCAGRA for the purpose of developing recommendations leading to increased interoperability among airborne platforms and instrument payloads, producing increased synergy among research programs with similar goals, and enabling the suborbital layer of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems.

  15. Algorithms used in the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, David B.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2016-05-23

    The Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS) analyzes Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data—digitized laser-return waveforms, position, and attitude data—to derive point clouds of target surfaces. A full-waveform airborne lidar system, the EAARL seamlessly and simultaneously collects mixed environment data, including submerged, sub-aerial bare earth, and vegetation-covered topographies.ALPS uses three waveform target-detection algorithms to determine target positions within a given waveform: centroid analysis, leading edge detection, and bottom detection using water-column backscatter modeling. The centroid analysis algorithm detects opaque hard surfaces. The leading edge algorithm detects topography beneath vegetation and shallow, submerged topography. The bottom detection algorithm uses water-column backscatter modeling for deeper submerged topography in turbid water.The report describes slant range calculations and explains how ALPS uses laser range and orientation measurements to project measurement points into the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. Parameters used for coordinate transformations in ALPS are described, as are Interactive Data Language-based methods for gridding EAARL point cloud data to derive digital elevation models. Noise reduction in point clouds through use of a random consensus filter is explained, and detailed pseudocode, mathematical equations, and Yorick source code accompany the report.

  16. Algorithms used in the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, David B.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS) analyzes Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data—digitized laser-return waveforms, position, and attitude data—to derive point clouds of target surfaces. A full-waveform airborne lidar system, the EAARL seamlessly and simultaneously collects mixed environment data, including submerged, sub-aerial bare earth, and vegetation-covered topographies.ALPS uses three waveform target-detection algorithms to determine target positions within a given waveform: centroid analysis, leading edge detection, and bottom detection using water-column backscatter modeling. The centroid analysis algorithm detects opaque hard surfaces. The leading edge algorithm detects topography beneath vegetation and shallow, submerged topography. The bottom detection algorithm uses water-column backscatter modeling for deeper submerged topography in turbid water.The report describes slant range calculations and explains how ALPS uses laser range and orientation measurements to project measurement points into the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. Parameters used for coordinate transformations in ALPS are described, as are Interactive Data Language-based methods for gridding EAARL point cloud data to derive digital elevation models. Noise reduction in point clouds through use of a random consensus filter is explained, and detailed pseudocode, mathematical equations, and Yorick source code accompany the report.

  17. NASA three-laser airborne differential absorption lidar system electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. J.; Copeland, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The system control and signal conditioning electronics of the NASA three laser airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system are described. The multipurpose DIAL system was developed for the remote measurement of gas and aerosol profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. A brief description and photographs of the majority of electronics units developed under this contract are presented. The precision control system; which includes a master control unit, three combined NASA laser control interface/quantel control units, and three noise pulse discriminator/pockels cell pulser units; is described in detail. The need and design considerations for precision timing and control are discussed. Calibration procedures are included.

  18. Airborne Advanced Reconfigurable Computer System (ARCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjurman, B. E.; Jenkins, G. M.; Masreliez, C. J.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Templeman, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A digital computer subsystem fault-tolerant concept was defined, and the potential benefits and costs of such a subsystem were assessed when used as the central element of a new transport's flight control system. The derived advanced reconfigurable computer system (ARCS) is a triple-redundant computer subsystem that automatically reconfigures, under multiple fault conditions, from triplex to duplex to simplex operation, with redundancy recovery if the fault condition is transient. The study included criteria development covering factors at the aircraft's operation level that would influence the design of a fault-tolerant system for commercial airline use. A new reliability analysis tool was developed for evaluating redundant, fault-tolerant system availability and survivability; and a stringent digital system software design methodology was used to achieve design/implementation visibility.

  19. Airborne Multisensor Pod System, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzo, G M; Sanford, N M

    1995-01-01

    This issue focuses on the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) which is a collaboration of many of the DOE national laboratories to provide a scientific environment to research multiple sensors and the new information that can be derived from them. The bulk of the research has been directed at nonproliferation applications, but it has also proven useful in environmental monitoring and assessment, and land/water management. The contents of this issue are: using AMPS technology to detect proliferation and monitor resources; combining multisensor data to monitor facilities and natural resources; planning a AMPS mission; SAR pod produces images day or night, rain or shine; MSI pod combines data from multiple sensors; ESI pod will analyze emissions and effluents; and accessing AMPS information on the Internet.

  20. Airborne water vapor DIAL system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Noah S.; Browell, Edward V.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Grossmann, Benoist E.

    1990-01-01

    A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system developed at NASA Langley Research Center for the remote measurement of atmospheric H2O and aerosols from an aircraft is briefly discussed. This DIAL system utilizes a Nd:YAG laser-pumped dye laser as the off-line transmitter and a narrowband, tunable Alexandrite laser as the on-line transmitter. A 1-m monochromator and a multipass absorption cell are used to position the on-line laser to the center of the H2O line. The receiver system has a 14-in. diameter, f/7 Celestron telescope to collect the backscattered laser light and focus in into the detector optics. Return signals are converted to electrical signals by the optical detector and are digitalized and stored on magnetic tape. The results of fligh tests of the system are shown.

  1. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  2. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS). Topical report, October 1993--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This document is a Final Technical Report that describes the results of the Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) research project. The objectives were to construct a geophysical data acquisition system that uses a remotely operated unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and to evaluate its effectiveness for characterization of hazardous environmental sites. The GAUSS is a data acquisition system that mitigates the potential risk to personnel during geophysical characterization of hazardous or radioactive sites. The fundamental basis of the GAUSS is as follows: (1) an unmanned survey vehicle carries geophysical sensors into a hazardous location, (2) the pilot remains outside the hazardous site and operates the vehicle using radio control, (3) geophysical measurements and their spatial locations are processed by an automated data-acquisition system which displays data on an off-site monitor in real-time, and (4) the pilot uses the display to direct the survey vehicle for complete site coverage. The objective of our Phase I research was to develop a data acquisition and processing (DAP) subsystem and geophysical sensors suitable for UAV deployment. We integrated these two subsystems to produce an automated, hand-held geophysical surveying system. The objective of the Phase II effort was to modify the subsystems and integrate them into an airborne prototype. The completed GAUSS DAP system consists of a UAV platform, a laser tracking and ranging subsystem, a telemetry subsystem, light-weight geophysical sensors, a base-station computer (BC), and custom-written survey control software (SCS). We have utilized off-the-shelf commercial products, where possible, to reduce cost and design time.

  3. Airborne test results for smart pushbroom imaging system with optoelectronic image correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernykh, Valerij; Dyblenko, Serguei; Janschek, Klaus; Seifart, Klaus; Harnisch, Bernd

    2004-02-01

    Smart pushbroom imaging system (SMARTSCAN) solves the problem of image correction for satellite pushbroom cameras which are disturbed by satellite attitude instability effects. Satellite cameras with linear sensors are particularly sensitive to attitude errors, which cause considerable image distortions. A novel solution of distortions correction is presented, which is based on the real-time recording of the image motion in the focal plane of the satellite camera. This allows using such smart pushbroom cameras (multi-/hyperspectral) even on moderately stabilised satellites, e.g. small sat's, LEO comsat's. The SMARTSCAN concept uses in-situ measurements of the image motion with additional CCD-sensors in the focal plane and real-time image processing of these measurements by an onboard Joint Transform Optical Correlator. SMARTSCAN has been successfully demonstrated with breadboard models for the Optical Correlator and a Smart Pushbroom Camera at laboratory level (satellite motion simulator on base of a 5 DOF industrial robot) and by an airborne flight demonstration in July 2002. The paper describes briefly the principle of operation of the system and gives a description of the hardware model are provided. Detailed results of the airborne tests and performance analysis are given as well as detailed tests description.

  4. [Remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence at airborne level based on unmanned airship platform and hyperspectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Ni, Zhuo-Ya; Wang, Ran; Wang, Qing-Shan

    2013-11-01

    The solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has a close relationship with photosynthetic and is considered as a probe of plant photosynthetic activity. In this study, an airborne fluorescence detecting system was constructed by using a hyperspectral imager on board an unmanned airship. Both Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (FLD) and 3FLD used to extract ChlF require the incident solar irradiance, which is always difficult to receive at airborne level. Alternative FLD (aFLD) can overcome the problem by selecting non-fluorescent emitter in the image. However, aFLD is based on the assumption that reflectance is identical around the Fraunhofer line, which is not realistic. A new method, a3FLD, is proposed, which assumes that reflectance varies linearly with the wavelength around Fraunhofer line. The result of simulated data shows that ChlF retrieval error of a3FLD is significantly lower than that of aFLD when vegetation reflectance varies near the Fraunhofer line. The results of hyperspectral remote sensing data with the airborne fluorescence detecting system show that the relative values of retrieved ChlF of 5 kinds of plants extracted by both aFLD and a3FLD are consistent with vegetation growth stage and the ground-level ChlF. The ChlF values of aFLD are about 15% greater than a3FLD. In addition, using aFLD, some non-fluorescent objects have considerable ChlF value, while a3FLD can effectively overcome the problem.

  5. [Remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence at airborne level based on unmanned airship platform and hyperspectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Ni, Zhuo-Ya; Wang, Ran; Wang, Qing-Shan

    2013-11-01

    The solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has a close relationship with photosynthetic and is considered as a probe of plant photosynthetic activity. In this study, an airborne fluorescence detecting system was constructed by using a hyperspectral imager on board an unmanned airship. Both Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (FLD) and 3FLD used to extract ChlF require the incident solar irradiance, which is always difficult to receive at airborne level. Alternative FLD (aFLD) can overcome the problem by selecting non-fluorescent emitter in the image. However, aFLD is based on the assumption that reflectance is identical around the Fraunhofer line, which is not realistic. A new method, a3FLD, is proposed, which assumes that reflectance varies linearly with the wavelength around Fraunhofer line. The result of simulated data shows that ChlF retrieval error of a3FLD is significantly lower than that of aFLD when vegetation reflectance varies near the Fraunhofer line. The results of hyperspectral remote sensing data with the airborne fluorescence detecting system show that the relative values of retrieved ChlF of 5 kinds of plants extracted by both aFLD and a3FLD are consistent with vegetation growth stage and the ground-level ChlF. The ChlF values of aFLD are about 15% greater than a3FLD. In addition, using aFLD, some non-fluorescent objects have considerable ChlF value, while a3FLD can effectively overcome the problem. PMID:24555390

  6. Airborne Tomographic Swath Ice Sounding Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Xiaoqing; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Freeman, Anthony; Jezek, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets modulate global sea level by storing water deposited as snow on the surface, and discharging water back into the ocean through melting. Their physical state can be characterized in terms of their mass balance and dynamics. To estimate the current ice mass balance, and to predict future changes in the motion of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, it is necessary to know the ice sheet thickness and the physical conditions of the ice sheet surface and bed. This information is required at fine resolution and over extensive portions of the ice sheets. A tomographic algorithm has been developed to take raw data collected by a multiple-channel synthetic aperture sounding radar system over a polar ice sheet and convert those data into two-dimensional (2D) ice thickness measurements. Prior to this work, conventional processing techniques only provided one-dimensional ice thickness measurements along profiles.

  7. Clementine Sensor Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    The design of the DSPSE Satellite Controller (DSC) is baselined as a single-string satellite controller. The DSC performs two main functions: health and maintenance of the spacecraft; and image capture, storage, and playback. The DSC contains two processors: a radiation-hardened Mil-Std-1750, and a commercial R3000. The Mil-Std-1750 processor performs all housekeeping operations, while the R3000 is mainly used to perform the image processing functions associated with the navigation functions, as well as performing various experiments. The DSC also contains a data handling unit (DHU) used to interface to various spacecraft imaging sensors and to capture, compress, and store selected images onto the solid-state data recorder. The development of the DSC evolved from several key requirements; the DSPSE satellite was to do the following: (1) have a radiation-hardened spacecraft control system and be immune to single-event upsets (SEU's); (2) use an R3000-based processor to run the star tracker software that was developed by SDIO (due to schedule and cost constraints, there was no time to port the software to a radiation-hardened processor); and (3) fly a commercial processor to verify its suitability for use in a space environment. In order to enhance the DSC reliability, the system was designed with multiple processing paths. These multiple processing paths provide for greater tolerance to various component failures. The DSC was designed so that all housekeeping processing functions are performed by either the Mil-Std-1750 processor or the R3000 processor. The image capture and storage is performed either by the DHU or the R3000 processor.

  8. Modular airborne remote sampling and sensing system (MARSSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.O.

    1982-04-01

    Sandia is developing a modular airborne instrumentation system for the Environmental Protection Agency. This system will allow flexibility in the choice of instruments by standardizing mountings, power supplies and sampling modes. The objective is to make it possible to perform aerial surveys from chartered aircraft that have not been adapted in a more than superficial manner. It will also allow the experimenter to tailor his choice of instruments to the specific problem. Since the equipment will have a stand-alone capability, it can be applied to other problems such as long-term unattended use at remote locations or in toxic or otherwise hazardous environments.

  9. Composite design of an advanced airborne monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Busness, K. M.; Alkezweeny, A. J.; Easter, R. C.; Hales, J. M.; Lee, R. N.

    1981-12-01

    Atmospheric chemistry investigations often require a multitude of measurements which can be obtained only through the utilization of airborne sampling platforms. Instrument limitations and the aircraft environment present several considerations for sampling-system design, including such factors as instrument sensitivities and response times, altitude effects, sampling intervals for acquiring samples, and physical compatibility with the aircraft. An aircraft system with an extensive evolutionary instrument array has been in development at PNL for several years during which several special systems have been developed to improve aircraft measurement capabilities. A high-volume air sampling system providing flows of up to 4 m/sup 3//min and simultaneous collection of three filters in parallel has been constructued to reduce filter collection times. A constant pressure inlet system was developed to overcome adverse effects in instrument response resulting from altitude changes. The system functions so that instruments which are connected experinece a constant pre-set pressure regardless of the sampling altitude. This system is particularly useful for airborne operation of a flame photometric sulfur analyzer. Special chemiluminescence NO/NO/sub x/ analyzers utilizing photon counting were built which are capable of fast response and detecton of concentrations in the sub-ppB range.

  10. Long-Term Tracking of a Specific Vehicle Using Airborne Optical Camera Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, F.; Rosenbaum, D.; Runge, H.; Cerra, D.; Mattyus, G.; Reinartz, P.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present two low cost, airborne sensor systems capable of long-term vehicle tracking. Based on the properties of the sensors, a method for automatic real-time, long-term tracking of individual vehicles is presented. This combines the detection and tracking of the vehicle in low frame rate image sequences and applies the lagged Cell Transmission Model (CTM) to handle longer tracking outages occurring in complex traffic situations, e.g. tunnels. The CTM model uses the traffic conditions in the proximities of the target vehicle and estimates its motion to predict the position where it reappears. The method is validated on an airborne image sequence acquired from a helicopter. Several reference vehicles are tracked within a range of 500m in a complex urban traffic situation. An artificial tracking outage of 240m is simulated, which is handled by the CTM. For this, all the vehicles in the close proximity are automatically detected and tracked to estimate the basic density-flow relations of the CTM model. Finally, the real and simulated trajectories of the reference vehicles in the outage are compared showing good correspondence also in congested traffic situations.

  11. Transmitter Pulse Estimation and Measurements for Airborne TDEM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.; Mejzr, I.

    2013-12-01

    The processing and interpretation of Airborne Time Domain EM data requires precise description of the transmitter parameters, including shape, amplitude and length of the transmitted pulse. There are several ways to measure pulse shape of the transmitter loop. Transmitted pulse can be recorded by a current monitor installed on the loop. The current monitor readings do not give exact image due to own time-domain physical characteristics of the current monitor. Another way is to restore the primary pulse shape from the receiver data recorded on-time, if such is possible. The receiver gives exact image of the primary field projection combined with the ground response, which can be minimized at high altitude pass, usually with a transmitter elevation higher than 1500 ft from the ground. The readings on the receiver are depending on receiver position and orientation. Modeling of airborne TDEM transmitter pulse allows us to compare estimated and measured shape of the pulse and apply required corrections. Airborne TDEM system transmitter pulse shape has been studied by authors while developing P-THEM system. The data has been gathered during in-doors and out-doors ground tests in Canada, as well as during flight tests in Canada and in India. The P-THEM system has three-axes receiver that is suspended on a tow-cable in the midpoint between the transmitter and the helicopter. The P-THEM receiver geometry does not require backing coils to dump the primary field. The system records full-wave data from the receiver and current monitor installed on the transmitter loop, including on-time and off-time data. The modeling of the transmitter pulse allowed us to define the difference between estimated and measured values. The higher accuracy pulse shape can be used for better data processing and interpretation. A developed model can be applied to similar systems and configurations.

  12. Retrieval of Vegetation Structure and Carbon Balance Parameters Using Ground-Based Lidar and Scaling to Airborne and Spaceborne Lidar Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Ni-Meister, W.; Woodcock, C. E.; Li, X.; Jupp, D. L.; Culvenor, D.

    2006-12-01

    This research uses a ground-based, upward hemispherical scanning lidar to retrieve forest canopy structural information, including tree height, mean tree diameter, basal area, stem count density, crown diameter, woody biomass, and green biomass. These parameters are then linked to airborne and spaceborne lidars to provide large-area mapping of structural and biomass parameters. The terrestrial lidar instrument, Echidna(TM), developed by CSIRO Australia, allows rapid acquisition of vegetation structure data that can be readily integrated with downward-looking airborne lidar, such as LVIS (Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor), and spaceborne lidar, such as GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) on ICESat. Lidar waveforms and vegetation structure are linked for these three sensors through the hybrid geometric-optical radiative-transfer (GORT) model, which uses basic vegetation structure parameters and principles of geometric optics, coupled with radiative transfer theory, to model scattering and absorption of light by collections of individual plant crowns. Use of a common model for lidar waveforms at ground, airborne, and spaceborne levels facilitates integration and scaling of the data to provide large-area maps and inventories of vegetation structure and carbon stocks. Our research plan includes acquisition of Echidna(TM) under-canopy hemispherical lidar scans at North American test sites where LVIS and GLAS data have been or are being acquired; analysis and modeling of spatially coincident lidar waveforms acquired by the three sensor systems; linking of the three data sources using the GORT model; and mapping of vegetation structure and carbon-balance parameters at LVIS and GLAS resolutions based on Echidna(TM) measurements.

  13. NSTX High Temperature Sensor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    B.McCormack; H.W. Kugel; P. Goranson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-11-01

    The design of the more than 300 in-vessel sensor systems for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has encountered several challenging fusion reactor diagnostic issues involving high temperatures and space constraints. This has resulted in unique miniature, high temperature in-vessel sensor systems mounted in small spaces behind plasma facing armor tiles, and they are prototypical of possible high power reactor first-wall applications. In the Center Stack, Divertor, Passive Plate, and vessel wall regions, the small magnetic sensors, large magnetic sensors, flux loops, Rogowski Coils, thermocouples, and Langmuir Probes are qualified for 600 degrees C operation. This rating will accommodate both peak rear-face graphite tile temperatures during operations and the 350 degrees C bake-out conditions. Similar sensor systems including flux loops, on other vacuum vessel regions are qualified for 350 degrees C operation. Cabling from the sensors embedded in the graphite tiles follows narrow routes to exit the vessel. The detailed sensor design and installation methods of these diagnostic systems developed for high-powered ST operation are discussed.

  14. Airborne tunable diode laser system for trace gas measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, G. W.; Hill, G. F.; Hoell, J. M., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Sachse et al. (1976) have reported the development of an airborne tunable diode laser (TDL) system, named the Differential Absorption CO Monitor (DACOM). The absorption path was 10 m long and located in the free airstream along the fuselage of a C-54 aircraft. The present investigation is concerned with a modification of the DACOM instrument. Differences between the new instrument and the original one are related to a replacement of the external absorption path with a White cell. The instrument has the capability to suppress TDL excess noise. The laser refrigerator has been redesigned to permit an alternative method of cooling the TDL when electric power is not available.

  15. The NASA/JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Kim,Yunjin; vanZyl, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we will briefly describe the instrument characteristics, the evolution of various radar modes, the instrument performance and improvement in the knowledge of the positioning and attitude information of the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This system operates in the fully polarimetric mode in the P, L, and C band simultaneously or in the interferometric mode in both the L and C band simultaneously. We also summarize the progress of the data processing effort, especially in the interferometry processing and we address the issue of processing and calibrating the cross-track interferometry data.

  16. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Sensor Validation and Verification on National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Lockheed WP-3D Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsoucalas, George; Daniels, Taumi S.; Zysko, Jan; Anderson, Mark V.; Mulally, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Aviation Safety and Security Program, the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting project (TAMDAR) developed a low-cost sensor for aircraft flying in the lower troposphere. This activity was a joint effort with support from Federal Aviation Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and industry. This paper reports the TAMDAR sensor performance validation and verification, as flown on board NOAA Lockheed WP-3D aircraft. These flight tests were conducted to assess the performance of the TAMDAR sensor for measurements of temperature, relative humidity, and wind parameters. The ultimate goal was to develop a small low-cost sensor, collect useful meteorological data, downlink the data in near real time, and use the data to improve weather forecasts. The envisioned system will initially be used on regional and package carrier aircraft. The ultimate users of the data are National Centers for Environmental Prediction forecast modelers. Other users include air traffic controllers, flight service stations, and airline weather centers. NASA worked with an industry partner to develop the sensor. Prototype sensors were subjected to numerous tests in ground and flight facilities. As a result of these earlier tests, many design improvements were made to the sensor. The results of tests on a final version of the sensor are the subject of this report. The sensor is capable of measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and icing. It can compute pressure altitude, indicated air speed, true air speed, ice presence, wind speed and direction, and eddy dissipation rate. Summary results from the flight test are presented along with corroborative data from aircraft instruments.

  17. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Li, Guangyi; Li, Tong; Inoue, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant's body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future. PMID:25664432

  18. Wearable sensor systems for infants.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Li, Guangyi; Li, Tong; Inoue, Yoshio

    2015-02-05

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant's body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future.

  19. A Real-Time Advisory System For Airborne Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, D. B.; Cromwell, M. E.; Donnell, M. L.; Barrett, C. L.

    1987-05-01

    Decision speed and quality can be greatly enhanced by the use of decision augmentation software to assist operators in information analysis and tactical problem solving, dynamic resource allocation, and in determining strategies which optimize overall system performance. One example of such software is the real-time advisory system (RTAS) being constructed to assist in tactical decision-making for airborne early warning (AEW) aircraft, particularly the carrier-based Navy E-2C. Using a vector logic approach, the current AEW RTAS is a real-time backward chaining expert system which provides advice for both threat interception and refueling in the complex Outer Air Battle Scenario. This paper describes the current system, discusses a number of design issues for such a system, and describes ongoing modifications to the current AEW RTAS using SAIC's frame-based knowledge repre-sentation language (KRL).

  20. Aerospace Sensor Systems: From Sensor Development To Vehicle Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of years of sensor system development and application for aerospace systems. The emphasis of this work is on developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion and crew vehicle systems as well as monitoring the safety of those systems. Specific areas of work include chemical species sensors, thin film thermocouples and strain gages, heat flux gages, fuel gages, SiC based electronic devices and sensors, space qualified electronics, and MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) as well as integrated and multifunctional sensor systems. Each sensor type has its own technical challenges related to integration and reliability in a given application. The general approach has been to develop base sensor technology using microfabrication techniques, integrate sensors with "smart" hardware and software, and demonstrate those systems in a range of aerospace applications. Descriptions of the sensor elements, their integration into sensors systems, and examples of sensor system applications will be discussed. Finally, suggestions related to the future of sensor technology will be given. It is concluded that smart micro/nano sensor technology can revolutionize aerospace applications, but significant challenges exist in maturing the technology and demonstrating its value in real-life applications.

  1. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  2. An airborne meteorological data collection system using satellite relay (ASDAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagwell, J. W.; Lindow, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed an airborne data acquisition and communication system for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This system known as ASDAR, the Aircraft to Satellite Data Relay, consists of a microprocessor based controller, time clock, transmitter and antenna. Together they acquire meteorological and position information from existing aircraft systems on B-747 aircraft, convert and format these, and transmit them to the ground via the GOES meteorological satellite series. The development and application of the ASDAR system is described with emphasis on unique features. Performance to date is exceptional, providing horizon-to-horizon coverage of aircraft flights. The data collected is of high quality and is considered a valuable addition to the data base from which NOAA generates its weather forecasts.

  3. Integrating an RGB - CIR Digital Camera With an Airborne Laser Swath Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Carter, W.; Shrestha, R.

    2003-12-01

    The National Science Foundation supported Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) utilizes the airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) system jointly owned by the University of Florida (UF) and Florida International University (FIU). The UF/FIU ALSM system is comprised of an Optech Inc. Model 1233 ALTM unit, with supporting GPS receiver and real-time navigation display, mounted in a twin-inline-engine Cessna 337 aircraft. Shortly after taking delivery of the ALSM system, UF researchers, in collaboration with a commercial partner, added a small format digital camera (Kodak 420) to the system, rigidly mounting it to the ALSM sensor head. Software was developed to use the GPS position and orientation parameters from the IMU unit in the ALSM sensor to rectify and mosaic the digital images. The ALSM height and intensity values were combined pixel by pixel with the RGB digital images, to classify surface materials. Based on our experience with the initial camera, and recommendations received at the NCALM workshop, UF researchers decided to upgrade the system to a Redlake MASD Inc. model MS4100 RGB/CIR camera. The MS4100 contains three CCD arrays, which simultaneously capture full spatial resolution images in red and near IR band bands, and a factor of two lower spatial resolution images in the blue and green bands (the blue and green bands share a single CCD array and the color bands are separated with a Bayer filter). The CCD arrays are rectangular with 1920 x 1080 elements, each element being 7.4 x 7.4 micrometers. With a 28 mm focal length lens, and at a flying height of 550 meters, the effective groundel is approximately 15 x 15 cm. The new digital camera should be particularly useful for studies of vegetation, including agricultural and forestry applications, and for computer automated classification of surface materials. Examples of early results using the improved ALSM-digital imaging capabilities will be presented.

  4. A miniaturised respiratory sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, U.; Fasoulas, S.; Linnarsson, D.; Paiva, M.; Stoll, R.; Hammer, F.; Stangl, R.; Martinot, Guy

    2005-10-01

    Solid-electrolyte gas sensors, originally designed for residual oxygen detection in low Earth orbit, have provided the basis for developing a multi-function sensor system for respiratory investigations. These sensors allow the detection of oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures simultaneously with total flow rates. Moreover, with only minor modifications, other gases of interest in cardio-respiratory testing, such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen, can be detected. The sensors are highly miniaturised and can be positioned in the mainstream of the breath. Thus there is no delay through sample transport. The characteristics of the flow detection are comparable with common sensors used in spirometry. The oxygen and carbon dioxide sensitivities have reached a level that is comparable to or even better than those of mass spectrometers optimised for respiratory analysis. Data from this sensor system allow single-breath or breath-by-breath analysis. Integrated into a portable system, the system provides greater flexibility than other devices, significantly increasing the range of scientific and health-monitoring applications.

  5. EDITORIAL: Sensors and sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewhurst, Richard; Tian, Gui Yun

    2008-02-01

    Sensors are very important for measurement science and technology. They serve as a vital component in new measurement techniques and instrumentation systems. Key qualities of a good sensor system are high resolution, high reliability, low cost, appropriate output for a given input (good sensitivity), rapid response time, small random error in results, and small systematic error. Linearity is also useful, but with the advent of lookup tables and software, it is not as important as it used to be. In the last several years, considerable effort around the world has been devoted to a wide range of sensors from nanoscale sensors to sensor networks. Collectively, these vast and multidisciplinary efforts are developing important technological roadmaps to futuristic sensors with new modalities, significantly enhanced effectiveness and integrated functionality (data processing, computation, decision making and communications). When properly organized, they will have important relevance to life science and security applications, e.g. the sensing and monitoring of chemical, biological, radiological and explosive threats. A special feature in this issue takes a snapshot of some recent developments that were first presented at an international conference, the 2007 IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control (ICNSC). The conference discussed recent developments, from which a few papers have since been brought together in this special feature. Gas sensing for environmental monitoring remains a topical subject, and two papers deal with this issue. One is concerned with the exploitation of nanostructured Au-doped cobalt oxyhydroxide-based carbon monoxide sensors for fire detection at its earlier stages (Zhuiykov and Dowling), whilst another examines the role of oxygen in high temperature hydrogen sulfide detection using MISiC sensors (Weng et al). Again for environmental monitoring, another paper deals with accurate sound source localization in a reverberant

  6. Potential scientific research which will benefit from an airborne Doppler lidar measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.

    1980-01-01

    Areas of research which can be significantly aided by the Doppler lidar airborne system are described. The need for systematic development of the airborne Doppler lidar is discussed. The technology development associated with the systematic development of the system will have direct application to satellite systems for which the lidar also promises to be an effective instrument for atmospheric research.

  7. MARA (Multimode Airborne Radar Altimeter) system documentation. Volume 1: MARA system requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Multimode Airborne Radar Altimeter (MARA), a flexible airborne radar remote sensing facility developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, is discussed. This volume describes the scientific justification for the development of the instrument and the translation of these scientific requirements into instrument design goals. Values for key instrument parameters are derived to accommodate these goals, and simulations and analytical models are used to estimate the developed system's performance.

  8. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B

    2014-02-04

    A battery system includes a platform having an aperture formed therethrough, a flexible member having a generally planar configuration and extending across the aperture, wherein a portion of the flexible member is coextensive with the aperture, a cell provided adjacent the platform, and a sensor coupled to the flexible member and positioned proximate the cell. The sensor is configured to detect a temperature of the cell.

  9. Optimization of the concentration optics of the Martian airborne dust sensor for MetNet space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, F.; González, A.; de Castro, A. J.; López, F.

    2012-06-01

    Martian atmosphere contains a significant and rapidly changing load of suspended dust that never drops to zero. The main component of Martian aerosol is micron-sized dust thought to be a product of soil weathering. Although airborne dust plays a key role in Martian climate, the basic physical properties of these aerosols are still poorly known. The scope of Mars MetNet Mission is to deploy several tens of mini atmospheric stations on the Martian surface. MEIGA-MetNet payload is the Spanish contribution in MetNet. Infrared Laboratory of University Carlos III (LIR-UC3M) is in charge of the design and development of a micro-sensor for the characterization of airborne dust. This design must accomplish with a strict budget of mass and power, 45 g and 1 W respectively. The sensor design criteria have been obtained from a physical model specifically developed for optimizing IR local scattering. The model calculates the spectral power density scattered and detected between 1 and 5 μm by a certain particle distribution and sensor configuration. From model calculations a modification based on the insertion of a compound ellipsoidal concentrator (CEC) has appeared as necessary. Its implementation has multiplied up to 100 the scattered optical power detected, significantly enhancing the detection limits of the sensor.

  10. Evaluation of Nimbus 7 SMMR sensor with airborne radiometers and surface observations in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Cavalieri, D.; Crawford, J.; Campbell, W. J.; Farrelly, B.; Johannessen, J.; Johannessen, O. M.; Svendsen, E.; Kloster, K.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements made by the Nimbus 7 SMMR are compared with near simultaneous observations using the airborne SMMR simulator and with surface observations. The area of the test is in the Norwegian Sea between Bear Island and Northern Norway. It is noted that during the observation period two low-pressure systems were located in the test area, giving a spatial wind variation from 3-20 m/s. It is shown that the use of the currently available brightness temperatures and algorithms for SMMR does not give universally satisfactory results for SST and wind speed under extreme weather conditions. In addition, the SMMR simulator results are seen as indicating the need for more work on calibration.

  11. The airborne laser ranging system, its capabilities and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D.; Degnan, J. J.; Englar, T. S., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The airborne laser ranging system is a multibeam short pulse laser ranging system on board an aircraft. It simultaneously measures the distances between the aircraft and six laser retroreflectors (targets) deployed on the Earth's surface. The system can interrogate over 100 targets distributed over an area of 25,000 sq, kilometers in a matter of hours. Potentially, a total of 1.3 million individual range measurements can be made in a six hour flight. The precision of these range measurements is approximately + or - 1 cm. These measurements are used in procedure which is basically an extension of trilateration techniques to derive the intersite vector between the laser ground targets. By repeating the estimation of the intersite vector, strain and strain rate errors can be estimated. These quantities are essential for crustal dynamic studies which include determination and monitoring of regional strain in the vicinity of active fault zones, land subsidence, and edifice building preceding volcanic eruptions.

  12. The civil air patrol ARCHER hyperspectral sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Brian; O'Connor, Rory; Kendall, William; Stocker, Alan; Schaff, William; Holasek, Rick; Even, Detlev; Alexa, Drew; Salvador, John; Eismann, Michael; Mack, Robert; Kee, Pat; Harris, Steve; Karch, Barry; Kershenstein, John

    2005-05-01

    The Civil Air Patrol (CAP) is procuring Airborne Real-time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance (ARCHER) systems to increase their search-and-rescue mission capability. These systems are being installed on a fleet of Gippsland GA-8 aircraft, and will position CAP to gain realworld mission experience with the application of hyperspectral sensor and processing technology to search and rescue. The ARCHER system design, data processing, and operational concept leverage several years of investment in hyperspectral technology research and airborne system demonstration programs by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Each ARCHER system consists of a NovaSol-designed, pushbroom, visible/near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensor, a co-boresighted visible panchromatic high-resolution imaging (HRI) sensor, and a CMIGITS-III GPS/INS unit in an integrated sensor assembly mounted inside the GA-8 cabin. ARCHER incorporates an on-board data processing system developed by Space Computer Corporation (SCC) to perform numerous real-time processing functions including data acquisition and recording, raw data correction, target detection, cueing and chipping, precision image geo-registration, and display and dissemination of image products and target cue information. A ground processing station is provided for post-flight data playback and analysis. This paper describes the requirements and architecture of the ARCHER system, including design, components, software, interfaces, and displays. Key sensor performance characteristics and real-time data processing features are discussed in detail. The use of the system for detecting and geo-locating ground targets in real-time is demonstrated using test data collected in Southern California in the fall of 2004.

  13. A study to identify and compare airborne systems for in-situ measurements of launch vehicle effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, T. J.; Chace, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    An in-situ system for monitoring the concentration of HCl, CO, CO2, and Al2O3 in the cloud of reaction products that form as a result of a launch of solid propellant launch vehicle is studied. A wide array of instrumentation and platforms are reviewed to yield the recommended system. An airborne system suited to monitoring pollution concentrations over urban areas for the purpose of calibrating remote sensors is then selected using a similar methodology to yield the optimal configuration.

  14. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Icing Sensor Performance During the 2003 Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, John J.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Minnis, Patrick; Nguyen, Louis; Delnore, Victor E.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Grainger, C. A.; Delene, D.; Wolff, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) sensor was deployed onboard the University of North Dakota Citation II aircraft in the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS II) from Nov 19 through December 14, 2003. TAMDAR is designed to measure and report winds, temperature, humidity, turbulence and icing from regional commercial aircraft (Daniels et. al., 2004). TAMDAR icing sensor performance is compared to a) in situ validation data from the Citation II sensor suite, b) Current Icing Potential products developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and available operationally on the NOAA Aviation Weather Center s Aviation Digital Data Server (ADDS) and c) NASA Advanced Satellite Aviation-weather Products (ASAP) cloud microphysical products.

  15. Characterization of the airborne activity confinement system prefilter material

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.A.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-05-01

    A general concern with assessing the effects of postulated severe accidents is predicting and preventing the release of radioactive isotopes to the environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor. Unless the confinement systems are breached in an accident the Airborne Activity Confinement System forces all of the internal air through the filter compartments. Proper modeling of the radioactivity released to the environment requires knowledge of the filtering characteristics of the demisters, the HEPA`s, and the charcoal beds. An investigation of the mass loading characteristics for a range of particle sizes was performed under the direction of Vince Novick of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in connection with the restart of the K reactor. Both solid and liquid aerosols were used to challenge sample prefilter and HEPA filters. The results of the ANL investigation are reported in this document.

  16. Characterization of the airborne activity confinement system prefilter material

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.A.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-05-01

    A general concern with assessing the effects of postulated severe accidents is predicting and preventing the release of radioactive isotopes to the environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor. Unless the confinement systems are breached in an accident the Airborne Activity Confinement System forces all of the internal air through the filter compartments. Proper modeling of the radioactivity released to the environment requires knowledge of the filtering characteristics of the demisters, the HEPA's, and the charcoal beds. An investigation of the mass loading characteristics for a range of particle sizes was performed under the direction of Vince Novick of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in connection with the restart of the K reactor. Both solid and liquid aerosols were used to challenge sample prefilter and HEPA filters. The results of the ANL investigation are reported in this document.

  17. The Airborne Ocean Color Imager - System description and image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, Robert C.; Slye, Robert E.; Klooster, Steven A.; Freedman, Richard S.; Carle, Mark; Mcgregor, Lloyd F.

    1992-01-01

    The Airborne Ocean Color Imager was developed as an aircraft instrument to simulate the spectral and radiometric characteristics of the next generation of satellite ocean color instrumentation. Data processing programs have been developed as extensions of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner algorithms for atmospheric correction and bio-optical output products. The latter include several bio-optical algorithms for estimating phytoplankton pigment concentration, as well as one for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of the water. Additional programs have been developed to geolocate these products and remap them into a georeferenced data base, using data from the aircraft's inertial navigation system. Examples illustrate the sequential data products generated by the processing system, using data from flightlines near the mouth of the Mississippi River: from raw data to atmospherically corrected data, to bio-optical data, to geolocated data, and, finally, to georeferenced data.

  18. The NASA/JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yun-Jin; Lou, Yun-Ling; vanZyl, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/JPL airborne SAR (AIRSAR) system operates in the fully polarimetric mode at P-, L- and C-band simultaneously or in the interferometric mode in both L- and C-band simultaneously. The system became operational in late 1987 and flew its first mission aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated by NASA's Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Since then, the AIRSAR has flown missions every year and acquired images in North, Central and South America, Europe and Australia. In this paper, we will briefly describe the instrument characteristics, the evolution of the various radar modes, the instrument performance, and improvement in the knowledge of the positioning and attitude information of the radar. In addition, we will summarize the progress of the data processing effort especially in the interferometry processing. Finally, we will address the issue of processing and calibrating the cross-track interferometry (XTI) data.

  19. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  20. Microelectromechanical systems contact stress sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kotovsky, Jack

    2007-12-25

    A microelectromechanical systems stress sensor comprising a microelectromechanical systems silicon body. A recess is formed in the silicon body. A silicon element extends into the recess. The silicon element has limited freedom of movement within the recess. An electrical circuit in the silicon element includes a piezoresistor material that allows for sensing changes in resistance that is proportional to bending of the silicon element.

  1. Clocks for airborne systems. [performance of rubidium oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houlding, N.

    1982-01-01

    The potential performance of compact oscillators, needed for the development of accurate clocks for future airborne systems (such as Identification Friend or Foe schemes), is addressed. In particular, extensive testing of rubidium oscillators manufactured by Efratom is discussed. The results indicate that an accuracy of better than 10 microseconds should be achievable in tactical aircraft provided that appropriate measures are adopted to counter the many environmental factors. In a favorable environment a stability of better than 5 x 10 to the -13th power for one day is achievable with present commercial units, but improvements are required to suit operation in an aircraft. With further development of rubidium controlled clocks the ultimate limitation on time accuracy in aircraft will probably be associated with time dissemination, maintenance difficulties and doctrinal hurdles.

  2. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papasin, Richard; Gawdiak, Yuri; Maluf, David A.; Leidich, Christopher; Tran, Peter B.

    2001-01-01

    Remote Tower Sensor Systems (RTSS) are proof-of-concept prototypes being developed by NASA/Ames Research Center (NASA/ARC) with collaboration with the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and NOAA (National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration). RTSS began with the deployment of an Airport Approach Zone Camera System that includes real-time weather observations at San Francisco International Airport. The goal of this research is to develop, deploy, and demonstrate remotely operated cameras and sensors at several major airport hubs and un-towered airports. RTSS can provide real-time weather observations of airport approach zone. RTSS will integrate and test airport sensor packages that will allow remote access to realtime airport conditions and aircraft status.

  3. Radiometric calibration of multiple Earth observation sensors using airborne hyperspectral data at the Newell County rangeland test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teillet, Phil M.; Fedosejevs, Gunar; Gauthier, Robert P.; Shin, Raymond T.; O'Neill, Norman T.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Ripley, Herb T.; Meygret, Aime

    1999-09-01

    A single data set of spatially extensive hyperspectral imagery is used to carry out vicarious calibrations for multiple Earth observation sensors. Results are presented based on a data acquisition campaign at the newell County rangeland test site in Alberta in October 1998, which included ground-based measurements, satellite imagery, and airborne casi hyperspectral data. This paper present new calibration monitoring obtained for NOAA-14 AVHRR, OrbView-2 SeaWiFS, SPOT-4 VGT, Landsat-5 TM, and SPOT-2 HRV.

  4. Dual-Frequency Airborne Scanning Rain Radar Antenna System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Ziad A.; Green, Ken

    2004-01-01

    A compact, dual-frequency, dual-polarization, wide-angle-scanning antenna system has been developed as part of an airborne instrument for measuring rainfall. This system is an upgraded version of a prior single-frequency airborne rain radar antenna system and was designed to satisfy stringent requirements. One particularly stringent combination of requirements is to generate two dual-polarization (horizontal and vertical polarizations) beams at both frequencies (13.405 and 35.605 GHz) in such a way that the beams radiated from the antenna point in the same direction, have 3-dB angular widths that match within 25 percent, and have low sidelobe levels over a wide scan angle at each polarization-and-frequency combination. In addition, the system is required to exhibit low voltage standing-wave ratios at both frequencies. The system (see figure) includes a flat elliptical scanning reflector and a stationary offset paraboloidal reflector illuminated by a common-aperture feed system that comprises a corrugated horn with four input ports one port for each of the four frequency-and-polarization combinations. The feed horn is designed to simultaneously (1) under-illuminate the reflectors 35.605 GHz and (2) illuminate the reflectors with a 15-dB edge taper at 13.405 GHz. The scanning mirror is rotated in azimuth to scan the antenna beam over an angular range of 20 in the cross-track direction for wide swath coverage, and in elevation to compensate for the motion of the aircraft. The design of common-aperture feed horn makes it possible to obtain the required absolute gain and low side-lobe levels in wide-angle beam scanning. The combination of the common-aperture feed horn with the small (0.3) focal-length-to-diameter ratio of the paraboloidal reflector makes it possible for the overall system to be compact enough that it can be mounted on a DC-8 airplane.

  5. TELAER: a multi-mode/multi-antenna interferometric airborne SAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, Stefano; Amaral, Tiago; Berardino, Paolo; Esposito, Carmen; Jackson, Giuseppe; Pauciullo, Antonio; Vaz Junior, Eurico; Wimmer, Christian; Lanari, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    a degradation of the geometric resolution, which in this case becomes equal to 5m. Such an operational flexibility, added to the above discussed single-pass interferometric capability and to the intrinsic flexibility of airborne platforms, renders the TELAER airborne SAR system a powerful instrument for fast generation of high resolution Digital Elevation Models, even in natural disaster scenarios. Accordingly, this system can play today a key role not only for strictly scientific purposes, but also for the monitoring of natural hazards, especially if properly integrated with other remote sensing sensors. [1] S. Perna et al., "Capabilities of the TELAER airborne SAR system upgraded to the multi-antenna mode", In Proceedings IGARSS 2012 Symposium, Munich, 2012. [2] G. Franceschetti, and R.Lanari, Synthetic Aperture Radar Processing, CRC PRESS, New York, 1999.

  6. Thermal protection system ablation sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbunov, Sergey (Inventor); Martinez, Edward R. (Inventor); Scott, James B. (Inventor); Oishi, Tomomi (Inventor); Fu, Johnny (Inventor); Mach, Joseph G. (Inventor); Santos, Jose B. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An isotherm sensor tracks space vehicle temperatures by a thermal protection system (TPS) material during vehicle re-entry as a function of time, and surface recession through calibration, calculation, analysis and exposed surface modeling. Sensor design includes: two resistive conductors, wound around a tube, with a first end of each conductor connected to a constant current source, and second ends electrically insulated from each other by a selected material that becomes an electrically conductive char at higher temperatures to thereby complete an electrical circuit. The sensor conductors become shorter as ablation proceeds and reduced resistance in the completed electrical circuit (proportional to conductor length) is continually monitored, using measured end-to-end voltage change or current in the circuit. Thermocouple and/or piezoelectric measurements provide consistency checks on local temperatures.

  7. Initial evaluation of airborne water vapour measurements by the IAGOS-GHG CRDS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filges, Annette; Gerbig, Christoph; Smit, Herman G. J.; Krämer, Martina; Spelten, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    Accurate and reliable airborne measurements of water vapour are still a challenge. Presently, no airborne humidity sensor exists that covers the entire range of water vapour content between the surface and the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region with sufficient accuracy and time resolution. Nevertheless , these data are a pre-requisite to study the underlying processes in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. The DENCHAR project (Development and Evaluation of Novel Compact Hygrometer for Airborne Research) addresses this deficit by developing and characterizing novel or improved compact airborne hygrometers for different airborne applications within EUFAR (European Facility for Airborne Research). As part of the DENCHAR inter-comparison campaign in Hohn (Germany), 23 May - 1 June 2011, a commercial gas analyzer (G2401-m, Picarro Inc.,US), based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), was installed on a Learjet to measure water vapour, CO2, CH4 and CO. The CRDS components are identical to those chosen for integration aboard commercial airliner within IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System). Thus the campaign allowed for the initial assessment validation of the long-term IAGOS H2O measurements by CRDS against reference instruments with a long performance record (FISH, the Fast In-situ Stratospheric Hygrometer, and CR2 frostpoint hygrometer, both research centre Juelich). The inlet system, a one meter long 1/8" FEP-tube connected to a Rosemount TAT housing (model 102BX, deiced) installed on a window plate of the aircraft, was designed to eliminate sampling of larger aerosols, ice particles, and water droplets, and provides about 90% of ram-pressure. In combination with a lowered sample flow of 0.1 slpm (corresponding to a 4 second response time), this ensured a fully controlled sample pressure in the cavity of 140 torr throughout an aircraft altitude operating range up to 12.5 km without the need of an upstream sampling pump

  8. Airborne laser systems for atmospheric sounding in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Jia, Huamin; Zammit-Mangion, David

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents new techniques for atmospheric sounding using Near Infrared (NIR) laser sources, direct detection electro-optics and passive infrared imaging systems. These techniques allow a direct determination of atmospheric extinction and, through the adoption of suitable inversion algorithms, the indirect measurement of some important natural and man-made atmospheric constituents, including Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The proposed techniques are suitable for remote sensing missions performed by using aircraft, satellites, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), parachute/gliding vehicles, Roving Surface Vehicles (RSV), or Permanent Surface Installations (PSI). The various techniques proposed offer relative advantages in different scenarios. All are based on measurements of the laser energy/power incident on target surfaces of known geometric and reflective characteristics, by means of infrared detectors and/or infrared cameras calibrated for radiance. Experimental results are presented relative to ground and flight trials performed with laser systems operating in the near infrared (NIR) at λ = 1064 nm and λ = 1550 nm. This includes ground tests performed with 10 Hz and 20 KHz PRF NIR laser systems in a variety of atmospheric conditions, and flight trials performed with a 10 Hz airborne NIR laser system installed on a TORNADO aircraft, flying up to altitudes of 22,000 ft above ground level. Future activities are planned to validate the atmospheric retrieval algorithms developed for CO2 column density measurements, with emphasis on aircraft related emissions at airports and other high air-traffic density environments.

  9. Calibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, W. A.; Spuler, S. M.; Spowart, M.; Lenschow, D. H.; Friesen, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    A new laser air-motion sensor measures the true airspeed with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.1 m s-1 and so reduces uncertainty in the measured component of the relative wind along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to about the same level. The calculated pressure expected from that airspeed at the inlet of a pitot tube then provides a basis for calibrating the measurements of dynamic and static pressure, reducing standard uncertainty in those measurements to less than 0.3 hPa and the precision applicable to steady flight conditions to about 0.1 hPa. These improved measurements of pressure, combined with high-resolution measurements of geometric altitude from the global positioning system, then indicate (via integrations of the hydrostatic equation during climbs and descents) that the offset and uncertainty in temperature measurement for one research aircraft are +0.3 ± 0.3 °C. For airspeed, pressure and temperature, these are significant reductions in uncertainty vs. those obtained from calibrations using standard techniques. Finally, it is shown that although the initial calibration of the measured static and dynamic pressures requires a measured temperature, once calibrated these measured pressures and the measurement of airspeed from the new laser air-motion sensor provide a measurement of temperature that does not depend on any other temperature sensor.

  10. Calibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, W. A.; Spuler, S. M.; Spowart, M.; Lenschow, D. H.; Friesen, R. B.

    2014-03-01

    A new laser air-motion sensor measures the true airspeed with an uncertainty of less than 0.1 m s-1 (standard error) and so reduces uncertainty in the measured component of the relative wind along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to about the same level. The calculated pressure expected from that airspeed at the inlet of a pitot tube then provides a basis for calibrating the measurements of dynamic and static pressure, reducing standard-error uncertainty in those measurements to less than 0.3 hPa and the precision applicable to steady flight conditions to about 0.1 hPa. These improved measurements of pressure, combined with high-resolution measurements of geometric altitude from the Global Positioning System, then indicate (via integrations of the hydrostatic equation during climbs and descents) that the offset and uncertainty in temperature measurement for one research aircraft are +0.3 ± 0.3 °C. For airspeed, pressure and temperature these are significant reductions in uncertainty vs. those obtained from calibrations using standard techniques. Finally, it is shown that the new laser air-motion sensor, combined with parametrized fits to correction factors for the measured dynamic and ambient pressure, provides a measurement of temperature that is independent of any other temperature sensor.

  11. New Airborne Sensors and Platforms for Solving Specific Tasks in Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, G.

    2012-07-01

    A huge number of small and medium sized sensors entered the market. Today's mid format sensors reach 80 MPix and allow to run projects of medium size, comparable with the first big format digital cameras about 6 years ago. New high quality lenses and new developments in the integration prepared the market for photogrammetric work. Companies as Phase One or Hasselblad and producers or integrators as Trimble, Optec, and others utilized these cameras for professional image production. In combination with small camera stabilizers they can be used also in small aircraft and make the equipment small and easy transportable e.g. for rapid assessment purposes. The combination of different camera sensors enables multi or hyper-spectral installations e.g. useful for agricultural or environmental projects. Arrays of oblique viewing cameras are in the market as well, in many cases these are small and medium format sensors combined as rotating or shifting devices or just as a fixed setup. Beside the proper camera installation and integration, also the software that controls the hardware and guides the pilot has to solve much more tasks than a normal FMS did in the past. Small and relatively cheap Laser Scanners (e.g. Riegl) are in the market and a proper combination with MS Cameras and an integrated planning and navigation is a challenge that has been solved by different softwares. Turnkey solutions are available e.g. for monitoring power line corridors where taking images is just a part of the job. Integration of thermal camera systems with laser scanner and video capturing must be combined with specific information of the objects stored in a database and linked when approaching the navigation point.

  12. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system.

  13. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system. PMID:25616190

  14. Remote environmental sensor array system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Geoffrey G.

    This thesis examines the creation of an environmental monitoring system for inhospitable environments. It has been named The Remote Environmental Sensor Array System or RESA System for short. This thesis covers the development of RESA from its inception, to the design and modeling of the hardware and software required to make it functional. Finally, the actual manufacture, and laboratory testing of the finished RESA product is discussed and documented. The RESA System is designed as a cost-effective way to bring sensors and video systems to the underwater environment. It contains as water quality probe with sensors such as dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, specific conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential and chlorophyll a. In addition, an omni-directional hydrophone is included to detect underwater acoustic signals. It has a colour, high-definition and a low-light, black and white camera system, which it turn are coupled to a laser scaling system. Both high-intensity discharge and halogen lighting system are included to illuminate the video images. The video and laser scaling systems are manoeuvred using pan and tilt units controlled from an underwater computer box. Finally, a sediment profile imager is included to enable profile images of sediment layers to be acquired. A control and manipulation system to control the instruments and move the data across networks is integrated into the underwater system while a power distribution node provides the correct voltages to power the instruments. Laboratory testing was completed to ensure that the different instruments associated with the RESA performed as designed. This included physical testing of the motorized instruments, calibration of the instruments, benchmark performance testing and system failure exercises.

  15. Using optoelectronic sensors in the system PROTEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyczkowski, M.; Szustakowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.; Piszczek, M.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents the concept of optoelectronic devices for human protection in rescue activity. The system consists of an ground robots with predicted sensor. The multisensor construction of the system ensures significant improvement of security of using on-situ like chemical or explosive sensors. The article show a various scenario of use for individual sensor in system PROTEUS.

  16. Optimized Design of the SGA-WZ Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter Temperature Control System

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Juliang; Wang, Minghao; Cai, Shaokun; Zhang, Kaidong; Cong, Danni; Wu, Meiping

    2015-01-01

    The temperature control system is one of the most important subsystems of the strapdown airborne gravimeter. Because the quartz flexible accelerometer based on springy support technology is the core sensor in the strapdown airborne gravimeter and the magnet steel in the electromagnetic force equilibrium circuits of the quartz flexible accelerometer is greatly affected by temperature, in order to guarantee the temperature control precision and minimize the effect of temperature on the gravimeter, the SGA-WZ temperature control system adopts a three-level control method. Based on the design experience of the SGA-WZ-01, the SGA-WZ-02 temperature control system came out with a further optimized design. In 1st level temperature control, thermoelectric cooler is used to conquer temperature change caused by hot weather. The experiments show that the optimized stability of 1st level temperature control is about 0.1 °C and the max cool down capability is about 10 °C. The temperature field is analyzed in the 2nd and 3rd level temperature control using the finite element analysis software ANSYS. The 2nd and 3rd level temperature control optimization scheme is based on the foundation of heat analysis. The experimental results show that static accuracy of SGA-WZ-02 reaches 0.21 mGal/24 h, with internal accuracy being 0.743 mGal/4.8 km and external accuracy being 0.37 mGal/4.8 km compared with the result of the GT-2A, whose internal precision is superior to 1 mGal/4.8 km and all of them are better than those in SGA-WZ-01. PMID:26633407

  17. Resolution analyses for selecting an appropriate airborne electromagnetic (AEM) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Niels B. 13Lawrie, Ken C.

    2012-07-01

    The choice of an appropriate airborne electromagnetic system for a given task should be based on a comparative analysis of candidate systems, consisting of both theoretical considerations and field studies including test lines. It has become common practice to quantify the system resolution for a series of models relevant to the survey area by comparing the sum over the data of squares of noise-normalised derivatives. We compare this analysis method with a resolution analysis based on the posterior covariance matrix of an inversion formulation. Both of the above analyses depend critically on the noise models of the systems being compared. A reasonable estimate of data noise and other sources of error is therefore of primary importance. However, data processing and noise reduction procedures, as well as other system parameters important for the modelling, are commonly proprietary, and generally it is not possible to verify whether noise figures have been arrived at by reasonable means. Consequently, it is difficult - sometimes impossible - to know if a comparative analysis has a sound basis. Nevertheless, in the real world choices have to be made, a comparative system analysis is necessary and has to be approached in a pragmatic way involving a range of different aspects. In this paper, we concentrate on the resolution analysis perspective and demonstrate that the inversion analysis must be preferred over the derivative analysis because it takes parameter coupling into account, and, furthermore, that the derivative analysis generally overestimates the resolution capability. Finally we show that impulse response data are to be preferred over step response data for near-surface resolution.

  18. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.; Wong, Gregory K.

    2011-03-01

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  19. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.

    2009-02-10

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  20. Airborne laser ranging system for monitoring regional crustal deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Alternate approaches for making the atmospheric correction without benefit of a ground-based meteorological network are discussed. These include (1) a two-color channel that determines the atmospheric correction by measuring the time delay induced by dispersion between pulses at two optical frequencies; (2) single-color range measurements supported by an onboard temperature sounder, pressure altimeter readings, and surface measurements by a few existing meteorological facilities; and (3) inclusion of the quadratic polynomial coefficients as variables to be solved for along with target coordinates in the reduction of the single-color range data. It is anticipated that the initial Airborne Laser Ranging System (ALRS) experiments will be carried out in Southern California in a region bounded by Santa Barbara on the norht and the Mexican border on the south. The target area will be bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and will extend eastward for approximately 400 km. The unique ability of the ALRS to provide a geodetic 'snapshot' of such a large area will make it a valuable geophysical tool.

  1. The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS): A Medium-Altitude, Digitization-Only, Airborne Laser Altimeter for Mapping Vegetation and Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Rabine, David L.; Hofton, Michelle A.

    1999-01-01

    The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is an airborne, scanning laser altimeter designed and developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. LVIS operates at altitudes up to 10 km above ground, and is capable of producing a data swath up to 1000 m wide nominally with 25 m wide footprints. The entire time history of the outgoing and return pulses is digitized, allowing unambiguous determination of range and return pulse structure. Combined with aircraft position and attitude knowledge, this instrument produces topographic maps with decimeter accuracy and vertical height and structure measurements of vegetation. The laser transmitter is a diode-pumped Nd:YAG oscillator producing 1064 nm, 10 nsec, 5 mJ pulses at repetition rates up to 500 Hz. LVIS has recently demonstrated its ability to determine topography (including sub-canopy) and vegetation height and structure on flight missions to various forested regions in the U.S. and Central America. The LVIS system is the airborne simulator for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission (a NASA Earth remote sensing satellite due for launch in 2000), providing simulated data sets and a platform for instrument proof-of-concept studies. The topography maps and return waveforms produced by LVIS provide Earth scientists with a unique data set allowing studies of topography, hydrology, and vegetation with unmatched accuracy and coverage.

  2. The detection and measurement of microburst wind shear by an airborne lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Paul A.; Bowles, Roland L.; Targ, Russell

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) Coherent Lidar Airborne Shear Sensor (CLASS) employs coherent lidar technology as a basis for a forward-looking predictive wind shear detection system. Line of sight wind velocities measured ahead of the aircraft are combined with aircraft state parameters to relate the measured wind change (or shear) ahead of an aircraft to its performance loss or gain. In this way the system can predict whether a shear detected ahead of the aircraft poses a significant threat to the aircraft and provide an advance warning to the flight crew. Installed aboard NASA's Boeing 737 research aircraft, the CLASS system is flown through convective microburst wind shears in Denver, Co., and Orlando, Fl. Some preliminary flight test results are presented. It is seen that the system was able to detect and measure wind shears ahead of the aircraft in the relatively dry Denver environment, but its performance was degraded in the high humidity and heavy rain in Orlando.

  3. UAVSAR: A New NASA Airborne SAR System for Science and Technology Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.; Hensley, Scott; Wheeler, Kevin; Sadowy, Greg; Miller, Tim; Shaffer, Scott; Muellerschoen, Ron; Jones, Cathleen; Zebker, Howard; Madsen, Soren

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently building a reconfigurable, polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track SAR data for differential interferometric measurements. Differentian interferometry can provide key deformation measurements, important for studies of earthquakes, volcanoes and other dynamically changing phenomena. Using precision real-time GPS and a sensor controlled flight management system, the system will be able to fly predefined paths with great precision. The expected performance of the flight control system will constrain the flight path to be within a 10 m diameter tube about the desired flight track. The radar will be designed to be operable on a UAV (Unpiloted Aria1 Vehicle) but will initially be demonstrated on a NASA Gulfstream III. The radar will be fully polarimetric, with a range bandwidth of 80 MHz (2 m range resolution), and will support a 16 km range swath. The antenna will be electronically steered along track to assure that the antenna beam can be directed independently, regardless of the wind direction and speed. Other features supported by the antenna include elevation monopulse and pulse-to-pulse re-steering capabilities that will enable some novel modes of operation. The system will nominally operate at 45,000 ft (13800 m). The program began as an Instrument Incubator Project (IIP) funded by NASA Earth Science and Technology Office (ESTO).

  4. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  5. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Garry J; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml(-1)) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  6. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools

    PubMed Central

    Burdett, Garry J.; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml−1) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml−1. Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  7. Nitrogen dioxide observations from the Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument: Retrieval algorithm and measurements during DISCOVER-AQ Texas 2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument is a test bed for upcoming air quality satellite instruments that will measure backscattered ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light from geostationary orbit. GeoTASO flew on the NASA F...

  8. Internetting tactical security sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, Douglas W.; Bryan, W. D.; Nguyen, Hoa G.

    1998-08-01

    The Multipurpose Surveillance and Security Mission Platform (MSSMP) is a distributed network of remote sensing packages and control stations, designed to provide a rapidly deployable, extended-range surveillance capability for a wide variety of military security operations and other tactical missions. The baseline MSSMP sensor suite consists of a pan/tilt unit with video and FLIR cameras and laser rangefinder. With an additional radio transceiver, MSSMP can also function as a gateway between existing security/surveillance sensor systems such as TASS, TRSS, and IREMBASS, and IP-based networks, to support the timely distribution of both threat detection and threat assessment information. The MSSMP system makes maximum use of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components for sensing, processing, and communications, and of both established and emerging standard communications networking protocols and system integration techniques. Its use of IP-based protocols allows it to freely interoperate with the Internet -- providing geographic transparency, facilitating development, and allowing fully distributed demonstration capability -- and prepares it for integration with the IP-based tactical radio networks that will evolve in the next decade. Unfortunately, the Internet's standard Transport layer protocol, TCP, is poorly matched to the requirements of security sensors and other quasi- autonomous systems in being oriented to conveying a continuous data stream, rather than discrete messages. Also, its canonical 'socket' interface both conceals short losses of communications connectivity and simply gives up and forces the Application layer software to deal with longer losses. For MSSMP, a software applique is being developed that will run on top of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) to provide a reliable message-based Transport service. In addition, a Session layer protocol is being developed to support the effective transfer of control of multiple platforms among multiple control

  9. Rapid System to Quantitatively Characterize the Airborne Microbial Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macnaughton, Sarah J.

    1998-01-01

    Bioaerosols have been linked to a wide range of different allergies and respiratory illnesses. Currently, microorganism culture is the most commonly used method for exposure assessment. Such culture techniques, however, generally fail to detect between 90-99% of the actual viable biomass. Consequently, an unbiased technique for detecting airborne microorganisms is essential. In this Phase II proposal, a portable air sampling device his been developed for the collection of airborne microbial biomass from indoor (and outdoor) environments. Methods were evaluated for extracting and identifying lipids that provide information on indoor air microbial biomass, and automation of these procedures was investigated. Also, techniques to automate the extraction of DNA were explored.

  10. Geographically distributed environmental sensor system

    DOEpatents

    French, Patrick; Veatch, Brad; O'Connor, Mike

    2006-10-03

    The present invention is directed to a sensor network that includes a number of sensor units and a base unit. The base station operates in a network discovery mode (in which network topology information is collected) in a data polling mode (in which sensed information is collected from selected sensory units). Each of the sensor units can include a number of features, including an anemometer, a rain gauge, a compass, a GPS receiver, a barometric pressure sensor, an air temperature sensor, a humidity sensor, a level, and a radiant temperature sensor.

  11. Microfabricated Air-Microfluidic Sensor for Personal Monitoring of Airborne Particulate Matter: Design, Fabrication, and Experimental Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present the design and fabrication of a micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) air-microfluidic particulate matter (PM) sensor, and show experimental results obtained from exposing the sensor to concentrations of tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust, two commonly occurring P...

  12. Data Acquisition and Processing System for Airborne Wind Profiling with a Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection, Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, J. Y.; Koch, G. J.; Kavaya, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    A data acquisition and signal processing system is being developed for a 2-micron airborne wind profiling coherent Doppler lidar system. This lidar, called the Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN), is based on a Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser transmitter and 15-cm diameter telescope. It is being packaged for flights onboard the NASA DC-8, with the first flights in the summer of 2010 in support of the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign for the study of hurricanes. The data acquisition and processing system is housed in a compact PCI chassis and consists of four components such as a digitizer, a digital signal processing (DSP) module, a video controller, and a serial port controller. The data acquisition and processing software (DAPS) is also being developed to control the system including real-time data analysis and display. The system detects an external 10 Hz trigger pulse and initiates the data acquisition and processing process, and displays selected wind profile parameters such as Doppler shift, power distribution, wind directions and velocities. Doppler shift created by aircraft motion is measured by an inertial navigation/GPS sensor and fed to the signal processing system for real-time removal of aircraft effects from wind measurements. A general overview of the system and the DAPS as well as the coherent Doppler lidar system is presented in this paper.

  13. Aerial Measuring System Sensor Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    R. S. Detwiler

    2002-04-01

    This project deals with the modeling the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) fixed-wing and rotary-wing sensor systems, which are critical U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Consequence Management assets. The fixed-wing system is critical in detecting lost or stolen radiography or medical sources, or mixed fission products as from a commercial power plant release at high flying altitudes. The helicopter is typically used at lower altitudes to determine ground contamination, such as in measuring americium from a plutonium ground dispersal during a cleanup. Since the sensitivity of these instruments as a function of altitude is crucial in estimating detection limits of various ground contaminations and necessary count times, a characterization of their sensitivity as a function of altitude and energy is needed. Experimental data at altitude as well as laboratory benchmarks is important to insure that the strong effects of air attenuation are modeled correctly. The modeling presented here is the first attempt at such a characterization of the equipment for flying altitudes. The sodium iodide (NaI) sensors utilized with these systems were characterized using the Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. For the fixed wing system, calculations modeled the spectral response for the 3-element NaI detector pod and High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, in the relevant energy range of 50 keV to 3 MeV. NaI detector responses were simulated for both point and distributed surface sources as a function of gamma energy and flying altitude. For point sources, photopeak efficiencies were calculated for a zero radial distance and an offset equal to the altitude. For distributed sources approximating an infinite plane, gross count efficiencies were calculated and normalized to a uniform surface deposition of 1 {micro}Ci/m{sup 2}. The helicopter calculations modeled the transport of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am

  14. An aircraft sensor fault tolerant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Lancraft, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a sensor fault tolerant system which uses analytical redundancy for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) research aircraft in a Microwave Landing System (MLS) environment was studied. The fault tolerant system provides reliable estimates for aircraft position, velocity, and attitude in the presence of possible failures in navigation aid instruments and onboard sensors. The estimates, provided by the fault tolerant system, are used by the automated guidance and control system to land the aircraft along a prescribed path. Sensor failures are identified by utilizing the analytic relationship between the various sensor outputs arising from the aircraft equations of motion.

  15. Sensor technology for future atmospheric observation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, U. R.; Keafer, L. S., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The remote sensing instruments that will be needed for research in atmospheric environmental quality in the future are considered. The needs are determined on the basis of a model that incorporates scientific knowledge objectives, measurement needs, and potential space missions, spacecraft and instruments in order to discern the technology requirements. While emphasis is placed on global surveys that make full use of the synoptic observation capabilities of spaceborne sensors, the importance of airborne and ground-based sensors in this research is also recognized. Several of the instruments that are identified to fulfill the knowledge objectives are spectrometers and radiometers using such passive measurement techniques as interferometer correlation absorption radiometry, and heterodyne spectrometry. Lidar instruments are also seen as important future developments.

  16. Secured network sensor-based defense system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Sixiao; Shen, Dan; Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Blasch, Erik P.; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Network sensor-based defense (NSD) systems have been widely used to defend against cyber threats. Nonetheless, if the adversary finds ways to identify the location of monitor sensors, the effectiveness of NSD systems can be reduced. In this paper, we propose both temporal and spatial perturbation based defense mechanisms to secure NSD systems and make the monitor sensor invisible to the adversary. The temporal-perturbation based defense manipulates the timing information of published data so that the probability of successfully recognizing monitor sensors can be reduced. The spatial-perturbation based defense dynamically redeploys monitor sensors in the network so that the adversary cannot obtain the complete information to recognize all of the monitor sensors. We carried out experiments using real-world traffic traces to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed defense mechanisms. Our data shows that our proposed defense mechanisms can reduce the attack accuracy of recognizing detection sensors.

  17. Phase discriminating capacitive array sensor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor); Rahim, Wadi (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A phase discriminating capacitive sensor array system which provides multiple sensor elements which are maintained at a phase and amplitude based on a frequency reference provided by a single frequency stabilized oscillator. Sensor signals provided by the multiple sensor elements are controlled by multiple phase control units, which correspond to the multiple sensor elements, to adjust the sensor signals from the multiple sensor elements based on the frequency reference. The adjustment made to the sensor signals is indicated by output signals which indicate the proximity of the object. The output signals may also indicate the closing speed of the object based on the rate of change of the adjustment made, and the edges of the object based on a sudden decrease in the adjustment made.

  18. Airborne hyperspectral systems for solving remote sensing problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, I. D.; Rodionov, A. I.; Vedeshin, L. A.; Vinogradov, A. N.; Egorov, V. V.; Kalinin, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    A retrospective of airborne hyperspectrometer projects carried out in the ZAO Reagent Scientific Technical Center is presented. Hyperspectral devices developed during the period since the end of 1990s to the present day are described. The line of hyperspectrometers designed in recent times covers the ranges from ultraviolet (0.2 μm) to near infrared (1.0 μm). These devices can be mounted on airborne and automobile carriers, including small-size ones. By now, the developments of hyperspectral devices in ZAO Reagent have reached the finished state and have been prepared for serial production. Their technical characteristics permit one to speak of the creation of wide-range high-aperture ultraspectral high spatial resolution equipment with a possibility of real-time data processing on board.

  19. Development of a low-cost airborne ultrasound sensor for the detection of brick joints behind a wall painting.

    PubMed

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Bravo, José María; Pérez-Miralles, Juan; Estrada, Héctor; Fernández-Navajas, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive methods are of great interest for the analysis of cultural heritage. Among the different possible techniques, this paper presents a low cost prototype based on the emission and reception of airborne ultrasound without direct contact with the test specimen. We successfully performed a method test for the detection of brick joints under a XV th century Renaissance fresco of the Metropolitan Cathedral of the city of Valencia (Spain). Both laboratory and in situ results are in agreement. Using this prototype system, an early moisture detection system has been installed in the dome that supports the fresco. The result is encouraging and opens interesting prospects for future research.

  20. Development of a Low-Cost Airborne Ultrasound Sensor for the Detection of Brick Joints behind a Wall Painting

    PubMed Central

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Bravo, José María; Pérez-Miralles, Juan; Estrada, Héctor; Fernández-Navajas, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive methods are of great interest for the analysis of cultural heritage. Among the different possible techniques, this paper presents a low cost prototype based on the emission and reception of airborne ultrasound without direct contact with the test specimen. We successfully performed a method test for the detection of brick joints under a XVth century Renaissance fresco of the Metropolitan Cathedral of the city of Valencia (Spain). Both laboratory and in situ results are in agreement. Using this prototype system, an early moisture detection system has been installed in the dome that supports the fresco. The result is encouraging and opens interesting prospects for future research. PMID:22438711

  1. Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Charles P.; Lipkin, Ilya; Davidson, Steven A.; Dirner, Jason

    2016-05-01

    The Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA) is a C4ISR-focused technical and economic collaborative effort between the Air Force, Navy, Army, the Department of Defense (DoD), Industry, and other Governmental agencies to develop (and incorporate) technical Open Systems Architecture standards in order to maximize C4ISR sub-system, system, and platform affordability, re-configurability, overall performance, and hardware/software/firmware re-use. The SOSA effort will effectively create an operational and technical framework for the integration of disparate payloads into C4ISR systems; with a focus on the development of a functional decomposition for common multi-purpose backbone architecture for radar, EO/IR, SIGINT, EW, and communications modalities. SOSA addresses hardware, software, and mechanical/electrical interfaces. The functional decomposition will produce a set of re-useable components, interfaces, and sub-systems that engender re-usable capabilities. This, in effect, creates a realistic and affordable ecosystem enabling mission effectiveness through systematic re-use of all available re-composed hardware, software, and electrical/mechanical base components and interfaces.

  2. Towards Automatic Single-Sensor Mapping by Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahokas, E.; Hyyppä, J.; Yu, X.; Liang, X.; Matikainen, L.; Karila, K.; Litkey, P.; Kukko, A.; Jaakkola, A.; Kaartinen, H.; Holopainen, M.; Vastaranta, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the possibilities of the Optech Titan multispectral airborne laser scanner in the fields of mapping and forestry. Investigation was targeted to six land cover classes. Multispectral laser scanner data can be used to distinguish land cover classes of the ground surface, including the roads and separate road surface classes. For forest inventory using point cloud metrics and intensity features combined, total accuracy of 93.5% was achieved for classification of three main boreal tree species (pine, spruce and birch).When using intensity features - without point height metrics - a classification accuracy of 91% was achieved for these three tree species. It was also shown that deciduous trees can be further classified into more species. We propose that intensity-related features and waveform-type features are combined with point height metrics for forest attribute derivation in area-based prediction, which is an operatively applied forest inventory process in Scandinavia. It is expected that multispectral airborne laser scanning can provide highly valuable data for city and forest mapping and is a highly relevant data asset for national and local mapping agencies in the near future.

  3. Distributed sensor coordination for advanced energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tumer, Kagan

    2015-03-12

    Motivation: The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reliable operation of advanced power systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled some level of decision making directly at the sensor level. However, coordinating large numbers of sensors, particularly heterogeneous sensors, to achieve system level objectives such as predicting plant efficiency, reducing downtime or predicting outages requires sophisticated coordination algorithms. Indeed, a critical issue in such systems is how to ensure the interaction of a large number of heterogenous system components do not interfere with one another and lead to undesirable behavior. Objectives and Contributions: The long-term objective of this work is to provide sensor deployment, coordination and networking algorithms for large numbers of sensors to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. Our two specific objectives are to: 1. Derive sensor performance metrics for heterogeneous sensor networks. 2. Demonstrate effectiveness, scalability and reconfigurability of heterogeneous sensor network in advanced power systems. The key technical contribution of this work is to push the coordination step to the design of the objective functions of the sensors, allowing networks of heterogeneous sensors to be controlled. By ensuring that the control and coordination is not specific to particular sensor hardware, this approach enables the design and operation of large heterogeneous sensor networks. In addition to the coordination coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Impact: The impact of this work extends to a large class of problems relevant to the National Energy Technology Laboratory including sensor placement, heterogeneous sensor

  4. Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Gawdiak, Yuri; Leidichj, Christopher; Papasin, Richard; Tran, Peter B.; Bass, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Networks of video cameras, meteorological sensors, and ancillary electronic equipment are under development in collaboration among NASA Ames Research Center, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These networks are to be established at and near airports to provide real-time information on local weather conditions that affect aircraft approaches and landings. The prototype network is an airport-approach-zone camera system (AAZCS), which has been deployed at San Francisco International Airport (SFO) and San Carlos Airport (SQL). The AAZCS includes remotely controlled color video cameras located on top of SFO and SQL air-traffic control towers. The cameras are controlled by the NOAA Center Weather Service Unit located at the Oakland Air Route Traffic Control Center and are accessible via a secure Web site. The AAZCS cameras can be zoomed and can be panned and tilted to cover a field of view 220 wide. The NOAA observer can see the sky condition as it is changing, thereby making possible a real-time evaluation of the conditions along the approach zones of SFO and SQL. The next-generation network, denoted a remote tower sensor system (RTSS), will soon be deployed at the Half Moon Bay Airport and a version of it will eventually be deployed at Los Angeles International Airport. In addition to remote control of video cameras via secure Web links, the RTSS offers realtime weather observations, remote sensing, portability, and a capability for deployment at remote and uninhabited sites. The RTSS can be used at airports that lack control towers, as well as at major airport hubs, to provide synthetic augmentation of vision for both local and remote operations under what would otherwise be conditions of low or even zero visibility.

  5. Remote sensing of soil moisture using airborne hyperspectral data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Institute for Technology Development (ITD) has developed an airborne hyperspectral sensor system that collects electromagnetic reflectance data of the terrain. The system consists of sensors for three different sections of the electromagnetic spectrum; the Ultra-Violet (UV), Visible/Near Infrare...

  6. Sensor Systems for Prognostics and Health Management

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shunfeng; Azarian, Michael H.; Pecht, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Prognostics and health management (PHM) is an enabling discipline consisting of technologies and methods to assess the reliability of a product in its actual life cycle conditions to determine the advent of failure and mitigate system risk. Sensor systems are needed for PHM to monitor environmental, operational, and performance-related characteristics. The gathered data can be analyzed to assess product health and predict remaining life. In this paper, the considerations for sensor system selection for PHM applications, including the parameters to be measured, the performance needs, the electrical and physical attributes, reliability, and cost of the sensor system, are discussed. The state-of-the-art sensor systems for PHM and the emerging trends in technologies of sensor systems for PHM are presented. PMID:22219686

  7. Intelligent Sensors: An Integrated Systems Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahajan, Ajay; Chitikeshi, Sanjeevi; Bandhil, Pavan; Utterbach, Lucas; Figueroa, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The need for intelligent sensors as a critical component for Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is fairly well recognized by now. Even the definition of what constitutes an intelligent sensor (or smart sensor) is well documented and stems from an intuitive desire to get the best quality measurement data that forms the basis of any complex health monitoring and/or management system. If the sensors, i.e. the elements closest to the measurand, are unreliable then the whole system works with a tremendous handicap. Hence, there has always been a desire to distribute intelligence down to the sensor level, and give it the ability to assess its own health thereby improving the confidence in the quality of the data at all times. This paper proposes the development of intelligent sensors as an integrated systems approach, i.e. one treats the sensors as a complete system with its own sensing hardware (the traditional sensor), A/D converters, processing and storage capabilities, software drivers, self-assessment algorithms, communication protocols and evolutionary methodologies that allow them to get better with time. Under a project being undertaken at the NASA Stennis Space Center, an integrated framework is being developed for the intelligent monitoring of smart elements. These smart elements can be sensors, actuators or other devices. The immediate application is the monitoring of the rocket test stands, but the technology should be generally applicable to the Intelligent Systems Health Monitoring (ISHM) vision. This paper outlines some fundamental issues in the development of intelligent sensors under the following two categories: Physical Intelligent Sensors (PIS) and Virtual Intelligent Sensors (VIS).

  8. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS): Sensor improvements for 1994 and 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarture, C. M.; Chrien, T. G.; Green, R. O.; Eastwood, M. L.; Raney, J. J.; Hernandez, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    AVIRIS is a NASA-sponsored Earth-remote-sensing imaging spectrometer designed, built and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). While AVIRIS has been operational since 1989, major improvements have been completed in most of the sensor subsystems during the winter maintenance cycles. As a consequence of these efforts, the capabilities of AVIRIS to reliably acquire and deliver consistently high quality, calibrated imaging spectrometer data continue to improve annually, significantly over those in 1989. Improvements to AVIRIS prior to 1994 have been described previously. This paper details recent and planned improvements to AVIRIS in the sensor task.

  9. Airborne lidar measurements of wave energy dissipation in a coral reef lagoon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhi-Cheng; Reineman, Benjamin D.; Lenain, Luc; Melville, W. Kendall; Middleton, Jason H.

    2012-03-01

    Quantification of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate in the water column, ɛ, is very important for assessing nutrient uptake rates of corals and therefore the health of coral reef lagoon systems. However, the availability of such data is limited. Recently, at Lady Elliot Island (LEI), Australia, we showed that there was a strong correlation between in situ measurements of surface-wave energy dissipation and ɛ. Previously, Reineman et al. (2009), we showed that a small airborne scanning lidar system could measure the surface wavefield remotely. Here we present measurements demonstrating the use of the same airborne lidar to remotely measure surface wave energy fluxes and dissipation and thereby estimate ɛ in the LEI reef-lagoon system. The wave energy flux and wave dissipation rate across the fore reef and into the lagoon are determined from the airborne measurements of the wavefield. Using these techniques, observed spatial profiles of energy flux and wave energy dissipation rates over the LEI reef-lagoon system are presented. The results show that the high lidar backscatter intensity and point density coming from the high reflectivity of the foam from depth-limited breaking waves coincides with the high wave-energy dissipation rates. Good correlations between the airborne measurements and in situ observations demonstrate that it is feasible to apply airborne lidar systems for large-scale, long-term studies in monitoring important physical processes in coral reef environments. When added to other airborne techniques, the opportunities for efficient monitoring of large reef systems may be expanded significantly.

  10. Validating MODIS above-cloud aerosol optical depth retrieved from "color ratio" algorithm using direct measurements made by NASA's airborne AATS and 4STAR sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethva, Hiren; Torres, Omar; Remer, Lorraine; Redemann, Jens; Livingston, John; Dunagan, Stephen; Shinozuka, Yohei; Kacenelenbogen, Meloe; Segal Rosenheimer, Michal; Spurr, Rob

    2016-10-01

    We present the validation analysis of above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) retrieved from the "color ratio" method applied to MODIS cloudy-sky reflectance measurements using the limited direct measurements made by NASA's airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) and Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) sensors. A thorough search of the airborne database collection revealed a total of five significant events in which an airborne sun photometer, coincident with the MODIS overpass, observed partially absorbing aerosols emitted from agricultural biomass burning, dust, and wildfires over a low-level cloud deck during SAFARI-2000, ACE-ASIA 2001, and SEAC4RS 2013 campaigns, respectively. The co-located satellite-airborne matchups revealed a good agreement (root-mean-square difference < 0.1), with most matchups falling within the estimated uncertainties associated the MODIS retrievals (about -10 to +50 %). The co-retrieved cloud optical depth was comparable to that of the MODIS operational cloud product for ACE-ASIA and SEAC4RS, however, higher by 30-50 % for the SAFARI-2000 case study. The reason for this discrepancy could be attributed to the distinct aerosol optical properties encountered during respective campaigns. A brief discussion on the sources of uncertainty in the satellite-based ACAOD retrieval and co-location procedure is presented. Field experiments dedicated to making direct measurements of aerosols above cloud are needed for the extensive validation of satellite-based retrievals.

  11. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, D.C.; Pigoski, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  12. Sensor Development for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Magee; Richard Gehman

    2005-07-12

    This document reports on the work done by Honeywell Sensing and Control to investigate the feasibility of modifying low cost Commercial Sensors for use inside a PEM Fuel Cell environment. Both stationary and automotive systems were considered. The target environment is hotter (100 C) than the typical commercial sensor maximum of 70 C. It is also far more humid (100% RH condensing) than the more typical 95% RH non-condensing at 40 C (4% RH maximum at 100 C). The work focused on four types of sensors, Temperature, Pressure, Air Flow and Relative Humidity. Initial design goals were established using a market research technique called Market Driven Product Definition (MDPD). A series of interviews were conducted with various users and system designers in their facilities. The interviewing team was trained in data taking and analysis per the MDPD process. The final result was a prioritized and weighted list of both requirements and desires for each sensor. Work proceeded on concept development for the 4 types of sensors. At the same time, users were developing the actual fuel cell systems and gaining knowledge and experience in the use of sensors and controls systems. This resulted in changes to requirements and desires that were not anticipated during the MDPD process. The concepts developed met all the predicted requirements. At the completion of concept development for the Pressure Sensor, it was determined that the Fuel Cell developers were happy with off-the-shelf automotive pressure sensors. Thus, there was no incentive to bring a new Fuel Cell Specific Pressure Sensor into production. Work was therefore suspended. After the experience with the Pressure Sensor, the requirements for a Temperature Sensor were reviewed and a similar situation applied. Commercially available temperature sensors were adequate and cost effective and so the program was not continued from the Concept into the Design Phase.

  13. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  14. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). A description of the sensor, ground data processing facility, laboratory calibration, and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The papers in this document were presented at the Imaging Spectroscopy 2 Conference of the 31st International Symposium on Optical and Optoelectronic Applied Science and Engineering, in San Diego, California, on 20 and 21 August 1987. They describe the design and performance of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor and its subsystems, the ground data processing facility, laboratory calibration, and first results.

  15. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    DOEpatents

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  16. Effect of an electrostatic space charge system on airborne dust and subsequent potential transmission of microorganisms to broiler breeder pullets by airborne dust.

    PubMed

    Richardson, L J; Mitchell, B W; Wilson, J L; Hofacre, C L

    2003-01-01

    High levels of dust and microorganisms are known to be associated with animal confinement rearing facilities. Many of the microorganisms are carried by dust particles, thus providing an excellent vector for horizontal disease transmission between birds. Two environmentally controlled rooms containing female broiler breeder pullets (n = 300) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of an electrostatic space charge system (ESCS) in reducing airborne dust and gram-negative bacteria levels over an 8-wk period (starting when the birds were 10 wk old). The ESCS was used to evaluate the effectiveness of reducing airborne microorganism levels by charging airborne dust particles and causing the particles to be attracted to grounded surfaces (i.e., walls, floor, equipment). The use of the ESCS resulted in a 64% mean reduction in gram-negative bacteria. Airborne dust levels were reduced an average of 37% over a 1-wk period in the experimental room compared with the control room on the basis of samples taken every 10 min. The reductions of airborne dust and bacteria in this study are comparable with earlier results obtained with the ESCS in commercial hatching cabinets and experimental caged layer rooms, suggesting the system could also be applied to other types of enclosed animal housing. PMID:12713167

  17. Battery management system with distributed wireless sensors

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2016-02-23

    A system for monitoring parameters of an energy storage system having a multiplicity of individual energy storage cells. A radio frequency identification and sensor unit is connected to each of the individual energy storage cells. The radio frequency identification and sensor unit operates to sense the parameter of each individual energy storage cell and provides radio frequency transmission of the parameters of each individual energy storage cell. A management system monitors the radio frequency transmissions from the radio frequency identification and sensor units for monitoring the parameters of the energy storage system.

  18. Sensorpedia: Information Sharing Across Autonomous Sensor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Bryan L; Resseguie, David R; Tomkins-Tinch, Christopher H

    2009-01-01

    The concept of adapting social media technologies is introduced as a means of achieving information sharing across autonomous sensor systems. Historical examples of interoperability as an underlying principle in loosely-coupled systems is compared and contrasted with corresponding tightly-coupled, integrated systems. Examples of ad hoc information sharing solutions based on Web 2.0 social networks, mashups, blogs, wikis, and data tags are presented and discussed. The underlying technologies of these solutions are isolated and defined, and Sensorpedia is presented as a formalized application for implementing sensor information sharing across large-scale enterprises with incompatible autonomous sensor systems.

  19. Optical seismic sensor systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Beal, A. Craig; Cummings, Malcolm E.; Zavriyev, Anton; Christensen, Caleb A.; Lee, Keun

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed is an optical seismic sensor system for measuring seismic events in a geological formation, including a surface unit for generating and processing an optical signal, and a sensor device optically connected to the surface unit for receiving the optical signal over an optical conduit. The sensor device includes at least one sensor head for sensing a seismic disturbance from at least one direction during a deployment of the sensor device within a borehole of the geological formation. The sensor head includes a frame and a reference mass attached to the frame via at least one flexure, such that movement of the reference mass relative to the frame is constrained to a single predetermined path.

  20. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  1. Fast pressure-sensor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, C.

    1976-01-01

    Miniature silicon-diaphragm sensors and signal multiplexer are mounted to ganged zero-operate-calibrate pressure selector switches. Device allows in-situ calibration, can be computer controlled, and measures at approximately 10,000 readings per second.

  2. Development of Sic Gas Sensor Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Okojie, R. S.; Beheim, G. M.; Thomas, V.; Chen, L.; Lukco, D.; Liu, C. C.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) based gas sensors have significant potential to address the gas sensing needs of aerospace applications such as emission monitoring, fuel leak detection, and fire detection. However, in order to reach that potential, a range of technical challenges must be overcome. These challenges go beyond the development of the basic sensor itself and include the need for viable enabling technologies to make a complete gas sensor system: electrical contacts, packaging, and transfer of information from the sensor to the outside world. This paper reviews the status at NASA Glenn Research Center of SiC Schottky diode gas sensor development as well as that of enabling technologies supporting SiC gas sensor system implementation. A vision of a complete high temperature microfabricated SiC gas sensor system is proposed. In the long-term, it is believed that improvements in the SiC semiconductor material itself could have a dramatic effect on the performance of SiC gas sensor systems.

  3. Simulation of Terminal-Area Flight Management System Arrivals with Airborne Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Lee, Paul U.; Mercer, Joey S.; Palmer, Everett A.; Prevot, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A simulation evaluated the feasibility and potential benefits of using decision support tools to support time-based airborne spacing and merging for aircraft arriving in the terminal area on charted Flight Management System (FMS) routes. Sixteen trials were conducted in each treatment combination of a 2X2 repeated-measures design. In trials 'with ground tools' air traffic controller participants managed traffic using sequencing and spacing tools. In trials 'with air tools' approximately seventy-five percent of aircraft assigned to the primary landing runway were equipped for airborne spacing, including flight simulators flown by commercial pilots. The results indicate that airborne spacing improves spacing accuracy and is feasible for FMS operations and mixed spacing equipage. Controllers and pilots can manage spacing clearances that contain two call signs without difficulty. For best effect, both decision support tools and spacing guidance should exhibit consistently predictable performance, and merging traffic flows should be well coordinated.

  4. Revolution of Sensors in Micro-Electromechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esashi, Masayoshi

    2012-08-01

    Microsensors realized by micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology play a key role as the input devices of systems. In this report, the following sensors are reviewed: piezoresistive and capacitive pressure sensors, surface acoustic wave (SAW) wireless pressure sensors, tactile sensor networks for robots, accelerometers, angular velocity sensors (gyroscopes), range image sensors using optical scanners, infrared imagers, chemical sensing systems as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography, flow sensors for fluids, and medical sensors such as ultrafine optical-fiber blood pressure sensors and implantable pressure sensors.

  5. Inertial navigation sensor integrated obstacle detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhanu, Bir (Inventor); Roberts, Barry A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A system that incorporates inertial sensor information into optical flow computations to detect obstacles and to provide alternative navigational paths free from obstacles. The system is a maximally passive obstacle detection system that makes selective use of an active sensor. The active detection typically utilizes a laser. Passive sensor suite includes binocular stereo, motion stereo and variable fields-of-view. Optical flow computations involve extraction, derotation and matching of interest points from sequential frames of imagery, for range interpolation of the sensed scene, which in turn provides obstacle information for purposes of safe navigation.

  6. Airborne Wireless Optical Communication System in Low Altitude Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Meiwei; Tong, Zheng; Yu, Xiangyu; Song, Yuhang; Lin, Aobo; Xu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of airborne wireless optical communication system using an unmanned aerial vehicle and LEDs. Monte Carlo simulation method is used to evaluate the performance of the communication channel. Considering OOK modulation, we illustrate how the BER performance is affected by the link distance, the divergence angel and the deflection angel of the light source.

  7. Sensor Systems for Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somps, Chris J.; Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Sensors 2000! (S2K!) is a NASA Ames Research Center engineering initiative designed to provide biosensor and bio-instrumentation systems technology expertise to NASA's life sciences spaceflight programs. S2K! covers the full spectrum of sensor technology applications, ranging from spaceflight hardware design and fabrication to advanced technology development, transfer and commercialization. S2K! is currently developing sensor systems for space biomedical applications on BION (a Russian biosatellite focused on Rhesus Monkey physiology) and NEUROLAB (a Space Shuttle flight devoted to neuroscience). It's Advanced Technology Development-Biosensors (ATD-B) project focuses efforts in five principle areas: biotelemetry Systems, chemical and biological sensors, physiological sensors, advanced instrumentation architectures, and data and information management. Technologies already developed and tested included, application-specific sensors, preamplifier hybrids, modular programmable signal conditioners, power conditioning and distribution systems, and a fully implantable dual channel biotelemeter. Systems currently under development include a portable receiver system compatible with an off-the-shelf analog biotelemeter, a 4 channel digital biotelemetry system which monitors pH, a multichannel, g-processor based PCM biotelemetry system, and hand-held personal monitoring systems. S2K! technology easily lends itself to telescience and telemedicine applications as a front-end measurement and data acquisition device, suitable for obtaining and configuring physiological information, and processing that information under control from a remote location.

  8. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  9. OmniSense unattended ground sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuiddy, John

    2008-04-01

    McQ's OmniSense® Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) System has been deployed in large numbers to support current DOD warfighting efforts. This networked UGS system connects the user to the remotely deployed sensors to receive target information and to allow a user to remotely reconfigure the sensors. These intelligent sensors detect and classify the targets, in addition to, capturing a picture of the target. The ability to geographically distribute both the users and the sensors is based on using a network oriented common data structure. McQ developed and has implemented for tactical DOD use the Common Data Interchange Format (CDIF) sensor language. This has enabled UGS to be networked over NIPRnet and SIPRnet links so that operators in the field, at Forward Operating Bases, at Tactical Operations Centers, and at Command Centers can simultaneously share the data. The Army Research Laboratory has further enhanced and extended this network architecture by integrating a common radio (Blue Radio) and demonstrating in Army C4ISR exercises that UGS systems from multiple vendors can be integrated into the Future Combat System FBCB2 situation awareness capability. McQ has extended its OmniSense® UGS capability with direct network connectivity to the soldier, long range standoff imagers controlled over the network, terrestrial network relays, and with a new low cost OmniSenseCOR TM sensor. McQ will present an overview of the technology provided by the OmniSense® UGS system.

  10. DASCAR sensor suite and video data system

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.; Barickman, F.S.; Goodman, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    A research program oriented toward the development of a portable data acquisition system for crash avoidance research has been conducted. This paper discusses the background to the project and the requirements for the data acquisition system. it also provides a brief system overview and describes two of the system`s five major elements, the sensor suite and the video data system, in detail. Components, functions, and specifications are covered Finally the paper addresses the central data collection/analysis facility which was assembled to manage the sensor and video data, and presents the potential uses of the data acquisition system.

  11. Probabilistic deployment for multiple sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Ming; Ferrari, Silvia

    2005-05-01

    The performance of many multi-sensor systems can be significantly improved by using a priori environmental information and sensor data to plan the movements of sensor platforms that are later deployed with the purpose of improving the quality of the final detection and classification results. However, existing path planning algorithms and ad-hoc data processing (e.g., fusion) techniques do not allow for the systematic treatment of multiple and heterogeneous sensors and their platforms. This paper presents a method that combines Bayesian network inference with probabilistic roadmap (PRM) planners to utilize the information obtained by different sensors and their level of uncertainty. The uncertainty of prior sensed information is represented by entropy values obtained from the Bayesian network (BN) models of the respective sensor measurement processes. The PRM algorithm is modified to utilize the entropy distribution in optimizing the path of posterior sensor platforms that have the following objectives: (1) improve the quality of the sensed information, i.e., through fusion, (2) minimize the distance traveled by the platforms, and (3) avoid obstacles. This so-called Probabilistic Deployment (PD) method is applied to a demining system comprised of ground-penetrating radars (GPR), electromagnetic (EMI), and infrared sensors (IR) installed on ground platforms, to detect and classify buried mines. Numerical simulations show that PD is more efficient than path planning techniques that do not utilize a priori information, such as complete coverage, random coverage method, or PRM methods that do not utilize Bayesian inference.

  12. Integration of a synthetic vision system with airborne laser range scanner-based terrain referenced navigation for precision approach guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uijt de Haag, Maarten; Campbell, Jacob; van Graas, Frank

    2005-05-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) provide pilots with a virtual visual depiction of the external environment. When using SVS for aircraft precision approach guidance systems accurate positioning relative to the runway with a high level of integrity is required. Precision approach guidance systems in use today require ground-based electronic navigation components with at least one installation at each airport, and in many cases multiple installations to service approaches to all qualifying runways. A terrain-referenced approach guidance system is envisioned to provide precision guidance to an aircraft without the use of ground-based electronic navigation components installed at the airport. This autonomy makes it a good candidate for integration with an SVS. At the Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center (AEC), work has been underway in the development of such a terrain referenced navigation system. When used in conjunction with an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a high accuracy/resolution terrain database, this terrain referenced navigation system can provide navigation and guidance information to the pilot on a SVS or conventional instruments. The terrain referenced navigation system, under development at AEC, operates on similar principles as other terrain navigation systems: a ground sensing sensor (in this case an airborne laser scanner) gathers range measurements to the terrain; this data is then matched in some fashion with an onboard terrain database to find the most likely position solution and used to update an inertial sensor-based navigator. AEC's system design differs from today's common terrain navigators in its use of a high resolution terrain database (~1 meter post spacing) in conjunction with an airborne laser scanner which is capable of providing tens of thousands independent terrain elevation measurements per second with centimeter-level accuracies. When combined with data from an inertial navigator the high resolution terrain database and

  13. Estimation of optical flow in airborne electro-optical sensors by stochastic approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhav, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The essence of motion or range estimation by passive electrooptical means is the ability to determine the correspondence of picture elements in pairs of image frames and to estimate their coordinates and their disparity (relative shifts) in the image plane of an electrooptical imaging sensor. The disparity can be in successive frames due to self-motion or in simultaneous frames of a stereo pair. A key issue is to provide these estimates on-line. This paper describes the theoretical background of such an interframe shift estimator. It is based on a stochastic gradient algorithm, specifically implementing a form of stochastic approximation, which can achieve rapid convergence of the shift estimate. Analytical and numerical simulation examples for random texture and isolated features validate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the estimator.

  14. ISDSN Sensor System Phase One Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gail Heath

    2011-09-01

    This Phase 1 Test Report documents the test activities and results completed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) sensor systems that will be deployed in the meso-scale test bed (MSTB) at Florida International University (FIU), as outlined in the ISDSN-MSTB Test Plan. This report captures the sensor system configuration tested; test parameters, testing procedure, any noted changes from the implementation plan, acquired test data sets, and processed results.

  15. The development of airborne video system for monitoring of river environments

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Shigeya; Mizutani, Nobuyuki; Mizukami, Masumi; Koyano, Toshirou

    1996-11-01

    Recently, airborne videography is widely used by many monitoring for environmental resources, such as rivers, forests, ocean, and so on. Although airborne videography has a low resolution than aerial photographs, it can effectively reduce the cost of continuous monitoring of wide area. Furthermore video images can easily be processed with personal computer. This paper introduces an airborne video system for monitoring of Class A river environment. This system consists of two sub-systems. One is the data collection system that is composed of a video camera, a Global Positioning System(GPS) and a personal computer. This sub-system records information of rivers by video images and their corresponding location data. A GPS system is used for calculating location data and navigating the airplane to the destination of monitoring site. Other is a simplified digital video editing system. This system runs on a personal computer with Microsoft Windows 3.1. This system can also be used for management and planning of road environment, marine resources, forest resources and for prevention of disasters. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Thermal management of closed computer modules utilizing high density circuitry. [in Airborne Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents data on a preliminary analysis of the thermal dynamic characteristics of the Airborne Information Management System (AIMS), which is a continuing design project at NASA Dryden. The analysis established the methods which will be applied to the actual AIMS boards as they become available. The paper also describes the AIMS liquid cooling system design and presents a thermodynamic computer model of the AIMS cooling system, together with an experimental validation of this model.

  17. Toward sensor-based context aware systems.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshitaka; Takada, Kouhei; Anisetti, Marco; Bellandi, Valerio; Ceravolo, Paolo; Damiani, Ernesto; Tsuruta, Setsuo

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for sensor data interpretation that can combine sensor outputs with contexts represented as sets of annotated business rules. Sensor readings are interpreted to generate events labeled with the appropriate type and level of uncertainty. Then, the appropriate context is selected. Reconciliation of different uncertainty types is achieved by a simple technique that moves uncertainty from events to business rules by generating combs of standard Boolean predicates. Finally, context rules are evaluated together with the events to take a decision. The feasibility of our idea is demonstrated via a case study where a context-reasoning engine has been connected to simulated heartbeat sensors using prerecorded experimental data. We use sensor outputs to identify the proper context of operation of a system and trigger decision-making based on context information. PMID:22368489

  18. Wireless Nde Sensor System for Continuous Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dib, G.; Mhamdi, L.; Khan, T.; Udpa, L.; Lajnef, N.; Hong, J.-W.; Udpa, S.; Ramuhalli, P.; Balasubramaniam, K.

    2011-06-01

    For continuous monitoring of power-plant components, the use of in-situ sensors (i.e., sensors that are permanently mounted on the structure) is necessary. In-situ wired sensors require an unrealistic amount of cabling for power and data transfer, which can drive up costs of installation and maintenance. In addition, the use of cabling in hostile environments (high temperature/pressure environments) is not a viable option. This paper presents a wireless system for continuous monitoring, identification of anomalous events, NDE data acquisition and data transfer. NDE sensors are integrated with a wireless radio unit such as a MICA mote. Measurements from the sensors are typically acquired at prescribed intervals, encoded and compressed, and transmitted to a central processing server, where appropriate signal processing techniques may be used to filter out noise in the measurements, enhance the desired signal and quantify the damage in terms of severity.

  19. Comparison of immersed liquid and air cooling of NASA's Airborne Information Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1992-07-01

    The Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) is currently under development at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The AIMS is designed as a modular system utilizing surface mounted integrated circuits in a high-density configuration. To maintain the temperature of the integrated circuits within manufacturer's specifications, the modules are to be filled with Fluorinert FC-72. Unlike ground based liquid cooled computers, the extreme range of the ambient pressures experienced by the AIMS requires the FC-72 be contained in a closed system. This forces the latent heat absorbed during the boiling to be released during the condensation that must take within the closed module system. Natural convection and/or pumping carries the heat to the outer surface of the AIMS module where the heat transfers to the ambient air. This paper will present an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of immersed liquid cooling and air cooling of the Airborne Information Management System.

  20. Comparison of immersed liquid and air cooling of NASA's Airborne Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) is currently under development at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The AIMS is designed as a modular system utilizing surface mounted integrated circuits in a high-density configuration. To maintain the temperature of the integrated circuits within manufacturer's specifications, the modules are to be filled with Fluorinert FC-72. Unlike ground based liquid cooled computers, the extreme range of the ambient pressures experienced by the AIMS requires the FC-72 be contained in a closed system. This forces the latent heat absorbed during the boiling to be released during the condensation that must take within the closed module system. Natural convection and/or pumping carries the heat to the outer surface of the AIMS module where the heat transfers to the ambient air. This paper will present an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of immersed liquid cooling and air cooling of the Airborne Information Management System.

  1. Use of a new high-speed digital data acquisition system in airborne ice-sounding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, David L.; Bradley, Jerry A.; Hodge, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    A high-speed digital data acquisition and signal averaging system for borehole, surface, and airborne radio-frequency geophysical measurements was designed and built by the US Geological Survey. The system permits signal averaging at rates high enough to achieve significant signal-to-noise enhancement in profiling, even in airborne applications. The first field use of the system took place in Greenland in 1987 for recording data on a 150 by 150-km grid centered on the summit of the Greenland ice sheet. About 6000-line km were flown and recorded using the new system. The data can be used to aid in siting a proposed scientific corehole through the ice sheet.

  2. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  3. MITAS: multisensor imaging technology for airborne surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, John D.

    1991-08-01

    MITAS, a unique and low-cost solution to the problem of collecting and processing multisensor imaging data for airborne surveillance operations has been developed, MITAS results from integrating the established and proven real-time video processing, target tracking, and sensor management software of TAU with commercially available image exploitation and map processing software. The MITAS image analysis station (IAS) supports airborne day/night reconnaissance and surveillance missions involving low-altitude collection platforms employing a suite of sensors to perform reconnaissance functions against a variety of ground and sea targets. The system will detect, locate, and recognize threats likely to be encountered in support of counternarcotic operations and in low-intensity conflict areas. The IAS is capable of autonomous, near real-time target exploitation and has the appropriate communication links to remotely located IAS systems for more extended analysis of sensor data. The IAS supports the collection, fusion, and processing of three main imaging sensors: daylight imagery (DIS), forward looking infrared (FLIR), and infrared line scan (IRLS). The MITAS IAS provides support to all aspects of the airborne surveillance mission, including sensor control, real-time image enhancement, automatic target tracking, sensor fusion, freeze-frame capture, image exploitation, target data-base management, map processing, remote image transmission, and report generation.

  4. Onboard Image Processing System for Hyperspectral Sensor.

    PubMed

    Hihara, Hiroki; Moritani, Kotaro; Inoue, Masao; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Akira; Takada, Jun; Inada, Hitomi; Suzuki, Makoto; Seki, Taeko; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tanii, Jun

    2015-09-25

    Onboard image processing systems for a hyperspectral sensor have been developed in order to maximize image data transmission efficiency for large volume and high speed data downlink capacity. Since more than 100 channels are required for hyperspectral sensors on Earth observation satellites, fast and small-footprint lossless image compression capability is essential for reducing the size and weight of a sensor system. A fast lossless image compression algorithm has been developed, and is implemented in the onboard correction circuitry of sensitivity and linearity of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) sensors in order to maximize the compression ratio. The employed image compression method is based on Fast, Efficient, Lossless Image compression System (FELICS), which is a hierarchical predictive coding method with resolution scaling. To improve FELICS's performance of image decorrelation and entropy coding, we apply a two-dimensional interpolation prediction and adaptive Golomb-Rice coding. It supports progressive decompression using resolution scaling while still maintaining superior performance measured as speed and complexity. Coding efficiency and compression speed enlarge the effective capacity of signal transmission channels, which lead to reducing onboard hardware by multiplexing sensor signals into a reduced number of compression circuits. The circuitry is embedded into the data formatter of the sensor system without adding size, weight, power consumption, and fabrication cost.

  5. Onboard Image Processing System for Hyperspectral Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Hihara, Hiroki; Moritani, Kotaro; Inoue, Masao; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Akira; Takada, Jun; Inada, Hitomi; Suzuki, Makoto; Seki, Taeko; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tanii, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Onboard image processing systems for a hyperspectral sensor have been developed in order to maximize image data transmission efficiency for large volume and high speed data downlink capacity. Since more than 100 channels are required for hyperspectral sensors on Earth observation satellites, fast and small-footprint lossless image compression capability is essential for reducing the size and weight of a sensor system. A fast lossless image compression algorithm has been developed, and is implemented in the onboard correction circuitry of sensitivity and linearity of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) sensors in order to maximize the compression ratio. The employed image compression method is based on Fast, Efficient, Lossless Image compression System (FELICS), which is a hierarchical predictive coding method with resolution scaling. To improve FELICS’s performance of image decorrelation and entropy coding, we apply a two-dimensional interpolation prediction and adaptive Golomb-Rice coding. It supports progressive decompression using resolution scaling while still maintaining superior performance measured as speed and complexity. Coding efficiency and compression speed enlarge the effective capacity of signal transmission channels, which lead to reducing onboard hardware by multiplexing sensor signals into a reduced number of compression circuits. The circuitry is embedded into the data formatter of the sensor system without adding size, weight, power consumption, and fabrication cost. PMID:26404281

  6. Onboard Image Processing System for Hyperspectral Sensor.

    PubMed

    Hihara, Hiroki; Moritani, Kotaro; Inoue, Masao; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Akira; Takada, Jun; Inada, Hitomi; Suzuki, Makoto; Seki, Taeko; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tanii, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Onboard image processing systems for a hyperspectral sensor have been developed in order to maximize image data transmission efficiency for large volume and high speed data downlink capacity. Since more than 100 channels are required for hyperspectral sensors on Earth observation satellites, fast and small-footprint lossless image compression capability is essential for reducing the size and weight of a sensor system. A fast lossless image compression algorithm has been developed, and is implemented in the onboard correction circuitry of sensitivity and linearity of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) sensors in order to maximize the compression ratio. The employed image compression method is based on Fast, Efficient, Lossless Image compression System (FELICS), which is a hierarchical predictive coding method with resolution scaling. To improve FELICS's performance of image decorrelation and entropy coding, we apply a two-dimensional interpolation prediction and adaptive Golomb-Rice coding. It supports progressive decompression using resolution scaling while still maintaining superior performance measured as speed and complexity. Coding efficiency and compression speed enlarge the effective capacity of signal transmission channels, which lead to reducing onboard hardware by multiplexing sensor signals into a reduced number of compression circuits. The circuitry is embedded into the data formatter of the sensor system without adding size, weight, power consumption, and fabrication cost. PMID:26404281

  7. Autonomous Robot System for Sensor Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    David Bruemmer; Douglas Few; Frank Carney; Miles Walton; Heather Hunting; Ron Lujan

    2004-03-01

    This paper discusses an innovative application of new Markov localization techniques that combat the problem of odometry drift, allowing a novel control architecture developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to be utilized within a sensor characterization facility developed at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) in Nevada. The new robotic capability provided by the INEEL will allow RSL to test and evaluate a wide variety of sensors including radiation detection systems, machine vision systems, and sensors that can detect and track heat sources (e.g. human bodies, machines, chemical plumes). By accurately moving a target at varying speeds along designated paths, the robotic solution allows the detection abilities of a wide variety of sensors to be recorded and analyzed.

  8. System approach to distributed sensor management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayott, Gregory; Miller, Gordon; Harrell, John; Hepp, Jared; Self, Mid

    2010-04-01

    Since 2003, the US Army's RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision Electronic Sensor Directorate (NVESD) has been developing a distributed Sensor Management System (SMS) that utilizes a framework which demonstrates application layer, net-centric sensor management. The core principles of the design support distributed and dynamic discovery of sensing devices and processes through a multi-layered implementation. This results in a sensor management layer that acts as a System with defined interfaces for which the characteristics, parameters, and behaviors can be described. Within the framework, the definition of a protocol is required to establish the rules for how distributed sensors should operate. The protocol defines the behaviors, capabilities, and message structures needed to operate within the functional design boundaries. The protocol definition addresses the requirements for a device (sensors or processes) to dynamically join or leave a sensor network, dynamically describe device control and data capabilities, and allow dynamic addressing of publish and subscribe functionality. The message structure is a multi-tiered definition that identifies standard, extended, and payload representations that are specifically designed to accommodate the need for standard representations of common functions, while supporting the need for feature-based functions that are typically vendor specific. The dynamic qualities of the protocol enable a User GUI application the flexibility of mapping widget-level controls to each device based on reported capabilities in real-time. The SMS approach is designed to accommodate scalability and flexibility within a defined architecture. The distributed sensor management framework and its application to a tactical sensor network will be described in this paper.

  9. SEC sensor parametric test and evaluation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This system provides the necessary automated hardware required to carry out, in conjunction with the existing 70 mm SEC television camera, the sensor evaluation tests which are described in detail. The Parametric Test Set (PTS) was completed and is used in a semiautomatic data acquisition and control mode to test the development of the 70 mm SEC sensor, WX 32193. Data analysis of raw data is performed on the Princeton IBM 360-91 computer.

  10. Novel Corrosion Sensor for Vision 21 Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heng Ban; Bharat Soni

    2007-03-31

    Advanced sensor technology is identified as a key component for advanced power systems for future energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. This project intends to develop a novel high temperature corrosion sensor and subsequent measurement system for advanced power systems. Fireside corrosion is the leading mechanism for boiler tube failures and has emerged to be a significant concern for current and future energy plants due to the introduction of technologies targeting emissions reduction, efficiency improvement, or fuel/oxidant flexibility. Corrosion damage can lead to catastrophic equipment failure, explosions, and forced outages. Proper management of corrosion requires real-time indication of corrosion rate. However, short-term, on-line corrosion monitoring systems for fireside corrosion remain a technical challenge to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. The overall goal of this project is to develop a technology for on-line fireside corrosion monitoring. This objective is achieved by the laboratory development of sensors and instrumentation, testing them in a laboratory muffle furnace, and eventually testing the system in a coal-fired furnace. This project successfully developed two types of sensors and measurement systems, and successful tested them in a muffle furnace in the laboratory. The capacitance sensor had a high fabrication cost and might be more appropriate in other applications. The low-cost resistance sensor was tested in a power plant burning eastern bituminous coals. The results show that the fireside corrosion measurement system can be used to determine the corrosion rate at waterwall and superheater locations. Electron microscope analysis of the corroded sensor surface provided detailed picture of the corrosion process.

  11. Design criteria and comparison between conventional and subaperture SAR processing in airborne systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats, Pau; Bara, Marc; Broquetas, Antoni

    2002-02-01

    This paper compares two different approaches for designing airborne SAR systems. The first one is the most common where conventional processing is employed, and therefore wide antenna beams are to be used in order to avoid ambiguities in the final image due to attitude variations. A second approach is proposed to lower the requirements such system imposes based on subaperture processing. The idea is to follow the azimuth variations of the Doppler centroid, without increasing the hardware requirements of the system. As it is shown in this paper, this processing procedure must be complemented with precise radiometric corrections, because the platform may experience small attitude variations, which could increase/decrease the target observation time, inducing a significant azimuth modulation in the final image. This leads to the definition of a new criterion concerning maximum attitude deviations for an airborne platform.

  12. Development of an airborne hydrocarbon monitoring system based on FTIR technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogan, Paul A.; Mattson, Carl B.; Schwindt, Chris J.

    1998-10-01

    The capability to monitor airborne hydrocarbon compounds is essential in order to protect sensitive optical payloads from performance degradation caused by the deposition of surface films. Commonly used hydrocarbon monitoring instrumentation such as flame ionization detectors yield no information about the source or identity of compounds they detect. The Fourier Transform IR Spectrometer (FTIR) with its inherent ability to discriminate a large number of compounds offers a tremendous advantage over other types of instrumentation. The contamination monitoring laboratory at John F. Kennedy Space Center has developed an airborne hydrocarbon monitoring system based on FTIR technology to support the AXAF payload. This system consist of a portable cart suitable for use in Class 1 Division 2 environments. This paper describes the system in detail.

  13. Correlative Stratospheric Ozone Measurements with the Airborne UV DIAL System during TOTE/VOTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.; Fenn, Marta A.; Browell, Edward V.; McGee, Thomas J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Gross, Michael R.; McDermid, I. Stuart; Froidevaux, Lucien; Wang, Pi-Huang

    1998-01-01

    The airborne UV differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system participated in the Tropical Ozone Transport Experiment/Vortex Ozone Transport Experiment (TOTE/VOTE) in late 1995/early 1996. This mission afforded the opportunity to compare the DIAL system's stratospheric ozone measuring capability with other remote-sensing instruments through correlative measurements over a latitude range from the tropics to the Arctic. These instruments included ground-based DIAL and space-based stratospheric instruments: HALOE; MLS; and SAGE II. The ozone profiles generally agreed within random error estimates for the various instruments in the middle of the profiles in the tropics, but regions of significant systematic differences, especially near or below the tropopause or at the higher altitudes were also found. The comparisons strongly suggest that the airborne UV DIAL system can play a valuable role as a mobile lower-stratospheric ozone validation instrument.

  14. Multimodal flexible sensor for healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Anh; Imai, Sho; Hirai, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes potential applications of our previously developed fabric sensor into wearable healthcare or nursing systems based on its sensing modalities. This sensor is knitted from tension-sensitive electro-conductive yarns; whose structure has an elastic core, wound around by two separated tension-sensitive electro-conductive threads. This makes the sensor inherently flexible and stretchable, allowing it to conform to any complicated surface. We have equipped the sensor with three modalities, including proximity that allows the sensor to estimate a distance from the sensor to human hand and activates a light touch sensing, which could initiate comfortable and friendly interfaces in order to reduce burden of patients/disable people during interactions with healthcare devices; tactile perception that can measures contact force or applied load, especially realize slippage acting on the sensor surface, which is promising to be embedded into wearable devices or smart carpets; and tensile that can quantify a volume's contraction/expansion, which can be employed to monitoring muscles activity and so on. PMID:25571358

  15. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  16. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  17. Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tumer, Kagan

    2013-07-31

    The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reli- able operation of advanced energy systems. With recent advances in sensor development, it is now possible to push some level of decision making directly to computationally sophisticated sensors, rather than wait for data to arrive to a massive centralized location before a decision is made. This type of approach relies on networked sensors (called “agents” from here on) to actively collect and process data, and provide key control deci- sions to significantly improve both the quality/relevance of the collected data and the as- sociating decision making. The technological bottlenecks for such sensor networks stem from a lack of mathematics and algorithms to manage the systems, rather than difficulties associated with building and deploying them. Indeed, traditional sensor coordination strategies do not provide adequate solutions for this problem. Passive data collection methods (e.g., large sensor webs) can scale to large systems, but are generally not suited to highly dynamic environments, such as ad- vanced energy systems, where crucial decisions may need to be reached quickly and lo- cally. Approaches based on local decisions on the other hand cannot guarantee that each agent performing its task (maximize an agent objective) will lead to good network wide solution (maximize a network objective) without invoking cumbersome coordination rou- tines. There is currently a lack of algorithms that will enable self-organization and blend the efficiency of local decision making with the system level guarantees of global decision making, particularly when the systems operate in dynamic and stochastic environments. In this work we addressed this critical gap and provided a comprehensive solution to the problem of sensor coordination to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. The differentiating aspect of the proposed work is in shift- ing

  18. Design and Development of a Scanning Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    In the fall of 2005 we began developing an airborne scanning direct detection molecular Doppler lidar. The instrument is being built as part of the Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE), a three year project selected by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office under the Instrument Incubator Program. The TWiLiTE project is a collaboration involving scientists and engineers from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab, Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. The TWiLiTE instrument will leverage significant research and development investments made by NASA Goddard and it's partners in the past several years in key lidar technologies and sub-systems (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. These sub-systems will be integrated into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57. The WB57 flies at an altitude of 18 km and from this vantage point the nadir viewing Doppler lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a future spaceborne tropospheric wind system. In addition to being a technology testbed for space based tropospheric wind lidar, when completed the TWiLiTE high altitude airborne lidar will be used for studying mesoscale dynamics and storm research (e.g. winter storms, hurricanes) and could be used for calibration and validation of satellite based wind systems such as ESA's Aeolus Atmospheric Dynamics Mission. The TWiLiTE Doppler lidar will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 km to the surface with 250 m vertical resolution and < 2mls

  19. Allegany Ballistics Lab: sensor test target system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Deran S.

    2011-06-01

    Leveraging the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division's historical experience in weapon simulation, Naval Sea Systems Command commissioned development of a remote-controlled, digitally programmable Sensor Test Target as part of a modern, outdoor hardware-in-the-loop test system for ordnance-related guidance, navigation and control systems. The overall Target system design invokes a sciences-based, "design of automated experiments" approach meant to close the logistical distance between sensor engineering and developmental T&E in outdoor conditions over useful real world distances. This enables operating modes that employ broad spectrum electromagnetic energy in many a desired combination, variably generated using a Jet Engine Simulator, a multispectral infrared emitter array, optically enhanced incandescent Flare Simulators, Emitter/Detector mounts, and an RF corner reflector kit. As assembled, the recently tested Sensor Test Target prototype being presented can capably provide a full array of useful RF and infrared target source simulations for RDT&E use with developmental and existing sensors. Certain Target technologies are patent pending, with potential spinoffs in aviation, metallurgy and biofuels processing, while others are variations on well-established technology. The Sensor Test Target System is planned for extended installation at Allegany Ballistics Laboratory (Rocket Center, WV).

  20. Sensor Data Qualification System (SDQS) Implementation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Edmond; Melcher, Kevin; Fulton, Christopher; Maul, William

    2009-01-01

    The Sensor Data Qualification System (SDQS) is being developed to provide a sensor fault detection capability for NASA s next-generation launch vehicles. In addition to traditional data qualification techniques (such as limit checks, rate-of-change checks and hardware redundancy checks), SDQS can provide augmented capability through additional techniques that exploit analytical redundancy relationships to enable faster and more sensitive sensor fault detection. This paper documents the results of a study that was conducted to determine the best approach for implementing a SDQS network configuration that spans multiple subsystems, similar to those that may be implemented on future vehicles. The best approach is defined as one that most minimizes computational resource requirements without impacting the detection of sensor failures.

  1. Optoelectronic Sensor System for Guidance in Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Book, Michael L.; Jackson, John L.

    2004-01-01

    The Video Guidance Sensor (VGS) system is an optoelectronic sensor that provides automated guidance between two vehicles. In the original intended application, the two vehicles would be spacecraft docking together, but the basic principles of design and operation of the sensor are applicable to aircraft, robots, vehicles, or other objects that may be required to be aligned for docking, assembly, resupply, or precise separation. The system includes a sensor head containing a monochrome charge-coupled- device video camera and pulsed laser diodes mounted on the tracking vehicle, and passive reflective targets on the tracked vehicle. The lasers illuminate the targets, and the resulting video images of the targets are digitized. Then, from the positions of the digitized target images and known geometric relationships among the targets, the relative position and orientation of the vehicles are computed. As described thus far, the VGS system is based on the same principles as those of the system described in "Improved Video Sensor System for Guidance in Docking" (MFS-31150), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 21, No. 4 (April 1997), page 9a. However, the two systems differ in the details of design and operation. The VGS system is designed to operate with the target completely visible within a relative-azimuth range of +/-10.5deg and a relative-elevation range of +/-8deg. The VGS acquires and tracks the target within that field of view at any distance from 1.0 to 110 m and at any relative roll, pitch, and/or yaw angle within +/-10deg. The VGS produces sets of distance and relative-orientation data at a repetition rate of 5 Hz. The software of this system also accommodates the simultaneous operation of two sensors for redundancy

  2. Passive sensor systems for nuclear material monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.L.; Boatner, L.A.; Holcomb, D.E.; McElhaney, S.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Muhs, J.D.; Roberts, M.R.; Hill, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    Passive fiber optic sensor systems capable of confirming the presence of special nuclear materials in storage or process facilities are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These sensors provide completely passive, remote measurement capability. No power supplies, amplifiers, or other active components that could degrade system reliability are required at the sensor location. ORNL, through its research programs in scintillator materials, has developed a variety of materials for use in alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and neutron-sensitive scintillator detectors. In addition to sensors for measuring radiation flux, new sensor materials have been developed which are capable of measuring weight, temperature, and source location. An example of a passive sensor for temperature measurement is the combination of a thermophosphor (e.g., rare-earth activated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with {sup 6}LiF (95% {sup 6}Li). This combination results in a new class of scintillators for thermal neutrons that absorb energy from the radiation particles and remit the energy as a light pulse, the decay rate of which, over a specified temperature range, is temperature dependent. Other passive sensors being developed include pressure-sensitive triboluminescent materials, weight-sensitive silicone rubber fibers, scintillating fibers, and other materials for gamma and neutron detection. The light from the scintillator materials of each sensor would be sent through optical fibers to a monitoring station, where the attribute quantity could be measured and compared with previously recorded emission levels. Confirmatory measurement applications of these technologies are being evaluated to reduce the effort, costs, and employee exposures associated with inventorying stockpiles of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant.

  3. Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krug, Eric; Philpot, Brian; Trott, Aaron; Lawrence, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC's) large rocket engine test facility requires the use of liquid propellants, including the use of cryogenic fluids like liquid hydrogen as fuel, and liquid oxygen as an oxidizer (gases which have been liquefied at very low temperatures). These fluids require special handling, storage, and transfer technology. The biggest problem associated with transferring cryogenic liquids is product loss due to heat transfer. Vacuum jacketed piping is specifically designed to maintain high thermal efficiency so that cryogenic liquids can be transferred with minimal heat transfer. A vacuum jacketed pipe is essentially two pipes in one. There is an inner carrier pipe, in which the cryogenic liquid is actually transferred, and an outer jacket pipe that supports and seals the vacuum insulation, forming the "vacuum jacket." The integrity of the vacuum jacketed transmission lines that transfer the cryogenic fluid from delivery barges to the test stand must be maintained prior to and during engine testing. To monitor the vacuum in these vacuum jacketed transmission lines, vacuum gauge readings are used. At SSC, vacuum gauge measurements are done on a manual rotation basis with two technicians, each using a handheld instrument. Manual collection of vacuum data is labor intensive and uses valuable personnel time. Additionally, there are times when personnel cannot collect the data in a timely fashion (i.e., when a leak is detected, measurements must be taken more often). Additionally, distribution of this data to all interested parties can be cumbersome. To simplify the vacuum-gauge data collection process, automate the data collection, and decrease the labor costs associated with acquiring these measurements, an automated system that monitors the existing gauges was developed by Invocon, Inc. For this project, Invocon developed a Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System (WIMVSS) that provides the ability to gather vacuum

  4. Optimal Sensor Selection for Health Monitoring Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, L. Michael; Sowers, T. Shane; Aguilar, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    Sensor data are the basis for performance and health assessment of most complex systems. Careful selection and implementation of sensors is critical to enable high fidelity system health assessment. A model-based procedure that systematically selects an optimal sensor suite for overall health assessment of a designated host system is described. This procedure, termed the Systematic Sensor Selection Strategy (S4), was developed at NASA John H. Glenn Research Center in order to enhance design phase planning and preparations for in-space propulsion health management systems (HMS). Information and capabilities required to utilize the S4 approach in support of design phase development of robust health diagnostics are outlined. A merit metric that quantifies diagnostic performance and overall risk reduction potential of individual sensor suites is introduced. The conceptual foundation for this merit metric is presented and the algorithmic organization of the S4 optimization process is described. Representative results from S4 analyses of a boost stage rocket engine previously under development as part of NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program are presented.

  5. Charge-coupled device data processor for an airborne imaging radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, W. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Processing of raw analog echo data from synthetic aperture radar receiver into images on board an airborne radar platform is discussed. Processing is made feasible by utilizing charge-coupled devices (CCD). CCD circuits are utilized to perform input sampling, presumming, range correlation and azimuth correlation in the analog domain. These radar data processing functions are implemented for single-look or multiple-look imaging radar systems.

  6. Estimation of Separation Buffers for Wind-Prediction Error in an Airborne Separation Assistance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Allen, B. Danette

    2009-01-01

    Wind prediction errors are known to affect the performance of automated air traffic management tools that rely on aircraft trajectory predictions. In particular, automated separation assurance tools, planned as part of the NextGen concept of operations, must be designed to account and compensate for the impact of wind prediction errors and other system uncertainties. In this paper we describe a high fidelity batch simulation study designed to estimate the separation distance required to compensate for the effects of wind-prediction errors throughout increasing traffic density on an airborne separation assistance system. These experimental runs are part of the Safety Performance of Airborne Separation experiment suite that examines the safety implications of prediction errors and system uncertainties on airborne separation assurance systems. In this experiment, wind-prediction errors were varied between zero and forty knots while traffic density was increased several times current traffic levels. In order to accurately measure the full unmitigated impact of wind-prediction errors, no uncertainty buffers were added to the separation minima. The goal of the study was to measure the impact of wind-prediction errors in order to estimate the additional separation buffers necessary to preserve separation and to provide a baseline for future analyses. Buffer estimations from this study will be used and verified in upcoming safety evaluation experiments under similar simulation conditions. Results suggest that the strategic airborne separation functions exercised in this experiment can sustain wind prediction errors up to 40kts at current day air traffic density with no additional separation distance buffer and at eight times the current day with no more than a 60% increase in separation distance buffer.

  7. Novel Corrosion Sensor for Vision 21 Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heng Ban

    2005-12-01

    Advanced sensor technology is identified as a key component for advanced power systems for future energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. This project intends to develop a novel high temperature corrosion sensor and subsequent measurement system for advanced power systems. Fireside corrosion is the metal loss caused by chemical reactions on surfaces exposed to the combustion environment. Such corrosion is the leading mechanism for boiler tube failures and has emerged to be a significant concern for current and future energy plants due to the introduction of technologies targeting emissions reduction, efficiency improvement, or fuel/oxidant flexibility. Corrosion damage can lead to catastrophic equipment failure, explosions, and forced outages. Proper management of corrosion requires real-time indication of corrosion rate. However, short-term, on-line corrosion monitoring systems for fireside corrosion remain a technical challenge to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. The overall objective of this project is to develop a technology for on-line corrosion monitoring based on a new concept. This objective is to be achieved by a laboratory development of the sensor and instrumentation, testing of the measurement system in a laboratory muffle furnace, and eventually testing the system in a coal-fired furnace. The initial plan for testing at the coal-fired pilot-scale furnace was replaced by testing in a power plant, because the operation condition at the power plant is continuous and more stable. The first two-year effort was completed with the successful development sensor and measurement system, and successful testing in a muffle furnace. Because of the potential high cost in sensor fabrication, a different type of sensor was used and tested in a power plant burning eastern bituminous coals. This report summarize the experiences and results of the first two years of the three-year project, which include laboratory

  8. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  9. Helmet-Mounted Display Research Capabilities of the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Bivens, C. C.; Rediess, N. A.; Hindson, W. S.; Aiken, E. W.; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) is a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter that is being modified by the US Army and NASA for flight systems research. The principal systems that are being installed in the aircraft are a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) and imaging system, and a programmable full authority Research Flight Control System (RFCS). In addition, comprehensive instrumentation of both the rigid body of the helicopter and the rotor system is provided. The paper will describe the capabilities of these systems and their current state of development. A brief description of initial research applications is included. The wide (40 X 60 degree) field-of-view HMD system has been provided by Kaiser Electronics. It can be configured as a monochromatic system for use in bright daylight conditions, a two color system for darker ambients, or a full color system for use in night viewing conditions. Color imagery is achieved using field sequential video and a mechanical color wheel. In addition to the color symbology, high resolution computer-gene rated imagery from an onboard Silicon Graphics Reality Engine Onyx processor is available for research in virtual reality applications. This synthetic imagery can also be merged with real world video from a variety of imaging systems that can be installed easily on the front of the helicopter. These sensors include infrared or tv cameras, or potentially small millimeter wave radars. The Research Flight Control System is being developed for the aircraft by a team of contractors led by Boeing Helicopters. It consists of a full authority high bandwidth fly-by-wire actuators that drive the main rotor swashplate actuators and the tail rotor actuator in parallel. This arrangement allows the basic mechanical flight control system of the Black Hawk to be retained so that the safety pilot can monitor the operation of the system through the action of his own controls. The evaluation pilot will signal the fly

  10. Enhanced technologies for unattended ground sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartup, David C.

    2010-04-01

    Progress in several technical areas is being leveraged to advantage in Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) systems. This paper discusses advanced technologies that are appropriate for use in UGS systems. While some technologies provide evolutionary improvements, other technologies result in revolutionary performance advancements for UGS systems. Some specific technologies discussed include wireless cameras and viewers, commercial PDA-based system programmers and monitors, new materials and techniques for packaging improvements, low power cueing sensor radios, advanced long-haul terrestrial and SATCOM radios, and networked communications. Other technologies covered include advanced target detection algorithms, high pixel count cameras for license plate and facial recognition, small cameras that provide large stand-off distances, video transmissions of target activity instead of still images, sensor fusion algorithms, and control center hardware. The impact of each technology on the overall UGS system architecture is discussed, along with the advantages provided to UGS system users. Areas of analysis include required camera parameters as a function of stand-off distance for license plate and facial recognition applications, power consumption for wireless cameras and viewers, sensor fusion communication requirements, and requirements to practically implement video transmission through UGS systems. Examples of devices that have already been fielded using technology from several of these areas are given.

  11. Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ritchie; Kochenderfer, Mykel J.; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Brat, Guillaume P.; Owen, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a scalable method to efficiently search for the most likely state trajectory leading to an event given only a simulator of a system. Our approach uses a reinforcement learning formulation and solves it using Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS). The approach places very few requirements on the underlying system, requiring only that the simulator provide some basic controls, the ability to evaluate certain conditions, and a mechanism to control the stochasticity in the system. Access to the system state is not required, allowing the method to support systems with hidden state. The method is applied to stress test a prototype aircraft collision avoidance system to identify trajectories that are likely to lead to near mid-air collisions. We present results for both single and multi-threat encounters and discuss their relevance. Compared with direct Monte Carlo search, this MCTS method performs significantly better both in finding events and in maximizing their likelihood.

  12. Smart Sensor Systems for Aerospace Applications: From Sensor Development to Application Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Dungan, L. K.; Ward, B. J.; Rowe, S.; Williams, J.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Chang, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    The application of Smart Sensor Systems for aerospace applications is a multidisciplinary process consisting of sensor element development, element integration into Smart Sensor hardware, and testing of the resulting sensor systems in application environments. This paper provides a cross-section of these activities for multiple aerospace applications illustrating the technology challenges involved. The development and application testing topics discussed are: 1) The broadening of sensitivity and operational range of silicon carbide (SiC) Schottky gas sensor elements; 2) Integration of fire detection sensor technology into a "Lick and Stick" Smart Sensor hardware platform for Crew Exploration Vehicle applications; 3) Extended testing for zirconia based oxygen sensors in the basic "Lick and Stick" platform for environmental monitoring applications. It is concluded that that both core sensor platform technology and a basic hardware platform can enhance the viability of implementing smart sensor systems in aerospace applications.

  13. Simulation research on ATP system of airborne laser communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhongyi; Huang, Hailong

    2015-02-01

    The compound axis tracking control circuits model of the ATP system was established and simulation was run on the tracking control performance of the ATP system. It was found through simulation that with the fixed coarse tracking error, the dynamic lag error in the coarse tracking servo system could be suppressed to 120μrad and with the fixed fine tracking error, the dynamic lag error in the fine tracking servo system could be restrained to 2.73μrad, and the vibration residual could be controlled within 1.5μrad.

  14. Utilization of an Airborne Plant Chlorophyll Imaging System for Detection of Septic System Malfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce A.; Carter, Gregory A.

    2001-01-01

    Malfunctioning, or leaking, sewer systems increase the supply of water and nutrients to surface vegetation. Excess nutrients and harmful bacteria in the effluent pollute ground water and local water bodies and are dangerous to humans and the aquatic ecosystems. An airborne multispectral plant chlorophyll imaging system (PCIS) was used to identify growth patterns in the vegetation covering onsite and public sewer systems. The objective was to evaluate overall performance of the PCIS as well as to determine the best operational configuration for this application. The imaging system was flown in a light aircraft over selected locations Mobile County, Alabama. Calibration panels were used to help characterize instrument performance. Results demonstrated that the PCIS performed well and was capable of detecting septic leakage patterns from altitudes as high as 915 m. From 915 m, 6 of 18 sites were suspected to have sewage leakage. Subsequent ground inspections confirmed leakage on 3 of the 6 sites. From 610 m, 3 of 8 known leakage sites were detected. Tree cover and shadows near residential structures prevented detection of several known malfunctioning systems. Also some leakages known to occur in clear areas were not detected. False detections occurred in areas characterized by surface water drainage problems or recent excavation.

  15. Heimdall System for MSSS Sensor Tasking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herz, A.; Jones, B.; Herz, E.; George, D.; Axelrad, P.; Gehly, S.

    In Norse Mythology, Heimdall uses his foreknowledge and keen eyesight to keep watch for disaster from his home near the Rainbow Bridge. Orbit Logic and the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research (CCAR) at the University of Colorado (CU) have developed the Heimdall System to schedule observations of known and uncharacterized objects and search for new objects from the Maui Space Surveillance Site. Heimdall addresses the current need for automated and optimized SSA sensor tasking driven by factors associated with improved space object catalog maintenance. Orbit Logic and CU developed an initial baseline prototype SSA sensor tasking capability for select sensors at the Maui Space Surveillance Site (MSSS) using STK and STK Scheduler, and then added a new Track Prioritization Component for FiSST-inspired computations for predicted Information Gain and Probability of Detection, and a new SSA-specific Figure-of-Merit (FOM) for optimized SSA sensor tasking. While the baseline prototype addresses automation and some of the multi-sensor tasking optimization, the SSA-improved prototype addresses all of the key elements required for improved tasking leading to enhanced object catalog maintenance. The Heimdall proof-of-concept was demonstrated for MSSS SSA sensor tasking for a 24 hour period to attempt observations of all operational satellites in the unclassified NORAD catalog, observe a small set of high priority GEO targets every 30 minutes, make a sky survey of the GEO belt region accessible to MSSS sensors, and observe particular GEO regions that have a high probability of finding new objects with any excess sensor time. This Heimdall prototype software paves the way for further R&D that will integrate this technology into the MSSS systems for operational scheduling, improve the software's scalability, and further tune and enhance schedule optimization. The Heimdall software for SSA sensor tasking provides greatly improved performance over manual tasking, improved

  16. The development of an airborne information management system for flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, Glenn

    1992-01-01

    An airborne information management system is being developed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. This system will improve the state of the art in management data acquisition on-board research aircraft. The design centers around highly distributable, high-speed microprocessors that allow data compression, digital filtering, and real-time analysis. This paper describes the areas of applicability, approach to developing the system, potential for trouble areas, and reasons for this development activity. System architecture (including the salient points of what makes it unique), design philosophy, and tradeoff issues are also discussed.

  17. Gross-merchantable timber volume estimation using an airborne lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maclean, G. A.; Krabill, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary study to determine the utility of an airborne laser as a tool for use by forest managers to estimate gross-merchantable timber volume was conducted near the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Flight Facility utilizing the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system. Measured timber volume was regressed against the cross-sectional area of an AOL-generated profile of forest at the same location. The AOL profile area was found to be a very significant variable in the estimation of gross-merchantable timber volume. Significant improvements were obtained when the data were stratified by species. The overall R-squared value obtained was 0.921 with the regression significant at the one percent level.

  18. Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision making systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Ways in which computers can aid the decision making of an human operator of an aerospace system are investigated. The approach taken is to aid rather than replace the human operator, because operational experience has shown that humans can enhance the effectiveness of systems. As systems become more automated, the role of the operator has shifted to that of a manager and problem solver. This shift has created the research area of how to aid the human in this role. Published research in four areas is described. A discussion is presented of the DC-8 flight simulator at Georgia Tech.

  19. Concept of Operations for Real-time Airborne Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Taira, Randal Y.; Orr, Heather M.

    2013-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to describe the operating concepts, capabilities, and benefits of RAMS including descriptions of how the system implementations can improve emergency response, damage assessment, task prioritization, and situation awareness. This CONOPS provides general information on operational processes and procedures required to utilize RAMS, and expected performance benefits of the system. The primary audiences for this document are the end users of RAMS (including flight operators and incident commanders) and the RAMS management team. Other audiences include interested offices within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and officials from other state and local jurisdictions who want to implement similar systems.

  20. Unmanned Airborne System Deployment at Turrialba Volcano for Real Time Eruptive Cloud Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, J. A.; Pieri, D. C.; Fladeland, M. M.; Bland, G.; Corrales, E.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Kolyer, R.

    2015-12-01

    The development of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) with a variety of instrument packages enables in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes, even when the active conditions of the volcano do not allow volcanologists and emergency response personnel to get too close to the erupting crater. This has been demonstrated this year by flying a sUAS through the heavy ash driven erupting volcanic cloud of Turrialba Volcano, while conducting real time in situ measurement of gases over the crater summit. The event also achieved the collection of newly released ash samples from the erupting volcano. The interception of the Turrialba ash cloud occurred during the CARTA 2015 field campaign carried out as part of an ongoing program for remote sensing satellite calibration and validation purposes, using active volcanic plumes. These deployments are timed to support overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite on a bimonthly basis using airborne platforms such as tethered balloons, free-flying fixed wing small UAVs at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within about a 5km radius of the summit crater. The onboard instrument includes the MiniGas payload which consists of an array of single electrochemical and infrared gas detectors (SO2, H2S CO2), temperature, pressure, relative humidity and GPS sensors, all connected to an Arduino-based board, with data collected at 1Hz. Data are both stored onboard and sent by telemetry to the ground operator within a 3 km range. The UAV can also carry visible and infrared cameras as well as other payloads, such as a UAV-MS payload that is currently under development for mass spectrometer-based in situ measurements. The presentation describes the ongoing UAV- based in situ remote sensing validation program at Turrialba Volcano, the results of a fly-through the eruptive cloud, as well as future plans to continue these efforts. Work presented here was

  1. Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

    2011-04-01

    Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

  2. Low Gravity Guidance System for Airborne Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, W. J.; Emery, E. F.; Boyer, E. O.; Hegedus, C.; ODonoghue, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    Microgravity research techniques have been established to achieve a greater understanding of the role of gravity in the fundamentals of a variety of physical phenomena and material processing. One technique in use at the NASA Lewis Research Center involves flying Keplarian trajectories with a modified Lear Jet and DC-9 aircraft to achieve a highly accurate Microgravity environment by neutralizing accelerations in all three axis of the aircraft. The Low Gravity Guidance System (LGGS) assists the pilot and copilot in flying the trajectories by displaying the aircraft acceleration data in a graphical display format. The Low Gravity Guidance System is a microprocessor based system that acquires and displays the aircraft acceleration information. This information is presented using an electroluminescent display mounted over the pilot's instrument panel. The pilot can select the Microgravity range that is required for a given research event. This paper describes the characteristics, design, calibration and testing of the Low Gravity Guidance System Phase 3, significant lessons from earlier systems and the developmental work on future systems.

  3. Reliable Fiber Sensor System with Star-Ring-Bus Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Peng-Chun; Wang, Jun-Bo; Huang, Kuan-Yan

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a novel star-ring-bus sensor system and demonstrates its effectiveness. The main trunk of the proposed sensor system is a star topology and the sensing branches comprise a series of bus subnets. Any weakness in the reliability of the sensor system is overcome by adding remote nodes and switches to the ring and bus subnets. To construct the proposed star-ring-bus sensor system, a fiber ring laser scheme is used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor system. The proposed system increases the reliability and capacity of fiber sensor systems. PMID:22399876

  4. Reliable fiber sensor system with star-ring-bus architecture.

    PubMed

    Peng, Peng-Chun; Wang, Jun-Bo; Huang, Kuan-Yan

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a novel star-ring-bus sensor system and demonstrates its effectiveness. The main trunk of the proposed sensor system is a star topology and the sensing branches comprise a series of bus subnets. Any weakness in the reliability of the sensor system is overcome by adding remote nodes and switches to the ring and bus subnets. To construct the proposed star-ring-bus sensor system, a fiber ring laser scheme is used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensor system. The proposed system increases the reliability and capacity of fiber sensor systems.

  5. Use of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer to calibrate the optical sensor on board the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Conel, James E.; Vandenbosch, Jeannette; Shimada, Masanobu

    1993-01-01

    We describe an experiment to calibrate the optical sensor (OPS) on board the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 with data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). On 27 Aug. 1992 both the OPS and AVIRIS acquired data concurrently over a calibration target on the surface of Rogers Dry Lake, California. The high spectral resolution measurements of AVIRIS have been convolved to the spectral response curves of the OPS. These data in conjunction with the corresponding OPS digitized numbers have been used to generate the radiometric calibration coefficients for the eight OPS bands. This experiment establishes the suitability of AVIRIS for the calibration of spaceborne sensors in the 400 to 2500 nm spectral region.

  6. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments.

  7. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-11-19

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments. 12 figs.

  8. Sensor system for buried waste containment sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Partin, Judy K.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Pfeifer, May Catherine

    2000-01-01

    A sensor system is disclosed for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  9. Rain sensor for automatic systems on vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Alexandru; Vasile, Irina; Nistor, Adrian; Vladareanu, Luige; Pantazica, Mihaela; Caldararu, Florin; Bonea, Andreea; Drumea, Andrei; Plotog, Ioan

    2010-11-01

    Despite the fact that today vehicles are easier to drive and more reliable, the drivers' carefulness is diverted by a large number of factors (road conditions, traffic conditions, phone calls, navigation systems etc.). The automatic system of controlling the windscreen wipers meets exactly one of the carelessness factors. A rain sensor makes the activation of the system of windscreen wipers to become something that you turn on and forget about it. This completely automated system activated by rain measures the rain intensity and also the necessity to turn on the windscreen wipers and with what velocity. Using an advanced optical system, analogue signal processing and a control algorithm, this technology offers more safety and comfort on different weather conditions. The sensor beams an infrared light on the windshield at an angle carefully chosen. If the windshield is dry, the beam is reflected back in the sensor. If on the glass there are rain drops, they will reflect the light in different directions (the wetter the windshield is, the least of the beam ray is reflected back in the sensor).

  10. Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision making systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.; Chu, Y. Y.; Greenstein, J. S.; Walden, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was made of interaction between a human pilot and automated on-board decision making systems. Research was initiated on the topic of pilot problem solving in automated and semi-automated flight management systems and attempts were made to develop a model of human decision making in a multi-task situation. A study was made of allocation of responsibility between human and computer, and discussed were various pilot performance parameters with varying degrees of automation. Optimal allocation of responsibility between human and computer was considered and some theoretical results found in the literature were presented. The pilot as a problem solver was discussed. Finally the design of displays, controls, procedures, and computer aids for problem solving tasks in automated and semi-automated systems was considered.

  11. Airborne digital holographic system for cloud particle measurements.

    PubMed

    Fugal, Jacob P; Shaw, Raymond A; Saw, Ewe Wei; Sergeyev, Aleksandr V

    2004-11-10

    An in-line holographic system for in situ detection of atmospheric cloud particles [Holographic Detector for Clouds (HOLODEC)] has been developed and flown on the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 research aircraft. Clear holograms are obtained in daylight conditions at typical aircraft speeds of 100 m s(-1). The instrument is fully digital and is interfaced to a control and data-acquisition system in the aircraft via optical fiber. It is operable at temperatures of less than -30 degrees C and at typical cloud humidities. Preliminary data from the experiment show its utility for studies of the three-dimensional spatial distribution of cloud particles and ice crystal shapes.

  12. Future sensor system needs for staring arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John Lester

    2011-05-01

    This is a systems application paper regarding how sensor systems may use future technology FPAs. A historical perspective is discussed along with lessons learned from previous technologies. Future system requirements for strained super-lattice (SLS), quantum dots (QDOT) and traditional quantum well infrared photo-diodes (QWIP) arrays will be presented from both a commercial and military perspective. New potential markets will open up in the future if certain FPA technologies can reduce cost and provide higher sensitivities at higher operating temperatures.

  13. Application of the Hardman methodology to the Single Channel Ground-Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The HARDMAN methodology was applied to the various configurations of employment for an emerging Army multipurpose communications system. The methodology was used to analyze the manpower, personnel and training (MPT) requirements and associated costs, of the system concepts responsive to the Army's requirement for the Single Channel Ground-Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS). The scope of the application includes the analysis of two conceptual designs Cincinnati Electronics and ITT Aerospace/Optical Division for operating and maintenance support addressed through the general support maintenance echelon.

  14. Flight Tests of the DELICAT Airborne LIDAR System for Remote Clear Air Turbulence Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrancken, Patrick; Wirth, Martin; Ehret, Gerhard; Witschas, Benjamin; Veerman, Henk; Tump, Robert; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Dolfi-Bouteyre, Agnès; Lombard, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    An important aeronautics application of lidar is the airborne remote detection of Clear Air Turbulence which cannot be performed with onboard radar. We report on a DLR-developed lidar system for the remote detection of such turbulent areas in the flight path of an aircraft. The lidar, consisting of a high-power UV laser transmitter and a direct detection system, was installed on a Dutch research aircraft. Flight tests executed in 2013 demonstrated the performance of the lidar system to detect local subtle variations in the molecular backscatter coefficient indicating the turbulence some 10 to 15 km ahead.

  15. Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision making systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.; Hammer, J. M.; Morris, N. M.; Brown, E. N.; Yoon, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    The use of advanced software engineering methods (e.g., from artificial intelligence) to aid aircraft crews in procedure selection and execution is investigated. Human problem solving in dynamic environments as effected by the human's level of knowledge of system operations is examined. Progress on the development of full scale simulation facilities is also discussed.

  16. Analysis of remote sensing data collected for detection and mapping of oil spills: Reduction and analysis of multi-sensor airborne data of the NASA Wallops oil spill exercise of November 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Airborne, remotely sensed data of the NASA Wallops controlled oil spill were corrected, reduced and analysed. Sensor performance comparisons were made by registering data sets from different sensors, which were near-coincident in time and location. Multispectral scanner images were, in turn, overlayed with profiles of correlation between airborne and laboratory-acquired fluorosensor spectra of oil; oil-thickness contours derived (by NASA) from a scanning fluorosensor and also from a two-channel scanning microwave radiometer; and synthetic aperture radar X-HH images. Microwave scatterometer data were correlated with dual-channel (UV and TIR) line scanner images of the oil slick.

  17. Emergency Response Equipment and Related Training: Airborne Radiological Computer System (Model II)

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Colton

    2007-02-28

    The materials included in the Airborne Radiological Computer System, Model-II (ARCS-II) were assembled with several considerations in mind. First, the system was designed to measure and record the airborne gamma radiation levels and the corresponding latitude and longitude coordinates, and to provide a first overview look of the extent and severity of an accident's impact. Second, the portable system had to be light enough and durable enough that it could be mounted in an aircraft, ground vehicle, or watercraft. Third, the system must control the collection and storage of the data, as well as provide a real-time display of the data collection results to the operator. The notebook computer and color graphics printer components of the system would only be used for analyzing and plotting the data. In essence, the provided equipment is composed of an acquisition system and an analysis system. The data can be transferred from the acquisition system to the analysis system at the end of the data collection or at some other agreeable time.

  18. ATLAS: an airborne active linescan system for high-resolution topographic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willetts, David V.; Kightley, Peter J.; Mole, S. G.; Pearson, Guy N.; Pearson, P.; Coffey, Adrian S.; Stokes, Tim J.; Tapster, Paul R.; Westwood, M.

    2004-12-01

    High resolution ground mapping is of interest for survey and management of long linear features such as roads, railways and pipelines, and for georeferencing of areas such as flood plains for hydrological purposes. ATLAS (Airborne Topographic Laser System) is an active linescan system operating at the eyesafe wavelength of 1.5μm. Built for airborne survey, it is currently certified for use on a Twin Squirrel helicopter for operation from low levels to heights above 500 feet allowing commercial survey in built up areas. The system operates at a pulse repetition frequency of 56kHz with a line completed in 15ms, giving 36 points/m2 at the surface at the design flight speed. At each point the range to the ground is measured together with the scan angle of the system. This data is combined with a system attitude measurement from an integrated inertial navigation system and with system position derived from differential GPS data aboard the platform. A recording system captures the data with a synchronised time-stamp to enable post-processed reconstruction of a cloud of data points that will give a three-dimensional representation of the terrain, allowing the points to be located with respect to absolute Earth referenced coordinates to a precision of 5cm in three axes. This paper summarises the design, harmonisation, evaluation and performance of the system, and shows examples of survey data.

  19. Optimization of wireless Bluetooth sensor systems.

    PubMed

    Lonnblad, J; Castano, J; Ekstrom, M; Linden, M; Backlund, Y

    2004-01-01

    Within this study, three different Bluetooth sensor systems, replacing cables for transmission of biomedical sensor data, have been designed and evaluated. The three sensor architectures are built on 1-, 2- and 3-chip solutions and depending on the monitoring situation and signal character, different solutions are optimal. Essential parameters for all systems have been low physical weight and small size, resistance to interference and interoperability with other technologies as global- or local networks, PC's and mobile phones. Two different biomedical input signals, ECG and PPG (photoplethysmography), have been used to evaluate the three solutions. The study shows that it is possibly to continuously transmit an analogue signal. At low sampling rates and slowly varying parameters, as monitoring the heart rate with PPG, the 1-chip solution is the most suitable, offering low power consumption and thus a longer battery lifetime or a smaller battery, minimizing the weight of the sensor system. On the other hand, when a higher sampling rate is required, as an ECG, the 3-chip architecture, with a FPGA or micro-controller, offers the best solution and performance. Our conclusion is that Bluetooth might be useful in replacing cables of medical monitoring systems.

  20. Development of the Advance Warning Airborne System(AWAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, H. Patrick

    1992-01-01

    The thermal characteristics of microbursts are utilized by the AWAS IR and OAT features to provide predictive warning of hazardous microbursts ahead of the aircraft during landing or take off. The AWAS was evaluated satisfactorily in 1990 on a Cessna Citation that was intentionally flown into a number of wind shear events. The events were detected, and both the IR and OAT thermal features were shown to be effective. In 1991, AWAS units were flown on three American Airline MD-80's and three Northwest Airlines DC-9's to study and to decrease the nuisance alert response of the system. The AWAS was also flown on the NASA B737 during the summer of 1991. The results of these flights were inconclusive and disappointing. The results were not as promising as before because NASA conducted research flights which were outside of the normal operating envelope for which the AWAS is designed to operate. In an attempt to compensate for these differences in airspeed and mounting location, the automatic features of the system were sometimes overridden by NASA personnel during the flight. Each of these critical factors is discussed in detail. The effect of rain on the OAT signals is presented as a function of the air speed. Use of a 4 pole 1/20 Hertz filter is demonstrated by both the IR and thermal data. Participation in the NASA 1992 program was discussed. FAA direction in the continuing Certification program requires the addition of a reactive feature to the AWAS predictive system. This combined system will not require flight guidance on newer aircraft. The features of AWAS-IV, with the NASA algorithm included, were presented. Expected completion of the FAA Certification plan was also described.

  1. Future Intelligent Transportation Systems and Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Akio

    A road vehicle traffic contributes to the social improvement greatly, but it has big problems such as safety, congestion, environment, energy, elder people driving and adaptation to information society. ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) is expected as a direction solving these. The intellectual function about a road vehicle traffic depended on most of human beings. ITS helps intellectual functions such as information sensing, situation recognition, judgment, planning and operation. A sensor detecting information is an important key in ITS. I describe expectation to a sensor in ITS.

  2. Airborne Antenna System for Minimum-Cycle-Slip GPS Reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    A system that includes a Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna and associated apparatus for keeping the antenna aimed upward has been developed for use aboard a remote-sensing-survey airplane. The purpose served by the system is to enable minimum- cycle-slip reception of GPS signals used in precise computation of the trajectory of the airplane, without having to restrict the airplane to maneuvers that increase the flight time needed to perform a survey. Cycle slip signifies loss of continuous track of the phase of a signal. Minimum-cycle-slip reception is desirable because maintaining constant track of the phase of the carrier signal from each available GPS satellite is necessary for surveying to centimeter or subcentimeter precision. Even a loss of signal for as short a time as a nanosecond can cause cycle slip. Cycle slips degrade the quality and precision of survey data acquired during a flight. The two principal causes of cycle slip are weakness of signals and multipath propagation. Heretofore, it has been standard practice to mount a GPS antenna rigidly on top of an airplane, and the radiation pattern of the antenna is typically hemispherical, so that all GPS satellites above the horizon are viewed by the antenna during level flight. When the airplane must be banked for a turn or other maneuver, the reception hemisphere becomes correspondingly tilted; hence, the antenna no longer views satellites that may still be above the Earth horizon but are now below the equatorial plane of the tilted reception hemisphere. Moreover, part of the reception hemisphere (typically, on the inside of a turn) becomes pointed toward ground, with a consequent increase in received noise and, therefore, degradation of GPS measurements. To minimize the likelihood of loss of signal and cycle slip, bank angles of remote-sensing survey airplanes have generally been limited to 10 or less, resulting in skidding or slipping uncoordinated turns. An airplane must be banked in order to make

  3. Portable Airborne Laser System Measures Forest-Canopy Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Ross

    2005-01-01

    (PALS) is a combination of laser ranging, video imaging, positioning, and data-processing subsystems designed for measuring the heights of forest canopies along linear transects from tens to thousands of kilometers long. Unlike prior laser ranging systems designed to serve the same purpose, the PALS is not restricted to use aboard a single aircraft of a specific type: the PALS fits into two large suitcases that can be carried to any convenient location, and the PALS can be installed in almost any local aircraft for hire, thereby making it possible to sample remote forests at relatively low cost. The initial cost and the cost of repairing the PALS are also lower because the PALS hardware consists mostly of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) units that can easily be replaced in the field. The COTS units include a laser ranging transceiver, a charge-coupled-device camera that images the laser-illuminated targets, a differential Global Positioning System (dGPS) receiver capable of operation within the Wide Area Augmentation System, a video titler, a video cassette recorder (VCR), and a laptop computer equipped with two serial ports. The VCR and computer are powered by batteries; the other units are powered at 12 VDC from the 28-VDC aircraft power system via a low-pass filter and a voltage converter. The dGPS receiver feeds location and time data, at an update rate of 0.5 Hz, to the video titler and the computer. The laser ranging transceiver, operating at a sampling rate of 2 kHz, feeds its serial range and amplitude data stream to the computer. The analog video signal from the CCD camera is fed into the video titler wherein the signal is annotated with position and time information. The titler then forwards the annotated signal to the VCR for recording on 8-mm tapes. The dGPS and laser range and amplitude serial data streams are processed by software that displays the laser trace and the dGPS information as they are fed into the computer, subsamples the laser range and

  4. Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision making systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, John M.; Wan, C. Yoon; Vasandani, Vijay

    1987-01-01

    The current research is focused on detection of human error and protection from its consequences. A program for monitoring pilot error by comparing pilot actions to a script was described. It dealt primarily with routine errors (slips) that occurred during checklist activity. The model to which operator actions were compared was a script. Current research is an extension along these two dimensions. The ORS fault detection aid uses a sophisticated device model rather than a script. The newer initiative, the model-based and constraint-based warning system, uses an even more sophisticated device model and is to prevent all types of error, not just slips or bad decision.

  5. A high gain antenna system for airborne satellite communication applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maritan, M.; Borgford, M.

    1990-01-01

    A high gain antenna for commercial aviation satellites communication is discussed. Electromagnetic and practical design considerations as well as candidate systems implementation are presented. An evaluation of these implementation schemes is given, resulting in the selection of a simple top mounted aerodynamic phased array antenna with a remotely located beam steering unit. This concept has been developed into a popular product known as the Canadian Marconi Company CMA-2100. A description of the technical details is followed by a summary of results from the first production antennas.

  6. Applying emerging digital video interface standards to airborne avionics sensor and digital map integrations: benefits outweigh the initial costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehl, C. Stephen

    1996-06-01

    Video signal system performance can be compromised in a military aircraft cockpit management system (CMS) with the tailoring of vintage Electronics Industries Association (EIA) RS170 and RS343A video interface standards. Video analog interfaces degrade when induced system noise is present. Further signal degradation has been traditionally associated with signal data conversions between avionics sensor outputs and the cockpit display system. If the CMS engineering process is not carefully applied during the avionics video and computing architecture development, extensive and costly redesign will occur when visual sensor technology upgrades are incorporated. Close monitoring and technical involvement in video standards groups provides the knowledge-base necessary for avionic systems engineering organizations to architect adaptable and extendible cockpit management systems. With the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the process of adopting the Digital HDTV Grand Alliance System standard proposed by the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC), the entertainment and telecommunications industries are adopting and supporting the emergence of new serial/parallel digital video interfaces and data compression standards that will drastically alter present NTSC-M video processing architectures. The re-engineering of the U.S. Broadcasting system must initially preserve the electronic equipment wiring networks within broadcast facilities to make the transition to HDTV affordable. International committee activities in technical forums like ITU-R (former CCIR), ANSI/SMPTE, IEEE, and ISO/IEC are establishing global consensus on video signal parameterizations that support a smooth transition from existing analog based broadcasting facilities to fully digital computerized systems. An opportunity exists for implementing these new video interface standards over existing video coax/triax cabling in military aircraft cockpit management systems. Reductions in signal

  7. Ultrasonic Fluid Quality Sensor System

    DOEpatents

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2003-10-21

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  8. Ultrasonic fluid quality sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2002-10-08

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  9. Sensor system for comet approach and landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsignori, Roberto; Maresi, Luca

    1991-07-01

    This paper describes the overall configuration and performance of a comet approach and landing system (CALS), a space-borne sensor package for navigation toward a low-gravity celestial body in an interplanetary environment. The sensor system is aimed at satisfying the requirements of the Rosetta/CNSR (comet nucleus sample return) mission, whose objective is to land on a cometary surface and to retrieve samples that will be analyzed on the ground after Earth re-entry. Several constraints at the mission and spacecraft level make the configuration of a suitable sensor package a quite complex problem. The baseline system includes the following sensors, all mounted on a high-precision gimballed platform: (1) high-resolution camera, for detection of the comet at large distance and mapping at medium/short distance for ground-assisted landing site selection; (2) wide-angle camera with data processing equipment (star and target tracker), able to track simultaneously the irregular comet image and the surrounding stars for autonomous navigation; (3) laser topographic mapper for autonomous topography-assisted navigation in the final descent phase; (4) multitask radar altimeter for the on-board measurement of range, attitude, 3-axis velocity and surface roughness, with a microwave sounder section for the determination of subsurface structure and composition.

  10. Replaceable Sensor System for Bioreactor Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, Mike; Savoy, Steve; Bruno, John

    2006-01-01

    A sensor system was proposed that would monitor spaceflight bioreactor parameters. Not only will this technology be invaluable in the space program for which it was developed, it will find applications in medical science and industrial laboratories as well. Using frequency-domain-based fluorescence lifetime technology, the sensor system will be able to detect changes in fluorescence lifetime quenching that results from displacement of fluorophorelabeled receptors bound to target ligands. This device will be used to monitor and regulate bioreactor parameters including glucose, pH, oxygen pressure (pO2), and carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2). Moreover, these biosensor fluorophore receptor-quenching complexes can be designed to further detect and monitor for potential biohazards, bioproducts, or bioimpurities. Biosensors used to detect biological fluid constituents have already been developed that employ a number of strategies, including invasive microelectrodes (e.g., dark electrodes), optical techniques including fluorescence, and membrane permeable systems based on osmotic pressure. Yet the longevity of any of these sensors does not meet the demands of extended use in spacecraft habitat or bioreactor monitoring. It was therefore necessary to develop a sensor platform that could determine not only fluid variables such as glucose concentration, pO2, pCO2, and pH but can also regulate these fluid variables with controlled feedback loop.

  11. Artificial Immune System Approach for Airborne Vehicle Maneuvering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and system for control of a first aircraft relative to a second aircraft. A desired location and desired orientation are estimated for the first aircraft, relative to the second aircraft, at a subsequent time, t=t2, subsequent to the present time, t=t1, where the second aircraft continues its present velocity during a subsequent time interval, t1.ltoreq.t.ltoreq.t2, or takes evasive action. Action command sequences are examined, and an optimal sequence is chosen to bring the first aircraft to the desired location and desired orientation relative to the second aircraft at time t=t2. The method applies to control of combat aircraft and/or of aircraft in a congested airspace.

  12. A knowledge-based expert system for scheduling of airborne astronomical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtsheim, P. R.; Gevarter, W. B.; Stutz, J. C.; Banda, C. P.

    1985-01-01

    The Kuiper Airborne Observatory Scheduler (KAOS) is a knowledge-based expert system developed at NASA Ames Research Center to assist in route planning of a C-141 flying astronomical observatory. This program determines a sequence of flight legs that enables sequential observations of a set of heavenly bodies derived from a list of desirable objects. The possible flight legs are constrained by problems of observability, avoiding flyovers of warning and restricted military zones, and running out of fuel. A significant contribution of the KAOS program is that it couples computational capability with a reasoning system.

  13. Modelling climate change effects on a Dutch coastal groundwater system using airborne electromagnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faneca Sànchez, M.; Gunnink, J. L.; van Baaren, E. S.; Oude Essink, G. H. P.; Siemon, B.; Auken, E.; Elderhorst, W.; de Louw, P. G. B.

    2012-12-01

    The forecast of climate change effects on the groundwater system in coastal areas is of key importance for policy makers. The Dutch water system has been deeply studied because of its complex system of low-lying areas, dunes, land won to the sea and dikes, but nowadays large efforts are still being done to find out the best techniques to describe complex fresh-brackish-saline groundwater dynamic systems. In this paper, we describe a methodology consisting of high-resolution airborne electromagnetic (EM) measurements used in a 3-D variable-density transient groundwater model for a coastal area in the Netherlands. We used the airborne EM measurements in combination with borehole-logging data, electrical conductivity cone penetration tests and groundwater samples to create a 3-D fresh-brackish-saline groundwater distribution of the study area. The EM measurements proved to be an improvement compared to older techniques and provided quality input for the model. With the help of the built 3-D variable-density groundwater model, we removed the remaining inaccuracies of the 3-D chloride field and predicted the effects of three climate scenarios on the groundwater and surface water system. Results showed significant changes in the groundwater system, and gave direction for future water policy. Future research should provide more insight in the improvement of data collection for fresh-brackish-saline groundwater systems as it is of high importance to further improve the quality of the model.

  14. Modelling climate change effects on a Dutch coastal groundwater system using airborne Electro Magnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faneca Sànchez, M.; Gunnink, J. L.; van Baaren, E. S.; Oude Essink, G. H. P.; Siemon, B.; Auken, E.; Elderhorst, W.; de Louw, P. G. B.

    2012-05-01

    The forecast of climate change effects on the groundwater system in coastal areas is of key importance for policy makers. The Dutch water system has been deeply studied because of its complex system of low-lying areas, dunes, land won to the sea and dikes, but nowadays large efforts are still being done to find out the best techniques to describe complex fresh-brackish-saline groundwater dynamic systems. In this article, we describe a methodology consisting of high-resolution airborne Electro Magnetic (EM) measurements used in a 3-D variable-density transient groundwater model for a coastal area in the Netherlands. We used the Airborne EM measurements in combination with borehole-logging data, Electrical Conductivity Cone Penetration Tests and groundwater samples to create a 3-D fresh-brackish-saline groundwater distribution of the study area. The EM measurements proved to be an improvement compared to older techniques and provided quality input for the model. With the help of the built 3-D variable-density groundwater model, we removed the remaining inaccuracies of the 3-D chloride field and predicted the effects of three climate scenarios on the groundwater and surface water system. Results showed significant changes in the groundwater system, and gave direction for future water policy. Future research should provide more insight in the improvement of data collection for fresh-brackish-saline groundwater systems as it is of high importance to further improve the quality of the model.

  15. Lidar System for Airborne Measurement of Clouds and Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew; Scott, V. Stanley; Izquierdo, Luis Ramos; Marzouk, Joe

    2008-01-01

    A lidar system for measuring optical properties of clouds and aerosols at three wavelengths is depicted. The laser transmitter is based on a Nd:YVO4 laser crystal pumped by light coupled to the crystal via optical fibers from laser diodes that are located away from the crystal to aid in dissipating the heat generated in the diodes and their drive circuits. The output of the Nd:YVO4 crystal has a wavelength of 1064 nm, and is made to pass through frequency-doubling and frequency-tripling crystals. As a result, the net laser output is a collinear superposition of beams at wavelengths of 1064, 532, and 355 nm. The laser operates at a pulse-repetition rate of 5 kHz, emitting per-pulse energies of 50 microJ at 1064 nm, 25 microJ at 532 nm and 50 microJ at 355 nm. An important feature of this system is an integrating sphere located between the laser output and the laser beam expander lenses. The integrating sphere collects light scattered from the lenses. Three energy-monitor detectors are located at ports inside the integrating sphere. Each of these detectors is equipped with filters such that the laser output energy is measured independently for each wavelength. The laser output energy is measured on each pulse to enable the most accurate calibration possible. The 1064-nm and 532-nm photodetectors are, more specifically, single photon-counting modules (SPCMs). When used at 1064 nm, these detectors have approximately 3% quantum efficiency and low thermal noise (fewer than 200 counts per second). When used at 532 nm, the SPCMs have quantum efficiency of about 60%. The photodetector for the 355-nm channel is a photon-counting photomultiplier tube having a quantum efficiency of about 20%. The use of photon-counting detectors is made feasible by the low laser pulse energy. The main advantage of photon-counting is ease of inversion of data without need for complicated calibration schemes like those necessary for analog detectors. The disadvantage of photon-counting detectors

  16. Advanced Sensor Systems for Biotelemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W. (Inventor); Somps, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ricks, Robert D. (Inventor); Mundt, Carsten W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to telemetry-based sensing systems that continuously measures physical, chemical and biological parameters. More specifically, these sensing systems comprise a small, modular, low-power implantable biotelemetry system capable of continuously sensing physiological characteristics using implantable transmitters, a receiver, and a data acquisition system to analyze and record the transmitted signal over several months. The preferred embodiment is a preterm labor and fetal monitoring system. Key features of the invention include Pulse Interval Modulation (PIM) that is used to send temperature and pressure information out of the biological environment. The RF carrier frequency is 174-216 MHz and a pair of RF bursts (pulses) is transmitted at a frequency of about 1-2 Hz. The transmission range is 3 to 10 feet, depending on the position of the transmitter in the body and its biological environment. The entire transmitter is encapsulated in biocompatible silicone rubber. Power is supplied by on-board silver-oxide batteries. The average power consumption of the current design is less than 30 microW, which yields a lifetime of approximately 6 - 9 months. Chip-on-Board technology (COB) drastically reduces the size of the printed circuit board from 38 x 28 mm to 22 x 8 mm. Unpackaged dies are flip-chip bonded directly onto the printed circuit board, along with surface mount resistors and capacitors. The invention can monitor additional physiological parameters including, but not limited to, ECG, blood gases, glucose, and ions such as calcium, potassium, and sodium.

  17. Internally controlled PCR system for detection of airborne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Usachev, Evgeny V; Agranovski, Igor E

    2012-05-01

    Recently, we reported the outcomes of feasibility studies of a technological approach allowing rapid detection of a wide range of bioaerosols by combining a personal bioaerosol sampler with a real-time PCR technology. The protocol was found suitable for detection of targeted microorganisms within relatively short time periods. Considering the crucial importance of the PCR procedure quality control, the current paper reports the results of the development of an internally controlled PCR system for utilization by the above technology. The suggested strategy is based on utilization of only two fluorescent dyes, which are used respectively for target and internal amplification control (IAC) DNA amplification. A bacteriophage T4 and recombinant phage fd (M13) were used in this research as target and IAC, respectively. The constructed IAC was added directly to the collection liquid of the personal bioaerosol sampler enabling quality control to be present throughout the entire sampling-analysis procedures. For performance evaluation, serial ten-fold dilutions of T4 phage were aerosolized and sampled over a 10 minutes time period. The results showed that T4 phage could be reliably detected at the concentration of around 200 PFU per litre of air over the 10 minutes sampling period. The developed PCR assay demonstrated high specificity and no cross reaction. It is concluded that the recombinant phage fd is suitable for utilization as an internal control enabling to significantly minimize false negative results for bioaerosol detection procedures. PMID:22565862

  18. Optimization of an air–liquid interface exposure system for assessing toxicity of airborne nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Latvala, Siiri; Hedberg, Jonas; Möller, Lennart; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Karlsson, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of refined toxicological methods is currently needed for characterizing the risks of airborne nanoparticles (NPs) to human health. To mimic pulmonary exposure, we have developed an air–liquid interface (ALI) exposure system for direct deposition of airborne NPs on to lung cell cultures. Compared to traditional submerged systems, this allows more realistic exposure conditions for characterizing toxicological effects induced by airborne NPs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the deposition of silver NPs (AgNPs) is affected by different conditions of the ALI system. Additionally, the viability and metabolic activity of A549 cells was studied following AgNP exposure. Particle deposition increased markedly with increasing aerosol flow rate and electrostatic field strength. The highest amount of deposited particles (2.2 μg cm–2) at cell‐free conditions following 2 h exposure was observed for the highest flow rate (390 ml min–1) and the strongest electrostatic field (±2 kV). This was estimated corresponding to deposition efficiency of 94%. Cell viability was not affected after 2 h exposure to clean air in the ALI system. Cells exposed to AgNPs (0.45 and 0.74 μg cm–2) showed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced metabolic activities (64 and 46%, respectively). Our study shows that the ALI exposure system can be used for generating conditions that were more realistic for in vitro exposures, which enables improved mechanistic and toxicological studies of NPs in contact with human lung cells.Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26935862

  19. Large aperture scanning airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J.; Bindschadler, R.; Boers, R.; Bufton, J. L.; Clem, D.; Garvin, J.; Melfi, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A large aperture scanning airborne lidar facility is being developed to provide important new capabilities for airborne lidar sensor systems. The proposed scanning mechanism allows for a large aperture telescope (25 in. diameter) in front of an elliptical flat (25 x 36 in.) turning mirror positioned at a 45 degree angle with respect to the telescope optical axis. The lidar scanning capability will provide opportunities for acquiring new data sets for atmospheric, earth resources, and oceans communities. This completed facility will also make available the opportunity to acquire simulated EOS lidar data on a near global basis. The design and construction of this unique scanning mechanism presents exciting technological challenges of maintaining the turning mirror optical flatness during scanning while exposed to extreme temperatures, ambient pressures, aircraft vibrations, etc.

  20. Advanced sensor systems for biotelemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W. (Inventor); Somps, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ricks, Robert D. (Inventor); Mundt, Carsten W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to telemetry-based sensing systems that continuously measures physical, chemical and biological parameters. More specifically, these sensing systems comprise a small, modular, low-power implantable biotelemetry system capable of continuously sensing physiological characteristics using implantable transmitters, a receiver, and a data acquisition system to analyze and record the transmitted signal over several months. The preferred embodiment is a preterm labor and fetal monitoring system. Key features of the invention include Pulse Interval Modulation (PIM) that is used to send temperature and pressure information out of the biological environment. The RF carrier frequency is 174-216 MHz and a pair of RF bursts (pulses) is transmitted at a frequency of about 1-2 Hz. The transmission range is 3 to 10 feet, depending on the position of the transmitter in the body and its biological environment. The entire transmitter is encapsulated in biocompatible silicone rubber. Power is supplied by on-board silver-oxide batteries. The average power consumption of the current design is less than 30 .mu.W., which yields a lifetime of approximately 6-9 months. Chip-on-Board technology (COB) drastically reduces the size of the printed circuit board from 38.times.28 mm to 22.times.8 mm. Unpackaged dies are flip-chip bonded directly onto the printed circuit board, along with surface mount resistors and capacitors. The invention can monitor additional physiological parameters including, but not limited to, ECG, blood gases, glucose, and ions such as calcium, potassium, and sodium.

  1. Concentration and characterization of airborne particles in Tehran's subway system.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Hosein; Hoseini, Mohammad; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Mahdavi, Yousef; Jaafari, Jalil; Safari, Gholam Hosein

    2014-06-01

    Particulate matter is an important air pollutant, especially in closed environments like underground subway stations. In this study, a total of 13 elements were determined from PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected at two subway stations (Imam Khomeini and Sadeghiye) in Tehran's subway system. Sampling was conducted in April to August 2011 to measure PM concentrations in platform and adjacent outdoor air of the stations. In the Imam Khomeini station, the average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 94.4 ± 26.3 and 52.3 ± 16.5 μg m(-3) in the platform and 81.8 ± 22.2 and 35 ± 17.6 μg m(-3) in the outdoor air, respectively. In the Sadeghiye station, mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 87.6 ± 23 and 41.3 ± 20.4 μg m(-3) in the platform and 73.9 ± 17.3 and 30 ± 15 μg m(-3), in the outdoor air, respectively. The relative contribution of elemental components in each particle fraction were accounted for 43% (PM10) and 47.7% (PM2.5) in platform of Imam Khomeini station and 15.9% (PM10) and 18.5% (PM2.5) in the outdoor air of this station. Also, at the Sadeghiye station, each fraction accounted for 31.6% (PM10) and 39.8% (PM2.5) in platform and was 11.7% (PM10) and 14.3% (PM2.5) in the outdoor. At the Imam Khomeini station, Fe was the predominant element to represent 32.4 and 36 % of the total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 11.5 and 13.3% in the outdoor, respectively. At the Sadeghiye station, this element represented 22.7 and 29.8% of total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 8.7 and 10.5% in the outdoor air, respectively. Other major crustal elements were 5.8% (PM10) and 5.3% (PM2.5) in the Imam Khomeini station platform and 2.3 and 2.4% in the outdoor air, respectively. The proportion of other minor elements was significantly lower, actually less than 7% in total samples, and V was the minor concentration in total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in both platform stations. PMID:24573466

  2. Bio-integrated electronics and sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Webb, R. Chad; Lee, Woosik; Jung, Sungyoung; Rogers, John A.

    2013-05-01

    Skin-mounted epidermal electronics, a strategy for bio-integrated electronics, provide an avenue to non-invasive monitoring of clinically relevant physiological signals for healthcare applications. Current conventional systems consist of single-point sensors fastened to the skin with adhesives, and sometimes with conducting gels, which limits their use outside of clinical settings due to loss of adhesion and irritation to the user. In order to facilitate extended use of skin-mounted healthcare sensors without disrupting everyday life, we envision electronic monitoring systems that integrate seamlessly with the skin below the notice of the user. This manuscript reviews recent significant results towards our goal of wearable electronic sensor systems for long-term monitoring of physiological signals. Ultra-thin epidermal electronic systems (EES) are demonstrated for extended use on the skin, in a conformal manner, including during everyday bathing and sleeping activities. We describe the assessment of clinically relevant physiological parameters, such as electrocardiograms (ECG), electromyograms (EMG), electroencephalograms (EEG), temperature, mechanical strain and thermal conductivity, using examples of multifunctional EES devices. Additionally, we demonstrate capability for real life application of EES by monitoring the system functionality, which has no discernible change, during cyclic fatigue testing.

  3. Development of Lidar Sensor Systems for Autonomous Safe Landing on Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierottet, Diego F.; Petway, Larry B.; Vanek, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Lidar has been identified by NASA as a key technology for enabling autonomous safe landing of future robotic and crewed lunar landing vehicles. NASA LaRC has been developing three laser/lidar sensor systems under the ALHAT project. The capabilities of these Lidar sensor systems were evaluated through a series of static tests using a calibrated target and through dynamic tests aboard helicopters and a fixed wing aircraft. The airborne tests were performed over Moon-like terrain in the California and Nevada deserts. These tests provided the necessary data for the development of signal processing software, and algorithms for hazard detection and navigation. The tests helped identify technology areas needing improvement and will also help guide future technology advancement activities.

  4. Video Guidance Sensor System With Integrated Rangefinding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, Michael L. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor); Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Roe, Fred Davis, Jr. (Inventor); Bell, Joseph L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A video guidance sensor system for use, p.g., in automated docking of a chase vehicle with a target vehicle. The system includes an integrated rangefinder sub-system that uses time of flight measurements to measure range. The rangefinder sub-system includes a pair of matched photodetectors for respectively detecting an output laser beam and return laser beam, a buffer memory for storing the photodetector outputs, and a digitizer connected to the buffer memory and including dual amplifiers and analog-to-digital converters. A digital signal processor processes the digitized output to produce a range measurement.

  5. Sensor Systems Collect Critical Aerodynamics Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    With the support of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Dryden Flight Research Center, Tao of Systems Integration Inc. developed sensors and other components that will ultimately form a first-of-its-kind, closed-loop system for detecting, measuring, and controlling aerodynamic forces and moments in flight. The Hampton, Virginia-based company commercialized three of the four planned components, which provide sensing solutions for customers such as Boeing, General Electric, and BMW and are used for applications such as improving wind turbine operation and optimizing air flow from air conditioning systems. The completed system may one day enable flexible-wing aircraft with flight capabilities like those of birds.

  6. An Integrated Data Acquisition / User Request/ Processing / Delivery System for Airborne Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, B.; Chu, A.; Tung, W.

    2003-12-01

    Airborne science data has historically played an important role in the development of the scientific underpinnings for spaceborne missions. When the science community determines the need for new types of spaceborne measurements, airborne campaigns are often crucial in risk mitigation for these future missions. However, full exploitation of the acquired data may be difficult due to its experimental and transitory nature. Externally to the project, most problematic (in particular, for those not involved in requesting the data acquisitions) may be the difficulty in searching for, requesting, and receiving the data, or even knowing the data exist. This can result in a rather small, insular community of users for these data sets. Internally, the difficulty for the project is in maintaining a robust processing and archival system during periods of changing mission priorities and evolving technologies. The NASA/JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) has acquired data for a large and varied community of scientists and engineers for 15 years. AIRSAR is presently supporting current NASA Earth Science Enterprise experiments, such as the Soil Moisture EXperiment (SMEX) and the Cold Land Processes experiment (CLPX), as well as experiments conducted as many as 10 years ago. During that time, it's processing, data ordering, and data delivery system has undergone evolutionary change as the cost and capability of resources has improved. AIRSAR now has a fully integrated data acquisition/user request/processing/delivery system through which most components of the data fulfillment process communicate via shared information within a database. The integration of these functions has reduced errors and increased throughput of processed data to customers.

  7. A Performance Assessment of a Tactical Airborne Separation Assistance System using Realistic, Complex Traffic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Neitzke, Kurt W.; Bussink, Frank J. L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study that investigates the performance of aspects of an Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) under varying demand levels using realistic traffic patterns. This study only addresses the tactical aspects of an ASAS using aircraft state data (latitude, longitude, altitude, heading and speed) to detect and resolve projected conflicts. The main focus of this paper is to determine the extent to which sole reliance on the proposed tactical ASAS can maintain aircraft separation at demand levels up to three times current traffic. The effect of mixing ASAS equipped aircraft with non-equipped aircraft that do not have the capability to self-separate is also investigated.

  8. Airborne antenna coverage requirements for the TCV B-737 aircraft. [for operation with microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, W. A., Jr.; White, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The airborne antenna line of sight look angle requirement for operation with a Microwave Landing System (MLS) was studied. The required azimuth and elevation line of sight look angles from an antenna located on an aircraft to three ground based antenna sites at the Wallops Flight Center (FPS-16 radar, MLS aximuth, and MLS elevation) as the aircraft follows specific approach paths selected as representative of MLS operations at the Denver, Colorado, terminal area are presented. These required azimuth and elevation look angles may be interpreted as basic design requirements for antenna of the TCV B-737 airplane for MLS operations along these selected approach paths.

  9. An Airborne Scanning LiDAR System for Ocean and Coastal Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reineman, B. D.; Lenain, L.; Castel, D.; Melville, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    We have developed an airborne scanning LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system and demonstrated its functionality for terrestrial and oceanographic measurements. Differential GPS (DGPS) and an Inertial Navigation System (INS) are synchronized with the LiDAR, providing end result vertical rms errors of approximately 6~cm. Flying 170~m above the surface, we achieve a point density of ~ 0.7 m-2 and a swath width of 90 to 120~m over ocean and 200~m over land. Georeferencing algorithms were developed in-house and earth-referenced data are available several hours after acquisition. Surveys from the system are compared with ground DGPS surveys and existing airborne surveys of fixed targets. Twelve research flights in a Piper Twin Comanche from August 2007 to July 2008 have provided topography of the Southern California coastline and sea surface wave fields in the nearshore ocean environment. Two of the flights also documented the results of the October 2007 landslide on Mt.~Soledad in La Jolla, California. Eight research flights aboard a Cessna Caravan surveyed the topography, lagoon, reef, and surrounding seas of Lady Elliot Island (LEI) in Australia's Great Barrier Reef in April 2008. We describe applications for the system, including coastal topographic surveys, wave measurements, reef research, and ship wake studies.

  10. Design of an in-line, digital holographic imaging system for airborne measurement of clouds.

    PubMed

    Spuler, Scott M; Fugal, Jacob

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the design and performance of an airborne (underwing) in-line digital holographic imaging system developed for characterizing atmospheric cloud water droplets and ice particles in situ. The airborne environment constrained the design space to the simple optical layout that in-line non-beam-splitting holography affords. The desired measurement required the largest possible sample volume in which the smallest desired particle size (∼5 μm) could still be resolved, and consequently the magnification requirement was driven by the pixel size of the camera and this particle size. The resulting design was a seven-element, double-telecentric, high-precision optical imaging system used to relay and magnify a hologram onto a CCD surface. The system was designed to preserve performance and high resolution over a wide temperature range. Details of the optical design and construction are given. Experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of recording holograms that can be reconstructed with resolution of better than 6.5 μm within a 15 cm(3) sample volume.

  11. Preliminary results of the LLNL airborne experimental test-bed SAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.G.; Mullenhoff, C.J.; Kiefer, R.D.; Brase, J.M.; Wieting, M.G.; Berry, G.L.; Jones, H.E.

    1996-01-16

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within Laser Programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in cooperation with the Hughes Aircraft Company has developed a versatile, high performance, airborne experimental test-bed (AETB) capability. The test-bed has been developed for a wide range of research and development experimental applications including radar and radiometry plus, with additional aircraft modifications, optical systems. The airborne test-bed capability has been developed within a Douglas EA-3B Skywarrior jet aircraft provided and flown by Hughes Aircraft Company. The current test-bed payload consists of an X-band radar system, a high-speed data acquisition, and a real-time processing capability. The medium power radar system is configured to operate in a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode and is highly configurable in terms of waveforrns, PRF, bandwidth, etc. Antennas are mounted on a 2-axis gimbal in the belly radome of the aircraft which provides pointing and stabilization. Aircraft position and antenna attitude are derived from a dedicated navigational system and provided to the real-time SAR image processor for instant image reconstruction and analysis. This paper presents a further description of the test-bed and payload subsystems plus preliminary results of SAR imagery.

  12. Multi-Sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.; Leptoukh, G.

    2011-01-01

    Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. However, some of these measurements remain underutilized, largely due to the complexities involved in analyzing them synergistically. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have established a Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS), which consistently samples and generates the spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient) of aerosol products from multiple spacebome sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Samples of satellite aerosol products are extracted over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) locations as well as over other locations of interest such as those with available ground-based aerosol observations. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between Level-2 aerosol observations from multiple sensors. In addition, the available well-characterized co-located ground-based data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products. This paper explains the sampling methodology and concepts used in MAPSS, and demonstrates specific examples of using MAPSS for an integrated analysis of multiple aerosol products.

  13. Gas sampling system for matrix of semiconductor gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Strzelczyk, Anna; Koscinski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor gas sensors are popular commercial sensors applied in numerous gas detection systems. They are reliable, small, rugged and inexpensive. However, there are a few problem limiting the wider use of such sensors. Semiconductor gas sensor usually exhibits a low selectivity, low repeatability, drift of response, strong temperature and moisture influence on sensor properties. Sample flow rate is one of the parameters that influence sensors response what should be considered in the measurement system. This paper describes low cost module for controlling measured gas flow rate. The proposed equipment will be used as a component of electronic nose system employed for classifying and distinguishing different levels of contamination in air.

  14. Gas Main Sensor and Communications Network System

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2006-05-31

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. This projected was completed in April 2006, and culminated in the installation of more than 2 dozen GasNet nodes in both low- and high-pressure cast-iron and steel mains owned by multiple utilities in the northeastern US. Utilities are currently logging data (off-line) and monitoring data in real time from single and multiple networked sensors over cellular networks and collecting data using wireless bluetooth PDA systems. The system was designed to be modular, using in-pipe sensor-wands capable of measuring, flow, pressure, temperature, water-content and vibration. Internal antennae allowed for the use of the pipe-internals as a waveguide for setting up a sensor network to collect data from multiple nodes simultaneously. Sensor nodes were designed to be installed with low- and no-blow techniques and tools. Using a multi-drop bus technique with a custom protocol, all electronics were designed to be buriable and allow for on-board data-collection (SD-card), wireless relaying and cellular network forwarding. Installation options afforded by the design included direct-burial and external polemounted variants. Power was provided by one or more batteries, direct AC-power (Class I Div.2) and solar-array. The utilities are currently in a data-collection phase and intend to use the collected (and processed) data to make capital improvement decisions, compare it to Stoner model predictions and evaluate the use of such a system for future expansion, technology-improvement and commercialization starting later in 2006.

  15. An airborne FLIR detection and warning system for low altitude wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, Peter C.; Kuhn, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown through some preliminary flight measurement research that a forward looking infrared radiometer (FLIR) system can be used to successfully detect the cool downdraft of downbursts (microbusts/macrobursts) and thunderstorm gust front outflows that are responsible for most of the low altitude wind shear (LAWS) events. The FLIR system provides a much greater safety margin for the pilot than that provided by reactive designs such as inertial air speed systems. Preliminary results indicate that an advanced airborne FLIR system could provide the pilot with remote indication of microburst (MB) hazards along the flight path ahead of the aircraft. Results of a flight test of a prototype FLIR system show that a minimum warning time of one to four minutes (5 to 10 km), depending on aircraft speed, is available to the pilot prior to the microburst encounter.

  16. Issues on utility management simulation system for miscellaneous airborne electromechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Juan; Liu, Qiaozhen; Wang, Zhanlin

    2006-11-01

    UMS for miscellaneous airborne electromechanical devices is the part and parcel of VMS. The object of utility management is airborne electromechanical devices which ensure that air engine, avionics and other systems work in order. This paper works over several items about UMS by introducing advanced simulation and its correlative technologies. Firstly, message transmission software of 1553B bus is designed and the bus characteristics are tested. Also, the problem of time synchronization is solved by testing network delay. Secondly, in order to obtain high performance of distributed process ability, heuristic job dispatching algorithm and hydrodynamic load balancing strategy are adopted, which solve the static job dispatch and dynamic job scheduling respectively. The hydrodynamic load balancing strategy is aiming to fulfill the resources usage in the whole system and accomplishes best resources sharing. Thirdly, this paper establishes and realizes the demo environment for visual simulation of the electromechanical subsystems. Adopting tree-mode during the software design makes the system scalable and reconstruction. As multithreading synchronization is resolved, real-time performance of simulation. is ensured during.

  17. An integrated GPS-FID system for airborne gas detection of pipeline right-of-ways

    SciTech Connect

    Gehue, H.L.; Sommer, P.

    1996-12-31

    Pipeline integrity, safety and environmental concerns are of prime importance in the Canadian natural gas industry. Terramatic Technology Inc. (TTI) has developed an integrated GPS/FID gas detection system known as TTI-AirTrac{trademark} for use in airborne gas detection (AGD) along pipeline right-of-ways. The Flame Ionization Detector (FID), which has traditionally been used to monitor air quality for gas plants and refineries, has been integrated with the Global Positioning System (GPS) via a 486 DX2-50 computer and specialized open architecture data acquisition software. The purpose of this technology marriage is to be able to continuously monitor air quality during airborne pipeline inspection. Event tagging from visual surveillance is used to determine an explanation of any delta line deviations (DLD). These deviations are an indication of hydrocarbon gases present in the plume that the aircraft has passed through. The role of the GPS system is to provide mapping information and coordinate data for ground inspections. The ground based inspection using a handheld multi gas detector will confirm whether or not a leak exists.

  18. Validation of satellite overland retrievals of AOD at northern high latitudes with coincident measurements from airborne sunphotometer, lidar, and in situ sensors during ARCTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, J. M.; Shinozuka, Y.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Ramachandran, S.; Johnson, R. R.; Clarke, A. D.; Howell, S. G.; McNaughton, C.; Freitag, S.; Kapustin, V. N.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Torres, O.; Veefkind, P.; Remer, L. A.; Mattoo, S.; Levy, R. C.; Chu, A. D.; Kahn, R. A.; Davis, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    The 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign presented a unique opportunity for validation of satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over a variety of surfaces at northern high latitudes. In particular, the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) was operated together with a variety of in-situ and other remote sensors aboard the NASA P-3B research aircraft during both the spring and summer phases of ARCTAS. Among the in-situ sensors were a nephelometer and particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) operated by University of Hawaii Group for Environmental Aerosol Research (HIGEAR). P-3B science missions included several coincident underflights of the Terra and A-Train satellites during a variety of aerosol loading conditions, including Arctic haze and smoke plumes from boreal forest fires. In this presentation, we will compare AATS-14 AOD spectra, adjusted for the contribution from the layer below the aircraft using the HiGEAR scattering and absorption measurements, with full column AOD retrievals from coincident measurements by satellite sensors such as MISR, MODIS, OMI, and POLDER. We also intend to show comparisons of aerosol extinction derived from AATS-14 measurements during P-3B vertical profiles with coincident measurements from CALIOP aboard the CALIPSO satellite and from the high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) flown aboard the NASA B-200 aircraft.

  19. Use of airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect ground displacement hazards to water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, J.P.; Hu, Jiawen; Kayen, R.E.; Lembo, A.J.; Collins, B.D.; Davis, C.A.; O'Rourke, T. D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the use of multiepoch airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect and measure ground displacements of sufficient magnitude to damage buried pipelines and other water system facilities that might result, for example, from earthquake or rainfall-induced landslides. Lidar scans are performed at three sites with coincident measurements by total station surveying. Relative horizontal accuracy is evaluated by measurements of lateral dimensions of well defined objects such as buildings and tanks; we find misfits ranging from approximately 5 to 12 cm, which is consistent with previous work. The bias and dispersion of lidar elevation measurements, relative to total station surveying, is assessed at two sites: (1) a power plant site (PP2) with vegetated steeply sloping terrain; and (2) a relatively flat and unvegetated site before and after trenching operations were performed. At PP2, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and a standard deviation of approximately 70 cm, whereas terrestrial lidar did not produce useful results due to beam divergence issues and inadequate sampling of the study region. At the trench site, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and reduced standard deviation relative to PP2 (6-20 cm), whereas terrestrial lidar was nearly unbiased with very low dispersion (4-6 cm). Pre- and posttrench bias-adjusted normalized residuals showed minimal to negligible correlation, but elevation change was affected by relative bias between epochs. The mean of elevation change bias essentially matches the difference in means of pre- and posttrench elevation bias, whereas elevation change standard deviation is sensitive to the dispersion of individual epoch elevations and their correlation coefficient. The observed lidar bias and standard deviations enable reliable detection of damaging ground displacements for some pipelines types (e.g., welded steel) but not all (e.g., concrete with unwelded, mortared joints). ?? ASCE 2009.

  20. Development and test of video systems for airborne surveillance of oil spills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.; Lewis, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    Five video systems - potentially useful for airborne surveillance of oil spills - were developed, flight tested, and evaluated. The systems are: (1) conventional black and white TV, (2) conventional TV with false color, (3) differential TV, (4) prototype Lunar Surface TV, and (5) field sequential TV. Wavelength and polarization filtering were utilized in all systems. Greatly enhanced detection of oil spills, relative to that possible with the unaided eye, was achieved. The most practical video system is a conventional TV camera with silicon-diode-array image tube, filtered with a Corning 7-54 filter and a polarizer oriented with its principal axis in the horizontal direction. Best contrast between oil and water was achieved when winds and sea states were low. The minimum detectable oil film thickness was about 0.1 micrometer.

  1. The development of an airborne instrumentation computer system for flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Instrumentation interfacing frequently requires the linking of intelligent systems together, as well as requiring the link itself to be intelligent. The airborne instrumentation computer system (AICS) was developed to address this requirement. Its small size, approximately 254 by 133 by 140 mm (10 by 51/4 by 51/2 in), standard bus, and modular board configuration give it the ability to solve instrumentation interfacing and computation problems without forcing a redesign of the entire unit. This system has been used on the F-15 aircraft digital electronic engine control (DEEC) and its follow on engine model derivative (EMD) project and in an OV-1C Mohawk aircraft stall speed warning system. The AICS is presently undergoing configuration for use on an F-104 pace aircraft and on the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-111 aircraft.

  2. Imager-to-Radiometer In-flight Cross Calibration: RSP Radiometric Comparison with Airborne and Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Cairns, Brian; Wasilewski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    This work develops a method to compare the radiometric calibration between a radiometer and imagers hosted on aircraft and satellites. The radiometer is the airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), which takes multi-angle, photo-polarimetric measurements in several spectral channels. The RSP measurements used in this work were coincident with measurements made by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), which was on the same aircraft. These airborne measurements were also coincident with an overpass of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI). First we compare the RSP and OLI radiance measurements to AVIRIS since the spectral response of the multispectral instruments can be used to synthesize a spectrally equivalent signal from the imaging spectrometer data. We then explore a method that uses AVIRIS as a transfer between RSP and OLI to show that radiometric traceability of a satellite-based imager can be used to calibrate a radiometer despite differences in spectral channel sensitivities. This calibration transfer shows agreement within the uncertainty of both the various instruments for most spectral channels.

  3. Remote sensing of surface mines - A comparative study of sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, J. R.; Lachowski, H.; Peterson, C.

    1980-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to the inventory of coal surface mines and to the monitoring of mine reclamation in the eastern United States was investigated. Data were acquired during spring and autumn by several sensor systems over study areas located within the bituminous coal fields of Pennsylvania. Data sources were the Landsat MSS, an airborne multispectral scanner (Daedalus DS-1260), the airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator, and high-altitude color and color infrared aerial photography. A comparison of the data sets was conducted by a quantitative assessment of area measurement accuracy. Landsat data were found most suitable for a synoptic inventory of mines on a regional basis. High-altitude aerial photography was considered the best source of the detailed information required for reclamation monitoring. Nine channels of data from the airborne scanner were evaluated to select the most useful spectral bands for discriminating among the land cover types associated with surface mines. Four bands were selected in the following order by a stepwise linear discriminant procedure: 0.60-0.65 micron, 0.92-1.10 microns, 0.80-0.89 micron, and 8-14 microns. The data corresponding to these four bands were used for the thematic mapping of land cover.

  4. Analysis of soil moisture retrieval from airborne passive/active L-band sensor measurements in SMAPVEX 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Song, Hongting; Tan, Lei; Li, Yinan; Li, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Soil moisture is a key component in the hydrologic cycle and climate system. It is an important input parameter for many hydrologic and meteorological models. NASA'S upcoming Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, to be launched in October 2014, will address this need by utilizing passive and active microwave measurements at L-band, which will penetrate moderately dense canopies. In preparation for the SMAP mission, the Soil Moisture Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) was conducted from 6 June to 17 July 2012 in the Carment-Elm Creek area in Manitoba, Canada. Over a period of six weeks diverse land cover types ranging from agriculture over pasture and grassland to forested sites were re-visited several times a week. The Passive/Active L-band Sensor (PALS) provides radiometer products, vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures, and radar products. Over the past two decades, successful estimation of soil moisture has been accomplished using passive and active L-band data. However, remaining uncertainties related to surface roughness and the absorption, scattering, and emission by vegetation must be resolved before soil moisture retrieval algorithms can be applied with known and acceptable accuracy using satellite observations. This work focuses on analyzing the Passive/Active L-band Sensor observations of sites covered during SMAPVEX12, investigating the observed data, parameterizing vegetation covered surface model, modeling inversion algorithm and analyzing observed soil moisture changes over the time period of six weeks. The data and analysis results from this study are aimed at increasing the accuracy and range of validity of SMAP soil moisture retrievals via enhancing the accuracy for soil moisture retrieval.

  5. Airborne system for fast measurements of upwelling and downwelling spectral actinic flux densities.

    PubMed

    Jäkel, Evelyn; Wendisch, Manfred; Kniffka, Anke; Trautmann, Thomas

    2005-01-20

    An airborne system for fast measurements of spectral actinic flux densities in the wavelength range 305-700 nm is introduced. The system is called the Actinic Flux Density Meter (AFDM). The AFDM utilizes the diode array technique and measures downwelling and upwelling spectral actinic flux densities separately with a time resolution of less than 1 s. For airborne measurements this means a spatial resolution of approximately 60 m, assuming an average aircraft velocity of 60 m/s. Thus the AFDM resolves fast changes in the actinic radiation field, which are of special importance for conditions of inhomogeneous clouds or surface reflection. Laboratory characterization measurements of the AFDM are presented, and a method to correct the nonideal angular response of the optical inlets is introduced. Furthermore, exemplar field data sampled simultaneously with spectral irradiance measurements are shown. The horizontal variability of the measured spectra of actinic flux density is quantified, and profile measurements for overcast situations are presented. Finally, the effects of clouds on the spectral actinic flux density are discussed.

  6. A hardware/software simulation for the video tracking system of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boozer, G. A.; Mckibbin, D. D.; Haas, M. R.; Erickson, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    This simulator was created so that C-141 Kuiper Airborne Observatory investigators could test their Airborne Data Acquisition and Management System software on a system which is generally more accessible than the ADAMS on the plane. An investigator can currently test most of his data acquisition program using the data computer simulator in the Cave. (The Cave refers to the ground-based computer facilities for the KAO and the associated support personnel.) The main Cave computer is interfaced to the data computer simulator in order to simulate the data-Exec computer communications. However until now, there has been no way to test the data computer interface to the tracker. The simulator described here simulates both the KAO Exec and tracker computers with software which runs on the same Hewlett-Packard (HP) computer as the investigator's data acquisition program. A simulator control box is hardwired to the computer to provide monitoring of tracker functions, to provide an operator panel similar to the real tracker, and to simulate the 180 deg phase shifting of the chopper squre-wave reference with beam switching. If run in the Cave, one can use their Exec simulator and this tracker simulator.

  7. Overview Of Haze And Smoke Measurements in Northern High Latitudes And California During ARCTAS Using The NASA Ames Airborne Sunphotometer And Associated In Situ And Remote Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Ramachandran, S.; Johnson, R. R.; Clarke, A. D.; Howell, S. G.; McNaughton, C.; Holben, B.; O'Neill, N.; McArthur, B.; Reid, E.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) operated in a suite of remote and in-situ sensors aboard the NASA P-3 aircraft during the 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign. Included were 8 Spring flights in the Arctic and 13 Summer flights (3 in California and 10 in Canada), each coordinated with one or more satellite overpasses, other aircraft (e.g., NASA B-200 and DC-8, NOAA P-3), and/or ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements. This presentation gives an overview of AATS-14 aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and related parameters such as Angstrom exponent and fine mode fraction. We quantify the mutual consistency of AODs calculated from measurements by AATS-14, by the HiGEAR (University of Hawaii Group for Environmental Aerosol Research) suite of P-3 in-situ optical instruments, and by AERONET . The vertical integral of the HiGEAR in-situ scattering and absorption coefficients recorded during spiral profiles typically falls within 10% ± 0.02 of the AATS-14 AOD values interpolated to 450, 550 and 700 nm. Corresponding Angstrom exponents typically differ by ~0.1. AATS-14 AODs adjusted for the contribution of the layer below the aircraft (estimated with HiGEAR data) generally agree with the full column AERONET values to within the combined uncertainties. Example results from multi-platform comparisons are also shown. These results provide context for the more detailed AATS-14 results in other presentations, e.g., by Redemann et al. (focusing on the multi-platform, multi-sensor smoke case of 30 Jun 2008), Livingston et al. (comparisons to MODIS, MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIPSO, and airborne lidar), and Shinozuka et al. (relationship to cloud condensation nuclei and other measurements).

  8. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS USING FIELD PORTABLE AND AIRBORNE REMOTE IMAGING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technologies are a class of instrument and sensor systems that include laser imageries, imaging spectrometers, and visible to thermal infrared cameras. These systems have been successfully used for gas phase chemical compound identification in a variety of field e...

  9. Airborne far-IR minefield imaging system (AFIRMIS): description and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Jean-Robert; Mathieu, Pierre; Larochelle, Vincent; Bonnier, Deni

    1998-09-01

    In minefield detection, two main types of operation can be identified. First, there is the detection of surface-laid minefield. This scenario is encountered largely in tactical operations (troop movement, beach landing) where the speed at which the minefield is deployed or the strategic barrier that they represent exceed the need to bury them. Second, there is the detection of buried minefield which is encountered mainly in peacekeeping missions or clearance operations. To address these two types of minefield detection process, we propose an airborne far-infrared minefield imaging system (AFIRMIS). This passive and active imaging system fuses the information from the emissivity, the reflectivity and the 3-dimensional profile of the target/background scene in order to improve the probability of detection and to reduce the false alarm rate. This paper describes the proposed imaging system and presents early active imaging results of surface-laid mines.

  10. SITHON: An Airborne Fire Detection System Compliant with Operational Tactical Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kontoes, Charalabos; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Sifakis, Nicolaos; Konstantinidis, Pavlos

    2009-01-01

    In response to the urging need of fire managers for timely information on fire location and extent, the SITHON system was developed. SITHON is a fully digital thermal imaging system, integrating INS/GPS and a digital camera, designed to provide timely positioned and projected thermal images and video data streams rapidly integrated in the GIS operated by Crisis Control Centres. This article presents in detail the hardware and software components of SITHON, and demonstrates the first encouraging results of test flights over the Sithonia Peninsula in Northern Greece. It is envisaged that the SITHON system will be soon operated onboard various airborne platforms including fire brigade airplanes and helicopters as well as on UAV platforms owned and operated by the Greek Air Forces. PMID:22399963

  11. SITHON: An Airborne Fire Detection System Compliant with Operational Tactical Requirements.

    PubMed

    Kontoes, Charalabos; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Sifakis, Nicolaos; Konstantinidis, Pavlos

    2009-01-01

    In response to the urging need of fire managers for timely information on fire location and extent, the SITHON system was developed. SITHON is a fully digital thermal imaging system, integrating INS/GPS and a digital camera, designed to provide timely positioned and projected thermal images and video data streams rapidly integrated in the GIS operated by Crisis Control Centres. This article presents in detail the hardware and software components of SITHON, and demonstrates the first encouraging results of test flights over the Sithonia Peninsula in Northern Greece. It is envisaged that the SITHON system will be soon operated onboard various airborne platforms including fire brigade airplanes and helicopters as well as on UAV platforms owned and operated by the Greek Air Forces.

  12. Development of Sensors for Ceramic Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems. Phase 2; Temperature Sensor Systems Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 'development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems' program is divided into two phases. The objectives of Phase 1 were to analyze, evaluate and recommend sensor concepts for the measurement of surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. The results of this effort were previously published in NASA CR-182111. As a result of Phase 1, three approaches were recommended for further development: pyrometry, thin-film sensors, and thermographic phosphors. The objective of Phase 2 were to fabricate and conduct laboratory demonstration tests of these systems. Six materials, mutually agreed upon by NASA and Pratt & Whitney, were investigated under this program. This report summarizes the Phase 2 effort and provides conclusions and recommendations for each of the categories evaluated.

  13. Power system applications of fiber optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Jackson, S. P.; Kirkham, H.; Yeh, C.

    1986-01-01

    This document is a progress report of work done in 1985 on the Communications and Control for Electric Power Systems Project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These topics are covered: Electric Field Measurement, Fiber Optic Temperature Sensing, and Optical Power transfer. Work was done on the measurement of ac and dc electric fields. A prototype sensor for measuring alternating fields was made using a very simple electroscope approach. An electronic field mill sensor for dc fields was made using a fiber optic readout, so that the entire probe could be operated isolated from ground. There are several instances in which more precise knowledge of the temperature of electrical power apparatus would be useful. This report describes a number of methods whereby the distributed temperature profile can be obtained using a fiber optic sensor. The ability to energize electronics by means of an optical fiber has the advantage that electrical isolation is maintained at low cost. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to convert the light energy into electrical form by means of photovoltaic cells. JPL has developed an array of PV cells in gallium arsenide specifically for this purpose. This work is described.

  14. Online Sensor Calibration Assessment in Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Hashemian, Hash

    2013-06-01

    Safe, efficient, and economic operation of nuclear systems (nuclear power plants, fuel fabrication and storage, used fuel processing, etc.) relies on transmission of accurate and reliable measurements. During operation, sensors degrade due to age, environmental exposure, and maintenance interventions. Sensor degradation can affect the measured and transmitted signals, including sensor failure, signal drift, sensor response time, etc. Currently, periodic sensor recalibration is performed to avoid these problems. Sensor recalibration activities include both calibration assessment and adjustment (if necessary). In nuclear power plants, periodic recalibration of safety-related sensors is required by the plant technical specifications. Recalibration typically occurs during refueling outages (about every 18 to 24 months). Non-safety-related sensors also undergo recalibration, though not as frequently. However, this approach to maintaining sensor calibration and performance is time-consuming and expensive, leading to unnecessary maintenance, increased radiation exposure to maintenance personnel, and potential damage to sensors. Online monitoring (OLM) of sensor performance is a non-invasive approach to assess instrument calibration. OLM can mitigate many of the limitations of the current periodic recalibration practice by providing more frequent assessment of calibration and identifying those sensors that are operating outside of calibration tolerance limits without removing sensors or interrupting operation. This can support extended operating intervals for unfaulted sensors and target recalibration efforts to only degraded sensors.

  15. Dual-aureole and sun spectrometer system for airborne measurements of aerosol optical properties.

    PubMed

    Zieger, Paul; Ruhtz, Thomas; Preusker, Rene; Fischer, Jürgen

    2007-12-10

    We have designed an airborne spectrometer system for the simultaneous measurement of the direct sun irradiance and the aureole radiance in two different solid angles. The high-resolution spectral radiation measurements are used to derive vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties. Combined measurements in two solid angles provide better information about the aerosol type without additional and elaborate measuring geometries. It is even possible to discriminate between absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosol types. Furthermore, they allow to apply additional calibration methods and simplify the detection of contaminated data (e.g., by thin cirrus clouds). For the characterization of the detected aerosol type a new index is introduced that is the slope of the aerosol phase function in the forward scattering region. The instrumentation is a flexible modular setup, which has already been successfully applied in airborne and ground-based field campaigns. We describe the setup as well as the calibration of the instrument. In addition, example vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties--including the aureole measurements--are shown and discussed.

  16. Performance of the NASA Airborne Radar with the Windshear Database for Forward-Looking Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switzer, George F.; Britt, Charles L.

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the simulation approach used to test the performance of the NASA airborne windshear radar. An explanation of the actual radar hardware and processing algorithms provides an understanding of the parameters used in the simulation program. This report also contains a brief overview of the NASA airborne windshear radar experimental flight test results. A description of the radar simulation program shows the capabilities of the program and the techniques used for certification evaluation. Simulation of the NASA radar is comprised of three steps. First, the choice of the ground clutter data must be made. The ground clutter is the return from objects in or nearby an airport facility. The choice of the ground clutter also dictates the aircraft flight path since ground clutter is gathered while in flight. The second step is the choice of the radar parameters and the running of the simulation program which properly combines the ground clutter data with simulated windshear weather data. The simulated windshear weather data is comprised of a number of Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) model results. The final step is the comparison of the radar simulation results to the known windshear data base. The final evaluation of the radar simulation is based on the ability to detect hazardous windshear with the aircraft at a safe distance while at the same time not displaying false alerts.

  17. A Comparison of Foliage Profiles in the Sierra National Forest Obtained with a Full-Waveform Under-Canopy EVI Lidar System with the Foliage Profiles Obtained with an Airborne Full-Waveform LVIS Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Feng; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Strahler, Alan H.; Schaaf, Crystal L.; Yao, Tian; Wang, Zhuosen; Roman, Miguel O.; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Ni-Meister, Wenge; Jupp, David L. B.; Lovell, Jenny L.; Culvenor, Darius S.; Newnham, Glenn J.; Tang, Hao; Dubayah, Ralph O.

    2013-01-01

    Foliage profiles retrieved froma scanning, terrestrial, near-infrared (1064 nm), full-waveformlidar, the Echidna Validation Instrument (EVI), agree well with those obtained from an airborne, near-infrared, full-waveform, large footprint lidar, the Lidar Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). We conducted trials at 5 plots within a conifer stand at Sierra National Forest in August, 2008. Foliage profiles retrieved from these two lidar systems are closely correlated (e.g., r = 0.987 at 100 mhorizontal distances) at large spatial coverage while they differ significantly at small spatial coverage, indicating the apparent scanning perspective effect on foliage profile retrievals. Alsowe noted the obvious effects of local topography on foliage profile retrievals, particularly on the topmost height retrievals. With a fine spatial resolution and a small beam size, terrestrial lidar systems complement the strengths of the airborne lidars by making a detailed characterization of the crowns from a small field site, and thereby serving as a validation tool and providing localized tuning information for future airborne and spaceborne lidar missions.

  18. Robust Model-Based Sensor Fault Monitoring System for Nonlinear Systems in Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dejun; Song, Shiyao

    2014-01-01

    A new model-based sensor fault diagnosis (FD) scheme, using an equivalent model, is developed for a kind of Multiple Inputs Multiple Outputs (MIMO) nonlinear system which fulfills the Lipschitz condition. The equivalent model, which is a bank of one-dimensional linear state equations with the bounded model uncertainty, can take the place of a plant's exact nonlinear model in the case of sensor FD. This scheme shows a new perspective whereby, by using the equivalent model, it doesn't have to study the nonlinear internal structure character or get the exact model. The influence of the model uncertainty on the residuals is explained in this paper. A method, called pretreatment, is utilized to minimize the model uncertainty. The eigenstructure assignment method with assistant state is employed to solve the problem of perfect decoupling against the model uncertainty, disturbance, system faults, the relevant actuator faults, or even the case of no input from the relevant actuator. The realization of the proposed scheme is given by an algorithm according to a single sensor FD, and verified by a simulation example. Depending on the above, a sensor fault monitoring system is established by the sensor network and diagnosis logic, then the effectiveness is testified by a simulation. PMID:25320904

  19. NOVEL CORROSION SENSOR FOR VISION 21 SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Heng Ban

    2004-12-01

    Advanced sensor technology is identified as a key component for advanced power systems for future energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. This project intends to develop a novel high temperature corrosion sensor and subsequent measurement system for advanced power systems. Fireside corrosion is the metal loss caused by chemical reactions on surfaces exposed to the combustion environment. Such corrosion is the leading mechanism for boiler tube failures and has emerged to be a significant concern for current and future energy plants due to the introduction of technologies targeting emissions reduction, efficiency improvement, or fuel/oxidant flexibility. Corrosion damage can lead to catastrophic equipment failure, explosions, and forced outages. Proper management of corrosion requires real-time indication of corrosion rate. However, short-term, on-line corrosion monitoring systems for fireside corrosion remain a technical challenge to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. The overall objective of this proposed project is to develop a technology for on-line corrosion monitoring based on a new concept. This report describes the initial results from the first-year effort of the three-year study that include laboratory development and experiment, and pilot combustor testing.

  20. Soil properties mapping with the DIGISOIL multi-sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, G.

    2012-04-01

    The multidisciplinary DIGISOIL project aimed to integrate and improve in situ and proximal measurement technologies for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going from the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in (digital) soil mapping (DSM). In order to assess and prevent soil degradation and to benefit from the different ecological, economical and historical functions of the soil in a sustainable way, high resolution and quantitative maps of soil properties are needed. The core objective of the project is to explore and exploit new capabilities of advanced geophysical technologies for answering this societal demand. To this aim, DIGISOIL addresses four issues covering technological, soil science and economic aspects: (i) the validation of geophysical (in situ, proximal and airborne) technologies and integrated pedo-geophysical inversion techniques (mechanistic data fusion) (ii) the relation between the geophysical parameters and the soil properties, (iii) the integration of the derived soil properties for mapping soil functions and soil threats, (iv) the pre-evaluation, standardisation and sub-industrialization of the proposed methodologies, including technical and economical studies related to the societal demand. With respect to these issues, the DIGISOIL project allows to develop, test and validate the most relevant geophysical technologies for mapping soil properties. The system was tested on different field tests, and validated the proposed technologies and solutions for each of the identified methods: geoelectric, GPR, EMI, seismics, magnetic and hyperspectral. After data acquisition systems, sensor geometry, and advanced data processing techniques have been developed and validated, we present now the solutions for going from geophysical data to soil properties maps. For two test sites, located respectively in Luxembourg (LU) and Mugello (IT) a set of soil properties maps have been produced. They give

  1. New taste sensor system combined with chaotic recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jie; Wang, Ping; Li, Rong

    2001-09-01

    Taste sensor as a new kind of chemical sensor has been studied by many researchers. We have developed several types of taste sensor system and some new recognition methods for taste substance. Kiyoshi Toko et al proposed a new kind of chaos taste sensor that is based on sensor chaos dynamics. In this paper, we improve the taste sensor based on chaos dynamics and proposed a new method for the pattern recognition of tastes. We use three kinds of tastes, i.e., sweetness, salty taste, and sourness. They cause the membrane oscillate in different form, and the complexity is not the same. We can detect taste based on the new method.

  2. Evaluation of a cubicle containment system in preventing gaseous and particulate airborne cross-contamination

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.J.; Hughes, H.C.; Singh, S.B.; Lang, C.M.

    1983-12-01

    The effectiveness of a cubicle containment system in preventing gaseous and particulate cross-contamination in animal facilities was evaluated using several techniques. Using a nitrous oxide dilution technique, no airborne cross-contamination was found between cubicles as long as all cubicle doors were kept closed. If the doors to the cubicle in which the gas was released were partially or completely opened, low concentrations of nitrous oxide could be detected in adjacent cubicles. These concentrations increased when the air exchange rates in the cubicle were decreased. Similar results were obtained when particulate transfer was measured using aerosolized Staphlococcus epidermidis and a slit to agar sampling technique. Air flows and point air velocities within the cubicle and the animal room were also studied. A trial of Sendai virus transmission between cubicles revealed no intercubicle transmission after 3 weeks of exposure. Overall, the cubicle containment system appeared to be an effective means of achieving limited biohazard containment, applicable to many research housing needs.

  3. Evaluation of a cubicle containment system in preventing gaseous and particulate airborne cross-contamination.

    PubMed

    White, W J; Hughes, H C; Singh, S B; Lang, C M

    1983-12-01

    The effectiveness of a cubicle containment system in preventing gaseous and particulate cross-contamination in animal facilities was evaluated using several techniques. Using a nitrous oxide dilution technique, no airborne cross-contamination was found between cubicles as long as all cubicle doors were kept closed. If the doors to the cubicle in which the gas was released were partially or completely opened, low concentrations of nitrous oxide could be detected in adjacent cubicles. These concentrations increased when the air exchange rates in the cubicle were decreased. Similar results were obtained when particulate transfer was measured using aerosolized Staphlococcus epidermidis and a slit to agar sampling technique. Air flows and point air velocities within the cubicle and the animal room were also studied. A trial of Sendai virus transmission between cubicles revealed no intercubicle transmission after 3 weeks of exposure. Overall, the cubicle containment system appeared to be an effective means of achieving limited biohazard containment, applicable to many research housing needs.

  4. Experimental evaluation of an airborne depth-sounding lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove K.; Koppari, Kurt R.; Karlsson, Ulf C.

    1993-06-01

    An experimental evaluation of an airborne depth-sounding lidar is described. The system, called FLASH (FOA laser airborne sounder for hydrography), is based on a scanning frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser carried by a helicopter. An in-situ profiling instrument for measuring water parameters is also described. This system, called HOSS (hydro-optical sensor system), is also carried by a helicopter and has been used to collect data in parallel with the lidar measurements. A discussion of the lidar performance coupled to the measured water and instrumental parameters is included. Examples of measured wave forms are compared with those obtained by analytical and Monte Carlo modeling.

  5. Fiber optic sensors for parachute systems monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolayev, Pavel M.; Nikolayev, Alexander M.; Nikolayev, Yuri M.; Tzarev, Sergey A.; Zastela, Mikhail Y.

    2009-12-01

    Pre-design researches on creation of the built in parachute parameters monitoring system which can be used both at a stage of its tests, and at stage of its control for the purpose of its characteristics management are resulted. Fiber optic sensor on the basis of two twisted fibers with the locked ends offered by us for this purpose does not demand lamination, indifferent to a thermal (temperature) field, provides a wide dynamic range of measurement as pressure and tension of parachute elements.

  6. Fiber optic sensors for parachute systems monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolayev, Pavel M.; Nikolayev, Alexander M.; Nikolayev, Yuri M.; Tzarev, Sergey A.; Zastela, Mikhail Y.

    2010-01-01

    Pre-design researches on creation of the built in parachute parameters monitoring system which can be used both at a stage of its tests, and at stage of its control for the purpose of its characteristics management are resulted. Fiber optic sensor on the basis of two twisted fibers with the locked ends offered by us for this purpose does not demand lamination, indifferent to a thermal (temperature) field, provides a wide dynamic range of measurement as pressure and tension of parachute elements.

  7. Differential temperature sensor system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Yu, Nan (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor); Iltchenko, Vladimir S. (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Strekalov, Dmitry V. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A differential temperature sensor system and method of determining a temperature shift of an optical resonator and its surroundings are provided. The differential temperature sensor system includes a light generating device capable of generating a beam having a carrier frequency, a modulator capable of modulating the beam with a sideband frequency, and an optical resonator capable of supporting an ordinary mode and an extraordinary mode. The system includes an ordinary mode-lock setup capable of locking the carrier frequency of the beam to the ordinary mode of the optical resonator and an extraordinary mode-lock setup capable of locking the sideband frequency of the beam to the extraordinary mode of the optical resonator by providing a specific radio frequency to the modulator substantially corresponding to a frequency shift between the ordinary mode and the extraordinary mode of the optical resonator resulting from a temperature change of the optical resonator. A processor precisely calculates the differential temperature based upon the frequency shift between the ordinary mode and extraordinary mode of the optical resonator.

  8. Support technologies involved in the development and implementation of radiometric systems for sensor calibration, characterization, and HWIL testing at AEDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, H. S.; Breeden, M. F.; Crider, D. H.; Steely, S. L.; Nicholson, R. A.; Labello, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    The characterization, calibration, and mission simulation testing of space-based, interceptor, and air-borne sensors require a continual involvement in the development and evaluation of radiometric projection technologies. Activities at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) include Hardware in the Loop (HWIL) testing with high-fidelity complex scene-projection technologies as well as improvements in the radiometric source-calibration systems. These technologies are integrated into a low cryo-vacuum (~20 K) environment. The latest scene simulation and HWIL projection technologies are being investigated that can produce desired target temperatures and target-to-sensor ranges such that sensor mission performance can be evaluated. These technologies include multiple-band source subsystems and special spectral-tailoring methods, as well as comprehensive analysis and optical properties measurements of the components involved. Emphasis areas include the development of methodologies to test wide field of view (WFOV), polarimetric, and multi/hyperspectral radiometric imaging systems.

  9. Failure detection of liquid cooled electronics in sealed packages. [in airborne information management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The theory and experimental verification of a method of detecting fluid-mass loss, expansion-chamber pressure loss, or excessive vapor build-up in NASA's Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) are presented. The primary purpose of this leak-detection method is to detect the fluid-mass loss before the volume of vapor on the liquid side causes a temperature-critical part to be out of the liquid. The method detects the initial leak after the first 2.5 pct of the liquid mass has been lost, and it can be used for detecting subsequent situations including the leaking of air into the liquid chamber and the subsequent vapor build-up.

  10. 3DLASE-M: three-dimensional lidar airborne system emulator, maritime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWeert, Michael J.

    2014-05-01

    Imaging flash LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging) is an effective method for airborne searches of the ocean surface and subsurface volume. The performance of ocean LIDAR depends strongly on the sea surface (e.g., waves, whitecaps, and flotsam), water turbidity, and the characteristics of the objects of interest. Cost-effective design of the LIDAR system and processing algorithms requires a modeling capability that can deal with the physics of light propagation through the air-water interface, into the ocean, and back to the LIDAR receiver. 3DLASE-M is a physics-based LIDAR simulator that yields high-fidelity images for three-dimensional algorithm development and performance predictions.

  11. 3DLASE-M: three-dimensional-LIDAR airborne system emulator -maritime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWeert, Michael J.

    2014-10-01

    Imaging flash LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging) is an effective method for airborne searches of the ocean surface and subsurface volume. The performance of ocean LIDAR depends strongly on the sea surface (e.g., waves, whitecaps, and flotsam), water turbidity, and the characteristics of the objects of interest. Cost-effective design of the LIDAR system and processing algorithms requires a modeling capability that can deal with the physics of light propagation through the air-water interface, into the ocean, and back to the LIDAR receiver. 3DLASE-M is a physics-based LIDAR simulator that yields high-fidelity images for three-dimensional algorithm development and performance predictions.

  12. The application of micromachined sensors to manned space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordano, Aldo; Havey, Gary; Wald, Jerry; Nasr, Hatem

    1993-06-01

    Micromachined sensors promise significant system advantages to manned space vehicles. Vehicle Health Monitoring (VHM) is a critical need for most future space systems. Micromachined sensors play a significant role in advancing the application of VHM in future space vehicles. This paper addresses the requirements that future VHM systems place on micromachined sensors such as: system integration, performance, size, weight, power, redundancy, reliability and fault tolerance. Current uses of micromachined sensors in commercial, military and space systems are used to document advantages that are gained and lessons learned. Based on these successes, the future use of micromachined sensors in space programs is discussed in terms of future directions and issues that need to be addressed such as how commercial and military sensors can meet future space system requirements.

  13. Intelligent Sensors: Strategies for an Integrated Systems Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitikeshi, Sanjeevi; Mahajan, Ajay; Bandhil, Pavan; Utterbach, Lucas; Figueroa, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes the development of intelligent sensors as an integrated systems approach, i.e. one treats the sensors as a complete system with its own sensing hardware (the traditional sensor), A/D converters, processing and storage capabilities, software drivers, self-assessment algorithms, communication protocols and evolutionary methodologies that allow them to get better with time. Under a project being undertaken at the Stennis Space Center, an integrated framework is being developed for the intelligent monitoring of smart elements. These smart elements can be sensors, actuators or other devices. The immediate application is the monitoring of the rocket test stands, but the technology should be generally applicable to the Intelligent Systems Health Monitoring (ISHM) vision. This paper outlines progress made in the development of intelligent sensors by describing the work done till date on Physical Intelligent Sensors (PIS) and Virtual Intelligent Sensors (VIS).

  14. Airborne gravity gradiometer surveying of petroleum systems under Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Doug; Chowdhury, Priyanka Roy; Lowe, Sharon Jenny; Christensen, Asbjorn Norlund

    2016-02-01

    The Lake Tanganyika South petroleum exploration block covers the southern portion of the Tanzanian side of Lake Tanganyika and is located within the East African Rift System. The rifting process has formed rotated fault blocks which provide numerous play types in the resulting basins. Interpretation of 2D seismic data from 1984 indicated that sufficient sediment thickness is present for hydrocarbon generation. The prospectivity of the lake sediment sequence is enhanced by large oil discoveries further north along the rift system at Lake Albert in Uganda. Airborne gravity gradiometry (AGG) has been used in the Lake Albert region to delineate the structural framework of sedimentary basins. Based on this analogy, in 2010 Beach Energy commissioned CGG to fly a FALCON AGG and high-resolution airborne magnetic survey over the Lake Tanganyika South block to provide data for mapping the basin architecture and estimating the depth to magnetic basement. A total of nearly 28000 line kilometres of data were acquired. The subsequent interpretation incorporated the AGG and magnetic data with available 2D seismic data, elevation model data, bathymetry, Landsat and regional geology information. The integrated data interpretation revealed that the Lake Tanganyika rifting structures occur as half-grabens that were formed through reactivation of Precambrian fault structures. Two major depocentres were identified in the magnetic depth-to-basement map in the north and in the west-central part of the survey area with sediment thicknesses in excess of 4 km and 3 km, respectively. Smaller, shallower depocentres (with less than 3 km of sediment) occur in the south-western region. This information was used to plan a 2100 km 2D marine seismic survey that was recorded in 2012. An interpretation of the results from the seismic survey confirmed a rifting structure similar to that encountered further north at Lake Albert in Uganda. Several targets were identified from the seismic sections for

  15. Airborne Wind Profiling With the Data Acquisition and Processing System for a Pulsed 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia flew on the NASA's DC-8 aircraft during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) during the summer of 2010. The participation was part of the project Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) Air. Selected results of airborne wind profiling are presented and compared with the dropsonde data for verification purposes. Panoramic presentations of different wind parameters over a nominal observation time span are also presented for selected GRIP data sets. The realtime data acquisition and analysis software that was employed during the GRIP campaign is introduced with its unique features.

  16. Nitrogen dioxide observations from the Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument: retrieval algorithm and measurements during DISCOVER-AQ Texas 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowlan, C. R.; Liu, X.; Leitch, J. W.; Chance, K.; González Abad, G.; Liu, C.; Zoogman, P.; Cole, J.; Delker, T.; Good, W.; Murcray, F.; Ruppert, L.; Soo, D.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Janz, S. J.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Loughner, C. P.; Pickering, K. E.; Herman, J. R.; Beaver, M. R.; Long, R. W.; Szykman, J. J.; Judd, L. M.; Kelley, P.; Luke, W. T.; Ren, X.; Al-Saadi, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument is a testbed for upcoming air quality satellite instruments that will measure backscattered ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light from geostationary orbit. GeoTASO flew on the NASA Falcon aircraft in its first intensive field measurement campaign during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture Mission over Houston, Texas in September 2013. Measurements of backscattered solar radiation between 420-465 nm collected on four days during the campaign are used to determine slant column amounts of NO2 at 250 m × 250 m spatial resolution with a fitting precision of 2.2 × 1015 molecules cm-2. These slant columns are converted to tropospheric NO2 vertical columns using a radiative transfer model and trace gas profiles from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Total column NO2 from GeoTASO is well correlated with ground-based Pandora observations (r = 0.90 on the most polluted and cloud-free day of measurements), with GeoTASO NO2 slightly higher for the most polluted observations. Surface NO2 mixing ratios inferred from GeoTASO using the CMAQ model show good correlation with NO2 measured in situ at the surface during the campaign (r = 0.91 for the most polluted day). NO2 slant columns from GeoTASO also agree well with preliminary retrievals from the GEO-CAPE Airborne Simulator (GCAS) which flew on the NASA King Air B200 (r = 0.84, slope = 0.94). Enhanced NO2 is resolvable over areas of traffic NOx emissions and near individual petrochemical facilities.

  17. Nitrogen dioxide observations from the Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument: Retrieval algorithm and measurements during DISCOVER-AQ Texas 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowlan, Caroline R.; Liu, Xiong; Leitch, James W.; Chance, Kelly; González Abad, Gonzalo; Liu, Cheng; Zoogman, Peter; Cole, Joshua; Delker, Thomas; Good, William; Murcray, Frank; Ruppert, Lyle; Soo, Daniel; Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Janz, Scott J.; Kowalewski, Matthew G.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Herman, Jay R.; Beaver, Melinda R.; Long, Russell W.; Szykman, James J.; Judd, Laura M.; Kelley, Paul; Luke, Winston T.; Ren, Xinrong; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.

    2016-06-01

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument is a test bed for upcoming air quality satellite instruments that will measure backscattered ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light from geostationary orbit. GeoTASO flew on the NASA Falcon aircraft in its first intensive field measurement campaign during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture Mission over Houston, Texas, in September 2013. Measurements of backscattered solar radiation between 420 and 465 nm collected on 4 days during the campaign are used to determine slant column amounts of NO2 at 250 m × 250 m spatial resolution with a fitting precision of 2.2 × 1015 moleculescm-2. These slant columns are converted to tropospheric NO2 vertical columns using a radiative transfer model and trace gas profiles from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Total column NO2 from GeoTASO is well correlated with ground-based Pandora observations (r = 0.90 on the most polluted and cloud-free day of measurements and r = 0.74 overall), with GeoTASO NO2 slightly higher for the most polluted observations. Surface NO2 mixing ratios inferred from GeoTASO using the CMAQ model show good correlation with NO2 measured in situ at the surface during the campaign (r = 0.85). NO2 slant columns from GeoTASO also agree well with preliminary retrievals from the GEO-CAPE Airborne Simulator (GCAS) which flew on the NASA King Air B200 (r = 0.81, slope = 0.91). Enhanced NO2 is resolvable over areas of traffic NOx emissions and near individual petrochemical facilities.

  18. AN/USD-501 and AN/USD-502 Airborne Surveillance Drones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szot, Henry J...

    1983-08-01

    The AN/USD-501 and AN/USD-502 System airborne vehicles are reusable, high subsonic speed, missile-shaped drones. Primary difference between the two drones are in the flight range capability, flight control and navigation. sophistication, and payload capacity and capability, The AN/USD-502 drone contains a single sensor. The AN/USD-502 drone contains one large payload compartment for either a single large sensor or multiple smaller sensors.

  19. A sensor system for detection of hull surface defects.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Fernández, Carlos; Sánchez, Pedro; Suardíaz, Juan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor system for detecting defects in ship hull surfaces. The sensor was developed to enable a robotic system to perform grit blasting operations on ship hulls. To achieve this, the proposed sensor system captures images with the help of a camera and processes them in real time using a new defect detection method based on thresholding techniques. What makes this method different is its efficiency in the automatic detection of defects from images recorded in variable lighting conditions. The sensor system was tested under real conditions at a Spanish shipyard, with excellent results.

  20. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  1. Minimizing Intra-Campaign Biases in Airborne Laser Altimetry By Thorough Calibration of Lidar System Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, J. G.; Chibisov, A.; Krabill, K. A.; Linkswiler, M. A.; Swenson, C.; Yungel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Present-day airborne lidar surveys of polar ice, NASA's Operation IceBridge foremost among them, cover large geographical areas. They are often compared with previous surveys over the same flight lines to yield mass balance estimates. Systematic biases in the lidar system, especially those which vary from campaign to campaign, can introduce significant error into these mass balance estimates and must be minimized before the data is released by the instrument team to the larger scientific community. NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) team designed a thorough and novel approach in order to minimize these biases, and here we describe two major aspects of this approach. First, we conduct regular ground vehicle-based surveys of lidar calibration targets, and overfly these targets on a near-daily basis during field campaigns. We discuss our technique for conducting these surveys, in particular the measures we take specifically to minimize systematic height biases in the surveys, since these can in turn bias entire campaigns of lidar data and the mass balance estimates based on them. Second, we calibrate our GPS antennas specifically for each instrument installation in a remote-sensing aircraft. We do this because we recognize that the metallic fuselage of the aircraft can alter the electromagnetic properties of the GPS antenna mounted to it, potentially displacing its phase center by several centimeters and biasing lidar results accordingly. We describe our technique for measuring the phase centers of a GPS antenna installed atop an aircraft, and show results which demonstrate that different installations can indeed alter the phase centers significantly.

  2. Technical issues in the development of scene-projection systems for sensor calibration, characterization, and HWIL testing at AEDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, H. S.; Breeden, M. F.; Crider, D. H.; Steely, S. L.; Nicholson, R. A.; Labello, J. M.

    2008-04-01

    The characterization, calibration, and mission simulation testing of space-based, interceptor, and airborne sensors require a continual involvement in the development and evaluation of radiometric projection technologies. Recent efforts at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) include hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing with high-fidelity, complex scene projection technologies integrated into a low-cryovacuum (~20 K) environment as well as improvements in the radiometric source calibration systems. The latest scene simulation and projection technologies are being investigated, technologies that can produce desired target temperatures and target-to-sensor ranges that will make it possible to evaluate sensor mission performance. These technologies include multiple-band source subsystems and special spectral tailoring methods, as well as comprehensive analysis and optical properties measurements of the components involved. This paper discusses the implementation of such techniques at AEDC.

  3. Star sensor image acquisition and preprocessing hardware system based on CMOS image sensor and FGPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xuetao; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2003-09-01

    Star Sensor is an avionics instrument used to provide the absolute 3-axis attitude of a spacecraft utilizing star observations. It consists of an electronic camera and associated processing electronics. As outcome of advancing state-of-the-art, new generation star sensor features faster, lower cost, power dissipation and size than the first generation star sensor. This paper describes a star sensor anterior image acquisition and pre-processing hardware system based on CMOS image-sensor and FPGA technology. Practically, star images are produced by a simple simulator on PC, acquired by CMOS image sensor, pre-processed by FPGA, saved in SRAM, read out by EPP protocol and validated by an image process software on PC. The hardware part of system acquires images thought CMOS image-sensor controlled by FPGA, then processes image data by a circuit module of FPGA, and save images to SRAM for test. Basic image data for star recognition and attitude determination of spacecrafts are provided by it. As an important reference for developing star sensor prototype, the system validates the performance advantages of new generation star sensor.

  4. Airborne dust and aeroallergen concentration in a horse stable under two different management systems.

    PubMed

    Woods, P S; Robinson, N E; Swanson, M C; Reed, C E; Broadstone, R V; Derksen, F J

    1993-05-01

    Airborne dust concentration (ADC) was measured in 2 different horse management systems using an Andersen cascade impactor in the box-stall, and a personal Marple cascade impactor attached to the halter to measure ADC in the breathing zone. The levels of aeroallergens implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were measured by radioallergosorbent-inhibition immunoassay. A conventional management system (System C) utilising hay feed and straw bedding, and a recommended environment (System R) utilising wood shaving bedding and a complete pelleted diet were studied. In the stall, total and respirable ADC (geometric mean) were significantly higher in System C (2.55 mg/m3; 0.44 mg/m3, respectively) than in System R (0.70 mg/m3; 0.20 mg/m3, respectively). In System C, the total and respirable ADC in the breathing zone (17.51 mg/m3; 9.28 mg/m3) were much higher than in the stall, but values in both regions were similar in System R (0.52 mg/m3; 0.30 mg/m3). Major aeroallergens were significantly higher in System C than in System R: Micropolyspora faeni (1423 ng/m3 and 705 ng/m3), Aspergillus fumigatus (1823 ng/m3 and 748 ng/m3), and mite allergens (1420 ng/m3 and 761 ng/m3). Measurement of ADC with personal samplers indicates that the very high inhalation challenge in the breathing zone is not reflected in measurements of stall air quality. When compared with System C, System R produced only 3% of the respirable dust burden in the breathing zone and a decreased aeroallergen challenge.

  5. Preparation of the pointing and control system of the SOFIA Airborne Telescope for early science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampater, Ulrich; Herter, Terry; Keas, Paul; Harms, Franziska; Engfer, Christian; Salewsky, Peter; Jakob, Holger; Roeser, Hans-Peter

    2010-07-01

    During observation flights the telescope structure of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is subject to disturbance excitations over a wide frequency band. The sources can be separated into two groups: inertial excitation caused by vibration of the airborne platform, and aerodynamic excitation that acts on the telescope assembly (TA) through an open port cavity. These disturbance sources constitute a major difference of SOFIA to other ground based and space observatories and achieving the required pointing accuracy of 1 arcsecond cumulative rms or better below 70 Hz in this environment is driving the design of the TA pointing and control system. In the current design it consists of two parts, the rigid body attitude control system and a feed forward based compensator of flexible TA deformation. This paper discusses the characterization and control system tuning of the as-built system. It is a process that integrates the study of the structural dynamic behavior of the TA, the resulting image motion in the focal plane, and the design and implementation of active control systems. Ground tests, which are performed under controlled experimental conditions, and in-flight characterization tests, both leading up to the early science performance capabilities of the observatory, are addressed.

  6. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Arlen F.; Allen, Robert J.; Mayo, M. Neale; Butler, Carolyn F.; Grossman, Benoist E.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Higdon, Noah S.; Mayor, Shane D.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Hueser, Alene W.

    1994-01-01

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and greater than 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H2O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H2O absorption-line parameters were performed to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H2O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H2O radiosondes. The H2O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by less than 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  7. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Higdon, N S; Browell, E V; Ponsardin, P; Grossmann, B E; Butler, C F; Chyba, T H; Mayo, M N; Allen, R J; Heuser, A W; Grant, W B; Ismail, S; Mayor, S D; Carter, A F

    1994-09-20

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H(2)O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and > 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H(2)O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H(2)O absorption-line parameters were perfo med to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H(2)O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H(2)O radiosondes. The H(2)O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by ≤ 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  8. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Higdon, N S; Browell, E V; Ponsardin, P; Grossmann, B E; Butler, C F; Chyba, T H; Mayo, M N; Allen, R J; Heuser, A W; Grant, W B; Ismail, S; Mayor, S D; Carter, A F

    1994-09-20

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H(2)O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and > 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H(2)O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H(2)O absorption-line parameters were perfo med to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H(2)O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H(2)O radiosondes. The H(2)O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by ≤ 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions. PMID:20941181

  9. Wearable sensors in healthcare and sensor-enhanced health information systems: all our tomorrows?

    PubMed

    Marschollek, Michael; Gietzelt, Matthias; Schulze, Mareike; Kohlmann, Martin; Song, Bianying; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik

    2012-06-01

    Wearable sensor systems which allow for remote or self-monitoring of health-related parameters are regarded as one means to alleviate the consequences of demographic change. This paper aims to summarize current research in wearable sensors as well as in sensor-enhanced health information systems. Wearable sensor technologies are already advanced in terms of their technical capabilities and are frequently used for cardio-vascular monitoring. Epidemiologic predictions suggest that neuropsychiatric diseases will have a growing impact on our health systems and thus should be addressed more intensively. Two current project examples demonstrate the benefit of wearable sensor technologies: long-term, objective measurement under daily-life, unsupervised conditions. Finally, up-to-date approaches for the implementation of sensor-enhanced health information systems are outlined. Wearable sensors are an integral part of future pervasive, ubiquitous and person-centered health care delivery. Future challenges include their integration into sensor-enhanced health information systems and sound evaluation studies involving measures of workload reduction and costs.

  10. Wearable Sensors in Healthcare and Sensor-Enhanced Health Information Systems: All Our Tomorrows?

    PubMed Central

    Gietzelt, Matthias; Schulze, Mareike; Kohlmann, Martin; Song, Bianying; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Wearable sensor systems which allow for remote or self-monitoring of health-related parameters are regarded as one means to alleviate the consequences of demographic change. This paper aims to summarize current research in wearable sensors as well as in sensor-enhanced health information systems. Wearable sensor technologies are already advanced in terms of their technical capabilities and are frequently used for cardio-vascular monitoring. Epidemiologic predictions suggest that neuropsychiatric diseases will have a growing impact on our health systems and thus should be addressed more intensively. Two current project examples demonstrate the benefit of wearable sensor technologies: long-term, objective measurement under daily-life, unsupervised conditions. Finally, up-to-date approaches for the implementation of sensor-enhanced health information systems are outlined. Wearable sensors are an integral part of future pervasive, ubiquitous and person-centered health care delivery. Future challenges include their integration into sensor-enhanced health information systems and sound evaluation studies involving measures of workload reduction and costs. PMID:22844645

  11. Video Guidance Sensor System with Laser Rangefinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Johnston, Albert S. (Inventor); Book, Michael L. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A video guidance sensor system for use in automated docking of a chase vehicle with a target vehicle wherein the chase. vehicle includes a laser rangefinder that uses pulse or phase time of flight measurement to measure distance. The laser rangefinder includes a diode laser pulse or phase driver that produces an output signal to a timing element and simultaneously operates a laser diode. The laser diode produces an intense light beam of a predetermined wavelength which is directed to retroreflectors that are positioned on a passive target. The laser rangefinder includes an avalanche photodetector that produces a corresponding output signal when detecting light reflected from the retroreflectors. The timing element measures a time interval between the output of the laser diode and the detection of light and supplies a corresponding output signal to a computer in order to determine the range of the target vehicle relative to the chase vehicle.

  12. Printed Carbon Nanotube Electronics and Sensor Systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kevin; Gao, Wei; Emaminejad, Sam; Kiriya, Daisuke; Ota, Hiroki; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Printing technologies offer large-area, high-throughput production capabilities for electronics and sensors on mechanically flexible substrates that can conformally cover different surfaces. These capabilities enable a wide range of new applications such as low-cost disposable electronics for health monitoring and wearables, extremely large format electronic displays, interactive wallpapers, and sensing arrays. Solution-processed carbon nanotubes have been shown to be a promising candidate for such printing processes, offering stable devices with high performance. Here, recent progress made in printed carbon nanotube electronics is discussed in terms of materials, processing, devices, and applications. Research challenges and opportunities moving forward from processing and system-level integration points of view are also discussed for enabling practical applications.

  13. Printed Carbon Nanotube Electronics and Sensor Systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kevin; Gao, Wei; Emaminejad, Sam; Kiriya, Daisuke; Ota, Hiroki; Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin; Takei, Kuniharu; Javey, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Printing technologies offer large-area, high-throughput production capabilities for electronics and sensors on mechanically flexible substrates that can conformally cover different surfaces. These capabilities enable a wide range of new applications such as low-cost disposable electronics for health monitoring and wearables, extremely large format electronic displays, interactive wallpapers, and sensing arrays. Solution-processed carbon nanotubes have been shown to be a promising candidate for such printing processes, offering stable devices with high performance. Here, recent progress made in printed carbon nanotube electronics is discussed in terms of materials, processing, devices, and applications. Research challenges and opportunities moving forward from processing and system-level integration points of view are also discussed for enabling practical applications. PMID:26880046

  14. Environmental Sensor Networks: A revolution in the earth system science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Jane K.; Martinez, Kirk

    2006-10-01

    Environmental Sensor Networks (ESNs) facilitate the study of fundamental processes and the development of hazard response systems. They have evolved from passive logging systems that require manual downloading, into 'intelligent' sensor networks that comprise a network of automatic sensor nodes and communications systems which actively communicate their data to a Sensor Network Server (SNS) where these data can be integrated with other environmental datasets. The sensor nodes can be fixed or mobile and range in scale appropriate to the environment being sensed. ESNs range in scale and function and we have reviewed over 50 representative examples. Large Scale Single Function Networks tend to use large single purpose nodes to cover a wide geographical area. Localised Multifunction Sensor Networks typically monitor a small area in more detail, often with wireless ad-hoc systems. Biosensor Networks use emerging biotechnologies to monitor environmental processes as well as developing proxies for immediate use. In the future, sensor networks will integrate these three elements ( Heterogeneous Sensor Networks). The communications system and data storage and integration (cyberinfrastructure) aspects of ESNs are discussed, along with current challenges which need to be addressed. We argue that Environmental Sensor Networks will become a standard research tool for future Earth System and Environmental Science. Not only do they provide a 'virtual' connection with the environment, they allow new field and conceptual approaches to the study of environmental processes to be developed. We suggest that although technological advances have facilitated these changes, it is vital that Earth Systems and Environmental Scientists utilise them.

  15. Sensor systems for the Altair Lunar Lander:

    SciTech Connect

    Mariella, R

    2009-12-22

    The Altair Lunar Lander will enable astronauts to learn to live and work on the moon for extended periods of time, providing the experience needed to expand human exploration farther into the solar system. My overriding recommendation: Use independent and complementary [sometimes referred to as 'orthogonal'] techniques to disambiguate confounding/interfering signals. E.g.: a mass spectrometer ['MS'], which currently serves as a Majority Constituent Analyzer ['MCA'] can be very valuable in detecting the presence of a gaseous specie, so long as it falls on a mass-to-charge ratio ['m/z'] that is not already occupied by a majority constituent of cabin air. Consider the toxic gas, CO. Both N{sub 2} and CO have parent peaks of m/z = 28, and CO{sub 2} has a fragment peak at m/z = 28 [and at 16 and 12], so the N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} m/z=28 signals could mask low, but potentially-dangerous levels of CO. However there are numerous surface-sensitive CO detectors, as well as tunable-diode-laser-based CO sensors that could provide independent monitoring of CO. Also, by appending a gas chromatograph ['GC'] as the front-end sample processer, prior to the inlet of the MS, one can rely upon the GC to separate CO from N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, providing the crew with another CO monitor. If the Altair Lunar Lander is able to include a Raman-based MCA for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2}, then each type of MCA would have cross-references, providing more confidence in the ongoing performance of each technique, and decreasing the risk that one instrument might fail to perform properly, without being noticed. See, also Dr. Pete Snyder's work, which states 'An orthogonal technologies sensor system appears to be attractive for a high confidence detection of presence and temporal characterization of bioaerosols.' Another recommendation: Use data fusion for event detection to decrease uncertainty: tie together the outputs from multiple sensing modalities - eNose, solid

  16. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2015-12-08

    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  17. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Allison, Robert S; Johnston, Joshua M; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-08-18

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context.

  18. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Robert S.; Johnston, Joshua M.; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-01-01

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context. PMID:27548174

  19. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Allison, Robert S; Johnston, Joshua M; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-01-01

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context. PMID:27548174

  20. Concept and integration of an on-line quasi-operational airborne hyperspectral remote sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Hendrik; Lenz, Andreas; Gross, Wolfgang; Perpeet, Dominik; Wuttke, Sebastian; Middelmann, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Modern mission characteristics require the use of advanced imaging sensors in reconnaissance. In particular, high spatial and high spectral resolution imaging provides promising data for many tasks such as classification and detecting objects of military relevance, such as camouflaged units or improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Especially in asymmetric warfare with highly mobile forces, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) needs to be available close to real-time. This demands the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in combination with downlink capability. The system described in this contribution is integrated in a wing pod for ease of installation and calibration. It is designed for the real-time acquisition and analysis of hyperspectral data. The main component is a Specim AISA Eagle II hyperspectral sensor, covering the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral range with a spectral resolution up to 1.2 nm and 1024 pixel across track, leading to a ground sampling distance below 1 m at typical altitudes. The push broom characteristic of the hyperspectral sensor demands an inertial navigation system (INS) for rectification and georeferencing of the image data. Additional sensors are a high resolution RGB (HR-RGB) frame camera and a thermal imaging camera. For on-line application, the data is preselected, compressed and transmitted to the ground control station (GCS) by an existing system in a second wing pod. The final result after data processing in the GCS is a hyperspectral orthorectified GeoTIFF, which is filed in the ERDAS APOLLO geographical information system. APOLLO allows remote access to the data and offers web-based analysis tools. The system is quasi-operational and was successfully tested in May 2013 in Bremerhaven, Germany.

  1. Implementation of Waveform Digitization In A Small Footprint, Airborne Lidar Topographic Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, R.; Crawford, M. M.; Liadsky, J.

    2004-12-01

    Accurate mapping is critical for applications ranging from geodesy, geomorphology, and forestry to urban planning and natural hazards monitoring. While airborne lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) has had a revolutionary impact on three-dimensional imaging of the earth's surface, there is great potential for developing new capability by replacing the laser range and backscatter intensity information recorded by conventional lidar systems with full waveform digitization. The University of Texas at Austin (UT) owns and operates an Optech ALTM 1225, a small footprint lidar system. In response to an initiative from UT, Optech has developed a module which samples the analog waveform of a laser pulse and converts these samples into digital measurements. The waveform digitizer specifications include a 1-nanosecond sampling interval, 440 samples per return laser waveform (approximately 65 meters of vertical extent), and waveform digitization at the 25kHz laser pulse repetition rate. The digitizer also records the initial T0 pulse that starts the timing cycle. The digitizer unit is an independent module supported by a Pentium-4 computer, two hard drives, and a high-speed data recording system. The digitizer is integrated into the ALTM system so that both full waveform and the conventional first and last returns are recorded for each transmitted laser pulse. This unique capability allows for conventional lidar data to be directly compared to the full waveform. We present examples of full waveform lidar mapping over different environments and discuss future applications.

  2. Airborne water vapor DIAL system and measurements of water and aerosol profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Noah S.; Browell, Edward V.

    1991-01-01

    The Lidar Applications Group at NASA Langley Research Center has developed a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system for the remote measurement of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols from an aircraft. The airborne H2O DIAL system is designed for extended flights to perform mesoscale investigations of H2O and aerosol distributions. This DIAL system utilizes a Nd:YAG-laser-pumped dye laser as the off-line transmitter and a narrowband, tunable Alexandrite laser as the on-line transmitter. The dye laser has an oscillator/amplifier configuration which incorporates a grating and prism in the oscillator cavity to narrow the output linewidth to approximately 15 pm. This linewidth can be maintained over the wavelength range of 725 to 730 nm, and it is sufficiently narrow to satisfy the off-line spectral requirements. In the Alexandrite laser, three intracavity tuning elements combine to produce an output linewidth of 1.1 pm. These spectral devices include a five-plate birefringent tuner, a 1-mm thick solid etalon and a 1-cm air-spaced etalon. A wavelength stability of +/- 0.35 pm is achieved by active feedback control of the two Fabry-Perot etalons using a frequency stabilized He-Ne laser as a wavelength reference. The three tuning elements can be synchronously scanned over a 150 pm range with microprocessor-based scanning electronics. Other aspects of the DIAL system are discussed.

  3. Development and Evaluation of an Airborne Separation Assurance System for Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) that functions as an Airborne Separation Assurance System for autonomous flight operations. This development effort supports NASA s Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) operational concept, designed to significantly increase capacity of the national airspace system, while maintaining safety. Autonomous aircraft pilots use the AOP to maintain traffic separation from other autonomous aircraft and managed aircraft flying under today's Instrument Flight Rules, while maintaining traffic flow management constraints assigned by Air Traffic Service Providers. AOP is designed to facilitate eventual implementation through careful modeling of its operational environment, interfaces with other aircraft systems and data links, and conformance with established flight deck conventions and human factors guidelines. AOP uses currently available or anticipated data exchanged over modeled Arinc 429 data buses and an Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast 1090 MHz link. It provides pilots with conflict detection, prevention, and resolution functions and works with the Flight Management System to maintain assigned traffic flow management constraints. The AOP design has been enhanced over the course of several experiments conducted at NASA Langley and is being prepared for an upcoming Joint Air/Ground Simulation with NASA Ames Research Center.

  4. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  5. Control method for video guidance sensor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Book, Michael L. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling operations in a video guidance sensor system wherein images of laser output signals transmitted by the system and returned from a target are captured and processed by the system to produce data used in tracking of the target. Six modes of operation are provided as follows: (i) a reset mode; (ii) a diagnostic mode; (iii) a standby mode; (iv) an acquisition mode; (v) a tracking mode; and (vi) a spot mode wherein captured images of returned laser signals are processed to produce data for all spots found in the image. The method provides for automatic transition to the standby mode from the reset mode after integrity checks are performed and from the diagnostic mode to the reset mode after diagnostic operations are carried out. Further, acceptance of reset and diagnostic commands is permitted only when the system is in the standby mode. The method also provides for automatic transition from the acquisition mode to the tracking mode when an acceptable target is found.

  6. Control Method for Video Guidance Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Book, Michael L. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling operations in a video guidance sensor system wherein images of laser output signals transmitted by the system and returned from a target are captured and processed by the system to produce data used in tracking of the target. Six modes of operation are provided as follows: (i) a reset mode; (ii) a diagnostic mode; (iii) a standby mode; (iv) an acquisition mode; (v) a tracking mode; and (vi) a spot mode wherein captured images of returned laser signals are processed to produce data for all spots found in the image. The method provides for automatic transition to the standby mode from the reset mode after integrity checks are performed and from the diagnostic mode to the reset mode after diagnostic operations are commands is permitted only when the system is in the carried out. Further, acceptance of reset and diagnostic standby mode. The method also provides for automatic transition from the acquisition mode to the tracking mode when an acceptable target is found.

  7. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Myers

    2005-04-15

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  8. Sensor Webs as Virtual Data Systems for Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K. L.; Sherwood, R.

    2008-05-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office established a 3-year Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) development program in late 2006 to explore the technical challenges associated with integrating sensors, sensor networks, data assimilation and modeling components into virtual data systems called "sensor webs". The AIST sensor web program was initiated in response to a renewed emphasis on the sensor web concepts. In 2004, NASA proposed an Earth science vision for a more robust Earth observing system, coupled with remote sensing data analysis tools and advances in Earth system models. The AIST program is conducting the research and developing components to explore the technology infrastructure that will enable the visionary goals. A working statement for a NASA Earth science sensor web vision is the following: On-demand sensing of a broad array of environmental and ecological phenomena across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from a heterogeneous suite of sensors both in-situ and in orbit. Sensor webs will be dynamically organized to collect data, extract information from it, accept input from other sensor / forecast / tasking systems, interact with the environment based on what they detect or are tasked to perform, and communicate observations and results in real time. The focus on sensor webs is to develop the technology and prototypes to demonstrate the evolving sensor web capabilities. There are 35 AIST projects ranging from 1 to 3 years in duration addressing various aspects of sensor webs involving space sensors such as Earth Observing-1, in situ sensor networks such as the southern California earthquake network, and various modeling and forecasting systems. Some of these projects build on proof-of-concept demonstrations of sensor web capabilities like the EO-1 rapid fire response initially implemented in 2003. Other projects simulate future sensor web configurations to evaluate the effectiveness of sensor-model interactions for producing

  9. Calibration of airborne SAR interferograms using multisquint-processed image pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats, Pau; Mallorqui, Jordi J.; Reigber, Andreas; Broquetas, Antoni

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents two different approaches to detect and correct phase errors appearing in interferometric airborne SAR sensors due to the lack of precision in the navigation system. The first one is intended for interferometric pairs with high coherence, and the second one for low coherent ones. Both techniques are based on a multisquint processing approach, i.e., by processing the same image pairs with different squint angles we can combine the information of different interferograms to obtain the desired phase correction. Airborne single- and repeat-pass interferometric data from the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) Experimental airborne SAR is used to validate the method.

  10. Laboratory testing of airborne brake wear particle emissions using a dynamometer system under urban city driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Motoaki; Sasaki, Sousuke

    2016-04-01

    To measure driving-distance-based mass emission factors for airborne brake wear particulate matter (PM; i.e., brake wear particles) related to the non-asbestos organic friction of brake assembly materials (pads and lining), and to characterize the components of brake wear particles, a brake wear dynamometer with a constant-volume sampling system was developed. Only a limited number of studies have investigated brake emissions under urban city driving cycles that correspond to the tailpipe emission test (i.e., JC08 or JE05 mode of Japanese tailpipe emission test cycles). The tests were performed using two passenger cars and one middle-class truck. The observed airborne brake wear particle emissions ranged from 0.04 to 1.4 mg/km/vehicle for PM10 (particles up to 10 μm (in size), and from 0.04 to 1.2 mg/km/vehicle for PM2.5. The proportion of brake wear debris emitted as airborne brake wear particles was 2-21% of the mass of wear. Oxygenated carbonaceous components were included in the airborne PM but not in the original friction material, which indicates that changes in carbon composition occurred during the abrasion process. Furthermore, this study identified the key tracers of brake wear particles (e.g., Fe, Cu, Ba, and Sb) at emission levels comparable to traffic-related atmospheric environments.

  11. Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, J.E.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Gelbard, F. )

    1991-09-01

    This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications.

  12. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf, Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. A prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron mains and tested in a spider- and serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The prototype unit combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-slave architecture to collect data from a distributed spider-arrangement, and in a master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was found that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and valuable data was collected in order to determine how to improve on range and data-quality in the future.

  13. GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen Schempf

    2004-09-30

    Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. In Phase II of this three-phase program, an improved prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron and high-pressure steel (including a no-blow installation system) mains and tested in a serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The experiment was carried out in several open-hole excavations over a multi-day period. The prototype units (3 total) combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was verified that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling, data-storage and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and the system was demonstrated to run off in-ground battery- and above-ground solar power. The remote datalogger access and storage-card features were demonstrated and used to log and post-process system data. Real-time data-display on an updated Phase-I GUI was used for in-field demonstration and troubleshooting.

  14. Latest Advancement In Airborne Relative Gravity Instrumentation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2011-12-01

    new system are: - Reduce the size of the system to approximately one third of the volume of the original TAGS and reduce the weight by one half. - Use slip ring technology to eliminate cable drag on the sensor and gimbal platform. - Use a double oven system to further isolate the gravity sensor from large external temperature variations commonly experienced in airborne survey operations. - Completely redesign both the platform control system and data acquisition and recording system to eliminate reliance on standard computer and windows software enhancing reliability and data throughput. - Increase data recording rate to 20 hertz to assist in making GPS corrections to platform levelling. - Use an advanced force feedback system to increase system resolution in turbulent conditions, eliminate dependence on the spring tension counter and the need to clamp the beam during turns. - Enable the system to be used for drape flying and remove the requirement for an operator and hence be suitable for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operations. Prototype testing of the mechanical and electronic components has been ongoing through the first half of 2011. Ground testing and airborne testing began in May of 2011 and will continue through until October of 2011. This paper will present the results of the full hardware testing in different environments and confirmation of the capabilities of the system.

  15. The Construction of M2M System with Sensor Networks Using Digital Plethysmograph Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Norihisa; Asakawa, Kazuhisa; Takahashi, Yoshitsugu; Yamada, Tomoko; Togashi, Atsushi; Sawamoto, Jun

    In recent years, the research of sensor networks advances and it is expected to be used in a wide variety of fields such as traceability system of products, environmental monitoring, health care, etc. We develop a M2M system with the sensor network technology for collection and analysis of the state of health and feedback of advices for better physical activity without human intervention. The system detects abnormality from pulse wave data from pulse wave sensor attached to the user. In this paper, we construct M2M sensor network system with continuous monitoring of arterial pulse wave and an advice generation function based on pr-installed rules, then we evaluate the usefulness of the system through experiment.

  16. Wireless sensor systems and methods, and methods of monitoring structures

    DOEpatents

    Kunerth, Dennis C.; Svoboda, John M.; Johnson, James T.; Harding, L. Dean; Klingler, Kerry M.

    2007-02-20

    A wireless sensor system includes a passive sensor apparatus configured to be embedded within a concrete structure to monitor infiltration of contaminants into the structure. The sensor apparatus includes charging circuitry and a plurality of sensors respectively configured to measure environmental parameters of the structure which include information related to the infiltration of contaminants into the structure. A reader apparatus is communicatively coupled to the sensor apparatus, the reader apparatus being configured to provide power to the charging circuitry during measurements of the environmental parameters by the sensors. The reader apparatus is configured to independently interrogate individual ones of the sensors to obtain information measured by the individual sensors. The reader apparatus is configured to generate an induction field to energize the sensor apparatus. Information measured by the sensor apparatus is transmitted to the reader apparatus via a response signal that is superimposed on a return induction field generated by the sensor apparatus. Methods of monitoring structural integrity of the structure are also provided.

  17. Changes in airborne fungi from the outdoors to indoor air; large HVAC systems in nonproblem buildings in two different climates.

    PubMed

    Kemp, P C; Neumeister-Kemp, H G; Esposito, B; Lysek, G; Murray, F

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the changes in occurrence and distribution of airborne fungi as they are transported in the airstream from the outdoor air through the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system to the indoor air. To better understand this, airborne fungi were analyzed in the HVAC systems of two large office buildings in different climate zones. Fungal samples were taken in each of the walk-in chambers of the HVAC systems using a six-stage Andersen Sampler with malt extract agar. Results showed that fungal species changed with different locations in the HVAC systems. The outdoor air intake produced the greatest filtration effect for both the counts and species of outdoor air fungi. The colony forming unit (CFU) counts and species diversity was further reduced in the air directly after the filters. The cooling coils also had a substantial filtration effect. However, in room air the CFU counts were double and the mixture of fungal species was different from the air leaving the HVAC system at the supply air outlet in most locations. Diffusion of outdoor air fungi to the indoors did not explain the changes in the mixture of airborne fungi from the outdoor air to the indoor air, and some of the fungi present in the indoor air did not appear to be transported indoors by the HVAC systems.

  18. Sensor network based vehicle classification and license plate identification system

    SciTech Connect

    Frigo, Janette Rose; Brennan, Sean M; Rosten, Edward J; Raby, Eric Y; Kulathumani, Vinod K

    2009-01-01

    Typically, for energy efficiency and scalability purposes, sensor networks have been used in the context of environmental and traffic monitoring applications in which operations at the sensor level are not computationally intensive. But increasingly, sensor network applications require data and compute intensive sensors such video cameras and microphones. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of two such systems: a vehicle classifier based on acoustic signals and a license plate identification system using a camera. The systems are implemented in an energy-efficient manner to the extent possible using commercially available hardware, the Mica motes and the Stargate platform. Our experience in designing these systems leads us to consider an alternate more flexible, modular, low-power mote architecture that uses a combination of FPGAs, specialized embedded processing units and sensor data acquisition systems.

  19. Circuits and Systems for Low-Power Miniaturized Wireless Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraju, Manohar

    The field of electronic sensors has witnessed a tremendous growth over the last decade particularly with the proliferation of mobile devices. New applications in Internet of Things (IoT), wearable technology, are further expected to fuel the demand for sensors from current numbers in the range of billions to trillions in the next decade. The main challenges for a trillion sensors are continued miniaturization, low-cost and large-scale manufacturing process, and low power consumption. Traditional integration and circuit design techniques in sensor systems are not suitable for applications in smart dust, IoT etc. The first part of this thesis demonstrates an example sensor system for biosignal recording and illustrates the tradeoffs in the design of low-power miniaturized sensors. The different components of the sensor system are integrated at the board level. The second part of the thesis demonstrates fully integrated sensors that enable extreme miniaturization of a sensing system with the sensor element, processing circuitry, a frequency reference for communication and the communication circuitry in a single hermetically sealed die. Design techniques to reduce the power consumption of the sensor interface circuitry at the architecture and circuit level are demonstrated. The principles are used to design sensors for two of the most common physical variables, mass and pressure. A low-power wireless mass and pressure sensor suitable for a wide variety of biological/chemical sensing applications and Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) respectively are demonstrated. Further, the idea of using high-Q resonators for a Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is proposed and a low-noise, wide bandwidth FBAR-based VCO is presented.

  20. UAV sensor systems for close-range operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larroque, Clement-Serge; Thompson, Karl S.; Hickman, Duncan

    2002-07-01

    Although UAV systems have received much interest over the last few years, much of this has focused on either relatively large platforms with complex on-board equipment, or micro systems (typically 6' in every dimension). The operational use of low-cost lightweight UAVs as over-the- hill reconnaissance systems is a new concept offering additional flexibility, providing local knowledge and helping maintain operational tempo. An extensive modeling trade-off study has been performed for different sensor technologies and combinations. The model considered configurations including cooled and uncooled IR sensors, visible-band CCD sensors and image intensifiers. These mathematical models provide an evaluation of sensor performance for both navigation and the gathering of reconnaissance imagery, through Resolution Elements calculations (Johnson criteria) and Signal-to-Noise Ratios. Based upon this analysis, a system specification is presented that exploits next generation sensor technologies. Results obtained from a number of UAV trials are reported and used in order to provide model verification and validation of both the operational concepts and the sensor system modeling activities. Considering the sensor system itself, the low-altitude close-range environment ensures high ground resolved distance and signal-to-noise ratios, with low-cost sensors. Coupled with up-to-date image processing software, the imagery provided directly to the section-level units via a simple standard image interface allows a reduction of time response. Finally, future modeling and trials activities are discussed in the framework of the lightweight UAV system roadmap.

  1. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: First Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the first year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-looking technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of FAA certification requirements and the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment.

  2. Kuiper Airborne Observatory's Telescope Stabilization System: Disturbance Sensitivity Reduction Via Velocity Loop Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, David P.; Tsui, K. C.; Tucker, John; Mancini, Ronald E. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In July of 1994 the Kuiper Airborne Observatory's (KAO) Telescope Stabilization System (TSS) was upgraded to meet performance goals necessary to view the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet collision with Jupiter. The KAO is a modified C-141 Aircraft supporting a 36 inch Infrared telescope used to gather and analyze astronomical data. Before the upgrade, the TSS exhibited approximately a 10 arc-second resolution pointing accuracy. The majority of the inaccuracy was attributable to aircraft vibration and wind buffeting entering through the aircraft's telescope door opening; in other words, the TSS was overly sensitive to external disturbances. Because of power limitations and noise requirements, improving the pointing accuracy of the telescope required more sophistication than simply raising the bandwidth as some classical control strategies might suggest. Instead, relationships were developed between the disturbance sensitivity and closed loop transfer functions. These relationships suggested that employing velocity feedback along with an increase in current loop gain would dramatically improve the pointing resolution of the TSS by decreasing the control system's sensitivity to external disturbances. With the implementation of some classical control techniques and the above philosophy, the KAO's TSS's resolution was improved to approximately 2-3 arc-seconds.

  3. Airborne Camera System for Real-Time Applications - Support of a National Civil Protection Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gstaiger, V.; Romer, H.; Rosenbaum, D.; Henkel, F.

    2015-04-01

    In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), powerful tools are being developed to aid public authorities and organizations with security responsibilities as well as traffic authorities when dealing with disasters and large public events. One focus lies on the acquisition of high resolution aerial imagery, its fully automatic processing, analysis and near real-time provision to decision makers in emergency situations. For this purpose a camera system was developed to be operated from a helicopter with light-weight processing units and microwave link for fast data transfer. In order to meet end-users' requirements DLR works close together with the German Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance (BBK) within this project. One task of BBK is to establish, maintain and train the German Medical Task Force (MTF), which gets deployed nationwide in case of large-scale disasters. In October 2014, several units of the MTF were deployed for the first time in the framework of a national civil protection exercise in Brandenburg. The VABENE++ team joined the exercise and provided near real-time aerial imagery, videos and derived traffic information to support the direction of the MTF and to identify needs for further improvements and developments. In this contribution the authors introduce the new airborne camera system together with its near real-time processing components and share experiences gained during the national civil protection exercise.

  4. Real-time atmospheric absorption spectra for in-flight tuning of an airborne dial system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dombrowski, M.; Walden, H.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Milrod, J.; Korb, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Real-time measurements of atmospheric absorption spectra are displayed and used to precisely calibrate and fix the frequency of an Alexandrite laser to specific oxygen absorption features for airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric pressure and temperature. The DIAL system used contains two narrowband tunable Alexandrite lasers: one is electronically scanned to tune to oxygen absorption features for on-line signals while the second is used to obtain off-line (nonabsorbed) atmospheric return signals. The lidar operator may select the number of shots to be averaged, the altitude, and altitude interval over which the signals are averaged using single key stroke commands. The operator also determines exactly which oxygen absorption lines are scanned by comparing the line spacings and relative strengths with known line parameters, thus calibrating the laser wavelength readout. The system was used successfully to measure the atmospheric pressure profile on the first flights of this lidar, November 20, and December 9, 1985, aboard the NASA Wallops Electra aircraft.

  5. The Radio Frequency Health Node Wireless Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencia, J. Emilio; Stanley, Priscilla C.; Mackey, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The Radio Frequency Health Node (RFHN) wireless sensor system differs from other wireless sensor systems in ways originally intended to enhance utility as an instrumentation system for a spacecraft. The RFHN can also be adapted to use in terrestrial applications in which there are requirements for operational flexibility and integrability into higher-level instrumentation and data acquisition systems. As shown in the figure, the heart of the system is the RFHN, which is a unit that passes commands and data between (1) one or more commercially available wireless sensor units (optionally, also including wired sensor units) and (2) command and data interfaces with a local control computer that may be part of the spacecraft or other engineering system in which the wireless sensor system is installed. In turn, the local control computer can be in radio or wire communication with a remote control computer that may be part of a higher-level system. The remote control computer, acting via the local control computer and the RFHN, cannot only monitor readout data from the sensor units but can also remotely configure (program or reprogram) the RFHN and the sensor units during operation. In a spacecraft application, the RFHN and the sensor units can also be configured more nearly directly, prior to launch, via a serial interface that includes an umbilical cable between the spacecraft and ground support equipment. In either case, the RFHN wireless sensor system has the flexibility to be configured, as required, with different numbers and types of sensors for different applications. The RFHN can be used to effect realtime transfer of data from, and commands to, the wireless sensor units. It can also store data for later retrieval by an external computer. The RFHN communicates with the wireless sensor units via a radio transceiver module. The modular design of the RFHN makes it possible to add radio transceiver modules as needed to accommodate additional sets of wireless sensor

  6. An airborne low SWaP-C UAS sense and avoid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhonghai; Lin, Xingping; Xiang, Xingyu; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Jia, Bin; Wang, Gang

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a low size, weight and power - cost (SWaP-C) airborne sense and avoid (ABSAA) system, which is based on a linear frequency modulated continuous wave (LFMCW) radar and can be mounted on small unmanned aircraft system (UAS). The system satisfies the constraint of the available sources on group 2/3 UAS. To obtain the desired sense and avoid range, a narrow band frequency (or range) scanning technique is applied for reducing the receiver's noise floor to improve its sensitivity, and a digital signal integration with fast Fourier transform (FFT) is applied to enhance the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The gate length and chirp rate are intelligently adapted to not only accommodate different object distances, speeds and approaching angle conditions, but also optimize the detection speed, resolution and coverage range. To minimize the radar blind zone, a higher chirp rate and a narrowband intermediate frequency (IF) filter are applied at the near region with a single antenna signal for target detection. The offset IF frequency between transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) is designed to mitigate the TX leakage to the receiver, especially at close distances. Adaptive antenna gain and beam-width are utilized for searching at far distance and fast 360 degree middle range. For speeding up the system update rate, lower chirp rates and wider IF and baseband filters are applied for obtaining larger range scanning step length out of the near region. To make the system working with a low power transmitter (TX), multiple-antenna beamforming, digital signal integration with FFT, and a much narrower receiver (RX) bandwidth are applied at the far region. The ABSAA system working range is 2 miles with a 1W transmitter and single antenna signal detection, and it is 5 miles when a 5W transmitter and 4-antenna beamforming (BF) are applied.

  7. Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0–60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems. PMID:26538293

  8. Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-11-05

    We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0-60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems.

  9. Dual cameras acquisition and display system of retina-like sensor camera and rectangular sensor camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Nan; Cao, Fengmei; Lin, Yabin; Bai, Tingzhu; Song, Shengyu

    2015-04-01

    For a new kind of retina-like senor camera and a traditional rectangular sensor camera, dual cameras acquisition and display system need to be built. We introduce the principle and the development of retina-like senor. Image coordinates transformation and interpolation based on sub-pixel interpolation need to be realized for our retina-like sensor's special pixels distribution. The hardware platform is composed of retina-like senor camera, rectangular sensor camera, image grabber and PC. Combined the MIL and OpenCV library, the software program is composed in VC++ on VS 2010. Experience results show that the system can realizes two cameras' acquisition and display.

  10. Airborne cw Doppler lidar (ADOLAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahm, Stefan; Werner, Christian; Nagel, E.; Herrmann, H.; Klier, M.; Knott, H. P.; Haering, R.; Wildgruber, J.

    1994-12-01

    During the last 10 years the DLR container LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometer) was used for many wind related measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. The experience out of this were used to construct an airborne Doppler lidar ADOLAR. Based on the available Doppler lidars it is now proposed to perform a campaign to demonstrate the concept of the spaceborne sensor ALADIN, and to answer some questions concerning the signal quality from clouds, water and land. For the continuous wave CO2 laser, the energy is focused by the telescope into the region of investigation. Some of the radiation is back scattered by small aerosol particles drifting with the wind speed through the sensing volume. The back scattered radiation is collected by the telescope and detected by coherent technique. With the laser Doppler method one gets the radial wind component. To determine the magnitude and direction of the horizontal wind, some form of scanning in azimuth and elevation is required. To keep the airborne system compact, the transceiver optics is directly coupled to a wedge scanner which provides the conical scan with the axis in Nadir direction from the aircraft. The system ADOLAR was tested in 1994. Results of the flight over the lake Ammersee are presented and are compared with the data of the inertial reference system of the aircraft.

  11. Airborne thermography applications in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Eduardo H.; Selles, Eduardo J.; Costanzo, Marcelo; Franco, Oscar; Diaz, Jose

    2002-03-01

    Forest fires in summer and sheep buried under the snow in winter have become important problems in the south of our country, in the region named Patagonia. We are studying to find a solution by means of an airborne imaging system whose construction we have just finished. It is a 12 channel multispectral airborne scanner system that can be mounted in a Guarani airplane or in a Learjet; the first is a non- pressurized aircraft for flight at low height and the second is a pressurized one for higher flights. The scanner system is briefly described. Their sensors can detect radiation from the ultra violet to the thermal infrared. The images are visualized in real time in a monitor screen and can be stored in the hard disc of the PC for later processing. The use of this scanner for some applications that include the prevention and fighting of forest fires and the study of the possibility of detection of sheep under snow in the Patagonia is now being accomplished. Theoretical and experimental results in fire detection and a theoretical model for studying the possibility of detection of the buried sheep are presented.

  12. Sensor systems for lower limb functional electrical stimulation (FES) control.

    PubMed

    Williamson, R; Andrews, B J

    2000-06-01

    Two sensor systems comprising clusters of accelerometers, magnetic sensors, a rate gyroscope, and a strain gauge were designed. For one system, the clusters were located at the belt and AFO. In the other system, the clusters were located at the AFO and the thigh. The maximum cluster size was 14 cm(3) and 75 g. The clusters of each sensor system were interconnected by a single flexible wire bus, which minimized the effects of cabling. The sensors detected five phases of normal gait to a resolution of 40 ms in an able bodied test. Using a threshold method, the sensor system repeatedly predicted an incipient knee buckle in a paraplegic individual by a minimum of 30 ms. One system detected knee flexion angle analytically to an accuracy of 3.2 degrees during sit to stand trials. The second system determined knee and hip flexion angle to an accuracy of 3.8 degrees during sit to stand trials through neural networks. The signal processing of the acquired sensor signals in each system was performed on a MC68332 microcomputer in conjunction with the data sampling, and suggested the possibility for each sensor system to be used in real time control of FES.

  13. Scanning infrared remote sensing system for identification, visualization, and quantification of airborne pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harig, Roland; Matz, Gerhard; Rusch, Peter

    2002-02-01

    Remote sensing by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry allows detection, identification, and quantification of airborne pollutants. In the case of leaks in pipelines or leaks in chemical plants, chemical accidents, terrorism, or war, hazardous compounds are often released into the atmosphere. Various Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers have been developed for the remote detection and identification of hazardous clouds. However, for the localization of a leak and a complete assessment of the situation in the case of the release of a hazardous cloud, information about the position and the size of a cloud is essential. Therefore, an imaging passive remote sensing system comprised of an interferometer (Bruker OPAG 22), a data acquisition, processing, and control system with a digital signal processor (FTIR DSP), an azimuth-elevation-scanning mirror, a video system with a DSP, and a personal computer has been developed. The FTIR DSP system controls the scanning mirror, collects the interferograms, and performs the Fourier transformation. The spectra are transferred to a personal computer and analyzed by a real-time identification algorithm that does not require background spectra for the analysis. The results are visualized by a video image, overlaid by false color images. For each target compound of a spectral library, images of the coefficient of correlation, the signal to noise ratio, the brightness temperature of the background, the difference between the temperature of the ambient air and the brightness temperature of the background, and the noise equivalent column density are produced. The column densities of all directions in which a target compound has been identified may be retrieved by a nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm and an additional false color image is displayed. The system has a high selectivity, low noise equivalent spectral radiance, and it allows identification, visualization, and quantification of pollutant clouds.

  14. Optical chemical sensors for environmental control and system management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabacco, M. B.; Digiuseppe, T. G.

    Several fiber optic based chemical sensors have been developed for use in plant growth systems and enclosed life support systems. Optical chemical sensors offer several distinct advantages in terms of sensitivity, calibration stability, immunity to biofouling and electrical interference, and ease of multiplexing sensors for multipoint/multiparameter analysis. Also, the ability to locate fiber optic sensors in close proximity to plant roots or leaves should improve the measurement reliability by obviating the need for handling and transport which can compromise sample integrity. Polestar Technologies and GEO-CENTERS have developed and tested many types of optical chemical sensors which utilize novel glass and polymeric materials as the sensor substrate. Analytes are detected using immobilized colorimetric indication systems or molecular recognition elements. Typically transduction is via wavelength specific absorption changes with multiwavelength detection for drift compensation. Sensors have been developed for solution pH, NH_3, ethylene, CO_2, and dissolved metal ions. In addition, unique PC-compatible optoelectronic interfaces, as well as distributed measurement systems, so that integrated detection systems are now available. In this paper recent efforts to develop sensors for critical nutrient ions are presented.

  15. Joint influences of aerodynamic flow field and aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of airborne optical systems.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Haosu; Zuo, Baojun; Tian, Yi; Zhang, Wang; Hao, Chenglong; Liu, Chaofeng; Li, Qi; Li, Fan; Zhang, Li; Fan, Zhigang

    2012-12-20

    We investigated the joint influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical dome and the aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT was used for flow computations. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray tracing program was used to simulate optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field and the dome. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the exit pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the aero-optical disturbance of the aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamic heating of the dome significantly affect the imaging quality of an airborne optical system.

  16. Sensor concentrator unit for the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System

    SciTech Connect

    Nodine, R.N.; Lenarduzzi, R.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the use and operation of the sensor concentrator in the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS). The CAVIS electronically verifies the presence of items of stored special nuclear material (SNM). US Department of Energy orders require that stored SNM be inventoried periodically to provide assurance that the material is secure. Currently this inventory is a highly manual activity, requiring personnel to enter the storage vaults. Using a CAVIS allows the frequency of physical inventories to be significantly reduced, resulting in substantial cost savings, increased security, and improved safety. The electronic inventory of stored SNM requires two different types of sensors for each item. The two sensors measure different parameters of the item, usually weight and gamma rays. A CAVIS is constructed using four basic system components: sensors, sensor concentrators, a data collection unit, and a database/user interface unit. One sensor concentrator supports the inventory of up to 20 items (40 sensors) and continuously takes readings from the item sensors. On request the sensor concentrator outputs the most recent sensor readings to the data collection unit. The information transfer takes place over a RS485 communications link. The data collection unit supports from 1 to 120 sensor concentrators (1 to 2,400 items) and is referred to as the Sensor Polling and Configuration System (SPCS). The SPCS is connected by a secure Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network to the database/user interface unit, which is referred to as the Graphical Facility Information Center (GraFIC). A CAVIS containing more than 2,400 items is supported by connecting additional SPCS units to the GraFIC.

  17. Target detection algorithm for airborne thermal hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marwaha, R.; Kumar, A.; Raju, P. L. N.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging is constantly being used for classification purpose. But airborne thermal hyperspectral image usually is a challenge for conventional classification approaches. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that helps in the spatial and spectral analysis of targets utilizing a single sensor. It is based on the technology of Fourier-transform which yields high spectral resolution and enables high accuracy radiometric calibration. The Hypercam instrument has 84 spectral bands in the 868 cm-1 to 1280 cm-1 region (7.8 μm to 11.5 μm), at a spectral resolution of 6 cm-1 (full-width-half-maximum) for LWIR (long wave infrared) range. Due to the Hughes effect, only a few classifiers are able to handle high dimensional classification task. MNF (Minimum Noise Fraction) rotation is a data dimensionality reducing approach to segregate noise in the data. In this, the component selection of minimum noise fraction (MNF) rotation transformation was analyzed in terms of classification accuracy using constrained energy minimization (CEM) algorithm as a classifier for Airborne thermal hyperspectral image and for the combination of airborne LWIR hyperspectral image and color digital photograph. On comparing the accuracy of all the classified images for airborne LWIR hyperspectral image and combination of Airborne LWIR hyperspectral image with colored digital photograph, it was found that accuracy was highest for MNF component equal to twenty. The accuracy increased by using the combination of airborne LWIR hyperspectral image with colored digital photograph instead of using LWIR data alone.

  18. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Nave, Stanley E.

    1998-01-01

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiberoptic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences.

  19. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Nave, S.E.

    1998-07-21

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiber optic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences. 3 figs.

  20. POF hydrogen detection sensor systems for launch vehicles applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Larson, David B.; Wuestling, Mark D.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the first successful Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) cable and glass fiber hydrogen detection sensor systems developed for Delta IV Launch Vehicle. Hydrogen detection in space application is very challenging; the hydrogen detection is priority for rocket industry and every transport device or any application where hydrogen is involved. H2 sensors are necessary to monitor the detection possible leak to avoid explosion, which can be highly dangerous. The hydrogen sensors had to perform in temperatures between -18° C to 60° C (0° F to 140° F). The response of the sensor in this temperature regime was characterized to ensure proper response of the sensors to fugitive hydrogen leakage during vehicle ground operations. We developed the first 75 m combination of POF and glass fiber H2 sensors. Performed detail investigation of POF-glass cables for attenuation loss, thermal, humidity, temperature, shock, accelerate testing for life expectancy. Also evaluated absorption, operating and high/low temperatures, and harsh environmental for glass-POF cables connectors. The same test procedures were performed for glass multi mode fiber part of the H2 and O2 sensors. A new optical waveguides was designed and developed to decrease the impact of both noise and long term drift of sensor. A field testing of sensors was performed at NASA Stennis on the Aerospike X-33 to quantify the element of the sensor package that was responsible for hydrogen detection and temperature.

  1. One dimensional wavefront distortion sensor comprising a lens array system

    DOEpatents

    Neal, D.R.; Michie, R.B.

    1996-02-20

    A 1-dimensional sensor for measuring wavefront distortion of a light beam as a function of time and spatial position includes a lens system which incorporates a linear array of lenses, and a detector system which incorporates a linear array of light detectors positioned from the lens system so that light passing through any of the lenses is focused on at least one of the light detectors. The 1-dimensional sensor determines the slope of the wavefront by location of the detectors illuminated by the light. The 1 dimensional sensor has much greater bandwidth that 2 dimensional systems. 8 figs.

  2. One dimensional wavefront distortion sensor comprising a lens array system

    DOEpatents

    Neal, Daniel R.; Michie, Robert B.

    1996-01-01

    A 1-dimensional sensor for measuring wavefront distortion of a light beam as a function of time and spatial position includes a lens system which incorporates a linear array of lenses, and a detector system which incorporates a linear array of light detectors positioned from the lens system so that light passing through any of the lenses is focused on at least one of the light detectors. The 1-dimensional sensor determines the slope of the wavefront by location of the detectors illuminated by the light. The 1 dimensional sensor has much greater bandwidth that 2 dimensional systems.

  3. Multilateration with the wide-angle airborne laser ranging system: positioning precision and atmospheric effects.

    PubMed

    Bock, O

    1999-05-20

    Numerical simulations based on previously validated models for the wide-angle airborne laser ranging system are used here for assessing the precision in coordinate estimates of ground-based cube-corner retroreflectors (CCR's). It is shown that the precision can be optimized to first order as a function of instrument performance, number of laser shots (LS's), and network size. Laser beam divergence, aircraft altitude, and CCR density are only second-order parameters, provided that the number of echoes per LS is greater than 20. Thus precision in the vertical is approximately 1 mm, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 50 at nadir, a 10-km altitude, a 20 degrees beam divergence, and approximately 5 x 10(3) measurements. Scintillation and fair-weather cumulus clouds usually have negligible influence on the estimates. Laser biases and path delay are compensated for by adjustment of aircraft offsets. The predominant atmospheric effect is with mesoscale nonuniform horizontal temperature gradients, which might lead to biases near 0.5 mm.

  4. SINCGARS (Single-Channel Ground/Airborne Radio System) operator performance decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Richard L.; Buckalew, Louis W.

    1988-11-01

    The Single-Channel Ground/Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) is scheduled to replace the Army's VRC-12 and PRC-77 radios. However, SINCGARS is more complex to operate and requires more training. This study examined the decay of operational skills and knowledge in two groups of recently trained operators who went without exposure to SINCGARS for several weeks. Performance levels were measured with the SINCGARS Learning-Retention Test (SLRT), a simulated hands-on performance test emphasizing skills and operational knowledge retention. The results provided tentative indications that operators may lose about 10 percent of their prior performance levels within the first few weeks. This figure is expected to vary considerably, depending on the type of soldier, the length of the nonexposure period, and other conditions. It was also found that performance level was correlated with soldiers' Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) General Technical (GT) scores. Correlations between GT and SLRT scores obtained at two different times were .43 and .50, respectively. However, no relation was observed between performance decay and GT. Further evaluation of operator performance decay needs to be done to determine the effect of longer periods of nonexposure (e.g., 60 and 90 days).

  5. Analysis of link performance and robustness of homodyne BPSK for airborne backbone laser communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Shang-hong; Zhao, Wei-hu; Li, Yong-jun; Liu, Yun; Li, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    The high altitude turbulence is described by the "Clear 1" model in terms of refractive-index structure. The outage and Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of airborne communication links under atmospheric turbulence and aero-optics effects of homodyne binary phase shift keying (BPSK) system is deduced in the high altitude turbulence channel, the relation of probability of fade, mean fade time with flight altitude and transmission distance is analyzed, the Bit Error Rate (BER) vary characteristic along with the mean signal noise rate signal noise rate (SNR) of different modulates is discussed in the gamma-gamma turbulence channel. The results show that atmospheric turbulence and aero-optic effects can greatly reduce the SNR that would occur in the absence of optical turbulence, leading in some cases to unacceptable fade levels or BERs. The average SNR is 26 dB for BPSK to achieve a BER of 10-6. A bit error rate of 5.94×10-10 at 200 km propagation distance was achieved employing a homodyne BPSK based modem.

  6. Electric-field sensors for bullet detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Stephen; Hull, David; Ghionea, Simon; Ludwig, William; Deligeorges, Socrates; Gudmundsson, Thorkell; Noras, Maciej

    2014-06-01

    Research and experimental trials have shown that electric-field (E-field) sensors are effective at detecting charged projectiles. E-field sensors can likely complement traditional acoustic sensors, and help provide a more robust and effective solution for bullet detection and tracking. By far, the acoustic sensor is the most prevalent technology in use today for hostile fire defeat systems due to compact size and low cost, yet they come with a number of challenges that include multipath, reverberant environments, false positives and low signal-to-noise. Studies have shown that these systems can benefit from additional sensor modalities such as E-field sensors. However, E-field sensors are a newer technology that is relatively untested beyond basic experimental trials; this technology has not been deployed in any fielded systems. The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has conducted live-fire experiments at Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG) to collect data from E-field sensors. Three types of E-field sensors were included in these experiments: (a) an electric potential gradiometer manufactured by Quasar Federal Systems (QFS), (b) electric charge induction, or "D-dot" sensors designed and built by the Army Research Lab (ARL), and (c) a varactor based E-field sensor prototype designed by University of North Carolina-Charlotte (UNCC). Sensors were placed in strategic locations near the bullet trajectories, and their data were recorded. We analyzed the performance of each E-field sensor type in regard to small-arms bullet detection capability. The most recent experiment in October 2013 allowed demonstration of improved versions of the varactor and D-dot sensor types. Results of new real-time analysis hardware employing detection algorithms were also tested. The algorithms were used to process the raw data streams to determine when bullet detections occurred. Performance among the sensor types and algorithm effectiveness were compared to estimates from acoustics signatures

  7. Intelligent Wireless Sensor Networks for System Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Personal Area Network (PAN) standard are finding increasing use in the home automation and emerging smart energy markets. The network and application layers, based on the ZigBee 2007 Standard, provide a convenient framework for component-based software that supports customer solutions from multiple vendors. WSNs provide the inherent fault tolerance required for aerospace applications. The Discovery and Systems Health Group at NASA Ames Research Center has been developing WSN technology for use aboard aircraft and spacecraft for System Health Monitoring of structures and life support systems using funding from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center and Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program. This technology provides key advantages for low-power, low-cost ancillary sensing systems particularly across pressure interfaces and in areas where it is difficult to run wires. Intelligence for sensor networks could be defined as the capability of forming dynamic sensor networks, allowing high-level application software to identify and address any sensor that joined the network without the use of any centralized database defining the sensors characteristics. The IEEE 1451 Standard defines methods for the management of intelligent sensor systems and the IEEE 1451.4 section defines Transducer Electronic Datasheets (TEDS), which contain key information regarding the sensor characteristics such as name, description, serial number, calibration information and user information such as location within a vehicle. By locating the TEDS information on the wireless sensor itself and enabling access to this information base from the application software, the application can identify the sensor unambiguously and interpret and present the sensor data stream without reference to any other information. The application software is able to read the status of each sensor module, responding in real-time to changes of

  8. Toolsets for Airborne Data - URS and New Documentation

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-23

    ... airborne field missions, documentation, and EOSDIS User Registration System (URS) authentication. This web application features an intuitive user interface for variable selection across different airborne field studies and ...

  9. Multi-Dimensional Sensors and Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetter, Joseph R. (Inventor); Shirke, Amol G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A universal microelectromechanical (MEMS) nano-sensor platform having a substrate and conductive layer deposited in a pattern on the surface to make several devices at the same time, a patterned insulation layer, wherein the insulation layer is configured to expose one or more portions of the conductive layer, and one or more functionalization layers deposited on the exposed portions of the conductive layer to make multiple sensing capability on a single MEMS fabricated device. The functionalization layers are adapted to provide one or more transducer sensor classes selected from the group consisting of: radiant, electrochemical, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, and thermal sensors for chemical and physical variables and producing more than one type of sensor for one or more significant parameters that need to be monitored.

  10. Achieving miniature sensor systems via advanced packaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartup, David C.; Bobier, Kevin; Demmin, Jeffrey

    2005-05-01

    Demands for miniaturized networked sensors that can be deployed in large quantities dictate that the packages be small and cost effective. In order to accomplish these objectives, system developers generally apply advanced packaging techniques to proven systems. A partnership of Nova Engineering and Tessera begins with a baseline of Nova's Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) technology and utilizes Tessera's three-dimensional (3D) Chip-Scale Packaging (CSP), Multi-Chip Packaging (MCP), and System-in-Package (SIP) innovations to enable novel methods for fabricating compact, vertically integrated sensors utilizing digital, RF, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. These technologies, applied to a variety of sensors and integrated radio architectures, enable diverse multi-modal sensing networks with wireless communication capabilities. Sensors including imaging, accelerometers, acoustical, inertial measurement units, and gas and pressure sensors can be utilized. The greatest challenge to high density, multi-modal sensor networks is the ability to test each component prior to integration, commonly called Known Good Die (KGD) testing. In addition, the mix of multi-sourcing and high technology magnifies the challenge of testing at the die level. Utilizing Tessera proprietary CSP, MCP, and SIP interconnection methods enables fully testable, low profile stacking to create multi-modal sensor radios with high yield.

  11. What Does Big Data Mean for Wearable Sensor Systems?

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, N. H.; Yang, G. Z.; Horsch, A.; Lukowicz, P.; Murrugarra, L.; Marschollek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The aim of this paper is to discuss how recent developments in the field of big data may potentially impact the future use of wearable sensor systems in healthcare. Methods The article draws on the scientific literature to support the opinions presented by the IMIA Wearable Sensors in Healthcare Working Group. Results The following is discussed: the potential for wearable sensors to generate big data; how complementary technologies, such as a smartphone, will augment the concept of a wearable sensor and alter the nature of the monitoring data created; how standards would enable sharing of data and advance scientific progress. Importantly, attention is drawn to statistical inference problems for which big datasets provide little assistance, or may hinder the identification of a useful solution. Finally, a discussion is presented on risks to privacy and possible negative consequences arising from intensive wearable sensor monitoring. Conclusions Wearable sensors systems have the potential to generate datasets which are currently beyond our capabilities to easily organize and interpret. In order to successfully utilize wearable sensor data to infer wellbeing, and enable proactive health management, standards and ontologies must be developed which allow for data to be shared between research groups and between commercial systems, promoting the integration of these data into health information systems. However, policy and regulation will be required to ensure that the detailed nature of wearable sensor data is not misused to invade privacies or prejudice against individuals. PMID:25123733

  12. Capability of air filters to retain airborne bacteria and molds in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    PubMed

    Möritz, M; Peters, H; Nipko, B; Rüden, H

    2001-07-01

    The capability of air filters (filterclass: F6, F7) to retain airborne outdoor microorganisms was examined in field experiments in two heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. At the beginning of the 15-month investigation period, the first filter stages of both HVAC systems were equipped with new unused air filters. The number of airborne bacteria and molds before and behind the filters were determined simultaneously in 14 days-intervals using 6-stage Andersen cascade impactors. Under relatively dry (< 80% R. H.) and warm (> 12 degrees C) outdoor air conditions air filters led to a marked reduction of airborne microorganism concentrations (bacteria by approximately 70% and molds by > 80%). However, during long periods of high relative humidity (> 80% R. H.) a proliferation of bacteria on air filters with subsequent release into the filtered air occurred. These microorganisms were mainly smaller than 1.1 microns therefore being part of the respirable fraction. The results showed furthermore that one possibility to avoid microbial proliferation is to limit the relative humidity in the area of the air filters to 80% R. H. (mean of 3 days), e.g. by using preheaters in front of air filters in HVAC-systems.

  13. A lightweight sensor network management system design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuan, F.; Song, W.-Z.; Peterson, N.; Peng, Y.; Wang, L.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a lightweight and transparent management framework for TinyOS sensor networks, called L-SNMS, which minimizes the overhead of management functions, including memory usage overhead, network traffic overhead, and integration overhead. We accomplish this by making L-SNMS virtually transparent to other applications hence requiring minimal integration. The proposed L-SNMS framework has been successfully tested on various sensor node platforms, including TelosB, MICAz and IMote2. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  14. SWUIS-A: a versatile low-cost UV/VIS/IR imaging system for airborne astronomy and aeronomy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Stern, S. Alan; Tomlinson, William; Slater, David C.; Vilas, Faith

    2000-11-01

    We have developed and successfully flight-tested on 14 different airborne missions the hardware and techniques for routinely conducting valuable astronomical and aeronomical observations from high-performance, two-seater military-type aircraft. The SWUIS-A (Southwest Universal Imaging System- Airborne_ system consists of an image-intensified CCD camera with broad band response from the near-UV to the near IR, high-quality foreoptics, a miniaturized video recorder, and aircraft-to-camera power and telemetry interface with associated camera controls, and associated cables, filters, and other minor equipments. SWUIS-A's suite of high-quality foreoptics gives it selectable, variable focal length/variable field-of-view capabilities. The SWUIS-A camera frames at 60Hz video rates, which is a key requirement for both jitter compensation and high time resolution (useful fro occultation, lightning, and auroral studies). Broadband SWUIS-A image coadds can exceed a limiting magnitude of V=10.5 in<1sec with dark sky conditions. A valuable attribute of SWUIS-A airborne observations is the fact that the astronomer flies with the instrument, thereby providing Space Shuttle-like payload specialist capability to close-the-loop in real-time on the research done on each research mission. Key advantages of the small, high-performance aircraft on which we can fly SWUIS-A include significant cost savings over larger, more conventional airborne platforms, worldwide basing obviating the need for expensive, campaign-style movement of specialized large aircraft and their logistics support teams, and ultimately faster reaction times to transient events. Compared to ground-based instruments, airborne research platforms offer superior atmospheric transmission, the mobility to reach remote and often-times otherwise unreachable locations over the Earth, and virtually- guaranteed good weather for observing the sky. Compared to space-based instruments, airborne platforms typically offer substantial

  15. SWUIS-A: A Versatile, Low-Cost UV/VIS/IR Imaging System for Airborne Astronomy and Aeronomy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Stern, S. Alan; Tomlinson, William; Slater, David C.; Vilas, Faith

    2001-01-01

    We have developed and successfully flight-tested on 14 different airborne missions the hardware and techniques for routinely conducting valuable astronomical and aeronomical observations from high-performance, two-seater military-type aircraft. The SWUIS-A (Southwest Universal Imaging System - Airborne) system consists of an image-intensified CCD camera with broad band response from the near-UV to the near IR, high-quality foreoptics, a miniaturized video recorder, an aircraft-to-camera power and telemetry interface with associated camera controls, and associated cables, filters, and other minor equipment. SWUIS-A's suite of high-quality foreoptics gives it selectable, variable focal length/variable field-of-view capabilities. The SWUIS-A camera frames at 60 Hz video rates, which is a key requirement for both jitter compensation and high time resolution (useful for occultation, lightning, and auroral studies). Broadband SWUIS-A image coadds can exceed a limiting magnitude of V = 10.5 in <1 sec with dark sky conditions. A valuable attribute of SWUIS-A airborne observations is the fact that the astronomer flies with the instrument, thereby providing Space Shuttle-like "payload specialist" capability to "close-the-loop" in real-time on the research done on each research mission. Key advantages of the small, high-performance aircraft on which we can fly SWUIS-A include significant cost savings over larger, more conventional airborne platforms, worldwide basing obviating the need for expensive, campaign-style movement of specialized large aircraft and their logistics support teams, and ultimately faster reaction times to transient events. Compared to ground-based instruments, airborne research platforms offer superior atmospheric transmission, the mobility to reach remote and often-times otherwise unreachable locations over the Earth, and virtually-guaranteed good weather for observing the sky. Compared to space-based instruments, airborne platforms typically offer

  16. Role of passive remote sensors. Sensor System Panel report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Capabilities of present passive systems are described and the development of passive remote sensing systems for the more abundant tropospheric trace species is recommended. The combination of nadir-viewing spectrometers and solar occultation for tropospheric measurement of those gases having large stratospheric burdens is discussed. Development of a nadir-viewing instrument capable of obtaining continuous spectra in narrower bands is recommended. Gas filter radiometers for species specific measurements and development of a spectral survey instrument are discussed. Further development of aerosol retrieval algorithms, including polarization techniques, for obtaining aerosol thickness and size distributions is advised. Recommendations of specific investigations to be pursued are presented.

  17. Ultrasonic sensors in urban traffic driving-aid systems.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Luciano; Milanés, Vicente; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Godoy, Jorge; Oria, Juan P; de Pedro, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS), Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems.

  18. Ultrasonic Sensors in Urban Traffic Driving-Aid Systems

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Luciano; Milanés, Vicente; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Godoy, Jorge; Oria, Juan P.; de Pedro, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS), Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems. PMID:22346596

  19. <5cm Ground Resolution DEMs for the Atacama Fault System (Chile), Acquried With the Modular Airborne Camera System (MACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielke, O.; Victor, P.; Oncken, O.; Bucher, T. U.; Lehmann, F.

    2011-12-01

    A primary step towards assessing time and size of future earthquakes is the identification of earthquake recurrence patterns in the existing seismic record. Geologic and geomorphic data are commonly analyzed for this purpose, reasoned by the lack of sufficiently long historical or instrumental seismic data sets. Until recently, those geomorphic data sets encompassed field observation, local total station surveys, and aerial photography. Over the last decade, LiDAR-based high-resolution topographic data sets became an additional powerful mean, contributing distinctly to a better understanding of earthquake rupture characteristics (e.g., single-event along-fault slip distribution, along-fault slip accumulation pattern) and their relation to fault geometric complexities. Typical shot densities of such data sets (e.g., airborne-LiDAR data along the San Andreas Fault) permit generation of digital elevation models (DEM) with <50 cm ground resolution, sufficient for depiction of meter-scale tectonic landforms. Identification of submeter-scale features is however prohibited by DEM resolution limitation. Here, we present a high-resolution topographic and visual data set from the Atacama fault system near Antofagasta, Chile. Data were acquired with Modular Airborne Camera System (MACS) - developed by the DLR (German Aerospace Center) in Berlin, Germany. The photogrammetrically derived DEM and True Ortho Images with <5cm ground resolution permit identification of very small-scale geomorphic features, thus enabling fault zone and earthquake rupture characterization at unprecedented detail. Compared to typical LiDAR-DEM, ground resolution is increased by an order of magnitude while the spatial extend of these data set is essentially the same. Here, we present examples of the <5cm resolution data set (DEM and visual results) and further explore resolution capabilities and potential with regards to the aforementioned tectono-geomorphic questions.

  20. Flight Evaluation of the Army/NASA Variable Stability Fly-by-Wire Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concept Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arterburn, Dave

    2002-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) have performed initial flight evaluations of the Research Flight Control System (RFCS) integrated into the Army/NASA Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A. The highly modified JUH-6OA Black Hawk helicopter is a full authority, high bandwidth, variable stability, in-flight simulator designed to support development of advanced flight control, sensor, and integrated display and control technologies in a fail safe environment. Preparation for flight test required an extensive hazard analysis and ground testing to ensure proper system operation. A hardware in the loop development facility was utilized to evaluate control law stability following software changes, assess servo hardover upset conditions during manual and monitor disengagements and provide pilot familiarization of test techniques and software changes prior to flight. First engagement of the RFCS was conducted on 31 Aug 2001. RFCS transfer system operation, envelope expansion and a limited rate monitor evaluation have been completed with low bandwidth and model following control laws.