Science.gov

Sample records for airborne simulator master

  1. Remote detection of water stress in orchard canopies using MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tao; Riaño, David; Koltunov, Alexander; Whiting, Michael L.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2011-09-01

    Vegetation canopy water content (CWC) is an important parameter for monitoring natural and agricultural ecosystems. Previous studies focused on the observation of annual or monthly variations in CWC but lacked temporal details to study vegetation physiological activities within a diurnal cycle. This study provides an evaluation of detecting vegetation diurnal water stress using airborne data acquired with the MASTER instrument. Concurrent with the morning and afternoon acquisitions of MASTER data, an extensive field campaign was conducted over almond and pistachio orchards in southern San Joaquin Valley of California to collect CWC measurements. Statistical analysis of the field measurements indicated a significant decrease of CWC from morning to afternoon. Field measured CWC was linearly correlated to the normalized difference infrared index (NDII) calculated with atmospherically corrected MASTER reflectance data using either FLAASH or empirical line (EL). Our regression analysis demonstrated that both atmospheric corrections led to a root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.035 kg/m2 for the estimation of CWC (R2=0.42 for FLAASH images and R2=0.45 for EL images). Remote detection of the subtle decline in CWC awaits an improved prediction of CWC. Diurnal CWC maps revealed the spatial patterns of vegetation water status in response to variations in irrigation treatment.

  2. A comparative evaluation of MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) data and burn indices for mapping southern California fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, S. L.; Hook, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Large fires occur annually in southern California, producing impacts at a number of scales, from local impacts on vegetation, hydrology and microclimates, to global impacts such as emissions, affecting atmospheric chemistry, air quality, radiation balance and biogeochemical cycling. As a consequence fires are routinely mapped using various sensors and burn indices. However, the indices employed for mapping these fires have not been developed and optimized for mapping southern California burned surfaces. Therefore, this study utilizes the high spatial and spectral resolution imagery from the MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) to identify the most effective bands and indices specifically for burned area mapping of the southern California region. The fire perimeter is based on the Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) map created by the United States Forest Service (USFS), Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) and a supervised classification which defines the burned and unburned regions. A separability index is employed to identify the bands and indices that can best distinguish between classes. The results identify a range of well performing indices, such as the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) and the Vegetation Index based on mid-infrared spectral region (VI3), and some poor performing indices, such as the Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI) and the Burned Area Index (BAI). Additionally this study highlights the indices that perform better over certain vegetation types. These results are useful for understanding the application of remotely sensed data for mapping burned surfaces. Improved burned area mapping capabilities are essential for informing land managers when identifying regions susceptible to hazards (such as debris and flood flows) and for deciding where to allocate time and resources in recovery efforts. Additionally, these results can be used to validate other sensors that are used to map burned surfaces on greater spatial and

  3. ICESat-2 Simulated Data from Airborne Altimetery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; Neumann, T. A.; Markus, T.; Brenner, A. C.; Barbieri, K. A.; Field, C. T.; Sirota, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) is scheduled to launch in 2015 and will carry onboard the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS), which represents a new approach to spaceborne determination of surface elevations. Specifically, the current ATLAS design is for a micropulse, multibeam, photon-counting laser altimeter with lower energy, a shorter pulse width, and a higher repetition rate relative to the Geoscience Laser Altimeter (GLAS), the instrument that was onboard ICESat. Given the new and untested technology associated with ATLAS, airborne altimetry data is necessary (1) to test the proposed ATLAS instrument geometry, (2) to validate instrument models, and (3) to assess the atmospheric effects on multibeam altimeters. We present an overview of the airborne instruments and datasets intended to address the ATLAS instrument concept, including data collected over Greenland (July 2009) using an airborne SBIR prototype 100 channel, photon-counting, terrain mapping altimeter, which addresses the first of these 3 scientific concerns. Additionally, we present the plan for further simulator data collection over vegetated and ice covered regions using Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), intended to address the latter two scientific concerns. As the ICESAT-2 project is in the design phase, the particular configuration of the ATLAS instrument may change. However, we expect this work to be relevant as long as ATLAS pursues a photon-counting approach.

  4. The enhanced MODIS airborne simulator hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerin, Daniel C.; Fisher, John; Graham, Edward R.

    2011-06-01

    The EMAS-HS or Enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator is an upgrade to the solar reflected and thermal infrared channels of NASA's MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS). In the solar reflected bands, the MAS scanner functionality will be augmented with the addition of this separate pushbroom hyperspectral instrument. As well as increasing the spectral resolution of MAS beyond 10 nm, this spectrometer is designed to maintain a stable calibration that can be transferred to the existing MAS sensor. The design emphasizes environmental control and on-board radiometric stability monitoring. The system is designed for high-altitude missions on the ER-2 and the Global Hawk platforms. System trades optimize performance in MODIS spectral bands that support land, cloud, aerosol, and atmospheric water studies. The primary science mission driving the development is high altitude cloud imaging, with secondary missions possible for ocean color. The sensor uses two Offner spectrometers to cover the 380-2400 nm spectral range. It features an all-reflective telescope with a 50° full field-of-view. A dichroic cold mirror will split the image from the telescope, with longer radiation transmitted to the SWIR spectrometer. The VNIR spectrometer uses a TE-cooled Si CCD detector that samples the spectrum at 2.5 nm intervals, while the SWIR spectrometer uses a Stirling-cooled hybrid HgCdTe detector to sample the spectrum at 10 nm per band. Both spectrometers will feature 1.05 mRad instantaneous fields-of-view registered to the MAS scanner IFOV's.

  5. Multidimensional master equation and its Monte-Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Pang, Juan; Bai, Zhan-Wu; Bao, Jing-Dong

    2013-02-28

    We derive an integral form of multidimensional master equation for a markovian process, in which the transition function is obtained in terms of a set of discrete Langevin equations. The solution of master equation, namely, the probability density function is calculated by using the Monte-Carlo composite sampling method. In comparison with the usual Langevin-trajectory simulation, the present approach decreases effectively coarse-grained error. We apply the master equation to investigate time-dependent barrier escape rate of a particle from a two-dimensional metastable potential and show the advantage of this approach in the calculations of quantities that depend on the probability density function.

  6. The NASA enhanced MODIS airborne simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Thomas A.; Myers, Jeffrey; Grant, Patrick; Platnick, Steven; Guerin, Daniel C.; Fisher, John; Song, Kai; Kimchi, Joseph; Kilmer, Louis; LaPorte, Daniel D.; Moeller, Christopher C.

    2011-10-01

    The new NASA Enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator (eMAS) is based on the legacy MAS system, which has been used extensively in support of the NASA Earth Observing System program since 1995. eMAS consists of two separate instruments designed to fly together on the NASA ER-2 and Global Hawk high altitude aircraft. The eMAS-IR instrument is an upgraded version of the legacy MAS line-scanning spectrometer, with 38 spectral bands in the wavelength range from 0.47 to 14.1 μm. The original LN2-cooled MAS MWIR and LWIR spectrometers are replaced with a single vacuum-sealed, Stirling-cooled assembly, having a single MWIR and twelve LWIR bands. This spectrometer module contains a cold optical bench where both dispersive optics and detector arrays are maintained at cryogenic temperatures to reduce infrared background noise, and ensure spectral stability during high altitude airborne operations. The EMAS-HS instrument is a stand-alone push-broom imaging spectrometer, with 202 contiguous spectral bands in the wavelength range from 0.38 to 2.40 μm. It consists of two Offner spectrometers, mated to a 4-mirror anastigmatic telescope. The system has a single slit, and uses a dichroic beam-splitter to divide the incoming energy between VNIR and SWIR focal plane arrays. It will be synchronized and bore-sighted with the IR line-scanner, and includes an active source for monitoring calibration stability. eMAS is intended to support future satellite missions including the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager ( HyspIRI,) the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP,) and the follow-on Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS.)

  7. Pit Profile Simulation for HD DVD Mastering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Ryousuke; Matsumaru, Masaaki; Nakamura, Naomasa

    2007-06-01

    We constructed an HD DVD mastering process simulator on the basis of the cell removal model. In the exposure process, we simulated the exposure profile in the photoresist film. In the development process, we defined the density and development rate of the unit cell. We carried out iterative calculation for each unit cell dissolution. The development rate was approximated as the function of the exposure intensity profile. From the results, we were able to simulate the three-dimension (3D) pit profiles of HD DVD-ROM (read only memory). We clarified that our development rate equation is similar to Hirai et al. and Trefonas and Daniels’ type equation in semiconductor lithography.

  8. Coupled simulation of the reactor core using CUPID/MASTER

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. R.; Cho, H. K.; Yoon, H. Y.; Jeong, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    The CUPID is a component-scale thermal hydraulics code which is aimed for the analysis of transient two-phase flows in nuclear reactor components such as the reactor vessel, steam generator, containment. This code adopts a three-dimensional, transient, two-phase and three-field model, and includes physical models and correlations of the interfacial mass, momentum, and energy transfer for the closure. In the present paper, a multi-physics simulation was performed by coupling CUPID with a three dimensional neutron kinetics code, MASTER. MASTER is merged into CUPID as a dynamic link library (DLL). The APR1400 reactor core during a control rod drop/ejection accident was simulated as an example by adopting a porous media approach to employ a fuel assembly. The following sections present the numerical modeling for the reactor core, coupling of the kinetics code, and the simulation results. And also, a preliminary study for multi-scale simulation between CUPID and system-scaled thermal hydraulics code, MARS will be introduced as well. (authors)

  9. A comparison of real and simulated airborne multisensor imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloechl, Kevin; De Angelis, Chris; Gartley, Michael; Kerekes, John; Nance, C. Eric

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a methodology and results for the comparison of simulated imagery to real imagery acquired with multiple sensors hosted on an airborne platform. The dataset includes aerial multi- and hyperspectral imagery with spatial resolutions of one meter or less. The multispectral imagery includes data from an airborne sensor with three-band visible color and calibrated radiance imagery in the long-, mid-, and short-wave infrared. The airborne hyperspectral imagery includes 360 bands of calibrated radiance and reflectance data spanning 400 to 2450 nm in wavelength. Collected in September 2012, the imagery is of a park in Avon, NY, and includes a dirt track and areas of grass, gravel, forest, and agricultural fields. A number of artificial targets were deployed in the scene prior to collection for purposes of target detection, subpixel detection, spectral unmixing, and 3D object recognition. A synthetic reconstruction of the collection site was created in DIRSIG, an image generation and modeling tool developed by the Rochester Institute of Technology, based on ground-measured reflectance data, ground photography, and previous airborne imagery. Simulated airborne images were generated using the scene model, time of observation, estimates of the atmospheric conditions, and approximations of the sensor characteristics. The paper provides a comparison between the empirical and simulated images, including a comparison of achieved performance for classification, detection and unmixing applications. It was found that several differences exist due to the way the image is generated, including finite sampling and incomplete knowledge of the scene, atmospheric conditions and sensor characteristics. The lessons learned from this effort can be used in constructing future simulated scenes and further comparisons between real and simulated imagery.

  10. A Simulation Testbed for Airborne Merging and Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santos, Michel; Manikonda, Vikram; Feinberg, Art; Lohr, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The key innovation in this effort is the development of a simulation testbed for airborne merging and spacing (AM&S). We focus on concepts related to airports with Super Dense Operations where new airport runway configurations (e.g. parallel runways), sequencing, merging, and spacing are some of the concepts considered. We focus on modeling and simulating a complementary airborne and ground system for AM&S to increase efficiency and capacity of these high density terminal areas. From a ground systems perspective, a scheduling decision support tool generates arrival sequences and spacing requirements that are fed to the AM&S system operating on the flight deck. We enhanced NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation Systems (ACES) software to model and simulate AM&S concepts and algorithms.

  11. The master student presenter: Peer teaching in the simulation laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Christine P; Lemley, Constance S; Alverson, Elise M

    2010-01-01

    The professional nurse needs to be able demonstrate the roles of teacher, manager, lifelong learner, research consumer, and provider of care. A teaching strategy that fosters the integration of these roles by the student is the Master Student Presenter (MSP) assignment, whereby students teach peers a fundamental skill in the simulation laboratory setting. The objectives of this assignment are for students to: (a) synthesize current literature to establish an evidence-based practice, (b) deliver an oral presentation, (c) demonstrate a skill to fellow students, and (d) evaluate peers on skill performance. Using the MSP assignment in the simulation laboratory contributes to the process of integrating these roles, which students build upon throughout their nursing education.

  12. Enhanced Capabilities of Advanced Airborne Radar Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    RCF UNIX-Based Machine 65 BAUHAUS A-l Illustrations to Understand How GTD Files are Read 78 C-l Input File for Sidelobe Jammer Nulling...on the UNIX-based machine BAUHAUS are provided to illustrate the enhancements in run time, as compared to the original version of the simulation [1...Figure 27 presents some CPU run times for executing the enhanced simulation on the RCF UNIX-based machine BAUHAUS . The run times are shown only for

  13. Simulation and analysis of airborne antenna radiation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. J.; Burnside, Walter D.

    1984-12-01

    The objective is to develop an accurate and efficient analytic solution for predicting high frequency radiation patterns of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas. This is an analytic study of airborne antenna patterns using the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD). The aircraft is modeled in its most basic form so that the solution is applicable to general-type aircraft. The fuselage is modeled as a perfectly conducting composite ellipsoid; whereas, the wings, stabilizers, nose, fuel tanks, and engines, are simulated as perfectly conducting flat plates that can be attached to the fuselage and/or to each other. The composite-ellipsoid fuselage model is necessary to successfully simulate the wide variety of real world fuselage shapes. Since the antenna is mounted on the fuselage, it has a dominant effect on the resulting radiation pattern so it must be simulated accurately, especially near the antenna. Various radiation patterns are calculated for commercial, private, and military aircraft, and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The application of this solution to numerous practical airborne antenna problems illustrates its versatility and design capability. In most cases, the solution accuracy is verified by the comparisons between the calculated and measured data.

  14. Simulation and analysis of airborne antenna radiation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. J. G.

    An accurate and efficient analytic solution for predicting high frequency radiation patterns of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas is described. This is an analytic study of airborne antenna patterns using the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD). The aircraft is modelled in its most basic form so that the solution is applicable to general-type aircraft. The fuselage is modelled as a perfectly conducting composite ellipsoid; whereas, the wings, stabilizers, nose, fuel tanks, and engines, etc., are simulated as perfectly conducting flat plates that can be attached to the fuselage and/or to each other. The composite-ellipsoid fuselage model is necessary to successfully simulate the wide variety of real world fuselage shapes. Since the antenna is mounted on the fuselage, it has a dominant effect on the resulting radiation pattern so it must be simulated accurately, especially near the antenna. Various radiation patterns are calculated for commercial, private, and military aircraft, and the space shuttle Orbiter. The application of this solution to numerous practical airborne antenna problems illustrates its versatility and design capability. In most cases, the solution accuracy is verified by the comparisons between the calculated and measured data.

  15. Simulation and analysis of airborne antenna radiation patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J. J.; Burnside, Walter D.

    1984-01-01

    The objective is to develop an accurate and efficient analytic solution for predicting high frequency radiation patterns of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas. This is an analytic study of airborne antenna patterns using the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD). The aircraft is modeled in its most basic form so that the solution is applicable to general-type aircraft. The fuselage is modeled as a perfectly conducting composite ellipsoid; whereas, the wings, stabilizers, nose, fuel tanks, and engines, are simulated as perfectly conducting flat plates that can be attached to the fuselage and/or to each other. The composite-ellipsoid fuselage model is necessary to successfully simulate the wide variety of real world fuselage shapes. Since the antenna is mounted on the fuselage, it has a dominant effect on the resulting radiation pattern so it must be simulated accurately, especially near the antenna. Various radiation patterns are calculated for commercial, private, and military aircraft, and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The application of this solution to numerous practical airborne antenna problems illustrates its versatility and design capability. In most cases, the solution accuracy is verified by the comparisons between the calculated and measured data.

  16. Airborne Simulation of Launch Vehicle Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Orr, Jeb S.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Gilligan, Eric T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a technique for approximating the short-period dynamics of an exploration-class launch vehicle during flight test with a high-performance surrogate aircraft in relatively benign endoatmospheric flight conditions. The surrogate vehicle relies upon a nonlinear dynamic inversion scheme with proportional-integral feedback to drive a subset of the aircraft states into coincidence with the states of a time-varying reference model that simulates the unstable rigid body dynamics, servodynamics, and parasitic elastic and sloshing dynamics of the launch vehicle. The surrogate aircraft flies a constant pitch rate trajectory to approximate the boost phase gravity turn ascent, and the aircraft's closed-loop bandwidth is sufficient to simulate the launch vehicle's fundamental lateral bending and sloshing modes by exciting the rigid body dynamics of the aircraft. A novel control allocation scheme is employed to utilize the aircraft's relatively fast control effectors in inducing various failure modes for the purposes of evaluating control system performance. Sufficient dynamic similarity is achieved such that the control system under evaluation is configured for the full-scale vehicle with no changes to its parameters, and pilot-control system interaction studies can be performed to characterize the effects of guidance takeover during boost. High-fidelity simulation and flight-test results are presented that demonstrate the efficacy of the design in simulating the Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle dynamics using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Armstrong Flight Research Center Fullscale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST), a modified F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois), over a range of scenarios designed to stress the SLS's Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm.

  17. Airborne Simulation of Launch Vehicle Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilligan, Eric T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a technique for approximating the short-period dynamics of an exploration-class launch vehicle during flight test with a high-performance surrogate aircraft in relatively benign endoatmospheric flight conditions. The surrogate vehicle relies upon a nonlinear dynamic inversion scheme with proportional-integral feedback to drive a subset of the aircraft states into coincidence with the states of a time-varying reference model that simulates the unstable rigid body dynamics, servodynamics, and parasitic elastic and sloshing dynamics of the launch vehicle. The surrogate aircraft flies a constant pitch rate trajectory to approximate the boost phase gravity-turn ascent, and the aircraft's closed-loop bandwidth is sufficient to simulate the launch vehicle's fundamental lateral bending and sloshing modes by exciting the rigid body dynamics of the aircraft. A novel control allocation scheme is employed to utilize the aircraft's relatively fast control effectors in inducing various failure modes for the purposes of evaluating control system performance. Sufficient dynamic similarity is achieved such that the control system under evaluation is optimized for the full-scale vehicle with no changes to its parameters, and pilot-control system interaction studies can be performed to characterize the effects of guidance takeover during boost. High-fidelity simulation and flight test results are presented that demonstrate the efficacy of the design in simulating the Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle dynamics using NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST), a modified F/A-18 airplane, over a range of scenarios designed to stress the SLS's adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm.

  18. Dynamic Simulation of Airborne High Power Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    42, 43 and 44. These curves give the secondary current of phase A, IL11, the primary K current of phase A, IL22 , and the magnetizing current of phase...A, due to ILll I" and IL22 , PIX. The simulation was for wye-wye connection of three single phase trans- formers. The data used was not for any...plot of a single variable, the statement "PLOT" is used IL11, IL22 , IL33, PLOT K 185 This statement will provide a separate plot of each variable

  19. Master equation simulations of a model of a thermochemical system.

    PubMed

    Kawczyński, Andrzej L; Nowakowski, Bogdan

    2003-09-01

    Master equation approach is used to study the influence of fluctuations on the dynamics of a model thermochemical system. For appropriate values of parameters, the deterministic description of the system gives the subcritical or supercritical Hopf bifurcations. For small systems (containing 100 000 particles) close to the supercritical Hopf bifurcation, the stochastic trajectories obtained from numerical simulations do not allow to distinguish between damped oscillations around a stable focus and sustained oscillations around a small stable limit cycle. This uncertainty disappears if the number of particles in the system is increased (up to 1 000 000). Close to subcritical Hopf bifurcation the stochastic trajectory of the system jumps from the basin of attraction of a stable focus to the basin of attraction of a stable limit cycle. In this case the time dependencies of temperature and concentration of reactant in the system are apparently similar to intermittent chaotic oscillations. The mean first passage time for the transitions from the stable focus to the stable limit cycle show the characteristic exponential dependence on the number of particles. This passage time depends very strongly on the bifurcation parameter (reaction heat), which determines the distance between the stable focus and an unstable limit cycle.

  20. Simulation Results for Airborne Precision Spacing along Continuous Descent Arrivals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a fast-time simulation experiment and a high-fidelity simulator validation with merging streams of aircraft flying Continuous Descent Arrivals through generic airspace to a runway at Dallas-Ft Worth. Aircraft made small speed adjustments based on an airborne-based spacing algorithm, so as to arrive at the threshold exactly at the assigned time interval behind their Traffic-To-Follow. The 40 aircraft were initialized at different altitudes and speeds on one of four different routes, and then merged at different points and altitudes while flying Continuous Descent Arrivals. This merging and spacing using flight deck equipment and procedures to augment or implement Air Traffic Management directives is called Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing, an important subset of a larger Airborne Precision Spacing functionality. This research indicates that Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing initiated while at cruise altitude and well prior to the Terminal Radar Approach Control entry can significantly contribute to the delivery of aircraft at a specified interval to the runway threshold with a high degree of accuracy and at a reduced pilot workload. Furthermore, previously documented work has shown that using a Continuous Descent Arrival instead of a traditional step-down descent can save fuel, reduce noise, and reduce emissions. Research into Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing is a cooperative effort between government and industry partners.

  1. Design of a monitor and simulation terminal (master) for space station telerobotics and telescience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, L.; Konkel, C.; Harmon, P.; King, S.

    1989-01-01

    Based on Space Station and planetary spacecraft communication time delays and bandwidth limitations, it will be necessary to develop an intelligent, general purpose ground monitor terminal capable of sophisticated data display and control of on-orbit facilities and remote spacecraft. The basic elements that make up a Monitor and Simulation Terminal (MASTER) include computer overlay video, data compression, forward simulation, mission resource optimization and high level robotic control. Hardware and software elements of a MASTER are being assembled for testbed use. Applications of Neural Networks (NNs) to some key functions of a MASTER are also discussed. These functions are overlay graphics adjustment, object correlation and kinematic-dynamic characterization of the manipulator.

  2. A simulator for airborne laser swath mapping via photon counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatton, K. C.; Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R.

    2005-06-01

    Commercially marketed airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) instruments currently use laser rangers with sufficient energy per pulse to work with return signals of thousands of photons per shot. The resulting high signal to noise level virtually eliminates spurious range values caused by noise, such as background solar radiation and sensor thermal noise. However, the high signal level approach requires laser repetition rates of hundreds of thousands of pulses per second to obtain contiguous coverage of the terrain at sub-meter spatial resolution, and with currently available technology, affords little scalability for significantly downsizing the hardware, or reducing the costs. A photon-counting ALSM sensor has been designed by the University of Florida and Sigma Space, Inc. for improved topographic mapping with lower power requirements and weight than traditional ALSM sensors. Major elements of the sensor design are presented along with preliminary simulation results. The simulator is being developed so that data phenomenology and target detection potential can be investigated before the system is completed. Early simulations suggest that precise estimates of terrain elevation and target detection will be possible with the sensor design.

  3. A Quantitative Dynamic Simulation of Bremia lactucae Airborne Conidia Concentration above a Lettuce Canopy

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Mamadou Lamine; Van der Heyden, Hervé; Carisse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Bremia lactucae Regel, is a major threat to lettuce production worldwide. Lettuce downy mildew is a polycyclic disease driven by airborne spores. A weather-based dynamic simulation model for B. lactucae airborne spores was developed to simulate the aerobiological characteristics of the pathogen. The model was built using the STELLA platform by following the system dynamics methodology. The model was developed using published equations describing disease subprocesses (e.g., sporulation) and assembled knowledge of the interactions among pathogen, host, and weather. The model was evaluated with four years of independent data by comparing model simulations with observations of hourly and daily airborne spore concentrations. The results show an accurate simulation of the trend and shape of B. lactucae temporal dynamics of airborne spore concentration. The model simulated hourly and daily peaks in airborne spore concentrations. More than 95% of the simulation runs, the daily-simulated airborne conidia concentration was 0 when airborne conidia were not observed. Also, the relationship between the simulated and the observed airborne spores was linear. In more than 94% of the simulation runs, the proportion of the linear variation in the hourly-observed values explained by the variation in the hourly-simulated values was greater than 0.7 in all years except one. Most of the errors came from the deviation from the 1:1 line, and the proportion of errors due to the model bias was low. This model is the only dynamic model developed to mimic the dynamics of airborne inoculum and represents an initial step towards improved lettuce downy mildew understanding, forecasting and management. PMID:26953691

  4. Simulator Evaluation of Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2001-01-01

    The Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) concept is designed to support independent parallel approach operations to runways spaced as close as 2500 ft. This report describes the AILS operational concept and the results of a ground-based flight simulation experiment of one implementation of this concept. The focus of this simulation experiment was to evaluate pilot performance, pilot acceptability, and minimum miss-distances for the rare situation in which all aircraft oil one approach intrudes into the path of an aircraft oil the other approach. Results from this study showed that the design-goal mean miss-distance of 1200 ft to potential collision situations was surpassed with an actual mean miss-distance of 2236 ft. Pilot reaction times to the alerting system, which was an operational concern, averaged 1.11 sec, well below the design-goal reaction time 2.0 sec.These quantitative results and pilot subjective data showed that the AILS concept is reasonable from an operational standpoint.

  5. Vibrational energy flow in the villin headpiece subdomain: Master equation simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, David M. E-mail: stock@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Buchenberg, Sebastian; Brettel, Paul; Stock, Gerhard E-mail: stock@physik.uni-freiburg.de

    2015-02-21

    We examine vibrational energy flow in dehydrated and hydrated villin headpiece subdomain HP36 by master equation simulations. Transition rates used in the simulations are obtained from communication maps calculated for HP36. In addition to energy flow along the main chain, we identify pathways for energy transport in HP36 via hydrogen bonding between residues quite far in sequence space. The results of the master equation simulations compare well with all-atom non-equilibrium simulations to about 1 ps following initial excitation of the protein, and quite well at long times, though for some residues we observe deviations between the master equation and all-atom simulations at intermediate times from about 1–10 ps. Those deviations are less noticeable for hydrated than dehydrated HP36 due to energy flow into the water.

  6. MODIS technical report series. Volume 3: MODIS airborne simulator level 1B data user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumley, Liam E.; Hubanks, Paul A.; Masuoka, Edward J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the characteristics of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) airborne simulator level 1B data, the calibration and geolocation methods used in processing, the structure and format of the level 1B data files, and methods for accessing the data. The MODIS airborne simulator is a scanning spectrometer which flies on a NASA ER-2 and provides spectral information similar to that which will be provided by the MODIS.

  7. Air Force Master Plan - Simulators for Aircrew Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    research program is proposed to suppcrt future acquisitions. Estimates of program costs are made and the magnitude of potential direct operating costs and...flying hours made possible by increased simulator use; - "Increased research and development of simulation technology; * "Development and procurement...intoprograms and associated fiscal support requirements. The management structure for simulator research , decvlopmnt and acquisition was studied to

  8. Coarse master equation from Bayesian analysis of replica molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Sriraman, Saravanapriyan; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G; Hummer, Gerhard

    2005-04-14

    We use Bayesian inference to derive the rate coefficients of a coarse master equation from molecular dynamics simulations. Results from multiple short simulation trajectories are used to estimate propagators. A likelihood function constructed as a product of the propagators provides a posterior distribution of the free coefficients in the rate matrix determining the Markovian master equation. Extensions to non-Markovian dynamics are discussed, using the trajectory "paths" as observations. The Markovian approach is illustrated for the filling and emptying transitions of short carbon nanotubes dissolved in water. We show that accurate thermodynamic and kinetic properties, such as free energy surfaces and kinetic rate coefficients, can be computed from coarse master equations obtained through Bayesian inference.

  9. Use of Airborne Hyperspectral Data in the Simulation of Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Miguel, Eduardo; Jimenez, Marcos; Ruiz, Elena; Salido, Elena; Gutierrez de la Camara, Oscar

    2016-08-01

    The simulation of future images is part of the development phase of most Earth Observation missions. This simulation uses frequently as starting point images acquired from airborne instruments. These instruments provide the required flexibility in acquisition parameters (time, date, illumination and observation geometry...) and high spectral and spatial resolution, well above the target values (as required by simulation tools). However, there are a number of important problems hampering the use of airborne imagery. One of these problems is that observation zenith angles (OZA), are far from those that the misisons to be simulated would use.We examine this problem by evaluating the difference in ground reflectance estimated from airborne images for different observation/illumination geometries. Next, we analyze a solution for simulation purposes, in which a Bi- directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model is attached to an image of the isotropic surface reflectance. The results obtained confirm the need for reflectance anisotropy correction when using airborne images for creating a reflectance map for simulation purposes. But this correction should not be used without providing the corresponding estimation of BRDF, in the form of model parameters, to the simulation teams.

  10. Simulation of plasma motion in the polar ionosphere. Master's Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Deist, D.W.

    1994-09-01

    A model of plasma motion in the polar ionosphere is presented. Plasma motion due to polar convection and corotation above 50 deg N is modeled. The universal time (UT)-dependent corotation electric field (in the geomagnetic frame) is added to a polar convection electric field that is UT-dependent in the geographic frame and the total is displayed in both reference frames. To simulate actual magnetic conditions, varying polar convection patterns may be used by the model the authors have developed. Trajectories of single plasma parcels and regions of plasma are calculated. The calculated trajectories are displayed in the geographic and magnetic inertial reference frames. The model developed is applied to the study of a region of electron depletion near the pole, a polar hole. Changes in the size and location of the polar hole are explained in terms of a changing convection pattern. The results of this thesis are being used by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to further study ionospheric plasma motion.

  11. Simulation of a weather radar display for over-water airborne radar approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clary, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne radar approach (ARA) concepts are being investigated as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program on advanced guidance and navigation methods. This research is being conducted using both piloted simulations and flight test evaluations. For the piloted simulations, a mathematical model of the airborne radar was developed for over-water ARAs to offshore platforms. This simulated flight scenario requires radar simulation of point targets, such as oil rigs and ships, distributed sea clutter, and transponder beacon replies. Radar theory, weather radar characteristics, and empirical data derived from in-flight radar photographs are combined to model a civil weather/mapping radar typical of those used in offshore rotorcraft operations. The resulting radar simulation is realistic and provides the needed simulation capability for ongoing ARA research.

  12. Airborne asbestos exposures associated with gasket and packing replacement: a simulation study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Madl, Amy K; Hollins, Dana M; Devlin, Kathryn D; Donovan, Ellen P; Dopart, Pamela J; Scott, Paul K; Perez, Angela L

    2014-08-01

    Exposures to airborne asbestos during the removal and installation of internal gaskets and packing associated with a valve overhaul were characterized and compared to published data according to different variables (e.g., product, equipment, task, tool, setting, duration). Personal breathing zone and area samples were collected during twelve events simulating gasket and packing replacement, clean-up and clothing handling. These samples were analyzed using PCM and TEM methods and PCM-equivalent (PCME) airborne asbestos concentrations were calculated. A meta-analysis was performed to compare these data with airborne asbestos concentrations measured in other studies involving gaskets and packing. Short-term mechanic and assistant airborne asbestos concentrations during valve work averaged 0.013f/cc and 0.008f/cc (PCME), respectively. Area samples averaged 0.008f/cc, 0.005f/cc, and 0.003f/cc (PCME) for center, bystander, and remote background, respectively. Assuming a tradesman conservatively performs 1-3 gasket and/or packing replacements daily, an average 8-h TWA was estimated to be 0.002-0.010f/cc (PCME). Combining these results in a meta-analysis of the published exposure data showed that the majority of airborne asbestos exposures during work with gaskets and packing fall within a consistent and low range. Significant differences in airborne concentrations were observed between power versus manual tools and removal versus installation tasks. Airborne asbestos concentrations resulting from gasket and packing work during a valve overhaul are consistent with historical exposure data on replacement of asbestos-containing gasket and packing materials involving multiple variables and, in nearly all plausible scenarios, result in average airborne asbestos concentrations below contemporaneous occupational exposure limits for asbestos.

  13. The cloud radiation impact from optics simulation and airborne observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikova, Irina; Kuznetsov, Anatoly; Gatebe, Charles

    2017-02-01

    The analytical approach of inverse asymptotic formulas of the radiative transfer theory is used for solving inverse problems of cloud optics. The method has advantages because it does not impose strict constraints, but it is tied to the desired solution. Observations are accomplished in extended stratus cloudiness, above a homogeneous ocean surface. Data from NASA`s Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) during two airborne experiments (SAFARI-2000 and ARCTAS-2008) were analyzed. The analytical method of inverse asymptotic formulas was used to retrieve cloud optical parameters (optical thickness, single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter of the phase function) and ground albedo in all 8 spectral channels independently. The method is free from a priori restrictions and there is no links to parameters, and it has been applied to data set of different origin and geometry of observations. Results obtained from different airborne, satellite and ground radiative experiments appeared consistence and showed common features of values of cloud parameters and its spectral dependence (Vasiluev, Melnikova, 2004; Gatebe et al., 2014). Optical parameters, retrieved here, are used for calculation of radiative divergence, reflected and transmitted irradiance and heating rates in cloudy atmosphere, that agree with previous observational data.

  14. Users guide for an Airborne Windshear Doppler Radar Simulation (AWDRS) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.

    1990-01-01

    A description is provided of the Airborne Windshear Doppler Radar Simulation (AWDRS) program developed for NASA-Langley by the Research Triangle Institute. The radar simulation program is a comprehensive calculation of the signal characteristics and expected outputs of an airborne coherent pulsed Doppler radar system viewing a low level microburst along or near the approach path of the aircraft. The detailed nature of the simulation permits the quick evaluation of proposed trade-offs in radar system parameters and the evaluation of the performance of proposed configurations in various microburst/clutter environments. The simulation also provides a test bed for various proposed signal processing techniques for minimizing the effects of noise, phase jitter, and ground clutter and maximizing the useful information derived for avoidance of microburst windshear by aircraft.

  15. Design and performance simulations for an airborne DIAL system for long-range remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, James A.; Kelly, Brian T.; Gonglewski, John D.; Fox, Marsha J.; Shilko, Michael L.; Higdon, Noah S.; Highland, Ronald G.; Senft, Daniel C.; Dean, David R.; Blackburn, John P.; Pierrottet, Diego F.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory is evaluating the feasibility of long-standoff-range remote sensing of gaseous species present in trace amounts in the atmosphere. To date, the Phillips Laboratory program has been concerned with the preliminary design and performance analysis of a commercially available CO(subscript 2) laser-based DIAL system operating from mountain-top-observatory and airborne platform and more recently with long-range ground testing using a 21.8 km slant path from 3.05 km ASL to sea level as the initial steps in the design and development of an airborne system capability. Straightforward scaling of the performance of a near-term technology direct-detection LIDAR system with propagation range to a topographic target and with the average atmospheric absorption coefficient along the path has been performed. Results indicate that useful airborne operation of such a system should be possible for slant path ranges between 20 km and 50 km, depending upon atmospheric transmission at the operating wavelengths of the (superscript 13)C(superscript 16)O(subscript 2) source. This paper describes the design of the airborne system which will be deployed on the Phillips Laboratory NC-135 research aircraft for DIAL system performance tests at slant ranges of 20 km to 50 km, scheduled for the near future. Performance simulations for the airborne tests will be presented and related to performance obtained during initial ground-based tests.

  16. Exposure to airborne asbestos associated with simulated cable installation above a suspended ceiling.

    PubMed

    Keyes, D L; Chesson, J; Ewing, W M; Faas, J C; Hatfield, R L; Hays, S M; Longo, W E; Millette, J R

    1991-11-01

    Installing cable above a suspended ceiling in the presence of asbestos-containing fireproofing is an example of an activity that may disturb in-place asbestos and associated dust and debris. Two simulations of cable installation were conducted in a room of an unoccupied school to test the extent of such disturbance and resulting elevations in airborne asbestos. Average airborne asbestos concentrations in the room increased over 500-fold during the simulations, with several samples exceeding 50 structures per cubic centimeter (s/cm3), as measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with an indirect preparation technique. Elevated concentrations persisted during a subsequent cleaning of horizontal surfaces in the room and for several hours thereafter. Personal samples collected on the cable installers yielded TEM measurements averaging approximately 68 s/cm3 for the two simulations.

  17. A hardware/software simulation for the video tracking system of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boozer, G. A.; Mckibbin, D. D.; Haas, M. R.; Erickson, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    This simulator was created so that C-141 Kuiper Airborne Observatory investigators could test their Airborne Data Acquisition and Management System software on a system which is generally more accessible than the ADAMS on the plane. An investigator can currently test most of his data acquisition program using the data computer simulator in the Cave. (The Cave refers to the ground-based computer facilities for the KAO and the associated support personnel.) The main Cave computer is interfaced to the data computer simulator in order to simulate the data-Exec computer communications. However until now, there has been no way to test the data computer interface to the tracker. The simulator described here simulates both the KAO Exec and tracker computers with software which runs on the same Hewlett-Packard (HP) computer as the investigator's data acquisition program. A simulator control box is hardwired to the computer to provide monitoring of tracker functions, to provide an operator panel similar to the real tracker, and to simulate the 180 deg phase shifting of the chopper squre-wave reference with beam switching. If run in the Cave, one can use their Exec simulator and this tracker simulator.

  18. Airborne Relay-Based Regional Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyuman; Noh, Hongjun; Lim, Jaesung

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based pseudolite systems have some limitations, such as low vertical accuracy, multipath effects and near-far problems. These problems are not significant in airborne-based pseudolite systems. However, the monitoring of pseudolite positions is required because of the mobility of the platforms on which the pseudolites are mounted, and this causes performance degradation. To address these pseudolite system limitations, we propose an airborne relay-based regional positioning system that consists of a master station, reference stations, airborne relays and a user. In the proposed system, navigation signals are generated from the reference stations located on the ground and are relayed via the airborne relays. Unlike in conventional airborne-based systems, the user in the proposed system sequentially estimates both the locations of airborne relays and his/her own position. Therefore, a delay due to monitoring does not occur, and the accuracy is not affected by the movement of airborne relays. We conducted several simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. Based on the simulation results, we demonstrated that the proposed system guarantees a higher accuracy than airborne-based pseudolite systems, and it is feasible despite the existence of clock offsets among reference stations. PMID:26029953

  19. Modeling and simulation of single electron transistor with master equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willy, Frans; Darma, Yudi

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss modeling and simulation of single dot Single Electron Transistor (SET) using master equation approximation. For SET modeling and simulation, master equation method treats the electron tunneling and its transition probabilistically. The probability of electron tunneling is used to determine the current density in accordance with selected input parameters. The calculation results show fairly accurate electrical characteristics of SET as compared with experimental data. Staircase pattern from I-V are clearly obtained as the main role of coulomb blockade effect in SET system. We also extend our calculation by introduce some additional parameters such as; the effect of working temperature, gate voltage dependent, and the influence of resistance to the device characteristic. We found that increasing operational temperature will promote higher current density, both in forward and reverse bias region. In the case of using single dot with 30 nm × 80 nm × 125 nm dimension, coulomb blockade effect could be reduced by applying gate voltage higher than 3V and setting drain resistance higher than source's. Our studies show an alternative approach in modeling and simulation of electronic devices and could be potential for development of novel nanoelectronic devices.

  20. Evaluation of virtual simulation in a master's-level nurse education certificate program.

    PubMed

    Foronda, Cynthia; Lippincott, Christine; Gattamorta, Karina

    2014-11-01

    Master's-level, nurse education certificate students performed virtual clinical simulations as a portion of their clinical practicum. Virtual clinical simulation is an innovative pedagogy using avatars in Web-based platforms to provide simulated clinical experiences. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to evaluate nurse educator students' experience with virtual simulation and the effect of virtual simulation on confidence in teaching ability. Aggregated quantitative results yielded no significant change in confidence in teaching ability. Individually, some students indicated change of either increased or decreased confidence, whereas others exhibited no change in confidence after engaging in virtual simulation. Qualitative findings revealed a process of precursors of anxiety and frustration with technical difficulties followed by outcomes of appreciation and learning. Instructor support was a mediating factor to decrease anxiety and technical difficulties. This study served as a starting point regarding the application of a virtual world to teach the art of instruction. As the movement toward online education continues, educators should further explore use of virtual simulation to prepare nurse educators.

  1. Environmental Factors Affecting Asthma and Allergies: Predicting and Simulating Downwind Exposure to Airborne Pollen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Huete, Alfredo; Solano, Ramon; Ratana, Piyachat; Jiang, Zhangyan; Flowers, Len; Zelicoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the environmental factors that affect asthma and allergies and work to predict and simulate the downwind exposure to airborne pollen. Using a modification of Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) that incorporates phenology (i.e. PREAM) the aim was to predict concentrations of pollen in time and space. The strategy for using the model to simulate downwind pollen dispersal, and evaluate the results. Using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to get seasonal sampling of Juniper, the pollen chosen for the study, land cover on a near daily basis. The results of the model are reviewed.

  2. Local error estimates for adaptive simulation of the Reaction-Diffusion Master Equation via operator splitting.

    PubMed

    Hellander, Andreas; Lawson, Michael J; Drawert, Brian; Petzold, Linda

    2014-06-01

    The efficiency of exact simulation methods for the reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is severely limited by the large number of diffusion events if the mesh is fine or if diffusion constants are large. Furthermore, inherent properties of exact kinetic-Monte Carlo simulation methods limit the efficiency of parallel implementations. Several approximate and hybrid methods have appeared that enable more efficient simulation of the RDME. A common feature to most of them is that they rely on splitting the system into its reaction and diffusion parts and updating them sequentially over a discrete timestep. This use of operator splitting enables more efficient simulation but it comes at the price of a temporal discretization error that depends on the size of the timestep. So far, existing methods have not attempted to estimate or control this error in a systematic manner. This makes the solvers hard to use for practitioners since they must guess an appropriate timestep. It also makes the solvers potentially less efficient than if the timesteps are adapted to control the error. Here, we derive estimates of the local error and propose a strategy to adaptively select the timestep when the RDME is simulated via a first order operator splitting. While the strategy is general and applicable to a wide range of approximate and hybrid methods, we exemplify it here by extending a previously published approximate method, the Diffusive Finite-State Projection (DFSP) method, to incorporate temporal adaptivity.

  3. Stochastic simulation of reaction subnetworks: Exploiting synergy between the chemical master equation and the Gillespie algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, J.

    2016-12-01

    Stochastic simulation of reaction networks is limited by two factors: accuracy and time. The Gillespie algorithm (GA) is a Monte Carlo-type method for constructing probability distribution functions (pdf) from statistical ensembles. Its accuracy is therefore a function of the computing time. The chemical master equation (CME) is a more direct route to obtaining the pdfs, however, solving the CME is generally very difficult for large networks. We propose a method that combines both approaches in order to simulate stochastically a part of a network. The network is first divided into two parts: A and B. Part A is simulated using the GA, while the solution of the CME for part B, with initial conditions imposed by simulation results of part A, is fed back into the GA. This cycle is then repeated a desired number of times. The advantage of this synergy between the two approaches is: 1) the GA needs to simulate only a part of the whole network, and hence is faster, and 2) the CME is necessarily simpler to solve, as the part of the network it describes is smaller. We will demonstrate on two examples - a positive feedback (genetic switch) and oscillations driven by a negative feedback - the utility of this approach.

  4. Passenger ride quality response to an airborne simulator environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, T. D.; Rezek, T. W.; Gee, S. W.

    1975-01-01

    The present study was done aboard a special aircraft able to effect translations through the center of gravity with a minimum of pitch and roll. The aircraft was driven through controlled motions by an on-board analog computer. The input signal was selectively filtered Gaussian noise whose power spectra approximated that of natural turbulence. This input, combined with the maneuvering capabilities of this aircraft, resulted in an extremely realistic simulation of turbulent flight. The test flights also included varying bank angles during turns. Subjects were chosen from among NASA Flight Research Center personnel. They were all volunteers, were given physical examinations, and were queried about their attitudes toward flying before final selection. In profile, they were representative of the general flying public. Data from this study include (1) a basis for comparison with previous commercial flights, that is, motion dominated by vertical acceleration, (2) extension to motion dominated by lateral acceleration, and (3) evaluation of various bank angles.

  5. Optimizing JPC-based remote entanglement of transmon qubits via stochastic master equation simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalys-Geller, E.; Hatridge, M.; Silveri, M.; Narla, A.; Sliwa, K. M.; Shankar, S.; Girvin, S. M.; Devoret, M. H.

    2015-03-01

    Remote entanglement of two superconducting qubits may be accomplished by first entangling them with flying coherent microwave pulses, and then erasing the which-path information of these pulses by using a non-degenerate parametric amplifier such as the Josephson Parametric Converter (JPC). Crucially, this process requires no direct interaction between the two qubits. The JPC, however, will fail to completely erase the which-path information if the flying microwave pulses encode any difference in dynamics of the two qubit-cavity systems. This which-path information can easily arise from mismatches in the cavity linewidths and the cavity dispersive shifts from their respective qubits. Through analysis of the Stochastic Master Equation for this system, we have found a strategy for shaping the measurement pulses to eliminate the effect of these mismatches on the entangling measurement. We have then confirmed the effectiveness of this strategy by numerical simulation. Work supported by: IARPA, ARO, and NSF.

  6. Lattice Microbes: high-performance stochastic simulation method for the reaction-diffusion master equation

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Elijah; Stone, John E.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2013-01-01

    Spatial stochastic simulation is a valuable technique for studying reactions in biological systems. With the availability of high-performance computing, the method is poised to allow integration of data from structural, single-molecule, and biochemical studies into coherent computational models of cells. Here we introduce the Lattice Microbes software package for simulating such cell models on high-performance computing systems. The software performs either well-stirred or spatially resolved stochastic simulations with approximated cytoplasmic crowding in a fast and efficient manner. Our new algorithm efficiently samples the reaction-diffusion master equation using NVIDIA GPUs and is shown to be two orders of magnitude faster than exact sampling for large systems while maintaining an accuracy of ∼0.1%. Display of cell models and animation of reaction trajectories involving millions of molecules is facilitated using a plug-in to the popular VMD visualization platform. The Lattice Microbes software is open source and available for download at http://www.scs.illinois.edu/schulten/lm. PMID:23007888

  7. Double-Pulse Two-Micron IPDA Lidar Simulation for Airborne Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta

    2015-01-01

    An advanced double-pulsed 2-micron integrated path differential absorption lidar has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center for measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide. The instrument utilizes a state-of-the-art 2-micron laser transmitter with tunable on-line wavelength and advanced receiver. Instrument modeling and airborne simulations are presented in this paper. Focusing on random errors, results demonstrate instrument capabilities of performing precise carbon dioxide differential optical depth measurement with less than 3% random error for single-shot operation from up to 11 km altitude. This study is useful for defining CO2 measurement weighting, instrument setting, validation and sensitivity trade-offs.

  8. End-to-end simulation of the image stability for the airborne telescope SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenhoff, Ulrich; Eisentraeger, Peter; Wandner, Karl; Kaercher, Hans J.; Nordmann, Rainer

    2000-06-01

    To provide astronomers access to infrared wavelength unavailable from the ground the airborne telescope SOFIA is in development. This paper focuses on the image stability of the telescope, its modeling and simulation. The operation of the telescope under the harsh environmental conditions in the aircraft makes the prediction of the image stability during the design process necessary. For this purpose an integrated mathematical simulation model, which includes the optics, the structural dynamics and the control loops has been constructed. Because of the high relevance of the structural dynamics for image stability and control design, special attention is paid to the import and reduction of the finite element model of the telescopes mechanical structure. Different control approaches are considered for the attitude control and the compensation of the impact of the structural flexibility on the image motion. Additionally the secondary mirror servo-mechanism is utilized to optimize the image stability. Simulation results are shown.

  9. Comparison of preliminary results from Airborne Aster Simulator (AAS) with TIMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannari, Yoshiaki; Mills, Franklin; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ezaka, Teruya; Narita, Tatsuhiko; Chang, Sheng-Huei

    1992-01-01

    The Japanese Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), being developed for a NASA EOS-A satellite, will have 3 VNIR, 6 SWIR, and 5 TIR (8-12 micron) bands. An Airborne ASTER Simulator (AAS) was developed for Japan Resources Observation System Organization (JAROS) by the Geophysical Environmental Research Group (GER) Corp. to research surface temperature and emission features in the MWIR/TIR, to simulate ASTER's TIR bands, and to study further possibility of MWIR/TIR bands. ASTER Simulator has 1 VNIR, 3 MWIR (3-5 microns), and 20 (currently 24) TIR bands. Data was collected over 3 sites - Cuprite, Nevada; Long Valley/Mono Lake, California; and Death Valley, California - with simultaneous ground truth measurements. Preliminary data collected by AAS for Cuprite, Nevada is presented and AAS data is compared with Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data.

  10. Three dimensional simulation of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride during the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, Jack A.; Rood, Richard B.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.; Allen, Dale J.; Larson, Edmund M.; Coffey, Michael T.; Mankin, William G.; Toon, Geoffrey C.

    1990-01-01

    Simulations of the evolution of stratospheric distributions of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF) have been carried out for the period of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) with a three-dimensional chemistry-transport model. Simulations were performed assuming only homogeneous gas phase chemistry for HF and both homogeneous gas phase and heterogeneous chemistry for HCl. Results show heterogeneous loss of HCl is needed to provide agreement with infrared column measurements. Estimates of the impact of heterogeneous loss on the global HCl distribution are obtained from the model. Reductions of HCl due to heterogeneous loss are calculated to be localized to regions of high vorticity, even after more than a month of integration.

  11. Quantum chemical and master equation simulations of the oxidation and isomerization of vinoxy radicals.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Keith T; Hasson, Alam S; Dickinson, Ray V; Petersen, Erin B; Valin, Lukas C

    2005-03-24

    The vinoxy radical, a common intermediate in gas-phase alkene ozonolysis, reacts with O2 to form a chemically activated alpha-oxoperoxy species. We report CBS-QB3 energetics for O2 addition to the parent (*CH2CHO, 1a), 1-methylvinoxy (*CH2COCH3, 1b), and 2-methylvinoxy (CH3*CHCHO, 1c) radicals. CBS-QB3 predictions for peroxy radical formation agree with experimental data, while the G2 method systematically overestimates peroxy radical stability. RRKM/master equation simulations based on CBS-QB3 data are used to estimate the competition between prompt isomerization and thermalization for the peroxy radicals derived from 1a, 1b, and 1c. The lowest energy isomerization pathway for radicals 4a and 4c (derived from 1a and 1c, respectively) is a 1,4-shift of the acyl hydrogen requiring 19-20 kcal/mol. The resulting hydroperoxyacyl radical decomposes quantitatively to form *OH. The lowest energy isomerization pathway for radical 4b (derived from 1b) is a 1,5-shift of a methyl hydrogen requiring 26 kcal/mol. About 25% of 4a, but only approximately 5% of 4c, isomerizes promptly at 1 atm pressure. Isomerization of 4b is negligible at all pressures studied.

  12. Theoretical simulation of a 2 micron airborne solid state laser anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbert, Beatrice; Cariou, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    In the near future, military aircraft will need to know precisely their true airspeed in order to optimize flight conditions. In comparison with classical anemometer probes, an airborne Doppler lidar allows measurement of the air velocity without influence from aircraft aerodynamic disturbance. While several demonstration systems of heterodyne detection using a CO2 laser have been reported, improvements in the technology of solid state lasers have recently opened up the possibility that these devices can be used as an alternative to CO2 laser systems. In particular, a diode pumped Tm:Ho:YAG laser allows a reliable compact airborne system with an eye safe wavelength (lambda = 2.09 microns) to be achieved. The theoretical study of performances of a coherent lidar using a solid state diode pumped Tm:Ho:YAG laser, caled SALSA, for measuring aircraft airspeed relative to atmospheric aerosols is described. A computer simulation was developed in order to modelize the Doppler anemometer in the function of atmospheric propagation and optical design. A clever analysis of the power budget on the detector area allows optical characteristic parameters of the system to be calculated, and then it can be used to predict performances of the Doppler system. Estimating signal to noise ratios (SNR) and heterodyne efficiency provides the available energy of speed measurement as well as a useful measurement of the alignment of the backscattered and reference fields on the detector.

  13. Object-based assessment of burn severity in diseased forests using high-spatial and high-spectral resolution MASTER airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Metz, Margaret R.; Rizzo, David M.; Dillon, Whalen W.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2015-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of disturbances with increasing intensities and frequencies, which may permanently change the trajectories of forest recovery and disrupt the ecosystem services provided by trees. Fire and invasive species, especially exotic disease-causing pathogens and insects, are examples of disturbances that together could pose major threats to forest health. This study examines the impacts of fire and exotic disease (sudden oak death) on forests, with an emphasis on the assessment of post-fire burn severity in a forest where trees have experienced three stages of disease progression pre-fire: early-stage (trees retaining dried foliage and fine twigs), middle-stage (trees losing fine crown fuels), and late-stage (trees falling down). The research was conducted by applying Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) to MASTER airborne images that were acquired immediately following the fire for rapid assessment and contained both high-spatial (4 m) and high-spectral (50 bands) resolutions. Although GEOBIA has gradually become a standard tool for analyzing high-spatial resolution imagery, high-spectral resolution data (dozens to hundreds of bands) can dramatically reduce computation efficiency in the process of segmentation and object-based variable extraction, leading to complicated variable selection for succeeding modeling. Hence, we also assessed two widely used band reduction algorithms, PCA (principal component analysis) and MNF (minimum noise fraction), for the delineation of image objects and the subsequent performance of burn severity models using either PCA or MNF derived variables. To increase computation efficiency, only the top 5 PCA and MNF and top 10 PCA and MNF components were evaluated, which accounted for 10% and 20% of the total number of the original 50 spectral bands, respectively. Results show that if no band reduction was applied the models developed for the three stages of disease progression had relatively

  14. Optimized Field Sampling and Monitoring of Airborne Hazardous Transport Plumes; A Geostatistical Simulation Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, DI-WEN

    2001-11-21

    Airborne hazardous plumes inadvertently released during nuclear/chemical/biological incidents are mostly of unknown composition and concentration until measurements are taken of post-accident ground concentrations from plume-ground deposition of constituents. Unfortunately, measurements often are days post-incident and rely on hazardous manned air-vehicle measurements. Before this happens, computational plume migration models are the only source of information on the plume characteristics, constituents, concentrations, directions of travel, ground deposition, etc. A mobile ''lighter than air'' (LTA) system is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will be part of the first response in emergency conditions. These interactive and remote unmanned air vehicles will carry light-weight detectors and weather instrumentation to measure the conditions during and after plume release. This requires a cooperative computationally organized, GPS-controlled set of LTA's that self-coordinate around the objectives in an emergency situation in restricted time frames. A critical step before an optimum and cost-effective field sampling and monitoring program proceeds is the collection of data that provides statistically significant information, collected in a reliable and expeditious manner. Efficient aerial arrangements of the detectors taking the data (for active airborne release conditions) are necessary for plume identification, computational 3-dimensional reconstruction, and source distribution functions. This report describes the application of stochastic or geostatistical simulations to delineate the plume for guiding subsequent sampling and monitoring designs. A case study is presented of building digital plume images, based on existing ''hard'' experimental data and ''soft'' preliminary transport modeling results of Prairie Grass Trials Site. Markov Bayes Simulation, a coupled Bayesian/geostatistical methodology, quantitatively combines soft information

  15. Functional Allocation with Airborne Self-Separation Evaluated in a Piloted Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Chamberlain, James P.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoardley, Sherwood T.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Palmer, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation experiment was designed and conducted to evaluate an airborne self-separation concept. The activity supports the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) research focus on function allocation for separation assurance. The objectives of the experiment were twofold: (1) use experiment design features in common with a companion study of ground-based automated separation assurance to promote comparability, and (2) assess agility of self-separation operations in managing trajectory-changing events in high traffic density, en-route operations with arrival time constraints. This paper describes the experiment and presents initial results associated with subjective workload ratings and group discussion feedback obtained from the experiment s commercial transport pilot participants.

  16. Effect of ultraviolet on the survival of bacteria airborne in simulated Martian dust clouds.

    PubMed

    Hagen, C A; Hawrylewicz, E J; Anderson, B T; Cephus, M L

    1970-01-01

    A chamber was constructed to create simulated Martian dust storms and thereby study the survival of airborne micro-organisms while exposed to the rigors of the Martian environment, including ultraviolet irradiation. Representative types of sporeforming and non-sporeforming bacteria present in spacecraft assembly areas and indigenous to humans were studied. It was found that daily ultraviolet irradiation of 2 to 9 X 10(7) erg cm-2 was not sufficient to sterilize the dust clouds. The soil particles protected the organisms from ultraviolet irradiation since the numbers of survivors from irradiated environments were similar to those from unirradiated environments. Pending further data of the Martian environment, the contamination and dissemination of Mars with terrestrial micro-organisms is still a distinct possibility.

  17. Image-Based Airborne Sensors: A Combined Approach for Spectral Signatures Classification through Deterministic Simulated Annealing

    PubMed Central

    Guijarro, María; Pajares, Gonzalo; Herrera, P. Javier

    2009-01-01

    The increasing technology of high-resolution image airborne sensors, including those on board Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, demands automatic solutions for processing, either on-line or off-line, the huge amountds of image data sensed during the flights. The classification of natural spectral signatures in images is one potential application. The actual tendency in classification is oriented towards the combination of simple classifiers. In this paper we propose a combined strategy based on the Deterministic Simulated Annealing (DSA) framework. The simple classifiers used are the well tested supervised parametric Bayesian estimator and the Fuzzy Clustering. The DSA is an optimization approach, which minimizes an energy function. The main contribution of DSA is its ability to avoid local minima during the optimization process thanks to the annealing scheme. It outperforms simple classifiers used for the combination and some combined strategies, including a scheme based on the fuzzy cognitive maps and an optimization approach based on the Hopfield neural network paradigm. PMID:22399989

  18. Double-Pulse Two-micron LPDA Lidar Simulation for Airborne Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta

    2016-06-01

    An advanced double-pulse 2-μm integrated path differential absorption lidar has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center for measuring atmospheric carbon dioxide. The instrument utilizes a state-of-the-art 2-μm laser transmitter with tunable on-line wavelength and advanced receiver. Instrument modeling and airborne simulations are presented in this paper. Focusing on random errors, results demonstrate instrument capabilities of performing precise carbon dioxide differential optical depth measurement with less than 3% random error for single-shot operation up to 11 km altitude. This study is useful for defining CO2 measurement weighting function for adaptive targeting, instrument setting, validation and sensitivity trade-offs.

  19. Resolution of the vibrational energy distribution function using a direct simulation Monte Carlo-master equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Iain D.; Josyula, Eswar

    2016-01-01

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is the primary numerical technique for analysis of rarefied gas flows. While recent progress in computational chemistry is beginning to provide vibrationally resolved transition and reaction cross sections that can be employed in DSMC calculations, the particle nature of the standard DSMC method makes it difficult to use this information in a statistically significant way. The current study introduces a new technique that makes it possible to resolve all of the vibrational energy levels by using a master equation approach along with temperature-dependent transition rates. The new method is compared to the standard DSMC technique for several heat bath and shock wave conditions and demonstrates the ability to resolve the full vibrational manifold at the expected overall rates of relaxation. The ability of the new master equation approach to the DSMC method for resolving, in particular, the high-energy states addresses a well-known, longstanding deficiency of the standard DSMC method.

  20. Resolution of the vibrational energy distribution function using a direct simulation Monte Carlo-master equation approach

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Iain D.; Josyula, Eswar

    2016-01-15

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is the primary numerical technique for analysis of rarefied gas flows. While recent progress in computational chemistry is beginning to provide vibrationally resolved transition and reaction cross sections that can be employed in DSMC calculations, the particle nature of the standard DSMC method makes it difficult to use this information in a statistically significant way. The current study introduces a new technique that makes it possible to resolve all of the vibrational energy levels by using a master equation approach along with temperature-dependent transition rates. The new method is compared to the standard DSMC technique for several heat bath and shock wave conditions and demonstrates the ability to resolve the full vibrational manifold at the expected overall rates of relaxation. The ability of the new master equation approach to the DSMC method for resolving, in particular, the high-energy states addresses a well-known, longstanding deficiency of the standard DSMC method.

  1. ADS-33C related handling qualities research performed using the NRC Bell 205 airborne simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. Murray; Baillie, Stewart W.

    1993-01-01

    Over 10 years ago a project was initiated by the U.S. Army AVSCOM to update the military helicopter flying qualities specification MIL-8501-A. While not yet complete, the project reached a major milestone in 1989 with the publication of an Airworthiness Design Standard, ADS-33C. The 8501 update project initially set out to identify critical gaps in the requisite data base and then proceeded to fill them using a variety of directed research studies. The magnitude of the task required that it become an international effort: appropriate research studies were conducted in Germany, the UK and Canada as well as in the USA. Canadian participation was supported by the Department of National Defence (DND) through the Chief of Research and Development. Both ground based and in-flight simulation were used to study the defined areas and the Canadian Bell 205-A1 variable stability helicopter was used extensively as one of the primary research tools available for this effort. This paper reviews the involvement of the Flight Research Laboratory of the National Research Council of Canada in the update project, it describes the various experiments conducted on the Airborne Simulator, it notes significant results obtained and describes ongoing research associated with the project.

  2. Simulations of an airborne laser absorption spectrometer for atmospheric CO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, B.; Ismail, S.; Harrison, F. W.; Browell, E. V.; Dobler, J. T.; Refaat, T.; Kooi, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric column amount of carbon dioxide (CO2), a major greenhouse gas of the atmosphere, has significantly increased from a preindustrial value of about 280 parts per million (ppm) to more than 390 ppm at present. Our knowledge about the spatiotemporal change and variability of the greenhouse gas, however, is limited. Thus, a near-term space mission of the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) is crucial to increase our understanding of global sources and sinks of CO2. Currently, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and ITT Exelis are jointly developing and testing an airborne laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a prototype instrument for the mission. To assess the space capability of accurate atmospheric CO2 measurements, accurate modeling of the instrument and practical evaluation of space applications are the keys for the success of the ASCENDS mission. This study discusses the simulations of the performance of the airborne instrument and its CO2 measurements. The LAS is a multi-wavelength spectrometer operating on a 1.57 um CO2 absorption line. The Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) approach is implemented in the instrument. To reach accurate CO2 measurements, transmitted signals are monitored internally as reference channels. A model of this kind of instrument includes all major components of the spectrometer, such as modulation generator, fiber amplifier, telescope, detector, transimpedance amplifier, matched filter, and other signal processors. The characteristics of these components are based on actual laboratory tests, product specifications, and general understanding of the functionality of the components. For simulations of atmospheric CO2 measurements, environmental conditions related to surface reflection, atmospheric CO2 and H2O profiles, thin clouds, and aerosol layers, are introduced into the model. Furthermore, all major noise sources such as those from detectors, background radiation, speckle, and

  3. A Simulation Testbed for Adaptive Modulation and Coding in Airborne Telemetry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-29

    development, implementation, and testing/verification of algorithms for airborne telemetry applications. This testbed utilizes both SOQPSK and OFDM for...SOQPSK), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM ), Bit Error Rate, (BER) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Unclassified 17. LIMITATION OF...implementation, and testing/verification of algorithms for airborne telemetry applications. This testbed utilizes both SOQPSK and OFDM for its modulation

  4. Land cover mapping in Latvia using hyperspectral airborne and simulated Sentinel-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Filipovs, Jevgenijs; Brauns, Agris; Taskovs, Juris; Erins, Gatis

    2016-08-01

    Land cover mapping in Latvia is performed as part of the Corine Land Cover (CLC) initiative every six years. The advantage of CLC is the creation of a standardized nomenclature and mapping protocol comparable across all European countries, thereby making it a valuable information source at the European level. However, low spatial resolution and accuracy, infrequent updates and expensive manual production has limited its use at the national level. As of now, there is no remote sensing based high resolution land cover and land use services designed specifically for Latvia which would account for the country's natural and land use specifics and end-user interests. The European Space Agency launched the Sentinel-2 satellite in 2015 aiming to provide continuity of free high resolution multispectral satellite data thereby presenting an opportunity to develop and adapted land cover and land use algorithm which accounts for national enduser needs. In this study, land cover mapping scheme according to national end-user needs was developed and tested in two pilot territories (Cesis and Burtnieki). Hyperspectral airborne data covering spectral range 400-2500 nm was acquired in summer 2015 using Airborne Surveillance and Environmental Monitoring System (ARSENAL). The gathered data was tested for land cover classification of seven general classes (urban/artificial, bare, forest, shrubland, agricultural/grassland, wetlands, water) and sub-classes specific for Latvia as well as simulation of Sentinel-2 satellite data. Hyperspectral data sets consist of 122 spectral bands in visible to near infrared spectral range (356-950 nm) and 100 bands in short wave infrared (950-2500 nm). Classification of land cover was tested separately for each sensor data and fused cross-sensor data. The best overall classification accuracy 84.2% and satisfactory classification accuracy (more than 80%) for 9 of 13 classes was obtained using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier with 109 band

  5. Comparisons of Anvil Cirrus Spatial Characteristics between Airborne Observations in DC3 Campaign and WRF Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, J.; Diao, M.; Chen, M.

    2015-12-01

    John D'Alessandro1, Minghui Diao1, Ming Chen2, George Bryan2, Hugh Morrison21. Department of Meteorology and Climate Science, San Jose State University2. Mesoscale & Microscale Meteorology Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 80301 Ice crystal formation requires the prerequisite condition of ice supersaturation, i.e., relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) greater than 100%. The formation and evolution of ice supersaturated regions (ISSRs) has large impact on the subsequent formation of ice clouds. To examine the characteristics of simulated ice supersaturated regions at various model spatial resolutions, case studies between airborne in-situ measurements in the NSF Deep Convective, Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) campaign (May - June 2012) and WRF simulations are conducted in this work. Recent studies using ~200 m in-situ observations showed that ice supersaturated regions are mostly around 1 km in horizontal scale (Diao et al. 2014). Yet it is still unclear if such observed characteristics can be represented by WRF simulations at various spatial resolutions. In this work, we compare the WRF simulated anvil cirrus spatial characteristics with those observed in the DC3 campaign over the southern great plains in US. The WRF model is run at 1 km and 3 km horizontal grid spacing with a recent update of Thompson microphysics scheme. Our comparisons focus on the spatial characteristics of ISSRs and cirrus clouds, including the distributions of their horizontal scales, the maximum relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) and the relationship between RHi and temperature. Our previous work on the NCAR CM1 cloud-resolving model shows that the higher resolution runs (i.e., 250m and 1km) generally have better agreement with observations than the coarser resolution (4km) runs. We will examine if similar trend exists for WRF simulations in deep convection cases. In addition, we will compare the simulation results between WRF and CM1, particularly

  6. APPEL Masters with Masters #3

    NASA Video Gallery

    Masters with Masters #3 features Mike Hawes, Assoc. Administrator, Office of Independent Program Cost & Evaluation, and Lynn Cline, Deputy Assoc. Administrator for Special Operations Missions, disc...

  7. Thermal resistance of naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores. [Viking spacecraft dry heat decontamination simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puleo, J. R.; Bergstrom, S. L.; Peeler, J. T.; Oxborrow, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Simulation of a heat process used in the terminal dry-heat decontamination of the Viking spacecraft is reported. Naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores were collected on Teflon ribbons in selected spacecraft assembly areas and subsequently subjected to dry heat. Thermal inactivation experiments were conducted at 105, 111.7, 120, 125, 130, and 135 C with a moisture level of 1.2 mg of water per liter. Heat survivors were recovered at temperatures of 135 C when a 30-h heating cycle was employed. Survivors were recovered from all cycles studied and randomly selected for identification. The naturally occurring spore population was reduced an average of 2.2 to 4.4 log cycles from 105 to 135 C. Heating cycles of 5 and 15 h at temperature were compared with the standard 30-h cycle at 111.7, 120, and 125 C. No significant differences in inactivation (alpha = 0.05) were observed between 111.7 and 120 C. The 30-h cycle differs from the 5- and 15-h cycles at 125 C. Thus, the heating cycle can be reduced if a small fraction (about 0.001 to 0.0001) of very resistant spores can be tolerated.

  8. Retrieval of Aerosol Within Cloud Fields Using the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munchak, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Patadia, F.; Wilcox, E. M.; Marshak, A.

    2015-12-01

    Passive satellite remote sensing has become essential for obtaining global information about aerosol properties, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol fine mode fraction (FMF). However, due to the spatial resolution of satellite aerosol products (typically 3 km and larger), observing aerosol within dense partly cloudy fields is difficult from space. Here, we apply an adapted version of the MODIS Collection 6 dark target algorithm to the 50-meter MODIS airborne simulator retrieved reflectances measured during the SEAC4RS campaign during 2013 to robustly retrieve aerosol with a 500 m resolution. We show good agreement with AERONET and MODIS away from cloud, suggesting that the algorithm is working as expected. However, closer to cloud, significant AOD increases are observed. We investigate the cause of these AOD increases, including examining the potential for undetected cloud contamination, reflectance increases due to unconsidered 3D radiative effects, and the impact of humidification on aerosol properties. In combination with other sensors that flew in SEAC4RS, these high-resolution observations of aerosol in partly cloudy fields can be used to characterize the radiative impact of the "twilight zone" between cloud and aerosol which is typically not considered in current estimates of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  9. Imaging and radiometric performance simulation for a new high-performance dual-band airborne reconnaissance camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Sehyun; Yu, Jinhee; Ryu, Dongok; Hong, Jinsuk; Yoon, Jee-Yeon; Kim, Sug-Whan; Lee, Jun-Ho; Shin, Myung-Jin

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, high performance visible and IR cameras have been used widely for tactical airborne reconnaissance. The process improvement for efficient discrimination and analysis of complex target information from active battlefields requires for simultaneous multi-band measurement from airborne platforms at various altitudes. We report a new dual band airborne camera designed for simultaneous registration of both visible and IR imagery from mid-altitude ranges. The camera design uses a common front end optical telescope of around 0.3m in entrance aperture and several relay optical sub-systems capable of delivering both high spatial resolution visible and IR images to the detectors. The camera design is benefited from the use of several optical channels packaged in a compact space and the associated freedom to choose between wide (~3 degrees) and narrow (~1 degree) field of view. In order to investigate both imaging and radiometric performances of the camera, we generated an array of target scenes with optical properties such as reflection, refraction, scattering, transmission and emission. We then combined the target scenes and the camera optical system into the integrated ray tracing simulation environment utilizing Monte Carlo computation technique. Taking realistic atmospheric radiative transfer characteristics into account, both imaging and radiometric performances were then investigated. The simulation results demonstrate successfully that the camera design satisfies NIIRS 7 detection criterion. The camera concept, details of performance simulation computation, the resulting performances are discussed together with future development plan.

  10. Analyzing carbon dioxide and methane emissions in California using airborne measurements and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Jeong, S.; Fischer, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have increased over the past decades and are linked to global temperature increases and climate change. These changes in climate have been suggested to have varying effects, and uncertain consequences, on agriculture, water supply, weather, sea-level rise, the economy, and energy. To counteract the trend of increasing atmospheric concentrations of GHGs, the state of California has passed the California Global Warming Act of 2006 (AB-32). This requires that by the year 2020, GHG (e.g., carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) emissions will be reduced to 1990 levels. To quantify GHG fluxes, emission inventories are routinely compiled for the State of California (e.g., CH4 emissions from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) Project). The major sources of CO2 and CH4 in the state of California are: transportation, electricity production, oil and gas extraction, cement plants, agriculture, landfills/waste, livestock, and wetlands. However, uncertainties remain in these emission inventories because many factors contributing to these processes are poorly quantified. To alleviate these uncertainties, a synergistic approach of applying air-borne measurements and chemical transport modeling (CTM) efforts to provide a method of quantifying local and regional GHG emissions will be performed during this study. Additionally, in order to further understand the temporal and spatial distributions of GHG fluxes in California and the impact these species have on regional climate, CTM simulations of daily variations and seasonality of total column CO2 and CH4 will be analyzed. To assess the magnitude and spatial variation of GHG emissions and to identify local 'hot spots', airborne measurements of CH4 and CO2 were made by the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) over the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in January and February 2013 during the Discover-AQ-CA study. High mixing ratios of GHGs were

  11. Simulation tests to assess occupational exposure to airborne asbestos from asphalt-based roofing products.

    PubMed

    Mowat, Fionna; Weidling, Ryan; Sheehan, Patrick

    2007-07-01

    This study sought to evaluate exposure from specific products to evaluate potential risk from roof repair activities. Five asbestos-containing fibered roof coatings and plastic cements, representing a broad range of these types of products, were tested in exposure simulations. These products were applied to representative roof substrates. Release of asbestos fibers during application and sanding of the product shortly thereafter (wet sanding) were tested initially. Other roof substrates were cured to simulate a product that had been on a rooftop for several months and then were tested to evaluate release of fibers during hand sanding and hand scraping activities. Additional tests were also conducted to evaluate asbestos release during product removal from tools and clothing. Two personal (n = 84) and background/clearance (n = 49) samples were collected during each 30-min test and analyzed for total fiber concentration [phase-contrast microscopy (PCM)] and for asbestos fiber count [transmission electron microscopy (TEM)]. PCM concentrations ranged from <0.005 to 0.032 fibers per cubic centimeter (f cc(-1)). Chrysotile fibers were detected in 28 of 84 personal samples collected. TEM concentrations ranged from <0.0021 to 0.056 f cc(-1). Calculated 8-h time-weighted averages (TWAs) ranged from 0.0003 to 0.002 f cc(-1) and were comparable to the background TWA concentration of 0.0002 f cc(-1) measured in this study. Based on these results, it is unlikely that roofers were exposed to airborne asbestos concentrations above the current or historical occupational guidelines during scraping and sanding of these products during roof repair.

  12. Numerical simulation of airborne cloud seeding over Greece, using a convective cloud model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, Vlado; Karacostas, Theodore; Bampzelis, Dimitrios; Pytharoulis, Ioannis

    2015-02-01

    An extensive work has been done by the Department of Meteorology and Climatology at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and others using a three-dimensional cloud resolving model to simulate AgI seeding by aircraft of three distinct hailstorm cases occurred over Greece in period 2007-2009. The seeding criterion for silver iodide glaciogenic seeding from air is based on the beneficial competition mechanism. According to thermodynamic analysis and classification proposed by Marwitz (1972a, b, and c) and based on their structural and evolutionary properties we classified them in three groups as singlecell, multicell and supercell hailstorms. The seeding optimization for each selected case is conducted by analysis of the thermodynamic characteristics of the meteorological environment as well as radar reflectivity fields observed by the state of the art Thunderstorm Identification, Tracking, Analysis and Nowcasting (TITAN) software applied in the Greek National Hail Suppression Program (GNHSP). Results of this comprehensive study have shown positive effects with respect to hailfall decrease after successful seeding as our primarily objective. All three cases have illustrated 15-20% decrease in accumulated hailfall at the ground Seeded clouds have exhibited earlier development of precipitation and slight dynamical enhancement of the updraft and rainfall increase of ~10- 12.5%. The results have emphasized a strong interaction between cloud dynamics and microphysics, especially the subgrid scale processes that have impact on agent transport and diffusion in a complex environment. Comparisons between modelled and observed radar reflectivity also show a relatively good agreement. Simulated cloud seeding follows the operational aircraft seeding for hail suppression. The ability of silver-iodide particles to act as ice nuclei has been used to perform airborne cloud seeding, under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The seeding effects depend upon applying the

  13. Evapotranspiration from Airborne Simulators as a Proxy Datasets for NASA's ECOSTRESS mission - A new Thermal Infrared Instrument on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillevic, P. C.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Olioso, A.; Sanchez, J. M.; Drewry, D.; Running, S. W.; Fisher, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Surface evapotranspiration (ET) represents the loss of water from the Earth's surface both by soil evaporation and vegetation transpiration processes. ET is a key climate variable linking the water, carbon, and energy cycles, and is very sensitive to changes in atmospheric forcing and soil water content. The response of ET to water and heat stress directly affects the surface energy balance and temperature which can be measured by thermal infrared remote sensing observations. The NASA ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) will be deployed in 2019 to address critical questions on plant-water dynamics, ecosystem productivity and future ecosystem changes with climate through an optimal combination of thermal infrared measurements in 5 spectral bands between 8-12 µm with pixel sizes of 38×57 m and an average revisit of 5 days over the contiguous United States at varying times of day. Two instruments capable of providing proxy datasets are the MODIS/ASTER (MASTER) airborne simulator and Hyperspectral Thermal Emissions Spectrometer (HyTES). This study is focused on estimating evapotranspiration using shortwave and thermal infrared remote sensing observations from these instruments. The thermal infrared data from MASTER/HyTES is used as a proxy dataset for ECOSTRESS to demonstrate the capability of the future spaceborne system to derive ET and water stress information from thermal based retrievals of land surface temperature. MASTER and HyTES data collected from 2004 to present over the Western United States at different seasons are used to test and evaluate different ET algorithms using ground-based measurements. Selected algorithms are 1) explicitly based on surface energy budget calculation or 2) based on the Penman-Monteith equation and use information on land surface temperature to estimate the surface resistance to convective fluxes. We use ground data from the Fluxnet and Ameriflux networks, and from permanent validation

  14. Assessment of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Gulf of Riga using hyperspectral airborne and simulated Sentinel-3 OLCI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Brauns, Agris; Filipovs, Jevgenijs; Taskovs, Juris; Fedorovicha, Dagnija; Paavel, Birgot; Ligi, Martin; Kutser, Tiit

    2016-08-01

    Remote sensing has proved to be an accurate and reliable tool in clear water environments like oceans or the Mediterranean Sea. However, the current algorithms and methods usually fail on optically complex waters like coastal and inland waters. The whole Baltic Sea can be considered as optically complex coastal waters. Remote assessment of water quality parameters (eg., chlorophyll-a concentration) is of interest for monitoring of marine environment, but hasn't been used as a routine approach in Latvia. In this study, two simultaneous hyperspectral airborne data and in situ measurement campaigns were performed in the Gulf of Riga near the River Daugava mouth in summer 2015 to simulate Sentinel-3 data and test existing algorithms for retrieval of Level 2 Water products. Comparison of historical data showed poor overall correlation between in situ measurements and MERIS chlorophyll-a data products. Better correlation between spectral chl-a data products and in situ water sampling measurements was achieved during simultaneous airborne and field campaign resulting in R2 up to 0.94 for field spectral data, R2 of 0.78 for airborne data. Test of all two band ratio combinations showed that R2 could be improved from 0.63 to 0.94 for hyperspectral airborne data choosing 712 and 728 nm bands instead of 709 and 666 nm, and R2 could be improved from 0.61 to 0.83 for simulated Sentinel-3 OLCI data choosing Oa10 and Oa8 bands instead of Oa11 and Oa8. Repeated campaigns are planned during spring and summer blooms 2016 in the Gulf of Riga to get larger data set for validation and evaluate repeatability. The main challenges remain to acquire as good data as possible within rapidly changing environment and often cloudy weather conditions.

  15. Application of the full spectrum inversion algorithm to simulated airborne GPS radio occultation signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Loknath; Xie, Feiqin; Haase, Jennifer S.

    2016-10-01

    With a GPS receiver on board an airplane, the airborne radio occultation (ARO) technique provides dense lower-tropospheric soundings over target regions. Large variations in water vapor in the troposphere cause strong signal multipath, which could lead to systematic errors in RO retrievals with the geometric optics (GO) method. The spaceborne GPS RO community has successfully developed the full-spectrum inversion (FSI) technique to solve the multipath problem. This paper is the first to adapt the FSI technique to retrieve atmospheric properties (bending and refractivity) from ARO signals, where it is necessary to compensate for the receiver traveling on a non-circular trajectory inside the atmosphere, and its use is demonstrated using an end-to-end simulation system. The forward-simulated GPS L1 (1575.42 MHz) signal amplitude and phase are used to test the modified FSI algorithm. The ARO FSI method is capable of reconstructing the fine vertical structure of the moist lower troposphere in the presence of severe multipath, which otherwise leads to large retrieval errors in the GO retrieval. The sensitivity of the modified FSI-retrieved bending angle and refractivity to errors in signal amplitude and errors in the measured refractivity at the receiver is presented. Accurate bending angle retrievals can be obtained from the surface up to ˜ 250 m below the receiver at typical flight altitudes above the tropopause, above which the retrieved bending angle becomes highly sensitive to the phase measurement noise. Abrupt changes in the signal amplitude that are a challenge for receiver tracking and geometric optics bending angle retrieval techniques do not produce any systematic bias in the FSI retrievals when the SNR is high. For very low SNR, the FSI performs as expected from theoretical considerations. The 1 % in situ refractivity measurement errors at the receiver height can introduce a maximum refractivity retrieval error of 0.5 % (1 K) near the receiver, but

  16. Solving the chemical master equation by a fast adaptive finite state projection based on the stochastic simulation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sidje, R B; Vo, H D

    2015-11-01

    The mathematical framework of the chemical master equation (CME) uses a Markov chain to model the biochemical reactions that are taking place within a biological cell. Computing the transient probability distribution of this Markov chain allows us to track the composition of molecules inside the cell over time, with important practical applications in a number of areas such as molecular biology or medicine. However the CME is typically difficult to solve, since the state space involved can be very large or even countably infinite. We present a novel way of using the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) to reduce the size of the finite state projection (FSP) method. Numerical experiments that demonstrate the effectiveness of the reduction are included.

  17. A Hybrid of the Chemical Master Equation and the Gillespie Algorithm for Efficient Stochastic Simulations of Sub-Networks.

    PubMed

    Albert, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Modeling stochastic behavior of chemical reaction networks is an important endeavor in many aspects of chemistry and systems biology. The chemical master equation (CME) and the Gillespie algorithm (GA) are the two most fundamental approaches to such modeling; however, each of them has its own limitations: the GA may require long computing times, while the CME may demand unrealistic memory storage capacity. We propose a method that combines the CME and the GA that allows one to simulate stochastically a part of a reaction network. First, a reaction network is divided into two parts. The first part is simulated via the GA, while the solution of the CME for the second part is fed into the GA in order to update its propensities. The advantage of this method is that it avoids the need to solve the CME or stochastically simulate the entire network, which makes it highly efficient. One of its drawbacks, however, is that most of the information about the second part of the network is lost in the process. Therefore, this method is most useful when only partial information about a reaction network is needed. We tested this method against the GA on two systems of interest in biology--the gene switch and the Griffith model of a genetic oscillator--and have shown it to be highly accurate. Comparing this method to four different stochastic algorithms revealed it to be at least an order of magnitude faster than the fastest among them.

  18. Simulators for Mariner Training and Licensing. Phase 3, Task C. Performance Standards for Master Level Simulator Training.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    AD-A16 536 NATIONAL MARITIME RESEARCH CENTER KINGS POINT NY COM-ETC F/S 5/9 SIMULATORS FOR MARINER TRAINING AND LICENSING. PHASE 3 , TASK C.-ETC(U...EEIIEIIIIIEIIE EEIIEEEEIIEIIE EIIIIIEEEEEIIE CG-D- 15-82 CAORF 50-8007-02 SIMULATORS FOR MARINER TRAINING AND LICENSING PHASE 3 , TASK C: & PERFORMANCE...Accession No 4 Title and Subtitle .. .....- 5 Report Oat Simulators for Mar inel Training and Licensing, Phase 3 , Task C: Performance Standards fo

  19. Atmospheric composition and thermodynamic retrievals from the ARIES airborne FTS system - Part 1: Technical aspects and simulated capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, S. M.; Allen, G.; Newman, S.; Vance, A.; Marenco, F.; Harlow, R. C.; Taylor, J.; Moore, D. P.; Remedios, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the retrieval capability of the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES); an airborne remote sensing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operated on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) aircraft. Simulated optimally-estimated-retrievals of partial column trace gas concentrations, and thermodynamic vertical profiles throughout the troposphere and planetary boundary layer have been performed here for simulated infrared spectra representative of the ARIES system. We also describe the operational and technical aspects of the pre-processing necessary for routine retrieval from the FAAM platform and the selection and construction of a priori information. As exemplars of the capability of the ARIES retrieval system, simulated retrievals of temperature, water vapour (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and methane (CH4), and their corresponding sources of error and potential vertical sensitivity, are discussed for ARIES scenes across typical global environments. The maximum Degrees of Freedom for Signal (DOFS) for the retrievals, assuming a flight altitude of 7 km, were: 3.99, 2.97, 0.85, 0.96, and 1.45 for temperature, H2O, CO, O3, and CH4, respectively for the a priori constraints specified. Retrievals of temperature display significant vertical sensitivity (DOFS in the range 2.6 to 4.0 across the altitude range) as well as excellent simulated accuracy, with the vertical sensitivity for H2O also extending to lower altitudes (DOFS ranging from 1.6 to 3.0). It was found that the maximum sensitivity for CO, O3, and CH4 was approximately 1-2 km below the simulated altitudes in all scenarios. Comparisons of retrieved and simulated-truth partial atmospheric columns are used to assess the capability of the ARIES measurement system. Maximum mean biases (and bias standard deviations) in partial columns (i.e. below aircraft total columns) were found to be: +0.06 (±0.02 at 1σ) %, +3.95 (±3

  20. Atmospheric composition and thermodynamic retrievals from the ARIES airborne FTS system - Part 1: Technical aspects and simulated capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, S. M.; Allen, G.; Newman, S.; Vance, A.; Marenco, F.; Harlow, R. C.; Taylor, J.; Moore, D. P.; Remedios, J. J.

    2014-04-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the retrieval capability of the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES): an airborne remote-sensing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) operated on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) aircraft. Simulated maximum a posteriori retrievals of partial column trace gas concentrations, and thermodynamic vertical profiles throughout the troposphere and planetary boundary layer have been performed here for simulated infrared spectra representative of the ARIES system operating in the nadir-viewing geometry. We also describe the operational and technical aspects of the pre-processing necessary for routine retrieval from the FAAM platform and the selection and construction of a priori information. As exemplars of the capability of the ARIES retrieval system, simulated retrievals of temperature, water vapour (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and methane (CH4), and their corresponding sources of error and potential vertical sensitivity, are discussed for ARIES scenes across typical global environments. The maximum Degrees of Freedom for Signal (DOFS) for the retrievals, assuming a flight altitude of 7 km, were 3.99, 2.97, 0.85, 0.96, and 1.45 for temperature, H2O, CO, O3, and CH4, respectively, for the a priori constraints specified. Retrievals of temperature display significant vertical sensitivity (DOFS in the range 2.6 to 4.0 across the altitude range) as well as excellent simulated accuracy, with the vertical sensitivity for H2O also extending to lower altitudes (DOFS ranging from 1.6 to 3.0). It was found that the maximum sensitivity for CO, O3, and CH4 was approximately 1-2 km below the simulated altitudes in all scenarios. Comparisons of retrieved and simulated-truth partial atmospheric columns are used to assess the capability of the ARIES measurement system. Maximum mean biases (and bias standard deviations) in partial columns (i.e. below aircraft total columns) were found to

  1. Mastering Surgical Skills Through Simulation-Based Learning: Practice Makes One Perfect

    PubMed Central

    Khunger, Niti; Kathuria, Sushruta

    2016-01-01

    Simulation-based learning in surgery is a learning model where an environment similar to real life surgical situation is created for the trainee to learn various surgical skills. It can be used to train a new operator as well to assess his skills. This methodology helps in repetitive practice of surgical skills on nonliving things so that the operator can be near-perfect when operating on a live patient. Various models are available for learning different dermatosurgery skills. PMID:27081246

  2. Survey: Destruction of chemical agent simulants in supercritical water oxidation. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, M.R.

    1992-07-01

    The supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process exhibits distinct advantages for destruction of toxic wastes. Examples of these wastes are two chemical agent simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and thiodiglycol (2,2'-thiodiethanol). DMMP is similar to the nerve agent GB Sarin in structure, and thiodiglycol is a hydrolysis product of the blister agent HD Sulfur Mustard. Both simulants are miscible in water and relatively non-toxic in comparison to the actual chemical agents. Using a Laboratory-scale, batch three temperatures were investigated: 425 deg C, 450 deg C, and 500 deg C with an initial concentration of one percent by volume, 11,450 mg/L for DMMP and 12,220 mg/L for thiodiglycol. Residence times investigated were: 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 minutes. Reactor beat-up (H.U.) was determined to be one minute. Both pyrolysis and oxidation tests were conducted. Oxygen levels were uniformly set at 200% of stoichiometric requirements for the parent compounds.

  3. Simulations of the high average power selene free electron laser prototype. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Quick, D.D.

    1994-06-01

    Free electron laser (FEL) technology continues to advance, providing alternative solutions to existing and potential problems. The capabilities of an FEL with respect to tunability, power and efficiency make it an attractive choice when moving into new laser utilization fields. The initial design parameters, for any new system, offer a good base to begin system simulation tests in an effort to determine the best possible design. This is a study of the Novosibirsk design which is a prototype for the proposed SELENE FEL. The design uses a three-section, low-power optical klystron followed by a single-pass, high-power radiator. This system is inherently sensitive to electron beam quality, but affords flexibility in achieving the final design. The performance of the system is studied using the initial parameters. An FEL, configured as a simple, two section optical klystron is studied to determine the basic operating characteristics of a high current FEL klystron.

  4. a Box-Counting Method to Characterize Degrees of Foliage Clumping Using Airborne and Simulated LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, M.; van Aardt, J. A. N.; Kampe, T.; Krause, K.

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring forest productivity and health is key to sustainable ecosystem management and informed decision making. A key parameter used in monitoring forest resources is the leaf area index (LAI), which is defined as the one-sided leaf area per unit ground area and is used to describe the canopy radiation regime, among other forest biophysical dynamics. Traditional optics-based methods to estimate LAI rely on the measurement of canopy transmission and foliage clumping. Extending optical methods to LiDAR data has been challenging and studies have reported effective LAI assessments, with no further quantification of foliage clumping. This study investigates the use of the box-counting method to assess the fractal dimension of point cloud data for contrasting forest types and along a gradient of foliage dispersal. We demonstrate the box-counting method on simulated 'range-to-hit', as well as acquired airborne discrete LiDAR data. Coherent results obtained from the different test cases hint at the potential of the box-counting fractal dimension to characterize foliage clumping and bode well for the use of clumping assessments in support of airborne, wall-to-wall estimates of LAI.

  5. Discussion of the Separation of Chemical and Relaxational Kinetics of Chemically Activated Intermediates in Master Equation Simulations.

    PubMed

    Döntgen, Malte; Leonhard, Kai

    2017-03-02

    Chemical activation of intermediates, such as hydrogen abstraction products, is emerging as a basis for a fully new reaction type: hot β-scission. While for thermally equilibrated intermediates chemical kinetics are typically orders of magnitude slower than relaxational kinetics, chemically activated intermediates raise the issue of inseparable chemical and relaxational kinetics. Here, this separation problem is discussed in the framework of master equation simulations, proposing three cases often encountered in chemistry: insignificant chemical activation, predominant chemical activation, and the transition between these two limits. These three cases are illustrated via three example systems: methoxy (CH3Ȯ), diazenyl (ṄNH), and methyl formate radicals (CH3OĊO). For diazenyl, it is found that hot β-scission fully replaces the sequence of hydrogen abstraction and β-scission of thermally equilibrated diazenyl. Building on the example systems, a rule of thumb is proposed that can be used to intuitively judge the significance of hot β-scission: if the reverse hydrogen abstraction barrier height is comparable to or larger than the β-scission barrier height, hot β-scission should be considered in more detail.

  6. Comparison of Airborne and Ground-Based Function Allocation Concepts for NextGen Using Human-In-The-Loop Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Prevot, Thomas; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Cabrall, Christopher D.; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wilson, Sara R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Chamberlain, James P.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Palmer, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an air/ground functional allocation experiment conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) using two human-in-the-Loop simulations to compare airborne and ground-based approaches to NextGen separation assurance. The approaches under investigation are two trajectory-based four-dimensional (4D) concepts; one referred to as "airborne trajectory management with self-separation" (airborne) the other as "ground-based automated separation assurance" (ground-based). In coordinated simulations at NASA's Ames and Langley Research Centers, the primary operational participants -controllers for the ground-based concept and pilots for the airborne concept - manage the same traffic scenario using the two different 4D concepts. The common scenarios are anchored in traffic problems that require a significant increase in airspace capacity - on average, double, and in some local areas, close to 250% over current day levels - in order to enable aircraft to safely and efficiently traverse the test airspace. The simulations vary common independent variables such as traffic density, sequencing and scheduling constraints, and timing of trajectory change events. A set of common metrics is collected to enable a direct comparison of relevant results. The simulations will be conducted in spring 2010. If accepted, this paper will be the first publication of the experimental approach and early results. An initial comparison of safety and efficiency as well as operator acceptability under the two concepts is expected.

  7. MODIS airborne simulator visible and near-infrared calibration, 1992 ASTEX field experiment. Calibration version: ASTEX King 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael; Grant, Patrick S.; King, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of the visible and near-infrared (near-IR) channels of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) is derived from observations of a calibrated light source. For the 1992 Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) field deployment, the calibrated light source was the NASA Goddard 48-inch integrating hemisphere. Tests during the ASTEX deployment were conducted to calibrate the hemisphere and then the MAS. This report summarizes the ASTEX hemisphere calibration, and then describes how the MAS was calibrated from the hemisphere data. All MAS calibration measurements are presented and determination of the MAS calibration coefficients (raw counts to radiance conversion) is discussed. In addition, comparisons to an independent MAS calibration by Ames personnel using their 30-inch integrating sphere is discussed.

  8. A Comparison of Snow Depth on Sea Ice Retrievals Using Airborne Altimeters and an AMSR-E Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Marksu, T.; Ivanoff, A.; Miller, J. A.; Brucker, L.; Sturm, M.; Maslanik, J. A.; Heinrichs, J. F.; Gasiewski, A.; Leuschen, C.; Krabill, W.; Sonntag, J.

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of snow depths on sea ice was made using airborne altimeters and an Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) simulator. The data were collected during the March 2006 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Arctic field campaign utilizing the NASA P-3B aircraft. The campaign consisted of an initial series of coordinated surface and aircraft measurements over Elson Lagoon, Alaska and adjacent seas followed by a series of large-scale (100 km ? 50 km) coordinated aircraft and AMSR-E snow depth measurements over portions of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. This paper focuses on the latter part of the campaign. The P-3B aircraft carried the University of Colorado Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR-A), the NASA Wallops Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) lidar altimeter, and the University of Kansas Delay-Doppler (D2P) radar altimeter. The PSR-A was used as an AMSR-E simulator, whereas the ATM and D2P altimeters were used in combination to provide an independent estimate of snow depth. Results of a comparison between the altimeter-derived snow depths and the equivalent AMSR-E snow depths using PSR-A brightness temperatures calibrated relative to AMSR-E are presented. Data collected over a frozen coastal polynya were used to intercalibrate the ATM and D2P altimeters before estimating an altimeter snow depth. Results show that the mean difference between the PSR and altimeter snow depths is -2.4 cm (PSR minus altimeter) with a standard deviation of 7.7 cm. The RMS difference is 8.0 cm. The overall correlation between the two snow depth data sets is 0.59.

  9. Analyzing Source Apportioned Methane in Northern California During DISCOVER-AQ-CA Using Airborne Measurements and Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes source apportioned methane (CH4) emissions and atmospheric concentrations in northern California during the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign using airborne measurement data and model simulations. Source apportioned CH4 emissions from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) version 4.2 were applied in the 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and analyzed using airborne measurements taken as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment over the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and northern San Joaquin Valley (SJV). During the time period of the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign EDGAR inventory CH4 emissions were 5.30 Gg/day (Gg 1.0 109 grams) (equating to 1.9 103 Gg/yr) for all of California. According to EDGAR, the SFBA and northern SJV region contributes 30 of total emissions from California. Source apportionment analysis during this study shows that CH4 concentrations over this area of northern California are largely influenced by global emissions from wetlands and local/global emissions from gas and oil production and distribution, waste treatment processes, and livestock management. Model simulations, using EDGAR emissions, suggest that the model under-estimates CH4 concentrations in northern California (average normalized mean bias (NMB) -5 and linear regression slope 0.25). The largest negative biases in the model were calculated on days when hot spots of local emission sources were measured and atmospheric CH4 concentrations reached values 3.0 parts per million (model NMB -10). Sensitivity emission studies conducted during this research suggest that local emissions of CH4 from livestock management processes are likely the primary source of the negative model bias. These results indicate that a variety, and larger quantity, of measurement data needs to be obtained and additional research is necessary to better quantify source apportioned CH4 emissions in California and further the understanding of the physical processes

  10. MAPSAR Image Simulation Based on L-band Polarimetric Data from the SAR-R99B Airborne Sensor (SIVAM System)

    PubMed Central

    Mura, José Claudio; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Dutra, Luciano Vieira; dos Santos, João Roberto; Rudorff, Bernardo Friedrich Theodor; de Miranda, Fernando Pellon; da Silva, Mario Marcos Quintino; da Silva, Wagner Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology applied to generate simulated multipolarized L-band SAR images of the MAPSAR (Multi-Application Purpose SAR) satellite from the airborne SAR R99B sensor (SIVAM System). MAPSAR is a feasibility study conducted by INPE (National Institute for Space Research) and DLR (German Aerospace Center) targeting a satellite L-band SAR innovative mission for assessment, management and monitoring of natural resources. Examples of simulated products and their applications are briefly discussed. PMID:22389590

  11. Simulation evaluation of combined 4D RNAV and airborne traffic situation displays and procedures applied to terminal aerial maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.; Connelly, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    Simulation scenarios were developed in which subject pilots must simultaneously follow a 3D terminal airspace structure and arrive at fixed waypoints within the structure precisely at pre-scheduled times in the presence of a full range of wind conditions aloft, and monitor nearby traffic on an airborne traffic situation display, especially during merging and spacing operations, and detect blunders and resolve conflicts in a safe manner. Open-loop simulator tests of the single-stage 4D RNAV algorithm indicate that a descending pilot can comply quite closely with an assigned time of arrival at a 3D waypoint simply by tracking a pre-calculated speed profile. Initial experiments show that the aircraft arrives at the 3D waypoint within a few seconds of the anticipated time. The presence of headwinds or tailwinds does not affect the arrival time error as long as the wind is accurately modeled in the descent algorithm. Results all but quarantee that a 5 second standard deviation in arrival time error can be realized in closed-loop descents at very moderate pilot workload levels.

  12. Comparison of Ground-Based and Airborne Function Allocation Concepts for NextGen Using Human-In-The-Loop Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Prevot, Thomas; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Cabrall, Christopher D.; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wilson, Sara R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Chamberlain, James P.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Palmer, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Investigation of function allocation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System is being conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). To provide insight on comparability of different function allocations for separation assurance, two human-in-the-loop simulation experiments were conducted on homogeneous airborne and ground-based approaches to four-dimensional trajectory-based operations, one referred to as ground-based automated separation assurance (groundbased) and the other as airborne trajectory management with self-separation (airborne). In the coordinated simulations at NASA s Ames and Langley Research Centers, controllers for the ground-based concept at Ames and pilots for the airborne concept at Langley managed the same traffic scenarios using the two different concepts. The common scenarios represented a significant increase in airspace demand over current operations. Using common independent variables, the simulations varied traffic density, scheduling constraints, and the timing of trajectory change events. Common metrics were collected to enable a comparison of relevant results. Where comparisons were possible, no substantial differences in performance or operator acceptability were observed. Mean schedule conformance and flight path deviation were considered adequate for both approaches. Conflict detection warning times and resolution times were mostly adequate, but certain conflict situations were detected too late to be resolved in a timely manner. This led to some situations in which safety was compromised and/or workload was rated as being unacceptable in both experiments. Operators acknowledged these issues in their responses and ratings but gave generally positive assessments of the respective concept and operations they experienced. Future studies will evaluate technical improvements and procedural enhancements to achieve the required level of safety and acceptability and will investigate the integration of

  13. Gravity for Detecting Caves: Airborne and Terrestrial Simulations Based on a Comprehensive Karstic Cave Benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braitenberg, Carla; Sampietro, Daniele; Pivetta, Tommaso; Zuliani, David; Barbagallo, Alfio; Fabris, Paolo; Rossi, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Julius; Mansi, Ahmed Hamdi

    2016-04-01

    Underground caves bear a natural hazard due to their possible evolution into a sink hole. Mapping of all existing caves could be useful for general civil usages as natural deposits or tourism and sports. Natural caves exist globally and are typical in karst areas. We investigate the resolution power of modern gravity campaigns to systematically detect all void caves of a minimum size in a given area. Both aerogravity and terrestrial acquisitions are considered. Positioning of the gravity station is fastest with GNSS methods the performance of which is investigated. The estimates are based on a benchmark cave of which the geometry is known precisely through a laser-scan survey. The cave is the Grotta Gigante cave in NE Italy in the classic karst. The gravity acquisition is discussed, where heights have been acquired with dual-frequency geodetic GNSS receivers and Total Station. Height acquisitions with non-geodetic low-cost receivers are shown to be useful, although the error on the gravity field is larger. The cave produces a signal of -1.5 × 10-5 m/s2, with a clear elliptic geometry. We analyze feasibility of airborne gravity acquisitions for the purpose of systematically mapping void caves. It is found that observations from fixed wing aircraft cannot resolve the caves, but observations from slower and low-flying helicopters or drones do. In order to detect the presence of caves the size of the benchmark cave, systematic terrestrial acquisitions require a density of three stations on square 500 by 500 m2 tiles. The question has a large impact on civil and environmental purposes, since it will allow planning of urban development at a safe distance from subsurface caves. The survey shows that a systematic coverage of the karst would have the benefit to recover the position of all of the greater existing void caves.

  14. Analyzing source apportioned methane in northern California during Discover-AQ-CA using airborne measurements and model simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T.; Loewenstein, Max; Tadić, Jovan M.; Wecht, Kevin J.; Jeong, Seongeun; Fischer, Marc L.

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzes source apportioned methane (CH4) emissions and atmospheric mixing ratios in northern California during the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign using airborne measurement data and model simulations. Source apportioned CH4 emissions from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) version 4.2 were applied in the 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and analyzed using airborne measurements taken as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment over the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and northern San Joaquin Valley (SJV). During the time period of the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign EDGAR inventory CH4 emissions were ~5.30 Gg day –1 (Gg = 1.0 × 109 g) (equating to ~1.90 × 103 Gg yr–1) for all of California. According to EDGAR, the SFBA and northern SJV region contributes ~30% of total CH4 emissions from California. Source apportionment analysis during this study shows that CH4 mixing ratios over this area of northern California are largely influenced by global emissions from wetlands and local/global emissions from gas and oil production and distribution, waste treatment processes, and livestock management. Model simulations, using EDGAR emissions, suggest that the model under-estimates CH4 mixing ratios in northern California (average normalized mean bias (NMB) = –5.2% and linear regression slope = 0.20). The largest negative biases in the model were calculated on days when large amounts of CH4 were measured over local emission sources and atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios reached values >2.5 parts per million. Sensitivity emission studies conducted during this research suggest that local emissions of CH4 from livestock management processes are likely the primary source of the negative model bias. These results indicate that a variety, and larger quantity, of measurement data needs to be

  15. Analyzing source apportioned methane in northern California during Discover-AQ-CA using airborne measurements and model simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T.; ...

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzes source apportioned methane (CH4) emissions and atmospheric mixing ratios in northern California during the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign using airborne measurement data and model simulations. Source apportioned CH4 emissions from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) version 4.2 were applied in the 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and analyzed using airborne measurements taken as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment over the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and northern San Joaquin Valley (SJV). During the time period of the Discover-AQ-CA field campaign EDGAR inventory CH4 emissions were ~5.30 Gg day –1 (Gg = 1.0 ×more » 109 g) (equating to ~1.90 × 103 Gg yr–1) for all of California. According to EDGAR, the SFBA and northern SJV region contributes ~30% of total CH4 emissions from California. Source apportionment analysis during this study shows that CH4 mixing ratios over this area of northern California are largely influenced by global emissions from wetlands and local/global emissions from gas and oil production and distribution, waste treatment processes, and livestock management. Model simulations, using EDGAR emissions, suggest that the model under-estimates CH4 mixing ratios in northern California (average normalized mean bias (NMB) = –5.2% and linear regression slope = 0.20). The largest negative biases in the model were calculated on days when large amounts of CH4 were measured over local emission sources and atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios reached values >2.5 parts per million. Sensitivity emission studies conducted during this research suggest that local emissions of CH4 from livestock management processes are likely the primary source of the negative model bias. These results indicate that a variety, and larger quantity, of measurement data needs to be obtained and additional research is necessary to better quantify source apportioned CH4 emissions in California.« less

  16. Case Master

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    The CASE MASTER project focused primarily on the development of the InformANTS prototype, a distributed, scalable, and adaptive system that tracks the...2  2.1.2  Information Object Modeling  System  (IOMS) ......................................................................................... 8...2.1.3  User Modeling  System  (UMS) ................................................................................................................ 14

  17. Master Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Dr. Carole Berotte Joseph, the new president of Bronx Community College, or BCC, has been training to lead an institution of higher education since grade school, taking on the role of master teacher since she played on her parents' stoop with the neighborhood children in Brooklyn. Growing up, she didn't play with dolls much. She played with real…

  18. Characterizing metal(loid) solubility in airborne PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in Frankfurt, Germany using simulated lung fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Clare L. S.; Zereini, Fathi

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the solubility of traffic-related metal(loid)s associated with airborne PM of human health concern, employing a physiologically-based extraction test with simulated lung fluids (artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) and Gamble's solution). Airborne PM (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) samples were collected in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, using a high volume sampler. Following extraction of the soluble metal(loid) fractions, sample filters were digested with a high pressure asher. Metal(loid) concentrations (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti and V) were determined in extracts and digests per ICP-Q-MS. All metal(loid)s occurred at detectable concentrations in the three airborne PM fractions. Copper was the most abundant element in mass terms, with mean concentrations of 105 and 53 ng/m3 in PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Many of the metal(loid)s were observed to be soluble in simulated lung fluids, with Cu, As, V and Sb demonstrating the highest overall mobility in airborne PM. For instance, all four elements associated with PM10 had a solubility of >80% in ALF (24 h). Clearly, solubility is strongly pH dependent, as reflected by the higher relative mobility of samples extracted with the acidic ALF. Given their demonstrated solubility, this study provides indirect evidence that a number of toxic metal(loid)s are likely to possess an enhanced pulmonary toxic potential upon their inhalation. The co-presence of many toxic elements of concern in airborne PM suggests an assessment of health risk must consider the possible interactive impacts of multi-element exposures.

  19. A Simulation Testbed for Adaptive Modulation and Coding in Airborne Telemetry (Brief)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Spectrum, Aeronautical telemetry, algorithm, bandwidth, attached sync marker (ASM), Integrated Enhanced Networked Telemetry (iNET), Shaped Offset...Cords Road W→E GTRI_B-‹#› Conclusion and Future Work • Developed a simulation testbed for aeronautical telemetry • Various Tunable Parameters

  20. The Master-2001 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendisch, J.; Bunte, K.; Klinkrad, H.; Krag, H.; Martin, C.; Sdunnus, H.; Walker, R.; Wegener, P.; Wiedemann, C.

    MASTER (Meteoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Reference model) is the European particulate environment and risk assessment model. It is based on quasi- deterministic principles, using comprehensive orbit propagation theories and volume discretisation techniques, to derive spatial density and velocity distributions in a three-dimensional control volume ranging from LEO to GEO altitudes. The new release, MASTER 2001, enables the calculation of fluxes on target operating between 1957 and the year 2050, using detailed simulation results. This could be achieved by using not only the POEM simulation tool for the past to present debris populations, but also applying the long term prediction tool DELTA to obtain future populations. The paper describes the features and results of the MASTER 2001 model, discussing also the updates concerning the modelling approach (e.g. the use of a new fragmentation model). The historical and future evolution of the space debris environment in terms of spatial density and object fluxes as given by MASTER 2001 are presented and discussed.

  1. The MASTER-2001 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendisch, J.; Bunte, K.; Klinkrad, H.; Krag, H.; Martin, C.; Sdunnus, H.; Walker, R.; Wegener, P.; Wiedemann, C.

    2004-01-01

    Meteoroid and Space Debris Terrestrial Reference model (MASTER) is the European particulate environment and risk assessment model. It is based on quasi-deterministic principles, using comprehensive orbit propagation theories and volume discretisation techniques, to derive spatial density and velocity distributions in a three-dimensional control volume ranging from LEO to GEO altitudes. The new release, MASTER-2001, incorporates new modelling and validation approaches and enables the calculation of fluxes on targets operating between the year 1957 and 2050, using detailed simulation results. This could be achieved by using not only the POEM simulation tool for the past to present debris populations, but also applying the long term prediction tool DELTA to obtain future populations. The paper describes the features and results of the MASTER-2001 model, and the updated modelling approach (e.g., the use of a new fragmentation model). The historical and future evolution of the space debris environment in terms of spatial density and object fluxes as given by MASTER-2001 are presented and discussed.

  2. Prospects of the ICESat-2 laser altimetry mission for savanna ecosystem structural studies based on airborne simulation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwenzi, David; Lefsky, Michael A.; Suchdeo, Vijay P.; Harding, David J.

    2016-08-01

    The next planned spaceborne lidar mission is the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite 2 (ICESat-2), which will use the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) sensor, a photon counting technique. To pre-validate the capability of this mission for studying three dimensional vegetation structure in savannas, we assessed the potential of the measurement approach to estimate canopy height in an oak savanna landscape. We used data from the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), an airborne photon counting lidar sensor developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. ATLAS-like data was generated using the MATLAS simulator, which adjusts MABEL data's detected number of signal and noise photons to that expected from the ATLAS instrument. Transects flown over the Tejon ranch conservancy in Kern County, California, USA were used for this work. For each transect we chose to use data from the near infrared channel that had the highest number of photons. We segmented each transect into 50 m, 25 m and 14 m long blocks and aggregated the photons in each block into a histogram based on their elevation values. We then used an automated algorithm to identify cut off points where the cumulative density of photons from the highest elevation indicates the presence of the canopy top and likewise where such cumulative density from the lowest elevation indicates the mean terrain elevation. MABEL derived height metrics were moderately correlated to discrete return lidar (DRL) derived height metrics (r2 and RMSE values ranging from 0.60 to 0.73 and 2.9 m to 4.4 m respectively) but MATLAS simulation resulted in more modest correlations with DRL indices (r2 ranging from 0.5 to 0.64 and RMSE from 3.6 m to 4.6 m). Simulations also indicated that the expected number of signal photons from ATLAS will be substantially lower, a situation that reduces canopy height estimation precision especially in areas of low density vegetation cover. On the basis of the simulated

  3. PICASSO: an end-to-end image simulation tool for space and airborne imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cota, Stephen A.; Bell, Jabin T.; Boucher, Richard H.; Dutton, Tracy E.; Florio, Christopher J.; Franz, Geoffrey A.; Grycewicz, Thomas J.; Kalman, Linda S.; Keller, Robert A.; Lomheim, Terrence S.; Paulson, Diane B.; Wilkinson, Timothy S.

    2010-06-01

    The design of any modern imaging system is the end result of many trade studies, each seeking to optimize image quality within real world constraints such as cost, schedule and overall risk. Image chain analysis - the prediction of image quality from fundamental design parameters - is an important part of this design process. At The Aerospace Corporation we have been using a variety of image chain analysis tools for many years, the Parameterized Image Chain Analysis & Simulation SOftware (PICASSO) among them. In this paper we describe our PICASSO tool, showing how, starting with a high quality input image and hypothetical design descriptions representative of the current state of the art in commercial imaging satellites, PICASSO can generate standard metrics of image quality in support of the decision processes of designers and program managers alike.

  4. PICASSO: an end-to-end image simulation tool for space and airborne imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cota, Steve A.; Bell, Jabin T.; Boucher, Richard H.; Dutton, Tracy E.; Florio, Chris J.; Franz, Geoffrey A.; Grycewicz, Thomas J.; Kalman, Linda S.; Keller, Robert A.; Lomheim, Terrence S.; Paulson, Diane B.; Willkinson, Timothy S.

    2008-08-01

    The design of any modern imaging system is the end result of many trade studies, each seeking to optimize image quality within real world constraints such as cost, schedule and overall risk. Image chain analysis - the prediction of image quality from fundamental design parameters - is an important part of this design process. At The Aerospace Corporation we have been using a variety of image chain analysis tools for many years, the Parameterized Image Chain Analysis & Simulation SOftware (PICASSO) among them. In this paper we describe our PICASSO tool, showing how, starting with a high quality input image and hypothetical design descriptions representative of the current state of the art in commercial imaging satellites, PICASSO can generate standard metrics of image quality in support of the decision processes of designers and program managers alike.

  5. Spectral optical layer properties of cirrus from collocated airborne measurements and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, Fanny; Werner, Frank; Klingebiel, Marcus; Ehrlich, André; Jäkel, Evelyn; Voigt, Matthias; Borrmann, Stephan; Spichtinger, Peter; Wendisch, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Spectral upward and downward solar irradiances from vertically collocated measurements above and below a cirrus layer are used to derive cirrus optical layer properties such as spectral transmissivity, absorptivity, reflectivity, and cloud top albedo. The radiation measurements are complemented by in situ cirrus crystal size distribution measurements and radiative transfer simulations based on the microphysical data. The close collocation of the radiative and microphysical measurements, above, beneath, and inside the cirrus, is accomplished by using a research aircraft (Learjet 35A) in tandem with the towed sensor platform AIRTOSS (AIRcraft TOwed Sensor Shuttle). AIRTOSS can be released from and retracted back to the research aircraft by means of a cable up to a distance of 4 km. Data were collected from two field campaigns over the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in spring and late summer 2013. One measurement flight over the North Sea proved to be exemplary, and as such the results are used to illustrate the benefits of collocated sampling. The radiative transfer simulations were applied to quantify the impact of cloud particle properties such as crystal shape, effective radius reff, and optical thickness τ on cirrus spectral optical layer properties. Furthermore, the radiative effects of low-level, liquid water (warm) clouds as frequently observed beneath the cirrus are evaluated. They may cause changes in the radiative forcing of the cirrus by a factor of 2. When low-level clouds below the cirrus are not taken into account, the radiative cooling effect (caused by reflection of solar radiation) due to the cirrus in the solar (shortwave) spectral range is significantly overestimated.

  6. A generic model to simulate air-borne diseases as a function of crop architecture.

    PubMed

    Casadebaig, Pierre; Quesnel, Gauthier; Langlais, Michel; Faivre, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In a context of pesticide use reduction, alternatives to chemical-based crop protection strategies are needed to control diseases. Crop and plant architectures can be viewed as levers to control disease outbreaks by affecting microclimate within the canopy or pathogen transmission between plants. Modeling and simulation is a key approach to help analyze the behaviour of such systems where direct observations are difficult and tedious. Modeling permits the joining of concepts from ecophysiology and epidemiology to define structures and functions generic enough to describe a wide range of epidemiological dynamics. Additionally, this conception should minimize computing time by both limiting the complexity and setting an efficient software implementation. In this paper, our aim was to present a model that suited these constraints so it could first be used as a research and teaching tool to promote discussions about epidemic management in cropping systems. The system was modelled as a combination of individual hosts (population of plants or organs) and infectious agents (pathogens) whose contacts are restricted through a network of connections. The system dynamics were described at an individual scale. Additional attention was given to the identification of generic properties of host-pathogen systems to widen the model's applicability domain. Two specific pathosystems with contrasted crop architectures were considered: ascochyta blight on pea (homogeneously layered canopy) and potato late blight (lattice of individualized plants). The model behavior was assessed by simulation and sensitivity analysis and these results were discussed against the model ability to discriminate between the defined types of epidemics. Crop traits related to disease avoidance resulting in a low exposure, a slow dispersal or a de-synchronization of plant and pathogen cycles were shown to strongly impact the disease severity at the crop scale.

  7. A Generic Model to Simulate Air-Borne Diseases as a Function of Crop Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Casadebaig, Pierre; Quesnel, Gauthier; Langlais, Michel; Faivre, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In a context of pesticide use reduction, alternatives to chemical-based crop protection strategies are needed to control diseases. Crop and plant architectures can be viewed as levers to control disease outbreaks by affecting microclimate within the canopy or pathogen transmission between plants. Modeling and simulation is a key approach to help analyze the behaviour of such systems where direct observations are difficult and tedious. Modeling permits the joining of concepts from ecophysiology and epidemiology to define structures and functions generic enough to describe a wide range of epidemiological dynamics. Additionally, this conception should minimize computing time by both limiting the complexity and setting an efficient software implementation. In this paper, our aim was to present a model that suited these constraints so it could first be used as a research and teaching tool to promote discussions about epidemic management in cropping systems. The system was modelled as a combination of individual hosts (population of plants or organs) and infectious agents (pathogens) whose contacts are restricted through a network of connections. The system dynamics were described at an individual scale. Additional attention was given to the identification of generic properties of host-pathogen systems to widen the model's applicability domain. Two specific pathosystems with contrasted crop architectures were considered: ascochyta blight on pea (homogeneously layered canopy) and potato late blight (lattice of individualized plants). The model behavior was assessed by simulation and sensitivity analysis and these results were discussed against the model ability to discriminate between the defined types of epidemics. Crop traits related to disease avoidance resulting in a low exposure, a slow dispersal or a de-synchronization of plant and pathogen cycles were shown to strongly impact the disease severity at the crop scale. PMID:23226209

  8. Simulation tests to assess occupational exposure to airborne asbestos from artificially weathered asphalt-based roofing products.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Patrick; Mowat, Fionna; Weidling, Ryan; Floyd, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Historically, asbestos-containing roof cements and coatings were widely used for patching and repairing leaks. Although fiber releases from these materials when newly applied have been studied, there are virtually no useful data on airborne asbestos fiber concentrations associated with the repair or removal of weathered roof coatings and cements, as most studies involve complete tear-out of old roofs, rather than only limited removal of the roof coating or cement during a repair job. This study was undertaken to estimate potential chrysotile asbestos fiber exposures specific to these types of roofing products following artificially enhanced weathering. Roof panels coated with plastic roof cement and fibered roof coating were subjected to intense solar radiation and daily simulated precipitation events for 1 year and then scraped to remove the weathered materials to assess chrysotile fiber release and potential worker exposures. Analysis of measured fiber concentrations for hand scraping of the weathered products showed 8-h time-weighted average concentrations that were well below the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit for asbestos. There was, however, visibly more dust and a few more fibers collected during the hand scraping of weathered products compared to the cured products previously tested. There was a notable difference between fibers released from weathered and cured roofing products. In weathered samples, a large fraction of chrysotile fibers contained low concentrations of or essentially no magnesium and did not meet the spectral, mineralogical, or morphological definitions of chrysotile asbestos. The extent of magnesium leaching from chrysotile fibers is of interest because several researchers have reported that magnesium-depleted chrysotile fibers are less toxic and produce fewer mesothelial tumors in animal studies than normal chrysotile fibers.

  9. Converting Snow Depth to SWE: The Fusion of Simulated Data with Remote Sensing Retrievals and the Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, K.; Marks, D. G.; Painter, T. H.; Hedrick, A. R.; Deems, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Snow cover monitoring has greatly benefited from remote sensing technology but, despite their critical importance, spatially distributed measurements of snow water equivalent (SWE) in mountain terrain remain elusive. Current methods of monitoring SWE rely on point measurements and are insufficient for distributed snow science and effective management of water resources. Many studies have shown that the spatial variability in SWE is largely controlled by the spatial variability in snow depth. JPL's Airborne Snow Observatory mission (ASO) combines LiDAR and spectrometer instruments to retrieve accurate and very high-resolution snow depth measurements at the watershed scale, along with other products such as snow albedo. To make best use of these high-resolution snow depths, spatially distributed snow density data are required to leverage SWE from the measured snow depths. Snow density is a spatially and temporally variable property that cannot yet be reliably extracted from remote sensing techniques, and is difficult to extrapolate to basin scales. However, some physically based snow models have shown skill in simulating bulk snow densities and therefore provide a pathway for snow depth to SWE conversion. Leveraging model ability where remote sensing options are non-existent, ASO employs a physically based snow model (iSnobal) to resolve distributed snow density dynamics across the basin. After an adjustment scheme guided by in-situ data, these density estimates are used to derive the elusive spatial distribution of SWE from the observed snow depth distributions from ASO. In this study, we describe how the process of fusing model data with remote sensing retrievals is undertaken in the context of ASO along with estimates of uncertainty in the final SWE volume products. This work will likely be of interest to those working in snow hydrology, water resource management and the broader remote sensing community.

  10. Dynamic measurements and simulations of airborne picolitre-droplet coalescence in holographic optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Bzdek, Bryan R; Collard, Liam; Sprittles, James E; Hudson, Andrew J; Reid, Jonathan P

    2016-08-07

    We report studies of the coalescence of pairs of picolitre aerosol droplets manipulated with holographic optical tweezers, probing the shape relaxation dynamics following coalescence by simultaneously monitoring the intensity of elastic backscattered light (EBL) from the trapping laser beam (time resolution on the order of 100 ns) while recording high frame rate camera images (time resolution <10 μs). The goals of this work are to: resolve the dynamics of droplet coalescence in holographic optical traps; assign the origin of key features in the time-dependent EBL intensity; and validate the use of the EBL alone to precisely determine droplet surface tension and viscosity. For low viscosity droplets, two sequential processes are evident: binary coalescence first results from the overlap of the optical traps on the time scale of microseconds followed by the recapture of the composite droplet in an optical trap on the time scale of milliseconds. As droplet viscosity increases, the relaxation in droplet shape eventually occurs on the same time scale as recapture, resulting in a convoluted evolution of the EBL intensity that inhibits quantitative determination of the relaxation time scale. Droplet coalescence was simulated using a computational framework to validate both experimental approaches. The results indicate that time-dependent monitoring of droplet shape from the EBL intensity allows for robust determination of properties such as surface tension and viscosity. Finally, the potential of high frame rate imaging to examine the coalescence of dissimilar viscosity droplets is discussed.

  11. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Itten, Klaus I.; Dell'Endice, Francesco; Hueni, Andreas; Kneubühler, Mathias; Schläpfer, Daniel; Odermatt, Daniel; Seidel, Felix; Huber, Silvia; Schopfer, Jürg; Kellenberger, Tobias; Bühler, Yves; D'Odorico, Petra; Nieke, Jens; Alberti, Edoardo; Meuleman, Koen

    2008-01-01

    The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB) by using the Control Test Master (CTM), the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC), quality flagging (QF) and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF), and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output) introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a) satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b) helping the understanding of the Earth's complex mechanisms. PMID:27873868

  12. The diffusive finite state projection algorithm for efficient simulation of the stochastic reaction-diffusion master equation

    PubMed Central

    Drawert, Brian; Lawson, Michael J.; Petzold, Linda; Khammash, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a computational framework for accurate and efficient simulation of stochastic spatially inhomogeneous biochemical systems. The new computational method employs a fractional step hybrid strategy. A novel formulation of the finite state projection (FSP) method, called the diffusive FSP method, is introduced for the efficient and accurate simulation of diffusive transport. Reactions are handled by the stochastic simulation algorithm. PMID:20170209

  13. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  14. Enhanced Master Controller Unit Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Patricia; Johnson, Yvette; Johnson, Brian; Williams, Philip; Burton, Geoffrey; McCoy, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The Enhanced Master Controller Unit Tester (EMUT) software is a tool for development and testing of software for a master controller (MC) flight computer. The primary function of the EMUT software is to simulate interfaces between the MC computer and external analog and digital circuitry (including other computers) in a rack of equipment to be used in scientific experiments. The simulations span the range of nominal, off-nominal, and erroneous operational conditions, enabling the testing of MC software before all the equipment becomes available.

  15. Modular eigen subspace scheme for high-dimensional data classification with NASA MODIS/ASTER (MASTER) airborne simulator data sets of Pacrim II project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yang-Lang; Han, Chin-Chuan; Fan, Kuo-Chin; Chen, Kun S.; Chang, Jeng-Horng

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, a novel filter-based greedy modular subspace (GMS)technique is proposed to improve the accuracy of high-dimensional remote sensing image supervisor classification. The approach initially divides the whole set of high-dimensional features into several arbitrary number of highly correlated subgroup by performing a greedy correlation matrix reordering transformation for each class. These GMS can be regarded as a unique feature for each distinguishable class in high-dimensional data sets. The similarity measures are next calculated by projecting the samples into different modular feature subspaces. Finally, a supervised multi-class classifer which is implemented based on positive Boolean function (PBF) schemes is adopted to build a non-linear optimal classifer. A PBF is exactly one sum-of-product form without any negative components. The PBF possesses the well-known threshold decomposition and stacking properties. The classification errors can be calculated from the summation of the absolute errors incurred at each level. The optimal PBF are found and designed as a classifer by minimize the classification error rate among the training samples. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed GMS feature extraction method suits the PBF classifer best as a classification preprocess. It signifcantly improves the precision of image classification compared with conventional feature extraction schemes. Moreover, a practicable and convenient "vague" boundary sampling property of PBF is introduced to visually select training samples from high-dimensional data sets more effciently.

  16. Diagnostics, Modeling and Simulation: Three Keys Towards Mastering the Cutting Process with Fiber, Disk and Diode Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petring, Dirk; Molitor, Thomas; Schneider, Frank; Wolf, Norbert

    Even established laser processing technologies such as cutting are far away from being completely understood. Nevertheless, the progress in industrially available laser cutting systems and applications is quite respectable. Fiber and disk laser cutting changed from a debatable newcomer to a serious part of the business while the diode laser appears at the horizon as the next player to be reckoned. Understanding of the process and its performance are continually improved. This paper highlights results of research and development from the recent years. Some speculations, simulations, diagnostics and facts about the process, its properties and capabilities are assessed. Earlier and latest diagnostics and CALCut simulation results of laser beam cutting processes are presented.

  17. Airborne Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Carl F.; Ojala, Eric J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students collect airborne particles using a common vacuum cleaner. Suggests ways for the students to convert their data into information related to air pollution and human health. Urges consideration of weather patterns when analyzing the results of the investigation. (TW)

  18. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  19. Stochastic chemical kinetics and the total quasi-steady-state assumption: application to the stochastic simulation algorithm and chemical master equation.

    PubMed

    Macnamara, Shev; Bersani, Alberto M; Burrage, Kevin; Sidje, Roger B

    2008-09-07

    Recently the application of the quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA) to the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) was suggested for the purpose of speeding up stochastic simulations of chemical systems that involve both relatively fast and slow chemical reactions [Rao and Arkin, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 4999 (2003)] and further work has led to the nested and slow-scale SSA. Improved numerical efficiency is obtained by respecting the vastly different time scales characterizing the system and then by advancing only the slow reactions exactly, based on a suitable approximation to the fast reactions. We considerably extend these works by applying the QSSA to numerical methods for the direct solution of the chemical master equation (CME) and, in particular, to the finite state projection algorithm [Munsky and Khammash, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 044104 (2006)], in conjunction with Krylov methods. In addition, we point out some important connections to the literature on the (deterministic) total QSSA (tQSSA) and place the stochastic analogue of the QSSA within the more general framework of aggregation of Markov processes. We demonstrate the new methods on four examples: Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics, double phosphorylation, the Goldbeter-Koshland switch, and the mitogen activated protein kinase cascade. Overall, we report dramatic improvements by applying the tQSSA to the CME solver.

  20. Airborne measurements of solar and planetary near ultraviolet radiation during the NASA/ESA CV-900 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivjee, G. G.

    1977-01-01

    Results from a comparative study of the feasibility of employing experiment operators on the space shuttle to acquire scientifically worthwhile data are presented. The experiments performed during these tests included spectral observations of the Sun and Venus in the near ultraviolet region. The solar measurements were analyzed to determine ozone abundance in the terrestrial atmosphere. Using a detailed spectral matching technique to compare airborne solar UV measurements with synthetic spectral profiles of sunlight, it is deduced that in winter the total atmospheric ozone abundance is about 0.33 atm/cm at midlatitudes in the northern hemisphere.

  1. Airborne asbestos exposures associated with gasket and packing replacement: a simulation study of flange and valve repair work and an assessment of exposure variables.

    PubMed

    Madl, Amy K; Devlin, Kathryn D; Perez, Angela L; Hollins, Dana M; Cowan, Dallas M; Scott, Paul K; White, Katherine; Cheng, Thales J; Henshaw, John L

    2015-02-01

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate worker and area exposure to airborne asbestos associated with the replacement of asbestos-containing gaskets and packing materials from flanges and valves and assess the influence of several variables previously not investigated. Additionally, potential of take home exposures from clothing worn during the study was characterized. Our data showed that product type, ventilation type, gasket location, flange or bonnet size, number of flanges involved, surface characteristics, gasket surface adherence, and even activity type did not have a significant effect on worker exposures. Average worker asbestos exposures during flange gasket work (PCME=0.166 f/cc, 12-59 min) were similar to average worker asbestos exposures during valve overhaul work (PCME=0.165 f/cc, 7-76 min). Average 8-h TWA asbestos exposures were estimated to range from 0.010 to 0.062 f/cc. Handling clothes worn during gasket and packing replacement activities demonstrated exposures that were 0.71% (0.0009 f/cc 40-h TWA) of the airborne asbestos concentration experienced during the 5 days of the study. Despite the many variables considered in this study, exposures during gasket and packing replacement occur within a relatively narrow range, are below current and historical occupational exposure limits for asbestos, and are consistent with previously published data.

  2. Anthropomorphic master/slave manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; King, R. F.; Vallotton, W. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An anthropomorphic master/slave manipulator system including master arm apparatus with a plurality of master tubular articulated portions is outlined. Objectives of this investion were to provide a system that accurately and smoothly simulates human limb movement at a remote location. The system has a high frequency response, a high structural stiffness and a design that protects the components of the slave mechanism. Simulation of human movements is possible in outer space, underwater, and in a hazardous environment such as in a high radiation area. The equivalent ability, dexterity, and strength of a human arm are simulated.

  3. PICASSO: an end-to-end image simulation tool for space and airborne imaging systems II. Extension to the thermal infrared: equations and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cota, Stephen A.; Lomheim, Terrence S.; Florio, Christopher J.; Harbold, Jeffrey M.; Muto, B. Michael; Schoolar, Richard B.; Wintz, Daniel T.; Keller, Robert A.

    2011-10-01

    In a previous paper in this series, we described how The Aerospace Corporation's Parameterized Image Chain Analysis & Simulation SOftware (PICASSO) tool may be used to model space and airborne imaging systems operating in the visible to near-infrared (VISNIR). PICASSO is a systems-level tool, representative of a class of such tools used throughout the remote sensing community. It is capable of modeling systems over a wide range of fidelity, anywhere from conceptual design level (where it can serve as an integral part of the systems engineering process) to as-built hardware (where it can serve as part of the verification process). In the present paper, we extend the discussion of PICASSO to the modeling of Thermal Infrared (TIR) remote sensing systems, presenting the equations and methods necessary to modeling in that regime.

  4. RF/microwave system high-fidelity modeling and simulation: application to airborne multi-channel receiver system for angle of arrival estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Rajan, Sreeraman; Young, Anne; O'Regan, Christina

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a high-fidelity RF modeling and simulation framework is demonstrated to model an airborne multi-channel receiver system that is used to estimate the angle of arrival (AoA) of received signals from a stationary emitter. The framework is based on System Tool Kit (STK®), Matlab and SystemVue®. The SystemVue-based multi-channel receiver estimates the AoA of incoming signals using adjacent channel amplitude and phase comparisons, and it estimates the Doppler frequency shift of the aircraft by processing the transmitted and received signals. The estimated AoA and Doppler frequency are compared with the ground-truth data provided by STK to validate the efficacy of the modeling process. Unlike other current RF electronic warfare simulation frameworks, the received signal described herein is formed using the received power, the propagation delay and the transmitted waveform, and does not require information such as Doppler frequency shift or radial velocity of the moving platform from the scenario; hence, the simulation is more computationally efficient. In addition, to further reduce the overall modeling and simulation time, since the high-fidelity model computation is costly, the high-fidelity electronic system model is evoked only when the received power is higher than a predetermined threshold.

  5. Impacts of 4D-VAR Assimilation of Airborne Doppler Radar Observations on Numerical Simulations of the Genesis of Typhoon Nuri (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Z.; Li, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model and its four-dimensional variational data assimilation system are employed to examine the impact of airborne Doppler radar observations on predicting the genesis of Typhoon Nuri (2008). The ELDORA airborne radar data, collected during the Office of Naval Research-sponsored Tropical Cyclone Structure 2008 field experiment, are used for data assimilation experiments. Two assimilation methods are evaluated and compared, namely, the direct assimilation of radar-measured radial velocity and the assimilation of three-dimensional wind analysis derived from the radar radial velocity. Results show that direct assimilation of radar radial velocity leads to better intensity forecasts, as it enhances the development of convective systems and improves the inner core structure of Nuri, whereas assimilation of the radar-retrieved wind analysis is more beneficial for tracking forecasts, as it results in improved environmental flows. The assimilation of both the radar-retrieved wind and the radial velocity can lead to better forecasts in both intensity and tracking, if the radial velocity observations are assimilated first and the retrieved winds are then assimilated in the same data assimilation window. In addition, experiments with and without radar data assimilation lead to developing and nondeveloping disturbances for Nuri's genesis in the numerical simulations. The improved initial conditions and forecasts from the data assimilation imply that the enhanced midlevel vortex and moisture conditions are favorable for the development of deep convection in the center of the pouch and eventually contribute to Nuri's genesis. The improved simulations of the convection and associated environmental conditions produce enhanced upper-level warming in the core region and lead to the drop in sea-level pressure.

  6. Simulation Framework to Estimate the Performance of CO2 and O2 Sensing from Space and Airborne Platforms for the ASCENDS Mission Requirements Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plitau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2012-01-01

    The Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission recommended by the NRC Decadal Survey has a desired accuracy of 0.3% in carbon dioxide mixing ratio (XCO2) retrievals requiring careful selection and optimization of the instrument parameters. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is investigating 1.57 micron carbon dioxide as well as the 1.26-1.27 micron oxygen bands for our proposed ASCENDS mission requirements investigation. Simulation studies are underway for these bands to select optimum instrument parameters. The simulations are based on a multi-wavelength lidar modeling framework being developed at NASA LaRC to predict the performance of CO2 and O2 sensing from space and airborne platforms. The modeling framework consists of a lidar simulation module and a line-by-line calculation component with interchangeable lineshape routines to test the performance of alternative lineshape models in the simulations. As an option the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) program may also be used for line-by-line calculations. The modeling framework is being used to perform error analysis, establish optimum measurement wavelengths as well as to identify the best lineshape models to be used in CO2 and O2 retrievals. Several additional programs for HITRAN database management and related simulations are planned to be included in the framework. The description of the modeling framework with selected results of the simulation studies for CO2 and O2 sensing is presented in this paper.

  7. Operation of the World Master in the World Modeling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    This research note describes the operation of the World Master process of the World Modeling System. It is intended to be an aid to maintainers of ... the World Master, and implementors of additional simulated physical properties of the world . The World Master is the core of the World Modeling System

  8. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  9. Airborne field strength monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredemeyer, J.; Kleine-Ostmann, T.; Schrader, T.; Münter, K.; Ritter, J.

    2007-06-01

    In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS) are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS) increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR) is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz), the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) accelerated method of moments (MoM) using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  10. Remote Sensing of Radiative and Microphysical Properties of Clouds During TC (sup 4): Results from MAS, MASTER, MODIS, and MISR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina; Arnold, G. Thomas; Dominguez, Roseanne T.

    2010-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS) and MODIS/Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Airborne Simulator (MASTER) were used to obtain measurements of the bidirectional reflectance and brightness temperature of clouds at 50 discrete wavelengths between 0.47 and 14.2 microns (12.9 microns for MASTER). These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment conducted over Central America and surrounding Pacific and Atlantic Oceans between 17 July and 8 August 2007. Multispectral images in eleven distinct bands were used to derive a confidence in clear sky (or alternatively the probability Of cloud) over land and ocean ecosystems. Based on the results of individual tests run as part of the cloud mask, an algorithm was developed to estimate the phase of the clouds (liquid water, ice, or undetermined phase). The cloud optical thickness and effective radius were derived for both liquid water and ice clouds that were detected during each flight, using a nearly identical algorithm to that implemented operationally to process MODIS Cloud data from the Aqua and Terra satellites (Collection 5). This analysis shows that the cloud mask developed for operational use on MODIS, and tested using MAS and MASTER data in TC(sup 4), is quite capable of distinguishing both liquid water and ice clouds during daytime conditions over both land and ocean. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals use five distinct bands of the MAS (or MASTER), and these results were compared with nearly simultaneous retrievals of marine liquid water clouds from MODIS on the Terra spacecraft. Finally, this MODIS-based algorithm was adapted to Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) data to infer the cloud optical thickness Of liquid water clouds from MISR. Results of this analysis are compared and contrasted.

  11. Remote Sensing of the Radiative and Microphysical Properties of Clouds during TC4: Results from MAS, MASTER, MODIS, and MISR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina; Arnold, George T.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Frey, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) and MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) were used to obtain measurements of the bidirectional reflectance and brightness temperature of clouds at 50 discrete wavelengths between 0.47 and 14.3 (12.9 m for MASTER). These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the Tropical Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4) conducted over Central America and surrounding Pacific and Atlantic Oceans between July 17 and August 8, 2007. Multispectral images in eight distinct bands were used to derive a confidence in clear sky (or alternatively the probability of cloud) over land and ocean ecosystems. Based on the results of individual tests run as part of this cloud mask, an algorithm was developed to estimate the phase of the clouds (liquid water, ice, or undetermined phase). Finally, the cloud optical thickness and effective radius were derived for both liquid water and ice clouds that were detected during each flight, using a nearly identical algorithm as that implemented operationally to process MODIS cloud data from the Aqua and Terra satellites (Collection 5). This analysis shows that the cloud mask developed for operational use on MODIS, and tested using MAS and MASTER date in TC4, is quite capable of distinguishing both liquid water and ice clouds during daytime conditions over both land and ocean. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals used three distinct bands of the MAS (or MASTER), and these results were compared with nearly simultaneous retrievals of MODIS on the Terra spacecraft. Finally, this MODIS-based algorithm was adapted to MISR data to infer the cloud optical thickness of liquid water clouds from MISR. Results of this analysis will be presented and discussed.

  12. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  13. Airborne remote sensing of forest biomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne sensor data of forest biomes obtained using an SAR, a laser profiler, an IR MSS, and a TM simulator are presented and examined. The SAR was utilized to investigate forest canopy structures in Mississippi and Costa Rica; the IR MSS measured forest canopy temperatures in Oregon and Puerto Rico; the TM simulator was employed in a tropical forest in Puerto Rico; and the laser profiler studied forest canopy characteristics in Costa Rica. The advantages and disadvantages of airborne systems are discussed. It is noted that the airborne sensors provide measurements applicable to forest monitoring programs.

  14. Rotorcraft master plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwoschinsky, Peter V.

    1992-01-01

    The Rotorcraft Master Plan contains a comprehensive summary of active and planned FAA vertical flight research and development. Since the Master Plan is not sufficient for tracking project status and monitoring progress, the Vertical Flight Program Plan will provide that capability. It will be consistent with the Master Plan and, in conjunction with it, will serve to ensure a hospitable environment if the industry presents a practical vertical-flight initiative.

  15. MASTER TELEVISION ANTENNA SYSTEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

    SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE FURNISHING AND INSTALLATION OF TELEVISION MASTER ANTENNA SYSTEMS FOR SECONDARY AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE GIVEN. CONTRACTOR REQUIREMENTS, EQUIPMENT, PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, AND FUNCTIONS ARE DESCRIBED. (MS)

  16. MODIS airborne simulator visible and near-infrared calibration, 1991 FIRE-Cirrus field experiment. Calibration version: FIRE King 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, G. Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael; Grant, Patrick S.; King, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) is derived from observations of a calibrated light source. For the 1991 FIRE-Cirrus field experiment, the calibrated light source was the NASA Goddard 48-inch integrating hemisphere. Laboratory tests during the FIRE Cirrus field experiment were conducted to calibrate the hemisphere and from the hemisphere to the MAS. The purpose of this report is to summarize the FIRE-Cirrus hemisphere calibration, and then describe how the MAS was calibrated from observations of the hemisphere data. All MAS calibration measurements are presented, and determination of the MAS calibration coefficients (raw counts to radiance conversion) is discussed. Thermal sensitivity of the MAS visible and near-infrared calibration is also discussed. Typically, the MAS in-flight is 30 to 60 degrees C colder than the room temperature laboratory calibration. Results from in-flight temperature measurements and tests of the MAS in a cold chamber are given, and from these, equations are derived to adjust the MAS in-flight data to what the value would be at laboratory conditions. For FIRE-Cirrus data, only channels 3 through 6 were found to be temperature sensitive. The final section of this report describes comparisons to an independent MAS (room temperature) calibration by Ames personnel using their 30-inch integrating sphere.

  17. Measuring Master's Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dair, Katherine G.

    2012-01-01

    Master's education is the largest segment of graduate education in the United States yet there is a paucity of research about how master's students experience their programs. Empirical research on student engagement--defined as the time and effort students devote to activities that are linked to educational outcomes and what institutions do to…

  18. Master: 2 new OT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Tiurina, N.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kuznetsov, A.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Vladimirov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Tlatov, A.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Gabovich, A.; Pogrosheva, T.

    2017-01-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 18h 58m 24.93s -69d 44m 51.3s on 2017-01-25.02720 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 18.0m (mlim=19.0).

  19. MASTER: optical transients detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Shumkov, V.; Ivanov, K.; Vladimirov, V.; Chazov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Potter, S.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-11-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 18h 12m 58.26s +16d 02m 46.8s on 2016-11-06.81470 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is , mlim=18.0m.

  20. MASTER Net: optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shurpakov, S.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Ricart, M. Serra; Podesta, R.; Levato, H. O.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Chazov, V.; Kornilov, V.; Ivanov, K.; Vladimirov, V.; Potter, S.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 14h 38m 49.60s -44d 37m 24.5s on 2016-10-01.73438 UT with unfiltered m_OT=16.4m (mlim=19.7m).

  1. MASTER: optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Balanutsa, P.; Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Rebolo, R.; Ricart, M. Serra; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Chazov, V.; Vladimirov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Potter, S.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 14h 38m 49.60s -44d 37m 24.5s on 2016-10-01.73438 UT with unfiltered m_OT=16.4m (mlim=19.7m).

  2. Master: PSNe and CV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Tlatov, A.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Shumkov, V.; Kuznetsov, N.; Kuvshinov, D.; Vlasenko, D.; Chazov, V.; Ivanov, K.; Popova, E.; Pogrosheva, T.; Potter, S.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Parkhomenko, A.

    2016-12-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 05h 17m 21.71s -51d 31m 32.0s on 2016-12-26.92440 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 18.2 (mlim=20.5).

  3. MASTER: bright optical transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenkov, V. N.; Lipunov, V. M.; Kornilov, V. G.; Chazov, V. V.; Berezhko, E. G.; Klypin, A. A.; Shafer, E. Yu.; Mironova, I. V.; Esin, V. P.; Gundorov, V. L.; Charikov, A. V.; Aitova, G. A.; Gektin, Yu. M.; Trunkovsky, E. M.; Lipunova, N. A.; Popova, A. O.; Gerasimov, I. A.; Gluschenko, Yu. V.

    2017-02-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 01h 44m 50.47s +45d 32m 42.9s on 2017-01-29.03010 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (mlim=19.5m).

  4. MASTER: optical transients detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Shurpakov, S.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Chazov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Ivanov, K.; Budnev, N.; Gress, O.

    2017-03-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 18h 49m 06.73s -27d 33m 34.9s on 2017-03-18.14205 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.3m (mlim=18.2).

  5. MASTER: dwarf novae outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Otero, S.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Buckley, D.; Tiurina, N. V.; Kuznetsov, A. S.; Kornilov, V. G.; Vladimirov, V. V.; Kuvshinov, D. A.; Chazov, V. V.; Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.

    2017-02-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 15h 05m 18.03s -14d 39m 33.6s on 2017-02-08.27692 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (limit 19.8m).

  6. MASTER: dwarf novae outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Vlasenko, D.; Gress, O.; Vladimirov, V.; Ivanov, K.; Kuvshinov, D.

    2017-03-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 08h 15m 41.29s -65d 29m 32.8s on 2017-03-10.82948 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.6m (mlim=18.3).

  7. Technology Simplifies Master Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollie, Ellen

    1999-01-01

    Describes the use of digital ortho photography in the master planning process conducted at the University of Alabama that made planning easy and quick to do. What the benefits are in going digital for master planning are highlighted as is a description of what hardware and software are needed. (GR)

  8. MASTER: optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochutina, N.; Gress, O.; Balanutsa, P.; Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Tlatov, A.; Tiurina, N.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Vladimirov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Chazov, V.; Krylov, A.; Gorbunov, I.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Parkhomenko, A.; RAS), Kislovodsk solar station of the Pulkovo observatory; Gabovich, A.; Yurkov, V.

    2017-01-01

    MASTER-OAFA auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 16h 39m 46.76s -61d 46m 00.6s on 2017-01-12.35470 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 15.3m (limit 17.1m).

  9. A simulation analysis of space-based and airborne moving platform radars in look-down clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repak, P. L.

    1983-05-01

    A simulation technique has been developed to provide the radar engineer with a tool for comparative examination of radar systems and target detection in the presence of look-down clutter. Using a plotting interface such as the Dedicated User Interface System (DUIS), an engineer can evaluate proposed radar designs against one another for target detection performance in a precise graphical format. The user is able to select an antenna function from either measured data or derived data under the existing Parametric Antenna Analysis Software (PAAS). The antenna platform may be at any designated altitude and velocity with respect to ground clutter scatterers. Entry of an exoatmospheric altitude automatically computes the proper circular satellite orbit velocity and introduces Earth rotation. Target radar echoes at specified ground locations are compared to clutter echoes in the sidelobes as well as the radar mainbeam. Analysis of output date serves as a measure of moving target minimum detectable velocity (MDV) for the total radar system. Written for analysts with some technical Doppler radar and clutter understanding this report leads the engineer through the theory and equations which develop the simulation computer program. Example cases and analyses are given to show program utility and output results.

  10. The Master Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Benjamin S.

    1982-01-01

    Drawing on his research on the development of talent in young people, ages 17 to 35, in six different fields, the author examines the characteristics of master teachers of pianists and Olympic swimmers. (WD)

  11. Acronym master list

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This document is a master list of acronyms and other abbreviations that are used by or could be useful to, the personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Many specialized and well-known abbreviations are not included in this list.

  12. IDC Integrated Master Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, David J.; Harris, James M.

    2014-12-01

    This is the IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 project Integrated Master Plan (IMP). The IMP presents the major accomplishments planned over time to re-engineer the IDC system. The IMP and the associate Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) are used for planning, scheduling, executing, and tracking the project technical work efforts. REVISIONS Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Re- engineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  13. A closure scheme for chemical master equations.

    PubMed

    Smadbeck, Patrick; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2013-08-27

    Probability reigns in biology, with random molecular events dictating the fate of individual organisms, and propelling populations of species through evolution. In principle, the master probability equation provides the most complete model of probabilistic behavior in biomolecular networks. In practice, master equations describing complex reaction networks have remained unsolved for over 70 years. This practical challenge is a reason why master equations, for all their potential, have not inspired biological discovery. Herein, we present a closure scheme that solves the master probability equation of networks of chemical or biochemical reactions. We cast the master equation in terms of ordinary differential equations that describe the time evolution of probability distribution moments. We postulate that a finite number of moments capture all of the necessary information, and compute the probability distribution and higher-order moments by maximizing the information entropy of the system. An accurate order closure is selected, and the dynamic evolution of molecular populations is simulated. Comparison with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, which merely sample the probability distribution, demonstrates this closure scheme is accurate for several small reaction networks. The importance of this result notwithstanding, a most striking finding is that the steady state of stochastic reaction networks can now be readily computed in a single-step calculation, without the need to simulate the evolution of the probability distribution in time.

  14. A closure scheme for chemical master equations

    PubMed Central

    Smadbeck, Patrick; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.

    2013-01-01

    Probability reigns in biology, with random molecular events dictating the fate of individual organisms, and propelling populations of species through evolution. In principle, the master probability equation provides the most complete model of probabilistic behavior in biomolecular networks. In practice, master equations describing complex reaction networks have remained unsolved for over 70 years. This practical challenge is a reason why master equations, for all their potential, have not inspired biological discovery. Herein, we present a closure scheme that solves the master probability equation of networks of chemical or biochemical reactions. We cast the master equation in terms of ordinary differential equations that describe the time evolution of probability distribution moments. We postulate that a finite number of moments capture all of the necessary information, and compute the probability distribution and higher-order moments by maximizing the information entropy of the system. An accurate order closure is selected, and the dynamic evolution of molecular populations is simulated. Comparison with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, which merely sample the probability distribution, demonstrates this closure scheme is accurate for several small reaction networks. The importance of this result notwithstanding, a most striking finding is that the steady state of stochastic reaction networks can now be readily computed in a single-step calculation, without the need to simulate the evolution of the probability distribution in time. PMID:23940327

  15. Airborne Turbulence Detection System Certification Tool Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David W.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2006-01-01

    A methodology and a corresponding set of simulation tools for testing and evaluating turbulence detection sensors has been presented. The tool set is available to industry and the FAA for certification of radar based airborne turbulence detection systems. The tool set consists of simulated data sets representing convectively induced turbulence, an airborne radar simulation system, hazard tables to convert the radar observable to an aircraft load, documentation, a hazard metric "truth" algorithm, and criteria for scoring the predictions. Analysis indicates that flight test data supports spatial buffers for scoring detections. Also, flight data and demonstrations with the tool set suggest the need for a magnitude buffer.

  16. The Masters Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Tayrose, Gregory A.; Beutel, Bryan G.; Cardone, Dennis A.; Sherman, Orrin H.

    2015-01-01

    Context: With the ever-increasing number of masters athletes, it is necessary to understand how to best provide medical support to this expanding population using a multidisciplinary approach. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles published between 2000 and 2013 using the search terms masters athlete and aging and exercise were identified using MEDLINE. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: Preparticipation screening should assess a variety of medical comorbidities, with emphasis on cardiovascular health in high-risk patients. The masters athlete should partake in moderate aerobic exercise and also incorporate resistance and flexibility training. A basic understanding of physiology and age-related changes in muscle composition and declines in performance are prerequisites for providing appropriate care. Osteoarthritis and joint arthroplasty are not contraindications to exercise, and analgesia has an appropriate role in the setting of acute or chronic injuries. Masters athletes should follow regular training regimens to maximize their potential while minimizing their likelihood of injuries. Conclusion: Overall, masters athletes represent a unique population and should be cared for utilizing a multidisciplinary approach. This care should be implemented not only during competitions but also between events when training and injury are more likely to occur. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID:26131307

  17. Constraining climate model simulations of aerosol size distributions over the North Pacific and North America using in-situ airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNaughton, Cameron Stuart

    The effect of aerosols on climate is poorly understood compared to green house gases. Aerosols can scatter and/or absorb solar radiation (the "direct effect") and modify cloud properties (the "indirect effect"), affecting Earth's radiation balance and hydrological cycle. Aerosol lifetimes vary from minutes to weeks in the Earth's atmosphere, so they are heterogeneously distributed in both time and space. Over longer time scales, aerosols can influence climate through sulfur (e.g. CLAW Hypothesis) and iron (e.g. Iron Hypothesis) biogeochemical cycling. Determination of natural and anthropogenic aerosol effects on past and future climate can only be achieved using global climate models (GCM's). Satellites allow global measurements of the present-day atmosphere, but require calibration/validation by observations in-situ. Ground- and ship-based observations are confined to the surface boundary layer which can be decoupled from overlying layers and the free troposphere. Here I use in-situ aircraft measurements from five NASA and NSF airborne field campaigns conducted over the North Pacific and North America between 2001 and 2006 to establish a reduced set of airmass types that are stratified vertically, by source region and according to processes governing their characteristics. For each airmass type the aerosol size distribution, mixing state, optical properties and chemical composition are summarized and discussed. In this study I found, (i) parameterizations of background free troposphere aerosol overestimate extinction by ˜50%, minimizing the differences between pre-industrial versus contemporary radiative forcing, (i) meteorological model errors in water vapour mixing ratio can overwhelm the influence of composition-dependent aerosol hygroscopicity on radiating forcing, (iii) aerosol number in convective cloud outflow over North America in summer were reduced by 1/e after ˜2 days with no detectable increase in aerosol mass or decrease in SO2, illustrating the

  18. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a) Identification. A master hearing aid is an electronic device intended to simulate a hearing aid during...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3330 - Master hearing aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3330 Master hearing aid. (a) Identification. A master hearing aid is an electronic device intended to simulate a hearing aid during...

  20. ELECTRONIC MASTER SLAVE MANIPULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Goertz, R.C.; Thompson, Wm.M.; Olsen, R.A.

    1958-08-01

    A remote control manipulator is described in which the master and slave arms are electrically connected to produce the desired motions. A response signal is provided in the master unit in order that the operator may sense a feel of the object and may not thereby exert such pressures that would ordinarily damage delicate objects. This apparatus will permit the manipulation of objects at a great distance, that may be viewed over a closed TV circuit, thereby permitting a remote operator to carry out operations in an extremely dangerous area with complete safety.

  1. Coupled Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport/Weather Forecast and Research/Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model. Part II; Simulations of Tower-Based and Airborne CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Wofsy, Steven C.; Matross, Daniel; Gerbig, Christoph; Lin, John C.; Freitas, Saulo; Longo, Marcos; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Peters, Wouter

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates simulations of atmospheric CO2 measured in 2004 at continental surface and airborne receptors, intended to test the capability to use data with high temporal and spatial resolution for analyses of carbon sources and sinks at regional and continental scales. The simulations were performed using the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model driven by the Weather Forecast and Research (WRF) model, and linked to surface fluxes from the satellite-driven Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (VPRM). The simulations provide detailed representations of hourly CO2 tower data and reproduce the shapes of airborne vertical profiles with high fidelity. WRF meteorology gives superior model performance compared with standard meteorological products, and the impact of including WRF convective mass fluxes in the STILT trajectory calculations is significant in individual cases. Important biases in the simulation are associated with the nighttime CO2 build-up and subsequent morning transition to convective conditions, and with errors in the advected lateral boundary condition. Comparison of STILT simulations driven by the WRF model against those driven by the Brazilian variant of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS) shows that model-to-model differences are smaller than between an individual transport model and observations, pointing to systematic errors in the simulated transport. Future developments in the WRF model s data assimilation capabilities, basic research into the fundamental aspects of trajectory calculations, and intercomparison studies involving other transport models, are possible venues for reducing these errors. Overall, the STILT/WRF/VPRM offers a powerful tool for continental and regional scale carbon flux estimates.

  2. Fire and emergency master planning: Selected bibliography on master planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    An annotative bibliography on master planning was developed as a reference document to provide community elected officials, fire service managers, and master planning team members with sources of information on master planning. The master planning process is an analytical tool for evaluating past methods of providing fire protection, assessing the cost effectiveness of current fire protection and determining the best method of providing fire protection. Formally defined, master planning is a systematic approach for providing the highest level of protection at the least possible cost. This publication was designed to provide guidance information that enables the user to examine various benefits and aspects of master planning. The selected bibliography on master planning is divided into five major areas of concern to community leaders and fire service managers: master planning, management, prevention, suppression, and emergency response.

  3. The "Clinical" Masters Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Baron; Lane, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Discusses issues surrounding the clinical master's degree: the belief that the only true psychologist is a PhD, public confusion between doctoral and subdoctoral psychologists, training guidelines, role responsibility, employment, licensing and competency, accreditation, and supervision. Suggests an APA sponsored conference to discuss and resolve…

  4. Strategic Master Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruthers, J. Kent

    1981-01-01

    Successful collegiate master planning requires several conditions: readiness in the form of participants' attitudes, time and dollar resources, and the mission review cycle; clarified uses for the mission review; organization for self-study; determination of participants' roles; information and analytical support; alignment of communication…

  5. Master File Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, William A.

    The three purposes for which this study was conducted involved collection and summarization of otherwise unavailable data on student characteristics and aspirations, editing and summarization of reading test data collected over the past six years, and testing of the feasibility and utility of a computerized master file combining student data…

  6. Master Watershed Stewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Gary L.

    The Master Watershed Stewards (MWS) Program is a pilot project (developed through the cooperation of the Ohio State University Extension Logan and Hardin County Offices and the Indian Lake Watershed Project) offering the opportunity for communities to get involved at the local level to protect their water quality. The program grew out of the…

  7. The Master Plan Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulrooney, Virginia F.

    The State of California, as it seeks to revise the Master Plan for Higher Education, is grappling with circumstances similar to those underpinning the revision of the United States' original Articles of Confederation. The delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention had to identify the task before them; determine how the country would be…

  8. Soils. Transparency Masters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This document is a collection of 43 overhead transparency masters to be used as teaching aids in a course of study involving soils such as geology, agronomy, hydrology, earth science, or land use study. Some transparencies are in color. Selected titles of transparencies may give the reader a better understanding of the graphic content. Titles are:…

  9. William Brickman, Master Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swing, Elizabeth Sherman

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her encounter and relationship with William Brickman as her master teacher. William Brickman was her professor, her dissertation advisor, her mentor, and her friend. Her pursuit of a Ph.D. in late middle age may have seemed strange to friends, family, and some of her professors, but not to Brickman. She enrolled…

  10. The Master Protocol Concept.

    PubMed

    Redman, Mary W; Allegra, Carmen J

    2015-10-01

    During the past decade, biomedical technologies have undergone an explosive evolution-from the publication of the first complete human genome in 2003, after more than a decade of effort and at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars-to the present time, where a complete genomic sequence can be available in less than a day and at a small fraction of the cost of the original sequence. The widespread availability of next-generation genomic sequencing has opened the door to the development of precision oncology. The need to test multiple new targeted agents both alone and in combination with other targeted therapies, as well as classic cytotoxic agents, demands the development of novel therapeutic platforms (particularly Master Protocols) capable of efficiently and effectively testing multiple targeted agents or targeted therapeutic strategies in relatively small patient subpopulations. Here, we describe the Master Protocol concept, with a focus on the expected gains and complexities of the use of this design. An overview of Master Protocols currently active or in development is provided along with a more extensive discussion of the Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP study).

  11. Complex master slave interferometry.

    PubMed

    Rivet, Sylvain; Maria, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Feuchter, Thomas; Leick, Lasse; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-02-08

    A general theoretical model is developed to improve the novel Spectral Domain Interferometry method denoted as Master/Slave (MS) Interferometry. In this model, two functions, g and h are introduced to describe the modulation chirp of the channeled spectrum signal due to nonlinearities in the decoding process from wavenumber to time and due to dispersion in the interferometer. The utilization of these two functions brings two major improvements to previous implementations of the MS method. A first improvement consists in reducing the number of channeled spectra necessary to be collected at Master stage. In previous MSI implementation, the number of channeled spectra at the Master stage equated the number of depths where information was selected from at the Slave stage. The paper demonstrates that two experimental channeled spectra only acquired at Master stage suffice to produce A-scans from any number of resolved depths at the Slave stage. A second improvement is the utilization of complex signal processing. Previous MSI implementations discarded the phase. Complex processing of the electrical signal determined by the channeled spectrum allows phase processing that opens several novel avenues. A first consequence of such signal processing is reduction in the random component of the phase without affecting the axial resolution. In previous MSI implementations, phase instabilities were reduced by an average over the wavenumber that led to reduction in the axial resolution.

  12. The NASA/NSERC Student Airborne Research Program Land Focus Group - a Paid Training Program in Multi-Disciplinary STEM Research for Terrestrial Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefauver, S. C.; Ustin, S.; Davey, S. W.; Furey, B. J.; Gartner, A.; Kurzweil, D.; Siebach, K. L.; Slawsky, L.; Snyder, E.; Trammell, J.; Young, J.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Suborbital Education and Research Center (NSERC) is a unique six week multidisciplinary paid training program which directly integrates students into the forefront of airborne remote sensing science. Students were briefly trained with one week of lectures and laboratory exercises and then immediately incorporated into ongoing research projects which benefit from access to the DC-8 airborne platform and the MODIS-ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensor. Students were split into three major topical categories of Land, Ocean, and Air for the data collection and project portions of the program. This poster details the techniques and structure used for the student integration into ongoing research, professional development, hypothesis building and results as developed by the professor and mentor of the Land focus group. Upon assignment to the Land group, students were issued official research field protocols and split into four field specialty groups with additional specialty reading assignments. In the field each group spent more time in their respective specialty, but also participated in all field techniques through pairings with UC Davis research team members using midday rotations. After the field campaign, each specialty group then gave summary presentations on the techniques, preliminary results, and significance to overall group objectives of their specialty. Then students were required to submit project proposals within the bounds of Land airborne remote sensing science and encouraging, but not requiring the use of the field campaign data. These proposals are then reviewed by the professor and mentor and students are met with one by one to discuss the skills of each student and objectives of the proposed research project. The students then work under the supervision of the mentor and benefit again from professor feedback in a formal

  13. Sampling for Airborne Radioactivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    compared to betas, gammas and neutrons. For an airborne radioactivity detection system, it is most important to be able to detect alpha particles and... Airborne radioactive particles may emit alpha, beta, gamma or neutron radiation, depending on which radioisotope is present. From a health perspective...

  14. Evaluation of NOx emission inventories in California using multi-satellite data sets, AMAX-DOAS and in-situ airborne measurements, and regional model simulations during the CalNex field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Baidar, S.; Boersma, F.; Brioude, J.; Bucsela, E. J.; Burrows, J. P.; Celarier, E. A.; Cohen, R. C.; Frost, G. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Lamsal, L. N.; Martin, R. V.; McKeen, S. A.; Oetjen, H.; Pollack, I. B.; Richter, A.; Russell, A. R.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Valin, L. C.; Volkamer, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite NO2 column measurements indicate large NOx emissions from urban and agricultural sources in California. In this presentation, we highlight the NOx sources identified in California using the satellite measurements. Comparison of regional model-simulated NO2 columns with satellite retrievals has proven useful in evaluating emission inventories for various sectors. We compare the NO2 columns from the WRF-Chem model with the multi-satellite data sets from different instruments and retrieval groups for a variety of California sources. Use of multiple satellite data sets help to define the uncertainties in the satellite retrievals. In addition, the CalNex 2010 intensive field campaign provides a unique opportunity to independently assess California's emission inventories. CU-AMAX-DOAS and in-situ airborne observations from CalNex 2010 and fine-resolution model simulations are used to estimate the accuracy of the satellite NO2 column retrievals.

  15. Master Study: Ceramics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    In painting and drawing classes, it is typical to ask students to work directly from a master. It is one way to study composition techniques, and to become familiar with classical style firsthand. In museums, easels are set up as artists work, not in an attempt to copy or plagiarize, but in an attempt to be part of history by participating in it.…

  16. PathMaster

    PubMed Central

    Mattie, Mark E.; Staib, Lawrence; Stratmann, Eric; Tagare, Hemant D.; Duncan, James; Miller, Perry L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Currently, when cytopathology images are archived, they are typically stored with a limited text-based description of their content. Such a description inherently fails to quantify the properties of an image and refers to an extremely small fraction of its information content. This paper describes a method for automatically indexing images of individual cells and their associated diagnoses by computationally derived cell descriptors. This methodology may serve to better index data contained in digital image databases, thereby enabling cytologists and pathologists to cross-reference cells of unknown etiology or nature. Design: The indexing method, implemented in a program called PathMaster, uses a series of computer-based feature extraction routines. Descriptors of individual cell characteristics generated by these routines are employed as indexes of cell morphology, texture, color, and spatial orientation. Measurements: The indexing fidelity of the program was tested after populating its database with images of 152 lymphocytes/lymphoma cells captured from lymph node touch preparations stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Images of “unknown” lymphoid cells, previously unprocessed, were then submitted for feature extraction and diagnostic cross-referencing analysis. Results: PathMaster listed the correct diagnosis as its first differential in 94 percent of recognition trials. In the remaining 6 percent of trials, PathMaster listed the correct diagnosis within the first three “differentials.” Conclusion: PathMaster is a pilot cell image indexing program/search engine that creates an indexed reference of images. Use of such a reference may provide assistance in the diagnostic/prognostic process by furnishing a prioritized list of possible identifications for a cell of uncertain etiology. PMID:10887168

  17. Quantum molecular master equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brechet, Sylvain D.; Reuse, Francois A.; Maschke, Klaus; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-10-01

    We present the quantum master equations for midsize molecules in the presence of an external magnetic field. The Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of a molecule accounts for the molecular deformation and orientation properties, as well as for the electronic properties. In order to establish the master equations governing the relaxation of free-standing molecules, we have to split the molecule into two weakly interacting parts, a bath and a bathed system. The adequate choice of these systems depends on the specific physical system under consideration. Here we consider a first system consisting of the molecular deformation and orientation properties and the electronic spin properties and a second system composed of the remaining electronic spatial properties. If the characteristic time scale associated with the second system is small with respect to that of the first, the second may be considered as a bath for the first. Assuming that both systems are weakly coupled and initially weakly correlated, we obtain the corresponding master equations. They describe notably the relaxation of magnetic properties of midsize molecules, where the change of the statistical properties of the electronic orbitals is expected to be slow with respect to the evolution time scale of the bathed system.

  18. Airborne gravity is here

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, S.

    1982-01-11

    After 20 years of development efforts, the airborne gravity survey has finally become a practical exploration method. Besides gravity data, the airborne survey can also collect simultaneous, continuous records of high-precision magneticfield data as well as terrain clearance; these provide a topographic contour map useful in calculating terrain conditions and in subsequent planning and engineering. Compared with a seismic survey, the airborne gravity method can cover the same area much more quickly and cheaply; a seismograph could then detail the interesting spots.

  19. Master equation analysis of deterministic chemical chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongli; Li, Qianshu

    1998-05-01

    The underlying microscopic dynamics of deterministic chemical chaos was investigated in this paper. We analyzed the master equation for the Williamowski-Rössler model by direct stochastic simulation as well as in the generating function representation. Simulation within an ensemble revealed that in the chaotic regime the deterministic mass action kinetics is related neither to the ensemble mean nor to the most probable value within the ensemble. Cumulant expansion analysis of the master equation also showed that the molecular fluctuations do not admit bounded values but increase linearly in time infinitely, indicating the meaninglessness of the chaotic trajectories predicted by the phenomenological equations. These results proposed that the macroscopic description is no longer useful in the chaotic regime and a more microscopic description is necessary in this circumstance.

  20. The Quadrature Master Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, N. J.; Pourdarvish, A.; Sadeghi, J.; Olaomi, J. O.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we derive the non-Markovian stochastic equation of motion (SEM) and master equations (MEs) for the open quantum system by using the non-Markovian stochastic Schrödinger equations (SSEs) for the quadrature unraveling in linear and nonlinear cases. The SSEs for quadrature unraveling arise as a special case of a quantum system. Also we derive the Markovian SEM and ME by using linear and nonlinear Itô SSEs for the measurement probabilities. In linear non-Markovian case, we calculate the convolutionless linear quadrature non-Markovian SEM and ME. We take advantage from example and show that corresponding theory.

  1. Airborne Microalgae: Insights, Opportunities, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Löndahl, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Airborne dispersal of microalgae has largely been a blind spot in environmental biological studies because of their low concentration in the atmosphere and the technical limitations in investigating microalgae from air samples. Recent studies show that airborne microalgae can survive air transportation and interact with the environment, possibly influencing their deposition rates. This minireview presents a summary of these studies and traces the possible route, step by step, from established ecosystems to new habitats through air transportation over a variety of geographic scales. Emission, transportation, deposition, and adaptation to atmospheric stress are discussed, as well as the consequences of their dispersal on health and the environment and state-of-the-art techniques to detect and model airborne microalga dispersal. More-detailed studies on the microalga atmospheric cycle, including, for instance, ice nucleation activity and transport simulations, are crucial for improving our understanding of microalga ecology, identifying microalga interactions with the environment, and preventing unwanted contamination events or invasions. PMID:26801574

  2. Land cover/use classification of Cairns, Queensland, Australia: A remote sensing study involving the conjunctive use of the airborne imaging spectrometer, the large format camera and the thematic mapper simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heric, Matthew; Cox, William; Gordon, Daniel K.

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the land cover/use classification accuracy obtainable from remotely sensed multispectral imagery, Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) images were analyzed in conjunction with Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) Large Format Camera color infrared photography and black and white aerial photography. Specific portions of the combined data set were registered and used for classification. Following this procedure, the resulting derived data was tested using an overall accuracy assessment method. Precise photogrammetric 2D-3D-2D geometric modeling techniques is not the basis for this study. Instead, the discussion exposes resultant spectral findings from the image-to-image registrations. Problems associated with the AIS-1 TMS integration are considered, and useful applications of the imagery combination are presented. More advanced methodologies for imagery integration are needed if multisystem data sets are to be utilized fully. Nevertheless, research, described herein, provides a formulation for future Earth Observation Station related multisensor studies.

  3. Airborne Chemical Sensing with Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Lilienthal, Achim J.; Loutfi, Amy; Duckett, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Airborne chemical sensing with mobile robots has been an active research area since the beginning of the 1990s. This article presents a review of research work in this field, including gas distribution mapping, trail guidance, and the different subtasks of gas source localisation. Due to the difficulty of modelling gas distribution in a real world environment with currently available simulation techniques, we focus largely on experimental work and do not consider publications that are purely based on simulations.

  4. Airborne X-band SAR tomography for forest volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, Fiona; Woodhouse, Iain H.; Mulgrew, Bernard

    2016-10-01

    We evaluate the usefulness of X-band, airborne (helicopter) data for tomography over forestry regions and discuss the use of compressive sensing algorithms to aid X-band airborne tomography. This work examines if there is any information that can be gained from forest volumes when analysing forestry sites using X-band data. To do so, different forest scenarios were simulated and a fast SAR simulator was used to model airborne multipass SAR data, at X-band, with parameters based on Leonardo's PicoSAR instrument. Model simulations considered varying factors that affect the height determination when using tomography. The main parameters that are considered here are: motion errors of the platform, the spacing of the flight paths, the resolution of the SAR images and plant life being present under the canopy (an understory). It was found that residual motion errors from the airborne platform cause the largest error in the tomographic profile.

  5. An Airborne Ultrasonic Imaging System Based on 16 Elements: 150 kHz Piezopolymer Transducer Arrays—Preliminary Simulated and Experimental Results for Cylindrical Targets Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capineri, L.; Bulletti, A.; Calzolai, M.; Giannelli, P.

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a 16-element transducer array for airborne ultrasonic imaging operating at 150 kHz, that can operate both at close range (50 mm) in the near field of a synthetic aperture, and up to 250 mm. The proposed imaging technique is based on a modified version of the delay and sum algorithm implemented with a synthetic aperture where each pixel amplitude is determined by the integration of the signal obtained by the coherent summation of the acquired signals over a delayed window with fixed length. The image reconstruction methods using raw data provides the possibility to detect targets with smaller feature size on the order of one wavelength because the coherent signals summation over the selected window length while the image reconstruction methods using the summation of enveloped signals increases the amplitude response at the expenses of a lower spatial resolution. For the implementation of this system it is important to design compact airborne transducers with large field of view and this can be obtained with a new design of hemi-cylindrical polyvinylidene fluoride film transducers directly mounted on a printed circuit board. This new method is low cost and has repeatable transducer characteristics. The complete system is compact, with a modular architecture, in which eight boards with dual ultrasonic channels are mounted on a mother board. Each daughter board hosts a microcontroller unit and can operate with transducers in the bandwidth 40-200 kHz with on-board data acquisition, pre-processing and transfer on a dedicated bus.

  6. What about Master's Students? The Master's Student Persistence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Kristin E.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the factors that affect master's student persistence in the United States. More specifically, this study explored whether the following factors: students' background, institution's, academic, environmental and psychological influences, had a significant effect on whether a master's student persisted and/or…

  7. MASTER-OAFA, MASTER-SAAO discovery: bright OTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrosheva, T.; Shumkov, V.; Popova, E.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Buckley, D.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Potter, S.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Balanutsa, P.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Chazov, V.; Ivanov, K.

    2016-11-01

    MASTER-OAFA (located in Argentina) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 20h 26m 36.17s -44d 07m 22.7s on 2016-11-29.04023 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (mlim=18.6m).

  8. MASTER-SAAO, MASTER-OAFA: optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Tiurina, N.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Chazov, V.; Potter, S.; Gabovich, A.; Krylov, A.; Gorbunov, I.; Pogrosheva, T.

    2017-01-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 15h 43m 13.55s -71d 20m 56.3s on 2017-01-05.00719 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.1m (mlim=18.6).

  9. Airborne Next: Rethinking Airborne Organization and Applying New Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    structures since its employment on a large scale during World War II. It is puzzling to consider how little airborne organizational structures and employment...future potential of airborne concepts by rethinking traditional airborne organizational structures and employment concepts. Using a holistic approach in... structures of airborne forces to model a “small and many” approach over a “large and few” approach, while incorporating a “swarming” concept. Utilizing

  10. MASTER: PSN and new OT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Lipunov, V.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Budnev, N.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Vladimirov, V.; Chazov, V.; Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Postnikov, L.; Nikitin, V.; Kuvshinov, D.

    2017-01-01

    MASTER-Tunka auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 07h 50m 43.35s +79d 09m 16.6s on 2017-01-23.88841 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.8m (limit 19.6m).

  11. MASTER: QSO flare and OTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Ivanov, K.; Vladimirov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA auto-detection system (Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 01h 50m 52.97s -45d 10m 15.9s on 2016-10-06.21896 UT with unfiltered m_OT=17.4m (limit 20.6m).

  12. ISMAR: an airborne submillimetre radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Stuart; Lee, Clare; Moyna, Brian; Philipp, Martin; Rule, Ian; Rogers, Stuart; King, Robert; Oldfield, Matthew; Rea, Simon; Henry, Manju; Wang, Hui; Chawn Harlow, R.

    2017-02-01

    The International Submillimetre Airborne Radiometer (ISMAR) has been developed as an airborne demonstrator for the Ice Cloud Imager (ICI) that will be launched on board the next generation of European polar-orbiting weather satellites in the 2020s. It currently has 15 channels at frequencies between 118 and 664 GHz which are sensitive to scattering by cloud ice, and additional channels at 874 GHz are being developed. This paper presents an overview of ISMAR and describes the algorithms used for calibration. The main sources of bias in the measurements are evaluated, as well as the radiometric sensitivity in different measurement scenarios. It is shown that for downward views from high altitude, representative of a satellite viewing geometry, the bias in most channels is less than ±1 K and the NEΔT is less than 2 K, with many channels having an NEΔT less than 1 K. In-flight calibration accuracy is also evaluated by comparison of high-altitude zenith views with radiative-transfer simulations.

  13. Master Console, SMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paga Marrero, Hector Jose

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console oversees the function of Computer Systems in Firing room 1 (FR1). Master Console Operators, MCOs' for short, are our customer. I was integrated into the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) software team that is under the guidance of David Slaiman, who is the product group lead. I have been brought up to speed with System Monitoring and Control. The initial time spent reading SMC software design description and understanding how it works. The current Firing Room 1 Console Display is a floor layout giving the MCO two essential pieces of information which are Health and Status. When an issue arises, the MCO has to look on the display to find which console is affected and then the MCO must use the Reference designator from the display to manually search for the Portal Workstation (PWS) installed in the console using the hardware map; which is a long process to lookup a PWS if an issue is present. My project is to make the FR1 Console Display easier for the MCO's to pinpoint PWS's without having to lookup additional resources in the process. My project also includes updating Firing Room 1 Console Display to include the F1R Non-Redundant Set. The display does not have good use of space and functionality. PWS numbers were not present in the previous design and are the critical component in efficient understanding and administration of the consoles. Part of the process includes getting feedback from the customer, instead of just emailing them with a question, we made a proposal with changes so they could respond and give us their input; which proved to be an effective method for engaging them. In order to do this I had to use the Display Editor (DE) tool developed by NASA, Paint.Net and Visio. The process I have been using has been Visio to alter the floor layout of Firing Room and take advantage of the white areas, and then I take the altered floor plan into Paint.Net. Once in Paint.Net I put the new floor plan as a background to the standard console

  14. Monitoring Renewed Volcanic Activity at Mount St. Helens with High-Resolution Thermal Infrared Data: ASTER, MASTER and FLIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Wessels, R.; Ramsey, M. S.

    2005-12-01

    Since the beginning of renewed eruptive activity at Mount St. Helens numerous thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data sets have been acquired to monitor changes in temperature and thermal flux from the new dome. High-resolution (5 m) TIR data from the MODIS-ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) were acquired during the first 20 days of activity along with several Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) camera surveys from both helicopter and ground-based stations. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument has acquired a total of 10 cloud-free data sets from October 2004 to August 2005 with 90-m spatial resolution in the TIR. The pre-eruption data show no measurable increase in surface temperature before the first eruption on October 1. MASTER TIR data acquired during the first 3 weeks of activity show maximum temperatures of ~330 C (on October 14) and concurrent FLIR camera data show maximum temperatures of ~675 C, in narrow (~1-m) fractures of molten rock on the new dome. Thermal flux calculations from both MASTER and FLIR data at that time indicate a radiative cooling rate of ~700 J/m2/s over the new dome, corresponding to a radiant power of ~24 MW. Preliminary results from ASTER data analysis show a general increase in the number of "warm pixels" in the crater throughout the year and temperature information extracted from these areas will be presented as a chronology of temperature and thermal flux changes. Higher-resolution FLIR surveys that were approximately concurrent with some of the ASTER images compared to the ASTER-derived temperatures have been used to validate ASTER measurements and model sub-pixel temperature components. The results so far demonstrate that TIR data provide important information on the thermal evolution of the surface during eruptive episodes.

  15. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  16. Investigation of Human Impacts on Surficial Geomorphology in Mountain Parks Using MASTER Data: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, W. L.

    2003-12-01

    The role of humans as active agents of geomorphic change is obvious at large scales (i.e. urbanization), but is also important at smaller temporal and spatial scales due to activities such as hiking and mountain biking. The effect of these activities on soil disturbance, sediment transport, surface hydrology, and vegetation growth are not well understood in arid regions where the majority of projected population growth is expected to occur. The Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area includes several public mountain parks comprising a wide range of bedrock, structure, soils, and geomorphology. The region includes ideal sites for study as there are parks completely surrounded by urbanization (with a high degree of constant use) as well as parks more removed from the metropolitan core that experience less overall human presence. A primarily field-based approach to this study is impractical due to the large total area of investigation (approximately 1000 square kilometers). Use of high spatial and spectral resolution remotely sensed data represents a useful alternative (or complementary) approach. Airborne MODIS/ASTER Simulator (MASTER) data were obtained at a ground resolution of 5 meters/pixel over Phoenix urban and peri-urban mountain parks during April 2003. This sensor acquires data in 50 bands in the visible through mid-infrared wavelengths and captures primary rock-forming mineral (quartz, feldspar, pyroxene, amphibole, etc.); weathering and pedogenetic mineral (clays, oxides, carbonates); and vegetation spectral features useful for compositional analysis. Preliminary results presented here use MASTER spectral data and band ratios to assess the degree of disturbance of surficial soils (as defined by presence of clay minerals and lack of surface crusts/pavements) associated with high- and low-use areas of mountain parks. These initial results are being used to assess the degree to which lithology, structure, vegetation, soil type, and landscape position modulate the

  17. Airborne Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA imaging technology has provided the basis for a commercial agricultural reconnaissance service. AG-RECON furnishes information from airborne sensors, aerial photographs and satellite and ground databases to farmers, foresters, geologists, etc. This service produces color "maps" of Earth conditions, which enable clients to detect crop color changes or temperature changes that may indicate fire damage or pest stress problems.

  18. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  19. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  20. Photoreactivation in Airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum

    PubMed Central

    Peccia, Jordan; Hernandez, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Photoreactivation was observed in airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum exposed concurrently to UV radiation (254 nm) and visible light. Photoreactivation rates of airborne cells increased with increasing relative humidity (RH) and decreased with increasing UV dose. Under a constant UV dose with visible light absent, the UV inactivation rate of airborne M. parafortuitum cells decreased by a factor of 4 as RH increased from 40 to 95%; however, under identical conditions with visible light present, the UV inactivation rate of airborne cells decreased only by a factor of 2. When irradiated in the absence of visible light, cellular cyclobutane thymine dimer content of UV-irradiated airborne M. parafortuitum and Serratia marcescens increased in response to RH increases. Results suggest that, unlike in waterborne bacteria, cyclobutane thymine dimers are not the most significant form of UV-induced DNA damage incurred by airborne bacteria and that the distribution of DNA photoproducts incorporated into UV-irradiated airborne cells is a function of RH. PMID:11526027

  1. Image Based Synthesis for Airborne Minefield Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    applications of image synthesis include artificial texture generation [1], image repairing [2], photometric image rendering [3] and ultrasound imaging...1999. 4. M. Song, R. M. Haralick, F.H. Sheehan, " Ultrasound imaging simulation and echocardiographic image synthesis ", Proceedings of the IEEE...Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate AMSRD-CER-NV-TR-246I Image Based Synthesis for Airborne Minefield Data December 2005 Approved for

  2. Accuracy of perturbative master equations.

    PubMed

    Fleming, C H; Cummings, N I

    2011-03-01

    We consider open quantum systems with dynamics described by master equations that have perturbative expansions in the system-environment interaction. We show that, contrary to intuition, full-time solutions of order-2n accuracy require an order-(2n+2) master equation. We give two examples of such inaccuracies in the solutions to an order-2n master equation: order-2n inaccuracies in the steady state of the system and order-2n positivity violations. We show how these arise in a specific example for which exact solutions are available. This result has a wide-ranging impact on the validity of coupling (or friction) sensitive results derived from second-order convolutionless, Nakajima-Zwanzig, Redfield, and Born-Markov master equations.

  3. Master oscillator stability requirements considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, H.; Vancraeynest, J.

    1986-06-24

    This note attempts to point out some ideas about the required stability of the 476 MHz master oscillator, assuming that the phase noise of the oscillator is the only source of noise in the accelerator system.

  4. STS-107 Master Experiment List

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A master list of the various experiments conducted aboard the STS-107 Space Mission is presented. The topics include: 1) Biology; 2) Earth and Space Sciences; 3) Physical Sciences; 4) Space Product Development; and 6) Technology Development.

  5. Dual arm master controller development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuban, D. P.; Perkins, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed to human factor design and performance tradeoffs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented.

  6. Hood River Production Master Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, Patty

    1991-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program authorizes the development of artificial production facilities to raise chinook salmon and steelhead for enhancement in the Hood, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers and elsewhere. On February 26, 1991 the Council agreed to disaggregate Hood River from the Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, and instead, link the Hood River Master Plan (now the Hood River Production Plan) to the Pelton Ladder Project (Pelton Ladder Master Plan 1991).

  7. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  8. Master-equation approach to stochastic neurodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Toru; Cowan, Jack D.

    1993-09-01

    A master-equation approach to the stochastic neurodynamics proposed by Cowan [in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 3, edited by R. P. Lippman, J. E. Moody, and D. S. Touretzky (Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, 1991), p. 62] is investigated in this paper. We deal with a model neural network that is composed of two-state neurons obeying elementary stochastic transition rates. We show that such an approach yields concise expressions for multipoint moments and an equation of motion. We apply the formalism to a (1+1)-dimensional system. Exact and approximate expressions for various statistical parameters are obtained and compared with Monte Carlo simulations.

  9. Helios: a Multi-Purpose LIDAR Simulation Framework for Research, Planning and Training of Laser Scanning Operations with Airborne, Ground-Based Mobile and Stationary Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, S.; Höfle, B.

    2016-06-01

    In many technical domains of modern society, there is a growing demand for fast, precise and automatic acquisition of digital 3D models of a wide variety of physical objects and environments. Laser scanning is a popular and widely used technology to cover this demand, but it is also expensive and complex to use to its full potential. However, there might exist scenarios where the operation of a real laser scanner could be replaced by a computer simulation, in order to save time and costs. This includes scenarios like teaching and training of laser scanning, development of new scanner hardware and scanning methods, or generation of artificial scan data sets to support the development of point cloud processing and analysis algorithms. To test the feasibility of this idea, we have developed a highly flexible laser scanning simulation framework named Heidelberg LiDAR Operations Simulator (HELIOS). HELIOS is implemented as a Java library and split up into a core component and multiple extension modules. Extensible Markup Language (XML) is used to define scanner, platform and scene models and to configure the behaviour of modules. Modules were developed and implemented for (1) loading of simulation assets and configuration (i.e. 3D scene models, scanner definitions, survey descriptions etc.), (2) playback of XML survey descriptions, (3) TLS survey planning (i.e. automatic computation of recommended scanning positions) and (4) interactive real-time 3D visualization of simulated surveys. As a proof of concept, we show the results of two experiments: First, a survey planning test in a scene that was specifically created to evaluate the quality of the survey planning algorithm. Second, a simulated TLS scan of a crop field in a precision farming scenario. The results show that HELIOS fulfills its design goals.

  10. 46 CFR 15.805 - Master.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master. 15.805 Section 15.805 Shipping COAST GUARD....805 Master. (a) There must be an individual holding an appropriate license as or a valid MMC with endorsement as master master in command of each of the following vessels: (1) Every self-propelled,...

  11. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Master's requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master's requirements. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping... Master's requirements. The Master shall: (a) Receive and receipt for the quantities of slop chest items... therefor, at the unit price, specified by the Slop Chest Statement furnished the Master by the...

  12. Airborne Intercept Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Primary mirror of Zerodur with Pilkington 747 coating • FOV = 0.104 degrees Airborne Intercept Monitoring RTO-MP-SET-105 16 - 3 UNCLASSIFIED...Pointing System (SPS). The STS is a 0.75 meter aperture Mersenne Cassegrain telescope and the SAT is a 0.34 meter aperture 3- mirror anastigmat telescope...UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED • Air Flow to Mitigate Thermal “Seeing” Effects • Light weighted primary mirror to reduce mass The SAT

  13. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  14. Airborne Infrared Astronomical Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.

    2017-01-01

    A unique program of infrared astronomical observations from aircraft evolved at NASA’s Ames Research Center, beginning in the 1960s. Telescopes were flown on a Convair 990, a Lear Jet, and a Lockheed C-141 - the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) - leading to the planning and development of SOFIA: a 2.7 m telescope now flying on a Boeing 747SP. The poster describes these telescopes and highlights of some of the scientific results obtained from them.

  15. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D [Menan, ID; Schmitt, Michael J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Warren F [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  16. Mapping Weathering and Alteration Minerals in the Comstock and Geiger Grade Areas using Visible to Thermal Infrared Airborne Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Greg R.; Calvin, Wendy M.

    2005-01-01

    To support research into both precious metal exploration and environmental site characterization a combination of high spatial/spectral resolution airborne visible, near infrared, short wave infrared (VNIR/SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) image data were acquired to remotely map hydrothermal alteration minerals around the Geiger Grade and Comstock alteration regions, and map the mineral by-products of weathered mine dumps in Virginia City. Remote sensing data from the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), SpecTIR Corporation's airborne hyperspectral imager (HyperSpecTIR), the MODIS-ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER), and the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) were acquired and processed into mineral maps based on the unique spectral signatures of image pixels. VNIR/SWIR and TIR field spectrometer data were collected for both calibration and validation of the remote data sets, and field sampling, laboratory spectral analyses and XRD analyses were made to corroborate the surface mineralogy identified by spectroscopy. The resulting mineral maps show the spatial distribution of several important alteration minerals around each study area including alunite, quartz, pyrophyllite, kaolinite, montmorillonite/muscovite, and chlorite. In the Comstock region the mineral maps show acid-sulfate alteration, widespread propylitic alteration and extensive faulting that offsets the acid-sulfate areas, in contrast to the larger, dominantly acid-sulfate alteration exposed along Geiger Grade. Also, different mineral zones within the intense acid-sulfate areas were mapped. In the Virginia City historic mining district the important weathering minerals mapped include hematite, goethite, jarosite and hydrous sulfate minerals (hexahydrite, alunogen and gypsum) located on mine dumps. Sulfate minerals indicate acidic water forming in the mine dump environment. While there is not an immediate threat to the community, there are clearly sources of

  17. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  18. NASA three-laser airborne differential absorption lidar system electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. J.; Copeland, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The system control and signal conditioning electronics of the NASA three laser airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system are described. The multipurpose DIAL system was developed for the remote measurement of gas and aerosol profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. A brief description and photographs of the majority of electronics units developed under this contract are presented. The precision control system; which includes a master control unit, three combined NASA laser control interface/quantel control units, and three noise pulse discriminator/pockels cell pulser units; is described in detail. The need and design considerations for precision timing and control are discussed. Calibration procedures are included.

  19. Soft lithography: masters on demand.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawad, Mohamed; Watson, Michael W L; Young, Edmond W K; Mudrik, Jared M; Ungrin, Mark D; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2008-08-01

    We report an ultra-rapid prototyping technique for forming microchannel networks for lab-on-a-chip applications, called masters on-demand. Channels are produced by replica molding on masters formed by laser printing on flexible copper printed circuit board (PCB) substrates. Masters of various designs and dimensions can be individually or mass produced in less than 10 minutes. Using this technique, we have fabricated channels as narrow as 100 microm with heights ranging between 9 microm and 70 microm. Multi-depth channel fabrication is also reported, using a two-step printing process. The functionality of devices formed in this manner is verified by performing in-channel electrophoretic separations and culture and analysis of primary mammalian cells.

  20. An Elevated Reservoir of Air Pollutants over the Mid-Atlantic States During the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ Campaign: Airborne Measurements and Numerical Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Hao; Loughner, Christopher P.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Arkinson, Heather L.; Brent, Lacey C.; Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Tzortziou, Maria A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Martins, Douglas K.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Crawford, James H.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Lee, Pius; Hains, Jennifer C.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    During a classic heat wave with record high temperatures and poor air quality from July 18 to 23, 2011, an elevated reservoir of air pollutants was observed over and downwind of Baltimore, MD, with relatively clean conditions near the surface. Aircraft and ozonesonde measurements detected approximately 120 parts per billion by volume ozone at 800 meters altitude, but approximately 80 parts per billion by volume ozone near the surface. High concentrations of other pollutants were also observed around the ozone peak: approximately 300 parts per billion by volume CO at 1200 meters, approximately 2 parts per billion by volume NO2 at 800 meters, approximately 5 parts per billion by volume SO2 at 600 meters, and strong aerosol optical scattering (2 x 10 (sup 4) per meter) at 600 meters. These results suggest that the elevated reservoir is a mixture of automobile exhaust (high concentrations of O3, CO, and NO2) and power plant emissions (high SO2 and aerosols). Back trajectory calculations show a local stagnation event before the formation of this elevated reservoir. Forward trajectories suggest an influence on downwind air quality, supported by surface ozone observations on the next day over the downwind PA, NJ and NY area. Meteorological observations from aircraft and ozonesondes show a dramatic veering of wind direction from south to north within the lowest 5000 meters, implying that the development of the elevated reservoir was caused in part by the Chesapeake Bay breeze. Based on in situ observations, Community Air Quality Multi-scale Model (CMAQ) forecast simulations with 12 kilometers resolution overestimated surface ozone concentrations and failed to predict this elevated reservoir; however, CMAQ research simulations with 4 kilometers and 1.33 kilometers resolution more successfully reproduced this event. These results show that high resolution is essential for resolving coastal effects and predicting air quality for cities near major bodies of water such as

  1. An elevated reservoir of air pollutants over the Mid-Atlantic States during the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ campaign: Airborne measurements and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hao; Loughner, Christopher P.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Arkinson, Heather L.; Brent, Lacey C.; Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Tzortziou, Maria A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Martins, Douglas K.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Crawford, James H.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Lee, Pius; Hains, Jennifer C.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2014-03-01

    During a classic heat wave with record high temperatures and poor air quality from July 18 to 23, 2011, an elevated reservoir of air pollutants was observed over and downwind of Baltimore, MD, with relatively clean conditions near the surface. Aircraft and ozonesonde measurements detected ˜120 ppbv ozone at 800 m altitude, but ˜80 ppbv ozone near the surface. High concentrations of other pollutants were also observed around the ozone peak: ˜300 ppbv CO at 1200 m, ˜2 ppbv NO2 at 800 m, ˜5 ppbv SO2 at 600 m, and strong aerosol optical scattering (2 × 10-4 m-1) at 600 m. These results suggest that the elevated reservoir is a mixture of automobile exhaust (high concentrations of O3, CO, and NO2) and power plant emissions (high SO2 and aerosols). Back trajectory calculations show a local stagnation event before the formation of this elevated reservoir. Forward trajectories suggest an influence on downwind air quality, supported by surface ozone observations on the next day over the downwind PA, NJ and NY area. Meteorological observations from aircraft and ozonesondes show a dramatic veering of wind direction from south to north within the lowest 5000 m, implying that the development of the elevated reservoir was caused in part by the Chesapeake Bay breeze. Based on in situ observations, CMAQ forecast simulations with 12 km resolution overestimated surface ozone concentrations and failed to predict this elevated reservoir; however, CMAQ research simulations with 4 km and 1.33 km resolution more successfully reproduced this event. These results show that high resolution is essential for resolving coastal effects and predicting air quality for cities near major bodies of water such as Baltimore on the Chesapeake Bay and downwind areas in the Northeast.

  2. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  3. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown.

  4. Non-Markovian quantum jump with generalized Lindblad master equation.

    PubMed

    Huang, X L; Sun, H Y; Yi, X X

    2008-10-01

    The Monte Carlo wave function method or the quantum-trajectory-jump approach is a powerful tool to study dissipative dynamics governed by the Markovian master equation, in particular for high-dimensional systems and when it is difficult to simulate directly. We extend this method to the non-Markovian case described by the generalized Lindblad master equation. Two examples to illustrate the method are presented and discussed. The results show that the method can correctly reproduce the dissipative dynamics for the system. The difference between this method and the traditional Markovian jump approach and the computational efficiency of this method is also discussed.

  5. Optical properties of urban aerosol from airborne and ground-based in situ measurements performed during the Etude et Simulation de la Qualité de l'air en Ile de France (ESQUIF) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, Patrick; Randriamiarisoa, Hariliva; Sanak, Joseph; Couvert, Pierre; Flamant, Cyrille

    2005-01-01

    Urban aerosol microphysical and optical properties were investigated over the Paris area coupling, for the first time, with dedicated airborne in situ instruments (nephelometer and particle sizers) and active remote sensor (lidar) as well as ground-based in situ instrumentation. The experiment, covering two representative pollution events, was conducted in the framework of the Etude et Simulation de la Qualité de l'air en Ile de France (ESQUIF) program. Pollution plumes were observed under local northerly and southerly synoptic wind conditions on 19 and 31 July 2000, respectively. The 19 July (31 July) event was characterized by north-northwesterly (westerly) advection of polluted (clean) air masses originating from Great Britain (the Atlantic Ocean). The aerosol number size distribution appeared to be composed mainly of two modes in the planetary boundary layer (accumulation and nucleation) and three modes in the surface layer (accumulation, nucleation, and coarse). The characteristics of the size distribution (modal radii and geometric dispersion) were remarkably similar on both days and very coherent with the aerosol optical parameters retrieved from lidar and nephelometer measurements. The city of Paris mainly produces aerosols in the nucleation mode (modal radius of ˜0.03 μm) that have little influence on the aerosol optical properties in the visible spectral range. The latter are largely dominated by the scattering properties of aerosols in the accumulation mode (modal radius of ˜0.12 μm). When the incoming air mass is already polluted (clear), the aerosol in the accumulation mode is shown to be essentially hydrophobic (hydrophilic) in the outgoing air mass.

  6. Master/slave manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; King, R. F.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    System capabilities are equivalent to mobility, dexterity, and strength of human arm. Arrangement of torque motor, harmonic drive, and potentiometer combination allows all power and control leads to pass through center of slave with position-transducer arrangement of master, and "stovepipe joint" is incorporated for manipulator applications.

  7. Master-slave micromanipulator method

    DOEpatents

    Morimoto, Alan K.; Kozlowski, David M.; Charles, Steven T.; Spalding, James A.

    1999-01-01

    A method based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion. Precision linear stages along with precision linear motors, encoders, and controls provide a robotics system. The motors can be remotized by incorporating a set of bellows on the motors and can be connected through a computer controller that will allow one to be a master and the other one to be a slave. Position information from the master can be used to control the slave. Forces of interaction of the slave with its environment can be reflected back to the motor control of the master to provide a sense of force sensed by the slave. Forces import onto the master by the operator can be fed back into the control of the slave to reduce the forces required to move it.

  8. Master-slave micromanipulator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morimoto, Alan K.; Kozlowski, David M.; Charles, Steven T.; Spalding, James A.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion. Precision linear stages along with precision linear motors, encoders, and controls provide a robotics system. The motors can be positioned in a remote location by incorporating a set of bellows on the motors and can be connected through a computer controller that will allow one to be a master and the other one to be a slave. Position information from the master can be used to control the slave. Forces of interaction of the slave with its environment can be reflected back to the motor control of the master to provide a sense of force sensed by the slave. Forces import onto the master by the operator can be fed back into the control of the slave to reduce the forces required to move it.

  9. Master-slave micromanipulator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morimoto, A.K.; Kozlowski, D.M.; Charles, S.T.; Spalding, J.A.

    1999-08-31

    An apparatus is disclosed based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion. Precision linear stages along with precision linear motors, encoders, and controls provide a robotics system. The motors can be positioned in a remote location by incorporating a set of bellows on the motors and can be connected through a computer controller that will allow one to be a master and the other one to be a slave. Position information from the master can be used to control the slave. Forces of interaction of the slave with its environment can be reflected back to the motor control of the master to provide a sense of force sensed by the slave. Forces import onto the master by the operator can be fed back into the control of the slave to reduce the forces required to move it. 12 figs.

  10. Program Access Master Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State and Consumer Services Agency, Sacramento. Office of Statewide Compliance Coordination.

    Designed for use by California state departments, this guide is a standardized approach to developing a master plan to ensure that persons with disabilities who are candidates or applicants for employment, employees, or recipients of state services are provided equal opportunities and fair treatment. It outlines a six-step process to evaluate a…

  11. El Camino College Master Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Camino Coll., Torrance, CA.

    This document is the educational Master Plan for El Camino Community College District. The purpose of the plan is to develop a research-based document that will be used as a foundation for decisions regarding instructional programs, support services, staffing and facilities. It is intended to serve as the basic foundation for all other plans of…

  12. Mastering the Vocabulary of Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischler, Helene

    Developed for use by students in an introductory accounting course, these learning modules deal with mastering the vocabulary of accounting. Focus of the modules is on vocabulary appearing in the first six chapters of the text, "Accounting Principles" by Niswonger and Fess. Covered in the individual modules are the following topics:…

  13. Airborne SAR imagery to support hydraulic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castiglioni, S.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite images and airborne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery are increasingly widespread and they are effective tools for measuring the size of flood events and for assessment of damage. The Hurricane Katrina disaster and the tsunami catastrophe in Indian Ocean countries are two recent and sadly famous examples. Moreover, as well known, the inundation maps can be used as tools to calibrate and validate hydraulic model (e.g. Horritt et al., Hydrological Processes, 2007). We carry out an application of a 1D hydraulic model coupled with a high resolution DTM for predicting the flood inundation processes. The study area is a 16 km reach of the River Severn, in west-central England, for which, four maps of inundated areas, obtained through airborne SAR images, and hydrometric data are available. The inundation maps are used for the calibration/validation of a 1D hydraulic model through a comparison between airborne SAR images and the results of hydraulic simulations. The results confirm the usefulness of inundation maps as hydraulic modelling tools and, moreover, show that 1D hydraulic model can be effectively used when coupled with high resolution topographic information.

  14. The New Airborne Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, John R.

    1970-01-01

    Community air pollution is the new airborne disease of our generation's communities. It is caused by the increasing use of fuel, associated with both affluence and careless waste. Photochemical air pollution of the California type involves newly defined atmospheric reactions, is due mostly to motor vehicle exhaust, is oxidizing, and produces ozone, plant damage, impairment of visibility and eye and respiratory symptoms. Aggravation of asthma, impairment of lung function among persons with chronic respiratory disease and a possible causal role, along with cigarette smoking in emphysema and chronic bronchitis, are some of the effects of photochemical pollution. More subtle effects of pollution include impairment of oxygen transport by the blood due to carbon monoxide and interference with porphyrin metabolism due to lead. Carbon monoxide exposures may affect survival of patients who are in hospitals because of myocardial infarction. While many uncertainties in pollution-health reactions need to be resolved, a large number of people in California have health impairment due to airborne disease of this new type. PMID:5485227

  15. Metropolitan and state economic regions (MASTER) model - overview

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.; Moe, R.J.; Scott, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    The Metropolitan and State Economic Regions (MASTER) model is a unique multi-regional economic model designed to forecast regional economic activity and assess the regional economic impacts caused by national and regional economic changes (e.g., interest rate fluctuations, energy price changes, construction and operation of a nuclear waste storage facility, shutdown of major industrial operations). MASTER can be applied to any or all of the 268 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) and 48 non-SMSA rest-of-state-areas (ROSAs) in the continental US. The model can also be applied to any or all of the continental US counties and states. This report is divided into four sections: capabilities and applications of the MASTER model, development of the model, model simulation, and validation testing.

  16. Are Master's Degrees in Gerontology Comparable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, David A.

    1984-01-01

    Compares gerontology master's degree curricula for length, content, and requirements. Results showed they have great comparability and fall within established guidelines. Master's degree programs in gerontology appear to be sufficiently similar to allow for beginning discussions of accreditation. (JAC)

  17. Processor architecture for airborne SAR systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Digital processors for spaceborne imaging radars and application of the technology developed for airborne SAR systems are considered. Transferring algorithms and implementation techniques from airborne to spaceborne SAR processors offers obvious advantages. The following topics are discussed: (1) a quantification of the differences in processing algorithms for airborne and spaceborne SARs; and (2) an overview of three processors for airborne SAR systems.

  18. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  19. Performance Basis for Airborne Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging applications of Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) technologies make possible new and powerful methods in Air Traffic Management (ATM) that may significantly improve the system-level performance of operations in the future ATM system. These applications typically involve the aircraft managing certain components of its Four Dimensional (4D) trajectory within the degrees of freedom defined by a set of operational constraints negotiated with the Air Navigation Service Provider. It is hypothesized that reliable individual performance by many aircraft will translate into higher total system-level performance. To actually realize this improvement, the new capabilities must be attracted to high demand and complexity regions where high ATM performance is critical. Operational approval for use in such environments will require participating aircraft to be certified to rigorous and appropriate performance standards. Currently, no formal basis exists for defining these standards. This paper provides a context for defining the performance basis for 4D-ASAS operations. The trajectory constraints to be met by the aircraft are defined, categorized, and assessed for performance requirements. A proposed extension of the existing Required Navigation Performance (RNP) construct into a dynamic standard (Dynamic RNP) is outlined. Sample data is presented from an ongoing high-fidelity batch simulation series that is characterizing the performance of an advanced 4D-ASAS application. Data of this type will contribute to the evaluation and validation of the proposed performance basis.

  20. The Forecasting of Future Inventory and the Optimization of Training Requirements within the Airborne Community.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    AIILrne The funding for each type of special training in the airborne community is extracted from the congressional kudget which is allocated to the U.S...the previous chapters. Authorizations were extracted from the PERSACS document dated 13 Octcber 1983. The authorizations for CMF 69 ;, - - -- .:.’c...inventory by duty position for F! 83 which pertain to CIF 11 and CHF 13 was provided by HILP!RCEU. This data was extracted from the Enlisted Master File

  1. Improved electromechanical master-slave manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forster, G.; Goertz, R.; Grimson, J.; Mingesz, D.; Potts, C.

    1968-01-01

    Electric master-slave manipulator uses force multiplication and allows the operator to remotely control the slave arm. Both the master and slave arms execute seven distinct motions by a specially designed force-reflecting servo having a one to one correspondence between the motion at the master and slave.

  2. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Master switch. 27.1361 Section 27.1361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1361 Master switch. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement to allow ready disconnection of each electric power...

  3. Campus Master Planning and Capital Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruthers, J. Kent; Lazell, Daniel T.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the concept of college and university campus master planning, describes factors and actors in the process, discusses the relationship to capital budgeting, and offers a typical master planning and capital-budgeting process as illustration. Developing a comprehensive institutional master plan can profoundly affect the institution's…

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Master's requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Master's requirements. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping... Master's requirements. The Master shall: (a) Receive and receipt for the quantities of slop chest items... the voyage. (e) Cause entry to be made in the ship's log authenticated by the person designated by...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Master switch. 27.1361 Section 27.1361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1361 Master switch. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement to allow ready disconnection of each electric power...

  6. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master switch. 27.1361 Section 27.1361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1361 Master switch. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement to allow ready disconnection of each electric power...

  7. 46 CFR 11.493 - Master (OSV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master (OSV). 11.493 Section 11.493 Shipping COAST GUARD... Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.493 Master (OSV). (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, to qualify for an endorsement as Master (OSV), an applicant shall present evidence...

  8. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  9. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  10. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  11. MASTER: 2 short optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Popova, E.; Gress, O.; Kornilov, V.; Vladimirov, V.

    2017-02-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 13h 30m 17.28s +78d 09m 51.8s on 2017-02-02.96362 UT. The OT is seen on 3 images with the following m_OT: 2017-02-02 23:03:55.905 18.57 2017-02-02 23:05:36.496 14.48 2017-02-02 23:07:37.042 14.92 We have reference image without OT on 2016-06-10.89789 UT with unfiltered magnitude limit 19.1m.

  12. Mapping land surface energy budget from the AVIRIS and MASTER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, S.; Wang, D.

    2015-12-01

    Mapping land surface energy budget from the AVIRIS and MASTER dataDongdong Wang, Shunlin Liang, Tao He, Qinqing ShiDepartment of Geographical SciencesUniversity of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742The synergy of the AVIRIS and MASTER data with high spatial and spectral resolutions provides us an unprecedented data resource to study the spatial variability of the land-atmosphere exchange of water, carbon and energy at the ecosystem scale. Supported by the NASA HyspIRI program, we have worked on developing algorithms to estimate quantities of surface energy and radiation budget from AVIRIS and MASTER data collected by the HyspIRI preparatory airborne campaign. We will here present results of algorithm development and data analysis, including 1) retrieving broadband surface albedo from AVIRIS, 2) estimating surface shortwave net radiation from hyperspectral data, 3) combing VSWIR and TIR data to estimate all-wave net radiation, and 4) mapping evapotranspiration from MASTER and ancillary data. Validation against field measurements and other satellite data suggests that surface albedo, shortwave net radiation, all-wave net radiation and ET can be estimated with improved resolution and accuracy from the AVIRIS and MASTER data.

  13. [Master course in biomedical engineering].

    PubMed

    Jobbágy, Akos; Benyó, Zoltán; Monos, Emil

    2009-11-22

    The Bologna Declaration aims at harmonizing the European higher education structure. In accordance with the Declaration, biomedical engineering will be offered as a master (MSc) course also in Hungary, from year 2009. Since 1995 biomedical engineering course has been held in cooperation of three universities: Semmelweis University, Budapest Veterinary University, and Budapest University of Technology and Economics. One of the latter's faculties, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, has been responsible for the course. Students could start their biomedical engineering studies - usually in parallel with their first degree course - after they collected at least 180 ECTS credits. Consequently, the biomedical engineering course could have been considered as a master course even before the Bologna Declaration. Students had to collect 130 ECTS credits during the six-semester course. This is equivalent to four-semester full-time studies, because during the first three semesters the curriculum required to gain only one third of the usual ECTS credits. The paper gives a survey on the new biomedical engineering master course, briefly summing up also the subjects in the curriculum.

  14. Dynamic Simulation of Airborne High Power Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Fa = F a + Tab x AF b + T ac X 0 , m a ab b k b+ac xO F; =F a+ Tabx 0+ Ta x AFC = Fa + Tab x kAFb+ Tac X AFC a; Fa +Tabx 0+ Tac x 2AFc = Fa +Tab x Fb...Tac x 2AFC = Fa +Tab xkAFb +Tac x 2AFc F= Fa +Tab xkAFb +Tac x kAFc 21 SECTION IV THE AC RESONANT CHARGING CIRCUIT 4.1 OBJECTIVE This part of the

  15. Flowfield simulation about the SOFIA Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Christopher A.; Van Dalsem, William R.

    1992-01-01

    The Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations have been applied to Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) configurations. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results are made in two-dimensions for free shear layers and a rectangular cavity, and in three-dimensions for simplified SOFIA geometries. Dominant acoustic behaviour of the cavity flows compare well with experiment. The sensitivity of the solutions to changes in grid cell size and artificial dissipation levels are shown. Furthermore, optical path distortion due to the flow field is modelled using geometrical constructs. The results demonstrate the viability and usefulness of the present computational methods for this class unsteady applications.

  16. Master Equation Analysis of Thermal and Nonthermal Microwave Effects.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianyi

    2016-10-11

    Master equation is a successful model to describe the conventional heating reaction, it is expanded to capture the "microwave effect" in this work. The work equation of "microwave effect" included master equation presents the direct heating, indirect heating, and nonthermal effect about the microwave field. The modified master equation provides a clear physics picture to the nonthermal microwave effect: (1) The absorption and the emission of the microwave, which is dominated by the transition dipole moment between two corresponding states and the intensity of the microwave field, provides a new path to change the reaction rate constants. (2) In the strong microwave field, the distribution of internal states of the molecules will deviate from the equilibrium distribution, and the system temperature defined in the conventional heating reaction is no longer available. According to the general form of "microwave effect" included master equation, a two states model for unimolecular dissociation is proposed and is used to discuss the microwave nonthermal effect particularly. The average rate constants can be increased up to 2400 times for some given cases without the temperature changed in the two states model. Additionally, the simulation of a model system was executed using our State Specified Master Equation package. Three important conclusions can be obtained in present work: (1) A reasonable definition of the nonthermal microwave effect is given in the work equation of "microwave effect" included master equation. (2) Nonthermal microwave effect possibly exists theoretically. (3) The reaction rate constants perhaps can be changed obviously by the microwave field for the non-RRKM and the mode-specified reactions.

  17. Biophysical influence of airborne carbon nanomaterials on natural pulmonary surfactant.

    PubMed

    Valle, Russell P; Wu, Tony; Zuo, Yi Y

    2015-05-26

    Inhalation of nanoparticles (NP), including lightweight airborne carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNM), poses a direct and systemic health threat to those who handle them. Inhaled NP penetrate deep pulmonary structures in which they first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) lining at the alveolar air-water interface. In spite of many research efforts, there is a gap of knowledge between in vitro biophysical study and in vivo inhalation toxicology since all existing biophysical models handle NP-PS interactions in the liquid phase. This technical limitation, inherent in current in vitro methodologies, makes it impossible to simulate how airborne NP deposit at the PS film and interact with it. Existing in vitro NP-PS studies using liquid-suspended particles have been shown to artificially inflate the no-observed adverse effect level of NP exposure when compared to in vivo inhalation studies and international occupational exposure limits (OELs). Here, we developed an in vitro methodology called the constrained drop surfactometer (CDS) to quantitatively study PS inhibition by airborne CNM. We show that airborne multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets induce a concentration-dependent PS inhibition under physiologically relevant conditions. The CNM aerosol concentrations controlled in the CDS are comparable to those defined in international OELs. Development of the CDS has the potential to advance our understanding of how submicron airborne nanomaterials affect the PS lining of the lung.

  18. Airborne soil particulates as vehicles for Salmonella contamination of tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Govindaraj Dev; Williams, Robert C; Al Qublan, Hamzeh M; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyer, Renee R; Eifert, Joseph D

    2017-02-21

    The presence of dust is ubiquitous in the produce growing environment and its deposition on edible crops could occur. The potential of wind-distributed soil particulate to serve as a vehicle for S. Newport transfer to tomato blossoms and consequently, to fruits, was explored. Blossoms were challenged with previously autoclaved soil containing S. Newport (9.39log CFU/g) by brushing and airborne transfer. One hundred percent of blossoms brushed with S. Newport-contaminated soil tested positive for presence of the pathogen one week after contact (P<0.0001). Compressed air was used to simulate wind currents and direct soil particulates towards blossoms. Airborne soil particulates resulted in contamination of 29% of the blossoms with S. Newport one week after contact. Biophotonic imaging of blossoms post-contact with bioluminescent S. Newport-contaminated airborne soil particulates revealed transfer of the pathogen on petal, stamen and pedicel structures. Both fruits and calyxes that developed from blossoms contaminated with airborne soil particulates were positive for presence of S. Newport in both fruit (66.6%) and calyx (77.7%). Presence of S. Newport in surface-sterilized fruit and calyx tissue tested indicated internalization of the pathogen. These results show that airborne soil particulates could serve as a vehicle for Salmonella. Hence, Salmonella contaminated dust and soil particulate dispersion could contribute to pathogen contamination of fruit, indicating an omnipresent yet relatively unexplored contamination route.

  19. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  20. Airborne Dust in Space Vehicles and Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John

    2006-01-01

    Airborne dust, suspended inside a space vehicle or in future celestial habitats, can present a serious threat to crew health if it is not controlled. During the Apollo missions to the moon, lunar dust brought inside the capsule caused eye irritation and breathing difficulty to the crew when they launched from the moon and re-acquired "microgravity." During Shuttle flights reactive and toxic dusts such as lithium hydroxide have created a risk to crew health, and fine particles from combustion events can be especially worrisome. Under nominal spaceflight conditions, airborne dusts and particles tend to be larger than on earth because of the absence of gravity settling. Aboard the ISS, dusts are effectively managed by HEPA filters, although floating dust in newly-arrived modules can be a nuisance. Future missions to the moon and to Mars will present additional challenges because of the possibility that external dust will enter the breathing atmosphere of the habitat and reach the crew's respiratory system. Testing with simulated lunar and Martian dust has shown that these materials are toxic when placed into the lungs of test animals. Defining and evaluating the physical and chemical properties of Martian dusts through robotic missions will challenge our ability to prepare better dust simulants and to determine the risk to crew health from exposure to such dusts.

  1. Airborne rescue system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The airborne rescue system includes a boom with telescoping members for extending a line and collar to a rescue victim. The boom extends beyond the tip of the helicopter rotor so that the victim may avoid the rotor downwash. The rescue line is played out and reeled in by winch. The line is temporarily retained under the boom. When the boom is extended, the rescue line passes through clips. When the victim dons the collar and the tension in the line reaches a predetermined level, the clips open and release the line from the boom. Then the rescue line can form a straight line between the victim and the winch, and the victim can be lifted to the helicopter. A translator is utilized to push out or pull in the telescoping members. The translator comprises a tape and a rope. Inside the telescoping members the tape is curled around the rope and the tape has a tube-like configuration. The tape and rope are provided from supply spools.

  2. Chemical master equation closure for computer-aided synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Smadbeck, Patrick; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2015-01-01

    With inexpensive DNA synthesis technologies, we can now construct biological systems by quickly piecing together DNA sequences. Synthetic biology is the promising discipline that focuses on the construction of these new biological systems. Synthetic biology is an engineering discipline, and as such, it can benefit from mathematical modeling. This chapter focuses on mathematical models of biological systems. These models take the form of chemical reaction networks. The importance of stochasticity is discussed and methods to simulate stochastic reaction networks are reviewed. A closure scheme solution is also presented for the master equation of chemical reaction networks. The master equation is a complete model of randomly evolving molecular populations. Because of its ambitious character, the master equation remained unsolved for all but the simplest of molecular interaction networks for over 70 years. With the first complete solution of chemical master equations, a wide range of experimental observations of biomolecular interactions may be mathematically conceptualized. We anticipate that models based on the closure scheme described herein may assist in rationally designing synthetic biological systems.

  3. Chemical Master Equation Closure for Computer-Aided Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Smadbeck, Patrick; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY With inexpensive DNA synthesis technologies, we can now construct biological systems by quickly piecing together DNA sequences. Synthetic biology is the promising discipline that focuses on the construction of these new biological systems. Synthetic biology is an engineering discipline, and as such, it can benefit from mathematical modeling. This chapter focuses on mathematical models of biological systems. These models take the form of chemical reaction networks. The importance of stochasticity is discussed and methods to simulate stochastic reaction networks are reviewed. A closure scheme solution is also presented for the master equation of chemical reaction networks. The master equation is a complete model of randomly evolving molecular populations. Because of its ambitious character, the master equation remained unsolved for all but the simplest of molecular interaction networks for over seventy years. With the first complete solution of chemical master equations, a wide range of experimental observations of biomolecular interactions may be mathematically conceptualized. We anticipate that models based on the closure scheme described herein may assist in rationally designing synthetic biological systems. PMID:25487098

  4. Curved PVDF airborne transducer.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Toda, M

    1999-01-01

    In the application of airborne ultrasonic ranging measurement, a partially cylindrical (curved) PVDF transducer can effectively couple ultrasound into the air and generate strong sound pressure. Because of its geometrical features, the ultrasound beam angles of a curved PVDF transducer can be unsymmetrical (i.e., broad horizontally and narrow vertically). This feature is desired in some applications. In this work, a curved PVDF air transducer is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Two resonances were observed in this transducer. They are length extensional mode and flexural bending mode. Surface vibration profiles of these two modes were measured by a laser vibrometer. It was found from the experiment that the surface vibration was not uniform along the curvature direction for both vibration modes. Theoretical calculations based on a model developed in this work confirmed the experimental results. Two displacement peaks were found in the piezoelectric active direction of PVDF film for the length extensional mode; three peaks were found for the flexural bending mode. The observed peak positions were in good agreement with the calculation results. Transient surface displacement measurements revealed that vibration peaks were in phase for the length extensional mode and out of phase for the flexural bending mode. Therefore, the length extensional mode can generate a stronger ultrasound wave than the flexural bending mode. The resonance frequencies and vibration amplitudes of the two modes strongly depend on the structure parameters as well as the material properties. For the transducer design, the theoretical model developed in this work can be used to optimize the ultrasound performance.

  5. Airborne Crowd Density Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynberg, O.; Kuschk, G.

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a new method for estimating human crowd densities from aerial imagery. Applications benefiting from an accurate crowd monitoring system are mainly found in the security sector. Normally crowd density estimation is done through in-situ camera systems mounted on high locations although this is not appropriate in case of very large crowds with thousands of people. Using airborne camera systems in these scenarios is a new research topic. Our method uses a preliminary filtering of the whole image space by suitable and fast interest point detection resulting in a number of image regions, possibly containing human crowds. Validation of these candidates is done by transforming the corresponding image patches into a low-dimensional and discriminative feature space and classifying the results using a support vector machine (SVM). The feature space is spanned by texture features computed by applying a Gabor filter bank with varying scale and orientation to the image patches. For evaluation, we use 5 different image datasets acquired by the 3K+ aerial camera system of the German Aerospace Center during real mass events like concerts or football games. To evaluate the robustness and generality of our method, these datasets are taken from different flight heights between 800 m and 1500 m above ground (keeping a fixed focal length) and varying daylight and shadow conditions. The results of our crowd density estimation are evaluated against a reference data set obtained by manually labeling tens of thousands individual persons in the corresponding datasets and show that our method is able to estimate human crowd densities in challenging realistic scenarios.

  6. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  7. An airborne isothermal haze chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal gradient diffusion cloud chambers (TGDCC) are used to determine the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with critical supersaturations greater than or equal to about 0.2%. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than theoretically predicted by factors ranging between 7.9 and 9.0. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than the concentrations measured with the larger laboratory IHC's by factors ranging between 3.9 and 7.5. The bounds of the supersaturation ranges of the airborne IHC and the CSU-Mee TGDCC do not overlap. Nevertheless, the slopes of the interpolated data between the bounds agree favorably with the theoretical slopes.

  8. Practice Oriented Master's in Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimmock, John O.

    1998-01-01

    The development of an interdisciplinary Masters Program with a concentration in Optics and Photonics Technology has been is described. This program was developed under the U.S. Manufacturing Education and Training Activity of the Technology Reinvestment Project. This development was a collaboration between the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), Alabama A&M University, Northwest Shoals Community College, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the U.S. Army Missile Command, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Advanced Optical Systems Inc., Dynetics, Inc., Hughes Danbury Optical Systems, Inc., Nichols Research and Speedring Inc. These organizations as well as the National Institute for Standards and Technology and SCI, Inc. have been participating fully in the design, development and implementation of this program. This goal of the program is to produce highly trained graduates who can also solve practical problems. To this end, the program includes an on-site practicum at a manufacturing location. The broad curriculum of this program emphasizes the fundamentals of optics, optical systems manufacturing and testing, and the principles of design and manufacturing to cost for commercial products. The Master's of Science (MS) in Physics and Master's of Science in Engineering (MSE) in Electrical Engineering Degrees with concentration in Optics and Photonics Technology are offered by the respective UAH academic departments with support from and in consultation with a Steering Committee composed of representatives from each of the participating organizations, and a student representative from UAH. The origins of the programs are described. The curricula of the programs is described. The course outlines of the new courses which were developed for the new curriculum are included. Also included are samples of on-site practicums which the students have been involved in. Also included as attachments are samples of the advertisements, which includes flyers, and

  9. Calibration Matters: Advances in Strapdown Airborne Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, D.

    2015-12-01

    Using a commercial navigation-grade strapdown inertial measurement unit (IMU) for airborne gravimetry can be advantageous in terms of cost, handling, and space consumption compared to the classical stable-platform spring gravimeters. Up to now, however, large sensor errors made it impossible to reach the mGal-level using such type IMUs as they are not designed or optimized for this kind of application. Apart from a proper error-modeling in the filtering process, specific calibration methods that are tailored to the application of aerogravity may help to bridge this gap and to improve their performance. Based on simulations, a quantitative analysis is presented on how much IMU sensor errors, as biases, scale factors, cross couplings, and thermal drifts distort the determination of gravity and the deflection of the vertical (DOV). Several lab and in-field calibration methods are briefly discussed, and calibration results are shown for an iMAR RQH unit. In particular, a thermal lab calibration of its QA2000 accelerometers greatly improved the long-term drift behavior. Latest results from four recent airborne gravimetry campaigns confirm the effectiveness of the calibrations applied, with cross-over accuracies reaching 1.0 mGal (0.6 mGal after cross-over adjustment) and DOV accuracies reaching 1.1 arc seconds after cross-over adjustment.

  10. Handling Trajectory Uncertainties for Airborne Conflict Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Doble, Nathan A.; Karr, David; Palmer, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne conflict management is an enabling capability for NASA's Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept. DAGTM has the goal of significantly increasing capacity within the National Airspace System, while maintaining or improving safety. Under DAG-TM, autonomous aircraft maintain separation from each other and from managed aircraft unequipped for autonomous flight. NASA Langley Research Center has developed the Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP), an onboard decision support system that provides airborne conflict management (ACM) and strategic flight planning support for autonomous aircraft pilots. The AOP performs conflict detection, prevention, and resolution from nearby traffic aircraft and area hazards. Traffic trajectory information is assumed to be provided by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). Reliable trajectory prediction is a key capability for providing effective ACM functions. Trajectory uncertainties due to environmental effects, differences in aircraft systems and performance, and unknown intent information lead to prediction errors that can adversely affect AOP performance. To accommodate these uncertainties, the AOP has been enhanced to create cross-track, vertical, and along-track buffers along the predicted trajectories of both ownship and traffic aircraft. These buffers will be structured based on prediction errors noted from previous simulations such as a recent Joint Experiment between NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers and from other outside studies. Currently defined ADS-B parameters related to navigation capability, trajectory type, and path conformance will be used to support the algorithms that generate the buffers.

  11. Airborne transmission of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Warfel, Jason M; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J

    2012-09-15

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets.

  12. The Master Artisan: A Framework for Master Tradespeople in Australia. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly-Briggs, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The author explores the prospect of improving pathways and opportunities for tradespeople in Australia through the introduction of a masters-level qualification. The study investigates the views and opinions of senior industry representatives and professional educators to determine whether the introduction of a master trade or master artisan…

  13. Airborne Precision Spacing for Dependent Parallel Operations Interface Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Paul M.; Takallu, M. A.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Weiser, Jarold; Turner, Dexter

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a usability study of proposed cockpit interfaces to support Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) operations for aircraft performing dependent parallel approaches (DPA). NASA has proposed an airborne system called Pair Dependent Speed (PDS) which uses their Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) algorithm to manage spacing intervals. Interface elements were designed to facilitate the input of APS-DPA spacing parameters to ASTAR, and to convey PDS system information to the crew deemed necessary and/or helpful to conduct the operation, including: target speed, guidance mode, target aircraft depiction, and spacing trend indication. In the study, subject pilots observed recorded simulations using the proposed interface elements in which the ownship managed assigned spacing intervals from two other arriving aircraft. Simulations were recorded using the Aircraft Simulation for Traffic Operations Research (ASTOR) platform, a medium-fidelity simulator based on a modern Boeing commercial glass cockpit. Various combinations of the interface elements were presented to subject pilots, and feedback was collected via structured questionnaires. The results of subject pilot evaluations show that the proposed design elements were acceptable, and that preferable combinations exist within this set of elements. The results also point to potential improvements to be considered for implementation in future experiments.

  14. MARA (Multimode Airborne Radar Altimeter) system documentation. Volume 1: MARA system requirements document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, C. L.

    1989-07-01

    The Multimode Airborne Radar Altimeter (MARA), a flexible airborne radar remote sensing facility developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, is discussed. This volume describes the scientific justification for the development of the instrument and the translation of these scientific requirements into instrument design goals. Values for key instrument parameters are derived to accommodate these goals, and simulations and analytical models are used to estimate the developed system's performance.

  15. MARA (Multimode Airborne Radar Altimeter) system documentation. Volume 1: MARA system requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Multimode Airborne Radar Altimeter (MARA), a flexible airborne radar remote sensing facility developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, is discussed. This volume describes the scientific justification for the development of the instrument and the translation of these scientific requirements into instrument design goals. Values for key instrument parameters are derived to accommodate these goals, and simulations and analytical models are used to estimate the developed system's performance.

  16. Master equation for a bistable chemical system with perturbed particle velocity distribution function.

    PubMed

    Dziekan, P; Lemarchand, A; Nowakowski, B

    2012-02-01

    We present a modified master equation for a homogeneous gaseous reactive system which includes nonequilibrium corrections due to the reaction-induced perturbation of the particle velocity distribution function. For the Schlögl model, the modified stochastic approach predicts nonequilibrium-induced transitions between different dynamical regimes, including the transformation of a monostable system into a bistable one, and vice versa. These predictions are confirmed by the comparison with microscopic simulations using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Compared to microscopic simulations of the particle dynamics, the modified master equation approach proves to be much more efficient.

  17. 33 CFR 104.205 - Master.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.205 Master. (a) Nothing in this part is intended to... professional judgment of the Master, a conflict between any safety and security requirements applicable to...

  18. 33 CFR 104.205 - Master.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.205 Master. (a) Nothing in this part is intended to... professional judgment of the Master, a conflict between any safety and security requirements applicable to...

  19. 33 CFR 104.205 - Master.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.205 Master. (a) Nothing in this part is intended to... professional judgment of the Master, a conflict between any safety and security requirements applicable to...

  20. 33 CFR 104.205 - Master.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.205 Master. (a) Nothing in this part is intended to... professional judgment of the Master, a conflict between any safety and security requirements applicable to...

  1. K-12 Master Plan: Starting the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Paul

    This Legislative Analyst's Office (LAO) report was designed to assist the California legislature in developing a long-term state strategy--or master plan--for improving the state's K-12 education system. A K-12 master plan would serve two purposes. In developing the plan, the legislature would create a forum to review the state's existing…

  2. Researching Research in Master's Degrees in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The research dimension of higher education programmes is usually discussed in association with doctoral studies. Against a background of scarce literature investigating research in a Master's degree, this article aims to analyse the place of research in Master's qualifications, first, as envisaged by official European and national documents acting…

  3. MASTER: PSN in bright spiral PGC2120251

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Tlatov, A.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Parkhomenko, A.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Shumkov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Gabovich, A.; Yurkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.

    2017-01-01

    MASTER-Kislovodsk auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 08h 15m 06.13s +38d 11m 23.3s on 2017-01-16.01742 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (limit 18.6m).

  4. MASTER-IAC: 2 optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Shumkov, V.; Vladimirov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.

    2017-01-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 18h 41m 21.42s +34d 16m 46.7s on 2017-01-26.25294 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.0m (limit 18.9m).

  5. MASTER-SAAO: bright high amplitude outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelkina, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Vladimirov, V.; Chazov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Potter, S.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-11-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 06h 21m 00.35s -58d 51m 20.5s on 2016-11-05.90053 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.5 (mlim=19.2).

  6. MASTER: bright PSN in PGC054434

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Tlatov, A.; Tatarnikov, A.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Balanutsa, P.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Vladimirov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Chazov, V.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Parkhomenko, A.

    2016-11-01

    MASTER-Kislovodsk auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 15h 15m 07.52s +43d 09m 00.5s on 2016-11-10.65848 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (mlim=18.1m).

  7. MASTER-OAFA discovery: new bright OT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Chazov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Potter, S.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 18h 06m 06.62s -62d 13m 31.3s on 2016-10-19.03627 UT. The OT unfiltered (limit 19.1m).

  8. The Master's Degree: Jack of All Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Joslyn L., Ed.

    The master's degree is discussed in seven papers written by academic officers serving state coordinating and governing boards. In "Toward a New Paradigm," Judith S. Glazer considers changes in the master's degree and suggests that the degree is changing to meet student needs, the job market, and external standards. Martine F. Hammond's…

  9. Honors in the Master's: A New Perspective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ginkel, Stan; Van Eijl, Pierre; Pilot, Albert; Zubizarreta, John

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, there is a growing interest in honors education, not only in the bachelor's but also in the master's degree. The Dutch government, for instance, is actively promoting excellence in both bachelor's and master's degrees through honors programs (Siriusteam). Most Dutch universities have honors programs at the bachelor's level or are…

  10. MASTER-OAFA: OT detection during inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Chazov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Krylov, A.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.

    2017-02-01

    MASTER-OAFA auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 18h 36m 27.60s -47d 35m 18.1s on 2017-02-02.36706 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.2m (mlim=18.1m).

  11. MASTER: possible SLSN in SDSS galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Vladimirov, V.

    2017-02-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 16h 13m 08.18s +26d 09m 53.3s on 2017-02-16.12905 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (mlimit=18.6m).

  12. MASTER: new OT and QSO flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Budnev, N.; Gress, O.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Vladimirov, V.; Kornilov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Pogrosheva, T.; Ivanov, K.

    2017-02-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 09h 45m 05.87s -65d 43m 43.3s on 2017-02-15.91771 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (mlim=18.6).

  13. MASTER: PKS 1142-225 optical flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Gorbunov, I.; Krylov, A.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Kuvshinov, D.; Shumkov, V.

    2017-02-01

    MASTER-OAFA auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 11h 45m 22.02s -22d 50m 31.4s on 2017-02-10.26340 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.7m (mlimit=18.0m).

  14. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1361 Master switch. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement to allow ready disconnection of each electric power source... are protected by circuit protective devices, rated at five amperes or less, adjacent to the...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1361 Master switch. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement to allow ready disconnection of each electric power source... are protected by circuit protective devices, rated at five amperes or less, adjacent to the...

  16. Master's Degree Studies: Expectations versus Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanepoel, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, higher education in South Africa has been affected drastically by transformation. An issue that has specifically been influenced is master's degrees. A significant increase in the demand for access to course work master's degrees has been experienced, while universities themselves have been confronted with a new…

  17. Pupil Master Record System: History and Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. J.; Skees, W. D.

    The Montgomery County, Maryland Public Schools, working with Operations Research, Incorporated, developed a Pupil Master File (PLMF). PLMF is one of the several applications included within the Pupil Subsystem of the district's overall computerized School Information System. The PLMF is designed to provide: 1) a master file which enables users to…

  18. Master-Students: A Teaching Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatzky, Joel; Silberman, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the idea of "master-students," where college professors from two different disciplines take each other's courses. Describes the experiences of an English professor and a chemistry professor who became master-students in each other's classes. Suggests this as a technique for improving teaching and understanding student problems. (TW)

  19. Valuing Initial Teacher Education at Master's Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Clare; Brant, Jacek; Abrahams, Ian; Yandell, John

    2012-01-01

    The future of Master's-level work in initial teacher education (ITE) in England seems uncertain. Whilst the coalition government has expressed support for Master's-level work, its recent White Paper focuses on teaching skills as the dominant form of professional development. This training discourse is in tension with the view of professional…

  20. Conservatoire Students' Perceptions of Master Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creech, Andrea; Gaunt, Helena; Hallam, Susan; Robertson, Linnhe

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the value and purpose of Master Classes, from the perspective of Conservatoire students. Thirty-seven UK Conservatoire students responded to a questionnaire, providing information about their prior experiences of Master Classes, the factors that they considered to be important in a successful Master…

  1. Listening and Learning in a Master Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanken, Ingrid Maria

    2015-01-01

    Most higher education institutions offering programmes in music performance organise master classes for their students. It is commonly agreed that master classes offer valuable learning opportunities for the students performing, but what do they offer for students in the audience? In this article, theories of learning by observation as well as…

  2. A way to the Photo Master Expert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Toshihiko

    After the author presided over the photographer's group for 15 years or more, the author met with the Photo Master certificate examination. And the author took the certificate examination, and was authorized as a Photo Master Expert in 2005. In this report, the outline how photographic technology has been mastered in order to adapt the photographer's group to the great change of photography from film to digital and how the contents of the activity of a photographer's group have changed is described. And the progress which took the Photo Master certificate examination as a good opportunity to prove the achievement level of those activities is described. And as a photographic activity after Photo Master Expert authorization, the shooting method of mural painting in the royal tomb of Amenophis III is described.

  3. Endoscopic Release of Master Knot of Henry.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    A post-traumatic partial tear of the flexor hallucis longus tendon at the master knot of Henry and the resultant fibrosis of the knot can result in pain at the medial foot arch or posteromedial ankle pain with trigger hallux. Open debridement of the master knot of Henry is indicated if the symptoms do not improve with nonoperative treatment. The open procedure requires extensive soft-tissue dissection because the master knot of Henry is a deep structure. Endoscopic release of the master knot of Henry is an alternative to the open procedure and has the advantage of less surgical trauma and potential for less chance of recurrence of fibrosis of the master knot of Henry.

  4. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  5. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  6. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  7. AARD - Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewers, Dick

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration program, and NASA Dryden's work in the program. The primary goal of the program is to make one fully automatic probe-to-drogue engagement using the AARD system. There are pictures of the aircraft approaching to the docking.

  8. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagherian, A. B.; Mielke, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Use of calculation program START and modeling program P 3D to produce radiation patterns of antennas mounted on a space station is discussed. Basic components of two space stations in the early design stage are simulated and radiation patterns for antennas mounted on the modules are presented.

  9. Performance Modeling of an Airborne Raman Water Vapor Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Schwemmer, G.; Berkoff, T.; Plotkin, H.; Ramos-Izquierdo, L.; Pappalardo, G.

    2000-01-01

    A sophisticated Raman lidar numerical model had been developed. The model has been used to simulate the performance of two ground-based Raman water vapor lidar systems. After tuning the model using these ground-based measurements, the model is used to simulate the water vapor measurement capability of an airborne Raman lidar under both day-and night-time conditions for a wide range of water vapor conditions. The results indicate that, under many circumstances, the daytime measurements possess comparable resolution to an existing airborne differential absorption water vapor lidar while the nighttime measurement have higher resolution. In addition, a Raman lidar is capable of measurements not possible using a differential absorption system.

  10. Wind velocity measurement accuracy with highly stable 12 mJ/pulse high repetition rate CO2 laser master oscillator power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilbro, James W.; Johnson, Steven C.; Rothermel, Jeffry

    1987-01-01

    A coherent CO2 lidar operating in a master oscillator power amplifier configuration (MOPA) is described for both ground-based and airborne operation. Representative data taken from measurements against stationary targets in both the ground-based and airborne configurations are shown for the evaluation of the frequency stability of the system. Examples of data are also given which show the results of anomalous system operation. Overall results demonstrate that velocity measurements can be performed consistently to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 m/s and in some cases + or - 0.1 m/s.

  11. Integrated approach to airborne laser communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louthain, James A.; Schmidt, Jason D.

    2008-10-01

    Lasers offer tremendous advantages over RF communication systems in bandwidth and security, due to their ultrahigh frequency and narrow spatial beamwidth. Unfortunately, atmospheric turbulence causes severe received power variations and significant bit error rates (BERs) in free-space optical communication (FSOC). Airborne optical communication systems require special considerations in size, complexity, power, and weight. We alleviate the deleterious effects of turbulence by integrating multiple techniques into an on/off keying direct detection system. Wave optics simulations show a combination of transmitter diversity, receiver and transmitter trackers, and adaptive thresholding significantly reduces the BER in air-to-air FSOC (up to 13 dB). Two transmitters alone provide a significant BER improvement over one transmitter, especially for the strong turbulence regime with up to a 9 dB improvement. Two beams also provide a reduction in fade length, indicating they will probably provide even greater improvement with interleaving and forward error correction coding.

  12. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  13. Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen

  14. Practice Oriented Master's in Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimmock, John O.

    1997-01-01

    This award provides support for the development and initial implementation of an interdisciplinary Master's Program with a concentration in Optics and Photonics Technology. This program is a collaboration between the University of Alabama in Huntsville, Alabama A&M University, Northwest Shoals Community College, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the U. S. Army Missile Command, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the National Institute for Standards and Technology, Advanced Optical Systems Inc., Dynetics, Inc., Hughes Danbury Optical Systems, Inc., Nichols Research Corp., SCI Inc., and Speedring Inc. These organizations have been participating fully in the design, development and implementation of the program. This program is directed at both traditional students as well as government and defense workers who desire specialty education in practical optics and optical systems design and manufacturing. It is intended to produce highly trained graduates who can solve practical problems, and includes an on-site practicum at a manufacturing location. The broad curriculum of this program emphasizes the fundamentals of optics, optical systems manufacturing and testing, and the principles of design and manufacturing-to-cost for commercial optical products. The degrees offered are the MS in Physics and the MSE in Electrical Engineering with concentration in Optics and Photonics Technology through the Physics and Electrical and Computer Engineering departments of UAH with support from and in consultation with the Steering Committee composed of representatives from each of the participating organizations plus a student representative.

  15. Practice Oriented Master's in Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimmock, John O.

    1996-01-01

    This award provides support for the development and initial implementation of an interdisciplinary Master's Program with a concentration in Optics and Photonics Technology. This program is a collaboration between the University of Alabama in Huntsville, Alabama A and M University, Northwest Shoals Community College, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the U.S. Army Missile Command, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the National Institute for Standards and Technology, Advanced Optical Systems Inc., Dynetics, Inc., Hughes Danbury Optical Systems, Inc., Nichols Research Corp., SCI Inc., and Speedring Inc. These organizations have been participating fully in the design, development and implementation of the program. This program is directed at both traditional students as well as government and defense workers who desire specialty education in practical optics and optical systems design and manufacturing. It is intended to produce highly trained graduates who can solve practical problems, and includes an on-site practicum at a manufacturing location. The broad curriculum of this program emphasizes the fundamentals of optics, optical systems manufacturing and testing, and the principles of design and manufacturing-to-cost for commercial optical products. The degrees offered are the MS in Physics and the MSE in Electrical Engineering with concentration in Optics and Photonics Technology through the Physics and Electrical and Computer Engineering departments of UAH with support from and in consultation with the Steering Committee composed of representatives from each of the participating organizations plus a student representative.

  16. Second Line of Defense Master Spares Catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Dale L.; Muller, George; Mercier, Theresa M.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Perkins, Casey J.; Cooley, Scott K.

    2012-11-20

    This catalog is intended to be a comprehensive listing of repair parts, components, kits, and consumable items used on the equipment deployed at SLD sites worldwide. The catalog covers detection, CAS, network, ancillary equipment, and tools. The catalog is backed by a Master Parts Database which is used to generate the standard report views of the catalog. The master parts database is a relational database containing a record for every part in the master parts catalog along with supporting tables for normalizing fields in the records. The database also includes supporting queries, database maintenance forms, and reports.

  17. Reaction rates for a generalized reaction-diffusion master equation

    SciTech Connect

    Hellander, Stefan; Petzold, Linda

    2016-01-19

    It has been established that there is an inherent limit to the accuracy of the reaction-diffusion master equation. Specifically, there exists a fundamental lower bound on the mesh size, below which the accuracy deteriorates as the mesh is refined further. In this paper we extend the standard reaction-diffusion master equation to allow molecules occupying neighboring voxels to react, in contrast to the traditional approach in which molecules react only when occupying the same voxel. We derive reaction rates, in two dimensions as well as three dimensions, to obtain an optimal match to the more fine-grained Smoluchowski model, and show in two numerical examples that the extended algorithm is accurate for a wide range of mesh sizes, allowing us to simulate systems that are intractable with the standard reaction-diffusion master equation. In addition, we show that for mesh sizes above the fundamental lower limit of the standard algorithm, the generalized algorithm reduces to the standard algorithm. We derive a lower limit for the generalized algorithm which, in both two dimensions and three dimensions, is on the order of the reaction radius of a reacting pair of molecules.

  18. Reaction rates for a generalized reaction-diffusion master equation.

    PubMed

    Hellander, Stefan; Petzold, Linda

    2016-01-01

    It has been established that there is an inherent limit to the accuracy of the reaction-diffusion master equation. Specifically, there exists a fundamental lower bound on the mesh size, below which the accuracy deteriorates as the mesh is refined further. In this paper we extend the standard reaction-diffusion master equation to allow molecules occupying neighboring voxels to react, in contrast to the traditional approach, in which molecules react only when occupying the same voxel. We derive reaction rates, in two dimensions as well as three dimensions, to obtain an optimal match to the more fine-grained Smoluchowski model and show in two numerical examples that the extended algorithm is accurate for a wide range of mesh sizes, allowing us to simulate systems that are intractable with the standard reaction-diffusion master equation. In addition, we show that for mesh sizes above the fundamental lower limit of the standard algorithm, the generalized algorithm reduces to the standard algorithm. We derive a lower limit for the generalized algorithm which, in both two dimensions and three dimensions, is of the order of the reaction radius of a reacting pair of molecules.

  19. Reaction rates for a generalized reaction-diffusion master equation

    DOE PAGES

    Hellander, Stefan; Petzold, Linda

    2016-01-19

    It has been established that there is an inherent limit to the accuracy of the reaction-diffusion master equation. Specifically, there exists a fundamental lower bound on the mesh size, below which the accuracy deteriorates as the mesh is refined further. In this paper we extend the standard reaction-diffusion master equation to allow molecules occupying neighboring voxels to react, in contrast to the traditional approach in which molecules react only when occupying the same voxel. We derive reaction rates, in two dimensions as well as three dimensions, to obtain an optimal match to the more fine-grained Smoluchowski model, and show inmore » two numerical examples that the extended algorithm is accurate for a wide range of mesh sizes, allowing us to simulate systems that are intractable with the standard reaction-diffusion master equation. In addition, we show that for mesh sizes above the fundamental lower limit of the standard algorithm, the generalized algorithm reduces to the standard algorithm. We derive a lower limit for the generalized algorithm which, in both two dimensions and three dimensions, is on the order of the reaction radius of a reacting pair of molecules.« less

  20. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Myers

    2005-04-15

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  1. Detection of airborne polyoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    McGarrity, G. J.; Dion, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    Polyoma virus was recovered from the air of an animal laboratory housing mice infected with the virus. Air samples were obtained by means of a high volume air sampler and further concentrated by high speed centrifugation. Total concentration of the air samples was 7.5 x 10(7). Assay for polyoma virus was by mouse antibody production tests. Airborne polyoma virus was detected in four of six samples. PMID:211163

  2. The Future of Airborne Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    biplanes to the worldwide Cold War missions of the U - 2 and SR-71, airborne reconnaissance has become an indispensable tool to the intelligence community...Reconnaissance Operations (SRO) procedures, such as the U - 2 , RC- 135, and the EP-3, and traditional theater/fleet tactical reconnaissance systems like...upgraded sensor package on the U -2.14 The Army Staffs argument centers around command and control of the asset. The Army agreed that the U - 2 ’s

  3. Master Console System Monitoring and Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console internship during the spring of 2013 involved the development of firing room displays at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This position was with the Master Console Product Group (MCPG) on the Launch Control System (LCS) project. This project is responsible for the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) and Record and Retrieval (R&R) of launch operations data. The Master Console is responsible for: loading the correct software into each of the remaining consoles in the firing room, connecting the proper data paths to and from the launch vehicle and all ground support equipment, and initializing the entire firing room system to begin processing. During my internship, I developed a system health and status display for use by Master Console Operators (MCO) to monitor and verify the integrity of the servers, gateways, network switches, and firewalls used in the firing room.

  4. Integrated approach to airborne laser communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louthain, James A.

    Lasers offer tremendous advantages over RF communication systems in terms of bandwidth and security due to their ultra-high frequency and narrow spatial beamwidth. Unfortunately, atmospheric turbulence significantly increases the received power variation and bit error rate (BER) in free-space optical communication (FSOC) systems. Further, airborne optical communication systems require special considerations in size, complexity, power, and weight. If two or more laser beams are sufficiently separated so that their turbulence effects are uncorrelated (i.e. anisoplanatic), they can effectively "average out" turbulence effects. This requisite separation distance is derived for multiple geometries, turbulence conditions, and optical properties. In most cases and geometries, the angles ordered from largest to smallest are: phase uncorrelated angle (equivalent to the tilt uncorrelated angle and phase anisoplanatic angle), tilt isoplanatic angle, phase isoplanatic angle, scintillation uncorrelated angle (or scintillation anisoplanatic angle), and scintillation isoplanatic angle ( qyind > thetaTA > theta0 > qcind > qc0 ). Conventional adaptive optics (AO) systems only correct for phase and cannot correct for strong scintillation, while multiple-transmitter systems use several transmission paths to "average out" effects of the strong scintillation by incoherently summing up the beams in the receiver. Since all three airborne geometries (air-to-air, air-to-ground, and ground-to-air) are studied, a comparison of multiple-beam airborne laser communication system performance is presented for the first time. Wave optics simulations show that a combination of transmitter diversity, receiver and transmitter trackers, and adaptive thresholding can significantly reduce BER in an air-to-air FSOC system by over 10,000 times. As demonstrated in this work, two transmitters alone separated by only 31 cm (100 km path length, 1.55 mum wavelength, 4 km in altitude) provide a significant BER

  5. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  6. MASTER-OAFA discovery: dwarf nova outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Buckley, D.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kornilov, V.; Chazov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Pogrosheva, T.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA (Argentina, San Juan National Univeristy's Observatorio Astronomico Felix Aguilar) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 02h 19m 51.96s -69d 26m 59.6s on 2016-10-18.23277 UT. The OT magnitude in unfiltered is 17.2m (limit 18.3m).

  7. MASTER: 2 OT discovered in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA, located in Argentina, with auto-detection system (Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 19m 42.92s -45d 30m 13.9s on 2016-10-27.27597 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=20.8m).

  8. Recent developments in the Virasoro master equation

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, M.B.

    1991-09-03

    The Virasoro master equation collects all possible Virasoro constructions which are quadratic in the currents of affine Lie g. The solution space of this system is immense, with generically irrational central charge, and solutions which have so far been observed are generically unitary. Other developments reviewed include the exact C-function, the superconformal master equation and partial classification of solutions by graph theory and generalized graph theories. 37 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Evaluation of the Navy Master Planning Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    master planning has absorbed the additional roles of program management and public relations marketing . The Navy planner is now deeply involved in...master planning 62conducted by NAVFAC headquarters in 1972, various Navy planning directives, a " Market Survey" of NAVFAC services and customer 63...econoilic, environmental and socia -political impli- cations. -47 - NOTES: PART I I Department of the Navy, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, "Command

  10. Some dilemmas of master's level nurse education.

    PubMed

    Gerrish, K; Ashworth, P D; McManus, M

    2000-10-01

    Despite an increase in the growth of master's level provision for qualified nurses in the United Kingdom uncertainty exists regarding the characteristics of master's level performance in respect of professional practice. This paper presents selected findings from a multidisciplinary study that sought to examine the characteristics of master's level performance in health professional courses that had an expressed practice orientation. It focuses specifically on dilemmas nurse educators encountered in relation to British master's level nurse education. Following an initial pilot stage involving focus group interviews with separate groups of nurses, occupational therapists and physiotherapists, an interview agenda was developed to explore participants' perspectives of the characteristics of master's level performance. Individual in-depth interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of 18 nurse educators drawn from eight universities in England. Interview transcripts were coded and thematically analysed. Six kinds of dilemma emerged from the interviews. These were breadth vs. depth in the conceptualization of master's level for nursing, relevance to practice vs. academic detachment, facilitating creative thinking vs. reinforcing rigidity, encouraging or suppressing different modes of critical thinking, postgraduate nurses as loyal change agents vs. the problem of well-qualified mavericks, and professional experience as facilitating or hindering master's level performance. These dilemmas raise important questions about course design and the role of stakeholders in determining curriculum content. Moreover, a pervasive tension between a utilitarian emphasis on the application and utility of knowledge on one hand, and aspirations to promote creativity and critical thinking which look to alternative possibilities on the other hand, suggests that nurse educators exercise a degree of conservatism in relation to master's level. It is concluded that this apparent quest to

  11. Random vibration analysis of the Topaz-II nuclear reactor power system. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.E.

    1995-06-01

    The TOPAZ-II Ya-21U is one of six Russian made space nuclear power systems which is based on theomionic power conversion. The U.S. is presently analyzing TOPAZ-II to determine the reliability and feasibility of using this system. A structural analysis test was conducted on the TOPAZ unit in May 1993 to provide data from which modal parameters could be identified. This test showed the fundamental frequency to be 10.5 Hz, yet the test results that the Russians conducted identified a fundamental frequency of 5 Hz. Another finite element model was created incorporating new developments in TOPAZ-II and modifications to the finite element model to better simulate the mass properties of the TOPAZ-II2. A second structural analysis test was conducted on the TOPAZ unit 06-09 September 1994. This thesis focuses on the random vibration analysis of the TOPAZ-II Ya-2lU utilizing the most recent test results and the Master Series (updated version) I-DEAS software. The modal respose of the model and simulated random vibration tests were within 8.33%. This model is a feasible tool which can be used to analyze the TOPAZ unit without testing the unit to fatigue.

  12. The Consolidated Human Activity Database — Master Version (CHAD-Master) Technical Memorandum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This technical memorandum contains information about the Consolidated Human Activity Database -- Master version, including CHAD contents, inventory of variables: Questionnaire files and Event files, CHAD codes, and references.

  13. Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) Dependent Parallel Arrivals (DPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Colin L.

    2012-01-01

    The Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) team at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing a concept of operations to extend the current APS concept to support dependent approaches to parallel or converging runways along with the required pilot and controller procedures and pilot interfaces. A staggered operations capability for the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) tool was developed and designated as ASTAR10. ASTAR10 has reached a sufficient level of maturity to be validated and tested through a fast-time simulation. The purpose of the experiment was to identify and resolve any remaining issues in the ASTAR10 algorithm, as well as put the concept of operations through a practical test.

  14. Do You Need a New Campus Master Plan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Explains why school administrators should review their campus Master Plans every five to 10 years, and highlights guidelines for developing a Master Plan. Three examples are provided of how school administrators succeeded in developing their campus Master Plans as are suggested tips for Master Plan development that can guarantee positive outcomes.…

  15. Science Professionals: Master's Education for a Competitive World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2008

    2008-01-01

    What are employer needs for staff trained in the natural sciences at the master's degree level? How do master's level professionals in the natural sciences contribute in the workplace? How do master's programs meet or support educational and career goals? "Science Professionals: Master's Education for a Competitive World" examines the answers to…

  16. 14 CFR 23.1361 - Master switch arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Master switch arrangement. 23.1361 Section... Systems and Equipment § 23.1361 Master switch arrangement. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement... controlled by the switch arrangement. If separate switches are incorporated into the master...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1361 - Master switch arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Master switch arrangement. 23.1361 Section... Systems and Equipment § 23.1361 Master switch arrangement. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement... controlled by the switch arrangement. If separate switches are incorporated into the master...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1361 - Master switch arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Master switch arrangement. 23.1361 Section... Systems and Equipment § 23.1361 Master switch arrangement. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement... controlled by the switch arrangement. If separate switches are incorporated into the master...

  19. Mastering Physics for Non-Academic Careers. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Stephen D.; Hammer, Philip W.; Czujko, Roman

    A detailed analysis was conducted of all master's degree programs in physics in the United States, including those that offer a master's as their highest physics program and those that have a master's program in parallel with the Ph.D. program. Data were collected from colleges and universities with master's degree programs and through phone…

  20. 45 CFR 2400.46 - Special consideration: second master's degree.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special consideration: second master's degree... consideration: second master's degree. The Foundation may award Senior Fellowships to applicants who are seeking their second master's degrees providing that the applicants' first master's degree was obtained at...

  1. 45 CFR 2400.46 - Special consideration: second master's degree.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special consideration: second master's degree... consideration: second master's degree. The Foundation may award Senior Fellowships to applicants who are seeking their second master's degrees providing that the applicants' first master's degree was obtained at...

  2. 45 CFR 2400.46 - Special consideration: second master's degree.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special consideration: second master's degree... consideration: second master's degree. The Foundation may award Senior Fellowships to applicants who are seeking their second master's degrees providing that the applicants' first master's degree was obtained at...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1361 - Master switch arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Master switch arrangement. 23.1361 Section... Systems and Equipment § 23.1361 Master switch arrangement. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement... controlled by the switch arrangement. If separate switches are incorporated into the master...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1361 - Master switch arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master switch arrangement. 23.1361 Section... Systems and Equipment § 23.1361 Master switch arrangement. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement... controlled by the switch arrangement. If separate switches are incorporated into the master...

  5. 46 CFR 189.35-13 - Master's responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master's responsibility. 189.35-13 Section 189.35-13... AND CERTIFICATION Weight Handling Gear § 189.35-13 Master's responsibility. (a) The master of the... permitted to operate the weight handling gear. The master shall designate the operators. (5) A...

  6. 48 CFR 217.7103-6 - Modification of master agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modification of master... Master Agreement for Repair and Alteration of Vessels 217.7103-6 Modification of master agreements. (a) Review each master agreement at least annually before the anniversary of its effective date and revise...

  7. 19 CFR 10.90 - Master records and metal matrices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Master records and metal matrices. 10.90 Section... Master Records, and Metal Matrices § 10.90 Master records and metal matrices. (a) Consumption entries... made, of each master record or metal matrix covered thereby. (c) A bond on Customs Form 301,...

  8. 19 CFR 10.90 - Master records and metal matrices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master records and metal matrices. 10.90 Section... Master Records, and Metal Matrices § 10.90 Master records and metal matrices. (a) Consumption entries... made, of each master record or metal matrix covered thereby. (c) A bond on Customs Form 301,...

  9. 19 CFR 10.90 - Master records and metal matrices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Master records and metal matrices. 10.90 Section... Master Records, and Metal Matrices § 10.90 Master records and metal matrices. (a) Consumption entries... made, of each master record or metal matrix covered thereby. (c) A bond on Customs Form 301,...

  10. 19 CFR 10.90 - Master records and metal matrices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Master records and metal matrices. 10.90 Section... Master Records, and Metal Matrices § 10.90 Master records and metal matrices. (a) Consumption entries... made, of each master record or metal matrix covered thereby. (c) A bond on Customs Form 301,...

  11. 19 CFR 10.90 - Master records and metal matrices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Master records and metal matrices. 10.90 Section... Master Records, and Metal Matrices § 10.90 Master records and metal matrices. (a) Consumption entries... made, of each master record or metal matrix covered thereby. (c) A bond on Customs Form 301,...

  12. Master equation for a chemical wave front with perturbation of local equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Dziekan, P; Lemarchand, A; Nowakowski, B

    2011-08-28

    In order to develop a stochastic description of gaseous reaction-diffusion systems, which includes a reaction-induced departure from local equilibrium, we derive a modified expression of the master equation from analytical calculations based on the Boltzmann equation. We apply the method to a chemical wave front of Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov type, whose propagation speed is known to be sensitive to small perturbations. The results of the modified master equation are compared successfully with microscopic simulations of the particle dynamics using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The modified master equation constitutes an efficient tool at the mesoscopic scale, which incorporates the nonequilibrium effect without need of determining the particle velocity distribution function.

  13. Master equation approach to time-dependent escape rate over a periodically oscillating barrier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Xin; Bao, Jing-Dong

    2011-01-01

    We propose a master equation approach to investigate the transition function and the escape dynamics of a general damping particle in a metastable potential. The transition function in the master equation is obtained analytically from the Langevin dynamics. We apply it to the oscillating barrier problem, in which the potential is structured by a harmonic potential smoothly linking with an inverse harmonic one, and thus both the barrier height and the curvature of potential change periodically with time. We use a Monte Carlo method to simulate the master equation and then calculate a time-dependent escape rate. This can decrease the coarse grain and save more computing time in comparison with the Langevin simulation. Our result has shown that there is a resonant activation phenomenon for the escape rate in the underdamped case.

  14. Dual channel airborne hygrometer for climate research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatrai, David; Gulyas, Gabor; Bozoki, Zoltan; Szabo, Gabor

    2015-04-01

    Airborne hygrometry has an increasing role in climate research and nowadays the determination of cloud content especially of cirrus clouds is gaining high interest. The greatest challenges for such measurements are being used from ground level up to the lower stratosphere with appropriate precision and accuracy the low concentration and varying environment pressure. Such purpose instrument was probably presented first by our research group [1-2]. The development of the system called WaSUL-Hygro and some measurement results will be introduced. The measurement system is based on photoacoustic spectroscopy and contains two measuring cells, one is used to measure water vapor concentration which is typically sampled by a sideward or backward inlet, while the second one measures total water content (water vapor plus ice crystals) after evaporation in a forward facing sampler. The two measuring cells are simultaneously illuminated through with one distributed feedback diode laser (1371 or 1392 nm). Two early versions have been used within the CARIBIC project. During the recent years, efforts were made to turn the system into a more reliable and robust one [3]. The first important development was the improvement of the wavelength stabilization method of the applied laser. As a result the uncertainty of the wavelength is less than 40fm, which corresponds to less than 0.05% of PA signal uncertainty. This PA signal uncertainty is lower than the noise level of the system itself. The other main development was the improvement of the concentration determination algorithm. For this purpose several calibration and data evaluation methods were developed, the combination of the latest ones have made the system traceable to the humidity generator applied during the calibration within 1.5% relative deviation or within noise level, whichever is greater. The improved system was several times blind tested at the Environmental Simulation Facility (Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany) in

  15. On solving the master equation in spatially periodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokathis, Panagiotis D.; Theodorou, Doros N.

    2012-07-01

    We present a new method for solving the master equation for a system evolving on a spatially periodic network of states. The network contains 2ν images of a "unit cell" of n states, arranged along one direction with periodic boundary conditions at the ends. We analyze the structure of the symmetrized (2νn) × (2νn) rate constant matrix for this system and derive a recursive scheme for determining its eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and therefore analytically expressing the time-dependent probabilities of all states in the network, based on diagonalizations of n × n matrices formed by consideration of a single unit cell. We apply our new method to the problem of low-temperature, low-occupancy diffusion of xenon in the zeolite silicalite-1 using the states, interstate transitions, and transition state theory-based rate constants previously derived by June et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 95, 8866 (1991)]. The new method yields a diffusion tensor for this system which differs by less than 3% from the values derived previously via kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations and confirmed by new KMC simulations conducted in the present work. The computational requirements of the new method are compared against those of KMC, numerical solution of the master equation by the Euler method, and direct molecular dynamics. In the problem of diffusion of xenon in silicalite-1, the new method is shown to be faster than these alternative methods by factors of about 3.177 × 104, 4.237 × 103, and 1.75 × 107, respectively. The computational savings and ease of setting up calculations afforded by the new method of master equation solution by recursive reduction of dimensionality in diagonalizing the rate constant matrix make it attractive as a means of predicting long-time dynamical phenomena in spatially periodic systems from atomic-level information.

  16. The Joint Master Operational Planner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-04

    analysis, gestalt problem solving, mind mapping, deconstruction, value engineering, and simulations. Operational Environment Analyst The JMOP is an...exposure to a broader base of knowledge in areas of inquiry such as psychology , sociology, economics, and political science. Another subject of study...areas that broaden the student in a way that current PME lacks. Specifically, the program begins a tailored study in the fields of psychology

  17. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Kuban, Daniel P.; Perkins, Gerald S.

    1989-01-01

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences therebetween. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed.

  18. Professional and employment characteristics of NPs with master's and non-master's preparation.

    PubMed

    Cruikshank, B M; Lakin, J A

    1986-11-01

    Health care providers, educators and administrators are continuing to investigate the influence that educational level has on employment of nurse practitioners and professional role determinations. This article presents findings from a study conducted by the authors that addressed the types of employment positions and work settings, characteristics of clinical practice and professional activities of pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) with and without master's degrees in nursing. The findings represent the responses from a survey of 112 graduates of a combined certificate-master's PNP program at a major Midwestern university. These findings resulted in the following information: clinical practice, work-related activities and professional activities were similar for PNP-employed graduates regardless of educational level; master's prepared graduates were less likely to be employed in primary care settings or work as PNPs, but nonetheless had greater employment opportunities as well as salary advantages in certain employment settings; and non-master's-prepared graduates were more likely to be employed in primary health care delivery and live in rural locations. These findings are useful to non-master's-prepared NPs in reaffirming their current professional roles and to master's-prepared NPs in assessing their career choices. Both master's and non-master's-prepared PNPs demonstrated educational mobility and a high level of involvement in professional, community and other service activities.

  19. MASTER-Tunka: bright 6mag ampl dwarf nova outburst and OT from MASTER-SAAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Potter, S.; Budnev, N.; Ivanov, K.; Tiurina, N.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Vladimirov, V.; Chazov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.

    2016-11-01

    MASTER-Tunka auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 07h 37m 04.36s +25d 00m 54.5s on 2016-11-09.74453 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (mlim=18.4m).

  20. Master-Oafa , Master-Iac PSNe in PGC526702 and SDSS gal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shumkov, V.; Popova, E.; Vladimirov, V.; Kornilov, V.; Gorbunov, I.; Krylov, A.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Gabovich, A.

    2017-03-01

    MASTER-OAFA auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 21h 49m 49.1s -45d 26m 44.3s on 2017-03-29 08:48:24UT.

  1. Biodegradation of creosote and pentachlorophenol using simulated land farming techniques. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, T.D.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate five land farming treatments, to determine which would best remediate creosote and pentachlorophenol contamination at and around a wood preservation treatment facility, and to determine the feasibility of applying such a treatment. These treatments were: (i) addition of water, (ii) addition of white rot fungus (Phanaerochete chrysosponum) and water, (iii) addition of an inoculum of bacterial isolates and water, (iv) addition of a soil inoculum from a previously remediated facility and water, and (v) addition of sodium nitrate and water. The soil that was investigated came from a facility in Camilla, Georgia. This site had been used to impregnate a variety of wood products with creosote and (PCP). The soil was so highly contaminated that only a minimal number of microorganisms could be cultured from the samples that were on hand. It is likely that those organisms which were viable evolved some ability to metabolize these pollutants.

  2. Impact of Pilot Delay and Non-Responsiveness on the Safety Performance of Airborne Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria; Hoadley, Sherwood; Wing, David; Baxley, Brian; Allen, Bonnie Danette

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the safety effects of prediction errors and uncertainty on automationsupported functions in the Next Generation Air Transportation System concept of operations is of foremost importance, particularly safety critical functions such as separation that involve human decision-making. Both ground-based and airborne, the automation of separation functions must be designed to account for, and mitigate the impact of, information uncertainty and varying human response. This paper describes an experiment that addresses the potential impact of operator delay when interacting with separation support systems. In this study, we evaluated an airborne separation capability operated by a simulated pilot. The experimental runs are part of the Safety Performance of Airborne Separation (SPAS) experiment suite that examines the safety implications of prediction errors and system uncertainties on airborne separation assistance systems. Pilot actions required by the airborne separation automation to resolve traffic conflicts were delayed within a wide range, varying from five to 240 seconds while a percentage of randomly selected pilots were programmed to completely miss the conflict alerts and therefore take no action. Results indicate that the strategicAirborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) functions exercised in the experiment can sustain pilot response delays of up to 90 seconds and more, depending on the traffic density. However, when pilots or operators fail to respond to conflict alerts the safety effects are substantial, particularly at higher traffic densities.

  3. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  4. Biological monitoring of airborne pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ditz, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Common plants such as grasses, mosses, and even goldenrod may turn out to have a new high-tech role as monitors of airborne pollution from solid waste incinerators. Certain plants that respond to specific pollutants can provide continuous surveillance of air quality over long periods of time: they are bio-indicators. Other species accumulate pollutants and can serve as sensitive indicators of pollutants and of food-chain contamination: they are bio-accumulators. Through creative use of these properties, biological monitoring can provide information that cannot be obtained by current methods such as stack testing.

  5. Cyberinfrastructure for Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004 the NASA Airborne Science Program has been prototyping and using infrastructure that enables researchers to interact with each other and with their instruments via network communications. This infrastructure uses satellite links and an evolving suite of applications and services that leverage open-source software. The use of these tools has increased near-real-time situational awareness during field operations, resulting in productivity improvements and the collection of better data. This paper describes the high-level system architecture and major components, with example highlights from the use of the infrastructure. The paper concludes with a discussion of ongoing efforts to transition to operational status.

  6. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  7. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  8. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) (Global Carbon Cycle)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This bimonthly contractor progress report covers the operation, maintenance and data management of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Monthly activities included: mission planning, sensor operation and calibration, data processing, data analysis, network development and maintenance and instrument maintenance engineering and fabrication.

  9. Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communications Program (AVLOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of airborne and ground-based laser communications and laser radar hardware is described in support of the Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communication program. The major emphasis is placed on the development of a highly flexible test bed for the evaluation of laser communications systems techniques and components in an operational environment.

  10. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  11. Global Test Range: Toward Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.; Freudinger, Larry; DelFrate John H.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned global sensor network that will monitor the Earth's climate, and resources using airborne sensor systems. The vision is an intelligent, affordable Earth Observation System. Global Test Range is a lab developing trustworthy services for airborne instruments - a specialized Internet Service Provider. There is discussion of several current and planned missions.

  12. Meeting Review: Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Huebert, Barry; Wilson, Chuck

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings from the Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop are presented. The two central topics of discussion were the role of aerosols in atmospheric processes and the difficulties in characterizing aerosols. The following topics were discussed during the working sessions: airborne observations to date; identification of inlet design issues; inlet modeling needs and directions; objectives for aircraft experiments; and future laboratory and wind tunnel studies.

  13. Airborne Global Positioning System Antenna System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-14

    GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM ANTENNA SYSTEM DISTRIBUTION: SMC/ GP (3 cys); AFFSA...standard that airborne Global Positioning System ( GPS ) antenna system must meet to be identified with the applicable MSO marking. The similarity of...UNCLASSIFIED DOCUMENT NO. DATE NO. MSO-C144 14 Oct 04 Initial Release REV: REV: SHEET 1 OF 16 TITLE: AIRBORNE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

  14. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, C.; Hair, J.; Cook, A.; Harper, D.; Kleinman, L.; Clarke, A.; Russell, P.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Szykman, J.; Al-Saadi, J.

    2007-05-01

    . Several B200 flights conducted during MILAGRO were coordinated with flights carried out by the Department of Energy G-1 aircraft, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130 aircraft, and/or the Sky Research J-31 aircraft. In situ measurements of aerosol microphysical properties acquired on G-1 and C-130 are being used to investigate the ability to discern various aerosol types using the HSRL data. Aerosol extinction profiles derived from the in situ measurements and from the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer on board the J-31 are being used to assess the HSRL aerosol extinction profiles. Additional applications of airborne HSRL data to be discussed include: 1) characterization of the spatial and vertical distributions of aerosols, 2) investigation of aerosol variability near clouds, 3) evaluation of model simulations of aerosol transport, and 4) assessments of aerosol optical properties derived from a combination of surface, airborne, and satellite measurements.

  15. Master equation as a radial constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Uzair; Booth, Ivan; Kunduri, Hari K.

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the problem of perturbations of Schwarzschild-AdS4 black holes by using a combination of the Martel-Poisson formalism for perturbations of four-dimensional spherically symmetric spacetimes [K. Martel and E. Poisson, Phys. Rev. D 71, 104003 (2005).] and the Kodama-Ishibashi formalism [H. Kodama and A. Ishibashi, Prog. Theor. Phys. 110, 701 (2003).]. We clarify the relationship between both formalisms and express the Brown-York-Balasubramanian-Krauss boundary stress-energy tensor, T¯μ ν, on a finite-r surface purely in terms of the even and odd master functions. Then, on these surfaces we find that the spacelike components of the conservation equation D¯μT¯μ ν=0 are equivalent to the wave equations for the master functions. The renormalized stress-energy tensor at the boundary r/L lim r →∞ T¯μ ν is calculated directly in terms of the master functions.

  16. Approximate probability distributions of the master equation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philipp; Grima, Ramon

    2015-07-01

    Master equations are common descriptions of mesoscopic systems. Analytical solutions to these equations can rarely be obtained. We here derive an analytical approximation of the time-dependent probability distribution of the master equation using orthogonal polynomials. The solution is given in two alternative formulations: a series with continuous and a series with discrete support, both of which can be systematically truncated. While both approximations satisfy the system size expansion of the master equation, the continuous distribution approximations become increasingly negative and tend to oscillations with increasing truncation order. In contrast, the discrete approximations rapidly converge to the underlying non-Gaussian distributions. The theory is shown to lead to particularly simple analytical expressions for the probability distributions of molecule numbers in metabolic reactions and gene expression systems.

  17. High Density Mastering Using Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yoshiaki; Kitahara, Hiroaki; Kasono, Osamu; Katsumura, Masahiro; Wada, Yasumitsu

    1998-04-01

    A mastering system for the next-generation digital versatile disk (DVD) is required to have a higher resolution compared with the conventional mastering systems. We have developed an electron beam mastering machine which features a thermal field emitter and a vacuum sealed air spindle motor. Beam displacement caused by magnetic fluctuation with spindle rotation was about 60 nm(p-p) in both the radial and tangential directions. Considering the servo gain of a read-out system, it has little influence on the read-out signal in terms of tracking errors and jitters. The disk performance was evaluated by recording either the 8/16 modulation signal or a groove on the disk. The electron beam recording showed better jitter values from the disk playback than those from a laser beam recorder. The deviation of track pitch was 44 nm(p-p). We also confirmed the high density recording with a capacity reaching 30 GB.

  18. Approximate probability distributions of the master equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Philipp; Grima, Ramon

    2015-07-01

    Master equations are common descriptions of mesoscopic systems. Analytical solutions to these equations can rarely be obtained. We here derive an analytical approximation of the time-dependent probability distribution of the master equation using orthogonal polynomials. The solution is given in two alternative formulations: a series with continuous and a series with discrete support, both of which can be systematically truncated. While both approximations satisfy the system size expansion of the master equation, the continuous distribution approximations become increasingly negative and tend to oscillations with increasing truncation order. In contrast, the discrete approximations rapidly converge to the underlying non-Gaussian distributions. The theory is shown to lead to particularly simple analytical expressions for the probability distributions of molecule numbers in metabolic reactions and gene expression systems.

  19. The Composition of the Master Schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Cynthia C.; Behrend, Dirk; MacMillan, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Over a period of about four months, the IVS Coordinating Center (IVSCC) each year composes the Master Schedule for the IVS observing program of the next calendar year. The process begins in early July when the IVSCC contacts the IVS Network Stations to request information about available station time as well as holiday and maintenance schedules for the upcoming year. Going through various planning stages and a review process with the IVS Observing Program Committee (OPC), the final version of the Master Schedule is posted by early November. We describe the general steps of the composition and illustrate them with the example of the planning for the Master Schedule of the 2010 observing year.

  20. Design of airborne wind turbine and computational fluid dynamics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbreen, Faiqa

    Wind energy is a promising alternative to the depleting non-renewable sources. The height of the wind turbines becomes a constraint to their efficiency. Airborne wind turbine can reach much higher altitudes and produce higher power due to high wind velocity and energy density. The focus of this thesis is to design a shrouded airborne wind turbine, capable to generate 70 kW to propel a leisure boat with a capacity of 8-10 passengers. The idea of designing an airborne turbine is to take the advantage of higher velocities in the atmosphere. The Solidworks model has been analyzed numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software StarCCM+. The Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Simulation (URANS) with K-epsilon turbulence model has been selected, to study the physical properties of the flow, with emphasis on the performance of the turbine and the increase in air velocity at the throat. The analysis has been done using two ambient velocities of 12 m/s and 6 m/s. At 12 m/s inlet velocity, the velocity of air at the turbine has been recorded as 16 m/s. The power generated by the turbine is 61 kW. At inlet velocity of 6 m/s, the velocity of air at turbine increased to 10 m/s. The power generated by turbine is 25 kW.

  1. Solubility characterization of airborne uranium from a uranium recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Robert; Cole, Leslie

    2004-07-01

    Solubility profiles of uranium dusts in a uranium recycling plant were determined by performing in vitro solubility tests on breathing zone air samples conducted in all process areas of the processing plant. The recycling plant produces high density shields, closed end tubes that are punched and formed from uranium sheet metal, and high-fired uranium oxide, which is used as a catalyst. The recycled uranium is cut and melted in a vacuum furnace, and part of the molten uranium is poured into molds for further processing. Air samples were taken in process areas under normal working conditions. The dissolution rate of the uranium in a simulant solution of extracellular airway lining fluid (Gamble's solution) was then determined over the next 28 d. Airborne uranium in the oxide section of the plant was found to be highly insoluble with 99% of the uranium having a dissolution half time in excess of 100 d. The solubility of the airborne uranium in other areas of the facility was only slightly more soluble with over 90% of the airborne uranium having dissolution half times in excess of 90 d.

  2. Safety Performance of Airborne Separation: Preliminary Baseline Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wing, David J.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2007-01-01

    The Safety Performance of Airborne Separation (SPAS) study is a suite of Monte Carlo simulation experiments designed to analyze and quantify safety behavior of airborne separation. This paper presents results of preliminary baseline testing. The preliminary baseline scenario is designed to be very challenging, consisting of randomized routes in generic high-density airspace in which all aircraft are constrained to the same flight level. Sustained traffic density is varied from approximately 3 to 15 aircraft per 10,000 square miles, approximating up to about 5 times today s traffic density in a typical sector. Research at high traffic densities and at multiple flight levels are planned within the next two years. Basic safety metrics for aircraft separation are collected and analyzed. During the progression of experiments, various errors, uncertainties, delays, and other variables potentially impacting system safety will be incrementally introduced to analyze the effect on safety of the individual factors as well as their interaction and collective effect. In this paper we report the results of the first experiment that addresses the preliminary baseline condition tested over a range of traffic densities. Early results at five times the typical traffic density in today s NAS indicate that, under the assumptions of this study, airborne separation can be safely performed. In addition, we report on initial observations from an exploration of four additional factors tested at a single traffic density: broadcast surveillance signal interference, extent of intent sharing, pilot delay, and wind prediction error.

  3. Airborne target tracking algorithm against oppressive decoys in infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiechang; Zhang, Tianxu

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents an approach for tracking airborne target against oppressive infrared decoys. Oppressive decoy lures infrared guided missile by its high infrared radiation. Traditional tracking algorithms have degraded stability even come to tracking failure when airborne target continuously throw out many decoys. The proposed approach first determines an adaptive tracking window. The center of the tracking window is set at a predicted target position which is computed based on uniform motion model. Different strategies are applied for determination of tracking window size according to target state. The image within tracking window is segmented and multi features of candidate targets are extracted. The most similar candidate target is associated to the tracking target by using a decision function, which calculates a weighted sum of normalized feature differences between two comparable targets. Integrated intensity ratio of association target and tracking target, and target centroid are examined to estimate target state in the presence of decoys. The tracking ability and robustness of proposed approach has been validated by processing available real-world and simulated infrared image sequences containing airborne targets and oppressive decoys.

  4. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  5. Magnetic characterization of airborne particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Doh, S.; Yu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Burning fossil fuels from vehicles, domestics, industries and power plants in the large urban or industrial areas emit significant quantity of anthropogenic particulates which become a potential threat to human health. Here, we present temporal variability of particulate pollution associated with compositional differences, using magnetic measurements and electron microscopic observations. Six different grain-sizes of airborne particulates have been collected by filtering from 10 precipitation events in Seoul, Korea from February 2009 to June 2009. Magnetic concentration proxies show relatively better (R2 >0.6) and poorer correlations (R2 <0.3) with the masses of samples filtered by >0.45 μm and <0.45 μm sizes, respectively, suggesting the usefulness of magnetic characterization for the >0.45 μm particulates. Temporally, magnetic concentrations are higher in the cold season than the warm season. In particular, a significant increase of magnetic concentration is observed in 3 μm and 1 μm filters after the Chinese wind-blown dust events, indicating additional influx of fine-grained anthropogenic particulates into Seoul. Microscopic observations identify that increase of magnetic concentration is highly linked with the frequent occurrence of combustion derived particulates (i.e., carbon and/or sulfur mixed particles) than natural alumino-silicates. Overall, the present study demonstrates that magnetic measurements efficiently reflect the concentration of particulates produced from fossil-fuel combustion among the airborne particles from various sources.

  6. MASTER: OT detection during Fermi trigger inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Chazov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Potter, S.; Gabovich, A.

    2016-11-01

    During inspection of Fermi trigger 501261070 ( (Ra,Dec)=47.190,-47.210; GRB_ERROR_radius=3.27deg, GRB_TIME=2016/11/19 15:11:06.40UT http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/other/501261070.fermi ) MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 22m 52.70s -48d 29m 10.9s on 2016-11-19 21:17:17.878UT with unfiltered m_OT=17.8 (mlim=19.7).

  7. A Bayesian Simulation for Determining Mastery Calssification Accuracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinheiser, Frederick H., Jr.

    A computer simulation of Bayes' Theorem was conducted in order to determine the probability that an examinee was a master conditional upon his test score. The inputs were: number of mastery states assumed, test length, prior expectation of masters in the examinee population, and conditional probability of a master getting a randomly selected test…

  8. The Master's Thesis in Applied Psychology Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Kenneth S.; Kottke, Janet L.

    1996-01-01

    Recommends the inclusion of a master's thesis in industrial and organizational psychology programs. Argues that the thesis serves several critical educational purposes and is relevant to applied psychology. Offers suggestions for increasing the relationship between the educational requirement and the professional tasks. (MJP)

  9. Computerized Master Schedule Generation -- A New Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raucher, Steve M.

    1974-01-01

    Using IBM's EPIC:SOCRATES as a vehicle, this paper examines the general work flow of a master schedule generator, the required and optional data necessary to drive such a system, the human methodology of linking data and controlling the system, and the actual algorithmic approach used by the computer. (Author)

  10. Check Firing of Master and Reference Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-08

    test. e. Record caliber, model, and serial number of recoil mechanism, gun , tube, and carriage. ** Superscript numbers correspond to Appendix...Measurement and Inspection of Gun Tubes. 2. TOP 04-2-606, Establishment of Master and Reference Calibration Rounds. 3. ITOP 04-2-805, Projectile

  11. An anthropomorphic master-slave manipulator system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; King, R. F.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the results of a teleoperator systems technology program devoted to the development of an anthropomorphic unilateral master-slave manipulator system. Following a discussion of the mechanical design details and servo design considerations, the developed system's test results are presented.

  12. 33 CFR 138.110 - Master Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER POLLUTION (VESSELS) AND OPA 90 LIMITS OF LIABILITY (VESSELS AND DEEPWATER PORTS) Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.110 Master Certificates. (a) A contractor or other person who is responsible for...

  13. 33 CFR 138.110 - Master Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER POLLUTION (VESSELS) AND OPA 90 LIMITS OF LIABILITY (VESSELS AND DEEPWATER PORTS) Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.110 Master Certificates. (a) A contractor or other person who is responsible for...

  14. 33 CFR 138.110 - Master Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER POLLUTION (VESSELS) AND OPA 90 LIMITS OF LIABILITY (VESSELS AND DEEPWATER PORTS) Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.110 Master Certificates. (a) A contractor or other person who is responsible for...

  15. 33 CFR 138.110 - Master Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER POLLUTION (VESSELS) AND OPA 90 LIMITS OF LIABILITY (VESSELS AND DEEPWATER PORTS) Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.110 Master Certificates. (a) A contractor or other person who is responsible for...

  16. 33 CFR 138.110 - Master Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR WATER POLLUTION (VESSELS) AND OPA 90 LIMITS OF LIABILITY (VESSELS AND DEEPWATER PORTS) Financial Responsibility for Water Pollution (Vessels) § 138.110 Master Certificates. (a) A contractor or other person who is responsible for...

  17. Evaluating the Georgia Master Naturalist Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildreth, Lauren; Mengak, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the Georgia Master Naturalist Program using an online survey. Survey participation was voluntary, and the survey addressed areas such as satisfaction, volunteerism, and future training. The program received high scores from survey respondents. They appreciated training on native plants, environmental awareness, and ecological…

  18. "The Ancient Master Painted like Me"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Son-Mey

    2009-01-01

    By following their wonderful ideas or critical exploration, three eighth graders learned how to do traditional Chinese painting, which is taught by copying old masters' work from the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century. The standard manual, which most learners have been using for these three hundred years, is the "Mustard Seed Garden Manual of…

  19. TEN MASTER TEACHER AND PROGRAM AWARD PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOVACH, EDITH M.A.

    IN 1966 THE AMERICAN CLASSICAL LEAGUE HONORED THREE TEACHERS WITH ITS MASTER SECONDARY SCHOOL LATIN TEACHER AND PROGRAM AWARD. AMONG THE 32 PROGRAMS CITED FOR RECOGNITION, TEN (INCLUDING THOSE OF THE AWARD WINNERS) POSSESS CLEARLY INNOVATIVE FEATURES. IN BRIEF THEY FEATURE (1) A FIFTH YEAR ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM, LATIN AS INTRODUCTORY TO…

  20. More Students Master "Basics" on Writing NAEP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    At a time when many teenagers are consumed by such activities as text-messaging, blogging, and social networking, more middle and high school students than in the past have mastered the formal "basic" writing skills needed to express ideas or share information, national assessment results released last week show. But just small proportions--33…

  1. MASTER discoveries: 2 new bright dwarf novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kornilov, V.; Chazov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Ivanov, K.; Potter, S.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system (Lipunov et al., 2010, Advances in Astronomy, vol. 2010, 30L) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 05h 31m 41.25s -14d 11m 59.0s on 2016-10-23.20152 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.0m (limit 18.8m).

  2. MASTER: bright PSN discovered in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA (located in Argentina) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., 2010, Advances in Astronomy, vol. 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 22h 01m 01.36s -40d 15m 26.7s on 2016-10-31.08091 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=19.9m).

  3. An Alternative Assessment for Master Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vann, Allan S.

    1996-01-01

    To motivate and reward master teachers, an upstate New York elementary principal began asking such teachers to substitute a self-directed professional goal for the usual formal evaluation process. Three meetings were then scheduled with each teacher to review goals and monitor their progress in achieving them. The process resulted in improved…

  4. An Examination of Master's Student Retention & Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Melissa; Mathies, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at a research-extensive public university in the southeastern United States. It examined the retention and completion of master's degree students across numerous disciplines. Results were derived from a series of descriptive statistics, T-tests, and a series of binary logistic regression models. The findings from binary…

  5. Physics Bachelors with Master's Degrees. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Rachel; Stowe, Katie

    This report provides information about holders of bachelor's degrees in physics who went on to earn master's degrees and were employed at the time of the survey (completed by spring 1999). This is the second report based on data collected from people who earned bachelor's degrees between 1990 and 1993, but it is the first time the American…

  6. Transparency Master: Planaria in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Lauritz A.; Allen, A. Lester

    1983-01-01

    Background information on the morphology and physiology of planarians and uses of the organism in schools is provided. Also provided is a transparency master demonstrating a planarian with an everted proboscis, two-headed/two-tailed planarians, and a planarian demonstrating the digestive tract. (JN)

  7. Remembering a Master Teacher: Frank Wachowiak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jimmy Oliver

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the skill and inspiration of master art teacher, Frank Wachowiak, by presenting three lessons for children: "Fruits and Vegetables" or "Leaves" in crayon resist, "X-ray Trees" in crayon engraving and "Angels or Self-portraits" in tempera. Lessons emphasize the use of patterns and textures, as…

  8. Transparency Master: The Annual Aphid Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sessions, Mary Lynne

    1983-01-01

    Aphids, often referred to as plant lice, can be found in great numbers on stems, leaves, and flowers of many plants. In many cases these organisms are potentially harmful to their plant hosts. Provided is a description of the annual life cycle of the aphid and an accompanying transparency master. (Author/JN)

  9. Implementing the enterprise master patient index.

    PubMed

    Adragna, L

    1998-10-01

    In implementing a cross-facility initiative, the importance of planning and understanding the implications for all facilities can't be overlooked. Here's how one integrated delivery network navigated the challenges of implementing a cross-facility enterprise master patient index.

  10. Master Contract, July 1977-June 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University. Inst. of Urban Research.

    The master contract between the San Joaquin Delta College Teachers Association/CTA/NEA and the Board of Trustees of the San Joaquin Delta Community College District for July 1977 to June 1980 is presented in full. Thirty articles include: Agreement, Recognition, Definitions, Negotiation Procedures, Non-Discrimination, Association Rights,…

  11. Master Plan for Illinois Higher Education 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This publication is the master plan for higher education in Illinois and covers statewide goals, institutional missions, instruction, research, public service, equal opportunity and affirmative action, student financial aid, and state funding. Section I lists goals for the Illinois Higher Education and Coordination and Planning Board and describes…

  12. Colorado Academic Library Master Plan, Spring 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breivik, Patricia Senn; And Others

    Based on a need to assess current library strengths and weaknesses and to project potential library roles in supporting higher education, this master plan makes a series of recommendations to Colorado's academic libraries. It is noted that the plan was endorsed by both the Colorado Commission on Higher Education and the Colorado State Department…

  13. Colorado Academic Library Master Plan. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Claude, Jr., Ed.; Moore, Beverly, Ed.

    This master plan for Colorado academic libraries assesses current strengths and weaknesses of public and private academic libraries in the state and forecasts the role of academic libraries in support of higher education. The plan consists of a series of recommendations divided into six related and overlapping sections: access, collection…

  14. Becoming a Master Student. Fifth edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, David B.

    A guide to support student success in extended orientation courses, freshman seminars, and study skills classes is presented, using exercises such as journal-keeping, stories of 12 people who have mastered specific skills, practical suggestions, and forms and charts. The major topics are: time management, memory, reading, note-taking, test-taking,…

  15. Biomedical Masters Program: Local Joint Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes a part-time master's program in biomedical science initiated by the Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases in Maryland and administered by Hood College. Coursework consists mainly of biology and biochemistry and prepares students for biomedical research. (MLH)

  16. Master training course for detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, P.

    2013-11-01

    The LabEx FOCUS proposes a training course to the detection techniques. It will be proposed yearly to the students of master or of engineering school . This theoretical and practical training will be given during a full week at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. The teachers are members from the laboratories of the FOCUS consortium.

  17. Hunter College Dance Therapy Masters Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmais, Claire; White, Elissa Q.

    Described is development of the Hunter College dance therapy 18-month 30-credit masters program involving 33 adult students, (in two classes beginning in 1971 and 1972), an educational model, internship in psychiatric institutions, and preparation of instructional materials. The dance therapist is said to incorporate the psychiatric patient's…

  18. Master Console System Monitoring and Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console internship during the summer of 2013 involved the development of firing room displays and support applications at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This position was with the Master Console Product Group (MCPG) on the Launch Control System (LCS) project. This project is responsible for the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) and Record and Retrieval (R&R) of launch operations data. The Master Console is responsible for: loading the correct software into each of the remaining consoles in the firing room, connecting the proper data paths to and from the launch vehicle and all ground support equipment, and initializing the entire firing room system to begin processing. During my internship, I created control scripts using the Application Control Language (ACL) to analyze the health and status of Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS) programmable logic controllers (PLCs). This application provides a system health and status display I created with summarized data for use by Master Console Operators (MCO) to monitor and verify the integrity of KGCS subsystems.

  19. Toward the Ideal Professional Master's Degree Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Maria P.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines work accomplished at the 1998 National Communication Association Summer Conference, presenting a model for a professional master's-degree program in public relations that integrates outcomes, assessment, curriculum, and pedagogy. Outlines program outcomes, curriculum, essential curriculum-content areas, pedagogical approaches, and…

  20. Three Steps to Mastering Multiplication Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Gina; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    "That was the day I decided I was bad at math." Countless times, preservice and in-service teachers make statements such as this after sharing vivid memories of learning multiplication facts. Timed tests; public competitive games, such as Around the World; and visible displays of who has and has not mastered groups of facts still…

  1. Description of Professional Master's Athletic Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Pitney, William A.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Professional master's (PM) athletic training programs (ATPs) are becoming more popular as the profession debates what the entry-level degree should be for athletic training. More information is needed related to the potential benefits of PM ATPs. Objective: Describe the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE)…

  2. Master Plan and Chancellors Hall Southampton College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a college master plan that remodeled old buildings, added new ones, and tied roads together on a campus that had experienced a haphazard evolution. The plan included splitting large parking lots into smaller ones divided by trees and plants, moving university functions of certain buildings to other locations, and strategically locating…

  3. Conference Report: Masters Forum IV, February 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Todd

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the APPL Masters Forum is to bring together some of the best project managers at NASA, as well as those in industry and other government agencies, for 2 1/2 days of knowledge sharing. The project managers come eager to reflect on their project experiences, to learn new things from one another--and to unlearn a few things, too. This was the fourth Masters Forum, and the first one held outside Washington, DC. Fifty participants from across the country came to Dallas at the American Airlines Conference Center, a wonderful facility that was conveniently located by the airport and yet still seemed isolated from the rest of the world. Masters Forum IV was also the first one held during the winter. Previous Masters Forums have been during the summer. Hot, sticky Washington, D.C. in the summer may sound unpleasant, but frankly the popularity of earlier Forums is what led to this annual event becoming a semiannual one.

  4. Latin square three dimensional gage master

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Lynn L.

    1982-01-01

    A gage master for coordinate measuring machines has an nxn array of objects distributed in the Z coordinate utilizing the concept of a Latin square experimental design. Using analysis of variance techniques, the invention may be used to identify sources of error in machine geometry and quantify machine accuracy.

  5. Airborne Systems Technology Application to the Windshear Threat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Lewis, Michael S.; Hinton, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The general approach and products of the NASA/FAA Airborne Windshear Program conducted by NASA Langley Research Center are summarized, with references provided for the major technical contributions. During this period, NASA conducted 2 years of flight testing to characterize forward-looking sensor performance. The NASA/FAA Airborne Windshear Program was divided into three main elements: Hazard Characterization, Sensor Technology, and Flight Management Systems. Simulation models developed under the Hazard Characterization element are correlated with flight test data. Flight test results comparing the performance and characteristics of the various Sensor Technologies (microwave radar, lidar, and infrared) are presented. Most of the activities in the Flight Management Systems element were conducted in simulation. Simulation results from a study evaluating windshear crew procedures and displays for forward-looking sensor-equipped airplanes are discussed. NASA Langley researchers participated heavily in the FAA process of generating certification guidelines for predictive windshear detection systems. NASA participants felt that more valuable technology products were generated by the program because of this interaction. NASA involvement in the process and the resulting impact on products and technology transfer are discussed in this paper.

  6. Technology-enabled Airborne Spacing and Merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, James; Barmore, Bryan; Abbott, Tetence

    2005-01-01

    Over the last several decades, advances in airborne and groundside technologies have allowed the Air Traffic Service Provider (ATSP) to give safer and more efficient service, reduce workload and frequency congestion, and help accommodate a critically escalating traffic volume. These new technologies have included advanced radar displays, and data and communication automation to name a few. In step with such advances, NASA Langley is developing a precision spacing concept designed to increase runway throughput by enabling the flight crews to manage their inter-arrival spacing from TRACON entry to the runway threshold. This concept is being developed as part of NASA s Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) project under the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program. Precision spacing is enabled by Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), which provides air-to-air data exchange including position and velocity reports; real-time wind information and other necessary data. On the flight deck, a research prototype system called Airborne Merging and Spacing for Terminal Arrivals (AMSTAR) processes this information and provides speed guidance to the flight crew to achieve the desired inter-arrival spacing. AMSTAR is designed to support current ATC operations, provide operationally acceptable system-wide increases in approach spacing performance and increase runway throughput through system stability, predictability and precision spacing. This paper describes problems and costs associated with an imprecise arrival flow. It also discusses methods by which Air Traffic Controllers achieve and maintain an optimum interarrival interval, and explores means by which AMSTAR can assist in this pursuit. AMSTAR is an extension of NASA s previous work on in-trail spacing that was successfully demonstrated in a flight evaluation at Chicago O Hare International Airport in September 2002. In addition to providing for precision inter-arrival spacing, AMSTAR

  7. Airborne Warning and Control Radar Career Ladder, AFSC 328X2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    difficulty, the simulator approach is appropriate for both ground and airborne personnel. Electronics principles instruction may be an area of training where...interrogation systems. The course includes 18 weeks of electronics principles training. Basic resident training is conducted without the benefit of actual mission...training in electronics principles . The Occupational Measurement Center recently completed a survey of electronics principles required across several

  8. Airborne thermography or infrared remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Goillot, C C

    1975-01-01

    Airborne thermography is part of the more general remote sensing activity. The instruments suitable for image display are infrared line scanners. A great deal of interest has developed during the past 10 years in airborne thermal remote sensing and many applications are in progress. Infrared scanners on board a satellite are used for observation of cloud cover; airborne infrared scanners are used for forest fire detection, heat budget of soils, detecting insect attack, diseases, air pollution damage, water stress, salinity stress on vegetation, only to cite some main applications relevant to agronomy. Using this system it has become possible to get a 'picture' of our thermal environment.

  9. Airborne microwave radiometric imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Futang; Zhang, Zuyin

    1999-09-01

    A dual channel Airborne Microwave Radiometric Imaging system (AMRI) was designed and constructed for regional environment mapping. The system operates at 35GHz, which collects radiation at horizontal and vertical polarized channels. It runs at mechanical conical scanning with 45 degrees incidence angle. Two Cassegrain antennas with 1.5 degrees beamwidth scan the scene alternately and two pseudo- color images of two channels are displayed on the screen of PC in real time. Simultaneously, all parameters of flight and radiometric data are sorted in hard disk for post- processing. The sensitivity of the radiometer (Delta) T equals 0.16K. A new displaying method, unequal size element arc displaying method, is used in image displaying. Several experiments on mobile tower were carried out and the images demonstrate that the AMRI is available to work steadily and accurately.

  10. Airborne microwave radiometric imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Zhang, Zuyin; Chen, Zhengwen

    1998-08-01

    A dual channel Airborne Microwave Radiometric Imaging system (AMRI) was designed and constructed for regional environment mapping. The system operates at 35GHz, which collects radiation at horizontal and vertical polarized. It runs at mechanical conical scanning with 45 degrees incidence angle. Two Cassegrain antennas with 1.5 degrees 3 dB beamwidth scan the scene alternately and two pseudo-color images of two channels are displayed on the screen of PC in real time. Simultaneously all parameters of flight and radiometric data are stored in hard disk for postprocessing. The sensitivity of the radiometers of flight and radiometric data are stored in hard disk for postprocessing. The sensitivity of the radiometers (Delta) T equals 0.16K. A new display method, unequal size element arc displaying method, is used in image displaying. Several experiments on mobile tower were carried out and the images demonstrate the AMRI is available to work steadily and accurately.

  11. Master Equation Approach to Current-Voltage Characteristics of Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sangchul; Zhang, Yiteng; Alharbi, Fahhad; Kais, Sabre

    2015-03-01

    The current-voltage characteristics of solar cells is obtained using quantum master equations for electrons, holes, and excitons, in which generation, recombination, and transport processes are taken into account. As a first example, we simulate a photocell with a molecular aggregate donor to investigate whether a delocalized quantum state could enhance the efficiency. As a second example, we calculate the current-voltage characteristics of conventional p-n junction solar cells and perovskite solar cells using the master equation. The connection between the drift-diffusion model and the master equation method is established. The short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltage are calculated numerically as a function of the intensity of the sunlight and material properties such as energy gaps, diffusion constants, etc.

  12. Dynamics of open quantum spin systems: An assessment of the quantum master equation approach.

    PubMed

    Zhao, P; De Raedt, H; Miyashita, S; Jin, F; Michielsen, K

    2016-08-01

    Data of the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation of a system containing one spin-1/2 particle interacting with a bath of up to 32 spin-1/2 particles is used to construct a Markovian quantum master equation describing the dynamics of the system spin. The procedure of obtaining this quantum master equation, which takes the form of a Bloch equation with time-independent coefficients, accounts for all non-Markovian effects inasmuch the general structure of the quantum master equation allows. Our simulation results show that, with a few rather exotic exceptions, the Bloch-type equation with time-independent coefficients provides a simple and accurate description of the dynamics of a spin-1/2 particle in contact with a thermal bath. A calculation of the coefficients that appear in the Redfield master equation in the Markovian limit shows that this perturbatively derived equation quantitatively differs from the numerically estimated Markovian master equation, the results of which agree very well with the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

  13. 48 CFR 35.017-6 - Master list of FFRDC's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.017-6 Master list of FFRDC's. The National Science Foundation (NSF) maintains a master Government list of FFRDC's. Primary sponsors will...

  14. First Results from an Airborne Ka-Band SAR Using SweepSAR and Digital Beamforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowy, Gregory A.; Ghaemi, Hirad; Hensley, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    SweepSAR is a wide-swath synthetic aperture radar technique that is being studied for application on the future Earth science radar missions. This paper describes the design of an airborne radar demonstration that simulates an 11-m L-band (1.2-1.3 GHz) reflector geometry at Ka-band (35.6 GHz) using a 40-cm reflector. The Ka-band SweepSAR Demonstration system was flown on the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory and used to study engineering performance trades and array calibration for SweepSAR configurations. We present an instrument and experiment overview, instrument calibration and first results.

  15. Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2010-10-18

    This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

  16. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-01

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of 137Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  17. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-07

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  18. SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....

  19. Toolsets for Airborne Data Web Application

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-17

    ... relevant issues. Features Include Select data based on mission, date and/or scientific parameter Output original data ... Details:  Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD) Web Application Category:  Instrument Specific Search, ...

  20. 48 CFR 14.203-3 - Master solicitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Master solicitation. 14... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.203-3 Master solicitation. The master solicitation is provided to potential sources who are requested to retain it for continued...

  1. 48 CFR 14.203-3 - Master solicitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Master solicitation. 14... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.203-3 Master solicitation. The master solicitation is provided to potential sources who are requested to retain it for continued...

  2. 48 CFR 14.203-3 - Master solicitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Master solicitation. 14... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.203-3 Master solicitation. The master solicitation is provided to potential sources who are requested to retain it for continued...

  3. 48 CFR 14.203-3 - Master solicitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Master solicitation. 14... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.203-3 Master solicitation. The master solicitation is provided to potential sources who are requested to retain it for continued...

  4. 45 CFR 2400.62 - Evidence of master's degree.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence of master's degree. 2400.62 Section 2400... FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.62 Evidence of master's... indicates that he or she has secured an approved master's degree as set forth in the Fellow's original...

  5. ATel 7538: MASTER: possible FUor detection and dwarf nova discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiurina, N.; Lipunov, V.; Samus, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Antipin, S.; Buckley, D.; Kornilov, V.; Chazov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Popova, E.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.; Kotze, M.; Budnev, N.; Ivanov, K.; Gress, O.; Yazev, S.; Poleshchuk, V.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Senik, V.; Parkhomenko, A.; Krushinsky, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Popov, A.; Bourdanov, A.; Sergienko, Yu.; Yurkov, V.; Gabovich, A.; Shumkov, V.; Shurpakov, S.

    2015-05-01

    MASTER OT J005559.13+594802.1 detection - possible FUor or Novalike (NL|NC) MASTER-Kislovodsk auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., Advances in Astronomy, MASTER Global Robotic Net, 2010 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 00h 55m 59.13s +59d 48m 02.1s on 2015-05-19.92218 UT. ...

  6. 46 CFR 169.817 - Master to instruct ship's company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Master to instruct ship's company. 169.817 Section 169.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.817 Master to instruct ship's company. The master shall conduct drills and...

  7. Master Study Programmes Orientation and Curricula Inconsistency in Lithuanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzackas, Rimantas; Rackauskaite, Aiste; Jaskauskaite, Daiva

    2004-01-01

    When independence was restored in Lithuania, a single-stage higher education system that had existed hitherto was reorganised into a multi-stage system with Bachelor, Master and Doctoral programme studies. The analysis of Master studies, as a new and atypical phenomenon in Lithuania, highlights the discrepancies between Master programme curricula…

  8. 46 CFR 169.817 - Master to instruct ship's company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Master to instruct ship's company. 169.817 Section 169.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.817 Master to instruct ship's company. The master shall conduct drills and...

  9. 46 CFR 169.817 - Master to instruct ship's company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Master to instruct ship's company. 169.817 Section 169.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.817 Master to instruct ship's company. The master shall conduct drills and...

  10. 46 CFR 169.817 - Master to instruct ship's company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master to instruct ship's company. 169.817 Section 169.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.817 Master to instruct ship's company. The master shall conduct drills and...

  11. 46 CFR 169.817 - Master to instruct ship's company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Master to instruct ship's company. 169.817 Section 169.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.817 Master to instruct ship's company. The master shall conduct drills and...

  12. 46 CFR 97.55-1 - Master's responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master's responsibility. 97.55-1 Section 97.55-1... Carried § 97.55-1 Master's responsibility. (a) Before loading bulk grain, or similar combustible bulk cargo, the master shall have the lighting circuits to cargo compartments in which the bulk cargo is...

  13. 46 CFR 169.507 - Responsibility of master.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibility of master. 169.507 Section 169.507... Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Lifesaving Equipment-General § 169.507 Responsibility of master. The master or operator shall ensure that the lifeboats, liferafts, davits, falls, personal flotation...

  14. 48 CFR 14.203-3 - Master solicitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master solicitation. 14... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.203-3 Master solicitation. The master solicitation is provided to potential sources who are requested to retain it for continued...

  15. 47 CFR 80.114 - Authority of the master.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of the master. 80.114 Section 80.114... Authority of the master. (a) The service of each ship station must at all times be under the ultimate control of the master, who must require that each operator or such station comply with the...

  16. 33 CFR 157.47 - Information for master.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information for master. 157.47 Section 157.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Vessel Operation § 157.47 Information for master. A master or person in charge of a new vessel...

  17. The Master Teacher: Role and Responsibilities in the Reform Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Wilma A.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study is to determine the opinions of educators about the "master teacher" concept within the school system. The concept of the "master teacher" refers to the ideological approach used to implement a "master teacher" initiative or programme in the school reform process. The primary school…

  18. 45 CFR 2400.62 - Evidence of master's degree.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence of master's degree. 2400.62 Section 2400... FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.62 Evidence of master's... indicates that he or she has secured an approved master's degree as set forth in the Fellow's original...

  19. 48 CFR 35.017-6 - Master list of FFRDC's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master list of FFRDC's. 35... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.017-6 Master list of FFRDC's. The National Science Foundation (NSF) maintains a master Government list of FFRDC's. Primary sponsors will...

  20. 21 CFR 211.186 - Master production and control records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master production and control records. 211.186... Reports § 211.186 Master production and control records. (a) To assure uniformity from batch to batch, master production and control records for each drug product, including each batch size thereof, shall...

  1. 46 CFR 45.105 - Information supplied to the master.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information supplied to the master. 45.105 Section 45... LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.105 Information supplied to the master. Unless otherwise authorized... information. (a) To enable the master to load and ballast the vessel in a manner that avoids...

  2. 46 CFR 97.27-5 - Master's and officer's responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master's and officer's responsibility. 97.27-5 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Lookouts § 97.27-5 Master's and officer's responsibility. (a) Nothing in this part shall exonerate any master or officer in command from the consequences of any neglect to keep a...

  3. 46 CFR 196.27-1 - Master's and officer's responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master's and officer's responsibility. 196.27-1 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Lookouts § 196.27-1 Master's and officer's responsibility. (a) Nothing in this part shall exonerate any master or officer in command from the consequences of any neglect to keep a...

  4. Polarimetric sensor systems for airborne ISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenault, David; Foster, Joseph; Pezzaniti, Joseph; Harchanko, John; Aycock, Todd; Clark, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Over the last decade, polarimetric imaging technologies have undergone significant advancements that have led to the development of small, low-power polarimetric cameras capable of meeting current airborne ISR mission requirements. In this paper, we describe the design and development of a compact, real-time, infrared imaging polarimeter, provide preliminary results demonstrating the enhanced contrast possible with such a system, and discuss ways in which this technology can be integrated with existing manned and unmanned airborne platforms.

  5. Design and Evaluation of Airborne Wind Turbine Utilizing Physical Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavi, Edris; Namakian, Mohsen; Sirén, Tim; Magnéli, Rickard; Ölvander, Johan

    Moving towards renewable sources of energy has become one of the most important energy-related strategies in recent decades. High-altitude wind power (HAWP) has been discovered in 1833 as a source of useful energy. Wind power density (Watts/m2) can significantly increase (~6 times) by going from 80 to 500 m altitude. The global capacity of 380 TW (terawatt) as well as abundance, strength, and relative persistency of wind in higher altitude are eye-catching points to consider HAWP as a reliable energy source in the future. A research project called "THOR" has been initiated at Linköping University by a group of master students (soon to graduate) as proof of concept of airborne wind energy (AWES). THOR is about feasibility analysis of different concepts of HAWP and proof of concept of balloon based AWES as one of the appropriate existing concepts. THOR is intended to be a research platform at Linköping University for further development of AWES concepts in future.

  6. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  7. Challenges and opportunities of airborne metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  8. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles. PMID:25953766

  9. Novel dissipative properties of the master equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Liu; Jia, Chen; Zhu, Yi; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the entropy production rate for the master equation consists of two non-negative terms: the adiabatic and non-adiabatic parts, where the non-adiabatic part is also known as the free energy dissipation rate. In this paper, we present some nonzero lower bounds for the free energy, the entropy production rate, and its adiabatic and non-adiabatic parts. These nonzero lower bounds not only reveal some novel dissipative properties for nonequilibrium dynamics which are much stronger than the second law of thermodynamics, but also impose some new constraints on thermodynamic constitutive relations. Moreover, we also give a mathematical application of the nonzero lower bounds by studying the long-time behavior of the master equation. Extensions to the Tsallis statistics are also discussed, including the nonzero lower bounds for the Tsallis-type free energy and its dissipation rate.

  10. SLAPex Freeze/Thaw 2015: The First Dedicated Soil Freeze/Thaw Airborne Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Wu, Albert; DeMarco, Eugenia; Powers, Jarrett; Berg, Aaron; Rowlandson, Tracy; Freeman, Jacqueline; Gottfried, Kurt; Toose, Peter; Roy, Alexandre; Derksen, Chris; Royer, Alain; Belair, Stephane; Houser, Paul; McDonald, Kyle; Entin, Jared; Lewis, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Soil freezing and thawing is an important process in the terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles, marking the change between two very different hydraulic, thermal, and biological regimes. NASA's Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission includes a binary freeze/thaw data product. While there have been ground-based remote sensing field measurements observing soil freeze/thaw at the point scale, and airborne campaigns that observed some frozen soil areas (e.g., BOREAS), the recently-completed SLAPex Freeze/Thaw (F/T) campaign is the first airborne campaign dedicated solely to observing frozen/thawed soil with both passive and active microwave sensors and dedicated ground truth, in order to enable detailed process-level exploration of the remote sensing signatures and in situ soil conditions. SLAPex F/T utilized the Scanning L-band Active/Passive (SLAP) instrument, an airborne simulator of SMAP developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and was conducted near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in October/November, 2015. Future soil moisture missions are also expected to include soil freeze/thaw products, and the loss of the radar on SMAP means that airborne radar-radiometer observations like those that SLAP provides are unique assets for freeze/thaw algorithm development. This paper will present an overview of SLAPex F/T, including descriptions of the site, airborne and ground-based remote sensing, ground truth, as well as preliminary results.

  11. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Master Plan, 1993.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET AND RETURN To DTIC-FDAC DTIC 70A DOCUMENT PROCESSMING I~ SlEW -, mmllamm LOAN DOCUMENT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV...11 B. Program Executive Officer for Cruise Missiles 3 and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (PEO[CU...69 I ! I I ivI -- UAV 1993 MASTER PLAN U I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 A. OVERVIEW Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)* can make significant

  12. The Master Clock Building at USNO Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    40th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting THE MASTER CLOCK BUILDING AT USNO INFRASTRUCTURE Warren F. Walls U.S. Naval...Observatory, Time Service Department 3450 Massachusetts Ave., NW; Washington, DC 20392, USA E-mail: Warren.Walls@Navy.mil Abstract The U.S...estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the

  13. Imitative Robotic Control: The Puppet Master

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-09

    such as individual joint control. EOD and bomb squads have shown interest in using a puppet control device to control existing robots , such as the...AUTONOMOUS GROUND SYSTEMS (AGS) TECHNICAL SESSION AUGUST 12-14, 2014 - NOVI, MICHIGAN IMITATIVE ROBOTIC CONTROL: THE PUPPET MASTER David Rusbarsky...When controlling a robot outside of autonomous mode, a good control device needs to give the user full control of the system while enabling the

  14. NASA directives master list and index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Handbook sets forth in two parts the information for the guidance of users of the NASA Management Directives System. Complementary to this Handbook is the NASA Online Directives Information System (NODIS), an electronic computer text retrieval system. The first part contains the Master List of Management Directives in force as of 30 Sep. 1993. The second part contains an Index to NASA Management Directives in force as of 30 Sep. 1993.

  15. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Menzies, Robert T.; Howell, James; Johnson, Steven C.; Tratt, David M.; Olivier, Lisa D.; Banta, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 the atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory began a joint collaboration to develop an airborne high-energy Doppler laser radar (lidar) system for atmospheric research and satellite validation and simulation studies. The result is the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS, which has the capability to remotely sense the distribution of wind and absolute aerosol backscatter in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. A factor critical to the programmatic feasibility and technical success of this collaboration has been the utilization of existing components and expertise which were developed for previous atmospheric research by the respective institutions. The motivation for the MACAWS program Is three-fold: to obtain fundamental measurements of sub-synoptic scale processes and features which may be used as a basis to improve sub-grid scale parameterizations in large-scale models; to obtain similar datasets in order to improve the understanding and predictive capabilities on the mesoscale; and to validate (simulate) the performance of existing (planned) satellite-borne sensors. Examples of the latter include participation in the validation of the NASA Scatterometer and the assessment of prospective satellite Doppler lidar for global tropospheric wind measurement. Initial flight tests were made in September 1995; subsequent flights were made in June 1996 following improvements. This paper describes the MACAWS instrument, principles of operation, examples of measurements over the eastern Pacific Ocean and western United States, and future applications.

  16. Design of Shrouded Airborne Wind Turbine & CFD Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbreen, Faiqa; Faiqa Anbreen Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The focus is to design a shrouded airborne wind turbine, capable to generate 70 kW to propel a leisure boat. The idea of designing an airborne turbine is to take the advantage of different velocity layers in the atmosphere. The blades have been designed using NREL S826 airfoil, which has coefficient of lift CL of 1.4 at angle of attack, 6°. The value selected for CP is 0.8. The rotor diameter is 7.4 m. The balloon (shroud) has converging-diverging nozzle design, to increase the mass flow rate through the rotor. The ratio of inlet area to throat area, Ai/At is 1.31 and exit area to throat area, Ae/At is1.15. The Solidworks model has been analyzed numerically using CFD. The software used is StarCCM +. The Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Simulation (URANS) K- ɛ model has been selected, to study the physical properties of the flow, with emphasis on the performance of the turbine. Stress analysis has been done using Nastran. From the simulations, the torque generated by the turbine is approximately 800N-m and angular velocity is 21 rad/s.

  17. Airborne Management of Traffic Conflicts in Descent With Arrival Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2005-01-01

    NASA is studying far-term air traffic management concepts that may increase operational efficiency through a redistribution of decisionmaking authority among airborne and ground-based elements of the air transportation system. One component of this research, En Route Free Maneuvering, allows trained pilots of equipped autonomous aircraft to assume responsibility for traffic separation. Ground-based air traffic controllers would continue to separate traffic unequipped for autonomous operations and would issue flow management constraints to all aircraft. To evaluate En Route Free Maneuvering operations, a human-in-the-loop experiment was jointly conducted by the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers. In this experiment, test subject pilots used desktop flight simulators to resolve conflicts in cruise and descent, and to adhere to air traffic flow constraints issued by test subject controllers. Simulators at NASA Langley were equipped with a prototype Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) flight deck toolset to assist pilots with conflict management and constraint compliance tasks. Results from the experiment are presented, focusing specifically on operations during the initial descent into the terminal area. Airborne conflict resolution performance in descent, conformance to traffic flow management constraints, and the effects of conflicting traffic on constraint conformance are all presented. Subjective data from subject pilots are also presented, showing perceived levels of workload, safety, and acceptability of autonomous arrival operations. Finally, potential AOP functionality enhancements are discussed along with suggestions to improve arrival procedures.

  18. NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD): Common Variable Naming Schema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Early, A. B.; Peeters, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    NASA has conducted airborne tropospheric chemistry studies for about three decades. These field campaigns have generated a great wealth of observations, which are characterized by a wide range of trace gases and aerosol properties. The airborne observational data have often been used in assessment and validation of models and satellite instruments. One particular issue is a lack of consistent variable naming across field campaigns, which makes cross-mission data discovery difficult. The ASDC Toolset for Airborne Data (TAD) is being designed to meet the user community needs for manipulating aircraft data for scientific research on climate change and air quality relevant issues. As part of this effort, a common naming system was developed to provide a link between variables from different aircraft field studies. This system covers all current and past airborne in-situ measurements housed at the ASDC, as well as select NOAA missions. The TAD common variable naming system consists of 6 categories and 3 sub-levels. The top-level category is primarily defined by the physical characteristics of the measurement: e.g., aerosol, cloud, trace gases. The sub-levels were designed to organize the variables according to nature of measurement (e.g., aerosol microphysical and optical properties) or chemical structures (e.g., carbon compound). The development of the TAD common variable naming system was in consultation with staff from the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) and referenced/expanded the existing Climate and Forecast (CF) variable naming conventions. The detailed structure of the TAD common variable naming convention and its application in TAD development will be presented.

  19. SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment: validation of observing system simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmitt, George D.; Miller, Timothy; Kavaya, Michael J.

    1998-12-01

    NASA recently approved a mission to fly a Doppler Wind Lidar on a US Space Shuttle. SPARCLE, managed by Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, is targeted for launch in March 2001. This mission is viewed as a necessary demonstration of a solid state lidar using coherent detection before committing resources to a 3-5 year research or operational mission. While, to many, this shuttle mission is seen as the first step in a series leading to a fully operational wind observing system, to others, it is a chance to validate predictions of performance based upon theoretical models, analyses of airborne and ground-based data and sophisticated observing system simulation experiments. The SPARCLE instrument is a 100 mJ, 6 Hz, diode pumped 2 micron laser with a .25 m telescope using heterodyne mixing in a fiber and an InGaAs detector. A 25 cm silicon wedge scanner will be used in step-stare modes with dwells ranging from 60 seconds to .5 seconds. Pointing knowledge is achieved with a dedicated GPS/INS mounted close to the lidar. NASA's hitchhiker program is providing the instrument enclosures and mission logistics support. An on- board data system in sized to record 80 Gbytes of raw signal from two 400 MHz A/D converters. On-board signal processing will be used to control the frequency of the Master Oscillator. SPARCLE is predicted to have a singleshot backscatter sensitivity near 5 by 10-6 m-1 sr-1. To achieve higher sensitivity, shot accumulation will be employed. Ground-based, 2 micron DWLs have been used to assess the benefits of shot accumulation. Airborne programs like MACAWS have provided good data st for evaluating various sampling strategies and signal processing algorithms. Using these real data to calibrate out simulation models, we can describe when and how well SPARCLE is expected to perform.

  20. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1989-11-28

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences there between. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  1. Mapping burn severity in a disease-impacted forest landscape using Landsat and MASTER imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Metz, Margaret R.; Rizzo, David M.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2015-08-01

    Global environmental change has increased forest vulnerability to the occurrence of interacting disturbances, including wildfires and invasive diseases. Mapping post-fire burn severity in a disease-affected forest often faces challenges because burned and infested trees may exhibit a high similarity in spectral reflectance. In this study, we combined (pre- and post-fire) Landsat imagery and (post-fire) high-spectral resolution airborne MASTER data [MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer)/ASTER (advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer)] to map burn severity in a California coastal forest environment, where a non-native forest disease sudden oak death (SOD) was causing substantial tree mortality. Results showed that the use of Landsat plus MASTER bundle performed better than using the individual sensors in most of the evaluated forest strata from ground to canopy layers (i.e., substrate, shrubs, intermediate-sized trees, dominant trees and average), with the best model performance achieved at the dominant tree layer. The mid to thermal infrared spectral bands (3.0-12.5 μm) from MASTER were found to augment Landsat's visible to shortwave infrared bands in burn severity assessment. We also found that infested and uninfested forests similarly experienced moderate to high degrees of burns where CBI (composite burn index) values were higher than 1. However, differences occurred in the regions with low burn severity (CBI values lower than 1), where uninfested stands revealed a much lower burn effect than that in infested stands, possibly due to their higher resilience to small fire disturbances as a result of higher leaf water content.

  2. Visualizing Airborne and Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierwirth, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is a process able to provide information about Earth to better understand Earth's processes and assist in monitoring Earth's resources. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is one remote sensing instrument dedicated to the cause of collecting data on anthropogenic influences on Earth as well as assisting scientists in understanding land-surface and atmospheric interactions. Landsat is a satellite program dedicated to collecting repetitive coverage of the continental Earth surfaces in seven regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Combining these two aircraft and satellite remote sensing instruments will provide a detailed and comprehensive data collection able to provide influential information and improve predictions of changes in the future. This project acquired, interpreted, and created composite images from satellite data acquired from Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). Landsat images were processed for areas covered by CAR during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCT AS), Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC), Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEXB), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 missions. The acquisition of Landsat data will provide supplemental information to assist in visualizing and interpreting airborne and satellite imagery.

  3. Trajectory association across multiple airborne cameras.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Yaser Ajmal; Shah, Mubarak

    2008-02-01

    A camera mounted on an aerial vehicle provides an excellent means for monitoring large areas of a scene. Utilizing several such cameras on different aerial vehicles allows further flexibility, in terms of increased visual scope and in the pursuit of multiple targets. In this paper, we address the problem of associating objects across multiple airborne cameras. Since the cameras are moving and often widely separated, direct appearance-based or proximity-based constraints cannot be used. Instead, we exploit geometric constraints on the relationship between the motion of each object across cameras, to test multiple association hypotheses, without assuming any prior calibration information. Given our scene model, we propose a likelihood function for evaluating a hypothesized association between observations in multiple cameras that is geometrically motivated. Since multiple cameras exist, ensuring coherency in association is an essential requirement, e.g. that transitive closure is maintained between more than two cameras. To ensure such coherency we pose the problem of maximizing the likelihood function as a k-dimensional matching and use an approximation to find the optimal assignment of association. Using the proposed error function, canonical trajectories of each object and optimal estimates of inter-camera transformations (in a maximum likelihood sense) are computed. Finally, we show that as a result of associating objects across the cameras, a concurrent visualization of multiple aerial video streams is possible and that, under special conditions, trajectories interrupted due to occlusion or missing detections can be repaired. Results are shown on a number of real and controlled scenarios with multiple objects observed by multiple cameras, validating our qualitative models, and through simulation quantitative performance is also reported.

  4. Analysis of MASTER Thermal Data in the Greeley Area of the Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado--Delineation of Sites for Infrastructure Resource Characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Livo, K. Eric; Watson, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sand and soils southwest of Greeley, Colorado, were characterized for mineral composition and industrial quality. Radi-ance data from the thermal channels of the MASTER simulator were calibrated using estimated atmospheric parameters. Chan-nel emissivities were approximated using an estimated ground temperature. Subsequently, a decorrelation algorithm was used to calculate inverse wave emissivity images. Six soil classes, one vegetation class, water, and several small classes were defined using an unsupervised classification algorithm. Ground covered by each of the derived emissivity spectral classes was studied using color-infrared air photos, color-infrared composite MAS-TER data, geologic maps, NASA/JPL Airborne Visible and Infra-red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, and field examination. Spectral classes were characterized by their responses and related to their mineral content through field examination. Classes with a minimum at channel 44, and having a similar spectral shape to quartz, field checked as containing abundant quartz. Classes with a minimum at channel 45, and having a spectral shape similar to the sheet minerals, were found in the field to contain abundant mica and clay. Sandy soil was found to have a positive slope at the longer wavelengths; the more clay rich soils had a negative slope. Spectra with a strong downturn at channel 50 generally indicated low vegetation cover, whereas an upturn indicated more vegetation cover. Mapping revealed a range of classified soils with varying amounts of quartz, silt, clay, and plant humus. Sand and gravel operations along the St. Vrain River, gravel lots, and some fields spectrally classified as quartz-rich sands were confirmed through field examination. Other fields mapped as sandy soils, ranging from quartz-rich sandy soil to quartz-rich silt-sand soil with clay. Flood plains mapped as sandy-silty-organic-rich clay. The city of Greeley contained all classes of materials, with the sand classes mapping as

  5. Quick response airborne command post communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaisdell, Randy L.

    1988-08-01

    National emergencies and strategic crises come in all forms and sizes ranging from natural disasters at one end of the scale up to and including global nuclear warfare at the other. Since the early 1960s the U.S. Government has spent billions of dollars fielding airborne command posts to ensure continuity of government and the command and control function during times of theater conventional, theater nuclear, and global nuclear warfare. Unfortunately, cost has prevented the extension of the airborne command post technology developed for these relatively unlikely events to the lower level, though much more likely to occur, crises such as natural disasters, terrorist acts, political insurgencies, etc. This thesis proposes the implementation of an economical airborne command post concept to address the wide variety of crises ignored by existing military airborne command posts. The system is known as the Quick Response Airborne Command Post (QRAC Post) and is based on the exclusive use of commercially owned and operated aircraft, and commercially available automated data processing and communications resources. The thesis addresses the QRAC Post concept at a systems level and is primarily intended to demonstrate how current technology can be exploited to economically achieve a national objective.

  6. Airborne Gravimetry and Downward Continuation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jekeli, C.; Yang, H.; Kwon, J.

    2009-12-01

    Measuring the Earth’s gravity field using airborne instrumentation is fully operational and has been widely practiced for nearly three decades since its official debut in the early 1980s (S. Hammer: “Airborne Gravity is Here!”) coinciding with the precision kinematic positioning capability of GPS. Airborne gravimetry is undertaken for both efficient geophysical exploration purposes, as well as the determination of the regional geoid to aid in the modernization of height systems. Especially for the latter application, downward continuation of the data and combination with existing terrestrial gravimetry pose theoretical as well as practical challenges, which, on the other hand, create multiple processing possibilities. Downward continuation may be approached in various ways from the viewpoint of potential theory and the boundary-value problem to using gradients either estimated locally or computed from existing models. Logistical constraints imposed by the airborne survey, instrumental noise, and the intrinsic numerical instability of downward continuation all conspire to impact the final product in terms of achievable resolution and accuracy. In this paper, we review the theory of airborne gravimetry and the methodology of downward continuation, and provide a numerical comparison of possible schemes and their impact on geoid determination.

  7. Aspects of detection and tracking of ground targets from an airborne EO/IR sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Bhashyam; Sithiravel, Rajiv; Daya, Zahir; Kirubarajan, Thiagalingam

    2015-05-01

    An airborne EO/IR (electro-optical/infrared) camera system comprises of a suite of sensors, such as a narrow and wide field of view (FOV) EO and mid-wave IR sensors. EO/IR camera systems are regularly employed on military and search and rescue aircrafts. The EO/IR system can be used to detect and identify objects rapidly in daylight and at night, often with superior performance in challenging conditions such as fog. There exist several algorithms for detecting potential targets in the bearing elevation grid. The nonlinear filtering problem is one of estimation of the kinematic parameters from bearing and elevation measurements from a moving platform. In this paper, we developed a complete model for the state of a target as detected by an airborne EO/IR system and simulated a typical scenario with single target with 1 or 2 airborne sensors. We have demonstrated the ability to track the target with `high precision' and noted the improvement from using two sensors on a single platform or on separate platforms. The performance of the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) is investigated on simulated data. Image/video data collected from an IR sensor on an airborne platform are processed using an image tracking by detection algorithm.

  8. Mapping permafrost with airborne electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsley, B. J.; Ball, L. B.; Bloss, B. R.; Kass, A.; Pastick, N.; Smith, B. D.; Voss, C. I.; Walsh, D. O.; Walvoord, M. A.; Wylie, B. K.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost is a key characteristic of cold region landscapes, yet detailed assessments of how the subsurface distribution of permafrost impacts the environment, hydrologic systems, and infrastructure are lacking. Data acquired from several airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys in Alaska provide significant new insight into the spatial extent of permafrost over larger areas (hundreds to thousands of square kilometers) than can be mapped using ground-based geophysical methods or through drilling. We compare several AEM datasets from different areas of interior Alaska, and explore the capacity of these data to infer geologic structure, permafrost extent, and related hydrologic processes. We also assess the impact of fires on permafrost by comparing data from different burn years within similar geological environments. Ultimately, interpretations rely on understanding the relationship between electrical resistivity measured by AEM surveys and the physical properties of interest such as geology, permafrost, and unfrozen water content in the subsurface. These relationships are often ambiguous and non-unique, so additional information is useful for reducing uncertainty. Shallow (upper ~1m) permafrost and soil characteristics identified from remotely sensed imagery and field observations help to constrain and aerially extend near-surface AEM interpretations, where correlations between the AEM and remote sensing data are identified using empirical multivariate analyses. Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (sNMR) measurements quantify the contribution of unfrozen water at depth to the AEM-derived electrical resistivity models at several locations within one survey area. AEM surveys fill a critical data gap in the subsurface characterization of permafrost environments and will be valuable in future mapping and monitoring programs in cold regions.

  9. Airborne Four-Dimensional Flight Management in a Time-based Air Traffic Control Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Green, Steven M.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems are being developed which contain time-based (4D) trajectory predictions of aircraft. Airborne flight management systems (FMS) exist or are being developed with similar 4D trajectory generation capabilities. Differences between the ATC generated profiles and those generated by the airborne 4D FMS may introduce system problems. A simulation experiment was conducted to explore integration of a 4D equipped aircraft into a 4D ATC system. The NASA Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle cockpit simulator was linked in real time to the NASA Ames Descent Advisor ATC simulation for this effort. Candidate procedures for handling 4D equipped aircraft were devised and traffic scenarios established which required time delays absorbed through speed control alone or in combination with path stretching. Dissimilarities in 4D speed strategies between airborne and ATC generated trajectories were tested in these scenarios. The 4D procedures and FMS operation were well received by airline pilot test subjects, who achieved an arrival accuracy at the metering fix of 2.9 seconds standard deviation time error. The amount and nature of the information transmitted during a time clearance were found to be somewhat of a problem using the voice radio communication channel. Dissimilarities between airborne and ATC-generated speed strategies were found to be a problem when the traffic remained on established routes. It was more efficient for 4D equipped aircraft to fly trajectories with similar, though less fuel efficient, speeds which conform to the ATC strategy. Heavy traffic conditions, where time delays forced off-route path stretching, were found to produce a potential operational benefit of the airborne 4D FMS.

  10. Setting the stage for master's level success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Donna

    Comprehensive reading, writing, research, and study skills play a critical role in a graduate student's success and ability to contribute to a field of study effectively. The literature indicated a need to support graduate student success in the areas of mentoring, navigation, as well as research and writing. The purpose of this two-phased mixed methods explanatory study was to examine factors that characterize student success at the Master's level in the fields of education, sociology and social work. The study was grounded in a transformational learning framework which focused on three levels of learning: technical knowledge, practical or communicative knowledge, and emancipatory knowledge. The study included two data collection points. Phase one consisted of a Master's Level Success questionnaire that was sent via Qualtrics to graduate level students at three colleges and universities in the Central Valley of California: a California State University campus, a University of California campus, and a private college campus. The results of the chi-square indicated that seven questionnaire items were significant with p values less than .05. Phase two in the data collection included semi-structured interview questions that resulted in three themes emerged using Dedoose software: (1) the need for more language and writing support at the Master's level, (2) the need for mentoring, especially for second-language learners, and (3) utilizing the strong influence of faculty in student success. It is recommended that institutions continually assess and strengthen their programs to meet the full range of learners and to support students to degree completion.

  11. Gabor fusion master slave optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cernat, Ramona; Bradu, Adrian; Israelsen, Niels Møller; Bang, Ole; Rivet, Sylvain; Keane, Pearse A.; Heath, David-Garway; Rajendram, Ranjan; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Gabor filtering protocol to a Master/Slave (MS) swept source optical coherence tomography (SS)-OCT system at 1300 nm. The MS-OCT system delivers information from selected depths, a property that allows operation similar to that of a time domain OCT system, where dynamic focusing is possible. The Gabor filtering processing following collection of multiple data from different focus positions is different from that utilized by a conventional swept source OCT system using a Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to produce an A-scan. Instead of selecting the bright parts of A-scans for each focus position, to be placed in a final B-scan image (or in a final volume), and discarding the rest, the MS principle can be employed to advantageously deliver signal from the depths within each focus range only. The MS procedure is illustrated on creating volumes of data of constant transversal resolution from a cucumber and from an insect by repeating data acquisition for 4 different focus positions. In addition, advantage is taken from the tolerance to dispersion of the MS principle that allows automatic compensation for dispersion created by layers above the object of interest. By combining the two techniques, Gabor filtering and Master/Slave, a powerful imaging instrument is demonstrated. The master/slave technique allows simultaneous display of three categories of images in one frame: multiple depth en-face OCT images, two cross-sectional OCT images and a confocal like image obtained by averaging the en-face ones. We also demonstrate the superiority of MS-OCT over its FFT based counterpart when used with a Gabor filtering OCT instrument in terms of the speed of assembling the fused volume. For our case, we show that when more than 4 focus positions are required to produce the final volume, MS is faster than the conventional FFT based procedure. PMID:28270987

  12. Gabor fusion master slave optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Cernat, Ramona; Bradu, Adrian; Israelsen, Niels Møller; Bang, Ole; Rivet, Sylvain; Keane, Pearse A; Heath, David-Garway; Rajendram, Ranjan; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the application of the Gabor filtering protocol to a Master/Slave (MS) swept source optical coherence tomography (SS)-OCT system at 1300 nm. The MS-OCT system delivers information from selected depths, a property that allows operation similar to that of a time domain OCT system, where dynamic focusing is possible. The Gabor filtering processing following collection of multiple data from different focus positions is different from that utilized by a conventional swept source OCT system using a Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to produce an A-scan. Instead of selecting the bright parts of A-scans for each focus position, to be placed in a final B-scan image (or in a final volume), and discarding the rest, the MS principle can be employed to advantageously deliver signal from the depths within each focus range only. The MS procedure is illustrated on creating volumes of data of constant transversal resolution from a cucumber and from an insect by repeating data acquisition for 4 different focus positions. In addition, advantage is taken from the tolerance to dispersion of the MS principle that allows automatic compensation for dispersion created by layers above the object of interest. By combining the two techniques, Gabor filtering and Master/Slave, a powerful imaging instrument is demonstrated. The master/slave technique allows simultaneous display of three categories of images in one frame: multiple depth en-face OCT images, two cross-sectional OCT images and a confocal like image obtained by averaging the en-face ones. We also demonstrate the superiority of MS-OCT over its FFT based counterpart when used with a Gabor filtering OCT instrument in terms of the speed of assembling the fused volume. For our case, we show that when more than 4 focus positions are required to produce the final volume, MS is faster than the conventional FFT based procedure.

  13. The master degree: A critical transition in STEM doctoral education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Sheila Edwards

    The need to broaden participation in the nation's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduate and graduate programs is currently a matter of national urgency. The small number of women and underrepresented minorities (URM) earning doctoral degrees in STEM is particularly troubling given significant increases in the number of students earning master's degrees since 1990. In the decade between 1990 and 2000, the total number of master's recipients increased by 42%. During this same time period, the number of women earning master's degrees increased by 56%, African Americans increased by 132%, American Indians by 101%, Hispanics by 146%, and Asian Americans by 117% (Syverson, 2003). Growth in underrepresented group education at the master's level raises questions about the relationship between master's and doctoral education. Secondary data analysis of the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) was used to examine institutional pathways to the doctorate in STEM disciplines and transitions from master's to doctoral programs by race and gender. While the study revealed no significant gender differences in pathways, compared to White and Asian American students, URM students take significantly different pathways to the doctorate. URM students are significantly more likely to earn the bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees at three different institutions. Their path is significantly more likely to include earning a master's degree en route to the doctorate. Further, URM students are more likely to experience transition between the master's and doctoral degrees, and the transitions are not limited to those who earn master's degrees at master's-only institutions. These findings suggest that earning a master's degree is more often a stepping stone to the doctorate for URM students. Master's degree programs, therefore, have the potential to be a valuable resource for policymakers and graduate programs seeking to increase the diversity of URM students

  14. Performance of the NASA Airborne Radar with the Windshear Database for Forward-Looking Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switzer, George F.; Britt, Charles L.

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the simulation approach used to test the performance of the NASA airborne windshear radar. An explanation of the actual radar hardware and processing algorithms provides an understanding of the parameters used in the simulation program. This report also contains a brief overview of the NASA airborne windshear radar experimental flight test results. A description of the radar simulation program shows the capabilities of the program and the techniques used for certification evaluation. Simulation of the NASA radar is comprised of three steps. First, the choice of the ground clutter data must be made. The ground clutter is the return from objects in or nearby an airport facility. The choice of the ground clutter also dictates the aircraft flight path since ground clutter is gathered while in flight. The second step is the choice of the radar parameters and the running of the simulation program which properly combines the ground clutter data with simulated windshear weather data. The simulated windshear weather data is comprised of a number of Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) model results. The final step is the comparison of the radar simulation results to the known windshear data base. The final evaluation of the radar simulation is based on the ability to detect hazardous windshear with the aircraft at a safe distance while at the same time not displaying false alerts.

  15. The antioxidant master glutathione and periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Vivek Kumar; Bains, Rhythm

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione, considered to be the master antioxidant (AO), is the most-important redox regulator that controls inflammatory processes, and thus damage to the periodontium. Periodontitis patients have reduced total AO capacity in whole saliva, and lower concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) in serum and gingival crevicular fluid, and periodontal therapy restores the redox balance. Therapeutic considerations for the adjunctive use of glutathione in management of periodontitis, in limiting the tissue damage associated with oxidative stress, and enhancing wound healing cannot be underestimated, but need to be evaluated further through multi-centered randomized controlled trials. PMID:26604952

  16. The Survivor Master Narrative in Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Shane D; Taylor, S Caroline; Norma, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    This article is based on data drawn from 90 Victoria Police operational files covering the period 2004-2008. Several thematic responses by sexual assault survivors are described as forming a master narrative of "identity shock." It is argued that the "minor/serious" sexual assault legal distinction is meaningless to survivors and conceals a shared felt experience. It is also argued that sexual assault is fundamentally a "public issue" of betrayal of citizen trust--not just a collection of "private troubles"--and that effective resolutions require more than individualized therapeutic and criminal justice measures.

  17. Master-Oscillator/Power-Amplifier Laser System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Unger, Glenn L.

    1994-01-01

    Master-oscillator/power-amplifier (MOPA) laser system operates in continuous-wave mode or in amplitude-modulation (e.g., pulse) mode by modulation of oscillator current. Power amplifier is laser-diode-pumped neodymium:yttrium lithium fluoride (Nd:YLF) laser; oscillator is laser diode. Offers relatively high efficiency and power. Because drive current to oscillator modulated, external electro-optical modulator not needed. Potential uses include free-space optical communications, coded laser ranging, and generation of high-power, mode-locked pulses.

  18. Mitochondria: master regulators of danger signalling.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-12-01

    Throughout more than 1.5 billion years of obligate endosymbiotic co-evolution, mitochondria have developed not only the capacity to control distinct molecular cascades leading to cell death but also the ability to sense (and react to) multiple situations of cellular stress, including viral infection. In addition, mitochondria can emit danger signals that alert the cell or the whole organism of perturbations in homeostasis, hence promoting the induction of cell-intrinsic or systemic adaptive responses, respectively. As such, mitochondria can be considered as master regulators of danger signalling.

  19. Optical "anti-transient" detected by MASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisenko, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Lipunov, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Yecheistov, V.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Belinski, A.; Shatskiy, N.; Chazov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Zimnukhov, D.; Krushinsky, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Popov, A.; Bourdanov, A.; Punanova, A.; Ivanov, K.; Yazev, S.; Budnev, N.; Konstantinov, E.; Chuvalaev, O.; Poleshchuk, V.; Gress, O.; Parkhomenko, A.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Senik, V.; Yurkov, V.; Sergienko, Y.; Varda, D.; Sinyakov, E.; Shurpakov, S.; Shumkov, V.; Podvorotny, P.; Levato, H.; Saffe, C.; Mallamaci, C.; Lopez, C.; Podest, F.

    2013-02-01

    We have started the search for the disappearing stars (optical "anti-transients", OATs) in the MASTER database. The first result is the detection of a deep (~3.5 magnitudes) fading of the bright star TYC 2505-672-1 whose variability was previously unknown. This star has the coordinates 09 53 10.00 +33 53 52.7 and magnitudes V=10.71, B=12.51 in Tycho2 catalogue and J=7.61, H=6.78, K=6.57 in 2MASS.

  20. Master and Secondary Clock in Telecommunications Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    MASTER AND SECONDARY CLOCK I N TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS A l l a n R i s l e y F requency and Time Systems, I n c . 34 Tozer Road B e v...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Frequency and Time Systems Inc,34 Tozer Road,Beverly,MA,01915 8