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Sample records for airborne southern hemisphere

  1. Southern hemisphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  2. Southern Hemispheric nitrous oxide measurements obtained during 1987 airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolske, J. R.; Loewenstein, M.; Strahan, S. E.; Chan, K. Roland

    1988-01-01

    The chemical lifetime of N2O is about 150 years, which makes it an excellent dynamical tracer of air motion on the time scale of the ozone depletion event. For these reasons it was chosen to help test whether dynamical theories of ozone loss over Antarctica were plausible, particularly the theory that upwelling ozone-poor air from the troposphere was replacing ozone-rich stratospheric air. The N2O measurements were made with the Airborne Tunable Laser Absorption Spectrometer (ATLAS) aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. The detection technique involves measuring the diffential absorption of the IR laser radiation as it is rapidly scanned over an N2O absorption feature. For the AAOE mission, the instrument was capable of making measurements with a 1 ppb sensitivity, 1 second response time, over an altitude range of 10 to 20 kilometers. The AAOE mission consisted of a series of 12 flights from Punta Arenas (53S) into the polar vortex (approximately 72S) at which time a vertical profile from 65 to 45 km and back was performed. Comparison of the observed profiles inside the vortex with N2O profiles obtained by balloon flights during the austral summer showed that an overall subsidence had occurred during the winter of about 5 to 6 km. Also, over the course of the mission (mid-August to late September), no trend in the N2O vertical profile, either upward or downward, was discernible, eliminating the possibility that upwelling was the cause of the observed ozone decrease.

  3. Triton's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.

  4. Neptune's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This photograph of Neptune's southern hemisphere was taken by the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Voyager 2 when the spacecraft was 4.2 million km (2.6 million miles) from the planet. The smallest features that can be seen are 38 km (24 miles) across. The almond-shaped structure at the left is a large cloud system that has been seen for several weeks. Internal details in the feature have become increasingly apparent as Voyager 2 has approached. Systems with similar shapes in Jupiter's atmosphere rotate about their centers, rolling in the local winds that increase toward the south. However, the wispy nature of the white central clouds in this Neptunian feature make confirmation of the system's rotation difficult. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  5. The Southern Hemisphere VLBI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.A.; Meier, D.L.; Louie, A.P.; Morabito, D.D.; Skjerve, L.; Slade, M.A.; Niell, A.E.; Wehrle, A.E.; Jauncey, D.L.; Tzioumis, A.K.; Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA; California Univ., Los Angeles; CSIRO, Div. of Radiophysics, Epping; Sydney Univ.; Manchester Victoria Univ., Jodrell Bank )

    1989-07-01

    Six radio telescopes were operated as the first Southern Hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. This array provided VLBI modeling and hybrid imaging of celestial radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere, high-accuracy VLBI geodesy between Southern Hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination -45 deg. The goals and implementation of the array are discussed, the methods of modeling and hybrid image production are explained, and the VLBI structure of the sources that were observed is summarized. 36 refs.

  6. {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia (ARA){close_quotes} a new research aircraft facility on the southern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia{close_quotes} (ARA) is a new research aircraft facility in Australia. It will serve the scientific community of Australia and will also make its aircraft and expertise available for commercial users. To cover the widest possible range of applications, the facility will operate up to five research aircraft, from a small, low-cost platform to medium-sized multi-purpose aircraft, as well as a unique high altitude aircraft capable of carrying scientific loads to altitudes of up to 15km. The aircraft will be equipped with basic instrumentation and data systems, as well as facilities to mount user-supplied instrumentation and systems internally and externally on the aircraft. The ARA operations base consisting of a hangar, workshops, offices, laboratories, etc. is currently being constructed at Parafield Airport near Adelaide/South Australia. The following text reports about the current state of development of the facility. An update will be given in a presentation at the Conference. 6 figs.

  7. Southern Hemisphere Polygonal Patterned Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Earth, periglacial is a term that refers to regions and processes where cold climate contributes to the evolution of landforms and landscapes. Common in periglacial environments on Earth, such as the arctic of northern Canada,Siberia, and Alaska, is a phenomenon called patterned ground. The 'patterns' in patterned ground often take the form of large polygons, each bounded by either troughs or ridges made up of rock particles different in size from those seen in the interior of the polygon. On Earth, many polygons in periglacial environments are directly linked to water: they typically form from stresses induced by repeated freezing and thawing of water, contraction from stress induced by changing temperatures, and sorting of rocks brought to the surface along polygon boundaries by the freeze-thaw processes. Although not exclusively formed by freezing and thawing of water, that is often the dominant mechanism on Earth.

    Polygons similar to those found in Earth's arctic and antarctic regions are also found in the polar regions of Mars. Typically, they occur on crater floors, or on intercrater plains, between about 60o and 80o latitude. The polygons are best seen when bright frost or dark sand has been trapped in the troughs that form the polygon boundaries. Three examples of martian polygons seen by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are shown here. Each is located in the southern hemisphere:(left) Polygon troughs highlighted by frost as the south polar cap retreats during spring. The circular features are the locations of buried craters that were originally formed by meteor impact. This image, E09-00029, is located at 75.1oS, 331.3oW, and was acquired on 1 October 2001.(center) Summertime view of polygons, highlighted by dark, windblown sand, on the floor of a crater at 71.2oS, 282.6oW. The image, E12-02319, was obtained on 21January 2002.(right) Polygon troughs highlighted by the retreating south polar frost cap during southern summer

  8. Meteor showers of the southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molau, Sirko; Kerr, Steve

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of an exhaustive meteor shower search in the southern hemisphere. The underlying data set is a subset of the IMO Video Meteor Database comprising 50,000 single station meteors obtained by three Australian cameras between 2001 and 2012. The detection technique was similar to previous single station analysis. In the data set we find 4 major and 6 minor northern hemisphere meteor showers, and 12 segments of the Antihelion source (including the Northern and Southern Taurids and six streams from the MDC working list). We present details for 14 southern hemisphere showers plus the Centaurid and Puppid-Velid complex, with the η Aquariids and the Southern δ Aquariids being the strongest southern showers. Two of the showers (θ^2 Sagittariids and τ Cetids) were previously unknown and have received preliminary designations by the MDC. Overall we find that the fraction of southern meteor showers south of -30deg declination (roughly 25%) is clearly smaller than the fraction of northern meteor showers north of +30deg declination (more than 50%) obtained in our previous analysis.

  9. Stratospheric nitrous oxide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolske, J. R.; Loewenstein, M.; Strahan, S. E.; Chan, K. R.

    1989-01-01

    Nitrous oxide measurements were made in the Southern Hemisphere as part of the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment in late winter and early spring 1987, covering the altitude range 14-21 km. This paper reports on N2O measurements made by the airborne tunable laser absorption spectrometer, which was flown onboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft. Average vertical N2O profiles at latitudes 72 deg S, 54 deg S, and 42 deg S are presented and compared, when possible, with equivalent summer profiles. Latitudinal gradients of N2O on isentropic surfaces are presented and discussed in terms of their implications about the inhibition of horizontal mixing near the polar vortex. Finally, a large-scale distribution of N2O for the region 72 deg S to 42 deg S latitude is presented.

  10. Mesoscale Temperature Fluctuations in the Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.

    2008-01-01

    Isentrope surfaces in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere reveal that air parcels undergo mesoscale temperature fluctuations that depend on latitude and season. The largest temperature fluctuations occur at high latitude winter, whereas the smallest fluctuations occur at high latitude summer. This is the same pattern found for the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere. However, the amplitude of the seasonal dependence in the Southern Hemisphere is only 37% of the Northern Hemisphere's seasonal amplitude.

  11. Geomagnetic Field Response at Southern and Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandel, Babita

    Geomagnetic Field Response at Southern and Northern Hemisphere Babita Chandel, Shailendra Saini, Sneha Yadav,S.K.Vijay and A.K.Gwal Space Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026, India ABSTRACT: This paper represents the geomagnetic field response at Southern Hemisphere (MAITRI) and Northern Hemisphere (TROMSO). The Indian Antarctic Station MAITRI is located at geomagnetic Long. (66.030, 53.210) where as TROMSO is at geomagnetic Long. (66.030, 53.210). We studied the behaviour of geomagnetic field with respect to geomagnetic storms at both the stations TROMSO and MAITRI. It was observed that at Southern Hemisphere there is more variation in winter as compared to the summer season, where as in Northern Hemisphere the variations are more in summer as compared to winter. As in the Northern hemisphere the magnetospheric plasma is strongly turbulized in summer and in Southern hemisphere the magentospheric plasma is strongly turbulized in winter.

  12. Phenological changes in the southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Lynda E; Altwegg, Res; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnard, Phoebe; Beaumont, Linda J; Crawford, Robert J M; Durant, Joel M; Hughes, Lesley; Keatley, Marie R; Low, Matt; Morellato, Patricia C; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vanstreels, Ralph E T; Woehler, Eric J; Wolfaardt, Anton C

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias), although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa) and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially and logistically

  13. Voyager 1 Jupiter Southern Hemisphere Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows a portion of Jupiter in the southern hemisphere over 17Jupiter days. Above the white belt, notice the series of atmospheric vortices headed west. Even these early approach frames show wild dynamics in the roiling environment south of the white belt. Notice the small tumbling white cloud near the center.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 17 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Blue filter around Feb. 1, 1979. The spacecraft was about 37 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  14. Interannual Variability and Trends of Extratropical Ozone, Part II: Southern Hemisphere. Part 2; Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Y. L.

    2008-01-01

    A principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) total column ozone following the method established for analyzing the data in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) in a companion paper. The interannual variability (IAV) of extratropical O-3 in the SH is characterized by four main modes, which account for 75% of the total variance. The first two leading modes are approximately zonally symmetric and relate to the Southern Hemisphere annular mode and the quasi-biennial oscillation. The third and fourth modes exhibit wavenumber-1 structures. Contrary to the Northern Hemisphere, the third and fourth are nor related to stationary waves. Similar results obtained for the 30 100-hPa geopotential thickness.The decreasing O3 trend in the SH is captured in the first mode. The largest trend is at the South Pole, with value similar to-2 Dobson Units (DU)/yr. Both the spatial pattern and trends in the column ozone are captured by the Goddard Earth Observation System chemistry-climate model (GEOS-CCM) in the SH.

  15. Asymmetric auroral intensities in the Earth's Northern and Southern hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laundal, K. M.; Østgaard, N.

    2009-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that the aurora borealis (Northern Hemisphere) and aurora australis (Southern Hemisphere) are mirror images of each other because the charged particles causing the aurora follow the magnetic field lines connecting the two hemispheres. The particles are believed to be evenly distributed between the two hemispheres, from the source region in the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere. Although it has been shown that similar auroral features in the opposite hemispheres can be displaced tens of degree in longitude and that seasonal effects can cause differences in global intensity, the overall auroral patterns were still similar. Here we report observations that clearly contradict the common assumption about symmetric aurora: intense spots are seen at dawn in the Northern summer Hemisphere, and at dusk in the Southern winter Hemisphere. The asymmetry is interpreted in terms of inter-hemispheric currents related to seasons, which have been predicted but hitherto had not been seen.

  16. Remote Control Southern Hemisphere SSA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, I.; Pearson, M.; Sang, J.

    2013-09-01

    EOS Space Systems (EOSSS) is a research and development company which has developed custom observatories, camera and telescope systems for space surveillance since 1996, as well as creating several evolutions of systems control software for control of observatories and laser tracking systems. Our primary reserach observatory is the Space Reserach Centre (SRC) at Mount Stromlo Asutralia. The current SRC control systems are designed such that remote control can be offered for real time data collection, noise filtering and flexible session management. Several imaging fields of view are available simultaneously for tracking orbiting objects, with real time imaging to Mag 18. Orbiting objects can have the centroids post processed into orbital determination/ orbital projection (OD/OP) elements. With or without laser tracking of orbiting objects, they can be tracked in terminator conditions and their OD/OP data created, then enhanced by proprietary methods involving ballistic coefficient estimation and OD convergence pinning, using a priori radar elements. Sensors in development include a thermal imager for satellite thermal signature detection. Extending laser tracking range by use of adaptive optics beam control is also in development now. This Southern Hemisphere observatory is in a unique position to facilitate the study of space debris, either stand-alone or as part of a network such as Falcon. Current national and international contracts will enhance the remote control capabilities further, creating a resource ready to go for a wide variety of SSA missions.

  17. Northern Hemisphere forcing of Southern Hemisphere climate during the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    He, Feng; Shakun, Jeremy D; Clark, Peter U; Carlson, Anders E; Liu, Zhengyu; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L; Kutzbach, John E

    2013-02-07

    According to the Milankovitch theory, changes in summer insolation in the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere caused glacial cycles through their impact on ice-sheet mass balance. Statistical analyses of long climate records supported this theory, but they also posed a substantial challenge by showing that changes in Southern Hemisphere climate were in phase with or led those in the north. Although an orbitally forced Northern Hemisphere signal may have been transmitted to the Southern Hemisphere, insolation forcing can also directly influence local Southern Hemisphere climate, potentially intensified by sea-ice feedback, suggesting that the hemispheres may have responded independently to different aspects of orbital forcing. Signal processing of climate records cannot distinguish between these conditions, however, because the proposed insolation forcings share essentially identical variability. Here we use transient simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to identify the impacts of forcing from changes in orbits, atmospheric CO(2) concentration, ice sheets and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) on hemispheric temperatures during the first half of the last deglaciation (22-14.3 kyr BP). Although based on a single model, our transient simulation with only orbital changes supports the Milankovitch theory in showing that the last deglaciation was initiated by rising insolation during spring and summer in the mid-latitude to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere and by terrestrial snow-albedo feedback. The simulation with all forcings best reproduces the timing and magnitude of surface temperature evolution in the Southern Hemisphere in deglacial proxy records. AMOC changes associated with an orbitally induced retreat of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets is the most plausible explanation for the early Southern Hemisphere deglacial warming and its lead over Northern Hemisphere temperature; the ensuing rise in atmospheric CO(2

  18. North-Seeking Magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria in the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Pedro; Teixeira, Lia C. R. S.; Cypriano, Jefferson; Farina, Marcos; Abreu, Fernanda; Bazylinski, Dennis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) comprise a phylogenetically diverse group of prokaryotes capable of orienting and navigating along magnetic field lines. Under oxic conditions, MTB in natural environments in the Northern Hemisphere generally display north-seeking (NS) polarity, swimming parallel to the Earth's magnetic field lines, while those in the Southern Hemisphere generally swim antiparallel to magnetic field lines (south-seeking [SS] polarity). Here, we report a population of an uncultured, monotrichously flagellated, and vibrioid MTB collected from a brackish lagoon in Brazil in the Southern Hemisphere that consistently exhibits NS polarity. Cells of this organism were mainly located below the oxic-anoxic interface (OAI), suggesting it is capable of some type of anaerobic metabolism. Magnetosome crystalline habit and composition were consistent with elongated prismatic magnetite (Fe3O4) particles. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that this organism belongs to a distinct clade of the Gammaproteobacteria class. The presence of NS MTB in the Southern Hemisphere and the previously reported finding of SS MTB in the Northern Hemisphere reinforce the idea that magnetotaxis is more complex than we currently understand and may be modulated by factors other than O2 concentration and redox gradients in sediments and water columns. IMPORTANCE Magnetotaxis is a navigational mechanism used by magnetotactic bacteria to move along geomagnetic field lines and find an optimal position in chemically stratified sediments. For that, magnetotactic bacteria swim parallel to the geomagnetic field lines under oxic conditions in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas those in the Southern Hemisphere swim antiparallel to magnetic field lines. A population of uncultured vibrioid magnetotactic bacteria was discovered in a brackish lagoon in the Southern Hemisphere that consistently swim northward, i.e., the opposite of the overwhelming majority of other

  19. Are reptile and amphibian species younger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere?

    PubMed

    Dubey, Sylvain; Shine, R

    2012-01-01

    A previous analysis of molecular phylogenies suggested that intraspecific diversification had occurred more recently in temperate-zone Northern Hemisphere reptiles and amphibians than in Southern Hemisphere taxa. Here, we test potential explanations for this pattern. We examined published phylogenetic analyses, derived from genetic sequence data, to generate two estimates of the age of species: (i) the oldest intraspecific diversification event within each taxon and (ii) the inferred timing of the split between two sister species. The timing of splits between species shows the same pattern as splits within species, and thus may be due to climatically driven cladogenic and extinction events or may be an artefact of differing levels of taxonomic knowledge about the fauna. Current rates of species descriptions suggest that many more taxa remain to be described in the Southern Hemisphere than the Northern Hemisphere; for that bias to fully explain our results on species age differences, the proportion of undescribed Southern taxa would need to be ≥ 12% in reptiles and ≥ 51% in anurans. For reptiles, taxonomic ignorance plausibly explains the apparent difference in mean age of species between the Southern and Northern Hemispheres; but this explanation can apply to amphibians only if a vast number of Southern taxa remain to be described.

  20. [Vaccines: producers in countries of the Southern hemisphere].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, J J

    2007-08-01

    Vaccine producers in southern hemisphere countries now contribute significantly to global output. In 2006 southern hemisphere countries accounted for more than 10% of the total worldwide production with a progression approximately 70% greater than all producers combined in the two-year period between 2004 and 2006. Though difficult to measure, production in volume is higher due to lower prices practiced in most of these countries. For many years before the 1980s, production was scattered among numerous limited-scale companies. Most were founded at the initiative of governments striving to cover the needs of the population for essential vaccines. A number of institutions and private structures such as Institut Pasteur Production, Connaught Laboratories, and Institut Merieux have also set up production facilities. Today's producers can be divided into two categories, i.e., local producers that produce mainly monovalent vaccines and worldwide producers with strong R&D investment programs. Local producers are located mainly in large southern hemisphere countries such as China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia as well as in eastern countries. For the most dynamic companies, international development is focused on southern hemisphere countries excluding North America and Europe. With the support international organization such as WHO, UNICEF and GAVI, alliances are now being formed and networks are being organized in an effort to ensure reliable supplies of high quality vaccines at affordable prices in developing countries. The contribution of these producers will increase for the greater benefit of the people living in the southern hemisphere.

  1. Geology of the southern hemisphere of Triton: No polar cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, P.; Moore, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The bright southern hemisphere, comprising Uhlanga Regio, is perhaps the most poorly understood geologic province on Triton. The entire bright southern hemisphere has been described as a bright polar 'cap', implying a seasonal origin, or as a permanent geologic terrain distinct from the equatorial terrains. Also, thermal models have predicted seasonal migration of frosts and ices from the presently sun-lit south latitudes to the dark northern latitudes. The distribution of frosts and geologic history of this region must be determined observationally. We reexamine the geology of this terrain with the goal of answering these questions.

  2. Evolution of Southern Hemisphere spring air masses observed by HALOE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, R. Bradley; Grose, William L.; Russell, James M., III; Tuck, Adrian F.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of Southern Hemisphere air masses observed by the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) during September 21 through October 15, 1992, is investigated using isentropic trajectories computed from United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) assimilated winds and temperatures. Maps of constituent concentrations are obtained by accumulation of air masses from previous HALOE occultations. Lagged correlations between initial and subsequent HALOE observations of the same air mass are used to validate the air mass trajectories. High correlations are found for lag times as large as 10 days. Frequency distributions of the air mass constituent concentrations are used to examine constituent distributions in and around the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex.

  3. Sensitive ammonia observations in the southern hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, D. F.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M. J.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Batty, M.; Gardner, F. F.; Jauncey, D. L.; Whiteoak, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    The 64-m spacecraft communication antenna of the NASA-JPL Deep Space Network has been equipped for spectral line observations at K band (18-25 GHz). To demonstrate the potential of this system, preliminary observations of the (1, 1) transition of ammonia are reported for a selection of eight southern molecular clouds. Estimates of gas density and ammonia column density are reported for six sources.

  4. Radar meteor orbital structure of Southern Hemisphere cometary dust streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baggaley, W. Jack; Taylor, Andrew D.

    1992-01-01

    The Christchurch, New Zealand meteor orbit radar (AMOR) with its high precision and sensitivity, permits studies of the orbital fine structure of cometary streams. PC generated graphics are presented of data on some Southern Hemisphere Streams. Such data can be related to the formation phase and subsequent dynamical processes of dust streams.

  5. Dominant Presence of Oxygenated Organic Species in the Remote Southern Hemisphere Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H.; Chen, Y.; Staudt, A.; Jacob, D.; Blake, D.; Heikes, B.; Snow, J.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Oxygenated organic species are intimately involved with the fate of nitrogen oxides (NO(sub x)) and hydrogen oxides (HO(sub x)), which are necessary for tropospheric ozone formation. A recent airborne experiment (March-April, 1999) focused over the southern hemisphere (SH) Pacific Ocean (PEM-tropics-B) provided a first opportunity for a detailed characterization of the oxygenated organic composition of the remote southern hemisphere troposphere. Three co-located multi-channel airborne instruments measured a dozen key oxygenated species (carbonyls, alcohols, organic nitrates, organic pernitrates, peroxides) along with a comprehensive suite of C2-C8 Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC). These measurements reveal that in the tropical SH (0-30 deg south), oxygenated chemical abundances are extremely large and collectively are nearly five times those of NMHC. Even in the NH remote atmospheres their burden is equal to or greater than that of NMHC. The relatively uniform global distribution oxygenates (EPSILON Ox-org) is indicative of the presence of large natural and distributed sources. A global 3-D model, reflecting the present state of science, is unable to correctly simulate the atmospheric distribution and variability of several of these species.

  6. Cassini Imaging of Saturn: Southern Hemisphere Winds and Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Horst, S. M.; Kennedy, M. R.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Porco, C. C.; DelGenio, A. D.; West, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution images of Saturn's southern hemisphere acquired by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem between February and October 2004 are used to create maps of cloud morphology at several wavelengths, to derive zonal winds, and to characterize the distribution, frequency, size, morphology, color, behavior, and lifetime of vortices. Nonequatorial wind measurements display only minor differences from those collected since 1981 and reveal a strong, prograde flow near the pole. The region just southward of the velocity minimum at 40.7 deg S is especially active, containing numerous vortices, some generated in the proximity of convective storms. The two eastward jets nearest the pole display periodicity in their longitudinal structure, but no direct analogs to the northern hemisphere's polar hexagon or ribbon waves were observed. Characteristics of winds and vortices are compared with those of Saturn's northern hemisphere and Jupiter's atmosphere.

  7. Predicting North American Scolytinae invasions in the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Lantschner, Maria Victoria; Atkinson, Thomas H; Corley, Juan C; Liebhold, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    Scolytinae species are recognized as one of the most important tree mortality agents in coniferous forests worldwide, and many are known invaders because they are easily transported in wood products. Nonnative trees planted in novel habitats often exhibit exceptional growth, in part because they escape herbivore (such as Scolytinae) pressure from their native range. Increasing accidental introductions of forest pest species as a consequence of international trade, however, is expected to diminish enemy release of nonnative forest trees. In this context, there is need to characterize patterns of forest herbivore species invasion risks at global scales. In this study, we analyze the establishment potential of 64 North American Scolytinae species in the Southern Hemisphere. We use climate-based ecological niche models (MaxEnt) to spatially define the potential distribution of these Scolytinae species in regions of the Southern Hemisphere were pines are planted. Our model predicts that all of the pine-growing regions of the Southern Hemisphere are capable of supporting some species of North American Scolytinae, but there are certain "hotspot" regions, southeastern Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and southwestern Australia, that appear to be suitable for a particularly large number of species. The species with the highest predicted risk of establishment were Dendroctonus valens, Xyleborus intrusus, Hylastes tenuis, Ips grandicollis, Gnathotrichus sulcatus, and Ips calligraphus. Given that global commerce is anticipated to continue to increase, we can expect that more Scolytinae species will continue to establish outside their range. Our results provide information useful for identifying a global list of potential invasive species in pine plantations, and may assist in the design of comprehensive strategies aimed at reducing pest establishment in Southern Hemisphere forest plantations.

  8. Obliquity Control On Southern Hemisphere Climate During The Last Glacial

    PubMed Central

    Fogwill, C.J.; Turney, C.S.M.; Hutchinson, D.K.; Taschetto, A.S.; England, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent paleoclimate reconstructions have challenged the traditional view that Northern Hemisphere insolation and associated feedbacks drove synchronous global climate and ice-sheet volume during the last glacial cycle. Here we focus on the response of the Patagonian Ice Sheet, and demonstrate that its maximum expansion culminated at 28,400 ± 500 years before present (28.4 ± 0.5 ka), more than 5,000 years before the minima in 65°N summer insolation and the formally-defined Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at 21,000 ± 2,000 years before present. To investigate the potential drivers of this early LGM (eLGM), we simulate the effects of orbital changes using a suite of climate models incorporating prescribed and evolving sea-ice anomalies. Our analyses suggest that Antarctic sea-ice expansion at 28.5 ka altered the location and intensity of the Southern Hemisphere storm track, triggering regional cooling over Patagonia of 5°C that extends across the wider mid-southern latitudes. In contrast, at the LGM, continued sea-ice expansion reduced regional temperature and precipitation further, effectively starving the ice sheet and resulting in reduced glacial expansion. Our findings highlight the dominant role that orbital changes can play in driving Southern Hemisphere glacial climate via the sensitivity of mid-latitude regions to changes in Antarctic sea-ice extent. PMID:26115344

  9. The Unusual Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere Winter of 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.

    2003-01-01

    The southern hemisphere stratospheric winter of 2002 was the most unusual winter yet observed in the southern hemisphere climate record. Temperatures near the edge of the Antarctic polar vortex were considerably warmer than normal over the entire course of the winter. The polar night jet was considerably weaker than normal, and was displaced more poleward than has been observed in previous winters. These record high temperatures and weak jet resulted from a series of wave events that took place over the course of the winter. The first large event occurred on 15 May, and the final warming occurred on 25 October. The propagation of these wave events from the troposphere is diagnosed from time series of Eliassen-Palm flux vectors. The wave events tended to occur irregularly over the course of the winter, and pre-conditioned the polar night jet for the extremely large wave event of 22 September. This large wave event resulted in the first ever observed major stratospheric warming in the southern hemisphere. This wave event split the Antarctic ozone hole. The combined effect of the wave events of the 2002 winter resulted in the smallest ozone hole observed since 1988.

  10. Obliquity Control On Southern Hemisphere Climate During The Last Glacial.

    PubMed

    Fogwill, C J; Turney, C S M; Hutchinson, D K; Taschetto, A S; England, M H

    2015-06-26

    Recent paleoclimate reconstructions have challenged the traditional view that Northern Hemisphere insolation and associated feedbacks drove synchronous global climate and ice-sheet volume during the last glacial cycle. Here we focus on the response of the Patagonian Ice Sheet, and demonstrate that its maximum expansion culminated at 28,400 ± 500 years before present (28.4 ± 0.5 ka), more than 5,000 years before the minima in 65 °N summer insolation and the formally-defined Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at 21,000 ± 2,000 years before present. To investigate the potential drivers of this early LGM (eLGM), we simulate the effects of orbital changes using a suite of climate models incorporating prescribed and evolving sea-ice anomalies. Our analyses suggest that Antarctic sea-ice expansion at 28.5 ka altered the location and intensity of the Southern Hemisphere storm track, triggering regional cooling over Patagonia of 5 °C that extends across the wider mid-southern latitudes. In contrast, at the LGM, continued sea-ice expansion reduced regional temperature and precipitation further, effectively starving the ice sheet and resulting in reduced glacial expansion. Our findings highlight the dominant role that orbital changes can play in driving Southern Hemisphere glacial climate via the sensitivity of mid-latitude regions to changes in Antarctic sea-ice extent.

  11. Atmospheric Teleconnections of Northern Hemisphere cooling to the Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes, and implications for Southern Ocean ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, John; Lee, Shih-Yu; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Tokos, Kathy

    2010-05-01

    Recent marine proxy studies, most notably by Anderson et al. (2009), show intensification of wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean during Heinrich events, and suggesting the possibility of robust atmospheric teleconnections from the Northern Hemisphere affecting the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude westerlies. We explore the latter hypothesis using simulations of an AGCM coupled to a reduced-gravity ocean, and with reference to current thinking regarding extratropical-tropical atmospheric dynamical linkages. When we simulate a Heinrich-like event in our model (by cooling the North Atlantic), we find a significant strengthening of the southern midlatitude westerlies, in particular during the austral winter (JJA), and in the South Pacific. The other pronounced climate change is a marked southward shift of the tropical rainbelt, indicating alteration of the Hadley circulation. Our analysis indicates that the teleconnection can be broken into two parts: first, the northern hemisphere cooling shifting the ITCZ southwards with a pronounced effect on the Hadley circulation (Lindzen and Hou 1988), and then the altered Hadley circulation in turn affecting the southern midlatitude westerlies through the former's control of the southern subtropical westerlies and subsequent effect on the eddy-driven midlatitude westerlies (Lee and Kim, 2003). The seasonal (JJA) and regional (South Pacific) preference of the teleconnection's effects can be explained in terms of the peculiarities of the regional atmospheric dynamics. As an aside, we also find that the growth or decay of the Laurentide ice sheet can also generate this type of north-south teleconnection, although the dynamics are somewhat different. With regards to possible implications for southern ocean ventilation and atmospheric CO2: we applied the wind changes we obtained in our AGCM 'Heinrich' simulation to a global biogeochemical model (the Minnesota Earth System Model for Ocean biogeochemistry), and found a ~20ppm

  12. Croll revisited: Why is the northern hemisphere warmer than the southern hemisphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sarah M.; Seager, Richard; Frierson, Dargan M. W.; Liu, Xiaojuan

    2015-03-01

    The question of why, in the annual-mean, the northern hemisphere (NH) is warmer than the southern hemisphere (SH) is addressed, revisiting an 1870 paper by James Croll. We first show that ocean is warmer than land in general which, acting alone, would make the SH, with greater ocean fraction, warmer. Croll was aware of this and thought it was caused by greater specific humidity and greenhouse trapping over ocean than over land. However, for any given temperature, it is shown that greenhouse trapping is actually greater over land. Instead, oceans are warmer than land because of the smaller surface albedo. However, hemispheric differences in planetary albedo are negligible because the impact of differences in land-sea fraction are offset by the SH ocean and land reflecting more than their NH counterparts. In the absence of a role for albedo differences it is shown that, in agreement with Croll, northward cross-equatorial ocean heat transport (X-OHT) is critical for the warmer NH. This is examined in a simple box model based on the energy budget of each hemisphere. The hemispheric difference forced by X-OHT is enhanced by the positive water vapor-greenhouse feedback, and is partly compensated by the southward atmospheric energy transport. Due to uncertainties in the ocean data, a range of X-OHT is considered. A X-OHT of larger than 0.5 PW is needed to explain the warmer NH solely by X-OHT. For smaller X-OHT, a larger basic state greenhouse trapping in the NH, conceived as imposed by continental geometry, needs to be imposed. Numerical experiments with a GCM coupled to a slab ocean provide evidence that X-OHT is fundamentally important in determining the hemispheric differences in temperature. Therefore, despite some modifications to his theory, analysis of modern data confirms Croll's 140-year-old theory that the warmer NH is partly because of northward X-OHT.

  13. Surface and Intermediate Water Orbital Scale Variability in the Southern Hemisphere Before Northern Hemisphere Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero-Gill, R. P.; Herbert, T.

    2014-12-01

    Very few records depicting orbital timescale variability exist for the Southern Hemisphere during the Pliocene Warm Period (pWP, ~ 2.8-4.1 Ma.). The pWP is of particular interest as it poses a natural laboratory in which to understand climate variability in a world with only a permanent Southern Hemisphere polar ice sheet, poised near a fundamental shift in the Earth system. We report here proxy records that monitor sea surface temperature (alkenone unsaturation), surface productivity (C37total), and intermediate water density and chemistry (benthic foraminifera stable isotopes) from ODP Site 1125 and DSDP 594 (North and South of Chatham Rise, respectively) for the pWP. Surface thermal gradient between sites suggests the Subtropical Front was in place and stationary between sites for most of the pWP, much like it has been during the late Quaternary. All datasets surrounding the northernmost edge of the Southern Ocean show pacing by short Eccentricity (~100kyr) in the pWP at this location. The presence of a substantial ~100 kyr component in paleoclimatic variability contrasts with prior reports of ~ 41 kyr dominance in Pliocene climate cyclicity.

  14. Highest redshift radio galaxy known in the Southern Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    De Breuck, C., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    We present the discovery of a z = 4 13 galaxy TN J1338-1942, the most distant radio galaxy in the southern hemisphere known to date The source was selected from a sample of Ultra Steep Spectrum (USS; {alpha}<-1 3; S {proportional_to} {nu}{sup {alpha}}) radio sauces using the Texas and NVSS catalogs The discovery spectrum, obtained with the ES0 3 6m telescope, shows bright extended Ly-{alpha} emission The radio source has a very asymmetric morphology, suggesting a strong interaction with an inhomogeneous surrounding medium

  15. Modulation of the Southern Hemisphere climate by solar radiation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Steven; Lenton, Andrew; Rotstayn, Leon; Gupta, Alex Sen; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Tilmes, Simone

    2015-04-01

    Geoengineering is increasingly being considered as a means to lessen the climatic impacts of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. However, it is not without significant risks of its own. In this study, we investigate the response of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) climate to solar radiation management (SRM) using Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project experiments G3 and G3solar. We find that the response to SRM is characterized by a contraction of the Hadley Cell and subtropical dry zones. This is accompanied by a shift towards a less positive state of the Southern Annular Mode and a northward shift of the SH westerly winds, mitigating the trends under projected future anthropogenic forcing. These changes result in an increase in precipitation minus evaporation in the SH subtropics, suggesting that SRM may be effective at counteracting the anthropogenically-driven drying trend in this region. However, any beneficial impacts cease abruptly as soon as geoengineering is terminated.

  16. Tracking Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones using different algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilinina, Natalia; Rudeva, Irina; Gulev, Sergey; Simmonds, Ian; Keay, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    We attempt to estimate strengths and weaknesses of the two cyclone tracking algorithms - of the University of Melbourne (UM) and of IORAS (SAIL). The UM scheme is using geostrophic vorticity for tracking cyclones and SAIL tracking is based on sea level pressure. Furthermore, there are many other conceptual differences in the algorithm performance. The SAIL scheme was applied to the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis output for the Southern Hemisphere (1948-2009), the period of intercomparison with the results based on UM scheme was 1990-1999. During time period 1990-1999 the UM scheme identifies 45% more cyclones than the SAIL scheme. The UM tracking output consists of all cyclones which are found by the SAIL scheme and also many short-living vortices, which do not have their imprints in the pressure fields. Many of these vortices are not characterized by the minimum central pressure and the closed isobar - the two major characteristics of cyclone - and require the extension of cyclone definition to be considered as cyclones. Spatial distribution of cyclone counts over Southern Hemisphere clearly shows the two main storm tracks: the Southern (close to the Antarctic) represented by deep and moderate cyclones with minimum central pressure typically lower than 965 hPa and the Northern track primarily associated with the shallow cyclones (central pressure is typically higher than 980hPa). Using the time series of the number of cyclones derived from the SAIL tracking we estimated linear trends in the cyclones counts. The number of deep cyclones (<960 hPa) growths during 1948-2009 by 0,8 cyclones per year, while the number of shallow cyclones (>980 hPa) decreases by 1,3 cyclones per year. Changes in a number of deep cyclones are significantly correlated with the Southern Oscillation Index (e.g. 0,57 in the autumn).

  17. Isotopic source signatures for atmospheric lead: the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollhöfer, A.; Rosman, K. J. R.

    2000-10-01

    Aerosols collected between 1994 and 1999 at more than 70 different sites affecting the Southern Hemisphere have been measured for their 206Pb/ 207Pb, 208Pb/ 207Pb and 206Pb/ 204Pb ratios and Pb concentrations. Lower ratios are found at the southern tips of Africa, Australia and South America probably due to the supply of alkyllead from a common supplier such as Associated Octel. The ratios increase in a northerly direction probably due to a changing market share in alkyllead or an increasing industrial Pb contribution. The geographical variations in isotopic signatures made it possible to broadly characterize the different regions that influence the Southern Hemisphere. Brazil and Argentina exhibited 206Pb/ 207Pb, 208Pb/ 207Pb and 206Pb/ 204Pb ratios in aerosols of 1.141-1.184, 2.416-2.442 and 17.77-18.57, respectively. Mexican aerosols had values of 1.188-1.197, 2.452-2.463 and 18.46-18.73. Aerosols sampled in Chile had low ratios in the South of 1.063-1.094, 2.337-2.373 and 16.46-17.13 which increased in a northerly direction. Emissions from South Africa were characterized by ratios 1.067-1.090, 2.340-2.358 and 16.53-16.99. In 1994-1995 Australia and New Zealand had ratios of 1.060-1.193, 2.324-2.445 and 16.08-18.54. In 1997 however, the range was narrower: 1.072-1.112, 2.342-2.398 and 16.55-17.36, respectively. These isotopic signatures are potentially useful for tracing sources of pollution and the movement of air-masses on a global scale.

  18. Meteoroid streams identification amongst 231 Southern hemisphere video meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jopek, T. J.; Koten, P.; Pecina, P.

    2010-05-01

    In this study, 231 video meteoroid orbits observed at the Southern hemisphere were searched for streams. Several searches have been made using three D-criteria: DSH, DN and DV. The mutual D-distances were processed by a cluster analysis algorithm based on the single neighbour linking technique. The values of the meteoroid association thresholds for groups of 2, 3, 4, ... members were estimated by the statistical approach. In all three basic searches, about 29-33 per cent of the meteoroid sample turned out to belong to the stream component. The following streams have been detected: η Aquariids (ETA, #31), χ Capricornids (CCA, #420), May Microscopiids (MMI, #421), Northern and Southern Librids-Luppids (NLL, #422 SLL, #423) and Northern and Southern May Ophiuchids (NOP, #149 SOP, #150). 12 η Aquariids were detected using each D-function. Their mean orbital elements resemble the orbit of 1P/Haley however, the mean semimajor axis and the activity time differ significantly from those determined by the other observers. 10 members of χ Capricornids and five members of May Microscopiids were found using the DN function only. For these streams, we did not find any counterparts among the streams listed in the IAU MDC. Our Librids-Luppids and Ophiuchids form two separate complex groups which consist of 16 and 18 members, respectively. From a viewpoint of the cluster analysis technique, they are reliable significant structures. Our Ophiuchids are similar to the already known Northern and Southern May Ophiuchids. Near the mean radiant of Librids-Luppids, we do not see any radiant of the known shower. Its possible counterpart, the Southern ω Scorpiids, has a radiant significantly shifted from our Librids-Luppids. Thus, we consider Librids-Luppids as a new stream or some new manifestation of the May Ophiuchids Complex. Also, this study has shown us that in case of complex structures, traditional procedures of meteor showers distinction are not sufficient tool to give

  19. Solar correlates of Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thresher, Ronald E.

    2002-06-01

    Atmospheric circulation in the southern mid-latitudes is dominated by strong circum-Antarctic zonal west winds (ZWW) over the latitude range of 35 to 60°S. These winds exhibit coherent seasonal and interannual variability, which has been related both to Antarctic (e.g. polar ice) and low-latitude climate (e.g. El Niño-southern oscillation) parameters. Historical and recent studies suggest that, at its northern margins, variability in the ZWW also has a marked quasi-decadal component. Analysis of sea-level pressure and rainfall data for the Australian region, South Africa and South America confirms frequent indications of quasi-decadal variability in parameters associated with the ZWW, which appears to be in phase around the hemisphere. This variation broadly correlates with the sunspot cycle, and specifically appears to reflect sunspot-correlated, seasonally modulated shifts in the latitude range each year of the sub-tropical ridge over eastern Australia. Sunspot-correlated variability in the southern mid-latitudes is likely to have substantial effects on temperate climate and ecology and is consistent with recent models of solar effects on upper atmospheric climate, though the mechanisms that link these to winds and rainfall at sea level remain obscure.

  20. Trends of atmospheric methane in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, P. J.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Crawford, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric observations spanning the past three years show that methane increased at 1.2 (plus or minus 0.3)% per year at Cape Grim in Tasmania (41 deg S). This rate of increase can be compared to the 1.9 (plus or minus 0.4)% per year observed at Cape Meares in Oregon (45 deg N) over the past two years. Over the corresponding period the concentration at Cape Grim increased by 1.4 (plus or minus 0.4)% per year. The Southern Hemisphere data also suggest seasonal variations with minimum concentrations in March and maximum in September. These results are based on 26 large-volume stable air samples collected cryogenically in stainless steel flasks and 75 smaller-volume air samples collected in glass flasks, all analyzed by a gas chromatograph using a flame ionization detector.

  1. Forecast skill impact of drifting buoys in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay, E.; Atlas, R.; Baker, W.; Halem, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two analyses are performed to evaluate the effect of drift buoys and the FGGE's special observing system (SOS) on forecasting. The FGGE analysis utilizes all level II-b conventional and special data, and the Nosat analysis employs only surface and conventional upper air data. Twelve five-day forecasts are produced from these data. An additional experiment utilizing the FGGE data base minus buoys data, and the Nosat data base including buoys data is being conducted. The forecasts are compared and synoptic evaluation of the effect of buoys data is described. The results reveal that the FGGE data base with the SOS significantly improves forecasting in the Southern Hemisphere and the loss of buoys data does not have a great effect on forecasting. The Nosat data has less impact on forecasting; however, the addition of buoys data provides an improvement in forecast skills.

  2. Natural and anthropogenic trace gases in the southern hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, R. A.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Crawford, A. J.; Fraser, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    The complexity of the global environment makes it necessary that many important trace gases in the earth's atmosphere be measured on a global scale before predictions can be made regarding the effects of human activities on the environment. A description is presented of measurements of 14 atmospheric trace gases in the lower atmosphere (0-4 km) of the southern hemisphere. Concentrations are considered of CCl3F, CCl2F2, CHClF2, C2.Cl3.F3, CH3CCl3, CCl4, C2.Cl4, CH3I, CHCl3, CO, CH3Cl, CH4, N2O, and OCS. The obtained data are analyzed and interpreted to statistically quantify the possible differences of concentrations in and above the boundary layer, to model the vertical profile of CH3I, and to use the data in support of previous findings that CH4 is increasing in the atmosphere.

  3. First record of Rhizoscyphus ericae in Southern Hemisphere's Ericaceae.

    PubMed

    Bruzone, M Clara; Fehrer, Judith; Fontenla, Sonia B; Vohník, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Ericoid mycorrhiza is arguably the least investigated mycorrhizal type, particularly when related to the number of potential hosts and the ecosystems they inhabit. Little is known about the global distribution of ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi, and this holds true even for the prominent ErM mycobiont Rhizoscyphus ericae. Earlier studies suggested R. ericae might be low in abundance or absent in the roots of Southern Hemisphere's Ericaceae, and our previous investigations in two Argentine Patagonian forests supported this view. Here, we revisited the formerly investigated area, albeit at a higher altitude, and screened fungi inhabiting hair roots of Gaultheria caespitosa and Gaultheria pumila at a treeless alpine site using the same methods as previously. We obtained 234 isolates, most of them belonging to Ascomycota. In contrast to previous findings, however, among 37 detected operational taxonomic units (OTUs), OTU 1 (=R. ericae s. str.) comprised the highest number of isolates (87, ∼37 %). Most of the OTUs and isolates belonged to the Helotiales, and 82.5 % of isolates belonged to OTUs shared between both Gaultheria species. At the alpine site, ericoid mycorrhizal fungi dominated, followed by dark septate endophytes and aquatic hyphomycetes probably acting as root endophytes. Our results suggest that the distribution of R. ericae is influenced, among others, by factors related to altitude such as soil type and presence/absence and type of the neighboring vegetation. Our study is the first report on R. ericae colonizing Ericaceae roots in the Southern Hemisphere and extends the known range of this prominent ErM species to NW Patagonia.

  4. Dynamics, transport and photochemistry in the middle atmosphere of the southern hemisphere. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, A.

    The workshop was the third one held as part of the Middle Atmosphere in the Southern Hemisphere (MASH) project, an international effort to learn more about dynamics, transport and photochemistry in the middle atmosphere of the southern hemisphere. Before the discovery that, during recent years, a dramatic thinning of the ozone layer takes place over Antarctica in spring - the "ozone hole" - the middle atmosphere of the southern hemisphere had received much less attention than that of the northern hemisphere from meteorologists and atmospheric chemists. The MASH project was instituted to remedy this comparative lack of interest.

  5. The effect of Antarctic sea ice on the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere during the southern summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raphael, M. N.; Hobbs, W.; Wainer, I.

    2011-04-01

    This study examines the influence of Antarctic sea ice distribution on the large scale circulation of the Southern Hemisphere using a fully coupled GCM where the sea ice submodel is replaced by a climatology of observed extremes in sea ice concentration. Three 150-year simulations were completed for maximum, minimum and average sea ice concentrations and the results for the austral summer (January-March) were compared using the surface temperatures forced by the sea ice distributions as a filter for creating the composite differences. The results indicate that in the austral summer the polar cell expands (contracts) under minimum (maximum) sea ice conditions with corresponding shifts in the midlatitude Ferrell cell. We suggest that this response occurs because sea ice lies in the margin between the polar and midlatitude cells. The polarity of the Southern Hemisphere Annular (SAM) mode is also influenced such that when sea ice is at a minimum (maximum) the polarity of the SAM tends to be negative (positive).

  6. Projections of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grainger, Simon; Frederiksen, Carsten S.; Zheng, Xiaogu

    2017-02-01

    An analysis is made of the coherent patterns, or modes, of interannual variability of Southern Hemisphere 500 hPa geopotential height field under current and projected climate change scenarios. Using three separate multi-model ensembles (MMEs) of coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, the interannual variability of the seasonal mean is separated into components related to (1) intraseasonal processes; (2) slowly-varying internal dynamics; and (3) the slowly-varying response to external changes in radiative forcing. In the CMIP5 RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 experiments, there is very little change in the twenty-first century in the intraseasonal component modes, related to the Southern annular mode (SAM) and mid-latitude wave processes. The leading three slowly-varying internal component modes are related to SAM, the El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO), and the South Pacific wave (SPW). Structural changes in the slow-internal SAM and ENSO modes do not exceed a qualitative estimate of the spatial sampling error, but there is a consistent increase in the ENSO-related variance. Changes in the SPW mode exceed the sampling error threshold, but cannot be further attributed. Changes in the dominant slowly-varying external mode are related to projected changes in radiative forcing. They reflect thermal expansion of the tropical troposphere and associated changes in the Hadley Cell circulation. Changes in the externally-forced associated variance in the RCP8.5 experiment are an order of magnitude greater than for the internal components, indicating that the SH seasonal mean circulation will be even more dominated by a SAM-like annular structure. Across the three MMEs, there is convergence in the projected response in the slow-external component.

  7. Polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) a southern hemisphere perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R. J.; Murphy, D. J.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Holdsworth, D. A.

    The existence of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes PMSE in the Southern Hemisphere SH has recently been confirmed using HF radar Ogawa et al 2002 MST radar Morris et al 2004 and a Dynasonde Jarvis et al 2005 following earlier observations using MST radar Woodman et al 1999 These studies spanned the geographic latitudes 62 1 r S Machu Picchu 68 6 r S Davis 69 0 r S Syowa and 75 5 r S Halley Bay The emerging array of SH SuperDARN radars provide an opportunity to extend the spatial coverage of PMSE observations An understanding of the occurrence and intensity of PMSE against latitude in the SH is needed to facilitate a comparison with the better spatial coverage of Northern Hemisphere NH PMSE observations Such a comparison will contribute to the ongoing debate as to whether PMSE can provide a proxy for mesosphere temperature and thus shed light on the existence of any interhemispheric asymmetry or otherwise in the polar mesosphere regions The argument for different polar mesosphere environments spawned in part by the reported lack of SH PMSE observations Recent PMSE reflectivity and intensity results from Davis 68 6 r S and Andenes 69 0 r N are given The characteristics and morphology of PMSE events above these Antarctic stations are considered in the context of the thermal and dynamical state of the mesosphere as deduced from satellite i e SABER and AURA and radar i e MF and MST observations respectively A brief account of recent coincident PMSE MST radar and Polar Mesospheric Cloud PMC

  8. Planetary wave vacillations and storms in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, M.; Dalu, G. A.

    2009-04-01

    The planetary flow in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) is more zonally symmetric than the corresponding flow in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). In the upper troposphere, the wind is largest in the subtropical jet at 30°S stretching across Australia, and in the mid-latitude jet across the South Atlantic and Indian Ocean at 50°S. The sub-tropical jet weakens in the mid-troposphere, and it is absent in the lower troposphere. In the lower troposphere the annual average westerly wind is confined in a relatively narrow latitudinal band around 50°S (Lorenz and Hartmann, 2001). The zonal symmetric mode (ZW0) dominates the seasonal variance. The mode zero is modulated by two standing modes ZW1 and ZW3, which are excited by the continental topographic features and by the heat diabatic fluxes related to the SST gradients and to seasonal sea-land thermal contrast. Even if these modes are relatively weak (van Loon and Jenne, 1972, Hobbs and Raphael, 2007), they are important, since they dominate the seasonal zonal asymmetry of the planetary flow (van Loon and Jenne, 1972), with significant links with El Niño/La Niña southern oscillation (Trenberth, 1980; Renwick and Revell, 1999; Raphael, 2003). Analysis study has shown that mode ZW1 and ZW3 can exhibit chaotic like behaviour (Kidson, 1988, 1999). Vacillations of these modes with a quasi-periodicity of the order of 40 days can occur in regions of strong zonal wind because of non-linear wave-wave interaction (De Gregorio and Dalu, 1984). The onset of these vacillations can be triggered by the arrival of a higher order travelling wave in a region of strong zonal wind. In addition, the presence of these higher order modes shortens the time scale of the vacillations of mode ZW1 and ZW3. Finally an attempt is made to relate these vacillations to the diversion of the Antarctic storms towards the ANZ region.

  9. Satellite-observed pollution from Southern Hemisphere biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, D. P.; Emmons, L. K.; Gille, J. C.; Chu, A.; Attié, J.-L.; Giglio, L.; Wood, S. W.; Haywood, J.; Deeter, M. N.; Massie, S. T.; Ziskin, D. C.; Drummond, J. R.

    2006-07-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of pollution in the tropical Southern Hemisphere, and fine mode carbonaceous particles are produced by the same combustion processes that emit carbon monoxide (CO). In this paper we examine these emissions with data from the Terra satellite, CO profiles from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument, and fine-mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The satellite measurements are used in conjunction with calculations from the MOZART chemical transport model to examine the 2003 Southern Hemisphere burning season with particular emphasis on the months of peak fire activity in September and October. Pollutant emissions follow the occurrence of dry season fires, and the temporal variation and spatial distributions of MOPITT CO and MODIS AOD are similar. We examine the outflow from Africa and South America with emphasis on the impact of these emissions on clean remote regions. We present comparisons of MOPITT observations and ground-based interferometer data from Lauder, New Zealand, which indicate that intercontinental transport of biomass burning pollution from Africa often determines the local air quality. The correlation between enhancements of AOD and CO column for distinct biomass burning plumes is very good with correlation coefficients greater than 0.8. We present a method using MOPITT and MODIS data for estimating the emission ratio of aerosol number density to CO concentration which could prove useful as input to modeling studies. We also investigate decay of plumes from African fires following export into the Indian Ocean and compare the MOPITT and MODIS measurements as a way of estimating the regional aerosol lifetime. Vertical transport of biomass burning emissions is also examined using CO profile information. Low-altitude concentrations are very high close to source regions, but further downwind of the continents, vertical mixing takes place

  10. Development of 23 Cycles Activity in Northern and Southern Hemispheres of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, M. I.; Sukharev, A. L.; Lukashuk, S. A.

    On an example of the 23rd cycle of solar activity the basic properties of its development in northern and southern hemispheres were researched (daily values of Wolf Sunspot Number - W, the daily values of Sun spots areas - Sp and daily values of flare index - FI.) Effects of application of full-scale Wavelet analysis for studying the temporary structure of formation of a solar cycle show the difference in northern and southern hemispheres. The "leading" periods (in northern hemisphere - 340 days, and in southern hemisphere - 709 days) differ. Thus, the activity period in two years is predominate in southern hemisphere. The "leading" period for the flare index for northern hemisphere is 555 days, and for southern hemisphere is 709 days. In general the basic periods W in northern hemisphere are in the range of 37-555 days, and in southern - 78-906 days, SpN (61-906 days), SpS (61-1477 days), FIN (37-555 days), FIS (23-709 days), FIS - (14709 days) depending on the phase of solar cycle.

  11. The impact of the Southern Annular Mode on future changes in Southern Hemisphere rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Eun-Pa; Hendon, Harry H.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Delage, Francois; Nguyen, Hanh; Min, Seung-Ki; Wheeler, Matthew C.

    2016-07-01

    A robust positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is projected for the end of the 21st century under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario, which results in rainfall decreases in the midlatitudes and increases in the high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We find that this SAM trend also increases rainfall over the SH subtropics in austral summer but not in winter, leading to a pronounced wintertime poleward expansion of the subtropical dry zone. These dynamically driven rainfall changes by the SAM appear to oppose the thermodynamically driven projected rainfall changes in the SH subtropics and midlatitudes, whereas the two components reinforce each other in the high latitudes. However, we show that most climate models fall short in capturing the observed SAM component driven by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and associated rainfall in the austral warm seasons, which limits our confidence in quantifying the contribution of the SAM to projected rainfall changes.

  12. THE SAGITTARIUS STREAMS IN THE SOUTHERN GALACTIC HEMISPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Koposov, Sergey E.; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. W.; Gilmore, G.; Gieles, M.; Irwin, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Niederste-Ostholt, M.; Penarrubia, J.; Smith, M. C.; Bizyaev, D.; Malanushenko, E.; Malanushenko, V.; Schneider, D. P.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2012-05-01

    The structure of the Sagittarius stream in the southern Galactic hemisphere is analyzed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8. Parallel to the Sagittarius tidal track, but {approx}10 Degree-Sign away, there is another fainter and more metal-poor stream. We provide evidence that the two streams follow similar distance gradients but have distinct morphological properties and stellar populations. The brighter stream is broader, contains more metal-rich stars, and has a richer color-magnitude diagram with multiple turnoffs and a prominent red clump as compared to the fainter stream. Based on the structural properties and the stellar population mix, the stream configuration is similar to the Northern 'bifurcation'. In the region of the South Galactic Cap, there is overlapping tidal debris from the Cetus stream, which crosses the Sagittarius stream. Using both photometric and spectroscopic data, we show that the blue straggler population belongs mainly to Sagittarius and the blue horizontal branch stars belong mainly to the Cetus stream in this confused location in the halo.

  13. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected ‘p’ distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres (‘p’ = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the ‘p’ distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere (‘p’ = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere (‘p’ = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern. PMID:26090853

  14. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern.

  15. Observational Analysis of Cloud and Precipitation in Midlatitude Cyclones: Northern Versus Southern Hemisphere Warm Fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Posselt, Derek J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Extratropical cyclones are responsible for most of the precipitation and wind damage in the midlatitudes during the cold season, but there are still uncertainties on how they will change in a warming climate. An ubiquitous problem amongst General Circulation Models (GCMs) is a lack of cloudiness over the southern oceans that may be in part caused by a lack of clouds in cyclones. We analyze CloudSat, CALIPSO and AMSR-E observations for 3 austral and boreal cold seasons and composite cloud frequency of occurrence and precipitation at the warm fronts for northern and southern hemisphere oceanic cyclones. We find that cloud frequency of occurrence and precipitation rate are similar in the early stage of the cyclone life cycle in both northern and southern hemispheres. As cyclones evolve and reach their mature stage, cloudiness and precipitation at the warm front increase in the northern hemisphere but decrease in the southern hemisphere. This is partly caused by lower amounts of precipitable water being available to southern hemisphere cyclones, and smaller increases in wind speed as the cyclones evolve. Southern hemisphere cloud occurrence at the warm front is found to be more sensitive to the amount of moisture in the warm sector than to wind speeds. This suggests that cloudiness in southern hemisphere storms may be more susceptible to changes in atmospheric water vapor content, and thus to changes in surface temperature than their northern hemisphere counterparts. These differences between northern and southern hemisphere cyclones are statistically robust, indicating A-Train-based analyses as useful tools for evaluation of GCMs in the next IPCC report.

  16. Geomorphological mapping of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's Southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jui-Chi; Massironi, Matteo; Ip, Wing-Huen; Giacomini, Lorenza; Ferrari, Sabrina; Penasa, Luca; El-Maarry, Mohamed Ramy; Pajola, Maurizio; Lai, Ian-Lin; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Ferri, Francesca; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; Keller, Horst Uwe; Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Barucci, Maria Antonella; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Bertini, Ivano; Cremonese, Gabriele; Da Deppo, Vania; Davidsson, Björn; Debei, Stefano; De Cecco, Mariolino; Deller, Jakob; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulle, Marco; Groussin, Olivier; Gutiérrez, Pedro J.; Güttler, Carsten; Hofmann, Marc; Hviid, Stubbe F.; Jorda, Laurent; Knollenberg, Jörg; Kovacs, Gabor; Kramm, J.-Rainer; Kührt, Ekkehard; Küppers, Michael; Lara, Luisa M.; Lazzarin, Monica; Marzari, Francesco; Lopez Moreno, Josè J.; Naletto, Giampiero; Oklay, Nilda; Shi, Xian; Thomas, Nicolas; Tubiana, Cecilia; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-11-01

    In 2015 May, the Southern hemisphere of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko became visible by the OSIRIS cameras on-board the Rosetta spacecraft. The resolution was high enough to carry out a detailed analysis of the surface morphology, which is quite different from the Northern hemisphere. Previous works show that fine particle deposits are the most extensive geological unit in the Northern hemisphere. In contrast, the Southern hemisphere is dominated by outcropping consolidated terrain. In this work, we provide geomorphological maps of the Southern hemisphere with the distinction of both geological units and linear features. The geomorphological maps described in this study allow us to gain a better understanding of the processes shaping the comet nucleus and the distribution of primary structures such as fractures and strata.

  17. Southern Hemisphere Influenza and Vaccine Effectiveness Research and Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiu Sue; Turner, Nikki; Baker, Michael G; Williamson, Deborah A; Wong, Conroy; Webby, Richard; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2015-07-01

    The 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic highlighted the need for improved scientific knowledge to support better pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. The Southern Hemisphere Influenza and Vaccine Effectiveness Research and Surveillance (SHIVERS) project, a 5-year (2012-2016) multiagency and multidisciplinary collaboration, aimed to measure disease burden, epidemiology, aetiology, risk factors, immunology, effectiveness of vaccination and other prevention strategies for influenza and other respiratory infectious diseases of public health importance. Two active, prospective, population-based surveillance systems were established for monitoring influenza and other respiratory pathogens among those hospitalized patients with acute respiratory illness and those enrolled patients seeking consultations at sentinel general practices. In 2015, a sero-epidemiological study will use a sample of patients from the same practices. These data will provide a full picture of the disease burden and risk factors from asymptomatic infections to severe hospitalized disease and deaths and related economic burden. The results during the first 2 years (2012-2013) provided scientific evidence to (a) support a change to NZ's vaccination policy for young children due to high influenza hospitalizations in these children; (b) contribute to the revision of the World Health Organization's case definition for severe acute respiratory illness for global influenza surveillance; and (c) contribute in part to vaccine strain selection using vaccine effectiveness assessment in the prevention of influenza-related consultations and hospitalizations. In summary, SHIVERS provides valuable international platforms for supporting seasonal influenza control and pandemic preparedness, and responding to other emerging/endemic respiratory-related infections.

  18. Changes in southern hemispheric polar amplification over the past 5 million years revealed by climate modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoencamp, Jori; Stap, Lennert; Tuenter, Erik; Lourens, Luc; van de Wal, Roderik

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge on polar amplification is important to relate high latitude climate records to global mean temperature changes. Several studies have pointed out that the strength of polar amplification in the Northern Hemisphere varies considerably due to the presence of large ice sheets and more sea ice during colder climate conditions. As a result, the polar amplification in the Northern Hemisphere decreases for warmer climates. In this study, we address the fact that these changes in the Northern Hemisphere also affect the polar amplification in the Southern Hemisphere. We study the Southern and Northern Hemisphere amplification together over the past 5 million years with the CLIMBER-2 intermediate complexity model. Radiation, land ice extent and height, and greenhouse gases are prescribed as forcing. We find that in contrast to the reduction in polar amplification in the Northern Hemisphere, polar amplification in the Southern Hemisphere increases for warmer climates. The amplification decreases in the Northern Hemisphere from 2.7 during glacial conditions to 1.6 for a pre-industrial climate, which is line with other climate simulations. Over the same CO2 range the southern hemispheric polar amplification increases from 1 to 1.6. This is caused by the fact that the atmospheric transport needed to balance the radiation surplus in the equatorial region needs to be compensated by relatively stronger transport of energy in Southern direction while the transport in Northern direction reduces. This reduction in Northern direction is driven by less (land and sea) ice resulting in a smaller meridional gradient in Northern direction and hence a smaller atmospheric transport. As a consequence, the traditional scaled (with LGM temperature) Dome C record needs to be corrected with a maximum of 0.6 degrees half-way glacial and interglacial conditions, if it is to be interpreted as global mean temperature change indicator. While this changes the amplitude, the phasing of

  19. Middle and high latitude Southern Hemispheric oscillations on the 35-60 day time scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Charles E.; Stanford, John L.

    1989-01-01

    The low-frequency geopotential height fluctuations in the Southern Hemisphere were examined on the basis of one-point correlation maps. Results indicate that the 35-60 day fluctuations in the Southern-Hemisphere geopotential heights exhibit wavetrainlike characteristics. Correlations between a midlatitude reference point and tropical microwave temperature data were found to be weak, suggesting that the midlatitude wavetrain is not strongly coupled to the Madden and Julian (1971) 40-50 day oscillation.

  20. Large impact on Callisto`s southern hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic of images showing a large 200 kilometer (120 mile) diameter impact crater on Callisto's southern hemisphere was obtained by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on board NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its eighth orbit of Jupiter. This crater is characterized by a bright circular area surrounded by a darker material excavated and ejected by the impact. Beyond this is a zone of rays which are oriented radially outward and contain material also thrown from the crater. Fewer smaller impact craters are visible in the ejecta blanket surrounding the large crater than in the areas more distant from the crater. This lack of craters superposed on the ejecta blanket and on the crater itself, together with the brightness of the central zone, is evidence that the large crater is a relatively young feature on Callisto. Scientists use information such as the number of craters in a given area together with the principle of superposition (in which younger landforms are 'on top' of older features) to determine the relative ages of features and terrains.

    North is to the top of the mosaic with the sun illuminating the surface from the left. The mosaic, centered at 55 degrees south latitude and 30 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 1400 kilometers (850 miles) by 1235 kilometers (740 miles), at a resolution of 867 meters (945 yards) per picture element. The images which make up this mosaic were taken on May 6, 1997, from an altitude of approximately 43,000 kilometers (26,000 miles) above the surface of Callisto.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  1. Regional insolation forcing of late Quaternary climate change in the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Vandergoes, Marcus J; Newnham, Rewi M; Preusser, Frank; Hendy, Chris H; Lowell, Thomas V; Fitzsimons, Sean J; Hogg, Alan G; Kasper, Haino Uwe; Schlüchter, Christian

    2005-07-14

    In agreement with the Milankovitch orbital forcing hypothesis it is often assumed that glacial-interglacial climate transitions occurred synchronously in the Northern and Southern hemispheres of the Earth. It is difficult to test this assumption, because of the paucity of long, continuous climate records from the Southern Hemisphere that have not been dated by tuning them to the presumed Northern Hemisphere signals. Here we present an independently dated terrestrial pollen record from a peat bog on South Island, New Zealand, to investigate global and local factors in Southern Hemisphere climate changes during the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. Our record largely corroborates the Milankovitch model of orbital forcing but also exhibits some differences: in particular, an earlier onset and longer duration of the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results suggest that Southern Hemisphere insolation may have been responsible for these differences in timing. Our findings question the validity of applying orbital tuning to Southern Hemisphere records and suggest an alternative mechanism to the bipolar seesaw for generating interhemispheric asynchrony in climate change.

  2. Hemispheric Symmetries of Plio-Pleistocene Surface Ocean Conditions: Insights from Southern Hemisphere ODP Sites 1125 and 1088

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, K. T.; Peterson, L.; Kelly, C.; Miller, H.; Seidenstein, J.

    2013-12-01

    For decades, most studies of Plio-Pleistocene climate and of the transition from the warmth of the Pliocene to the colder and more variable conditions of the Pleistocene have focused solely on northern hemisphere climate processes and responses. Here, we explore the southern hemisphere response to this major climate transition by documenting ocean surface conditions at Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1125 (42οS, 178οW, 1360m) and 1088 (40οS, 15οE, 2082m) through the Plio-Pleistocene. Secular trends in alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) records indicate that these mid-latitude southern hemisphere sites cooled ~3-4οC over the past 3 Myrs, a magnitude comparable to sites located at similar latitudes in both the North Atlantic and North Pacific. This observation suggests that contraction of the low latitude warm pool was hemispherically symmetric. Our highly resolved (3 kyr resolution) Site 1125 SST record bears considerable structural similarity to SST records from nearby site 1123 (42οS,171οW) as well as sites 846 (3οS, 91οW) in the eastern equatorial Pacific and U1313 (41οN, 33οW) in the North Atlantic. Most of these SST records are dominated by 100k power and contain strong secondary 41k peaks throughout the past 3 million years. North Atlantic site U1313 is the exception, mirroring the shift in dominant periodicity from 41k to 100k associated with the mid-Pleistocene transition, that has long been observed in benthic oxygen isotope records. Finally, in southern hemisphere SST records as well as at site U1313 from the north Atlantic we observe weak precessional power that is not evident in benthic oxygen isotope record. These results suggest a fairly hemispherically-coordinated response of ocean surface temperature to changing global climate conditions during the Plio-Pleistocene in terms of both secular trends and dominant orbital frequencies.

  3. Effects of Southern Hemisphere Wind Changes on the Meridional Overturning Circulation in Ocean Models.

    PubMed

    Gent, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Observations show that the Southern Hemisphere zonal wind stress maximum has increased significantly over the past 30 years. Eddy-resolving ocean models show that the resulting increase in the Southern Ocean mean flow meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is partially compensated by an increase in the eddy MOC. This effect can be reproduced in the non-eddy-resolving ocean component of a climate model, providing the eddy parameterization coefficient is variable and not a constant. If the coefficient is a constant, then the Southern Ocean mean MOC change is balanced by an unrealistically large change in the Atlantic Ocean MOC. Southern Ocean eddy compensation means that Southern Hemisphere winds cannot be the dominant mechanism driving midlatitude North Atlantic MOC variability.

  4. A study of quasi-millennial extratropical winter cyclone activity over the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lan; von Storch, Hans; Feser, Frauke; Wu, Jian

    2016-10-01

    The winter extratropical cyclone activity in the Southern Hemisphere during the last one thousand years within a global climate simulation was analyzed by tracking cyclones, and then clustering them into ten clusters consecutively for each hundred years. There is very strong year-to-year variability for Southern Hemispheric winter extratropical cyclone numbers and larger variations on centennial time scale, more so than for its Northern Hemispherical counterparts. However, no obvious trend can be found. The mean tracks of clusters over the Southern Indian Ocean and near New Zealand shift poleward from the eleventh to the twentieth century while the clusters in the central Southern Pacific shift equatorward. Storm track clusters with largest deepening rates are found over the Southwestern Indian Ocean. In the twentieth century, rapidly deepening cyclones appear more often while long lifespan cyclones appear less frequently. The winter storm activity in the Southern Hemisphere is closely related to the Antarctic Oscillation. The cyclone frequency over the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean can be associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole and El Nino-Southern Oscillation respectively.

  5. Stratospheric warmings in the Southern Hemisphere deduced from satellite radiation data, 1969-73

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiroz, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation is largely based on radiation data from the vertical temperature profile radiometers on the satellite NOAA 2. The physical-statistical interpretation of the radiance data is considered. Aspects regarding the nonuniqueness of the minor warming in August 1973 are discussed. It is pointed out that conditions leading to major warmings in the Northern Hemisphere were not satisfied in the Southern Hemisphere during the period from 1969 to 1973.

  6. Atmospheric teleconnections between the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds during abrupt climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markle, B. R.; Steig, E. J.; Buizert, C.; Schoenemann, S. W.; Bitz, C. M.; Fudge, T. J.; Pedro, J. B.; Ding, Q.; Jones, T. R.; White, J. W. C.; Sowers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Abrupt, large amplitude climate oscillations occurred in the North Atlantic region during the last deglaciation and glacial period. Antarctic temperatures show a lagged and out-of-phase response, suggesting that these climate anomalies were propagated to the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes through changes in ocean circulation. Large changes in atmospheric circulation in the tropics accompanied abrupt North Atlantic climate change and modeling studies have predicted an atmospheric teleconnection between the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds. However, consistent paleoclimate evidence for this tropical-high southern latitude atmospheric teleconnection has been lacking. Here we use a new high-resolution deuterium excess record from West Antarctica to show that moisture sources for Antarctic precipitation changed in phase with abrupt shifts in Northern Hemisphere climate, significantly before Antarctic temperature change. These results suggest that Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude storm tracks and westerly winds migrated north- and southwards within decades of rapid North Atlantic warming and cooling, respectively, and in parallel with the well-established migrations of the intertropical convergence zone. Both ocean and atmospheric processes, operating on different timescales, are critical to the global expression of abrupt climate change and this atmospheric link between the hemispheres may be important to the underlying dynamics.

  7. Southern Hemisphere water mass conversion linked with North Atlantic climate variability.

    PubMed

    Pahnke, Katharina; Zahn, Rainer

    2005-03-18

    Intermediate water variability at multicentennial scales is documented by 340,000-year-long isotope time series from bottom-dwelling foraminifers at a mid-depth core site in the southwest Pacific. Periods of sudden increases in intermediate water production are linked with transient Southern Hemisphere warm episodes, which implies direct control of climate warming on intermediate water conversion at high southern latitudes. Coincidence with episodes of climate cooling and minimum or halted deepwater convection in the North Atlantic provides striking evidence for interdependence of water mass conversion in both hemispheres, with implications for interhemispheric forcing of ocean thermohaline circulation and climate instability.

  8. Activity of the northern and southern hemispheres as a basis of the solar cycle manifestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of the evolution of solar cycles is considered a result of the activity manifestation in the northern and southern hemispheres. A study was performed based on separate datasets for the northern and southern hemispheres that contain the monthly and daily averages of the areas of sunspot groups for the period covering activity cycles from 12 to 24 (1874-2013) and the daily values of the Wolf number in the northern and southern hemispheres during cycles 23-24 (1992-2013).To obtain a pattern of development of the "northern" and "southern" solar cycles in detail, a special technique for the extended application of the wavelet analysis has been developed. It allows different the wave processes forming a solar cycle to be distinguished, together with the time of their existence. The application of bandpass Fourier filtering to the obtained data shows that the length of "11-year" cycles by the index S p varies from 10.2 to 11.5 years in the northern hemisphere and from 9.7 to 13.2 years in the southern. The 19th "northern" and 18th "southern" cycles turned out to be maximal. The formation of each of the cycles by all activity indices is determined by the joint effect of long-period processes lasting from 3 to 7 years and short-period processes lasting less than 2 years. When moving from one cycle to another, the long-period processes demonstrate mergings, separations, modulation, and periodic decays. The abnormal activity that appears during the growth, maximum, or decay phase of a cycle is formed at the expense of the simultaneous strengthening of short-period processes, the lengths and "period spectra" of which noticeably differ in the northern and southern hemispheres.

  9. Comparison of mercury concentrations measured at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Angot, H.; Dommergue, A.; Magand, O.; Barret, M.; Weigelt, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Brunke, E.-G.; Pfaffhuber, K.; Edwards, G.; Howard, D.; Powell, J.; Keywood, M.; Wang, F.

    2014-12-01

    Our knowledge of the distribution of mercury concentrations in air of the Southern Hemisphere was until recently based mostly on intermittent measurements made during ship cruises. In the last few years continuous mercury monitoring has commenced at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere providing new and more refined information. In this paper we compare mercury measurements at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere made over a period of at least one year at each location. Averages of monthly medians show similar although small seasonal variations at both Cape Point and Amsterdam Island. A pronounced seasonal variation at Troll Research Station in Antarctica is due to frequent mercury depletion events in the austral spring. Due to large scatter and large standard deviations of monthly average median mercury concentrations at Cape Grim no systematic seasonal variation could be found there. Nevertheless, the annual average mercury concentrations at all sites during the 2007-2013 period varied only between 0.85 and 1.05 ng m-3. Part of this variability is likely due to systematic measurement uncertainties which we propose can be further reduced by improved calibration procedures. We conclude that mercury is much more uniformly distributed throughout the Southern Hemisphere than the distributions suggested by measurements made onboard ships. This finding implies (a) that trends observed at one or a few sites in the Southern Hemisphere are likely to be representative for the whole hemisphere, and (b) that smaller trends can be detected in shorter time periods. We also report a change of the trend sign at Cape Point from decreasing mercury concentrations in 1996-2004 to increasing concentrations since 2007.

  10. Variability of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the southern hemisphere: a regional perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, H.; Hendon, H. H.; Lim, E.-P.; Boschat, G.; Maloney, E.; Timbal, B.

    2017-03-01

    In order to understand the regional impacts of variations in the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere, regional Hadley circulations are defined in three sectors centered on the main tropical heat sources over Africa, Asia-Pacific (Maritime Continent) and the Americas. These regional circulations are defined by computing a streamfunction from the divergent component of the meridional wind. A major finding from this study is that year-to-year variability in the extent of the hemispheric Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere is primarily governed by variations of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Asia-Pacific sector, especially during austral spring and summer when there is little co-variability with the African sector, and the American sector exhibits an out of phase behavior. An expanded Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (both hemispherically and in the Asia-Pacific sector) is associated with La Niña conditions and a poleward expansion of the tropical wet zone in the Asia-Pacific sector. While La Niña also promotes expansion in the American and African sectors during austral winter, these tropical conditions tend to promote contraction in the two sectors during austral summer as a result of compensating convergence over the Americas and Africa sectors: a process driven by variations in the Walker circulation and Rossby wave trains emanating from the tropical Indian Ocean.

  11. Interaction of the Asian summer monsoon and the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paegle, Julia N.; Wilde, T. L.; ZHAO-ZHEN

    1986-01-01

    The possible role that divergent circulations emanating from regions of large scale organized convection may have on the rotational motions of the subsiding branch of the resulting overturnings is considered. Correspondence is found between the cross-equatorial flow emanating from regions of organized convection in the Northern Hemisphere, and the subtropical jet in the vicinity of Australia. The difference field also reveals a good correspondence between changes in the meridional gravity wave component and changes in the intensity of maximum zonal wind. The results are consistent with the picture of a local ageostrophic Hadley overturning in the entrance region of subtropical jets, and they show the importance of adequate resolution of tropical divergent modes.

  12. Seasonal weight variation patterns in seven countries located in northern and southern hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Mehrang, Saeed; Helander, Elina; Chieh, Angela; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2016-08-01

    The digital revolution of information and technology in late 20th century has led to emergence of devices that help people monitor their weight in a long-term manner. Investigation of population-level variations of body mass using smart connected weight scales enabled the health coaches acquire deeper insights about the models of people's behavior as a function of time. Typically, body mass varies when the seasons change. That is, during the warmer seasons people's body mass tend to decrease while in colder seasons it usually moves up. In this paper we study the seasonal variations of body mass in seven countries by utilization of linear regression. Deviation of monthly weight values from the starting point of astronomical years (beginning of spring) were modeled by fitting orthogonal polynomials in each country. The distinction of weight variations in southern and northern hemispheres were then investigated. The studied population involves 6429 anonymous weight scale users from:(1) Australia, (2) Brazil, (3) France, (4) Germany, (5) Great Britain, (6) Japan, and (7) United States of America. The results suggest that there are statistically significant differences between the models of weight variation in southern and northern hemispheres. In both northern and southern hemispheres the lowest weight values were observed in the summer. However, the highest weight values were noticed in the winter and in the spring for northern and southern hemispheres, respectively.

  13. Spirastrellolide E: Synthesis of an advanced C(1)-C(24) southern hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Sokolsky, Alexander; Wang, Xiaozhao; Smith, Amos B.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of a C(1)-C(24) advanced southern hemisphere fragment towards the total synthesis of spirastrellolide E has been achieved. Highlights of the route include a highly convergent Type I Anion Relay Chemistry (ARC) tactic for fragment assembly, in conjunction with a directed, regioselective gold-catalyzed alkyne functionalization to generate the central unsaturated [6,6]-spiroketal. PMID:26097261

  14. Comparison of mercury concentrations measured at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Angot, H.; Dommergue, A.; Magand, O.; Barret, M.; Weigelt, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Brunke, E.-G.; Pfaffhuber, K. A.; Edwards, G.; Howard, D.; Powell, J.; Keywood, M.; Wang, F.

    2015-03-01

    Our knowledge of the distribution of mercury concentrations in air of the Southern Hemisphere was until recently based mostly on intermittent measurements made during ship cruises. In the last few years continuous mercury monitoring has commenced at several sites in the Southern Hemisphere, providing new and more refined information. In this paper we compare mercury measurements at several remote sites in the Southern Hemisphere made over a period of at least 1 year at each location. Averages of monthly medians show similar although small seasonal variations at both Cape Point and Amsterdam Island. A pronounced seasonal variation at Troll research station in Antarctica is due to frequent mercury depletion events in the austral spring. Due to large scatter and large standard deviations of monthly average median mercury concentrations at Cape Grim, no systematic seasonal variation could be found there. Nevertheless, the annual average mercury concentrations at all sites during the 2007-2013 period varied only between 0.85 and 1.05 ng m-3. Part of this variability is likely due to systematic measurement uncertainties which we propose can be further reduced by improved calibration procedures. We conclude that mercury is much more uniformly distributed throughout the Southern Hemisphere than the distributions suggested by measurements made onboard ships. This finding implies that smaller trends can be detected in shorter time periods. We also report a change in the trend sign at Cape Point from decreasing mercury concentrations in 1996-2004 to increasing concentrations since 2007.

  15. NOGAPS-ALPHA Simulations of the 2002 Southern Hemisphere Stratospheric Major Warming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Northern and Southern Hemispheres (e.g., Quiroz 1986; Mechoso et al. 1988). Niishi and Nakamura (2004, here- inafter NN04) argue that the 2002 SH major...transient quasi-geostrophic eddies and its relationship with the eddy forcing of the time-mean flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 1657–1678. Quiroz , R. S., 1986: The

  16. Lowell proper motion survey: Southern Hemisphere (Giclas, Burnham, and Thomas 1978). Documentation for the machine-readable version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The machine-readable version of the catalog, as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center, is described. The catalog is a summary compilation of the Lowell Proper Motion Survey for the Southern Hemisphere, as completed to mid-1978 and published in the Lowell Observatory Bulletins. This summary catalog serves as a Southern Hemisphere companion to the Lowell Proper Motion Survey, Northern Hemisphere.

  17. Antarctic lakes suggest millennial reorganizations of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric and oceanic circulation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brenda L; Denton, George H; Fountain, Andrew G; Hendy, Chris H; Henderson, Gideon M

    2010-12-14

    The phasing of millennial-scale oscillations in Antarctica relative to those elsewhere in the world is important for discriminating among models for abrupt climate change, particularly those involving the Southern Ocean. However, records of millennial-scale variability from Antarctica dating to the last glacial maximum are rare and rely heavily on data from widely spaced ice cores, some of which show little variability through that time. Here, we present new data from closed-basin lakes in the Dry Valleys region of East Antarctica that show high-magnitude, high-frequency oscillations in surface level during the late Pleistocene synchronous with climate fluctuations elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere. These data suggest a coherent Southern Hemisphere pattern of climate change on millennial time scales, at least in the Pacific sector, and indicate that any hypothesis concerning the origin of these events must account for synchronous changes in both high and temperate latitudes.

  18. Tropospheric Ozone Increases over the Southern Africa Region: Bellwether for Rapid Growth in Southern Hemisphere Pollution?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Balashov, Nikolay V.; Witte, J. C.; Coetzee, J. G. R.; Thouret, V.; Posny, F.

    2014-01-01

    Increases in free-tropospheric (FT) ozone based on ozonesonde records from the early 1990s through 2008 over two subtropical stations, Irene (near Pretoria, South Africa) and Réunion (21 deg. S, 55 deg. E; approx. 2800 km NE of Irene in the Indian Ocean), have been reported. Over Irene a large increase in the urban-influenced boundary layer (BL, 1.5-4 km) was also observed during the 18-year period, equivalent to 30%decade-1. Here we show that the Irene BL trend is at least partly due to a gradual change in the sonde launch times from early morning to the midday period. The FT ozone profiles over Irene in 1990-2007 are re-examined, filling in a 1995-1999 gap with ozone profiles taken during the Measurements of Ozone by Airbus In-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) project over nearby Johannesburg. A multivariate regression model that accounts for the annual ozone cycle, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and possible tropopause changes was applied to monthly averaged Irene data from 4 to 11 km and to 1992-2011 Réunion sonde data from 4 to 15 km. Statistically significant trends appear predominantly in the middle and upper troposphere (UT; 4-11 km over Irene, 4-15 km over Réunion) in winter (June-August), with increases 1 ppbv yr(exp. -1) over Irene and approx. 2 ppbv yr(exp. -1) over Réunion. These changes are equivalent to approx. 25 and 35-45%decade( exp. -1), respectively. Both stations also display smaller positive trends in summer, with a 45%decade(exp. -1) ozone increase near the tropopause over Réunion in December. To explain the ozone increases, we investigated a time series of dynamical markers, e.g., potential vorticity (PV) at 330-350 K. PV affects UT ozone over Irene in November-December but displays little relationship with ozone over Réunion. A more likely reason for wintertime FT ozone increases over Irene and Réunion appears to be long-range transport of growing pollution in the Southern Hemisphere. The ozone increases are consistent with trajectory

  19. Period determinations for Southern Hemisphere red variables. II

    SciTech Connect

    Shawl, S.J.; Bord, D.J. Michigan Univ., Dearborn )

    1990-03-01

    Light curves, periods, and times of maximum light are derived for 15 southern long-period variable stars on the basis of both archival photographic materials and new photoelectric data. While in seven cases the periods agree with values given in the General Catalog of Variable Stars (GCVS), significantly different values are derived for RZ CrA, SV Lib, EE Lib, BM Sgr, and BK Tel. Periods have been determined for three stars not having values in the GCVS: EN Lib, FF Lup, and FL Lup. Finding charts are provided for six stars. It is confirmed that times of maximum light for long-period variable stars derived from older ephemerides are unreliable. 9 refs.

  20. Period determinations for Southern Hemisphere red variables. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawl, Stephen J.; Bord, Donald J.

    1990-03-01

    Light curves, periods, and times of maximum light are derived for 15 southern long-period variable stars on the basis of both archival photographic materials and new photoelectric data. While in seven cases the periods agree with values given in the General Catalog of Variable Stars (GCVS), significantly different values are derived for RZ CrA, SV Lib, EE Lib, BM Sgr, and BK Tel. Periods have been determined for three stars not having values in the GCVS: EN Lib, FF Lup, and FL Lup. Finding charts are provided for six stars. It is confirmed that times of maximum light for long-period variable stars derived from older ephemerides are unreliable.

  1. How does Subantarctic Mode Water ventilate the Southern Hemisphere subtropics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Daniel C.; Meijers, Andrew J. S.; Shuckburgh, Emily; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste; Haynes, Peter; McAufield, Ewa K.; Mazloff, Matthew R.

    2016-09-01

    In several regions north of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), deep wintertime convection refreshes pools of weakly stratified subsurface water collectively referred to as Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW). SAMW ventilates the subtropical thermocline on decadal timescales, providing nutrients for low-latitude productivity and potentially trapping anthropogenic carbon in the deep ocean interior for centuries. In this work, we investigate the spatial structure and timescales of mode water export and associated thermocline ventilation. We use passive tracers in an eddy-permitting, observationally-informed Southern Ocean model to identify the pathways followed by mode waters between their formation regions and the areas where they first enter the subtropics. We find that the pathways followed by the mode water tracers are largely set by the mean geostrophic circulation. Export from the Indian and Central Pacific mode water pools is primarily driven by large-scale gyre circulation, whereas export from the Australian and Atlantic pools is heavily influenced by the ACC. Export from the Eastern Pacific mode water pool is driven by a combination of deep boundary currents and subtropical gyre circulation. More than 50% of each mode water tracer reaches the subtropical thermocline within 50 years, with significant variability between pools. The Eastern Pacific pathway is especially efficient, with roughly 80% entering the subtropical thermocline within 50 years. The time required for 50% of the mode water tracers to leave the Southern Ocean domain varies significantly between mode water pools, from 9 years for the Indian mode water pool to roughly 40 years for the Central Pacific mode water pool.

  2. Compositional heterogeneity of Asteroid 4 Vesta’s southern hemisphere: Implications for the Dawn mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Gaffey, Michael J.; Kelley, Michael S.; Nathues, Andreas; Li, Jian-Yang; Yarbrough, Robert

    2010-12-01

    High signal-to-noise, rotationally-resolved spectra of Asteroid 4 Vesta's southern hemisphere from the 2007 opposition were used to constrain its compositional and mineralogical variations. The spectra were rotationally-phased using closely timed HST observations of Vesta by Li et al. (Li, J.-Y., McFadden, L.A., Thomas, P.C., Mutchler, M.J., Parker, J.Wm., Young, E.F., Russell, C.T., Sykes, M.V., Schmidt, B.E. [2010]. Icarus 208, 238-251). The average surface of Vesta's southern hemisphere is analogous to a howardite or polymict eucrite assemblage similar to the northern hemisphere, although the band parameters are distinctly shifted towards the diogenite zone on the Band-Band plot. A few distinct compositional units were detected and they might be related to albedo features detected by Hubble Space Telescope (Li et al., 2010). We have identified two compositionally distinct regions overlaying the background surface. The first unit is a polymict eucrite and/or low-Ca eucrite compositional unit at 143° longitude that border the eucrite zone on the Band-Band plot and the second is a diogenite unit at 159°. While we did not detect any distinct olivine units as suggested by Gaffey (Gaffey, M.J. [1997]. Icarus 127, 130-157), we cannot rule out the possibility of smaller olivine-rich units that are below the detection limit of the instrumentation we used. Based on the analysis and the limitations of the data, we do not suggest that Vesta's surface is olivine-free. Mean pyroxene chemistry estimates for both hemispheres broadly agree with one another (to within one-sigma) with the northern hemisphere ferrosilite (Fs) and wollastonite (Wo) values being slightly higher than southern hemisphere.

  3. Seasonal variability and long-term evolution of tropospheric composition in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai, K. M.; Wu, S.

    2013-07-01

    Present-day and future impacts of biomass burning and other sources in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere are studied by global chemical transport model (GCTM), satellites retrievals and surface measurements. The spring CO peaks found at Mahe Island (Western Indian Ocean) are attributed to the burnings in India but not those from Northern Africa. Easter Island (Eastern Pacific Ocean) is impacted indirectly by the hemispheric zonal transport of CO due to the burnings in Southern Africa/Latin America, via the westerlies. An increasing trend for CO by 0.33 ppb yr-1 in the past decade at Ascension Island is attributed to the combined effects of Latin American/Southern Africa burnings and increase of CH4 level. Changes in water vapour and UV over Southern Atlantic Ocean (SAO) in future January have dominated effects on the O3 distribution. More than 55% of O3 concentrations over SAO in both present-day and future September are not directly affected by the emissions (including lightning) over the adjacent two continents but attributable to transport of O3 from outside due to CO and CH4 oxidation and stratospheric intrusion. High NOx emissions in both continents in future increase the PAN concentrations over remote oceans at higher southern latitudes (> 35° S) as far as those near Australia, affecting the O3 budget over there. Future changes of biomass burning and anthropogenic NOx emissions in Southern Africa lead to a new area of O3 maximum near South Africa. The resulted O3 outflow to the Indian Ocean is pronounced due to the effects of the persistent anti-cyclone. A general reduction of future OH radical concentrations is predicted over the remote marine boundary layer in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, due to the increases in CH4 and CO emissions combined with the low-NOx environment.

  4. Mechanism of secular increasing of mean gravity in Northern hemisphere and secular decreasing of mean gravity in Southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    phenomena as cyclicity and synchronism of planetary natural processes, inversion of activity of natural processes in opposite hemispheres. Numerous confirmations give the extensive data of every possible geophysical observations. The phenomenon of synchronism in annual variations of activity of various natural processes is rather brightly expressed - their phases are precisely synchronized, and the periods of extreme activity (or passivity) fall to February - March or August - September. In daily variations of natural processes similar laws are observed. Here we speak about modern processes, but similar laws take place in various time scales, including geological. In the given report we shall concentrate on the analysis of possible secular variations of a gravity at displacement of an external core (of its centre of mass) relatively to the elastic mantle. The analysis has shown, that gravitational influence of displaced superfluous mass of the core are a major factor of secular variations of a gravity. However the displaced core causes directed redistribution of atmospheric masses from a southern hemisphere in northern, and also complex slow redistribution of oceanic masses. Increase of loading of atmospheric and oceanic masses on an elastic crust of northern hemisphere results in its slow lowering. Return processes should observed in a southern hemisphere. All listed factors, certainly, directly influence variations of a gravity. In a more comprehensive sense redistribution of all fluid masses, including climatic character also result in changes of a gravity. Hemispheres mean secular trends of gravity. For an estimation of a role of factors of redistribution of air and fluid masses in variations of a gravity the point model of redistribution of masses of the Earth (Barkin, 2001), obtained very effective applications at studying of fundamental problems of geodynamics, has been used. Let's emphasize, that the Earth is active dynamic object at which activity in the certain

  5. The Phoenix stream: A cold stream in the southern hemisphere

    DOE PAGES

    Balbinot, E.

    2016-03-17

    In this study, we report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its resident constellation. After subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with agemore » $$\\tau=11.5\\pm0.5$$ Gyr and $[Fe/H]<-1.6$ located 17.5$$\\pm$$0.9 kpc from the Sun gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8$$^{\\circ}.$$1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of $$\\sim$$54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster is a probable progenitor. There is no known globular cluster within 5 kpc compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities along the stream, however no obvious counterpart bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find overdensities along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed - consistent with the epicyclic overdensity scenario for the formation of cold streams - as well as a misalignment between the Northern and Southern part of stream. Despite the close proximity we find no evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe overdensity (Li et al. 2016).« less

  6. The Phoenix stream: A cold stream in the southern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Balbinot, E.

    2016-03-17

    In this study, we report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its resident constellation. After subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with age $\\tau=11.5\\pm0.5$ Gyr and $[Fe/H]<-1.6$ located 17.5$\\pm$0.9 kpc from the Sun gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8$^{\\circ}.$1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of $\\sim$54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster is a probable progenitor. There is no known globular cluster within 5 kpc compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities along the stream, however no obvious counterpart bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find overdensities along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed - consistent with the epicyclic overdensity scenario for the formation of cold streams - as well as a misalignment between the Northern and Southern part of stream. Despite the close proximity we find no evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe overdensity (Li et al. 2016).

  7. The Phoenix Stream: A Cold Stream in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbinot, E.; Yanny, B.; Li, T. S.; Santiago, B.; Marshall, J. L.; Finley, D. A.; Pieres, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    We report the discovery of a stellar stream in the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (Y1A1) data. The discovery was made through simple color-magnitude filters and visual inspection of the Y1A1 data. We refer to this new object as the Phoenix stream, after its resident constellation. After subtraction of the background stellar population we detect a clear signal of a simple stellar population. By fitting the ridge line of the stream in color-magnitude space, we find that a stellar population with age τ = 11.5 ± 0.5 Gyr and [Fe/H] < -1.6, located 17.5 ± 0.9 kpc from the Sun, gives an adequate description of the stream stellar population. The stream is detected over an extension of 8.°1 (2.5 kpc) and has a width of ˜54 pc assuming a Gaussian profile, indicating that a globular cluster (GC) is a probable progenitor. There is no known GC within 5 kpc that is compatible with being the progenitor of the stream, assuming that the stream traces its orbit. We examined overdensities (ODs) along the stream, however, no obvious counterpart-bound stellar system is visible in the coadded images. We also find ODs along the stream that appear to be symmetrically distributed—consistent with the epicyclic OD scenario for the formation of cold streams—as well as a misalignment between the northern and southern part of stream. Despite the close proximity we find no evidence that this stream and the halo cluster NGC 1261 have a common accretion origin linked to the recently found EriPhe OD.

  8. A comparison of the structure and flow characteristics of the upper troposphere and stratosphere of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    The general circulations of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are compared with regard to the upper troposphere and stratosphere using atmospheric structure obtained from satellite, multi-channel radiance data. Specifically, the data are from the Satellite Infrared Spectrometer (SIRS) instrument aboard the Nimbus 3 spacecraft. The inter-hemispheric comparisons are based on two months of data (one summer month and one winter month) in each hemisphere. Topics studied include: mean meridional circulation in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere; magnitude and distribution of tropospheric eddy heat flux; magnitudes of energy cycle components; and the relation of vortex structure to the breakdown climatology of the Antarctic stratospheric polar vortex.

  9. Characteristics of Southern Hemisphere 200 mb flow as determined from satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of Southern Hemisphere 200 mb flow are examined using geopotential height fields constructed with the aid of satellite based thermal structure. Similar Northern Hemisphere, satellite based fields are developed in order to make interhemispheric comparisons. Results indicate that both the zonal and meridional components of the S.H. eddy kinetic energy are as large as their N.H. counterparts. In winter the principal interhemispheric difference with respect to eddy kinetic energy is that the S.H. standing eddies are much less important only to the meridional component. Zonal component standing energy is about equal in the two hemispheres. In summer the S.H. has larger zonal eddy kinetic energy than the N.H. and smaller standing eddy contributions in both components. The meridional spectra show a preference for intermediate size transient waves.

  10. Reduced Southern Hemispheric circulation response to quadrupled CO2 due to stratospheric ozone feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodo, Gabriel; Polvani, Lorenzo M.

    2017-01-01

    Due to computational constraints, interactive stratospheric ozone chemistry is commonly neglected in most climate models participating in intercomparison projects. The impact of this simplification on the modeled response to external forcings remains unexplored. In this work, we examine the importance of including interactive stratospheric ozone chemistry on the Southern Hemispheric circulation response to an abrupt quadrupling of CO2. We find that including interactive ozone significantly reduces (by 20%) the response of the midlatitude jet to CO2, even though it does not alter the surface temperature response. The reduction of the tropospheric circulation response is due to CO2 induced ozone changes and their effects on the meridional temperature gradient near the tropopause. Our findings suggest that neglecting this stratospheric ozone feedback results in an overestimate of the circulation response to increased CO2. This has important implications for climate projections of the Southern Hemispheric circulation response to CO2.

  11. Plastic ingestion by fish in the Southern Hemisphere: A baseline study and review of methods.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Seon M E; Lavers, Jennifer L; Figueiredo, Bianca

    2016-06-15

    Plastic ingestion is well documented among marine birds and sea turtles but fewer studies have investigated ingestion in fish, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigated the frequency of plastic ingestion in 21 species of fish and one species of cephalopod. The overall occurrence of plastic ingestion was 0.3%. Two micro-plastic items were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of a single Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni). Ingestion rates were similar to other studies of fish conducted in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, however comparisons across species and locations are challenging due to the lack of consistency in the identification and classification of plastic debris. In response, we propose a standardised sampling protocol based on the available literature to provide a stronger basis for comparisons among existing and future studies of plastic ingestion in fish.

  12. Low genetic differentiation between two geographically separated populations of demersal gadiform fishes in the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Hirohiko; Hatanaka, Akimasa; Yamada, Syo-ichi; Yamazaki, Yuji; Kimura, Ikuo; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2011-01-01

    The distribution patterns of many fishes between the three continents (Africa, Australia, and South America) in the Southern Hemisphere have been uncovered to be influenced by mostly vicariance or historical dispersal. Although some demersal fishes with intercontinental distribution are suggested to be more influenced by current/recent dispersal, few genetic studies have been made for demersal fishes so far. To provide more information for such fishes, genetic divergence was analyzed for two pairs of gadiform species and subspecies distributed around Australasia and South America: the blue grenadier, Macruronus novaezelandiae (from New Zealand) and the Patagonian grenadier, M. magellanicus (from South America) as well as two subspecies of the southern blue whiting, Micromesistius australis pallidus (from New Zealand) and M. a. australis (from South America). The sequence analyses of two mitochondrial DNA regions showed no divergence between Australasian and South American populations of the grenadiers and the southern blue whiting. The microsatellite DNA analysis also indicated significant but very minimal genetic differentiation between the two geographic populations of each pair. These results imply rather recent separation of the two geographic populations. Current/recent dispersal may be an important common factor for determining the distribution of demersal fishes in the Southern Hemisphere. Nonetheless, low but significant genetic differentiation observed requires treating the two populations of the economically important grenadiers and southern blue whiting, respectively, as different stocks for proper resource management.

  13. Comparison of satellite-derived dynamical quantities for the stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Thomas (Editor); Oneill, Alan (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    As part of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP), a project was instituted to study the dynamics of the Middle Atmosphere in the Southern Hemisphere (MASH). A pre-MASH workshop was held with two aims: comparison of Southern Hemisphere dynamical quantities derived from various archives of satellite data; and assessing the impact of different base-level height information on such derived quantities. The dynamical quantities examined included geopotential height, zonal wind, potential vorticity, eddy heat and momentum fluxes, and Eliassen-Palm fluxes. It was found that while there was usually qualitative agreement between the different sets of fields, substantial quantitative differences were evident, particularly in high latitudes. The fidelity of the base-level analysis was found to be of prime importance in calculating derived quantities - especially the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence and potential vorticity. Improvements in base-level analyses are recommended. In particular, quality controls should be introduced to remove spurious localized features from analyses, and information from all Antarctic radiosondes should be utilized where possible. Caution in drawing quantitative inferences from satellite data for the middle atmosphere of the Southern Hemisphere is advised.

  14. Comparison of satellite derived dynamical quantities in the stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Thomas (Editor); Oneill, Alan (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings are summarized from a pre-MASH planning workshop on the intercomparison of Southern Hemisphere observations, analyses and derived dynamical quantities held in Williamsburg, Virginia during April 1986. The aims of this workshop were primarily twofold: (1) comparison of Southern Hemisphere dynamical quantities derived from various satellite data archives (e.g., from limb scanners and nadir sounders); and (2) assessing the impact of different base-level height information on such derived quantities. These tasks are viewed as especially important in the Southern Hemisphere because of the paucity of conventional measurements. A further strong impetus for the MASH program comes from the recent discovery of the springtime ozone hold over Antarctica. Insight gained from validation studies such as the one reported here will contribute to an improved understanding of the role of meteorology in the development and evolution of the hold, in its interannual variability, and in its interhemispheric differences. The dynamical quantities examined in this workshop included geopotential height, zonal wind, potential vorticity, eddy heat and momentum fluxes, and Eliassen-Palm fluxes. The time periods and data sources constituting the MASH comparisons are summarized.

  15. Comparison of satellite derived dynamical quantities in the stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Thomas; Oneill, Alan

    1989-09-01

    The proceedings are summarized from a pre-MASH planning workshop on the intercomparison of Southern Hemisphere observations, analyses and derived dynamical quantities held in Williamsburg, Virginia during April 1986. The aims of this workshop were primarily twofold: (1) comparison of Southern Hemisphere dynamical quantities derived from various satellite data archives (e.g., from limb scanners and nadir sounders); and (2) assessing the impact of different base-level height information on such derived quantities. These tasks are viewed as especially important in the Southern Hemisphere because of the paucity of conventional measurements. A further strong impetus for the MASH program comes from the recent discovery of the springtime ozone hold over Antarctica. Insight gained from validation studies such as the one reported here will contribute to an improved understanding of the role of meteorology in the development and evolution of the hold, in its interannual variability, and in its interhemispheric differences. The dynamical quantities examined in this workshop included geopotential height, zonal wind, potential vorticity, eddy heat and momentum fluxes, and Eliassen-Palm fluxes. The time periods and data sources constituting the MASH comparisons are summarized.

  16. The simulation of transient statistics of the Southern Hemispheric circulation by the GLAS seasonal cycle model: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straus, D. M.; Shukla, J.

    1984-01-01

    The general circulation of the Southern Hemisphere is quite different from that of the Northern Hemisphere in many important ways. These include the barotropic nature of the stationary waves and the presence of a strong barotropic component to the mean zonal wind, the lack of a strong seasonal dependence of the transient eddies, and the dominant role played by eddies with periods less than 10 days compared to longer period fluctuations. Such differences attest to the importance of the altered nature of the orographic and thermal land-sea forcings in the Southern Hemisphere compared to the Northern Hemisphere. Some of the important features of the Southern Hemisphere circulation as simulated by the GLAS Seasonal Cycle Model (SCM) are presented. The geographical patterns of local variability and their seasonal shifts in the SCM are discussed and compared to observations.

  17. Seasonal variability and long-term evolution of tropospheric composition in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai, K. M.; Wu, S.; Kumar, A.; Liao, H.

    2014-05-01

    Impacts on tropospheric composition in the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere from biomass burning and other emission sources are studied using a global chemical transport model, surface measurements and satellite retrievals. Seasonal variations in observed CO at remote island sites are examined. Easter Island (eastern Pacific Ocean) is impacted indirectly by the hemispheric zonal transport of CO due to the burning in southern Africa/South America, via the westerlies. An increasing trend in CO by 0.33 ppb yr-1 in the past decade at Ascension Island is attributed to the combined effects of South American/southern Africa burnings and the increases in CH4 level. Compared to Easter Island and Ascension Island, much less contribution from biomass burning to atmospheric CO is found at the island of Mahé (western Indian Ocean), where the total CO peaks in January-February, reflecting the contributions of anthropogenic emissions from India. We also examine the 2000-2050 changes in atmospheric composition in the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere driven by future changes in emissions and climate. Changes in solar radiation (UV) over South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) in future January have dominant effects on the O3 distribution. More than 55% of O3 concentrations over the SAO in both present-day and future September are not directly affected by the emissions (including lightning) over the adjacent two continents but are attributable to the transport of O3 from surrounding areas due to CO and CH4 oxidation and stratospheric intrusion. High NOx emissions in both continents in 2050s increase PAN concentrations over remote oceans at the higher southern latitudes (> 35° S) as far as those near Australia, affecting the O3 budget over there. Future changes in biomass burning and anthropogenic NOx emissions in southern Africa lead to a new area of high O3 concentrations near South Africa. The resulted O3 outflow to the Indian Ocean is pronounced due to the effects of the persistent

  18. Interannual variability of the frontal activity in the Southern Hemisphere: relationship with atmospheric circulation and precipitation over southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blázquez, Josefina; Solman, Silvina A.

    2016-06-01

    The interannual variability of the frontal activity over the western Southern Hemisphere and its linkage with the variability of the atmospheric circulation and precipitation over southern South America is studied. The analysis is focused on the austral winter and spring seasons. The frontal activity is represented by an index defined as the product between the horizontal gradient of temperature and the relative vorticity at 850 hPa (FI) and is computed from the ERA Interim and NCEP2 reanalysis. For the two seasons the main mode of variability of FI, as depicted by the first Empirical Orthogonal Function, presents centres of action located in the southern part of the western Southern Hemisphere. This pattern is present in the two reanalysis datasets. The correlation coefficients between the principal component of the leading mode of FI and the two main modes of the 500 hPa geopotential height indicate that both the ENSO-mode and the SAM modulate the leading pattern of FI in winter while during the spring season the ENSO-mode controls the FI variability. The variability of the FI has a robust influence on the interannual variability of precipitation over southern South America and adjacent oceans. Over the continent, it was found that the pattern of precipitation anomalies associated with the variability of the FI depicts significant signals over southeastern South America (SESA), centre and south of Chile for winter and over SESA and southeastern Brazil for spring and agrees with the pattern of the leading mode of precipitation variability over southern South America.

  19. Further Observational Evidence of Hadley Cell Widening in the Southern Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jung; Son, Seok-Woo; Lu, Jian; Min, Seung-Ki

    2014-04-16

    Various observational and modeling studies have shown that the Hadley cell (HC) has widened during the past few decades. Here, we present further observational evidence of the widening of the HC in the Southern Hemisphere by tracking the location of the subtropical ridge. A robust and significant poleward shift of the southern edge of the HC has been observed during the austral summer over the past three decades with a shift of 0.22 degrees per decade having occurred between 1980 and 2012, primarily from the South Atlantic Ocean to Australia. In other seasons, significant changes in the southern edge of the HC have not been observed, with a discernable regional trend having only occurred in a limited region. The comparison of these results with those derived from reanalysis data and possible causes for the summer HC expansion are briefly discussed.

  20. Highlights From the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Satellite Validation Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Fortuin, P.

    2001-05-01

    There are three years of data (more than 1000 individual ozone profiles) available from a network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project. Since late 1999, a tropical station in the northern hemisphere (Paramaribo, Surinam; 6N, 55W) joined SHADOZ, providing coordinated weekly ozone and radiosonde data from the surface to around 7 hPa for satellite validation, process studies, and model evaluation. Profiles are also collected at: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. The archive, station characteristics and photos are available at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles in 1998-2000 display highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are lower than independent measurements from a ground-based network and from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite (version 7 data).

  1. Persistent high paleosecular variation activity in southern hemisphere for at least 10 000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constable, Catherine; Korte, Monika; Panovska, Sanja

    2016-11-01

    Direct observations of the geomagnetic field show that secular variation is strong in the Atlantic hemisphere, and comparatively reduced in the Pacific region. The dipole has been decaying since at least 1840 AD, driven by growth and migration of reverse flux patches in the southern hemisphere. We investigate whether anything like this modern pattern of geomagnetic secular variation persists and can be detected in global paleomagnetic field models. Synthesis of results from two new time-varying spherical harmonic models shows that geographically distinct geomagnetic secular variation extends to at least 10 000 BP. The models use the same database but differ in methodology, leading to some regional differences in results. Consistent large-scale surface features include strong average fields in the northern hemisphere and weaker fields with greater overall variability in the south. Longitudinal structure is present, with weaker average fields in the western Pacific than in the east, and prominent negative inclination anomalies extending beneath Indonesia, across Africa and to Brazil, but weaker anomalies in the central Pacific. Marginally positive inclination anomalies occur west of the Americas. Paleosecular variation activity peaks at high southern latitudes, and there is a pattern of reduced activity at equatorial and mid-latitudes beneath the Pacific. Although the dipole has exhibited both growth and decay over the interval 0-10 000 BP, our results show that geomagnetic paleosecular variation is preferentially focused in similar geographic regions to secular variation seen in the modern field.

  2. A Southern Hemisphere origin for campanulid angiosperms, with traces of the break-up of Gondwana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background New powerful biogeographic methods have focused attention on long-standing hypotheses regarding the influence of the break-up of Gondwana on the biogeography of Southern Hemisphere plant groups. Studies to date have often concluded that these groups are too young to have been influenced by these ancient continental movements. Here we examine a much larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer its biogeographic history by combining Bayesian divergence time information with a likelihood-based biogeographic model focused on the Gondwanan landmasses. Results Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated in the middle Albian (~105 Ma), and that a substantial portion of the early evolutionary history of campanulids took place in the Southern Hemisphere, despite their greater species richness in the Northern Hemisphere today. We also discovered several disjunctions that show biogeographic and temporal correspondence with the break-up of Gondwana. Conclusions While it is possible to discern traces of the break-up of Gondwana in clades that are old enough, it will generally be difficult to be confident in continental movement as the prime cause of geographic disjunctions. This follows from the need for the geographic disjunction, the inferred biogeographic scenario, and the dating of the lineage splitting events to be consistent with the causal hypothesis. PMID:23565668

  3. 231Pa/ 230Th as a Paleocirculation Proxy in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, G. M.; Hickey, B. J.; Rae, J. W.; Thomas, A. L.

    2008-12-01

    Since its first application as a proxy for the rate of past ocean circulation more than a decade ago (Yu et al. 1996), 231Pa/ 230Th has been applied predominantly to cores in the North Atlantic. At present, in this setting, the advection of surface waters to depth resets the 231Pa/ 230Th "clock" allowing the proxy to work, and the uniform southward movement of water masses make interpretation of sediment values relatively straightforward. The applicability of 231Pa/ 230Th in other settings, where water-masses may not be clearly reset, or where several water masses with different flow paths overlie one another remains unclear, but its use to reconstruct past flow rates in such settings would provide a powerful tool to understand past climate. We will present an overview of the potential for 231Pa/ 230Th use in the Southern Hemisphere, including new data from the Argentine basin. Data from the southern Indian Ocean (e.g. Thomas et al. 2007) demonstrate that advection of water to depth, and scavenging of 231Pa at the opal belt, effectively reset the 231Pa/ 230Th clock providing potential for application of the proxy to northward flowing water masses in the Southern Hemisphere. Modelling also indicates the sensitivity of Southern Hemisphere sediment 231Pa/ 230Th to changes in ocean circulation, particularly in the Argentine Basin (Siddall et al. 2007). We have investigated the use of the 231Pa/ 230Th proxy in four cores spanning all deep-water masses in that basin. The modern-day conditions in that basin are similar to those expected in the North Atlantic during the last glacial maximum with a southward and northward flowing water mass overlying one another. Results demonstrate that sediment 231Pa/ 230Th values vary significantly with water-mass throughout the last 20 kyr - offering the potential to reconstruct multiple water masses through time. Down-core results show variations that reflect changes in ocean circulation, but these are compounded with other effects

  4. A sudden warming in the middle atmosphere of the southern hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Ajmi, D. N.; Harwood, R.S.; Miles, T.

    1985-01-01

    The present analysis of a wave-mean flow interaction, or minor warming, near the southern hemisphere stratopause on July 15-30, 1974, is primarily based on data from the selective chopper radiometer aboard Nimbus 5. Eliassen-Palm (E-P) cross sections are given for the event, and a good correlation is found between the E-P flux convergence and the deceleration. The channeling of the E-P fluxes from the tropopause to the convergent region is in broad agreement with the refractive index distribution, but a region of E-P flux divergence is noted at high levels in polar latitudes which suggests a source of wave activity. The event is shown to be associated with an incursion of low latitude air into middle latitudes, with a corresponding, irreversible mixing of potential vorticity which resembles the McIntyre and Palmer (1983) northern hemisphere 'wave breaking'.

  5. Impact of observed sea-ice concentration on the Southern Hemisphere extratropical atmospheric circulation in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raphael, M. N.

    2003-11-01

    The response of the Southern Hemisphere extratropical, atmospheric circulation to extremes of sea-ice concentration in summer is investigated using a fully coupled climate model. Maximum and minimum sea-ice extremes were obtained from satellite-derived data, and a 12-month climatology for each case was created. Two 10-year simulations for each scenario were completed, and the results for the southern summer are compared. At the surface the sea-ice extremes directly affected the temperatures around Antarctica and through these the latitudinal surface temperature and pressure gradients. The midlatitude surface westerlies are weaker in the maximum scenario, while the polar easterlies expand farther north. In the middle troposphere the zonal jet strengthens slightly and shifts equatorward in the maximum scenario. Comparisons of the sea level pressure field and the 500 hPa geopotential height field for the two scenarios show that the leading mode of circulation variability, the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode, tends toward positive polarity (lower than normal geopotential heights over Antarctica) in the minimum sea-ice scenario. This tendency is associated with local differences in surface pressure gradient and temperature and large scale dynamic responses to extremes of sea-ice concentration.

  6. Spatial Patterns of Variability in Antarctic Surface Temperature: Connections to the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode and the Southern Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Ron; Comiso, Josefino C.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The 17-year (1982-1998) trend in surface temperature shows a general cooling over the Antarctic continent, warming of the sea ice zone, with moderate changes over the oceans. Warming of the peripheral seas is associated with negative trends in the regional sea ice extent. Effects of the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM) and the extrapolar Southern Oscillation (SO) on surface temperature are quantified through regression analysis. Positive polarities of the SAM are associated with cold anomalies over most of Antarctica, with the most notable exception of the Antarctic Peninsula. Positive temperature anomalies and ice edge retreat in the Pacific sector are associated with El Nino episodes. Over the past two decades, the drift towards high polarity in the SAM and negative polarity in the SO indices couple to produce a spatial pattern with warmer temperatures in the Antarctic Peninsula and peripheral seas, and cooler temperatures over much of East Antarctica.

  7. Regional surface morphology of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Rosetta/OSIRIS images: The southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Maarry, M. R.; Thomas, N.; Gracia-Berná, A.; Pajola, M.; Lee, J.-C.; Massironi, M.; Davidsson, B.; Marchi, S.; Keller, H. U.; Hviid, S. F.; Besse, S.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; Rodrigo, R.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Auger, A.-T.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Bodewits, D.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; De Cecco, M.; Debei, S.; Güttler, C.; Fornasier, S.; Fulle, M.; Giacomini, L.; Groussin, O.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marschall, R.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Pommerol, A.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Tubiana, C.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2016-09-01

    Aims: The OSIRIS camera on board the Rosetta spacecraft has been acquiring images of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P)'s nucleus since August 2014. Starting in May 2015, the southern hemisphere gradually became illuminated and was imaged for the first time. Here we present the regional morphology of the southern hemisphere, which serves as a companion to an earlier paper that presented the regional morphology of the northern hemisphere. Methods: We used OSIRIS images that were acquired at orbits ~45-125 km from the center of the comet (corresponding to spatial resolutions of ~0.8 to 2.3 m/pixel) coupled with the use of digital terrain models to define the different regions on the surface, and identify structural boundaries accurately. Results: Seven regions have been defined in the southern hemisphere bringing the total number of defined regions on the surface of the nucleus to 26. These classifications are mainly based on morphological and/or topographic boundaries. The southern hemisphere shows a remarkable dichotomy with its northern counterpart mainly because of the absence of wide-scale smooth terrains, dust coatings and large unambiguous depressions. As a result, the southern hemisphere closely resembles previously identified consolidated regions. An assessment of the overall morphology of comet 67P suggests that the comet's two lobes show surface heterogeneities manifested in different physical/mechanical characteristics, possibly extending to local (i.e., within a single region) scales.

  8. Ice core and climate reanalysis analogs to predict Antarctic and Southern Hemisphere climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayewski, P. A.; Carleton, A. M.; Birkel, S. D.; Dixon, D.; Kurbatov, A. V.; Korotkikh, E.; McConnell, J.; Curran, M.; Cole-Dai, J.; Jiang, S.; Plummer, C.; Vance, T.; Maasch, K. A.; Sneed, S. B.; Handley, M.

    2017-01-01

    A primary goal of the SCAR (Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research) initiated AntClim21 (Antarctic Climate in the 21st Century) Scientific Research Programme is to develop analogs for understanding past, present and future climates for the Antarctic and Southern Hemisphere. In this contribution to AntClim21 we provide a framework for achieving this goal that includes: a description of basic climate parameters; comparison of existing climate reanalyses; and ice core sodium records as proxies for the frequencies of marine air mass intrusion spanning the past ∼2000 years. The resulting analog examples include: natural variability, a continuation of the current trend in Antarctic and Southern Ocean climate characterized by some regions of warming and some cooling at the surface of the Southern Ocean, Antarctic ozone healing, a generally warming climate and separate increases in the meridional and zonal winds. We emphasize changes in atmospheric circulation because the atmosphere rapidly transports heat, moisture, momentum, and pollutants, throughout the middle to high latitudes. In addition, atmospheric circulation interacts with temporal variations (synoptic to monthly scales, inter-annual, decadal, etc.) of sea ice extent and concentration. We also investigate associations between Antarctic atmospheric circulation features, notably the Amundsen Sea Low (ASL), and primary climate teleconnections including the SAM (Southern Annular Mode), ENSO (El Nîno Southern Oscillation), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the AMO (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation), and solar irradiance variations.

  9. Meteorological atlas of the Southern Hemisphere lower stratosphere for August and September 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.; Lamich, D. J.; Gelman, M.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Baker, W.; Krueger, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Southern Hemisphere meteorological data for the months of August and September 1987 in the lower stratosphere are shown. National Meteorological Center (NMC) data, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data, and Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) data are used to display polar stereographic projections of 200 to 100 mb vertical mean temperatures, 100 mb zonal mean geopotential height perturbations, total ozone, Ertel's potential vorticity (Epv), and 50 to 30 mb vertical mean temperatures. In addition, latitude height cross sections at 65 W of potential temperature, Epv, geostrophic isotachs, and temperature are also shown. Finally, a longitude height cross section at 65 S of temperature and geostrophic wind vectors is also shown.

  10. Intraseasonal interactions between the tropics and extratropics in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berbery, Ernesto H.; Nogues-Paegle, Julia

    1993-01-01

    Observational evidence is presented of connections between tropical heating and circulation changes in subtropical and extratropical latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) in summer and winter, and the processes responsible for these interactions are described. The observational evidence suggests that, during SH summer (but not SH winter), both the acceleration of westerly winds south of the heating region through meridional overturnings and excitation of Rossby waves are possible. During winter, the enhanced tropical convective activity results again in local meridional overturning with zonal wind acceleration of Rossby waves farther south.

  11. Identification of widespread pollution in the Southern Hemisphere deduced from satellite analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, J.; Fakhruzzaman, K.; Cros, B.; Nganga, D.

    1991-01-01

    Vertical profiles of ozone obtained from ozonesondes in Brazzaville (Congo) and Ascension Island show that large quantities of tropospheric ozone are present over southern Africa and the adjacent eastern tropical South Atlantic Ocean. The origin of this pollution is widespread biomass burning in Africa. These measurements support satellite-derived tropospheric ozone data that demonstrate that ozone originating from this region is transported throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere. Seasonally high levels of CO2 and methane observed at middle- and high-latitude stations in Africa, Australia, and Antarctica likely reflect the effects of this distant biomass burning. These data suggest that even the most remote regions on this planet may be significantly more polluted than previously believed.

  12. Identification of widespread pollution in the southern hemisphere deduced from satellite analyses. [AFRICA

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, J. ); Fakhruzzaman, K. ); Cros, B.; Nganga, D. )

    1991-06-21

    Vertical profiles of ozone obtained from ozonesondes in Brazzaville, Congo (4{degree}S, 15{degree}E), and Ascension Island (98{degree}S, 15{degree}W) show that large quantities of tropospheric ozone are present over southern Africa and the adjacent eastern tropical South Atlantic Ocean. The origin of this pollution is widespread biomass burning in Africa. These measurements support satellite-derived tropospheric ozone data that demonstrate that ozone originating from the region is transported throughout most of the Southern Hemisphere. Seasonally high levels of carbon monoxide and methane observed at middle- and high-latitude stations in Africa, Australia, and Antarctica likely reflect the effects of this distant biomass burning. These data suggest that even the most remote regions on this planet may be significantly more polluted than previously believed.

  13. Species delimitation and biogeography of a southern hemisphere liverwort clade, Frullania subgenus Microfrullania (Frullaniaceae, Marchantiophyta).

    PubMed

    Carter, Benjamin E; Larraín, Juan; Manukjanová, Alžběta; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan; Heinrichs, Jochen; de Lange, Peter; Suleiman, Monica; Thouvenot, Louis; von Konrat, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Frullania subgenus Microfrullania is a clade of ca. 15 liverwort species occurring in Australasia, Malesia, and southern South America. We used combined nuclear and chloroplast sequence data from 265 ingroup accessions to test species circumscriptions and estimate the biogeographic history of the subgenus. With dense infra-specific sampling, we document an important role of long-distance dispersal in establishing phylogeographic patterns of extant species. At deeper time scales, a combination of phylogenetic analyses, divergence time estimation and ancestral range estimation were used to reject vicariance and to document the role of long-distance dispersal in explaining the evolution and biogeography of the clade across the southern Hemisphere. A backbone phylogeny for the subgenus is proposed, providing insight into evolution of morphological patterns and establishing the basis for an improved sectional classification of species within Microfrullania. Several species complexes are identified, the presence of two undescribed but genetically and morphologically distinct species is noted, and previously neglected names are discussed.

  14. Assessing recent trends in high-latitude Southern Hemisphere surface climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Julie M.; Gille, Sarah T.; Goosse, Hugues; Abram, Nerilie J.; Canziani, Pablo O.; Charman, Dan J.; Clem, Kyle R.; Crosta, Xavier; de Lavergne, Casimir; Eisenman, Ian; England, Matthew H.; Fogt, Ryan L.; Frankcombe, Leela M.; Marshall, Gareth J.; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Morrison, Adele K.; Orsi, Anaïs J.; Raphael, Marilyn N.; Renwick, James A.; Schneider, David P.; Simpkins, Graham R.; Steig, Eric J.; Stenni, Barbara; Swingedouw, Didier; Vance, Tessa R.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the causes of recent climatic trends and variability in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere is hampered by a short instrumental record. Here, we analyse recent atmosphere, surface ocean and sea-ice observations in this region and assess their trends in the context of palaeoclimate records and climate model simulations. Over the 36-year satellite era, significant linear trends in annual mean sea-ice extent, surface temperature and sea-level pressure are superimposed on large interannual to decadal variability. Most observed trends, however, are not unusual when compared with Antarctic palaeoclimate records of the past two centuries. With the exception of the positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode, climate model simulations that include anthropogenic forcing are not compatible with the observed trends. This suggests that natural variability overwhelms the forced response in the observations, but the models may not fully represent this natural variability or may overestimate the magnitude of the forced response.

  15. The Southern Hemisphere quasi-stationary eddies and their relationship with Antarctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, William Richard

    The west Antarctic region shows one of the strongest warming trends globally over the late 20th century, whilst much of the Antarctic continent shows little trend or even cooling. Additionally, sea ice reductions in the Antarctic Peninsula region have been balanced by sea ice increases in the Ross Sea region. Despite this heterogeneity, much recent research in the Southern Hemisphere has focused on the approximately zonally-symmetric Southern Annular Mode. In this research, reanalysis and satellite data are analyzed to show that at monthly and annual timescales the zonally asymmetric circulation over the Southern Ocean is dominated by two quasi-stationary anticyclones; a stable western anticyclone approximately located south of New Zealand, and a more variable eastern anticyclone located over the Drake Passage region. Time series describing each anticyclone's strength and longitude, and these time series are used to investigate the physical nature and influence of the anticyclones. The anticyclones are found to have some covariance, and in particular they tend to shift in phase, but their strengths are negatively correlated. Quasi-geostrophic diagnosis indicates that the west anticyclone is maintained by meridional vorticity advection by poleward airflow south of Australia, whereas the east anticyclone is forced by zonal convergence over the Pacific Ocean. The differences in variability and dynamic nature between the anticyclones bring into question the utility of the zonal wave decomposition, which is commonly used in analysis of the Southern Hemisphere zonally asymmetric circulation. It is shown that the quasi-stationary anticyclones influence west Antarctic sea ice in a pattern that resembles the 1st and 3rd principal components of ice variability. The anticyclones have some effect on wind-driven sea ice motion, but the primary mechanism explaining their link to sea ice appears to be meridional thermal advection.

  16. Comparison of geophysical patterns in the southern hemisphere mid-latitude region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, L. A.; Satyamurty, P.; Alves, L. R.; Souza, V. M.; Jauer, P. R.; Silveira, M. V. D.; Echer, M. S.; Hajra, R.; Medeiros, C.; Marchezi, J. P.; Rockenbach, M.; Rigozo, N. R.; Denardini, C. M.; Mendes, O.; Dal Lago, A.; Vieira, L. E. A.

    2016-11-01

    The effects of high-energy particle precipitation on mesospheric and stratospheric ozone have been investigated during the last decades. However, while these effects have been widely discussed for the auroral region, little is known about the role of the high-energy particle precipitation on the stratospheric composition and thermal structure in the tropical/subtropical region. Here we show that the spatial distribution of both the stratospheric ozone and temperature in the southern hemisphere matches the pattern of the Southern Hemisphere Magnetic Anomaly. We found that during the austral winter and spring, in the subtropical region (below 30°S), the reduction of the stratospheric ozone and temperature occurs systematically in the magnetic anomaly area. The differences between the temperatures inside the magnetic anomaly (60°W) and outside the anomaly (150°E) for 42.5°S from June to November are higher than 2 K. The maximum difference at this latitude is approximately 5.9 K and occurs in October during the austral spring.

  17. Isotopic Evidence of a Wide Spectrum of Feeding Strategies in Southern Hemisphere Humpback Whale Baleen Records.

    PubMed

    Eisenmann, Pascale; Fry, Brian; Holyoake, Carly; Coughran, Douglas; Nicol, Steve; Bengtson Nash, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of Southern hemisphere humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) ecology assumes high-fidelity feeding on Antarctic krill in Antarctic waters during summer, followed by fasting during their annual migration to and from equatorial breeding grounds. An increase in the number of reported departures from this feeding/fasting model suggests that the current model may be oversimplified or, alternatively, undergoing contemporary change. Information about the feeding and fasting cycles of the two Australian breeding populations of humpback whales were obtained through stable isotope analysis of baleen plates from stranded adult individuals. Comparison of isotope profiles showed that individuals from the West Australian breeding population strongly adhered to the classical feeding model. By contrast, East Australian population individuals demonstrated greater heterogeneity in their feeding. On a spectrum from exclusive Antarctic feeding to exclusive feeding in temperate waters, three different strategies were assigned and discussed: classical feeders, supplemental feeders, and temperate zone feeders. Diversity in the inter-annual feeding strategies of humpback whales demonstrates the feeding plasticity of the species, but could also be indicative of changing dynamics within the Antarctic sea-ice ecosystem. This study presents the first investigation of trophodynamics in Southern hemisphere humpback whales derived from baleen plates, and further provides the first estimates of baleen plate elongation rates in the species.

  18. Planetary-scale waves in the Southern Hemisphere winter and early spring stratosphere - Stability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Elson, L. S.; Mechoso, C. R.; Farrara, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    A barotropic stability model linearized about a zonally symmetric flow is used to examine the stability characteristics of horizontal zonal-mean flow profiles representative of the Southern Hemisphere middle stratosphere during winter and early spring, with emphasis on periods when planetary wave growth appears confined to the stratosphere. Unstable modes of eastward-travelling waves 2 and 3 are found to have period sand spatial structures, similar to observations. Wave-2 and wave-3 momentum fluxes are similar in observations and model results and are consistent with the transfer of kinetic energy from the zonal-mean flow to the wave. When a barotropic model with a zonally symmetric basic flow is used, wave 3 is usually most unstable. Including a stationary wave 1 in the basic flow destabilizes both wave 2 and wave 3, but has little effect on their periods or spatial structures. The similarity between observed fields and model results in a number of cases when wave 2 appears to grow within the stratosphere suggests that in situ instabilities play a role in the evolution of the eastward-traveling wave-2 characteristic of the Southern Hemisphere winter and early spring stratosphere.

  19. Climatology and variability of Southern Hemisphere marine cold-air outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Kolstad, Erik W.

    2010-03-01

    Marine cold air outbreaks (MCAOs) are events where cold air flows over a relatively warm sea surface. Such outbreaks are associated with severe mesoscale weather systems that are not generally resolved in global climate models, such as polar lows and boundary-layer fronts. Here, an analysis of winter climatology and variability of MCAOs in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) is presented. Near the sea ice edge, north-south fluctuations of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index are key, while further north, large-scale wave disturbances are needed to move air masses far enough away from the Antarctic continent to instigate MCAOs. Unlike in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the spatial patterns of mean and extreme values of the MCAO index differ considerably. Near 60°S, both mean and extreme values of the index are similar to those found in the main MCAO regions in the NH. Further north, the mean MCAO index is quite high, but the extreme values are much lower than in the NH. We conclude that MCAOs in the SH are as widespread and can be as strong as in the NH, but severe MCAOs near densely populated regions such as the Tasman Sea are less common than in the Nordic Seas and near Japan.

  20. Isotopic Evidence of a Wide Spectrum of Feeding Strategies in Southern Hemisphere Humpback Whale Baleen Records

    PubMed Central

    Holyoake, Carly; Coughran, Douglas; Nicol, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of Southern hemisphere humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) ecology assumes high-fidelity feeding on Antarctic krill in Antarctic waters during summer, followed by fasting during their annual migration to and from equatorial breeding grounds. An increase in the number of reported departures from this feeding/fasting model suggests that the current model may be oversimplified or, alternatively, undergoing contemporary change. Information about the feeding and fasting cycles of the two Australian breeding populations of humpback whales were obtained through stable isotope analysis of baleen plates from stranded adult individuals. Comparison of isotope profiles showed that individuals from the West Australian breeding population strongly adhered to the classical feeding model. By contrast, East Australian population individuals demonstrated greater heterogeneity in their feeding. On a spectrum from exclusive Antarctic feeding to exclusive feeding in temperate waters, three different strategies were assigned and discussed: classical feeders, supplemental feeders, and temperate zone feeders. Diversity in the inter-annual feeding strategies of humpback whales demonstrates the feeding plasticity of the species, but could also be indicative of changing dynamics within the Antarctic sea-ice ecosystem. This study presents the first investigation of trophodynamics in Southern hemisphere humpback whales derived from baleen plates, and further provides the first estimates of baleen plate elongation rates in the species. PMID:27244081

  1. Origin of a 'Southern Hemisphere' geochemical signature in the Arctic upper mantle.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Steven L; Soffer, Gad; Langmuir, Charles H; Lehnert, Kerstin A; Graham, David W; Michael, Peter J

    2008-05-01

    The Gakkel ridge, which extends under the Arctic ice cap for approximately 1,800 km, is the slowest spreading ocean ridge on Earth. Its spreading created the Eurasian basin, which is isolated from the rest of the oceanic mantle by North America, Eurasia and the Lomonosov ridge. The Gakkel ridge thus provides unique opportunities to investigate the composition of the sub-Arctic mantle and mantle heterogeneity and melting at the lower limits of seafloor spreading. The first results of the 2001 Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Expedition (ref. 1) divided the Gakkel ridge into three tectonic segments, composed of robust western and eastern volcanic zones separated by a 'sparsely magmatic zone'. On the basis of Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios and trace elements in basalts from the spreading axis, we show that the sparsely magmatic zone contains an abrupt mantle compositional boundary. Basalts to the west of the boundary display affinities to the Southern Hemisphere 'Dupal' isotopic province, whereas those to the east-closest to the Eurasian continent and where the spreading rate is slowest-display affinities to 'Northern Hemisphere' ridges. The western zone is the only known spreading ridge outside the Southern Hemisphere that samples a significant upper-mantle region with Dupal-like characteristics. Although the cause of Dupal mantle has been long debated, we show that the source of this signature beneath the western Gakkel ridge was subcontinental lithospheric mantle that delaminated and became integrated into the convecting Arctic asthenosphere. This occurred as North Atlantic mantle propagated north into the Arctic during the separation of Svalbard and Greenland.

  2. Evaluation of the ACCESS - chemistry-climate model for the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Kane A.; Morgenstern, Olaf; Karoly, David J.; Klekociuk, Andrew R.; French, W. John; Abraham, N. Luke; Schofield, Robyn

    2016-02-01

    Chemistry-climate models are important tools for addressing interactions of composition and climate in the Earth system. In particular, they are used to assess the combined roles of greenhouse gases and ozone in Southern Hemisphere climate and weather. Here we present an evaluation of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator - chemistry-climate model (ACCESS-CCM), focusing on the Southern Hemisphere and the Australian region. This model is used for the Australian contribution to the international Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative, which is soliciting hindcast, future projection and sensitivity simulations. The model simulates global total column ozone (TCO) distributions accurately, with a slight delay in the onset and recovery of springtime Antarctic ozone depletion, and consistently higher ozone values. However, October-averaged Antarctic TCO from 1960 to 2010 shows a similar amount of depletion compared to observations. Comparison with model precursors shows large improvements in the representation of the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere, especially in TCO concentrations. A significant innovation is seen in the evaluation of simulated vertical profiles of ozone and temperature with ozonesonde data from Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica from 38 to 90° S. Excess ozone concentrations (greater than 26 % at Davis and the South Pole during winter) and stratospheric cold biases (up to 10 K at the South Pole during summer and autumn) outside the period of perturbed springtime ozone depletion are seen during all seasons compared to ozonesondes. A disparity in the vertical location of ozone depletion is seen: centred around 100 hPa in ozonesonde data compared to above 50 hPa in the model. Analysis of vertical chlorine monoxide profiles indicates that colder Antarctic stratospheric temperatures (possibly due to reduced mid-latitude heat flux) are artificially enhancing polar stratospheric cloud formation at high altitudes. The model's inability to

  3. Beroe gracilis (Ctenophora) from the Humboldt Current System: first occurrence of this species in the southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Otto M P; Feliú, Guillermo; Palma, Sergio

    2014-07-04

    Beroe gracilis Künne, 1939 is a small neritic ctenophore, previously recorded only from cold waters of the northern hemisphere. The present study provides the first record of the species in the southern hemisphere, found in the surface layer of the Humboldt Current System off the central Chilean coast (32°-36.5° S). A complete description of this material is provided.

  4. Potential impact of the May Southern Hemisphere annular mode on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Juan; Wu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Yefan

    2016-10-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is probably a most important external forcing to Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall (ISMR), yet the observed ENSO-ISMR relationship has become weak in recent years. It's essential to explore other predominant modes of variability which can contribute to the ISMR. As the leading mode of the variability in Southern Hemisphere (SH) extratropical atmospheric circulation, the SH annular mode (SAM) has potential influence both on the northern and southern hemispheric climate. The present study investigates the relationship between the SAM and ISMR. It is found that the May SAM exhibits a significant positive correlation with the monsoon precipitation over the Indian sub-continent and the adjacent areas in June-July (JJ). Observational and numerical evidences indicate that the May SAM anomaly can trigger a South Indian Ocean dipole (SIOD) sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) through air-sea interactions. The SIOD SSTA persisting into the following months of JJ excites abnormal meridional circulation and modulates the low-level cross-equatorial flow. Accordingly, the ascending (or descending) motion and water vapor transportation are enhanced (or suppressed), which favors more (or less) precipitation over the Indian sub-continent and the adjacent areas. In fact, the SIOD SSTA plays an "ocean bridge" role to "prolong" the influence of the May SAM to the subsequent season and in turn impacts on the ISMR. Moreover, an empirical model is established to forecast the JJ ISMR strength based on the ENSO, Indian Ocean Dipole and May SAM. The hindcast is carried out for the period 1979-2014, and performs better than the multimodel ensemble mean (MME) obtained from the Development of a European MME system for seasonal to interannual prediction (DEMETER) project. Since all these predictors can be monitored in real time before the early boreal summer, the empirical model might provide a practical real-time forecast tool for predicting ISMR

  5. Nitrogen deposition in a southern hemisphere biodiversity hotspot within and surrounding Cape Town, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angstmann, J. L.; Hall, S.; February, E.; West, A. G.; Allsopp, N.; Bond, W.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emissions have increased dramatically since the agricultural and industrial revolutions leading to N deposition in the northern hemisphere that is estimated to be an order of magnitude greater than preindustrial fluxes. N deposition rates of 5-15 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in Europe and N. America decrease plant species diversity, increase invasive species, and lead to eutrophication of surface waters. The southern hemisphere is home to over 50% of the world's biodiversity hotspots, including the 90,000 km2 Cape Floristic Region which houses 9,030 vascular plant species, 69% of which are endemic. However, to date, N deposition rates in the southern hemisphere are highly uncertain, with global models of N deposition based upon sparse datasets at best. Many terrestrial systems, such as fynbos shrublands, are adapted to low N availability and exhibit high species diversity and endemism, rendering them susceptible to ecological changes from N deposition. In this research, we quantified the spatial and temporal distribution of wet and dry N deposition across 30 protected fynbos ecosystems within the urban airshed of Cape Town, South Africa. We predicted that 1) total inorganic N deposition varies predictably along the urban-rural gradient (highest near the city centre), 2) N deposition varies seasonally, with higher fluxes in the winter months when atmospheric stability causes a build-up of N gases in and around the city, and 3) total inorganic N deposition will exceed the critical load of 10-15 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for Mediterranean shrublands, past which negative ecosystem effects have been shown to occur. Estimates of N deposition based on NO2 concentrations within the city suggest that total N deposition ranges from 8-13 kg N ha-1 yr-1 . However, we show that N deposition measured by ion-exchange resin collectors is far less than expected, averaging less than 2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (range 0.5 - 5.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 ), and is is dominated by NO3-, suggesting

  6. Southern hemisphere sand furrows: spatial patterning and implications for the cryo-venting process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, Ciaran; Bourke, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide is an important volatile on Mars. Seasonally, atmospheric CO2 condenses as ice on to the Martian surface and sublimates during the spring. Links have been made between a suite of observed surface features and the sublimation of surface CO2 ice; these include spider-like araneiform, gullies, and fans. Sand furrows are one such feature; suggested to form due to the erosive action of pressurised CO2 gas as it escapes through cracks in surficial ice (i.e. cryo-venting, Bourke, 2013). There are significant and important differences between the North and South Hemispheres, particularly in the seasonal CO2 deposits. Previous investigations into the formation and distribution of sand furrows on Mars have concentrated solely on the northern hemisphere. We present a study of furrows in the southern hemisphere which has yielded new data on their distribution and spatial patterning as well as providing insights into the cryo-venting process. A total of 221 dune sites were surveyed over the three Martian years' of available HiRISE data to establish the overall distribution of sand furrows. A more detailed study was carried out at eight sites using data from Mars Year 30. These sites represent a latitudinal sample of dunefields located between 40°S to 72°S. Surficial CO2 ice thickness was estimated using the Mars Climate Database (Millour et al., 2014). Our data show that sand furrows are significantly less numerous in the study region than in the northern hemisphere where data show they occur in 95% of surveyed sites. We found a strong correlation between latitude and furrow distribution. As one progresses polewards from 40°S, furrows become more numerous until 68°S. Furrows were not detected south of 72°S. Carbon dioxide ice thickness has been highlighted as a potentially important factor controlling furrow distribution in the northern hemisphere (Bourke and McGaley-Towle, 2014). Results from our investigation suggest there is a feedback mechanism between

  7. Comparison of haloacetic acids in the environment of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Scott, B F; Spencer, C; Martin, J W; Barra, R; Bootsma, H A; Jones, K C; Johnston, A E; Muir, D C G

    2005-11-15

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are a family of compounds whose environmental concentrations have been extensively studied, primarily in Europe. Depending on the compound, their sources are believed to be both natural and anthropogenic. To better understand possible sources and contribute to the knowledge of the global distribution of these compounds, especially between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, samples of precipitation, soils, and conifer needles were collected from Canada, Malawi, Chile, and the U.K. Precipitation samples exhibited highest HAA concentrations in collections from Canada, and lowest in those from Malawi. Malawi samples contained measurable levels of monobromoacetic acid (MBA) (56 ng/ L) unlike those from most other locations (< 9 ng/L). Soil HAA concentration levels were highest in the U.K. (e.g., 7.3 ng/g average TCA) and lowest in Malawi (0.8 ng/g average TCA), with Chile having higher levels (4.8 ng/g average TCA) than Canada (3 ng/g average TCA). Malawi soils contained small amounts of MBA (2 ng/g), in common with the two most southern of the 11 Chilean sites. Analysis of soil cores (10-cm depth sliced at 1 cm) from sites in Malawi and Chile showed that trichloroacetic acid (TCA) generally declined with depth while mono- and dichloroacetic acid (MCA and DCA) showed no trend. MCA, DCA, and TCA concentrations in archived U.K. soil samples increased by factors of 2, 4, and 5-fold over 75 years while TFA showed no consistent trend. Monochloroacetic acid (MCA) was detected in pine needles collected from Malawi. U.K. needle samples had the highest concentrations of all chloroacetic acids (CAAs): MCA, 2-18 ng/g; dichloroacetic acid (DCA), 2-38 ng/g; and trichloroacetic acid (TCA), 28-190 ng/g. Conifer needles from Canada and Chile contained CAAs at levels ranging from < 2 to 16 ng/g wet wt. Trifluoroacetic acid concentrations generally declined with increasing elevation in the samples from the Rocky Mountains in western Canada. The results

  8. Alignments of volcanic features in the southern hemisphere of Mars produced by migrating mantle plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Mars shows alignments of volcanic landforms in its southern hemisphere, starting from the equatorial regions and converging towards the South Pole, and visible at global scale. These composite alignments of volcanoes, calderas, shields, vents, heads of valley networks and massifs between the equatorial regions and the southern polar region define twelve different lines, fitted by rhumb lines (loxodromes), that I propose to be the traces of mantle plumes. The morphology of the volcanic centres changes along some of the alignments suggesting different processes of magma emplacement and eruptive style. The diameters of the volcanic centres and of the volcanic provinces are largest at Tharsis and Elysium, directly proportional to the number of alignments starting from them. A minor presence of unaligned volcanic features is observed on the northern lowlands and on the highlands outside the 12 major alignments. The heads of channels commonly interpreted as fluvial valleys are aligned with the other volcanic centres; unaltered olivine is present along their bed-floors, raising severe doubts as to their aqueous origin. Several hypotheses have tried to explain the formation of Tharsis with the migration of a single mantle plume under the Martian lithosphere, but the discovery of twelve alignments, six starting from Tharsis, favours the hypothesis of several mantle plumes as predicted by the model of the Southern Polar Giant Impact (SPGI) and provides a new view on the formation of the volcanic provinces of Mars.

  9. Attribution of the local Hadley cell widening in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Min, Seung-Ki; Son, Seok-Woo; Choi, Jung

    2017-01-01

    This study conducts an attribution analysis of long-term changes in the southern edge of the local Hadley cell (HC) during austral summer for the past three decades (1979-2009). The southern edges of the local overturning circulations (local HC) are defined as the latitudes of maximum sea level pressure in the Southern Hemisphere subtropics, and the long-term variations of local HC edges from multireanalyses are compared with those from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multimodel simulations by using the optimal fingerprinting technique. The observed local HC exhibits a poleward expansion in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions, which is successfully reproduced by the CMIP5 models including anthropogenic forcing (ANT) but with a weaker amplitude. The detection analyses further show that ANT signals are detected robustly in both Atlantic and Indian HC trends. More importantly, anthropogenic forcings other than greenhouse gas forcing are found to be clearly detected in isolation, indicating a possible attribution of the observed local HC widening over these regions to stratospheric ozone depletion.

  10. Reconciling the observed and modeled Southern Hemisphere circulation response to volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Marie C.; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Deser, Clara

    2016-07-01

    Confusion exists regarding the tropospheric circulation response to volcanic eruptions, with models and observations seeming to disagree on the sign of the response. The forced Southern Hemisphere circulation response to the eruptions of Pinatubo and El Chichón is shown to be a robust positive annular mode, using over 200 ensemble members from 38 climate models. It is demonstrated that the models and observations are not at odds, but rather, internal climate variability is large and can overwhelm the forced response. It is further argued that the state of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation can at least partially explain the sign of the observed anomalies and may account for the perceived discrepancy between model and observational studies. The eruptions of both El Chichón and Pinatubo occurred during El Niño events, and it is demonstrated that the Southern Annular Mode anomalies following volcanic eruptions are weaker during El Niño events compared to La Niña events.

  11. Impacts of Atmosphere-Ocean Coupling on Southern Hemisphere Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; Newman, Paul; Pawson, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Climate in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) has undergone significant changes in recent decades. These changes are closely linked to the shift of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) towards its positive polarity, which is driven primarily by Antarctic ozone depletion. There is growing evidence that Antarctic ozone depletion has significant impacts on Southern Ocean circulation change. However, it is poorly understood whether and how ocean feedback might impact the SAM and climate change in the SH atmosphere. This outstanding science question is investigated using the Goddard Earth Observing System Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean-Chemistry Climate Model(GEOS-AOCCM).We perform ensemble simulations of the recent past (1960-2010) with and without the interactive ocean. For simulations without the interactive ocean, we use sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations produced by the interactive ocean simulations. The differences between these two ensemble simulations quantify the effects of atmosphere-ocean coupling. We will investigate the impacts of atmosphere-ocean coupling on stratospheric processes such as Antarctic ozone depletion and Antarctic polar vortex breakup. We will address whether ocean feedback affects Rossby wave generation in the troposphere and wave propagation into the stratosphere. Another focuson this study is to assess how ocean feedback might affect the tropospheric SAM response to Antarctic ozone depletion

  12. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology: Comparison with TOMS and Ground-Based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn; McPeters, Richard D.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatormo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, Francoise; Coetzee, Gerhard J. R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and Subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes, (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 ozone profiles during the period 1998-2000. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes, combined with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature and relative humidity measurements, collected profiles in the troposphere and lower- to mid-stratosphere at: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa: Reunion Island, Watukosek Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil.

  13. Dated historical biogeography of the temperate Loliinae (Poaceae, Pooideae) grasses in the northern and southern hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Inda, Luis A; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Müller, Jochen; Peterson, Paul M; Catalán, Pilar

    2008-03-01

    Divergence times and biogeographical analyses have been conducted within the Loliinae, one of the largest subtribes of temperate grasses. New sequence data from representatives of the almost unexplored New World, New Zealand, and Eastern Asian centres were added to those of the panMediterranean region and used to reconstruct the phylogeny of the group and to calculate the times of lineage-splitting using Bayesian approaches. The traditional separation between broad-leaved and fine-leaved Festuca species was still maintained, though several new broad-leaved lineages fell within the fine-leaved clade or were placed in an unsupported intermediate position. A strong biogeographical signal was detected for several Asian-American, American, Neozeylandic, and Macaronesian clades with different affinities to both the broad and the fine-leaved Festuca. Bayesian estimates of divergence and dispersal-vicariance analyses indicate that the broad-leaved and fine-leaved Loliinae likely originated in the Miocene (13My) in the panMediterranean-SW Asian region and then expanded towards C and E Asia from where they colonized the New World. Further expansions in America (10-3.8My) showed a predominant migratory route from North to South (N America<-->the Andes<-->Patagonia). This late Tertiary scenario of successive colonizations and secondary polyploid radiations in the southern hemisphere from the northern hemisphere was accompanied by occasional transcontinental long-distance dispersal events between South America and New Zealand. Multiple Pliocene dispersal events (3.6-2.5My) from the near SW European and NW African continents gave rise to the Macaronesian Loliinae flora, while a more recent Pleistocene origin (2-1My) is hypothesized for the high polyploid lineages that successfully colonized newly deglaciated areas in both hemispheres.

  14. Simulated effects of southern hemispheric wind changes on the Pacific oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzlaff, Julia; Dietze, Heiner; Oschlies, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A coupled ocean biogeochemistry-circulation model is used to investigate the impact of observed past and anticipated future wind changes in the Southern Hemisphere on the oxygen minimum zone in the tropical Pacific. We consider the industrial period until the end of the 21st century and distinguish effects due to a strengthening of the westerlies from effects of a southward shift of the westerlies that is accompanied by a poleward expansion of the tropical trade winds. Our model results show that a strengthening of the westerlies counteracts part of the warming-induced decline in the global marine oxygen inventory. A poleward shift of the trade-westerlies boundary, however, triggers a significant decrease of oxygen in the tropical oxygen minimum zone. In a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario, the poleward shift of the trade-westerlies boundary and warming-induced increase in stratification contribute equally to the expansion of suboxic waters in the tropical Pacific.

  15. Observing Changes in Near-Polar Glaciers in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrand, Nicholas E.; Machguth, Horst; Hagen, Jon Ove

    2013-06-01

    Approximately 50 researchers attended the Ice2sea North/South Glacier Workshop at the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS). The aim of the workshop was to highlight the importance of changes in Northern and Southern Hemisphere near-polar glacier systems, which are subject to rapid climate warming from the atmosphere and ocean. Other goals of the workshop were to identify the observations required to understand the changes in these glacier systems and to determine difficulties and opportunities for making future projections. The meeting also served to bring together a new community of researchers working on similar glaciological problems in distinct geographic regions (e.g., the Arctic, including Alaska; Patagonia; and the Antarctic Peninsula). Full details of the workshop agenda and organizing committee can be found in the workshop report at http://www.ice2sea.eu/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Ice2sea_NSWorkshop_FINALREPORT_nosummary.pdf.

  16. Contrasting upper and lower atmospheric metrics of tropical expansion in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, A.; Polvani, L. M.; Waugh, D. W.; Davis, S. M.

    2016-10-01

    Observational studies suggest that the tropics are expanding, but a wide range of expansion rates have been reported (from 0.2° to 2° of latitude per decade). This is due, in part, to the great variety of metrics used to define the tropical width. Here we ask whether these metrics are measuring tropical width consistently, focusing on the Southern Hemisphere, where the circulation is better approximated by the zonally symmetric component. Analyzing output from the Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble Project, we show that tropical expansion robustly occurs in the model in response to forcings. In addition, we find that whereas the width of the Hadley circulation is strongly correlated with the midlatitude jet, from interannual to decadal time scales, it is essentially uncorrelated with upper atmospheric metrics, e.g., the maximum gradient of tropopause height, both in terms of variability and of response to forcings.

  17. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes): An Ozonesonde Network and Resource for Remote Sensing Research and Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2000-01-01

    Balloon-borne ozone instrumentation (ozonesondes), launched at fixed sites, is used to study local patterns in stratospheric and tropospheric ozone and to provide validation for satellite ozone products and model calculations of ozone. A paucity of coordinated ozonesonde data in the southern hemisphere tropics is being remedied in a 3-year project of coordinated ozonesondes launches at 10 sites. The data are available to the scientific community at the SHADOZ website at NASA/Goddard. Stations and their operational characteristics, with examples of ozone observations, are given. One expectation of SHADOZ is that wide dissemination of data and interaction with users and field projects will leverage local funding to maintain infrastructure and operations. SHADOZ data are well-suited for educational projects in which students learn about regional ozone patterns.

  18. The behavior of wave 2 in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere during late winter and early spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Farrara, J. D.; Mechoso, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    The behavior of wave 2 in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) winter and early spring stratosphere has been examined in detail using 10 years of NMC data. Wave 2 is characterized by a broad meridional structure peaking between 55 and 65 S, and regular eastward propagation, with periods ranging from 5 to 40 days. The range of maximum geopotential height amplitudes is from 600 to 1000 m for a year. Consideration is also given to the relationship of wave 2 to other features of stratospheric circulation, Eliassen-Palm fluxes, and synoptic maps. The results obtained show that the zonal mean state of the SH stratosphere frequently satisfies conditions for instability. It is concluded that both instability of zonally symmetric and asymmetric states, and nonlinear interactions between wave 1 and wave 2 are of importance for determining the behavior of wave 2 in the SH winter and spring stratosphere.

  19. Carbon-14 Measurements in Atmospheric CO2 from Northern and Southern Hemisphere Sites, 1962-1993

    SciTech Connect

    Nydal, R.; Loevseth, K.

    1996-11-01

    In the 1960s, thermonulcear bomb test released significant pulses of radioactive carbon 14 into the atmosphere. This major perturbation allowed scientist to study the dynamics of the global carbon cycle by measuring and observing rates isotopic exchange. The Radiological Dating Laboratory at the Norwegian Institute to Technology performed carbon 14 measurements in atmospheric carbon dioxide from 1962 until 1993 at a network of ground stations in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. These measurements were supplemented during 1965 with high- altitude samples collected using aircraft from the Norwegian Air Force. The resulting database, coupled with other carbon 14 measurements, broad spatial coverage of sampling, consistency of sampling method, and the change in carbon 14 calculation results corrected for isotopic fractionation and radioactive decay. This database replaces previous versions published by the authors and the Radiological Dating Laboratory.

  20. Effects of energetic particles precipitation on stratospheric ozone in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zossi de Artigas, Marta; Zotto, Elda M.; Mansilla, Gustavo A.; Fernandez de Campra, Patricia

    2016-11-01

    Measurements from TOMS and UARS-HALOE are used to estimate the effects of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) over the stratosphere during two geomagnetic storms occurred in November of the years 2003 and 2004. The EPP couples the solar wind to the Earth's atmosphere and indirectly to the Earth's climate. Due to particle precipitation, the ionization and dissociation increase, and create odd nitrogen (NOx) and odd hydrogen (HOx) in the upper atmosphere, which can affect ozone chemistry. In this paper, statistically significant variation in total ozone content at middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere is observed. The variations depend on the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the geomagnetic longitude. A significant variation in NOx concentration at altitudes from 30 to 50 km is observed from the profiles analysis.

  1. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes): A Tropical Ozonesonde-Radiosonde Network for the Atmospheric Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.

    2003-01-01

    A lack of sounding data has limited the accuracy of ozone satellite retrievals in the tropics and our understanding of chemical-dynamical interactions in a region strongly influenced by natural variability and anthropogenic activity. In 1998, NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) and a team of international sponsors established the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project to address the gap in tropical ozone soundings. SHADOZ augments launches at selected sites and provides a public archive of ozonesonde and radiosonde data from twelve tropical and subtropical stations at http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. Instrumentation, data and a summary of the first scientific findings from SHADOZ are presented.

  2. Potential to kinetic energy conversion in wave number domain for the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, H.-J.; Vincent, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results of a wave number study conducted for the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) using FGGE data for the period January 10-27, 1979 are reported. In particular, three variables (geomagnetic height, z, vertical p-velocity, omega, and temperature, T) and one energy conversion quantity, omega-alpha (where alpha is the specific volume), are shown. It is demonstrated that wave number 4 plays an important role in the conversion from available potential energy to kinetic energy in the Southern Hemisphere tropics, particularly in the vicinity of the SPCZ. It is therefore suggested that the development and movement of wave number 4 waves be carefully monitored in making forecasts for the South Pacific region.

  3. Faunal evidence for reduced productivity and uncoordinated recovery in Southern Hemisphere Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aberhan, Martin; Weidemeyer, Sven; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Scasso, Roberto A.; Medina, Francisco A.

    2007-03-01

    The mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary is generally explained by a severe crisis in primary productivity, following a catastrophic bolide impact. Consistent with this scenario, Danian mollusk-dominated benthic shelf ecosystems of southern middle paleolatitudes (Neuquén Basin, Argentina) are characterized by (1) a stratigraphically limited low in macrofossil abundances; (2) an increase in starvation-resistant, nonplanktotrophic deposit feeders and chemosymbionts; (3) a reduction in the average body size of individuals; and (4) individuals with inactive lifestyles being more common than in the late Maastrichtian. Return to pre-extinction conditions of the various synecological attributes occurred over unequal time spans, indicating that recovery was uncoordinated with respect to ecological traits. Global comparison of ecological patterns suggests that reduced food supply (1) was a controlling factor in both hemispheres; (2) affected macrobenthic marine faunas at various distances from the Chicxulub impact site; and (3) was more effective in siliciclastic environments as compared to oligotrophic carbonate settings.

  4. The Search for Light Echoes of Historic SNe in the Southern Hemisphere with DECam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rest, Armin; Bianco, Federica; Chornock, Ryan; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Foley, Ryan J.; James, David; Matheson, Thomas; Narayan, Gautham; Olsen, Knut A.; Points, Sean; Prieto, Jose Luis; Smith, R. Chris; Smith, Nathan; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Welch, Douglas L.; Zenteno, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, light echoes of ancient SNe have been discovered with the Mosaic II cameras at the CTIO Blanco and KPNO Mayall telescopes. We have found light echoes in the LMC (Rest et al. 2005, 2008a) and near the historical Galactic events Cas A, Tycho, and Eta Car (Rest et al. 2008b, 2011a, 2012). However, searches for light echoes near the Kepler SN and SN 1006 have not yet been successful. We have started a search for light echoes in the southern hemisphere using DECam at the CTIO Blanco telescope. DECam is an excellent light echo detection system with its larger field of view and much faster read time compared to Mosaic II. This increases the efficiency of the search by more than a factor of 10, allowing us to cover significantly larger areas of the sky. We report on strategy, progress, current coverage, and first results of our project.

  5. The Genome of a Southern Hemisphere Seagrass Species (Zostera muelleri)1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Golicz, Agnieszka A.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Sablok, Gaurav; Krishnaraj, Rahul R.; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Batley, Jacqueline; Ralph, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Seagrasses are marine angiosperms that evolved from land plants but returned to the sea around 140 million years ago during the early evolution of monocotyledonous plants. They successfully adapted to abiotic stresses associated with growth in the marine environment, and today, seagrasses are distributed in coastal waters worldwide. Seagrass meadows are an important oceanic carbon sink and provide food and breeding grounds for diverse marine species. Here, we report the assembly and characterization of the Zostera muelleri genome, a southern hemisphere temperate species. Multiple genes were lost or modified in Z. muelleri compared with terrestrial or floating aquatic plants that are associated with their adaptation to life in the ocean. These include genes for hormone biosynthesis and signaling and cell wall catabolism. There is evidence of whole-genome duplication in Z. muelleri; however, an ancient pan-commelinid duplication event is absent, highlighting the early divergence of this species from the main monocot lineages. PMID:27373688

  6. Design and test of an airborne IR countermeasures hyper-hemispherical silicon dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Michael J.; Guyer, Robert C.; Fenton, Thomas E.

    2007-09-01

    A 6.5 inch diameter hyper-hemispherical silicon dome was developed on IRAD for an infrared countermeasures aircraft self-protection system. Having passed operational level environmental testing and many hours of flight performance, a prototype dome was subjected to MIL test requirements in simulated crash safety testing at the manufacturer's facility. Although the dome cracked during shock testing, it remained intact preserving aircraft integrity and actually passing safety requirements. This paper describes design requirements, stress analyses of the dome and its mounting, and test results including a forensic cause of failure study of the dome. The results add insight to the margins of safety normally applied to the stress analyses of brittle optical materials and examine actual cause of failure in the prototype part.

  7. Differential snow accumulation and melt at southern hemisphere deciduous forested sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, James; Huerta, Marlene; Molotch, Noah

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the differential snow dynamics resulting from forest cover in southern hemisphere alpine regions. Tree species variability and differences in local climate preclude extrapolation of northern hemisphere results and introduce uncertainty on the future impacts of climate change on snow-cover duration, maximum accumulation and melt rates. This research presents preliminary results from field observations obtained at an experimental watershed in the Nevados de Chillan region, in south-central Chile. The relatively low elevation of the Andes Cordillera and higher latitude of the site allows the existence of mixed Nothofagus forests, sometimes combined with bamboo-type undergrowth. Rain-on-snow events can be observed during winter and in the early stages of the austral spring. We installed four instrument clusters at the Valle Hermoso experimental catchments, where snow depth, air temperature and relative humidity were measured both under canopy and in forest clearings. The clusters where positioned in order to cover a range of elevations and sun exposure. Preliminary results from two winter seasons suggest that forest cover can impact accumulation rates as much as elevation does, and that melt rates are fairly sensitive to forest cover even in low LAI conditions.

  8. Culturable bacteria in subglacial sediments and ice from two Southern Hemisphere glaciers.

    PubMed

    Foght, J; Aislabie, J; Turner, S; Brown, C E; Ryburn, J; Saul, D J; Lawson, W

    2004-05-01

    Viable prokaryotes have been detected in basal sediments beneath the few Northern Hemisphere glaciers that have been sampled for microbial communities. However, parallel studies have not previously been conducted in the Southern Hemisphere, and subglacial environments in general are a new and underexplored niche for microbes. Unfrozen subglacial sediments and overlying glacier ice samples collected aseptically from the Fox Glacier and Franz Josef Glacier in the Southern Alps of New Zealand now have been shown to harbor viable microbial populations. Total direct counts of 2-7 x 10(6) cells g(-1) dry weight sediment were observed, whereas culturable aerobic heterotrophs ranged from 6-9 x 10(5) colony-forming units g(-1) dry weight. Viable counts in the glacier ice typically were 3-4 orders of magnitude smaller than in sediment. Nitrate-reducing and ferric iron-reducing bacteria were detected in sediment samples from both glaciers, but were few or below detection limits in the ice samples. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were detected only in the Fox Glacier sediment. Restriction fragment analysis of 16S rDNA amplified from 37 pure cultures of aerobic heterotrophs capable of growth at 4 degrees C yielded 23 distinct groups, of which 11 were identified as beta-Proteobacteria. 16S rDNA sequences from representatives of these 11 groups were analyzed phylogenetically and shown to cluster with bacteria such as Polaromonas vacuolata and Rhodoferax antarcticus, or with clones obtained from permanently cold environments. Chemical analysis of sediment and ice samples revealed a dilute environment for microbial life. Nevertheless, both the sediment samples and one ice sample demonstrated substantial aerobic mineralization of 14C-acetate at 8 degrees C, indicating that sufficient nutrients and viable psychrotolerant microbes were present to support metabolism. Unfrozen subglacial sediments may represent a significant global reservoir of biological activity with the potential to

  9. Cryptic Eimeria genotypes are common across the southern but not northern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Thenmozhi, V; Kundu, Krishnendu; Garg, Rajat; Kumar, Saroj; Ayoade, Simeon; Fornace, Kimberly M; Jatau, Isa Danladi; Moftah, Abdalgader; Nolan, Matthew J; Sudhakar, N R; Adebambo, A O; Lawal, I A; Álvarez Zapata, Ramón; Awuni, Joseph A; Chapman, H David; Karimuribo, Esron; Mugasa, Claire M; Namangala, Boniface; Rushton, Jonathan; Suo, Xun; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Srinivasa Rao, Arni S R; Tewari, Anup K; Banerjee, Partha S; Dhinakar Raj, G; Raman, M; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P

    2016-08-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa includes parasites of medical, zoonotic and veterinary significance. Understanding the global distribution and genetic diversity of these protozoa is of fundamental importance for efficient, robust and long-lasting methods of control. Eimeria spp. cause intestinal coccidiosis in all major livestock animals and are the most important parasites of domestic chickens in terms of both economic impact and animal welfare. Despite having significant negative impacts on the efficiency of food production, many fundamental questions relating to the global distribution and genetic variation of Eimeria spp. remain largely unanswered. Here, we provide the broadest map yet of Eimeria occurrence for domestic chickens, confirming that all the known species (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria tenella) are present in all six continents where chickens are found (including 21 countries). Analysis of 248 internal transcribed spacer sequences derived from 17 countries provided evidence of possible allopatric diversity for species such as E. tenella (FST values ⩽0.34) but not E. acervulina and E. mitis, and highlighted a trend towards widespread genetic variance. We found that three genetic variants described previously only in Australia and southern Africa (operational taxonomic units x, y and z) have a wide distribution across the southern, but not the northern hemisphere. While the drivers for such a polarised distribution of these operational taxonomic unit genotypes remains unclear, the occurrence of genetically variant Eimeria may pose a risk to food security and animal welfare in Europe and North America should these parasites spread to the northern hemisphere.

  10. A Southern Hemisphere atmospheric history of carbon monoxide from South Pole firn air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Novelli, P. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Prather, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a reactive trace gas and is important to tropospheric photochemistry as a major sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Major sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, linked mostly to automotive emissions, biomass burning, and oxidation of atmospheric methane. Understanding changes in carbon monoxide over the past century will improve our understanding of man's influence on the reactivity of the atmosphere. Little observational information is available about CO levels and emissions prior to the 1990s, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. The NOAA global flask network provides the most complete instrumental record of CO, extending back to 1988. Annually averaged surface flask measurements suggest atmospheric CO levels at South Pole were relatively stable from 2004-2009 at about 51 nmol mol-1 [Novelli and Masarie, 2013]. In this study, a 20th century atmospheric history of CO is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, using a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled from the surface to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 field season and CO analysis was carried out by NOAA/CCG. Carbon monoxide levels increase from about 45 nmol mol-1 in the deepest firn sample at 116 m to 52 nmol mol-1 at 107 m, and remain constant at about 51-52 nmol mol-1 at shallower depths. Atmospheric histories based on the firn air reconstructions suggest that CO levels over Antarctica increased by roughly 40% (from about 36 to 50 nmol mol-1) between 1930-1990, at a rate of about 0.18 nmol mol-1 yr-1. Firn air and surface air results suggest the rate of CO increase at South Pole slowed considerably after 1990. The firn air-based atmospheric history is used to infer changes in Southern Hemisphere CO emissions over the 20th century.

  11. Signature of a southern hemisphere extratropical influence on the summer monsoon over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswambharan, Nithin; Mohanakumar, K.

    2013-07-01

    The weakening relationship of El Nino with Indian summer monsoon reported in recent years is a major issue to be addressed. The altered relationships of Indian monsoon with various parameters excite to search for other dominant modes of variability that can influence the precipitation pattern. Since the Indian summer monsoon circulation originates in the oceanic region of the southern hemisphere, the present study investigates the association of southern extratropical influence on Indian summer monsoon using rainfall and reanalysis parameters. The effect of Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index during the month of June associated with the onset phase of Indian summer monsoon and that during July-August linked with the active phase of the monsoon were analysed separately for a period from 1951 to 2008. The extra-tropical influence over the monsoon is illustrated by using rainfall, specific humidity, vertical velocity, circulation and moisture transport. The June high SAM index enhances the lower level wind flow during the onset phase of monsoon over Indian sub-continent. The area of significant positive correlation between precipitation and SAM in June also shows enhancement in both ascending motion and specific humidity during the strong phase of June SAM. On the other hand, the June high SAM index adversely affects July-August monsoon over Indian subcontinent. The lower level wind flow weakens due to the high SAM. Enhancement of divergence and reduction in moisture transport results in the Indian monsoon region due to the activity of this high southern annular mode. The effect is more pronounced over the southwest region where the precipitation spell has high activity during the period. Significant correlation exists between SAM and ISMR, even after removing the effect of El Nino. It indicates that the signals of Indian summer monsoon characteristics can be envisaged to a certain extend using the June SAM index.

  12. Levels and profiles of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in Southern Hemisphere humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Paulo R; Lailson-Brito, José; Secchi, Eduardo R; Dirtu, Alin C; Weijs, Liesbeth; Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Bassoi, Manuela; Cunha, Haydée A; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    The study documents the levels and profiles of selected contaminants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs)] in blubber biopsy samples collected from humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Antarctic Peninsula waters. In addition, we investigated year-to-year and sex-related differences in the bioaccumulation patterns. Except for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), whose concentrations were in the same range as those found in whales from the Northern Hemisphere, levels of all other compounds were lower in Southern Hemisphere whales compared to literature data on animals from the Arctic and subarctic region. The mean contribution to the sum of all anthropogenic organohalogen compounds (ΣOHC) decreased in the following order ΣPCBs (44%)>HCB (31%)>ΣDDXs (13%)>ΣCHLs (4.6%)>ΣHCHs (4.4%)>ΣPBDEs (0.9%). The predominant compounds within each chemical class were: PCBs 153, 149, 101 and 138; p,p'-DDE; γ-HCH; trans-nonachlor; PBDEs 99 and 47. The most dominant MeO-PBDE congener was 6-MeO-BDE 47. As samples were collected during three consecutive summer seasons, year-to-year trends could be assessed indicating a significant decrease from 2000 to 2003 for ΣCHL levels. Higher ΣPBDE concentrations and higher values of the ΣPBDE / ΣMeO-PBDE ratio, as well as higher ratios between the two MeO-BDEs (2'-MeO-BDE 68/6-MeO-BDE 47) were found in females compared to males. Higher ΣMeO-PBDE concentrations and higher values of the ratios between the lower chlorinated and the higher chlorinated PCBs were found in males than in females. In addition, five out of six significant differences found through discriminant function analysis were gender-related. The literature reports both feeding in mid- to low-latitudes and sex-related differences in migration patterns for humpback whales from the Southern Hemisphere, indicating that the hypothesis of dietary differences between males and

  13. Observations of Coastal IO Emissions on the Southern Hemisphere and Emission Potential of Different Seaweed Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, Martin; Schmitt, Stefan; Frieß, Udo; Pöhler, Denis; Johnston, Paul; Kreher, Karin; Robinson, Andrew D.; Thomas, Alan; Harris, Neil R. P.; Platt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    At coastal sites reactive iodine species emitted by seaweed in the intertidal zone during low tide are known to have an important influence on the atmospheric chemistry. However, many underlying mechanisms are presently not understood. Also coastal studies were focused on a few locations on the northern hemisphere and their predominant seaweed species laminaria digitata and ascophyllum nodosum. Therefore the spatial emission and extent of the areas where halogen chemistry is of importance needs to be much better quantified. Especially in the mid latitudes of the southern hemisphere RHS measurements are very sparse. Here we report the first observations of coastal iodine monoxide (IO) in the southern hemisphere during the HALMA/MAORI campaign which was carried out in February to March 2013 on the east coast of New Zealand's South Island at Shag Point located north of Dunedin. To detect IO we used a mobile Open Light Path Cavity Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) instrument and a stationary Long Path (LP)-DOAS Instrument, which was furthermore used to measure BrO, O3 and I2. The measurement path was positioned over the water and mainly measured air masses that only passes over submerged seaweed forests. With the CE-DOAS placed close to exposed seaweed patches (mainly Macrocystis Pyrifera) we were able to observe high IO mixing ratios of up to 50 ppt (2ppt detection limit). However, the LP-DOAS did not detect IO above the detection limit of 0.7 ppt. This is consistent with previous observations which found that seaweed only emits halogens when exposed to air. To further investigate the emission potential of the seaweed species we setup a Teflon chamber around the CE-DOAS and measured the emissions of five different species for several hours. Additionally the air in the chamber was probed by a compact gas chromatograph (μDIRAC) for measurements of halocarbons and a TEI Ozone monitor. We found very high IO mixing ratios of up to 500 ppt for

  14. A 2 year record of atmospheric mercury species at a background Southern Hemisphere station on Amsterdam Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angot, H.; Barret, M.; Magand, O.; Ramonet, M.; Dommergue, A.

    2014-06-01

    Scarcity of mercury species records in the Southern Hemisphere is a critical weak point for the development of appropriate modeling and regulation scenarios. Under the framework of the "Global Mercury Observation System" (GMOS) project, a monitoring station has been set up on Amsterdam Island (37°48' S, 77°34' E) in the remote southern Indian Ocean. For the first time in the Southern Hemisphere, a 2 year record of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particle-bound mercury (PBM) is presented. GEM concentrations were remarkably steady (1.03 ± 0.08 pg m-3) while RGM and PBM concentrations were very low and exhibited a strong variability (mean: 0.34 pg m-3 [range: 0.28-4.07 pg m-3] and mean: 0.67 pg m-3 [range: 0.28-12.67 pg m-3], respectively). Despite the remoteness of the island, wind sector analysis, air mass back trajectories and the observation of radonic storms highlighted a long-range contribution from the southern African continent to the GEM and PBM budgets in winter during the biomass burning season. Lowest concentrations of GEM were associated with southerly polar and marine air masses from the remote southern Indian Ocean. This unique dataset provides new baseline GEM concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes for further modeling studies, while mercury speciation along with upcoming wet deposition data will help improving our understanding of mercury cycle in the marine boundary layer.

  15. A 2-year record of atmospheric mercury species at a background Southern Hemisphere station on Amsterdam Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angot, H.; Barret, M.; Magand, O.; Ramonet, M.; Dommergue, A.

    2014-10-01

    Although essential to fully understand the cycling of mercury at the global scale, mercury species records in the Southern Hemisphere are scarce. Under the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project, a monitoring station has been set up on Amsterdam Island (37°48´ S, 77°34´ E) in the remote southern Indian Ocean. For the first time in the Southern Hemisphere, a 2-year record of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particle-bound mercury (PBM) is presented. GEM concentrations were remarkably steady (1.03 ± 0.08 ng m-3) while RGM and PBM concentrations were very low and exhibited a strong variability (mean: 0.34 pg m-3, range: < detection limit-4.07 pg m-3; and mean: 0.67 pg m-3, range: < detection limit-12.67 pg m-3, respectively). Despite the remoteness of the island, wind sector analysis, air mass back trajectories and the observation of radonic storms highlighted a long-range contribution from the southern African continent to the GEM and PBM budgets from July to September during the biomass burning season. Low concentrations of GEM were associated with southerly polar and marine air masses from the remote southern Indian Ocean. This unique data set provides new baseline GEM concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes while mercury speciation along with upcoming wet deposition data will help to improve our understanding of the mercury cycle in the marine boundary layer.

  16. A powerful new southern hemisphere survey for near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, E.; Lister, T.; Larson, S.; Gibbs, A.; Grauer, A.; Hill, R.; Johnson, J.; Kowalski, R.; Sanders, R.; Shelly, F.

    2014-07-01

    For nearly a decade, the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) operated the Siding Spring Survey (SSS) in partnership with the Australian National University. The SSS was the only professional, full-time NEO survey in the Southern Hemisphere during this period. The SSS ceased operations in July of 2013, and the lack of a full-time, state-of-the-art survey in the Southern Hemisphere leaves a significant blind spot in NASA's ongoing effort to identify and track near-Earth objects (NEOs) that may pose a hazard to the Earth, or that may be appropriate destinations for robotic or human missions. The CSS and the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) are partnering to fill this gap, by rapidly building, deploying and operating a network of three dedicated 1.0-meter survey telescopes at Cerro Tololo, one of the premiere astronomical sites in the Southern Hemisphere. The partnership between CSS and LCOGT provides a fast-track, low-risk, and cost-effective survey capability that will be fully dedicated to the NEO discovery effort. The first of three survey telescopes will be operational ˜18 months after the start of funding, with the second and third telescopes coming online within an additional ˜12 months. Our joint survey will be a powerful new NEO survey capability. The telescopes are based on the field-tested LCOGT 1.0-m design, modified to feature a faster f/1.8 primary and a prime focus camera that will deliver an 8.6 deg^2 field of view (FOV), with a resolution of 1.0 arcseconds per pixel. The three co-located telescopes will offer the operational flexibility to survey together (acting as a 1.7-m telescope), or separately (effectively delivering a 25+ deg^2 FOV), and will have no competing science goals to compromise from the primary mission of NEO discovery. The telescopes will be robotically operated, and the data will be processed, validated, and reported in near real-time from the CSS headquarters in Tucson. Same-night and subsequent night astrometric

  17. Study on the abundance of CFCs varying with the latitude at the bottom of the troposphere in the southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Chen, L; Li, Y; Yang, Y; Shen, Y; Dong, Z; Yaoshiyuki, F

    2001-06-15

    As the main ozone depleting compounds, the abundance of CFCs in the troposphere and stratosphere has been focused on all the while. However, there are few reports concerning on the CFCs' latitudinal dependence. Relying on the longterm monitoring that has been performed in Shanghai from 1997 and Cooperating with the Chinese Third Antarctic Inland Ice-sheet Traversal Party, we did intensive sampling in the southern hemisphere from the beginning of November to the end of December in 1998 and then got the corresponding concentrations of CFC-12, CFC-11, and CFC-113 according to the latitude. The data were studied inductively in accordance with the geographical location and meteorological condition of every sampling point. In summary, the average concentrations of CFCs (refer to CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) in equatorial area are the highest in the southern hemisphere; however, the concentrations in prevailing west-wind belt and polar east-wind belt are much lower and at the same levels, which should be a perfect implication of the mean background in the southern hemisphere. Being related to the special polar circumfluence, the concentrations of CFCs on the glacier reveal a special rise. Compared with the mean background of the southern hemisphere that is represented by the data of the prevailing west-wind belt and Polar east-wind belt, the concentrations in Shanghai bear the same level.

  18. Early Holocene Laurentide Icesheet deglaciation causes cooling in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere through oceanic teleconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renssen, Hans; Goosse, Hugues; Crosta, Xavier; Roche, Didier M.

    2010-05-01

    The impact of the early Holocene Laurentide Icesheet (LIS) deglaciation on the climate at Southern Hemisphere high latitudes is studied in three transient simulations performed with the LOVECLIM global climate model of the coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation system. Considering the LIS deglaciation, we quantify separately the impacts of the background melt-water fluxes and the changes in topography and surface albedo. In our model, the melt-water input into the North Atlantic results in a substantial weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning circulation, associated with absence of deep convection in the Labrador Sea. Northward Ocean heat transport by the Atlantic Ocean is reduced by 28%. This weakened ocean circulation leads to cooler North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Upwelling of this cool NADW in the Southern Ocean results in reduced surface temperatures (by 1 to 2 degree C) here between 9 and 7 ka BP compared to an experiment without LIS deglaciation. Poleward of the polar front zone, this advective teleconnection between the Southern and Northern Hemispheres overwhelms the effect of the ‘classical' bipolar seesaw mechanism. These results provide an explanation for the relatively cold climatic conditions between 9 and 7 ka BP reconstructed in several proxy records from Southern Hemisphere high latitudes, such as Antarctic ice cores. It can then be expected that similar hemispheric connections existed during earlier deglaciations.

  19. Not just about sunburn--the ozone hole's profound effect on climate has significant implications for Southern Hemisphere ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sharon A; Erickson, David J

    2015-02-01

    Climate scientists have concluded that stratospheric ozone depletion has been a major driver of Southern Hemisphere climate processes since about 1980. The implications of these observed and modelled changes in climate are likely to be far more pervasive for both terrestrial and marine ecosystems than the increase in ultraviolet-B radiation due to ozone depletion; however, they have been largely overlooked in the biological literature. Here, we synthesize the current understanding of how ozone depletion has impacted Southern Hemisphere climate and highlight the relatively few documented impacts on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Reviewing the climate literature, we present examples of how ozone depletion changes atmospheric and oceanic circulation, with an emphasis on how these alterations in the physical climate system affect Southern Hemisphere weather, especially over the summer season (December-February). These potentially include increased incidence of extreme events, resulting in costly floods, drought, wildfires and serious environmental damage. The ecosystem impacts documented so far include changes to growth rates of South American and New Zealand trees, decreased growth of Antarctic mosses and changing biodiversity in Antarctic lakes. The objective of this synthesis was to stimulate the ecological community to look beyond ultraviolet-B radiation when considering the impacts of ozone depletion. Such widespread changes in Southern Hemisphere climate are likely to have had as much or more impact on natural ecosystems and food production over the past few decades, than the increased ultraviolet radiation due to ozone depletion.

  20. New Insights on Tropical Ozone from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone sounding network was initiated in 1998 to improve the coverage of tropical in-situ ozone measurements for satellite validation, algorithm development and related process studies. Over 2000 soundings have been archived at the website, , for 12 stations: Ascension Island; Nairobi and Malindi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island, Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil; Paramaribo, Surinam. Key results from SHADOZ will be described from among the following: 1) By using ECC sondes with similar procedures, 5-10% accuracy and precision (1-sigma) of the sonde total ozone measurement was achieved; 2) Week-to-week variability in tropospheric ozone is so great that statistics are frequently not Gaussian; most stations vary up to a factor of 3 in tropospheric column over the course of a year; 3) Longitudinal variability in tropospheric ozone profiles is a consistent feature, with a 10-15 DU column-integrated difference between Atlantic and Pacific sites; this causes a "zonal wave-one" feature in total ozone. 4) The ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6N, 55W) is a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone; 5) Indian Ocean region pollution may contribute up to half of the excess ozone observed in the south tropical Atlantic paradox in the December-January-February period of the year.

  1. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes): A Project Overview and New Insights on Tropical Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone sounding network was initiated in 1998 to improve the coverage of tropical in-situ ozone measurements for satellite validation, algorithm development and related process studies. Over 2000 soundings have been archived at the website, http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz, for 12 stations: Ascension Island; Nairobi and Malindi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil; Paramaribo, Surinam. Key results from SHADOZ will be described from among the following: 1) By using ECC sondes with similar procedures, 5-10% accuracy and precision (1-sigma) of the sonde total ozone measurement is achieved; 2) Week-to-week variability in tropospheric ozone is so great that statistics are frequently not Gaussian; most stations vary up to a factor of 3 in tropospheric column over the course of a year; 3) Longitudinal variability in tropospheric ozone profiles is a consistent feature, with a 10-15 DU column-integrated difference between Atlantic and Pacific sites; this causes a "zonal wave-one" feature in total ozone; 4) The ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6N, 55W) is a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.

  2. Curvilinear features in the southern hemisphere observed by Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiqun; Toigo, Anthony D.; Richardson, Mark I.

    2011-09-01

    We have used the complete set of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Daily Global Maps (MDGMs) to study martian weather in the southern hemisphere, focusing on curvilinear features, including frontal events and streaks. "Frontal events" refer to visible events that are morphologically analogous to terrestrial baroclinic storms. MDGMs show that visible frontal events were mainly concentrated in the 210-300°E (60-150°W) sector and the 0-60°E sector around the southern polar cap during L s = 140-250° and L s = 340-60°. The non-uniform spatial and temporal distributions of activity were also shown by MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer transient temperature variations near the surface. "Streaks" refer to long curvilinear features in the polar hood or over the polar cap. They are an indicator of the shape of the polar vortex. Streaks in late winter usually show wavy segments between the 180° meridian and Argyre. Model results suggest that the zonal wave number m = 3 eastward traveling waves are important for their formation.

  3. Relationships between the extratropical ENSO precursor and leading modes of atmospheric variability in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianhuang; Ding, Ruiqiang; Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Jianping; Zhao, Sen

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that the atmospheric precursor of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the extratropical Southern Hemisphere (SH) might trigger a quadrapole sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) in the South Pacific and subsequently influence the following ENSO. Such a quadrapole SSTA is referred to as the South Pacific quadrapole (SPQ). The present study investigated the relationships between the atmospheric precursor signal of ENSO and leading modes of atmospheric variability in the extratropical SH [including the SH annular mode (SAM), the first Pacific-South America (PSA1) mode, and the second Pacific-South America (PSA2) mode]. The results showed that the atmospheric precursor signal in the extratropical SH basically exhibits a barotropic wavenumber-3 structure over the South Pacific and is significantly correlated with the SAM and the PSA2 mode during austral summer. Nevertheless, only the PSA2 mode was found to be a precursor for the following ENSO. It leads the SPQ-like SSTA by around one month, while the SAM and the PSA1 mode do not show any obvious linkage with either ENSO or the SPQ. This suggests that the PSA2 mode may provide a bridge between the preceding circulation anomalies over the extratropical SH and the following ENSO through the SPQ-like SSTA.

  4. The influence of ozone forcing on blocking in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, Fraser W.; McDonald, Adrian; Morgenstern, Olaf

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the influence of ozone depletion and recovery on tropospheric blocking in the Southern Hemisphere. Blocking events are identified using a persistent positive anomaly method applied to 500 hPa geopotential height. Using the National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research-United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosols chemistry-climate model, we compare reference runs that include forcing due to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone-depleting substances to sensitivity simulations in which ozone-depleting substances are fixed at their 1960 abundances and other sensitivity simulations with GHGs fixed at their 1960 abundances. Blocking events in the South Atlantic are shown to follow stratospheric positive anomalies in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index; this is not the case for South Pacific blocking events. This relationship means that summer ozone depletion, and corresponding positive SAM anomalies, leads to an increased frequency of blocking in the South Atlantic while having little effect in the South Pacific. Similarly, ozone recovery, having the opposite effect on the SAM, leads to a decline in blocking frequency in the South Atlantic, although this may be somewhat counteracted by the effect of increasing GHGs.

  5. The influence of ozone forcing on blocking in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, Fraser; McDonald, Adrian; Morgenstern, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the influence of ozone depletion and recovery on blocking in the Southern Hemisphere. Blocking events are identified using a persistent positive anomaly method applied to 500hPa geopotential height. Using the NIWA-UKCA chemistry-climate model, we compare reference runs including forcing due to greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances to sensitivity simulations in which ozone depleting substances are fixed at their 1960 abundances and other sensitivity simulations with greenhouse gases fixed at their 1960 abundances. We find that during summer ozone depletion leads to an increased frequency of blocking in the South Atlantic while having little effect in the South Pacific. Blocking events in the South Atlantic are shown to follow positive anomalies in the stratospheric Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index; this is not the case for South Pacific blocking events. This difference would seem to explain the change in blocking frequency as during summer, in the model and in reality ozone depletion pushes the SAM towards its positive polarity. Similarly, ozone recovery, having the opposite influence on the SAM, leads to a reduction in blocking frequency in the South Atlantic, although this is somewhat counteracted by the effect of increasing greenhouse gases

  6. Investigating the influence of stratospheric ozone trends on Southern Hemisphere hydrological climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purich, Ariaan

    Changes in stratospheric ozone have previously been linked to Southern Hemisphere (SH) circulation changes. This study examines output from coupled climate models participating in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) for trends in precipitation and evaporation in the 20th and 21st centuries to assess whether stratospheric ozone influences the hydrological cycle and extreme precipitation in the SH extratropics, particularly during austral summer. Nineteen models are used, of which 10 incorporated ozone depletion (recovery) in the 20th (21st) century, whilst nine simply prescribed climatological ozone in both past and future climates. Trends in seasonal-mean precipitation are found to dominate overall changes in precipitation minus evaporation. For the 20th century, models with ozone depletion show a significant increase (decrease) in summer precipitation in high latitudes (mid-latitudes) compared to models without ozone depletion. In contrast, for the 21st century, models without ozone recovery show significantly larger changes in summer precipitation in these regions compared to models with ozone recovery. No significant differences, however, are found in the two sets of models during austral winter when stratospheric ozone is inactive. These results suggest that Antarctic ozone depletion and recovery significantly modulates hydrological climate change in the SH extratropics, in agreement with findings of previous studies. It is further found that stratospheric ozone primarily affects the frequency of light precipitation events (1--10 mm day--1 ), indicating that an increase in mean precipitation over the Southern Ocean corresponds to an increase in the number of light precipitation days rather than extreme events. Implications of this finding to the SH surface climate and Southern Ocean circulation changes are discussed.

  7. Postglacial Records of Southern Hemisphere Westerly Wind Variability From the New Zealand Subantarctic Auckland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, C. M.; Vandergoes, M.; Gilmer, G. J.; Nichols, J. E.; Dagg, B. J.; Wilson, G. S.; Browne, I. M.; Curtin, L. G.; Aebig, C.; McGlone, M.

    2015-12-01

    The strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWW) play a fundamental role in influencing mid latitude climate and carbon dioxide exchange between the Southern Ocean and the atmosphere. Despite their importance, our understanding of past changes in the SHWW is limited by few paleoclimate records from the modern wind maximum that are often not in agreement. The New Zealand subantarctic Auckland Islands are located within the core of the modern wind belt (50°S) where the ocean-atmospheric linkages between the Antarctic and middle latitudes are strong. In contrast to other subantarctic islands on the Campbell Plateau, the Auckland Islands have protected fjord sub-basins, deep lakes, and peatlands that are advantageous for the development of high-resolution paleoclimate records. We will present ongoing work towards the establishment of multi-proxy and multi-site reconstructions of past SHWW variability from the Auckland Islands. Modern process and paleoclimate results from two research cruises in 2014 and 2015 suggest that in lacustrine and fjord settings, the degree of water column mixing, the stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes and benthic foraminifera, the influx of terrestrial organic matter are good indicators of wind-induced mixing of the water column or precipitation-driven erosion within catchments. In ombrotrophic peatlands, hydrogen isotope ratios of specific organic molecules allow reconstructions of the hydrogen isotope ratios of precipitation, which is related to precipitation source area and the latitudinal position of the SHWW. Using macrofossil counts paired with abundances of leaf wax biomarkers, we are able to estimate the moisture balance at peatland coring sites. Early results indicate an overall strengthening of the SHWW at the Auckland Islands through the Holocene. We will discuss these results within the context of complimentary records developed from New Zealand and southern South America to ultimately

  8. The Northern Extent of the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Wind Belt since the Last Glacial Maximum Tracked via Sediment Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzese, A. M.; Goldstein, S. L.; Hemming, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Southern Hemisphere Westerlies are known to be important for climate due to their effects on the global carbon cycle and on the global thermohaline circulation. Many proxy records suggest that the strength and position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds have changed significantly since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at ~21,000 years BP. However, a recent compilation of all available evidence for Southern Hemisphere westerly wind changes during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) led to the conclusion that "their strength and position in colder and warmer climates relative to today remain a wide open question" (Kohfeld et al. (2013) Quaternary Science Reviews, 68). This paper finds that an equatorward displacement of the glacial winds is consistent with observations, but cannot rule out other, competing hypotheses. Using the geochemical characteristics of deep-sea sediments deposited along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, I test the hypothesis that the LGM Southern Hemisphere Westerlies were displaced northward. In the central South Atlantic, dust can be delivered from South America via the Westerlies, or from Africa via the Trade Winds. The continental sources of South America and Africa have very different geochemical signatures, making it possible to distinguish between eolian transport via the Westerlies vs. the Trade Winds. Any northward shift in the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies would increase the northward extent of a South American provenance in sediments dominated by eolian sources. I will present geochemical provenance data (radiogenic isotope ratios; major and trace element concentrations) in a latitudinal transect of cores along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that document whether, in fact, such a shift occurred, and put an important constraint on how far north the wind belts shifted during the LGM.

  9. Breaking Rossby Waves, Moisture Streamers, and the Southern Hemisphere Diagonal Convergence Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panetta, R. L.; Ramotowski, M.

    2014-12-01

    A combination of satellite observations (principally GPCP) and ECMWF reanalyses were used to examine the major diagonal convergence zones in the Southern Hemisphere. Time-lag height anomalies composited on high rainfall events in sub-tropical and mid-latitude sections of the climatological zones showed nearly equivalent barotropic wave packets propagating into the regions from higher latitudes, in a manner easily interpretable in terms of the structure of low-pass-filtered pv gradients. To examine the moisture field with which the wave vertical motion field interacted in producing precipitation, animations were first constructed from daily fields of PV on the 330-theta surface superposed on total column water (TCW). The animations showed frequent events of anticyclonic breaking of mid-latitude Rossby waves, coincidental with the development of streamers of total column water (TCW) drawn out of the tropics, into the subtropics and mid-latitudes just downstream of parallel PV streamers in the breaking waves. Vertical cross sections through selected streamers showed locally high levels of moisture extending through most of the troposphere, with dynamically consistent vertical motion fields. Although major streamer events with NW-SE tilt could be seen in the animations, TCW streamers were in fact seen with many orientations and in many locations around the hemisphere. An objective method was developed to classify TCW streamers by their horizontal tilt. When applied to observations from the 20 year period 1991-2012, the method showed that TCW streamers with NW-SE tilt preferentially occurred in the three climatological diagonal convergence zones regions during austral summer, but only in the SPCZ and SACZ regions during austral winter.

  10. Coupling and Correlation-analysis Between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres' Solar Cycle Features based on Sunspot Area Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, W. N.; Dikpati, M.

    2014-12-01

    Vast literature on Babcock-Leighton flux-transport dynamo models indicate that the sunspot activity cycles in the Northern and Southern hemispheres are primarily decoupled about the equator and are independent of each other. However, we find from the analysis of long-term sunspot area data from 1875 to 2013 that the two hemispheres continuously attempt to couple about the equator. If we define the coupling line as the line where the sunspot area of the two hemispheres is the same on the plot of North versus South spot-area, we find that the two hemispheres' spot-area tend to fall on the coupling line over a very long period of time, despite their short-term traversal away from the coupling line. This indicates that there must be some underlying process inside the Sun's interior which is causing this coupling. Further analysis of the features, such as rise and decay times of solar cycles, minima and peak amplitudes, reveal that the solar cycles normally follow a saw-tooth pattern with a fast rise and slow fall, as noted before. Most interestingly, we find that rise-time in one hemisphere correlates with minima-amplitude of the other hemisphere, but anti-correlates with that of the same hemisphere. We speculate that this happens because the fast rise of a cycle can annihilate the opposite-hemisphere's flux faster, leading to a lower minima-amplitude. By contrast, the peak of a cycle does not have much influence on minima-amplitude of the opposite hemisphere. We are investigating the physics behind these features through dynamo simulations.

  11. Possible slow periglacial mass wasting at the Southern Hemisphere on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, Andreas; Reiss, Dennis; Hauber, Ernst; Hiesinger, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Small-scale lobate landforms which are strikingly similar to terrestrial solifluction lobes are cataloged at the Southern Hemisphere on Mars. Terrestrial periglacial solifluction lobes are formed by frost creep, a combination of repeated frost heave and thaw consolidation, and gelifluction (visco-plastic deformation of near saturated soil) in the active layer on top of the permafrost table (e.g., Matsuoka, 2001). All publically available HiRISE images between latitudes 40°S and 80°S on Mars are being used in this study. Compared to previous studies of small-scale lobes in the northern mid and high latitudes (e.g., Gallagher et al., 2011; Johnsson et al., 2012; Barrett et al., 2013), these landforms also occur, in most cases, in close spatial proximity to fluvial gullies and polygonal terrain. This study aims to investigate whether the southern small-scale lobes differ from the northern counterparts in terms of morphology and distribution. Furthermore, spatio-temporal relationships to landforms with ground-ice affinity, such as gullies and polygonal terrain, are investigated. Solifluction-like small-scale lobes have been studied in detail at the northern hemisphere on Mars (Gallagher et al., 2011), where they are widely distributed at high latitudes between 59°N and 80°N (Johnsson et al., 2012). Small-scale lobes are proposed to represent freeze-thaw activity late in Martian climate history (Gallagher et al., 2011; Balme and Gallagher, 2011; Johnsson et al, 2012; Balme et al., 2013). Small-scale lobes differ from permafrost creep (i.e. rock glaciers) in having low fronts, decimeters to less than <5 m meters in height. They also lack compression ridges and furrows and are not confined to topographic niches (i.e. valley confinement). The presence of small-scale lobes raises the question whether they have formed by a warmer-than-thought-climate, or by the influence of soil salts (i.e. perchlorates) under sub-freezing conditions (e.g., Gallagher et al., 2011

  12. Developing an enhanced tropical cyclone data portal for the Southern Hemisphere and the Western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshov, Yuriy; de Wit, Roald; Atalifo, Terry; Prakash, Bipendra; Waqaicelua, Alipate; Kunitsugu, Masashi; Caroff, Philippe; Chane-Ming, Fabrice

    2013-04-01

    Tropical cyclones are the most extreme weather phenomena which severely impact coastal communities and island nations. There is an ongoing research (i) on accurate analysis of observed trends in tropical cyclone occurrences, and (ii) how tropical cyclone frequency and intensity may change in the future as a result of climate change. Reliable historical records of cyclone activity are vital for this research. The Pacific Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning (PACCSAP) program is dedicated to help Pacific Island countries and Timor Leste gain a better understanding of how climate change will impact their regions. One of the key PACCSAP projects is focused on developing a tropical cyclone archive, climatology and seasonal prediction for the regions. As part of the project, historical tropical cyclone best track data have been examined and prepared to be subsequently displayed through the enhanced tropical cyclone data portal for the Southern Hemisphere and the Western Pacific Ocean. Data from the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (RSMC) Nadi, Fiji and Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs) in Brisbane, Darwin and Wellington for 1969-1970 to 2010-2011 tropical cyclone seasons have been carefully examined. Errors and inconsistencies which have been found during the quality control procedure have been corrected. To produce a consolidated data set for the South Pacific Ocean, best track data from these four centres have been used. Specifically, for 1969-1970 to 1994-1995 tropical cyclone seasons, data from TCWCs in Brisbane, Darwin and Wellington have been used. In 1995, RSMC Nadi, Fiji has been established with responsibilities for issuing tropical cyclone warnings and preparing best track data for the area south of the equator to 25°S, 160°E to 120°W. Consequently, data from RSMC Nadi have been used as a primary source for this area, starting from the 1995-1996 tropical cyclone season. These data have been combined with the data from

  13. CO2 Fluxes and Concentrations in a Residential Area in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissert, L. F.; Salmond, J. A.; Turnbull, J. C.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2014-12-01

    While cities are generally major sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, recent research has shown that parts of urban areas may also act as CO2 sinks due to CO2 uptake by vegetation. However, currently available results are related to a large degree of uncertainty due to the limitations of the applied methods and the limited number of studies available from urban areas, particularly from the southern hemisphere. In this study, we explore the potential of eddy covariance and tracer measurements (13C and 14C isotopes of CO2) to quantify and partition CO2 fluxes and concentrations in a residential urban area in Auckland, New Zealand. Based on preliminary results from autumn and winter (March to July 2014) the residential area is a small source of CO2 (0.11 mol CO2 m-2 day-1). CO2 fluxes and concentrations follow a distinct diurnal cycle with a morning peak between 7:00 and 9:00 (max: 0.25 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/412 ppm) and midday low with negative CO2 fluxes (min: -0.17 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/392 ppm) between 10:00 and 15:00 local time, likely due to photosynthetic CO2 uptake by local vegetation. Soil CO2 efflux may explain that CO2 concentrations increase and remain high (401 ppm) throughout the night. Mean diurnal winter δ13C values are in anti-phase with CO2 concentrations and vary between -9.0 - -9.7‰. The depletion of δ13C compared to clean atmospheric air (-8.2‰) is likely a result of local CO2 sources dominated by gasoline combustion (appr. 60%) during daytime. A sector analysis (based on prevailing wind) of CO2 fluxes and concentrations indicates lower CO2 fluxes and concentrations from the vegetation-dominated sector, further demonstrating the influence of vegetation on local CO2 concentrations. These results provide an insight into the temporal and spatial variability CO2 fluxes/concentrations and potential CO2 sinks and sources from a city in the southern hemisphere and add valuable information to the global database of urban CO2 fluxes.

  14. Stratospheric gravity waves at Southern Hemisphere orographic hotspots: 2003-2014 AIRS/Aqua observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Lars; Grimsdell, Alison W.; Alexander, M. Joan

    2016-07-01

    Stratospheric gravity waves from small-scale orographic sources are currently not well-represented in general circulation models. This may be a reason why many simulations have difficulty reproducing the dynamical behavior of the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex in a realistic manner. Here we discuss a 12-year record (2003-2014) of stratospheric gravity wave activity at Southern Hemisphere orographic hotspots as observed by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aqua satellite. We introduce a simple and effective approach, referred to as the "two-box method", to detect gravity wave activity from infrared nadir sounder measurements and to discriminate between gravity waves from orographic and other sources. From austral mid-fall to mid-spring (April-October) the contributions of orographic sources to the observed gravity wave occurrence frequencies were found to be largest for the Andes (90 %), followed by the Antarctic Peninsula (76 %), Kerguelen Islands (73 %), Tasmania (70 %), New Zealand (67 %), Heard Island (60 %), and other hotspots (24-54 %). Mountain wave activity was found to be closely correlated with peak terrain altitudes, and with zonal winds in the lower troposphere and mid-stratosphere. We propose a simple model to predict the occurrence of mountain wave events in the AIRS observations using zonal wind thresholds at 3 and 750 hPa. The model has significant predictive skill for hotspots where gravity wave activity is primarily due to orographic sources. It typically reproduces seasonal variations of the mountain wave occurrence frequencies at the Antarctic Peninsula and Kerguelen Islands from near zero to over 60 % with mean absolute errors of 4-5 percentage points. The prediction model can be used to disentangle upper level wind effects on observed occurrence frequencies from low-level source and other influences. The data and methods presented here can help to identify interesting

  15. K/Ar geochronology as a tool for tracing dust provenance in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, J.; Koffman, B. G.; Recasens, C.; Hemming, S. R.; Kaplan, M. R.; Gombiner, J. H.; Boswell, S.; Williams, T.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the sources and transport pathways of dust can provide a better understanding of past atmospheric circulation and give insight into nutrient and radiative effects on the climate system. Mineralogy and radiogenic isotope chemistry using strontium (Sr) and neodymium (Nd) have been able to constrain sources of dust but are not sufficient to distinguish among important potential source areas in the Southern Hemisphere. The K/Ar isotope system can improve our ability to infer dust provenance because it can discriminate between sources that have similar crustal residence ages but different subsequent tectonothermal histories. To assess K/Ar ages as a provenance tool, we measured radiogenic argon concentrations of samples from potential dust sources such as glaciogenic sediments in Patagonia and New Zealand. Provenance ages from Patagonian sediments cluster around 70 Ma with a range from 33.2 ± 0.4 Ma to 120 ± 3 Ma, and those from New Zealand sediments cluster around 160 Ma with a range from 125 ± 1 Ma to 191 ± 2 Ma, showing that K/Ar geochronology can discriminate between these two source areas and improve upon previous provenance studies. In addition, as a proof of concept we made a case study of a sedimentary time series from core TN057-6 on the Agulhas Ridge in the southeast Atlantic Ocean as well as a set of Holocene and glacial samples from four cores along the SE African margin. We found that K/Ar provenance ages of the <5μm terrigenous material from TN057-6 are best explained as the result of mixing of sediments transported from Patagonia and Africa-derived sediments delivered by the Agulhas Current. The K/Ar method was also able to show different sediment provenance between glacial and interglacial times, with a dominant Patagonian signature during glacial intervals. Ongoing work aims to characterize additional Southern Hemisphere dust sources, including the ice-free regions of Antarctica, and apply the K/Ar provenance tool to dust in Antarctic

  16. Early Holocene Laurentide Ice Sheet deglaciation causes cooling in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere through oceanic teleconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renssen, H.; Goosse, H.; Crosta, X.; Roche, D. M.

    2010-07-01

    The impact of the early Holocene Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) deglaciation on the climate at Southern Hemisphere high latitudes is studied in three transient simulations performed with a global climate model of the coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation system. Considering the LIS deglaciation, we quantify separately the impacts of the background meltwater fluxes and the changes in topography and surface albedo. In our model, the meltwater input into the North Atlantic results in a substantial weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, associated with absence of deep convection in the Labrador Sea. Northward ocean heat transport by the Atlantic Ocean is reduced by 28%. This weakened ocean circulation leads to cooler North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Upwelling of this cool NADW in the Southern Ocean results in reduced surface temperatures (by 1°C to 2°C) here between 9 and 7 ka compared to an experiment without LIS deglaciation. Poleward of the polar front zone, this advective teleconnection between the Southern and Northern hemispheres overwhelms the effect of the “classical” bipolar seesaw mechanism. These results provide an explanation for the relatively cold climatic conditions between 9 and 7 ka reconstructed in several proxy records from Southern Hemisphere high latitudes, such as Antarctic ice cores.

  17. Modeling the climate impact of Southern Hemisphere ozone depletion: The importance of the ozone data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P. J.; Davis, S. M.; Hassler, B.; Solomon, S.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    The ozone hole is an important driver of recent Southern Hemisphere (SH) climate change, and capturing these changes is a goal of climate modeling. Most climate models are driven by off-line ozone data sets. Previous studies have shown that there is a substantial range in estimates of SH ozone depletion, but the implications of this range have not been examined systematically. We use a climate model to evaluate the difference between using the ozone forcing (Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC)) used by many Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) models and one at the upper end of the observed depletion estimates (Binary Database of Profiles (BDBP)). In the stratosphere, we find that austral spring/summer polar cap cooling, geopotential height decreases, and zonal wind increases in the BDBP simulations are all doubled compared to the SPARC simulations, while tropospheric responses are 20-100% larger. These results are important for studies attempting to diagnose the climate fingerprints of ozone depletion.

  18. Discoveries about Tropical Ozone from Satellite and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    We have been producing near-real tropical tropospheric ozone ("TTO") data from TOMS since 1997 with Prof. Hudson and students at the University of Maryland. Maps for 1996-2000 for the operational Earth-Probe instrument reside at: . The tropics is a region strongly influenced by natural variability and anthropogenic activity and the satellite data have been used to track biomass burning pollution and to detect interannual variability and climate signals in ozone. The satellite view of chemical-dynamical interactions in tropospheric ozone is not adequate to capture vertical variability. Thus, in 1998, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) and a team of international sponsors established the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project to address the gap in tropical ozone soundings. SHADOZ provides a public archive of ozonesonde data from twelve tropical and subtropical stations at http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. Highlights from the first 4-5 years of SHADOZ data (presently > 2000 sondes) will be shown.

  19. HAT-South: A Global Network of Southern Hemisphere Automated Telescopes to Detect Transiting Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakos, G.; Afonso, C.; Henning, T.; Jordán, A.; Holman, M.; Noyes, R. W.; Sackett, P. D.; Sasselov, D.; Kovács, Gábor; Csubry, Z.; Pál, A.

    2009-02-01

    HAT-South is a network of six identical, fully automated wide field telescopes, to be located at three sites (Chile: Las Campanas, Australia: Siding Springs, and Namibia: HESS site) in the Southern hemisphere. The primary purpose of the network is to detect and characterize a large number of extra-solar planets transiting nearby bright stars, and to explore their diversity. Operation of HAT-South is a collaboration among the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA) and the Australian National University (ANU). The network is expected to be ready for initial science operations in 2009. The three sites will permit near round-the-clock monitoring of selected fields, and the continuous data-stream will greatly enhance recovery of transits. HAT-South will be sensitive to planetary transits down to R≈14 across a 128 square-degrees combined field of view, thereby targeting a large number of dwarfs with feasible confirmation-mode follow-up. We anticipate a yearly detection rate of approximately 25 planets transiting bright stars.

  20. Influence of the solar cycle on the Polar-night Jet Oscillation in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Yuhji; Deushi, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    The Polar-night Jet Oscillation (PJO) is the dominant mode of stratospheric variability in the Southern Hemisphere and persists from midwinter to spring. The influence of the 11 year solar cycle on modulation of the PJO from late winter to spring is examined using observations and three 42 year simulations from a chemistry-climate model. The only variation applied to model boundary conditions was the strength of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This is set at 2 times larger than observations to enhance the strength of the solar signal. Simulations show a downward propagation of the stratospheric signal into the troposphere from late winter to spring, which tends to be enhanced as UV strength increases. This result is similar to observations but with a 1-2 month lag. The behavior of the PJO with respect to wave-mean flow interactions is examined using a newly developed momentum budget analysis as well as wave energy analysis. We suggest that UV modulation of the interactions between planetary waves and zonal-mean flow in the stratosphere, rather than direct diabatic processes as suggested in a previous study, is the source of solar cycle modulation of the PJO.

  1. Finite-time normal mode disturbances and error growth during Southern Hemisphere blocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mozheng; Frederiksen, Jorgen S.

    2005-01-01

    The structural organization of initially random errors evolving in a barotropic tangent linear model, with time-dependent basic states taken from analyses, is examined for cases of block development, maturation and decay in the Southern Hemisphere atmosphere during April, November, and December 1989. The statistics of 100 evolved errors are studied for six-day periods and compared with the growth and structures of fast growing normal modes and finite-time normal modes (FTNMs). The amplification factors of most initially random errors are slightly less than those of the fastest growing FTNM for the same time interval. During their evolution, the standard deviations of the error fields become concentrated in the regions of rapid dynamical development, particularly associated with developing and decaying blocks. We have calculated probability distributions and the mean and standard deviations of pattern correlations between each of the 100 evolved error fields and the five fastest growing FTNMs for the same time interval. The mean of the largest pattern correlation, taken over the five fastest growing FTNMs, increases with increasing time interval to a value close to 0.6 or larger after six days. FTNM 1 generally, but not always, gives the largest mean pattern correlation with error fields. Corresponding pattern correlations with the fast growing normal modes of the instantaneous basic state flow are significant but lower than with FTNMs. Mean pattern correlations with fast growing FTNMs increase further when the time interval is increased beyond six days.

  2. Eddy Surface properties and propagation at Southern Hemisphere western boundary current systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilo, G. S.; Mata, M. M.; Azevedo, J. L. L.

    2015-02-01

    Oceanic eddies occur in all world oceans, but are more energetic when associated to western boundary currents (WBC) systems. In these regions, eddies play an important role on mixing and energy exchange. Therefore, it is important to quantify and qualify eddies occurring within these systems. Previous studies performed eddy censuses in Southern Hemisphere WBC systems. However, important aspects of local eddy population are still unknown. Main questions to be answered relate to eddies' spatial distribution, propagation and lifetime within each system. Here, we use a global eddy dataset to qualify eddies based on their surface characteristics at the Agulhas Current (AC), the Brazil Current (BC) and the East Australian Current (EAC) Systems. We show that eddy propagation within each system is highly forced by the local mean flow and bathymetry. In the AC System, eddy polarity dictates its propagation distance. BC system eddies do not propagate beyond the Argentine Basin, and are advected by the local ocean circulation. EAC System eddies from both polarities cross south of Tasmania, but only anticyclonics reach the Great Australian Bight. Eddies in all systems and from both polarities presented a geographical segregation according to size. Large eddies occur along the Agulhas Retroflection, the Agulhas Return Current, the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence and the Coral Sea. Small eddies occur in the systems southernmost domains. Understanding eddies' propagation helps to establish monitoring programs, and to better understand how these features would affect local mixing.

  3. Southern Hemisphere control on Australian monsoon variability during the late deglaciation and Holocene.

    PubMed

    Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Holbourn, Ann; Xu, Jian; Opdyke, Bradley; De Deckker, Patrick; Röhl, Ursula; Mudelsee, Manfred

    2015-01-06

    The evolution of the Australian monsoon in relation to high-latitude temperature fluctuations over the last termination remains highly enigmatic. Here we integrate high-resolution riverine runoff and dust proxy data from X-ray fluorescence scanner measurements in four well-dated sediment cores, forming a NE-SW transect across the Timor Sea. Our records reveal that the development of the Australian monsoon closely followed the deglacial warming history of Antarctica. A minimum in riverine runoff documents dry conditions throughout the region during the Antarctic Cold Reversal (15-12.9 ka). Massive intensification of the monsoon coincided with Southern Hemisphere warming and intensified greenhouse forcing over Australia during the atmospheric CO2 rise at 12.9-10 ka. We relate the earlier onset of the monsoon in the Timor Strait (13.4 ka) to regional changes in landmass exposure during deglacial sea-level rise. A return to dryer conditions occurred between 8.1 and 7.3 ka following the early Holocene runoff maximum.

  4. SABRE: Dark matter annual modulation detection in the northern and southern hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomei, C.

    2017-02-01

    SABRE (Sodium-iodide with Active Background REjection) is a new NaI(Tl) experiment designed to search for galactic Dark Matter through the annual modulation signature. SABRE will consist of highly pure NaI(Tl) crystals operated in an active liquid scintillator veto. The SABRE experiment will follow a two-phase approach. In the first phase, one high-purity NaI(Tl) crystal will be operated at LNGS in an active liquid scintillator veto with the goal of demonstrating backgrounds low enough for a sensitive test of the DAMA/LIBRA result. An unprecedented radio-purity for both the NaI powder and the crystal growth will be needed to achieve this goal. The second phase will consist in building two high-purity NaI(Tl) detector arrays, with a total mass of about 50 kg each, located at LNGS and in the Stawell Gold Mine in Australia. The operation of twin full-scale experiments in both the northern and the southern hemispheres will strengthen the reliability of the result against any possible seasonal systematic effect.

  5. Mid-stratospheric circulations in the southern hemisphere with super pressure balloon trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivero, John J.; Shaw, A. W.; Williamson, P. R.; Megill, L. R.

    1984-04-01

    Three instrumented super pressure balloons were flown throughout the southern hemisphere at 18 mbar, over a period of 5 months. The balloon trajectories, reconstructued from NIMBUS 6 satellite location data, have proved to be valuable indicators of mid-stratospheric structure and dynamics in the Lagrangian frame of reference. Several examples of high zonal and meridional winds are reported. Also shown in the analysis is a feature encountered between 30°S-40°S during a 2 week period. The feature appears to be a breakdown of large-scale zonal flow and its replacement by weak cyclonic (stationary) eddies. During the observational period of balloon document the spring reversal (of zonal winds and meridional temperature gradient). This is accomplished by the movement of a planetary scale anticyclonic cell, which itself established the boundaries between the easterlies and the westerlies on a day to day basis. Men zonal wind speed analysis from balloon positions were obtained covering the area 15°S-6°S. The results presented here are in substantial agreement with those of Hartmann (1977).

  6. Colliding winds in five WR+O systems of the Southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahed, R.; Moffat, A. F. J.

    2012-08-01

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic follow-up of five WR+O systems of the Southern hemisphere that have not been studied so far for wind-wind collisions: WR 12 (WN8h), WR 21 (WN5o+O7V), WR 30 (WC6+O7.5V), WR 31 (WN4o+O8) and WR 47 (WN6o+O5). Observations were made over an entire contiguous month using the Garrison spectrograph attached to the 0.6-m Helen Sawyer Hogg telescope at Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito. We obtain improved orbital elements for these five systems and provide an estimation of the orbital inclination and shock-cone opening angle for four of them by analysing excess emission profiles with the geometrical model of Lührs. We argue that line variability in one of the stars (WR 12) might be dominated by some dynamic instabilities in the shocked plasma, making the model inappropriate in this case. A sixth star, WR 69 (WC9d+OB), was observed in the programme based on its published photometric period of 2.293 ± 0.005 d. While we found a probable spectroscopic period of 2.15 ± 0.04 d compatible with that of Marchenko et al. (1998), the period is unlikely related to orbital effects, rather to (relatively fast) rotation of the WC9d component of a much longer binary system.

  7. Relationship between tropical heating and subtropical westerly maxima in the Southern Hemisphere during SOP-1, FGGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurrel, James W.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1990-01-01

    FGGE Level III-b analyses, produced by the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA, are used to investigate the relationship between tropical heating and subtropical westerly maxima in the Southern Hemisphere during SOP-1 (January 5 - March 4, 1979). The mean state of two 15-day periods is examined, as well as day-to-day variations for the entire 59-day period. In Period 1 (January 6-20), the central South Pacific was extremely active convectively, while in Period 2 (February 3-17), convective activity over the western Indian Ocean was enhanced. Episodes of strong outflow in the tropics, as measured by the upper tropospheric velocity potential, were found to be well correlated with the strengthening and propagation of westerly wind maxima in the subtropics. The average location of the westerly maximum over the South Pacific and Indian oceans was about 16 deg latitudes south, and slightly east, of its corresponding heat source. For a cyclone case study which is presented, however, this distance was considerably less. The response time between the upper level tropical outflow and subtropical westerly enhancement appears to be less than 12 hours; however, an exact temporal scale was difficult to identify.

  8. Competition between ocean carbon pumps in simulations with varying Southern Hemisphere westerly wind forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huiskamp, W. N.; Meissner, K. J.; d'Orgeville, M.

    2016-06-01

    We analyse the impact of migration and strength of Southern Hemisphere westerly winds on the ocean carbon cycle in a systematic sensitivity study with the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model. We find that changes in the biological pump are mainly driven by changes in ocean residence times while changes in export production are negligible. Changes in the biological and physical pumps are always of opposite sign; with the physical pump being dominant for southward shifts and the biological pump being dominant for northward shifts. Furthermore, changes in the Pacific Ocean carbon budget dictate the overall changes in global marine and atmospheric carbon. Overall, atmospheric hbox {CO}_2 increases (and Δ ^{14}hbox {C} decreases) for northward shifts or a strengthening in wind forcing. The opposite is true for a southward shift or a weakening in wind forcing. Combining forcings (shift and intensity change) results in a combination of their impacts with the direction of the shift being the first order forcing. The terrestrial carbon reservoir absorbs (releases) 50-70 % of the net oceanic carbon loss (increase), counterbalancing the effect on atmospheric hbox {CO}_2.

  9. Southern hemisphere western boundary current variability revealed by GEOS 3 altimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.L.; Horai, K.; Donn, M.

    1983-01-20

    GEOS 3 altimeter data are adjusted to minimize differences at the intersections or crossovers between ascending and descending orbits. This procedure removes noise created by orbital uncertainty and permits study of sea level variations, without knowledge of the geoid. The root mean squares (rms) of the adjusted differences, grouped within 2/sup 0/ latitude by 2/sup 0/ longitude boxes, are mapped for the western boundary current regime and adjacent Antarctic Circumpolar Current segment for each southern hemisphere ocean, as well as for the eastern Indian Ocean, where sufficient crossover data are available. The rms crossover values are compared to surface-based hydrographic data studies of ocean transients for verification of the altimeter results. The altimeter data clearly reveal reasonable patterns of sea level transients associated with the western boundary currents and Antarctic Circumpolar Current. In addition, the rms values reveal regions of locally amplified tidal features adjacent to the Patagonian coast of Argentina and in the region west of New Zealand. The altimeter data verify and expand on the results of limited surface-based data sets, particularly in the case of the circulation transients south of Madagascar, and southwest of New Caledonia. In the eastern Indian Ocean the altimeter data suggest variable sea level conditions near 10/sup 0/-20/sup 0/S, near 20/sup 0/-30/sup 0/S, and near 50/sup 0/S. The last is associated with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, but the source of the northern variable regions is not clear.

  10. Southern Hemisphere control on Australian monsoon variability during the late deglaciation and Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Holbourn, Ann; Xu, Jian; Opdyke, Bradley; de Deckker, Patrick; Röhl, Ursula; Mudelsee, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the Australian monsoon in relation to high-latitude temperature fluctuations over the last termination remains highly enigmatic. Here we integrate high-resolution riverine runoff and dust proxy data from X-ray fluorescence scanner measurements in four well-dated sediment cores, forming a NE-SW transect across the Timor Sea. Our records reveal that the development of the Australian monsoon closely followed the deglacial warming history of Antarctica. A minimum in riverine runoff documents dry conditions throughout the region during the Antarctic Cold Reversal (15-12.9 ka). Massive intensification of the monsoon coincided with Southern Hemisphere warming and intensified greenhouse forcing over Australia during the atmospheric CO2 rise at 12.9-10 ka. We relate the earlier onset of the monsoon in the Timor Strait (13.4 ka) to regional changes in landmass exposure during deglacial sea-level rise. A return to dryer conditions occurred between 8.1 and 7.3 ka following the early Holocene runoff maximum.

  11. Comparison of biologically damaging spectral solar ultraviolet radiation at a southern hemisphere sub-tropical site.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A V; Sabburg, J; Kimlin, M G

    2003-04-21

    The first dataset of a complete year of biologically damaging spectral UV at a sub-tropical latitude in the southern hemisphere has been presented. The new data provides a baseline dataset against which comparisons can be made in the future to establish if there have been any long term trends in the biologically damaging UV. The general shape of the variation of the daily biologically damaging exposures through the year depends on the relative response of the various action spectra at the different wavelengths. The ratio of the daily erythemal to actinic exposures drops by approximately 20 to 25% from winter to summer. The ratio of the erythemal to DNA exposures drops by approximately 50% over the same period. In contrast, the ratio of the erythemal to plant damage exposures is higher in summer compared to winter. This is due to the changes in the relative proportion of UVA to UVB wavebands and relative responses of the different action spectra. The relative changes for the different action spectra show that the erythemal action spectrum cannot be used as a proxy for other biologically damaging responses.

  12. Probing the Local Bubble with diffuse interstellar bands. I. Project overview and southern hemisphere survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Mandy; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Farhang, Amin; Javadi, Atefeh; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Sarre, Peter J.; Smith, Keith T.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The Sun traverses a low-density, hot entity called the Local Bubble. Despite its relevance to life on Earth, the conditions in the Local Bubble and its exact configuration are not very well known. Besides that, there is some unknown interstellar substance that causes a host of absorption bands across the optical spectrum, called diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). Aims: We have started a project to chart the Local Bubble in a novel way and learn more about the carriers of the DIBs, by using DIBs as tracers of diffuse gas and environmental conditions. Methods: We conducted a high signal-to-noise spectroscopic survey of 670 nearby early-type stars to map DIB absorption in and around the Local Bubble. The project started with a southern hemisphere survey conducted at the European Southern Observatory's New Technology Telescope and has since been extended to an all-sky survey using the Isaac Newton Telescope. Results: In this first paper in the series, we introduce the overall project and present the results from the southern hemisphere survey. We make available a catalogue of equivalent-width measurements of the DIBs at 5780, 5797, 5850, 6196, 6203, 6270, 6283, and 6614 Å, of the interstellar Na i D lines at 5890 and 5896 Å, and of the stellar He i line at 5876 Å. We find that the 5780 Å DIB is relatively strong throughout, as compared to the 5797 Å DIB, but especially within the Local Bubble and at the interface with a more neutral medium. The 6203 Å DIB shows similar behaviour with respect to the 6196 Å DIB. Some nearby stars show surprisingly strong DIBs, whereas some distant stars show very weak DIBs, indicating small-scale structure within, as well as outside, the Local Bubble. The sight lines with non-detections trace the extent of the Local Bubble especially clearly and show it opening out into the halo. Conclusions: The Local Bubble has a wall that is in contact with hot gas and/or a harsh interstellar radiation field. That wall is perforated

  13. Cloud anomalies at midlatitudes of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres: Connection with atmospheric dynamics and variations in cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veretenenko, S. V.; Ogurtsov, M. G.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term correlations between the state of low clouds and variations in the flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) were studied. It has been shown that the links between low cloud anomalies and GCR fluxes at midlatitudes of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are caused by variations in the extratropical cyclogenesis intensity which correlated with changes of GCR fluxes in the period from the early 1980s to 2000. At the beginning of the 2000s, the correlation between cloudiness and variations of GCR fluxes was violated, a possible reason being a sharp weakening of the stratospheric polar vortices in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, which resulted in the change of GCR contribution to the circulation of the lower atmosphere.

  14. Extension of the Southern Hemisphere Atmospheric Radiocarbon Curve, 2120-850 years BP: Results from Tasmanian Huon Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, S R; P.Guilderson, T; Buckley, B M; Cook, E

    2010-02-12

    Decadal samples of dendrochronologically-dated pine (Lagorostrobos franklinii) from the Stanley River basin, Tasmania have been radiocarbon dated between 2120-850 yr BP. This data set overlaps and extends the current Southern Hemisphere record, which currently covers the period 110-995 yr BP. There is good agreement between the two records between 995-850 yr BP, between sample replicates and with consensus values for standards. As in the younger dataset, we find evidence for a distinct but variable offset between the southern hemisphere data and IntCal04; although this is likely due to real temporal variability in the interhemispheric offset, further work is planned to rule out possible laboratory or sample preparation differences.

  15. Five-year records of mercury wet deposition flux at GMOS sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola; Bencardino, Mariantonia; D'Amore, Francesco; Angot, Helene; Barbante, Carlo; Brunke, Ernst-Günther; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Cairns, Warren; Comero, Sara; Diéguez, María del Carmen; Dommergue, Aurélien; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Feng, Xin Bin; Fu, Xuewu; Garcia, Patricia Elizabeth; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; Hageström, Ulla; Hansson, Katarina; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Jože; Labuschagne, Casper; Magand, Olivier; Martin, Lynwill; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Mkololo, Thumeka; Munthe, John; Obolkin, Vladimir; Ramirez Islas, Martha; Sena, Fabrizio; Somerset, Vernon; Spandow, Pia; Vardè, Massimiliano; Walters, Chavon; Wängberg, Ingvar; Weigelt, Andreas; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Hui

    2017-02-01

    The atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) occurs via several mechanisms, including dry and wet scavenging by precipitation events. In an effort to understand the atmospheric cycling and seasonal depositional characteristics of Hg, wet deposition samples were collected for approximately 5 years at 17 selected GMOS monitoring sites located in the Northern and Southern hemispheres in the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project. Total mercury (THg) exhibited annual and seasonal patterns in Hg wet deposition samples. Interannual differences in total wet deposition are mostly linked with precipitation volume, with the greatest deposition flux occurring in the wettest years. This data set provides a new insight into baseline concentrations of THg concentrations in precipitation worldwide, particularly in regions such as the Southern Hemisphere and tropical areas where wet deposition as well as atmospheric Hg species were not investigated before, opening the way for future and additional simultaneous measurements across the GMOS network as well as new findings in future modeling studies.

  16. The 100 micron surveys in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. [balloon-borne instrument general sky survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, W. F.; Aannestad, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    Partial surveys in the far infrared in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres have covered 40% of the galactic equator and assorted regions away from the galactic plane. Approximately 120 100-micron objects are known. These are distributed extensively in galactic longitude and concentrated within + or - two degrees in galactic latitude. From this information, some general conclusions can be drawn about the sensitivity and coverage required for a general sky survey in the far infrared.

  17. The simulation of the seasonal cycle of the Southern Hemispheric circulation by the GLAS Seasonal Cycle Model and a comparison to observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straus, D. M.; Shukla, J.

    1983-01-01

    The general circulation of the Southern Hemisphere is quite different from that of the Northern Hemisphere in many important ways. These include the barotropic nature of the stationary waves and the presence of a strong barotropic component to the mean zonal wind, the lack of a strong seasonal dependence of the transient eddies, and the dominant role played by eddies with periods less than 10 days compared to longer period fluctuations. Such differences attest to the importance of the altered nature of the orographic and thermal land-sea forcings in the Southern Hemisphere compared to the Northern Hemisphere. Some of the important features of the Southern Hemisphere circulation as simulated by the GLAS Seasonal Cycle Model (SCM) are presented. The geographical patterns of local variability and their seasonal shifts in the SCM are discussed and compared to observations.

  18. Limb Altitude and the Southern Hemispheric Vortex Observed by Venus Monitoring Camera on VEX Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Sanjay; Krauss, Robert; Markiewicz, Wojciech

    2013-04-01

    The Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) on European Space Agency's Venus Express orbiter has been collecting almost daily images at four wavelengths (365, 550, 980 and 1050 nm) since June 2006 with a few gaps during solar conjunctions. These data provide a nearly continuous record of the southern vortex (Limaye at al. 2009) that spans the entire hemisphere and reveal a dynamic, constantly evolving structure and showing a range of dynamical instability features in the central region. These instability features are also seen in the near infrared observations from the VIRTIS instrument on Venus Express (Luz et al. 2011). Some similarities between the Venus hemispheric vortex and a tropical cyclone have been previously noted (Suomi and Limaye, 1981; Limaye et al., 2009; 2011) and more have been discovered from the VMC observations. While the details of the spatial structure of the vortex is easily observed from the imaging observations at ultraviolet (VMC) and near infrared wavelengths (VIRTIS), the vertical structure is more difficult to determine from Venus Express. Here we present inferences about the vertical level obtained from the visible limb of the planet in VMC images. The altitude of the limb has been measured using full or near full disk images and depicts the altitude of the Venus cloud cover which comprises the vortex circulation. By precisely locating the limb location by fitting each limb profile in the VMC images, the average latitudinal profile of the limb altitude has been estimated. Although the pixel size of the images used is ~ 30-45 km, the large number of images (> 25,000) provides a very large sample of limb altitude determinations at each latitude between the equator and about 60° S latitude enabling sub-pixel variations of the limb altitude. The latitudinal profile of the limb altitude is similar to that inferred from the near infrared observations from VIRTIS (Ignatiev et al., 2009; Cottini et al., 2012) - high in low latitudes and low in polar

  19. The influence of marine monoterpene emissions on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations over the Southern Hemisphere oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Hannah; Arnold, Steve; Spracklen, Dominick; Rap, Alexandru; Scott, Catherine; Hackenberg, Sina; Carpenter, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    model simulates a strong response to monoterpene emissions over remote oceans south of 45° S, in particular during Southern Hemisphere summer (up to 388 % for 35 Tg a-1). We investigate the impact of co-located emissions of monoterpene and dimethyl sulphide in a small region of the Southern Ocean on CCN concentration. We use an offline radiative transfer model to calculate the radiative effects of the modelled CCN concentrations.

  20. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes): An Ozonesonde Network for Satellite Validation, Climatology and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; McPeters, Richard D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In the past 5 years, new tropical ozone data products have been developed from TOMS and other satellites, During this period, global chemical-transport models have been used for ozone assessment studies. However, there has been a lack of independent ozone profiles in the tropics for evaluation of the data sets and models. In 1998, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Flight Facility and NOAA's CMDL (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab), began a 2-year project to collect a consistent data set by augmenting ozonesonde launches at southern hemisphere tropical sites The measurements are available to the scientific community at a single electronic location - the SHADOZ website at NASA/Goddard: http://code9l6.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data services/Shadoz/shadoz hmpg2.html. Stations in SHADOZ include four islands in the Pacific: Fiji, Tahiti, San Cristobal (Galapagos) and American Samoa. Two sites are at and in the Atlantic: Natal (Brazil) and Ascension Island. Three other sites span Africa (Nairobi and Irene, South Africa) and the Indian Ocean (Reunion Island and Watukosek in Java, Indonesia). All SHADOZ sites are using ECC-type sondes, with the conversion from JMD sondes at Java in 1999, but there are variations in sonde preparation technique and data processing. During the 1998-1999 period, more than 550 sondes were incorporated into the SHADOZ data base. Examples from these measurements illustrate the tropical wave-one pattern in total ozone which is easily detectable by satellite. They also show that the wave-one pattern appears to be in the troposphere, as assumed in creating the modified-residual tropospheric ozone data product from TOMS. SHADOZ will add data from intensive field campaigns from time to time. Recent contributions to the SHADOZ archive are from the INDOEX (Indian Ocean Experiment January-March 1999)sondes at the Maldives (5N, 73E) and 27 sondes on the US NOAA oceanographic vessel, the FIN Ronald H Brown between Virginia (US) and Mauritius via Cape

  1. Retinal Amino Acid Neurochemistry of the Southern Hemisphere Lamprey, Geotria australis

    PubMed Central

    Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Collin, Shaun P.; Zhu, Yuan; Ready, Sarah; Acosta, Monica L.; Hunt, David M.; Potter, Ian C.; Kalloniatis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Lampreys are one of the two surviving groups of the agnathan (jawless) stages in vertebrate evolution and are thus ideal candidates for elucidating the evolution of visual systems. This study investigated the retinal amino acid neurochemistry of the southern hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis during the downstream migration of the young, recently-metamorphosed juveniles to the sea and during the upstream migration of the fully-grown and sexually-maturing adults to their spawning areas. Glutamate and taurine were distributed throughout the retina, whilst GABA and glycine were confined to neurons of the inner retina matching patterns seen in most other vertebrates. Glutamine and aspartate immunoreactivity was closely matched to Müller cell morphology. Between the migratory phases, few differences were observed in the distribution of major neurotransmitters i.e. glutamate, GABA and glycine, but changes in amino acids associated with retinal metabolism i.e. glutamine and aspartate, were evident. Taurine immunoreactivity was mostly conserved between migrant stages, consistent with its role in primary cell functions such as osmoregulation. Further investigation of glutamate signalling using the probe agmatine (AGB) to map cation channel permeability revealed entry of AGB into photoreceptors and horizontal cells followed by accumulation in inner retinal neurons. Similarities in AGB profiles between upstream and downstream migrant of G. australis confirmed the conservation of glutamate neurotransmission. Finally, calcium binding proteins, calbindin and calretinin were localized to the inner retina whilst recoverin was localized to photoreceptors. Overall, conservation of major amino acid neurotransmitters and calcium-associated proteins in the lamprey retina confirms these elements as essential features of the vertebrate visual system. On the other hand, metabolic elements of the retina such as neurotransmitter precursor amino acids and Müller cells are more sensitive

  2. Southern Hemisphere strong polar mesoscale cyclones in high-resolution datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezza, Alexandre; Sadler, Katherine; Uotila, Petteri; Vihma, Timo; Mesquita, Michel D. S.; Reid, Phil

    2016-09-01

    Mesoscale cyclones are small low-pressure systems (usually <500 km in radius) that often appear embedded in synoptic structures. These events can be weak and short lived or vigorous and destructive. Here we use an automatic tracking scheme to investigate two subsets of Southern Hemisphere mesoscale cyclones that are strong and have the potential to cause damage, namely "polar lows" (i.e., strong and short lived) and "explosive cyclones" (i.e., rapid intensification but not necessarily short lived). A short climatology (2009-2012) is obtained by using high resolution (0.5°) Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) mean sea level pressure. The results show a significant improvement of spatial detail compared to the 0.75° resolution ERA-interim dataset, with a total count approximately 46 % higher in AMPS. The subset of mesoscale cyclones that are explosive is small, with a total genesis number of about 13 % that of polar lows. In addition, only about 1 % of the polar lows are explosive, suggesting that cyclones that undergo rapid intensification tend to become larger longer lived (and hence are no longer regarded as polar lows). Mesoscale cyclones are more frequent in winter, with a maximum concentration around the Antarctic but also occurring as far north as Tasmania and New Zealand. Analysis of sensible heat flux and sea ice extent anomalies during the genesis days shows that there is a large spread of genesis points over both positive and negative flux anomalies in winter, with a somewhat random pattern in the other seasons.

  3. Geochemical comparison of K-T boundaries from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tredous, M.; Verhagen, B. TH.; Hart, R. J.; Dewit, C. B.; Smith, C. B.; Perch-Nielsen, K.; Sellschop, J. P. F.

    1988-01-01

    Closely spaced (cm-scale) traverses through the K-T boundary at Stevns Klint (Denmark), Woodside Creek (New Zealand) and a new Southern Hemisphere site at Richards Bay (South Africa) were subjected to trace element and isotopic (C, O, Sr) investigation. Intercomparison between these data-sets, and correlation with the broad K-T database available in the literature, indicate that the chemistry of the boundary clays is not globally constant. Variations are more common than similarities, both of absolute concentrations, and interelement ratios. For example, the chondrite normalized platinum-group elements (PGE) patterns of Stevns Klint are not like those of Woodside Creek, with the Pt/Os ratios showing the biggest variation. These differences in PGE patterns are difficult to explain by secondary alteration of a layer that was originally chemically homogeneous, especially for elements of such dubious crustal mobility as Os and Ir. The data also show that enhanced PGE concentrations, with similar trends to those of the boundary layers, occur in the Cretaceous sediments below the actual boundary at Stevns Klint and all three the New Zealand localities. This confirms the observations of others that the geochemistry of the boundary layers apparently does not record a unique component. It is suggested that terrestrial processes, eg. an extended period of Late Cretaceous volcanism can offer a satisfactory explanation for the features of the K-T geochemical anomaly. Such models would probably be more consistent with the observed stepwise, or gradual, palaeontological changes across this boundary, than the instant catastrophe predicated by the impact theory.

  4. Classification of retinal ganglion cells in the southern hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis (Cyclostomata).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Lee Norman; Coimbra, João Paulo; Rodger, Jennifer; Potter, Ian C; Gill, Howard S; Dunlop, Sarah A; Collin, Shaun P

    2014-03-01

    Lampreys are one of two extant representatives of the earliest group of vertebrates, the agnathans or jawless fishes. The single species of the southern hemisphere lamprey family Geotriidae, Geotria australis, possesses the potential for pentachromatic color discrimination opposed to the mono- or dichromacy found in other lampreys. However, little is known of the retinal ganglion cell types that contribute to visual processing in G. australis. A quantitative morphological approach was used to distinguish and describe retinal ganglion cell types in G. australis. The morphology of retinal ganglion cells was revealed by retrograde biocytin labeling from the optic disc. Cells were digitally reconstructed, and somatic area and position and dendritic field size, density, tortuosity, and stratification were subjected to quantitative morphometric analyses. Cluster analysis, in conjunction with similarity profile analysis (SIMPROF), statistically identified five discrete monostratified retinal ganglion cell types, one of which may comprise two subtypes. Two bistratified types were identified separately, including a biplexiform and a bistratified subtype. The use of cluster analysis with SIMPROF provided a robust statistical technique for objectively identifying cell types whose characteristics were similar and significantly different from those of other types and thus provides an objective resolution of the problems posed by "lumpers vs. splitters" when designating cell types. The diversity of retinal ganglion cells suggests that visual information in the lamprey G. australis is processed in parallel streams, as in gnathostomes. These findings, together with the results of previous studies, indicate that the visual system of the lamprey G. australis represents the upper limit of visual complexity in extant agnathans.

  5. Advection of North Atlantic Deep Water from the Labrador Sea to the southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhein, Monika; Kieke, Dagmar; Steinfeldt, Reiner

    2015-04-01

    Recently formed Labrador Seawater (LSW) and overflow water from Denmark Strait (DSOW) are main components of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Both exhibit a distinct chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) maximum. Here we use 25 years of CFC observations in the Atlantic to study the main features of the circulation of LSW and DSOW. From the CFC data, the age and fraction of young deep water are inferred. Due to the superior spatial data resolution compared to former attempts, regional differences in the spreading velocity and pathways of young deep water become evident, dependent on the regional circulation. The observed distributions of young LSW and DSOW showed that the DWBC is the fastest pathway to reach the southern hemisphere. The downstream decrease of the fractions of young LSW in the DWBC is slower compared to model studies. From 47°N to 42°N, DWBC transports of young LSW and DSOW decrease by 44% and 49%, respectively. At 26°N, the DWBC transport of young water is still 39% of the LSW formation rate and 44% of the DSOW overflow transport. Interior pathways also exist, especially in the subpolar North Atlantic and in the transition zone between the subpolar and subtropical gyre. Compared to DSOW, the distributions indicate a higher tendency for LSW to follow additional interior pathways. North of 45°N the major part of LSW is younger than 20 years. The general weakening of new LSW formation since the 1990s worked toward a homogenization between the LSW in the western and the eastern subpolar North Atlantic.

  6. Behavior of multitemporal and multisensor passive microwave indices in Southern Hemisphere ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraza, Veronica; Grings, Francisco; Ferrazzoli, Paolo; Huete, Alfredo; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Beringer, Jason; Van Gorsel, Eva; Karszenbaum, Haydee

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on the time series analysis of passive microwave and optical satellite data collected from six Southern Hemisphere ecosystems in Australia and Argentina. The selected ecosystems represent a wide range of land cover types, including deciduous open forest, temperate forest, tropical and semiarid savannas, and grasslands. We used two microwave indices, the frequency index (FI) and polarization index (PI), to assess the relative contributions of soil and vegetation properties (moisture and structure) to the observations. Optical-based satellite vegetation products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer were also included to aid in the analysis. We studied the X and Ka bands of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS and Wind Satellite, resulting in up to four observations per day (1:30, 6:00, 13:30, and 18:00 h). Both the seasonal and hourly variations of each of the indices were examined. Environmental drivers (precipitation and temperature) and eddy covariance measurements (gross ecosystem productivity and latent energy) were also analyzed. It was found that in moderately dense forests, FI was dependent on canopy properties (leaf area index and vegetation moisture). In tropical woody savannas, a significant regression (R2) was found between FI and PI with precipitation (R2 > 0.5) and soil moisture (R2 > 0.6). In the areas of semiarid savanna and grassland ecosystems, FI variations found to be significantly related to soil moisture (R2 > 0.7) and evapotranspiration (R2 > 0.5), while PI varied with vegetation phenology. Significant differences (p < 0.01) were found among FI values calculated at the four local times.

  7. Improving past sea surface temperature reconstructions from the Southern Hemisphere oceans using planktonic foraminiferal census data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddam, N. A.; Michel, E.; Siani, G.; Cortese, G.; Bostock, H. C.; Duprat, J. M.; Isguder, G.

    2016-06-01

    We present an improved database of planktonic foraminiferal census counts from the Southern Hemisphere oceans (SHO) from 15°S to 64°S. The SHO database combines three existing databases. Using this SHO database, we investigated dissolution biases that might affect faunal census counts. We suggest a depth/ΔCO32- threshold of ~3800 m/ΔCO32- = ~ -10 to -5 µmol/kg for the Pacific and Indian Oceans and ~4000 m/ΔCO32- = ~0 to 10 µmol/kg for the Atlantic Ocean, under which core-top assemblages can be affected by dissolution and are less reliable for paleo-sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions. We removed all core tops beyond these thresholds from the SHO database. This database has 598 core tops and is able to reconstruct past SST variations from 2° to 25.5°C, with a root mean square error of 1.00°C, for annual temperatures. To inspect how dissolution affects SST reconstruction quality, we tested the data base with two "leave-one-out" tests, with and without the deep core tops. We used this database to reconstruct summer SST (SSST) over the last 20 ka, using the Modern Analog Technique method, on the Southeast Pacific core MD07-3100. This was compared to the SSST reconstructed using the three databases used to compile the SHO database, thus showing that the reconstruction using the SHO database is more reliable, as its dissimilarity values are the lowest. The most important aspect here is the importance of a bias-free, geographic-rich database. We leave this data set open-ended to future additions; the new core tops must be carefully selected, with their chronological frameworks, and evidence of dissolution assessed.

  8. Eddy surface properties and propagation at Southern Hemisphere western boundary current systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilo, G. S.; Mata, M. M.; Azevedo, J. L. L.

    2015-08-01

    Oceanic eddies exist throughout the world oceans, but are more energetic when associated with western boundary currents (WBC) systems. In these regions, eddies play an important role in mixing and energy exchange. Therefore, it is important to quantify and qualify eddies associated with these systems. This is particularly true for the Southern Hemisphere WBC system where only few eddy censuses have been performed to date. In these systems, important aspects of the local eddy population are still unknown, like their spatial distribution and propagation patterns. Moreover, the understanding of these patterns helps to establish monitoring programs and to gain insight in how eddies would affect local mixing. Here, we use a global eddy data set to qualify eddies based on their surface characteristics in the Agulhas Current (AC), the Brazil Current (BC) and the East Australian Current (EAC) systems. The analyses reveal that eddy propagation within each system is highly forced by the local mean flow and bathymetry. Large values of eddy amplitude and temporal variability are associated with the BC and EAC retroflections, while small values occur in the centre of the Argentine Basin and in the Tasman Sea. In the AC system, eddy polarity dictates the propagation distance. BC system eddies do not propagate beyond the Argentine Basin, and are advected by the local ocean circulation. EAC system eddies from both polarities cross south of Tasmania but only the anticyclonic ones reach the Great Australian Bight. For all three WBC systems, both cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies present a geographical segregation according to radius size and amplitude. Regions of high eddy kinetic energy are associated with the eddies' mean amplitudes, and not with their densities.

  9. Jupiter's Southern Hemisphere in the Near-Infrared (Time Set 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaic of Jupiter's southern hemisphere between -25 and -80 degrees (south) latitude. In time sequence three, taken 10 hours after sequence one, the limb is visible near the bottom right part of the mosaic.

    Jupiter's atmospheric circulation is dominated by alternating eastward and westward jets from equatorial to polar latitudes. The direction and speed of these jets in part determine the brightness and texture of the clouds seen in this mosaic. Also visible are several other common Jovian cloud features, including two large vortices, bright spots, dark spots, interacting vortices, and turbulent chaotic systems. The north-south dimension of each of the two vortices in the center of the mosaic is about 3500 kilometers. The right oval is rotating counterclockwise, like other anticyclonic bright vortices in Jupiter's atmosphere. The left vortex is a cyclonic (clockwise) vortex. The differences between them (their brightness, their symmetry, and their behavior) are clues to how Jupiter's atmosphere works. The cloud features visible at 756 nanometers (near-infrared light) are at an atmospheric pressure level of about 1 bar.

    North is at the top. The images are projected onto a sphere, with features being foreshortened towards the south and east. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on May 7, 1997, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  10. Jupiter's Southern Hemisphere in the Near-Infrared (Time Set 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaic of Jupiter's southern hemisphere between -25 and -80 degrees (south) latitude. In time sequence two, taken nine hours after sequence one, the limb is visible near the bottom right part of the mosaic. The curved border near the bottom left indicates the location of Jupiter's day/night terminator.

    Jupiter's atmospheric circulation is dominated by alternating eastward and westward jets from equatorial to polar latitudes. The direction and speed of these jets in part determine the brightness and texture of the clouds seen in this mosaic. Also visible are several other common Jovian cloud features, including two large vortices, bright spots, dark spots, interacting vortices, and turbulent chaotic systems. The north-south dimension of each of the two vortices in the center of the mosaic is about 3500 kilometers. The right oval is rotating counterclockwise, like other anticyclonic bright vortices in Jupiter's atmosphere. The left vortex is a cyclonic (clockwise) vortex. The differences between them (their brightness, their symmetry, and their behavior) are clues to how Jupiter's atmosphere works. The cloud features visible at 756 nanometers (near-infrared light) are at an atmospheric pressure level of about 1 bar.

    North is at the top. The images are projected onto a sphere, with features being foreshortened towards the south and east. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on May 7, 1997, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  11. Jupiter's Southern Hemisphere in the Near-Infrared (Time Set 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaic of Jupiter's southern hemisphere between -10 and -80 degrees (south) latitude. In time sequence one, the planetary limb is visible in near the bottom right part of the mosaic.

    Jupiter's atmospheric circulation is dominated by alternating eastward and westward jets from equatorial to polar latitudes. The direction and speed of these jets in part determine the brightness and texture of the clouds seen in this mosaic. Also visible are several other common Jovian cloud features, including two large vortices, bright spots, dark spots, interacting vortices, and turbulent chaotic systems. The north-south dimension of each of the two vortices in the center of the mosaic is about 3500 kilometers. The right oval is rotating counterclockwise, like other anticyclonic bright vortices in Jupiter's atmosphere. The left vortex is a cyclonic (clockwise) vortex. The differences between them (their brightness, their symmetry, and their behavior) are clues to how Jupiter's atmosphere works. The cloud features visible at 756 nanometers (near-infrared light) are at an atmospheric pressure level of about 1 bar.

    North is at the top. The images are projected onto a sphere, with features being foreshortened towards the south and east. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on May 7, 1997, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  12. Solaris: a global network of autonomous observatories in the southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozłowski, S. K.; Sybilski, P.; Konacki, Maciej; Pawłaszek, R. K.; Ratajczak, Milena; Helminiak, K. G.

    2014-07-01

    We present Project Solaris, a network of four autonomous observatories in the Southern Hemisphere. The Project's primary goal is to detect and characterize circumbinary planets using the eclipse timing approach. This method requires high-cadence and long time-span photometric coverage of the binaries' eclipses, hence the observatories are located at sites having similar separation in longitude and nearly identical latitudes: South African Astronómical Observatory, Republic of South Africa (Solaris-1 and -2), Siding Spring Observatory, Australia (Solaris-3) and Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, Argentina (Solaris-4). The headquarters coordinating and monitoring the network is based in Toruń, Poland. All four sites are operational as of December 2013. The instrument and hardware configurations are nearly identical. Each site is equipped with a 0.5-m Ritchey-Chrétien or Schmidt-Cassegrain optical tube assembly mounted on a direct-drive modified German equatorial mount along with a set of instruments. Computer, power and networking components are installed in rack cabinets. Everything is housed in sandwiched fiberglass clamshell 3.5-m diameter robotized domes. The Argentinian site is additionally equipped with a 20-ft office container. We discuss the design requirements of robotic observatories aimed to operate autonomously as a global network with concentration on efficiency, robustness and modularity. We also present a newly introduced spectroscopic mode of operation commissioned on the Solaris-1 telescope. Using a compact échelle spectrograph (20 000 resolution) mounted directly on the imaging train of the telescope, we are able to remotely acquire spectra. A fully robotic spectroscopic mode is planned for 2015.

  13. A Survey of Near-Earth Objects in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, G.

    The search for NEOs has been concentrated up to now in the northern hemisphere. Six dedicated NEO surveys programmes are already in place: 4 located in the SouthWest of USA, one in Hawaii and one in Japan. None of the surveys mentioned above reach most of the southern sky, therefore more than 25% of the celestial sphere is not covered by any project. The National Research Council of Uruguay (CONICYT) granted the Observatorio Astronómico "Los Molinos" - OALM (Minister of Education and Culture) a small project to install a telescope to search for NEOs. The money was used to buy a 46cm (f/2.8) telescope (Centurion 18" by Astroworks). With further support from our home institutions (Universidad de Uruguay and the Minister of Education and Culture) and from the Planetary Society NEO grant we bought the CCD, a PC and the control software. The telescope will be located in a dark area of the countryside, 200 km from Montevideo. We have support from the Local Government of the Province of Maldonado for the buildings. The construction will start in May. In the mean time we have installed the telescope at the actual site of the OALM where we are testing the software, the hardware and starting the survey observations. An asteroid has been already discovered in this testing phase (K02H09A). The telescope will be fully controlled from our home institute in Montevideo through Internet. All the operations will be performed in a remote way. Follow-up observations of the discovered objects will be done from other telescopes of our institute as well through collaboration with colleagues of the SouthAmerican Spacegaurd Association, with telescopes in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

  14. Evolution of the Southern Hemisphere Subpolar Middle Atmosphere during Summer and Autumn.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, T.; Grose, W. L.; Remsberg, E. E.; Lingenfelser, G.

    1994-03-01

    The evolution of zonal wind and zonal wavenumber one (wave 1) in the Southern Hemisphere subpolar middle atmosphere is described for the period December 1978-May 1979 using temperature and ozone measurements from the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) experiment.In late December maximum zonal easterlies of 70 m s1 are observed at 0.1 mb, 60°S. A zonal flow reversal occurs during late February and westerlies subsequently increase to 60-70 m s1 in the upper stratosphere by April-May. LIMS zonal winds are compared with rocketsonde measurements and nadir sounder (derived) winds for summer and autumn. Although quantitative agreement is found at stratospheric levels, substantial discrepancies are evident in the mesosphere, most likely a reflection of sampling and resolution differences in the respective datasets.Stationary and traveling wave 1 temperature disturbances (amplitudes 1-2 K at 60°S) are observed by LIMS during summer. The stationary wave is confined to the lower stratosphere near the level of zero zonal mean wind flow, whereas the traveling wave is prominent in the middle stratosphere, moves west at a rate similar to the zonal-mean wind, and exhibits a vertical-meridional structure similar to a P14 normal mode Rossby wave. A substantial intensification of wave 1 activity occurs during autumn (amplitudes 5-10 K), which is found to be associated with an upward-directed Eliassen-Palm flux near the subpolar tropopause level. Evidence relating wave 1 activity in the lower-middle stratosphere to the occurrence of zonal ozone perturbations of 10%-20% amplitude is presented for summer and autumn.

  15. The impact of polar stratospheric ozone loss on Southern Hemisphere stratospheric circulation and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeble, J.; Braesicke, P.; Abraham, N. L.; Roscoe, H. K.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of polar stratospheric ozone loss resulting from chlorine activation on polar stratospheric clouds is examined using a pair of model integrations run with the fully coupled chemistry climate model UM-UKCA. Suppressing chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions is found to produce modelled ozone differences consistent with observed ozone differences between the present and pre-ozone hole period. Statistically significant high-latitude Southern Hemisphere (SH) ozone loss begins in August and peaks in October-November, with > 75% of ozone destroyed at 50 hPa. Associated with this ozone destruction is a > 12 K decrease of the lower polar stratospheric temperatures and an increase of > 6 K in the upper stratosphere. The heating components of this temperature change are diagnosed and it is found that the temperature dipole is the result of decreased short-wave heating in the lower stratosphere and increased dynamical heating in the upper stratosphere. The cooling of the polar lower stratosphere leads, through thermal wind balance, to an acceleration of the polar vortex and delays its breakdown by ~ 2 weeks. A link between lower stratospheric zonal wind speed, the vertical component of the Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux, Fz and the residual mean vertical circulation, w*, is identified. In November and December, increased westerly winds and a delay in the breakup of the polar vortex lead to increases in Fz, indicating increased wave activity entering the stratosphere and propagating to higher altitudes. The resulting increase in wave breaking, diagnosed by decreases to the EP flux divergence, drives enhanced downwelling over the polar cap. Many of the stratospheric signals modelled in this study propagate down to the troposphere, and lead to significant surface changes in December.

  16. The impact of polar stratospheric ozone loss on Southern Hemisphere stratospheric circulation and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeble, J.; Braesicke, P.; Abraham, N. L.; Roscoe, H. K.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    The impact of polar stratospheric ozone loss resulting from chlorine activation on polar stratospheric clouds is examined using a pair of model integrations run with the fully coupled chemistry climate model UM-UKCA. Suppressing chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions is found to produce modelled ozone differences consistent with observed ozone differences between the present and pre-ozone hole period. Statistically significant high latitude Southern Hemisphere (SH) ozone loss begins in August and peaks in October-November, with >75% of ozone destroyed at 50 hPa. Associated with this ozone destruction is a >12 K decrease of the lower polar stratospheric temperatures and an increase of >6 K in the upper stratosphere. The heating components of this temperature change are diagnosed and it is found that the temperature dipole is the result of decreased shortwave heating in the lower stratosphere and increased dynamical heating in the upper stratosphere. The cooling of the polar lower stratosphere leads, through thermal wind balance, to an acceleration of the polar vortex and delays its breakdown by ~2 weeks. A link between lower stratospheric zonal wind speed, the vertical component of the EP flux, Fz, and the residual mean vertical circulation, w*, is identified. In December and January, increased westerly winds lead to increases in Fz, associated with an increase in tropopause height. The resulting increase in wavebreaking leads to enhanced downwelling/reduced upwelling over the polar cap. Many of the stratospheric signals modelled in this study propagate down to the troposphere, and lead to significant surface changes in December.

  17. Causes of interannual variability over the southern hemispheric tropospheric ozone maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junhua; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Douglass, Anne R.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Olsen, Mark A.; Wargan, Krzysztof; Ziemke, Jerald R.

    2017-03-01

    We examine the relative contribution of processes controlling the interannual variability (IAV) of tropospheric ozone over four sub-regions of the southern hemispheric tropospheric ozone maximum (SHTOM) over a 20-year period. Our study is based on hindcast simulations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling Initiative chemistry transport model (NASA GMI-CTM) of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, driven by assimilated Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields. Our analysis shows that over SHTOM region, the IAV of the stratospheric contribution is the most important factor driving the IAV of upper tropospheric ozone (270 hPa), where ozone has a strong radiative effect. Over the South Atlantic region, the contribution from surface emissions to the IAV of ozone exceeds that from stratospheric input at and below 430 hPa. Over the South Indian Ocean, the IAV of stratospheric ozone makes the largest contribution to the IAV of ozone with little or no influence from surface emissions at 270 and 430 hPa in austral winter. Over the tropical South Atlantic region, the contribution from IAV of stratospheric input dominates in austral winter at 270 hPa and drops to less than half but is still significant at 430 hPa. Emission contributions are not significant at these two levels. The IAV of lightning over this region also contributes to the IAV of ozone in September and December. Over the tropical southeastern Pacific, the contribution of the IAV of stratospheric input is significant at 270 and 430 hPa in austral winter, and emissions have little influence.

  18. Reconstructing atmospheric circulation over southern New Zealand: Establishment of modern westerly airflow 5500 years ago and implications for Southern Hemisphere Holocene climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, C. S. M.; Wilmshurst, J. M.; Jones, R. T.; Wood, J. R.; Palmer, J. G.; Hogg, A. G.; Fenwick, P.; Crowley, S. F.; Privat, K.; Thomas, Z.

    2017-03-01

    Late-twentieth century changes in the intensity and migration of Southern Hemisphere westerly winds have been implicated in spatially complex variability in atmospheric and ocean circulation, and ice-sheet dynamics, across the mid- to high-latitudes. A major uncertainty, however, is whether present day hemispheric-wide symmetrical airflow is representative of past behaviour. Here we report a multi-proxy study from Stewart Island and southern Fiordland, New Zealand (46-47°S) reconstructing Holocene changes at the northern limit of westerly airflow. Increased minerogenic input and a pronounced shift in cool-loving vegetation around 5500 years ago is consistent with the establishment of westerly airflow at this latitude in the southwest Pacific. In marked contrast, stronger winds are reported further south over the subantarctic Auckland (50°S) and Campbell (52°S) Islands from 8000 years ago. Intriguingly, reconstructions from the east Pacific suggest a weakening of core westerly airflow after 8500 years ago, but an expansion along the northern limits sometime after 5500 years ago. Our results suggest similar atmospheric circulation changes have been experienced in the Pacific since 5500 years ago, but indicate an expanded network of sites is needed to comprehensively test the driver(s) and impact(s) of Holocene mid-latitude westerly winds across the Southern Hemisphere.

  19. Late Quaternary environmental change in the African sector of Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes: trends and teleconnections. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    At the northern boundary of the Southern Hemisphere westerly wind belt, and the northern limit of the related frontal systems, SW African environments are particularly sensitive to variations in mid-latitude oceanic and atmospheric circulation systems. It has long been postulated that during relatively cold periods of the late Quaternary, SW Africa - if not much of southern Africa - has experienced an increase in the precipitation linked to phenomena related to an equatorward shift/expansion of the westerly storm track (for review see Chase and Meadows, 2007, Earth-Science Reviews). However, a reliable chain of evidence to support this hypothesis has been elusive, and studies from both the data and modelling communities have yet to resolve the debate. This paper will present the state-of the-art in our understanding of how environments in SW Africa have changed during the course of the last glacial-interglacial cycle. New evidence from both the marine and terrestrial realms, particularly in the form of high resolution stable isotope and pollen records obtained from fossilised rock hyrax middens (Chase et al., 2012, Quaternary Science Reviews; www.hyrax.univ-montp2.fr), is providing a detailed, and coherent, but complex picture of climate dynamics and forcing mechanisms along the northern boundary of westerly influence. While records from the continental interior remain rare, and thus the degree to which an expansion of the westerlies may have influenced southern Africa as a whole remains to be adequately resolved, sites from the SW continental margin do appear to indicate that shifts of the oceanic Subtropical Front and westerly storm track strongly affect the amount of precipitation the region receives. The dynamics of this system, however, do not operate in isolation, and conditions north of the Subtropical Front are very sensitive to variations in the position and intensity of the South Atlantic Anticyclone, which appears to be most responsive to changes in

  20. Seasonal in situ observations of glyoxal and methylglyoxal over the temperate oceans of the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, S. J.; Selleck, P. W.; Galbally, I. E.; Keywood, M. D.; Harvey, M. J.; Lerot, C.; Helmig, D.; Ristovski, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The dicarbonyls glyoxal and methylglyoxal have been measured with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) cartridges and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), optimised for dicarbonyl detection, in clean marine air over the temperate Southern Hemisphere (SH) oceans. Measurements of a range of dicarbonyl precursors (volatile organic compounds, VOCs) were made in parallel. These are the first in situ measurements of glyoxal and methylglyoxal over the remote temperate oceans. Six 24 h samples were collected in summer (February-March) over the Chatham Rise in the south-west Pacific Ocean during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) voyage in 2012, while 34 24 h samples were collected at Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in the late winter (August-September) of 2011. Average glyoxal mixing ratios in clean marine air were 7 ppt at Cape Grim and 23 ppt over Chatham Rise. Average methylglyoxal mixing ratios in clean marine air were 28 ppt at Cape Grim and 10 ppt over Chatham Rise. The mixing ratios of glyoxal at Cape Grim are the lowest observed over the remote oceans, while mixing ratios over Chatham Rise are in good agreement with other temperate and tropical observations, including concurrent Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations. Methylglyoxal mixing ratios at both sites are comparable to the only other marine methylglyoxal observations available over the tropical Northern Hemisphere (NH) ocean. Ratios of glyoxal : methylglyoxal > 1 over Chatham Rise but < 1 at Cape Grim suggest that a different formation and/or loss processes or rates dominate at each site. Dicarbonyl precursor VOCs, including isoprene and monoterpenes, are used to calculate an upper-estimate yield of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in the remote marine boundary layer and explain at most 1-3 ppt of dicarbonyls observed, corresponding to 10% and 17% of the observed glyoxal and 29 and 10% of the methylglyoxal at Chatham Rise and Cape Grim

  1. Seasonal in situ observations of glyoxal and methylglyoxal over the temperate oceans of the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, S. J.; Selleck, P. W.; Galbally, I. E.; Keywood, M. D.; Harvey, M. J.; Lerot, C.; Helmig, D.; Ristovski, Z.

    2014-08-01

    Dicarbonyls glyoxal and methylglyoxal have been measured with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) cartridges and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), optimised for dicarbonyl detection, in clean marine air over the temperate Southern Hemisphere (SH) oceans. Measurements of a range of dicarbonyl precursors (volatile organic compounds, VOCs) were made in parallel. These are the first in situ measurements of glyoxal and methylglyoxal over the remote temperate oceans. Six 24 h samples were collected in late summer (February-March) over the Chatham Rise in the South West Pacific Ocean during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) voyage in 2012, while 34 24 h samples were collected at Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in late winter (August-September) 2011. Average glyoxal mixing ratios in clean marine air were 7 ppt at Cape Grim, and 24 ppt over Chatham Rise. Average methylglyoxal mixing ratios in clean marine air were 28 ppt at Cape Grim and 12 ppt over Chatham Rise. The mixing ratios of glyoxal at Cape Grim are the lowest observed over the remote oceans, while mixing ratios over Chatham Rise are in good agreement with other temperate and tropical observations, including concurrent MAX-DOAS observations. Methylglyoxal mixing ratios at both sites are comparable to the only other marine methylglyoxal observations available over the tropical Northern Hemisphere (NH) ocean. Ratios of glyoxal : methylglyoxal > 1 over Chatham Rise but < 1 at Cape Grim, suggesting different formation and/or loss processes or rates dominate at each site. Dicarbonyl precursor VOCs, including isoprene and monoterpenes, are used to calculate an upper estimate yield of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in the remote marine boundary layer and explain at most 1-3 ppt of dicarbonyls observed, corresponding to 11 and 17% of the observed glyoxal and 28 and 10% of the methylglyoxal at Chatham Rise and Cape Grim, respectively, highlighting a significant but as yet unknown production

  2. Observation of polar mesosphere summer echoes with calibrated VHF radars at 69° in the Northern and Southern hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latteck, R.; Singer, W.; Morris, R. J.; Holdsworth, D. A.; Murphy, D. J.

    2007-07-01

    Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) observed in the northern and southern hemisphere were studied using continuous measurements obtained by calibrated VHF radars located at Andenes (69.3°N) and Davis (68.6°S) during the boreal summer 2004 and the austral summer 2004/2005. The PMSE observed at Davis have a lower peak volume reflectivity of approximately 4 . 10-11 m-1 compared with their counterparts (7 . 10-10 m-1) observed at Andenes. The duration of the PMSE season is correlated with the dynamical and thermal state of the mesopause region supported by recent studies using meridional winds and temperatures. PMSE occurred less frequently but with greater variability above Davis. The diurnal variation of PMSE occurrence has a maximum around 11-16 LT in both hemispheres, and a minimum occurs during late evening with a longer duration in the southern hemisphere. The mean PMSE season at both sites started around 34 days before solstice, but the duration of the Davis PMSE season is about 9 days shorter than at Andenes. The maximum occurrence height of PMSE at Davis is 86 km which is about 1 km higher than at Andenes.

  3. The Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event: A Southern Hemisphere record from Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantasia, Alicia; Föllmi, Karl B.; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Bernárdez, Enrique; Mattioli, Emanuela

    2016-04-01

    The Early Toarcian was marked by important environmental changes, marine oxygen deficiency and extensive organic-rich sediment deposition (T-OAE; ˜182 Ma, Early Jurassic). The T-OAE coincides with a marked negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) recorded in marine carbonate, and marine and terrestrial organic carbon. This is commonly attributed to the massive release of isotopically light carbon to the atmospheric and oceanic reservoirs derived from the destabilization of methane hydrates from marine sediments and/or the emissions of thermogenic methane from the eruption of the Karoo-Ferrar LIP (e.g., Hesselbo et al., 2000; Kemp et al., 2005; Svensen et al., 2007; Mazzini et al., 2010). Moreover, in most documented marine sections, this episode is marked by a generalized crisis in carbonate production and marine invertebrate extinctions (e.g. Jenkyns, 1988; Röhl et al., 2005; Suan et al., 2001). Several studies of the T-OAE have been conducted on sediments in central and northwest Europe, but only few data are available from the Southern Hemisphere, leading to large uncertainty concerning the exact expression of this event in this part of the world. The aims of this study are to characterize the sediments deposited during the Andean equivalents of the tenuicostatum and falciferum European Zones and establish in which way the T-OAE affected this region. In the Early Jurassic, the Andean basin was in a back-arc setting with marine corridors connected to Panthalassa. In this study, we have generated new high-resolution sedimentological, geochemical and mineralogical data from the sections of El Peñon and Quebrada Asiento, located in Chile in the northeastern area of the city of Copiapó, Atacama region. The biostratigraphy of these sections has been studied by von Hillebrandt and Schidt-Effing (1981) and complemented here by a biostratigraphy based on calcareous nannofossils. The sections consist of a succession of marl, limestone and siltstone of Pliensbachian and

  4. The MEarth Project: Status Update and the Commissioning of a Brand New Telescope Array in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Dittmann, Jason

    2014-06-01

    The MEarth Project is an ongoing all-sky survey for Earth-like planets transiting the closest, smallest M dwarfs. MEarth aims to find good targets for atmospheric characterization with JWST and the next generation of enormous ground-based telescopes. MEarth's yearly data releases, containing precise light curves of nearby mid-to-late M dwarfs, provide a unique window into the photometric variability of the stars that will forever be among the most interesting targets in the search for potentially habitable exoplanets. We present a status update on the MEarth Project, including a detailed map of the progress we’ve made so far with 8 telescopes in the Northern hemisphere and promising early results from our new installation of 8 more telescopes in the Southern hemisphere.

  5. Tropical Convective Influence: A 25-year Climatology of UTLS Anticyclones in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogal, M. J.; Hitchman, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    A 25 year (1985-2009) climatology of convectively driven quasi-stationary anticyclones in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) is presented to provide insight into different dynamical regimes in the SH Upper Troposphere - Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) region during August-October months. We have found that different convective patterns do introduce profound changes in the structure of SH anticyclones and notable differences in the structure of the Australian Subtropical Westerly Jet (ASWJ), power spectra and the wave energy propagation in UTLS region as seen in E-P fluxes. The ECMWF data containing southern winter to spring transition periods was divided into temporal composites according to the relative strength of the Australian High (AH), the South African High (SAH) and the Indian Ocean High (IOH) near 23°S to differentiate the convective forcing and dynamical regimes. Three temporal subsets were extracted to span periods of AH dominance (Type I, 650 days), IOH dominance ( Type II, 1203 days) and the relatively high magnitude for both the AH and SAH anticyclones (Type III, 447 days). All days in the 2300 day August to October subsets over 25 years were binned into one of the three types. These temporal composites were analyzed in terms of meteorological variables like geopotential heights, OLR and winds, as well as power spectra and Eliassen-Palm fluxes. It was found that as the winter to spring transition progresses, the relative strength of the AH generally diminishes, while the SAH and IOH grow. The apparent two-core structure of the ASWJ was also attributed to the type I and III geopotential height structures. Type III events show greater activity of the South American High (SAmH), which also undergoes enhancement during the late transition period in October. The spectral analysis revealed interesting differences between the types of events, namely: stronger k=1 and 2 waves during type III events around 60°S in August. The k=3 and 4 waves for type I show doubling of

  6. Insights into Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Volker, W.; Kirchhoff, J. H.; Posny, Franaoise; Gert, J.; Coetzee, R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe the first overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropics based on a three year, ten site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network. Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approximately 7 hPa and relative humidity to approximately 200 hPa, are at an archive: http://code9l6. gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/shadoz. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak between August and November and are lowest in the first half of the year. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the waning 1997-1998 Indian Ocean Dipole and ENSO (El Nino / Southern Oscillation), seasonal convection and pollution transport from Africa. Tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic Basin reflects regional subsidence and recirculation as well as pollution ozone from biomass burning.

  7. Midlatitude ionospheric changes to four great geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 23 in Southern and Northern Hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merline Matamba, Tshimangadzo; Habarulema, John Bosco; Burešová, Dalia

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an investigation of ionospheric response to great (Dst ≤-350 nT) geomagnetic storms that occurred during solar cycle 23. The storm periods analyzed are 29 March to 2 April 2001, 27-31 October 2003, 18-23 November 2003, and 6-11 November 2004. Global Navigation Satellite System, total electron content (TEC), and ionosonde critical frequency of F2 layer (foF2) data over Southern Hemisphere (African sector) and Northern Hemisphere (European sector) midlatitudes were used to study the ionospheric responses within 15°E-40°E longitude and ±31° to ±46° geomagnetic latitude. Midlatitude regions within the same longitude sector in both hemispheres were selected in order to assess the contribution of the low-latitude changes especially the expansion of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) also called the dayside ionospheric superfountain effect during these storms. In all storm periods, both negative and positive ionospheric responses were observed in both hemispheres. Negative ionospheric responses were mainly due to changes in neutral composition, while the expansion of the EIA led to pronounced positive storm effects at midlatitudes for some storm periods. In other cases (e.g., 29 October 2003), penetration electric fields, EIA expansion, and large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances were found to be present during the positive storm effect at midlatitudes in both hemispheres. An increase in TEC on the 28 October 2003 was because of the large solar flare with previously determined intensity of X45 ±5.

  8. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 2. Tropospheric variability and the zonal wave-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Fortuin, J. P. F.; Kelder, H. M.

    2003-01-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the Southern Hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) network (http://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz). Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island, Nairobi (Kenya), Irene (South Africa), Réunion Island, Watukosek (Java), Fiji, Tahiti, American Samoa, San Cristóbal (Galapagos), and Natal (Brazil). Total, stratospheric, and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak between August and November. Other features are a persistent zonal wave-one pattern in total column ozone and signatures of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. The wave-one is due to a greater concentration of free tropospheric ozone over the tropical Atlantic than the Pacific and appears to be associated with tropical general circulation and seasonal pollution from biomass burning. Tropospheric ozone over the Indian and Pacific Oceans displays influences of the waning 1997-1998 El Niño, seasonal convection, and pollution transport from Africa. The most distinctive feature of SHADOZ tropospheric ozone is variability in the data, e.g., a factor of 3 in column amount at 8 of 10 stations. Seasonal and monthly means may not be robust quantities because statistics are frequently not Gaussian even at sites that are always in tropical air. Models and satellite retrievals should be evaluated on their capability for reproducing tropospheric variability and fine structure. A 1999-2000 ozone record from Paramaribo, Surinam (6°N, 55°W) (also in SHADOZ) shows a marked contrast to southern tropical ozone because Surinam is often north of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). A more representative tropospheric ozone climatology for models and satellite retrievals requires additional Northern Hemisphere tropical data.

  9. IceVeto: Extended PeV neutrino astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere with IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Auffenberg, Jan; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    IceCube, the world's largest high-energy neutrino observatory, built at the South Pole, recently reported evidence of an astrophysical neutrino flux extending to PeV energies in the Southern Hemisphere. This observation raises the question of how the sensitivity in this energy range could be further increased. In the down-going sector, in IceCube's case the Southern Hemisphere, backgrounds from atmospheric muons and neutrinos pose a challenge to the identification of an astrophysical neutrino flux. The IceCube analysis, that led to the evidence for astrophysical neutrinos, is based on an in-ice veto strategy for background rejection. One possibility available to IceCube is the concept of an extended surface detector, IceVeto, which could allow the rejection of a large fraction of atmospheric backgrounds, primarily for muons from cosmic ray (CR) air showers as well as from neutrinos in the same air showers. Building on the experience of IceTop/IceCube, possibly the most cost-effective and sensitive way to build IceVeto is as an extension of the IceTop detector, with simple photomultiplier based detector modules for CR air shower detection. Initial simulations and estimates indicate that such a veto detector will significantly increase the sensitivity to an astrophysical flux of ν{sub μ} induced muon tracks in the Southern Hemisphere compared to current analyses. Here we present the motivation and capabilities based on initial simulations. Conceptual ideas for a simplified surface array will be discussed briefly.

  10. ENSO-independent contemporaneous variations of anomalous circulations in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres: The polar-tropical seesaw mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Weiya; Guan, Zhaoyong

    2015-12-01

    Using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and the ENSO indices from the Climate Prediction Center over the period 1978-2014, we have investigated the contemporaneous circulation variations in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres by performing the singular value decomposition analysis of sea level pressure anomalies (SLPA) after the ENSO signal is regressed out. It is found that there exists a polar-tropical seesaw mode (PTSM) that characterizes with the out of phase fluctuations of SLPA between the polar and tropical regions in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres in boreal winter. This PTSM explains 47.74% of the total covariance of SLPA and is almost independent of ENSO. It demonstrates a long-term trend and oscillation cycles of 2-3 and 4-6 yr. The long-term trend in PTSM indicates that the sea level pressure gradually decreases in the tropics and increases in the polar region with time. This PTSM looks roughly symmetric about the equator besides the seesaw pattern of SLPA between the tropics and polar region in each hemisphere. The disturbances in the geopotential height field in association with the PTSM shows baroclinic features in the tropics whereas equivalent barotropic features in the mid and high latitudes in the troposphere. The anomalous thermal forcing in the tropical region is possibly one of the factors facilitating the formation of this PTSM. Significant global precipitation and temperature anomalies related to the PTSM are observed. In the positive PTSM phase, precipitation and temperature are higher than normal in southern Europe and the Mediterranean and surrounding areas, but lower than normal in northern Europe and Siberia. Precipitation is higher than normal while temperature is lower than normal in Northeast Asia. Significant temperature and precipitation anomalies possibly occur in the regions of western China, northern India, parts of North America, parts of subtropical Africa, Maritime Continent, and Antarctic. These results are helpful for better

  11. First record of a living species of the genus Janulum (Class Demospongiae)
    in the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michelle; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Morrow, Christine; Soest, Rob Van

    2015-06-29

    A new species of the enigmatic sponge genus Janulum de Laubenfels, 1936 was discovered recently on the Louisville Seamount Chain, in International Waters to the east of New Zealand; two small specimens were found encrusting the interstices of the stony coral Solenosmilia variabilis Duncan at a depth of 1200-1600 m. Janulum imago sp. nov., is described and compared with the genus type J. spinispiculum (Carter, 1876) from the North Atlantic. Janulum was also recorded from the Late Eocene Oamaru Diatomite of southern New Zealand in 1892, but was misidentified as genus Plocamia Schmidt (Order Poecilosclerida Topsent, Family Microcionidae Carter). Fossil species Janulum princeps sp. nov. is also described herein and represents the first record of this North Atlantic-Arctic Ocean genus in the Southern Hemisphere. The validity of J. filholi (Topsent, 1890), the second and only other North Atlantic species currently assigned to Janulum, is considered in the context of J. spinispiculum and the new species J. imago sp. nov.

  12. Mitogenomics of southern hemisphere blue mussels (Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia): Insights into the evolutionary characteristics of the Mytilus edulis complex

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Quintero-Galvis, Julian F.; Mesas, Andres; D’Elía, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Marine blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) are widespread species that exhibit an antitropical distribution with five species occurring in the Northern Hemisphere (M. trossulus, M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. californianus and M. coruscus) and three in the Southern Hemisphere (M. galloprovincialis, M. chilensis and M. platensis). Species limits in this group remain controversial, in particular for those forms that live in South America. Here we investigated structural characteristics of marine mussels mitogenomes, based on published F mtDNA sequences of Northern Hemisphere species and two newly sequenced South American genomes, one from the Atlantic M. platensis and another from the Pacific M. chilensis. These mitogenomes exhibited similar architecture to those of other genomes of Mytilus, including the presence of the Atp8 gene, which is missing in most of the other bivalves. Our evolutionary analysis of mitochondrial genes indicates that purifying selection is the predominant force shaping the evolution of the coding genes. Results of our phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Pteriomorphia and fully resolved the phylogenetic relationships among its five orders. Finally, the low genetic divergence of specimens assigned to M. chilensis and M. platensis suggests that these South American marine mussels represent conspecific variants rather than distinct species. PMID:27241855

  13. Airborne Passive Remote Sensing of the Troposphere in Nashville/Middle Tennessee Area During the 1995 Southern Oxidants Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rider, D. M.; Worden, H. M.; Beer, R.; Nandi, S.; Sparks, L. C.

    1998-01-01

    In July of 1995 the Airborne Emission Spectrometer was deployed to Nashville, Tennessee to participate in the 1995 Ozone Study Intensive Campaign of the Southern Oxidants Study. AES is a high resolution mid-infrared interferometer that measures the spectrum of upwelling radiation in the 650-4250 cm-1 range.

  14. Delayed climate change in the Southern Hemisphere induced by stratospheric ozone recovery, as projected by the CMIP5 models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polvani, L. M.; Barnes, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Stratospheric ozone is expected to recover in the second half of this century, due to the regulation of ozone depleting substances by the Montreal Protocol. Targeted modeling studies have suggested that the climate response to ozone recovery will greatly oppose the climate response to increasing greenhouse-gases (GHG); owever, the extent of this cancellation remains unclear, as few such studies are available. Here, we analyze the much larger set of models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5), all of which include stratospheric ozone depletion and recovery. We show that the closing of the ozone hole will cause a delay in summer-time (DJF) Southern Hemisphere climate change, between now and mid-century. Specifically, we find that the position of the jet stream, the width of the subtropical dry-zones, the seasonality of surface temperatures, and sea ice concentrations all exhibit significantly reduced summer-time trends over the first half of the 21st Century as a consequence of ozone recovery. Beyond mid-century, forcing from GHG emissions begins to dominate the climate response. We also compare the relative influences of future GHG emissions and historic ozone depletion, and find that the simulated DJF tropospheric circulation changes in the Southern Hemisphere between 1965-2005 -- driven primarily by ozone depletion -- are larger than the projected changes in any future scenario over the entire 21st Century.

  15. Hybridization of Southern Hemisphere blue whale subspecies and a sympatric area off Antarctica: impacts of whaling or climate change?

    PubMed

    Attard, Catherine R M; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Jenner, K Curt S; Gill, Peter C; Jenner, Micheline-Nicole; Morrice, Margaret G; Robertson, Kelly M; Möller, Luciana M

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the degree of genetic exchange between subspecies and populations is vital for the appropriate management of endangered species. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) have two recognized Southern Hemisphere subspecies that show differences in geographic distribution, morphology, vocalizations and genetics. During the austral summer feeding season, the Antarctic blue whale (B. m. intermedia) is found in polar waters and the pygmy blue whale (B. m. brevicauda) in temperate waters. Here, we genetically analyzed samples collected during the feeding season to report on several cases of hybridization between the two recognized blue whale Southern Hemisphere subspecies in a previously unconfirmed sympatric area off Antarctica. This means the pygmy blue whales using waters off Antarctica may migrate and then breed during the austral winter with the Antarctic subspecies. Alternatively, the subspecies may interbreed off Antarctica outside the expected austral winter breeding season. The genetically estimated recent migration rates from the pygmy to Antarctic subspecies were greater than estimates of evolutionary migration rates and previous estimates based on morphology of whaling catches. This discrepancy may be due to differences in the methods or an increase in the proportion of pygmy blue whales off Antarctica within the last four decades. Potential causes for the latter are whaling, anthropogenic climate change or a combination of these and may have led to hybridization between the subspecies. Our findings challenge the current knowledge about the breeding behaviour of the world's largest animal and provide key information that can be incorporated into management and conservation practices for this endangered species.

  16. Metabolic concentration of lipid soluble organochlorine burdens in the blubber of southern hemisphere humpback whales through migration and fasting.

    PubMed

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M; Waugh, Courtney A; Schlabach, Martin

    2013-08-20

    Southern hemisphere humpback whales undertake the longest migrations and associated periods of fasting of any mammal. Fluctuations in lipid energy stores are known to profoundly affect the toxicokinetics of lipophilic organochlorine compound (OC) burdens. Results from blubber biopsy sampling of adult, male humpback whales at two time points of the annual migration journey revealed dramatic concentration effects for the majority of OC compounds. The observed concentration effect was, however, not linear with measured average blubber lipid loss indicating significant redistribution of OCs and hence the importance of alternate lipid depots for meeting the energetic demands of the migration journey. Applying lipophilic OC burdens as novel tracers of whole-body lipid dynamics, the observed average concentration index suggests an average individual weight loss of 13% over 4 months of the migration journey. This value is based upon lipid derived energy and is in good agreement with previous weight prediction formulas. Notably, however, these estimates may greatly underestimate individual weight loss if significant protein catabolism occurs. Biomagnification factors between migrating southern hemisphere humpback whales and their principal prey item, Antarctic krill, closely resembled those of baleen whales feeding on herbivorous zooplankton in the Arctic. This study emphasizes the importance of considering prolonged periods of food deprivation when assessing chemical risks posed to wildlife. This is of particular importance for Polar biota adapted to extremes in ecosystem productivity.

  17. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Network: A Project for Satellite Research, Process Studies, Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Kawakami, Shuji; Posny, Francoise

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone and a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa and South America is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  18. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Tropopause Region from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2002-05-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the southern hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/shadoz). Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the TTL (tropical tropopause layer) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The TTL layer is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern is apparent in column-integrated TTL ozone because ozone mixing ratios are greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean. The wave-one persists all year with varying magnitude and appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Réunion Island.

  19. Insights Into Tropical Tropospheric Ozone From The 1998-2000 Shadoz (southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Posny, F.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, B.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

    We describe the first overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropics based on a 3-year, 10-site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. Ob- servations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. The ozone data, with simultaneous tem- perature profiles to 7 hPa and relative humidity to 200 hPa, are at an archive: . Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) col- umn ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts usually peak be- tween August and November and are lowest in the first half of the year. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the wan- ing 1997-1998 Indian Ocean Dipole and ENSO, seasonal convection and pollution transport from Africa. Tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic Basin reflects regional subsidence and recirculation as well as pollution ozone from biomass burning.

  20. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Tropopause Region from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, J. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the southern hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the TTL (tropical tropopause layer) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The TTL layer is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern is apparent in column-integrated TTL ozone because ozone mixing ratios are greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean. The wave-one persists all year with varying magnitude and appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  1. Biogeography in Cellana (Patellogastropoda, Nacellidae) with Special Emphasis on the Relationships of Southern Hemisphere Oceanic Island Species.

    PubMed

    González-Wevar, Claudio A; Nakano, Tomoyuki; Palma, Alvaro; Poulin, Elie

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic islands lacking connections to other land are extremely isolated from sources of potential colonists and have acquired their biota mainly through dispersal from geographically distant areas. Hence, isolated island biota constitutes interesting models to infer biogeographical mechanisms of dispersal, colonization, differentiation, and speciation. Limpets of the genus Cellana (Nacellidae: Patellogastropoda) show limited dispersal capacity but are broadly distributed across the Indo-Pacific including many endemic species in isolated oceanic islands. Here, we examined main distributional patterns and geographic boundaries among Cellana lineages with special emphasis in the relationships of Southern Hemisphere oceanic islands species. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on mtDNA (COI) recognized three main clades in Cellana including taxa from different provinces of the Indo-Pacific. Clear genetic discontinuities characterize the biogeography of Cellana and several lineages are associated to particular areas of the Indo-Pacific supporting the low dispersal capacity of the genus across recognized biogeographical barriers in the region. However, evolutionary relationships within Cellana suggest that long-distance dispersal processes have been common in the history of the genus and probably associated to the origin of the species in Hawaii and Juan Fernández Archipelago. Therefore, the presence of Cellana species in geographically distant Southern Hemisphere oceanic islands, such as the Juan Fernández Archipelago, suggests that long-distance dispersal mediated by rafting may have played an important role in the biogeography of the genus.

  2. Connections Between the Spring Breakup of the Southern Hemisphere Polar Vortex, Stationary Waves, and Air-sea Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Oman, Luke David; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Hurwitz, Margaret H.; Molod, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    A robust connection between the drag on surface-layer winds and the stratospheric circulation is demonstrated in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM). Specifically, an updated parameterization of roughness at the air-sea interface, in which surface roughness is increased for moderate wind speeds (4ms to 20ms), leads to a decrease in model biases in Southern Hemispheric ozone, polar cap temperature, stationary wave heat flux, and springtime vortex breakup. A dynamical mechanism is proposed whereby increased surface roughness leads to improved stationary waves. Increased surface roughness leads to anomalous eddy momentum flux convergence primarily in the Indian Ocean sector (where eddies are strongest climatologically) in September and October. The localization of the eddy momentum flux convergence anomaly in the Indian Ocean sector leads to a zonally asymmetric reduction in zonal wind and, by geostrophy, to a wavenumber-1 stationary wave pattern. This tropospheric stationary wave pattern leads to enhanced upwards wave activity entering the stratosphere. The net effect is an improved Southern Hemisphere vortex: the vortex breaks up earlier in spring (i.e., the spring late-breakup bias is partially ameliorated) yet is no weaker in mid-winter. More than half of the stratospheric biases appear to be related to the surface wind speed biases. As many other chemistry climate models use a similar scheme for their surface layer momentum exchange and have similar biases in the stratosphere, we expect that results from GEOSCCM may be relevant for other climate models.

  3. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 ozone profiles over eleven southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used to measure ozone. The data are archived at: &ttp://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz>. In analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset, Thompson et al. [JGR, 108,8238,20031 we pointed out that variations in ozonesonde technique (sensor solution strength, instrument manufacturer, data processing) could lead to station-to-station biases within the SHADOZ dataset. Imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. First, SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release). As for TOMS version 7, satellite total ozone is usually higher than the integrated column amount from the sounding. Discrepancies between the sonde and satellite datasets decline two percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS offsets. Second, the SHADOZ station data are compared to results of chamber simulations (JOSE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which the various SHADOZ techniques were evaluated. The range of JOSE column deviations from a standard instrument (-10%) in the chamber resembles that of the SHADOZ station data. It appears that some systematic variations in the SHADOZ ozone record are accounted for by differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer).

  4. Biogeography in Cellana (Patellogastropoda, Nacellidae) with Special Emphasis on the Relationships of Southern Hemisphere Oceanic Island Species

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Palma, Alvaro; Poulin, Elie

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic islands lacking connections to other land are extremely isolated from sources of potential colonists and have acquired their biota mainly through dispersal from geographically distant areas. Hence, isolated island biota constitutes interesting models to infer biogeographical mechanisms of dispersal, colonization, differentiation, and speciation. Limpets of the genus Cellana (Nacellidae: Patellogastropoda) show limited dispersal capacity but are broadly distributed across the Indo-Pacific including many endemic species in isolated oceanic islands. Here, we examined main distributional patterns and geographic boundaries among Cellana lineages with special emphasis in the relationships of Southern Hemisphere oceanic islands species. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on mtDNA (COI) recognized three main clades in Cellana including taxa from different provinces of the Indo-Pacific. Clear genetic discontinuities characterize the biogeography of Cellana and several lineages are associated to particular areas of the Indo-Pacific supporting the low dispersal capacity of the genus across recognized biogeographical barriers in the region. However, evolutionary relationships within Cellana suggest that long-distance dispersal processes have been common in the history of the genus and probably associated to the origin of the species in Hawaii and Juan Fernández Archipelago. Therefore, the presence of Cellana species in geographically distant Southern Hemisphere oceanic islands, such as the Juan Fernández Archipelago, suggests that long-distance dispersal mediated by rafting may have played an important role in the biogeography of the genus. PMID:28099466

  5. Radiative heating rates during AAOE and AASE. [Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment and Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.

    1990-01-01

    Radiative transit computations of heating rates utilizing data from the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) (Tuck et al., 1989) and the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment (AASE) (Turco et al., 1990) are described. Observed temperature and ozone profiles and a radiative transfer model are used to compute the heating rates for the Southern Hemisphere during AAOE and the Northern Hemisphere during AASE. The AASE average cooling rates computed inside the vortex are in good agreement with the diabatic cooling rates estimated from the ER-2 profile data for N2O for the AASE period (Schoeberl et al., 1989).

  6. Transmission characteristics of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: comparison of 8 Southern hemisphere countries.

    PubMed

    Opatowski, Lulla; Fraser, Christophe; Griffin, Jamie; de Silva, Eric; Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Lyons, Emily J; Cauchemez, Simon; Ferguson, Neil M

    2011-09-01

    While in Northern hemisphere countries, the pandemic H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm) was introduced outside of the typical influenza season, Southern hemisphere countries experienced a single wave of transmission during their 2009 winter season. This provides a unique opportunity to compare the spread of a single virus in different countries and study the factors influencing its transmission. Here, we estimate and compare transmission characteristics of H1N1pdm for eight Southern hemisphere countries/states: Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and Victoria (Australia). Weekly incidence of cases and age-distribution of cumulative cases were extracted from public reports of countries' surveillance systems. Estimates of the reproduction numbers, R(0), empirically derived from the country-epidemics' early exponential phase, were positively associated with the proportion of children in the populations (p = 0.004). To explore the role of demography in explaining differences in transmission intensity, we then fitted a dynamic age-structured model of influenza transmission to available incidence data for each country independently, and for all the countries simultaneously. Posterior median estimates of R₀ ranged 1.2-1.8 for the country-specific fits, and 1.29-1.47 for the global fits. Corresponding estimates for overall attack-rate were in the range 20-50%. All model fits indicated a significant decrease in susceptibility to infection with age. These results confirm the transmissibility of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus was relatively low compared with past pandemics. The pattern of age-dependent susceptibility found confirms that older populations had substantial--though partial--pre-existing immunity, presumably due to exposure to heterologous influenza strains. Our analysis indicates that between-country-differences in transmission were at least partly due to differences in population demography.

  7. Historical Biogeography and Diversification of Truffles in the Tuberaceae and Their Newly Identified Southern Hemisphere Sister Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Bonito, Gregory; Smith, Matthew E.; Nowak, Michael; Healy, Rosanne A.; Guevara, Gonzalo; Cázares, Efren; Kinoshita, Akihiko; Nouhra, Eduardo R.; Domínguez, Laura S.; Tedersoo, Leho; Murat, Claude; Wang, Yun; Moreno, Baldomero Arroyo; Pfister, Donald H.; Nara, Kazuhide; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Trappe, James M.; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2013-01-01

    Truffles have evolved from epigeous (aboveground) ancestors in nearly every major lineage of fleshy fungi. Because accelerated rates of morphological evolution accompany the transition to the truffle form, closely related epigeous ancestors remain unknown for most truffle lineages. This is the case for the quintessential truffle genus Tuber, which includes species with socio-economic importance and esteemed culinary attributes. Ecologically, Tuber spp. form obligate mycorrhizal symbioses with diverse species of plant hosts including pines, oaks, poplars, orchids, and commercially important trees such as hazelnut and pecan. Unfortunately, limited geographic sampling and inconclusive phylogenetic relationships have obscured our understanding of their origin, biogeography, and diversification. To address this problem, we present a global sampling of Tuberaceae based on DNA sequence data from four loci for phylogenetic inference and molecular dating. Our well-resolved Tuberaceae phylogeny shows high levels of regional and continental endemism. We also identify a previously unknown epigeous member of the Tuberaceae – the South American cup-fungus Nothojafnea thaxteri (E.K. Cash) Gamundí. Phylogenetic resolution was further improved through the inclusion of a previously unrecognized Southern hemisphere sister group of the Tuberaceae. This morphologically diverse assemblage of species includes truffle (e.g. Gymnohydnotrya spp.) and non-truffle forms that are endemic to Australia and South America. Southern hemisphere taxa appear to have diverged more recently than the Northern hemisphere lineages. Our analysis of the Tuberaceae suggests that Tuber evolved from an epigeous ancestor. Molecular dating estimates Tuberaceae divergence in the late Jurassic (∼156 million years ago), with subsequent radiations in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Intra-continental diversification, limited long-distance dispersal, and ecological adaptations help to explain patterns of truffle

  8. Comparison of airborne and terrestrial gamma spectrometry measurements - evaluation of three areas in southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kock, Peder; Samuelsson, Christer

    2011-06-01

    The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) has been conducting airborne gamma spectrometry measurements of natural radioactivity in Sweden for more than 40 years. Today, the database covers about 80% of the country's land surface. This article explores the first step of putting this data into use in radioactive source search at ground level. However, in order to be able to use the airborne background measurements at ground level, SGU data must be validated against terrestrial data. In this work, we compare the SGU data with data measured by a portable backpack system. This is done for three different areas in southern Sweden. The statistical analysis shows that a linear relationship and a positive correlation exist between the air and ground data. However, this linear relationship could be revealed only when the region possessed large enough variations in areal activity. Furthermore, the activity distributions measured show good agreement to those of SGU. We conclude that the SGU database could be used for terrestrial background assessment, given that a linear transfer function is established.

  9. The dynamic relation between activities in the Northern and Southern solar hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volobuev, D. M.; Makarenko, N. G.

    2016-12-01

    The north-south (N/S) asymmetry of solar activity is the most pronounced phenomenon during 11-year cycle minimums. The goal of this work is to try to interpret the asymmetry as a result of the generalized synchronization of two dynamic systems. It is assumed that these systems are localized in two solar hemispheres. The evolution of these systems is considered in the topological embeddings of a sunspot area time series obtained with the use of the Takens algorithm. We determine the coupling measure and estimate it on the time series of daily sunspot areas. The measurement made it possible to interpret the asymmetry as an exchangeable dynamic equation, in which the roles of the driver-slave components change in time for two hemispheres.

  10. The Impact of Polar Stratospheric Ozone Loss on Southern Hemisphere Climate and Stratosheric Circulation - A Chemistry Climate Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeble, James; Braesicke, Peter; Roscoe, Howard; Pyle, John

    2013-04-01

    It is now well established that the large spring time stratospheric ozone loss which occurs in the Southern Hemisphere is the result of the liberation of chlorine from the reservoir species HCl and ClONO2 through heterogeneous reactions occurring on Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) particles. Here we investigate the impact this ozone loss has on Southern Hemisphere climate and the Brewer Dobson Circulation (BDC) using a fully coupled chemistry climate model, UM-UKCA. Two, 20 year time slice integrations were run, the first a reference year 2000 integration, and the second an identical integration in which heterogeneous chemistry on PSCs is suppressed. In the model, chlorine activation through reactions occurring on PSC particles results in a 70% decrease of vortex averaged ozone from October to November at 20km. This ozone loss leads to a large cooling of the lower stratosphere from mid September to late February, with a maximum cooling of 12K from November to December. Associated with the cooling is a decrease in geopotential height of greater than 500m over the polar cap, and a strengthening and poleward shift of the polar jet. The temperature, geopotential height and zonal wind changes are significant at the 95% confidence level, and all three propagate down to the surface in December. The surface temperature response is highly asymmetric; while much of the polar cap cools by more than 1K, the Antarctic Peninsula warms by approximately 0.5K. The change in the strength and position of the polar jet alters the propagation and breaking of planetary and gravity waves. This results in changes to the BDC, particularly increased downwelling over the polar cap during Southern Hemisphere spring and summer, measured using changes to the residual mean vertical velocity. Increased downwelling causes the middle and upper polar stratosphere to warm due to dynamical heating and increases ozone concentrations between 25 and 30km in DJF. Changes in the amplitude and phase of

  11. Using the Enhanced Starting Track Event Selection to Improve IceCube's Measurement of Neutrinos From the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jero, Kyle; IceCube Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The IceCube analyses that identify the astrophysical neutrino flux from the southern hemisphere must reject muons and neutrinos from the atmosphere. To do this, the analyses use the outer regions of the detector to identify and reject penetrating muon tracks produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. By doing so they can remove atmospheric neutrinos and muons. By using the outer regions of the detector the analyses must also reduce the fiducial volume to the inner part of the detector. Here we will discuss a method that is optimized for finding muon neutrinos with a contained vertex. This selection utilizes the high quality directional information of muons to veto through-going events on a case by case basis. Once a direction and vertex have been determined, the likelihood for not seeing a hit on digital optical modules (DOMs) passed by the incident neutrino can be calculated based on the observed hits. This opens most of the instrumented volume up for neutrino detection. The results of this technique will provide identifiable astrophysical neutrinos above 10 TeV originating from the southern. This region is interesting for galactic sources and currently has the weakest sensitivity to neutrino point sources. Expectations from an initial data sample and simulation assuming potential diffuse and galactic fluxes will be shown. In addition to aiding in the understanding interesting southern sky sources, these new events can also assist in providing insight to astrophysical neutrino flavor ratios and the diffuse astrophysical flux.

  12. An Initial Meteoroid Stream Survey in the Southern Hemisphere Using the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janches, D.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Brunini, C.; Hocking, W.; Fritts, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present in this manuscript a 4 year survey of meteor shower radiants utilizing the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER). SAAMER, which operates at the southern most region of South America, is a new generation SKiYMET system designed with significant differences from typical meteor radars including high transmitted power and an 8-antenna transmitting array enabling large detected rates at low zenith angles. We applied the statistical methodology developed by Jones and Jones (Jones, J., Jones, W. [2006]. Month. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 367, 1050-1056) to the data collected each day and compiled the results into 1 composite representative year at 1 resolution in Solar Longitude. We then search for enhancements in the activity which last for at least 3 days and evolve temporally as is expected from a meteor shower. Using this methodology, we have identified in our data 32 shower radiants, two of which were not part of the IAU commission 22 meteor shower working list. Recently, SAAMER's capabilities were enhanced by adding two remote stations to receive meteor forward scatter signals from meteor trails and thus enable the determination of meteoroid orbital parameters. SAAMER started recording orbits in January 2012 and future surveys will focus on the search for unknown meteor streams, in particular in the southern ecliptic sky.

  13. An initial meteoroid stream survey in the southern hemisphere using the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janches, D.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Brunini, C.; Hocking, W.; Fritts, D. C.

    2013-04-01

    We present in this manuscript a 4 year survey of meteor shower radiants utilizing the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER). SAAMER, which operates at the southern most region of South America, is a new generation SKiYMET system designed with significant differences from typical meteor radars including high transmitted power and an 8-antenna transmitting array enabling large detected rates at low zenith angles. We applied the statistical methodology developed by Jones and Jones (Jones, J., Jones, W. [2006]. Month. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 367, 1050-1056) to the data collected each day and compiled the results into 1 composite representative year at 1° resolution in Solar Longitude. We then search for enhancements in the activity which last for at least 3 days and evolve temporally as is expected from a meteor shower. Using this methodology, we have identified in our data 32 shower radiants, two of which were not part of the IAU commission 22 meteor shower working list. Recently, SAAMER's capabilities were enhanced by adding two remote stations to receive meteor forward scatter signals from meteor trails and thus enable the determination of meteoroid orbital parameters. SAAMER started recording orbits in January 2012 and future surveys will focus on the search for unknown meteor streams, in particular in the southern ecliptic sky.

  14. The southern hemisphere of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Analysis of the preperihelion size-frequency distribution of boulders ≥7 m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Lucchetti, Alice; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Oklay, Nilda; El-Maarry, Mohamed R.; Bertini, Ivano; Naletto, Giampiero; Lazzarin, Monica; Massironi, Matteo; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; Keller, Horst U.; Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Barucci, Maria A.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Boudreault, Steve; Cremonese, Gabriele; Da Deppo, Vania; Davidsson, Björn; Debei, Stefano; De Cecco, Mariolino; Deller, Jakob; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulle, Marco; Gicquel, Adeline; Groussin, Olivier; Gutierrez, Pedro J.; Güttler, Carsten; Hofmann, Marc; Höfner, Sebastian; Hviid, Stubbe F.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jorda, Laurent; Knollenberg, Jörg; Kramm, J.-Rainer; Kührt, Ekkehard; Küppers, Michael; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Lara, Luisa M.; Lee, Jui-Chi; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Lopez Moreno, Jose J.; Marzari, Francesco; Michalik, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Thomas, Nicholas; Toth, Imre; Tubiana, Cecilia

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We calculate the size-frequency distribution of the boulders on the southern hemisphere of comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P), which was in shadow before the end of April 2015. We compare the new results with those derived from the northern hemisphere and equatorial regions of 67P, highlighting the possible physical processes that lead to these boulder size distributions. Methods: We used images acquired by the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) on 2 May 2015 at a distance of 125 km from the nucleus. The scale of this dataset is 2.3 m/px; the high resolution of the images, coupled with the favorable observation phase angle of 62°, provided the possibility to unambiguously identify boulders ≥7 m on the surface of 67P and to manually extract them with the software ArcGIS. We derived the size-frequency distribution of the illuminated southern hemisphere. Results: We found a power-law index of -3.6 ± 0.2 for the boulders on the southern hemisphere with a diameter range of 7-35 m. The power-law index is equal to the one previously found on northern and equatorial regions of 67P, suggesting that similar boulder formation processes occur in both hemispheres. The power-law index is related to gravitational events triggered by sublimation and/or thermal fracturing causing regressive erosion. In addition, the presence of a larger number of boulders per km2 in the southern hemisphere, which is a factor of 3 higher with respect to the northern hemisphere, suggests that the southernmost terrains of 67P are affected by a stronger thermal fracturing and sublimating activity, hence possibly causing larger regressive erosion and gravitational events.

  15. Investigations of the middle atmospheric thermal structure and oscillations over sub-tropical regions in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Som; Kumar, Prashant; Jethva, Chintan; Vaishnav, Rajesh; Bencherif, Hassan

    2016-08-01

    The temperature retrieved from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) onboard Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite during January 2002 to September 2015 are used in this study to delineate the differences of middle atmospheric thermal structure in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH). Two stations namely Mt. Abu (24.59°N, 72.70°E) in NH and Reunion Island (21.11°S, 55.53°E) in SH are chosen over sub-tropical regions. Temperature climatology from SABER observations suggests that stratopause is warmer, and upper mesosphere is cooler in NH as compared to SH. Three atmospheric models are used to understand the monthly thermal structure differences for different altitudes. Moreover, semi-annual, annual and quasi-biennial oscillations are studied using Lomb Scargle Periodogram and Wavelet transform techniques. Over NH, summer and winter season are warmer (~4 K) and cooler (~3 K) respectively in stratosphere as compared to SH. It is important to note here that Mt. Abu temperature is warmer (~9 K) than Reunion Island in winter but in summer season Mt. Abu temperature is cooler in upper mesosphere and above mesosphere NH shows warming. Results show that annual oscillations are dominated in both hemisphere as compared to semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations. In upper mesosphere, strength of annual oscillations is substantial in NH, while semi-annual oscillations are stronger in SH. Wavelet analyses found that annual oscillations are significant in NH near mesopause, while semi-annual oscillations are strengthening in SH.

  16. On the dynamics of persistent states and their secular trends in the waveguides of the Southern Hemisphere troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kane, Terence J.; Risbey, James S.; Monselesan, Didier P.; Horenko, Illia; Franzke, Christian L. E.

    2016-06-01

    We identify the dynamical drivers of systematic changes in persistent quasi-stationary states (regimes) of the Southern Hemisphere troposphere and their secular trends. We apply a purely data-driven approach, whereby a multiscale approximation to nonstationary dynamical processes is achieved through optimal sequences of locally stationary fast vector autoregressive factor processes, to examine a high resolution atmospheric reanalysis over the period encompassing 1958-2013. This approach identifies regimes and their secular trends in terms of the predictability of the flow and is Granger causal. A comprehensive set of diagnostics on both isentropic and isobaric surfaces is employed to examine teleconnections over the full hemisphere and for a set of regional domains. Composite states for the hemisphere obtained from nonstationary nonparametric cluster analysis reveal patterns consistent with a circumglobal wave 3 (polar)-wave 5 (subtropical) pattern, while regional composites reveal the Pacific South American pattern and blocking modes. The respective roles of potential vorticity sources, stationary Rossby waves and baroclinic instability on the dynamics of these circulation modes are shown to be reflected by the seasonal variations of the waveguides, where Rossby wave sources and baroclinic disturbances are largely contained within the waveguides and with little direct evidence of sustained remote tropical influences on persistent synoptic features. Warm surface temperature anomalies are strongly connected with regions of upper level divergence and anticyclonic Rossby wave sources. The persistent states identified reveal significant variability on interannual to decadal time scales with large secular trends identified in all sectors apart from a region close to South America.

  17. The All Sky Automated Survey. The Catalog of Variable Stars. II. 6^h-12^h Quarter of the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pojmanski, G.

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes the second part of the photometric data from the 9 arcdeg times 9 arcdeg ASAS camera monitoring the whole southern hemisphere in the V-band. Preliminary list of variable stars based on observations obtained since January 2001 is presented. Over 2800000 stars brighter than V=15 mag on 18000 frames were analyzed and 11357 were found to be variable (2685 eclipsing, 907 regularly pulsating, 521 Mira and 7244 other, mostly SR, IRR and LPV stars). Periodic light curves have been classified using the automated algorithm, which now takes into account IRAS infrared fluxes. Basic photometric properties are presented in the tables and some examples of thumbnail light curves are printed for reference. All photometric data are available over the INTERNET at http://www.astrouw.edu.pl/~gp/asas/asas.html or http://archive.princeton.edu/~asas.

  18. The All Sky Automated Survey. Catalog of Variable Stars. III. 12h-18h Quarter of the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pojmanski, G.; Maciejewski, G.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes the third part of the photometric data from the 9 arcdeg x 9arcdeg ASAS camera monitoring the whole southern hemisphere in V-band. Preliminary list of variable stars based on observations obtained since January 2001 is presented. Over 3200000 stars brighter than V=15 mag on 18000 frames were analyzed and 10453 were found to be variable (1718 eclipsing, 731 regularly pulsating, 849 Mira and 7155 other stars). Light curves have been classified using the improved automated algorithm, which now takes into account 2MASS colors and IRAS infrared fluxes. Basic photometric properties are presented in the tables and some examples of thumbnail light curves are printed for reference. All photometric data are available over the INTERNET at http://www.astrouw.edu.pl/\\gp/asas/asas.html or http://archive.princeton.edu/\\asas.

  19. Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon intensified by mega-El Nino/southern oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Jian; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Webster, Peter J; Yim, So-Young; Xiang, Baoqiang

    2013-04-02

    Prediction of monsoon changes in the coming decades is important for infrastructure planning and sustainable economic development. The decadal prediction involves both natural decadal variability and anthropogenic forcing. Hitherto, the causes of the decadal variability of Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon (NHSM) are largely unknown because the monsoons over Asia, West Africa, and North America have been studied primarily on a regional basis, which is unable to identify coherent decadal changes and the overriding controls on planetary scales. Here, we show that, during the recent global warming of about 0.4 °C since the late 1970s, a coherent decadal change of precipitation and circulation emerges in the entirety of the NHSM system. Surprisingly, the NHSM as well as the Hadley and Walker circulations have all shown substantial intensification, with a striking increase of NHSM rainfall by 9.5% per degree of global warming. This is unexpected from recent theoretical prediction and model projections of the 21st century. The intensification is primarily attributed to a mega-El Niño/Southern Oscillation (a leading mode of interannual-to-interdecadal variation of global sea surface temperature) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and further influenced by hemispherical asymmetric global warming. These factors driving the present changes of the NHSM system are instrumental for understanding and predicting future decadal changes and determining the proportions of climate change that are attributable to anthropogenic effects and long-term internal variability in the complex climate system.

  20. Quaternary paleoecology of aquatic Diptera in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions, with special reference to the Chironomidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuren, Dirk; Eggermont, Hilde

    2006-08-01

    Chironomid paleoecology in north-temperate regions has made tremendous progress over the past decade, but studies in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions remain relatively scarce. Reasons for this imbalance are (1) incomplete taxonomic knowledge of chironomid faunas outside Europe and North America, (2) a scarcity of ecological data on local species and genera that might confer bio-indicator value to them, and (3) logistic difficulties hampering the lake surveying necessary to develop paleoenvironmental calibration data sets. Thus far, most chironomid paleoecology in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions has relied on an indicator-species approach, combining autecological information on local species of which larval morphology is known with the traditional ecological typology of chironomid genera transferred from the Holarctic region. This paper reviews work accomplished to date in tropical and temperate South America, Australia, Africa, and New Zealand, including studies on various families of non-chironomid Diptera with diagnostic fossils. Research has focused mostly on late-Glacial and Holocene climate reconstruction, less on tracing past human disturbance of aquatic ecosystems and their drainage basins. Quantitative chironomid-based paleoenvironmental reconstruction has so far been done only in Australia and Africa. These studies compensated for the lack of traditional surface-sediment calibration data sets, nowadays often the main source of quantitative information on species ecological optima and tolerances, by maximally exploiting archival species-distribution data based on live collections of adult and/or larval midges. This stimulated efforts to achieve trustworthy species-level identification of fossil chironomid remains, and, as a result, the taxonomic resolution of paleoecological studies in Australia and Africa is higher on average than that achieved in European and North American studies.

  1. Impact of land cover changes and climate on the main airborne pollen types in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Mozo, Herminia; Oteros, Jose Antonio; Galán, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Airborne pollen concentrations strongly correlate with flowering intensity of wind-pollinated species growing at and around monitoring sites. The pollen spectrum, and the variations in its composition and concentrations, is influenced by climatic features and by available nutritional resources but it is also determined by land use and its changes. The first factor influence is well known on aerobiological researches but the impact of land cover changes has been scarcely studied until now. This paper reports on a study carried out in Southern Spain (Córdoba city) examining airborne pollen trends over a 15-year period and it explores the possible links both to changes in land use and to climate variations. The Seasonal-Trend Decomposition procedure based on Loess (STL) which decomposes long-term data series into smaller seasonal component patterns was applied. Trends were compared with recorded changes in land use at varying distances from the city in order to determine their possible influence on pollen-count variations. The influence of climate-related factors was determined by means of non-parametric correlation analysis. The STL method proved highly effective for extracting trend components from pollen time series, because their features vary widely and can change quickly in a short term. Results revealed mixed trends depending on the taxa and reflecting fluctuations in land cover and/or climate. A significant rising trend in Olea pollen counts was observed, attributable both to the increasing olive-growing area but also to changes in temperature and rainfall. Poaceae pollen concentrations also increased, due largely to an expansion of heterogeneous agricultural areas and to an increase in pollen season length positively influenced by rainfall and temperature. By contrast, the significant declining trend observed for pollen from ruderal taxa, such as Amaranthaceae, Rumex, Plantago and Urticaceae, may be linked to changes in urban planning strategies with a

  2. Airborne dust transport to the eastern Pacific Ocean off southern California: Evidence from San Clemente Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.

    2007-01-01

    Islands are natural dust traps, and San Clemente Island, California, is a good example. Soils on marine terraces cut into Miocene andesite on this island are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols with vertic properties. These soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles, 5-20 cm thick, that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich subsoils. The silt mantles have a mineralogy that is distinct from the island bedrock. Silt mantles are rich in quartz, which is rare in the island andesite. The clay fraction of the silt mantles is dominated by mica, also absent from local andesite, and contrasts with the subsoils, dominated by smectite. Ternary plots of immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) show that the island andesite has a composition intermediate between average upper continental crust and average oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantles have compositions closer to average upper continental crust. The silt mantles have particle size distributions similar to loess and Mojave Desert dust, but are coarser than long-range-transported Asian dust. We infer from these observations that the silt mantles are derived from airborne dust from the North American mainland, probably river valleys in the coastal mountains of southern California and/or the Mojave Desert. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. Examination of satellite imagery shows that easterly Santa Ana winds carry abundant dust to the eastern Pacific Ocean and the California Channel Islands. Airborne dust from mainland North America may be an important component of the offshore sediment budget in the easternmost Pacific Ocean, a finding of potential biogeochemical and climatic significance.

  3. Southern Hemisphere carbon monoxide interannual variability observed by Terra/Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, D. P.; PéTron, G.; Novelli, P. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Gille, J. C.; Drummond, J. R.

    2006-08-01

    Biomass burning is an annual occurrence in the tropical Southern Hemisphere (SH) and represents a major source of regional pollution. Vegetation fires emit carbon monoxide (CO), which because of its medium lifetime is an excellent tracer of tropospheric transport. CO is also one of the few tropospheric trace gases currently observed from satellite, and this provides long-term global measurements. In this paper, we use the 5-year CO data record from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument to examine the interannual variability of the SH CO loading and show how this relates to climate conditions which determine the intensity of fire sources. The MOPITT observations show an annual austral springtime peak in the SH zonal CO loading each year with dry season biomass burning emissions in South America, southern Africa, the maritime continent, and northwestern Australia. Although fires in southern Africa and South America typically produce the greatest amount of CO, the most significant interannual variation is due to varying fire activity and emissions from the maritime continent and northern Australia. We find that this variation in turn correlates well with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation precipitation index. Between 2000 and 2005, emissions were greatest in late 2002, and an inverse modeling of the MOPITT data using the Model of Ozone Research in the Troposphere (MOZART) chemical transport model estimates the Southeast Asia regional fire source for the year August 2002 to September 2003 to be 52 Tg CO. Comparison of the MOPITT retrievals and NOAA surface network measurements indicate that the latter do not fully capture the interannual variability or the seasonal range of the CO zonal average concentration because of biases associated with atmospheric and geographic sampling.

  4. Southern Hemisphere Carbon Monoxide Inferannual Variability Observed by Terra/Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. P.; Petron, G.; Novelli, P. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Gille, J. C.; Drummond, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass burning is an annual occurrence in the tropical southern hemisphere (SH) and represents a major source of regional pollution. Vegetation fires emit carbon monoxide (CO), which due to its medium lifetime is an excellent tracer of tropospheric transport. CO is also one of the few tropospheric trace gases currently observed from satellite and this provides long-term global measurements. In this paper, we use the 5 year CO data record from the Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument to examine the inter-annual variability of the SH CO loading and show how this relates to climate conditions which determine the intensity of fire sources. The MOPITT observations show an annual austral springtime peak in the SH zonal CO loading each year with dry-season biomass burning emissions in S. America, southern Africa, the Maritime Continent, and northwestern Australia. Although fires in southern Africa and S. America typically produce the greatest amount of CO, the most significant inter-annual variation is due to varying fire activity and emissions from the Maritime Continent and northern Australia. We find that this variation in turn correlates well with the El Nino Southern Oscillation precipitation index. Between 2000 and 2005, emissions were greatest in late 2002 and an inverse modeling of the MOPITT data using the MOZART chemical transport model estimates the southeast Asia regional fire source for the year August 2002 to September 2003 to be 52 Tg CO. Comparison of the MOPITT retrievals and NOAA surface network measurements indicate that the latter do not fully capture the inter-annual variability or the seasonal range of the CO zonal average concentration due to biases associated with atmospheric and geographic sampling.

  5. Airborne and surface-level in situ observations of wintertime clouds in the Southern Rockies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsi, Samuel Winchester

    The phase of cloud water has important impacts on cloud radiative properties, cloud lifetime, and the formation of precipitation. Mixed-phase clouds, or those in which liquid droplets, ice particle and water vapor co-exist, are of particular importance in the Southern Rockies of the United States, where these clouds enhance wintertime mountain precipitation mass and annual water storage in the snowpack. The interaction between multiple water phases within a cloud presents challenges for in situ observation. I describe the existing in situ cloud microphysical instrumentation, and introduce a new instrument for the in situ measurement of total water concentration: the second-generation University of Colorado closed-path tunable-diode laser hygrometer (CLH-2). This compact instrument can be flown within a scientific aircraft under-wing canister and is designed for operation in diverse environmental conditions. During the winter 2010-2011, the CLH-2 was installed on a wind vane at Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) in the Park Range of Colorado as a part of the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (StormVEx) campaign. I apply a new method for determining the bulk mass-dimensional relationship of ice particles from ground-based observations. Despite important difference between airborne and ground-based particle measurements, my parameterization yields particle masses close to those from recent airborne studies that take into account the effect of ice particle shattering on observed number concentrations. Variations in particle density over the course of a storm are suggested by time variations between the observed and parameterized ice water concentrations. Using observations from the Wyoming King Air research aircraft collected during the Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study (CAMPS) in winter 2010-2011, cloud water phase is identified using in situ microphysical measurements. While mixed-phase clouds are identified throughout the study area, the

  6. Pleistocene expansion of the bipolar lichen Cetraria aculeata into the Southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Mendoza, Fernando; Printzen, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Many boreal and polar lichens occupy bipolar distributional ranges that frequently extend into high mountains at lower latitudes. Although such disjunctions are more common among lichens than in other groups of organisms, the geographic origin of bipolar lichen taxa, and the way and time frame in which they colonized their ranges have not been studied in detail. We used the predominantly vegetative, widespread lichen Cetraria aculeata as a model species. We surveyed the origin and history of its bipolar pattern using population genetics, phylogenetic and genealogical reconstruction methods. Cetraria aculeata originated in the Northern Hemisphere and dispersed southwards during the Pleistocene. The genetic signal suggests a Pleistocene dispersive burst in which a population size expansion concurred with the acquisition of a South-American range that culminated in the colonization of the Antarctic.

  7. Changes in profiles of airborne fungi in flooded homes in southern Taiwan after Typhoon Morakot.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Chen, Pei-Yu; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Su, Huey-Jen

    2011-04-01

    In August 2009, the historic Typhoon Morakot brought extreme rainfall and resulted in flooding which spread throughout southern Taiwan. This study compared the difference between fungal concentrations before and after the disaster in selected homes of the Tainan metropolitan area, which were hit hardest by the catastrophe. A group of 83 households available from a prior cohort established with random sampling out of a regional population in southern Taiwan was contacted successfully by telephone. Twenty-five of these reported to have suffered from floods of various degrees at this time. Around 2 weeks after the event, at which time most of the remedial process had been completed by self-efforts and public health endeavours, 14 of these 25 (56%) agreed to participate in measurements of the airborne microbial concentrations. The averages (standard deviation) of the total culturable fungal concentrations in children's bedrooms and flooded rooms were 18,181 (25,854) colony-forming units per cubic metre (CFU/m(3)) and 13,440 (11,033) CFU/m(3), respectively. The airborne fungal spore levels in the 2 above-mentioned indoor sites were 221,536 (169,640) spores/m(3) and 201,582 (137,091) spores/m(3), respectively. The average indoor/outdoor ratios in the children's bedrooms were 4.2 for culturable fungi and 1.4 for fungal spores. These values were higher than the respective values measured in the same homes during the previous year: 1.1 and 0.6. In terms of the specific fungal profile, the percentages of Aspergillus spp. increased significantly in both the indoor and outdoor environments after the event. To this date, this study is among the limited research that has been conducted to quantitatively demonstrate that fungal manifestation is likely to persist in flooded homes even after seemingly robust remedial measures have been put into place. Studies to examine the potential health implications and effectiveness of better remedial technology remain much needed.

  8. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, O.; Jauncey, D. L.; Johnston, H. M.; Hunstead, R. W.; Christensen, L.

    2011-11-15

    We present the results of spectroscopic observations of the optical counterparts of 47 southern radio sources from the candidate International Celestial Reference Catalogue as part of a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame, especially in the south. We made the observations with the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope. We obtained redshifts for 30 quasars and one radio galaxy, with a further seven objects being probable BL Lac objects with featureless spectra. Of the remainder, four were clear misidentifications with Galactic stars and five had low signal-to-noise spectra and could not be classified. These results, in combination with new VLBI data of the radio sources with redshifts more than 2, add significantly to the existing data needed to refine the distribution of source proper motions over the celestial sphere.

  9. Transitional field behaviour from Southern Hemisphere lavas Evidence for two-stage reversals of the geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, K. A.

    1986-03-01

    Palaeomagnetic records from Australasian basalts provide a rare view of transitional field behavior, as seen from mid-southern latitudes. These data suggest that a geomagnetic reversal is accomplished in two steps, separated by an interval of relative dynamo quiescence. A potentially long-lived field configuration, developed early, is observed to be the 'stepping stone' from which both successful and unsuccessful reversal attempts are made. Several aborted attempts involving the same intermediate field geometry may precede an actual polarity transition.

  10. Project Loon based augmentation for global ionospheric modeling over Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Chuang; Zhang, Hongping

    2017-01-01

    Global ionospheric products of vertical total electron content (VTEC) derived from GNSS measurements may have low accuracy over oceans and southern latitudes where there are not rich observations. Project Loon provides a great opportunity to enhance the measurements over those areas. In this contribution, a simulation of Project Loon based augmentation for global ionospheric modeling is performed by using the international reference ionosphere (IRI) which could simulate VTEC measurements for the balloons. The performance of the enhanced method based on simulation of Project Loon is investigated by comparing with VTEC maps from Ionosphere Associate Analysis Centers (IAACs) as well as IGS final GIMs. The comparison indicates that there is a better consistency between the VTEC maps by the enhanced method and IGS final GIMs. Also, obvious improvements of RMS maps in GIMs for the middle latitudes and southern latitudes are enabled by the augmentation of Project Loon. Additionally, JASON data are used to validate the specific improvement of the VTEC maps. The results show that the performance of VTEC maps is improved slightly, especially in southern latitudes. It is possible that the VTEC maps could be improved significantly by using real GPS measurements from balloons of Project Loon in the near future. PMID:28383058

  11. Project Loon based augmentation for global ionospheric modeling over Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Chuang; Zhang, Hongping

    2017-04-01

    Global ionospheric products of vertical total electron content (VTEC) derived from GNSS measurements may have low accuracy over oceans and southern latitudes where there are not rich observations. Project Loon provides a great opportunity to enhance the measurements over those areas. In this contribution, a simulation of Project Loon based augmentation for global ionospheric modeling is performed by using the international reference ionosphere (IRI) which could simulate VTEC measurements for the balloons. The performance of the enhanced method based on simulation of Project Loon is investigated by comparing with VTEC maps from Ionosphere Associate Analysis Centers (IAACs) as well as IGS final GIMs. The comparison indicates that there is a better consistency between the VTEC maps by the enhanced method and IGS final GIMs. Also, obvious improvements of RMS maps in GIMs for the middle latitudes and southern latitudes are enabled by the augmentation of Project Loon. Additionally, JASON data are used to validate the specific improvement of the VTEC maps. The results show that the performance of VTEC maps is improved slightly, especially in southern latitudes. It is possible that the VTEC maps could be improved significantly by using real GPS measurements from balloons of Project Loon in the near future.

  12. Project Loon based augmentation for global ionospheric modeling over Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Chuang; Zhang, Hongping

    2017-04-06

    Global ionospheric products of vertical total electron content (VTEC) derived from GNSS measurements may have low accuracy over oceans and southern latitudes where there are not rich observations. Project Loon provides a great opportunity to enhance the measurements over those areas. In this contribution, a simulation of Project Loon based augmentation for global ionospheric modeling is performed by using the international reference ionosphere (IRI) which could simulate VTEC measurements for the balloons. The performance of the enhanced method based on simulation of Project Loon is investigated by comparing with VTEC maps from Ionosphere Associate Analysis Centers (IAACs) as well as IGS final GIMs. The comparison indicates that there is a better consistency between the VTEC maps by the enhanced method and IGS final GIMs. Also, obvious improvements of RMS maps in GIMs for the middle latitudes and southern latitudes are enabled by the augmentation of Project Loon. Additionally, JASON data are used to validate the specific improvement of the VTEC maps. The results show that the performance of VTEC maps is improved slightly, especially in southern latitudes. It is possible that the VTEC maps could be improved significantly by using real GPS measurements from balloons of Project Loon in the near future.

  13. The curious case of the date of introduction of leaded fuel to Australia: Implications for the history of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric lead pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, D. E.; Gale, S. J.

    By comparison with the Northern Hemisphere, the history of atmospheric lead pollution in the Southern Hemisphere is still poorly understood. Until recently, the main source of atmospheric lead fallout in the Southern Hemisphere was tetraethyl lead from motor fuel and for most of the 20th century the most important single source of this pollutant was Australia. Yet there is little agreement over when leaded fuel made its first appearance in Australia. Reported dates range from the early 1920s to the late 1940s. A study of oil company advertisements and reports in motoring and oil company journals shows that leaded petrol first became available in Australia in August 1932. This date is important both for the reconstruction of lead pollution histories and in the use of lead stratigraphies to determine chronology.

  14. Relationships between ground and airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey data, North Ras Millan, Southern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mohamed A S

    2016-02-01

    In the last decades of years, there was considerable growth in the use of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. With this growth, there was an increasing need to standardize airborne measurements, so that they can be independent of survey parameters. Acceptable procedures were developed for converting airborne to ground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of total-count intensity as well as, potassium, equivalent uranium and equivalent thorium concentrations, due to natural sources of radiation. The present study aims mainly to establish relationships between ground and airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data, North Ras Millan, Southern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The relationships between airborne and ground gamma-ray spectrometric data were deduced for the original and separated rock units in the study area. Various rocks in the study area, represented by Quaternary Wadi sediments, Cambro-Ordovician sandstones, basic dykes and granites, are shown on the detailed geologic map. The structures are displayed, which located on the detailed geologic map, are compiled from the integration of previous geophysical and surface geological studies.

  15. Characteristics of Thermal Finestructure in the Southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from Airborne Expendable Bathythermograph Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    J. Oceanic Eng., 29, 1054–1060. 17 Zodiatis, G., and G. P. Gasparini (1996): Thermohaline staircase formations in the 18 Tyrrhenian Sea . Deep- Sea ...1 1 2 Characteristics of Thermal Finestructure in the Southern 3 Yellow Sea and the East China Sea from Airborne 4 Expendable...CA93943-5001, USA Tel: 1-831-656-7819 Fax: 1-831-656-3686 Email: spark@nps.edu Key words: Yellow/East China Seas , AXBT, synoptic thermal fronts

  16. Geomagnetic modulation of clouds effects in the Southern Hemisphere Magnetic Anomaly through lower atmosphere cosmic ray effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Luis Eduardo Antunes; da Silva, Ligia Alves

    2006-07-01

    The study of the physical processes that drive the variability of the Earth's climate system is one of the most fascinating and challenging topics of research today. Perhaps the largest uncertainties in our ability to predict climate change are the cloud formation process and the interaction of clouds with radiation. Here we show that in the southern Pacific Ocean cloud effects on the net radiative flux in the atmosphere are related to the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field through lower atmosphere cosmic ray effects. In the inner region of the Southern Hemisphere Magnetic Anomaly (SHMA) it is observed a cooling effect of approximately 18 W/m2 while in the outer region it is observed a heating effect of approximately 20 W/m2. The variability in the inner region of the SHMA of the net radiative flux is correlated to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) flux observed in Huancayo, Peru (r = 0.73). It is also observed in the correlation map that the correlation increases in the inner region of the SHMA. The geomagnetic modulation of cloud effects in the net radiative flux in the atmosphere in the SHMA is, therefore, unambiguously due to GCRs and/or highly energetic solar proton particles effects.

  17. Genetic Affinities between Trans-Oceanic Populations of Non-Buoyant Macroalgae in the High Latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C.; Spencer, Hamish G.; Salvatore, Laura C.; Garcia, Gabriella R.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine biologists and biogeographers have long been puzzled by apparently non-dispersive coastal taxa that nonetheless have extensive transoceanic distributions. We here carried out a broad-scale phylogeographic study to test whether two widespread Southern Hemisphere species of non-buoyant littoral macroalgae are capable of long-distance dispersal. Samples were collected from along the coasts of southern Chile, New Zealand and several subAntarctic islands, with the focus on high latitude populations in the path of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current or West Wind Drift. We targeted two widespread littoral macroalgal species: the brown alga Adenocystisutricularis (Ectocarpales, Heterokontophyta) and the red alga Bostrychiaintricata (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using partial mitochondrial (COI), chloroplast (rbcL) and ribosomal nuclear (LSU / 28S) DNA sequence data. Numerous deeply-divergent clades were resolved across all markers in each of the target species, but close phylogenetic relationships – even shared haplotypes – were observed among some populations separated by large oceanic distances. Despite not being particularly buoyant, both Adenocystisutricularis and Bostrychiaintricata thus show genetic signatures of recent dispersal across vast oceanic distances, presumably by attachment to floating substrata such as wood or buoyant macroalgae. PMID:23894421

  18. A dissimmetry of tectonic processes of Northern and Southern hemispheres as dynamical consequence of relative forced polar displacements of the core and mantle of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Bozhko, N. A.

    2009-04-01

    The empirical data testifying the dissymmetry of the Earth in cyclic (400 million years) process of assembly and breakup of supercontinents (Bozhko, 1992) obtain a natural explanation from the statements and base positions of developed geodynamic model (Bozhko, Barkin, 2009). The base of model makes the mechanism of the forced relative translational displacements (and turns) of the Earth's core and mantle due to external gravitational influences and internal interactions in system of shells of the Earth (Barkin, 1999, 2002). In the report we discuss phenomena observed in present epoch and caused by action of a mentioned mechanism and give a preliminary schematic explanation to cyclic formation of supercontinents. In the present epoch the broad audience of secular changes of geodynamic and geophysical processes is observed, which have obtained an explanation from positions of developed model - as dynamic consequences of secular drift of the centre of mass of the core of the Earth (with superfluous mass about 20 % of mass of the Earth) relatively to the centre of mass of the mantle in northern direction. In result the phenomena are observed: an expansion of a southern hemisphere and compression of northern hemisphere; secular increase of a gravity in northern hemisphere and its decrease in southern; contrast changes of mean levels of ocean in N/S hemispheres; decrease of average atmospheric pressure in a southern hemisphere and its increase in northern; contrast superrotations of atmosphere of the Earth in southern and northern hemispheres and their secular changes; N/S secular inversion oceanic tide; a secular variations of global circulation of ocean and waters of northern and southern hemispheres; N/S asymmetry of anomalies of a magnetic field and their variations; N/S asymmetric decontamination and its increase in a southern hemisphere and the similar phenomena in all other planetary processes. In a series of reports of Yu. Barkin on General Assembly of IUGG

  19. Variability of atmospheric krypton-85 activity concentrations observed close to the ITCZ in the southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, A; Schlosser, C; Ross, J O; Sartorius, H; Schmid, S

    2014-01-01

    Krypton-85 activity concentrations in surface air have been measured at Darwin, which is located in northern Australia and is influenced by seasonal monsoonal activity. Measurements between August 2007 and May 2010 covered three wet seasons. The mean activity concentration of krypton-85 measured during this period was 1.31±0.02Bqm(-3). A linear model fitted to the average monthly data, using month and monsoon as predictors, shows that krypton-85 activity concentration measured during the sampling period has declined by 0.01Bqm(-3) per year. Although there is no statistically significant difference in mean activity concentration of krypton-85 between wet and dry season, the model implies that activity concentration is higher by about 0.015Bqm(-3) during months influenced by the monsoon when a north westerly flow prevails. Backward dispersion runs using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model Hysplit4 highlight possible source regions during an active monsoon located deep in the northern hemisphere, and include reprocessing facilities in Japan and India. However, the contribution of these facilities to krypton-85 activity concentrations in Darwin would be less than 0.003Bqm(-3).

  20. Southern hemisphere low level wind circulation statistics from the Seasat scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Gad

    1994-01-01

    Analyses of remotely sensed low-level wind vector data over the Southern Ocean are performed. Five-day averages and monthly means are created and the month-to-month variability during the winter (July-September) of 1978 is investigated. The remotely sensed winds are compared to the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (ABM) and the National Meteorological Center (NMC) surface analyses. In southern latitudes the remotely sensed winds are stronger than what the weather services' analyses suggest, indicating under-estimation by ABM and NMC in these regions. The evolution of the low-level jet and the major stormtracks during the season are studied and different flow regimes are identified. The large-scale variability of the meridional flow is studied with the aid of empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The dominance of quasi-stationary wave numbers 3,4, and 5 in the winter flows is evident in both the EOF analysis and the mean flow. The signature of an exceptionally strong blocking situation is evident in July and the special conditions leading to it are discussed. A very large intraseasonal variability with different flow regimes at different months is documented.

  1. Spiders: water-driven erosive structures in the southern hemisphere of Mars.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Fernández-Remolar, David C; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Selsis, Franck; Manrubia, Susanna C

    2006-08-01

    Recent data from space missions reveal that there are ongoing climatic changes and erosive processes that continuously modify surface features of Mars. We have investigated the seasonal dynamics of a number of morphological features located at Inca City, a representative area at high southern latitude that has undergone seasonal processes. By integrating visual information from the Mars Orbiter Camera on board the Mars Global Surveyor and climatic cycles from a Mars' General Circulation Model, and considering the recently reported evidence for the presence of water-ice and aqueous precipitates on Mars, we propose that a number of the erosive features identified in Inca City, among them spiders, result from the seasonal melting of aqueous salty solutions.

  2. Optical spectroscopic classification of a selection of Southern Hemisphere Fermi-LAT unclassified blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klindt, L.; van Soelen, B.; Meintjes, P. J.; Väisänen, P.

    2017-01-01

    The Fermi-LAT has detected more than 3000 sources in the GeV γ-ray regime. The majority are extra-galactic and these sources are dominated by blazars. However, ˜28 per cent of the sources in Fermi 3LAC are listed as blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCU). Increasing the number of classified Fermi-LAT sources is important for improving our understanding of extra-galactic γ-ray sources and can be used to search for new very high energy sources. We report on the optical spectroscopy of seven selected unclassified BCU sources during 2014 and 2015 undertaken using the SAAO 1.9-m and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). Based on the identified spectral lines we have classified three of the sources as FSRQs and the remaining four as BL Lac objects, determining the redshift for four sources.

  3. Southern Hemisphere Lidar Measurements of the Aerosol Clouds from Mt. Pinatubo and Mt. Hudson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Stuart A.; Manson, Peter J.; Patterson, Graeme R.

    1992-01-01

    On 19 Jul., 1991, during tests to determine the ability of the newly-modified CSIRO Ns:YAG lidar to measure signals from the stratosphere before the arrival of dust from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, a strongly scattering layer was detected at an altitude of 2 km. That evening, the spectacular sunset and twilight were typical of volcanically disturbed conditions. Lidar measurements at 532 nm were made between 1400 and 1500 EST (0400-0500 UT) on 19 Jul. through broken cloud. Approximately 3800 laser firings were averaged in 256 shot blocks. These and subsequent data have been analyzed to produce profiles of aerosol volume backscatter function and scattering ratio. Clouds again prevented a clear view of the twilights on the next two nights, although there was some evidence for an enhanced glow. The evidence suggested that the aerosol layer had disappeared. An explanation for this disappearance and the earlier than expected arrival of the layer over Melbourne was required. Nimbus 7 TOMS data for 23 Jun. showed that the SO2 from the eruption had extended at least 11000 km to the west and that the southern boundary of the cloud had reached 15 degrees S just 8 days after the climactic eruption. It can be assumed that this cloud also contained dust and sulphuric acid aerosol. It was proposed that a section had then been broken away from the main cloud and carried south by a large scale eddy between the low latitude easterlies and the strong mid-latitude westerlies which finally carried the aerosol cloud over southern Australia. Accompanying 30 mb wind data showed a counter clockwise circulation, responsible for the transport, located in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Identification and Atmospheric Transport of Microcystin Around Southern California Using Airborne Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlin, J.; Kudela, R. M.; Broughton, J.

    2014-12-01

    Microcystin, a hepatotoxin produced by the cyanobacteria Microcystis, has been known to contaminate fresh water sources around southern California. Ingesting this toxin can cause death in animals and illnesses in humans, which has promoted the World Health Organization (WHO) and California to establish preliminary guidelines for microcystin concentrations in the water (1 μg/L in drinking water and 0.8 μg/L for recreational exposure respectively). However, very few studies have been done to assess the effects of this toxin when aerosolized, even though Fitzgeorge et al. (1994) describes the toxin as potentially 12x more deadly if inhaled rather than swallowed. This project aimed to identify areas with the potential for high microcystin concentrations using airborne data and then model the potential atmospheric transport of the toxin. After applying the Master Scattering Line Height (MSLH) and Aphanizomenon-Microcystis Index (AMI) algorithms to Airborne Visible/ Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), multiple water bodies were identified as having the potential for Microcystis, although many of the observed water bodies had AMI values indicating the presence of Aphanizomenon-- a non-toxic cyanobacteria that is usually present before Microcystis. A relationship between toxins and biomass was developed and used to estimate the amount of phycocyanin and dissolved microcystin in the water. Brevetoxin, common in the Florida 'red tides', was used as a proxy to estimate the amount of microcystin that becomes aerosolized given a known water concentration (Kirkpatrick et al, 2010). These amounts were then run and averaged with the HYSPLIT dispersion model for 4 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours. The final results show that most areas are exposed to less than 0.1 ng/m^3 after 4 hours. As a worst case scenario, one final model was run to show the exposure amount when Pinto Lake was observed to have the maximum amount of microcystin recorded in 2007. The results show that after 4

  5. Influence of Antarctic Ice Sheet Lowering on the Southern Hemisphere Climate: Model Experiments Mimicking the Mid-Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justino, Flavio; Stordal, Frode

    2013-04-01

    those conditions induced by anomalous AIS topographic forcing. Based on different climate simulations of the present day and conducted with distinct Antarctic ice sheet topography, it is found that the reduction of the AIS induces warming of the Southern Hemisphere and reduces the meridional thermal gradient. Consequently, the transient low level eddy heat flux and the eddy momentum flux are reduced causing the reduced transport of heat from the mid-latitudes to the pole. The stationary flow and transient wave anomalies generate changes in the SSTs which modify the rate of deep water formation, strengthening the formation of the Antarctic Bottom Water. Substantial changes are predicted to occur in the atmospheric and oceanic heat transport and a comparison between the total heat transport of the atmosphere-ocean system, as simulated by the current and the reduced AIS runs, shows that the reduction of the Antarctic ice sheet height leads to reduced Southern Hemisphere poleward and increased equatorward heat transport. Further, these results yield reduced storm track activities and baroclinicity.

  6. Comparison of heat balance characteristics at five glaciers in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Yukari; Naruse, Renji; Satow, Kazuhide; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi

    1999-10-01

    Ablation characteristics of five glaciers in Patagonia and New Zealand were compared. Investigated glaciers were Tyndall and Moreno in southern Patagonia, Soler and San Rafael in northern Patagonia, and Franz Josef in New Zealand. Micro-meteorological observations were carried out at the glaciers and the heat balance components were estimated. At Franz Josef and Soler glaciers, the sensible heat flux is the largest and the latent heat flux is the second, and they are larger than the net radiation. At San Rafael Glacier, the net radiation is the largest and the latent heat flux is the smallest component, which is similar to Moreno and Tyndall glaciers. Though the latent heat flux is the smallest component at San Rafael Glacier, it is more than twice as large as that at Tyndall Glacier and contributes substantially to ice melting. The ratios of heat balance components were very different among glaciers, but the total heat flux ranged from about 240 to 300 W m -2 showing little difference among glaciers.

  7. Impact of interactive chemistry of stratospheric ozone on Southern Hemisphere paleoclimate simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Satoshi; Kodera, Kunihiko; Adachi, Yukimasa; Deushi, Makoto; Kitoh, Akio; Mizuta, Ryo; Murakami, Shigenori; Yoshida, Kohei; Yoden, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations of the mid-Holocene (6 kyr B.P.) climate are performed by using an Earth System Model of the Meteorological Research Institute of the Japan Meteorological Agency to investigate the impact of stratospheric ozone distribution, which is modulated by the change in orbital elements of the Earth, on the surface climate. The results of interactive ozone chemistry calculations for the mid-Holocene and preindustrial periods are compared with those of the corresponding experiments in the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), in which the ozone distribution was prescribed to the 1850 Common Era level. The contribution of the interactive ozone chemistry in a quasi-equilibrium state reveals a significant anomaly of up to +1.7 K in the Antarctic region for the annual mean zonal mean surface air temperature. This impact on the surface climate is explained by a similar mechanism to the cooling influence of the Antarctic ozone hole but opposite in sign: Weakening of the westerly jet associated with the Southern Annular Mode provides weakening of equatorward ocean surface current, sea ice retreat, and then warm sea surface temperature and surface air temperature. All the mid-Holocene runs by CMIP5 models with the prescribed ozone had cold bias in sea surface temperature when compared with geological proxy data, whereas the bias is reduced in our simulations by using interactive ozone chemistry. We recommend that climate models include interactive sea ice and ozone distribution that are consistent with paleosolar insolation.

  8. Absolute parameters of eclipsing binaries in Southern Hemisphere sky - II: QY Tel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Sürgit, D.; Engelbrecht, C. A.; van Heerden, H. P.; Manick, R.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the first analysis of spectroscopic and photometric observations of the neglected southern eclipsing binary star, QY Tel. Spectroscopic observations were carried out at the South African Astronomical Observatory in 2013. New radial velocity curves from this study and V light curves from the All Sky Automated Survey were solved simultaneously using modern light and radial velocity curve synthesis methods. The final model describes QY Tel as a detached binary star where both component stars fill at least half of their Roche limiting lobes. The masses and radii were found to be 1.32 (± 0.06) M⊙, 1.74 (± 0.15) R⊙ and 1.44 (± 0.09) M⊙, 2.70 (± 0.16) R⊙ for the primary and secondary components of the system, respectively. The distance to QY Tel was calculated as 365 (± 40) pc, taking into account interstellar extinction. The evolution case of QY Tel is also examined. Both components of the system are evolved main-sequence stars with an age of approximately 3.2 Gy, when compared to Geneva theoretical evolution models.

  9. Millennial scale precipitation changes over Easter Island (Southern Pacific) during MIS 3: Inter-hemispheric connections during North Atlantic abrupt cold events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margalef, Olga; Cacho, Isabel; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Pueyo, Juan Jose; Sáez, Alberto; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 climate has been globally characterized by the occurrence of millennial-scale climate variations defined over North Atlantic as Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events. Despite climate variability has been broadly explored over North Atlantic records, the response of the tropical and subtropical latitudes, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, still remains as a matter of debate. Rano Aroi peat record (Easter Island, Chile, 27°S) provides a unique opportunity to understand Southern Pacific atmospheric and oceanic changes during these stadial-interstadial transitions because of its exceptional location on the interplay of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the South Pacific Anticyclone (SPA) and the Southern Westerlies (SW). Rano Aroi record contains 8 main enhanced precipitation events between 70 and 40 kyr BP that can be correlated with the timing of Heinrich events 5, 5a and 6 as well as other cold stadials. These humid events are also present in other Southern Hemisphere continental sites and correspond to dry periods on Northern Hemisphere records. This opposite hydrologic trend has been explained by the latitudinal migration of ITCZ and has been supported by several climatic models. As Easter Island precipitation is mainly dependent on SPCZ storm track belt activity, we suggest that the southern migration of the ITCZ is associated to an expansion of SPCZ to the east. This process should be intimately related to a weakening of the Walker circulation, which is further supported by an estimation of d18Osw gradient along the equator for the same time period. Consequently, atmospheric and oceanic responses during these cold stadials and Heinrich events might lead to a configuration that resembles the warm ENSO state over Southern Pacific, as previously suggested by some global climatic models. Rano Aroi record clearly points out that shifts in hydrological cycle in tropical Southern

  10. Source and meteorological influences on air quality (CO, CH4 & CO2) at a Southern Hemisphere urban site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, R. R.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Kubistin, D.; Caldow, C.; Fisher, J. A.; Deutscher, N. M.; Kettlewell, G.; Riggenbach, M.; Macatangay, R.; Krummel, P. B.; Langenfelds, R. L.

    2016-02-01

    Wollongong, Australia is an urban site at the intersection of anthropogenic, biomass burning, biogenic and marine sources of atmospheric trace gases. The location offers a valuable opportunity to study drivers of atmospheric composition in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, a record of surface carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured with an in situ Fourier transform infrared trace gas analyser between April 2011 and August 2014. Clean air was found to arrive at Wollongong in approximately 10% of air masses. Biomass burning influence was evident in the average annual cycle of clean air CO during austral spring. A significant negative short-term trend was found in clean air CO (-1.5 nmol mol-1 a-1), driven by a reduction in northern Australian biomass burning. Significant short-term positive trends in clean air CH4 (5.4 nmol mol-1 a-1) and CO2 (1.9 μmol mol-1 a-1) were consistent with the long-term global average trends. Polluted Wollongong air was investigated using wind-direction/wind-speed clustering, which revealed major influence from local urban and industrial sources from the south. High values of CH4, with anthropogenic ΔCH4/ΔCO2 enhancement ratio signatures, originated from the northwest, in the direction of local coal mining. A pollution climatology was developed for the region using back trajectory analysis and ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratios. Ozone production environments in austral spring and summer were associated with anticyclonic meteorology on the east coast of Australia, while ozone depletion environments in autumn and winter were associated with continental transport, or fast moving trajectories from southern latitudes. This implies the need to consider meteorological conditions when developing policies for controlling air quality.

  11. Estimating carbonate parameters from hydrographic data for the intermediate and deep waters of the Southern Hemisphere oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostock, H. C.; Mikaloff Fletcher, S. E.; Williams, M. J. M.

    2013-10-01

    Using ocean carbon data from global datasets, we have developed several multiple linear regression (MLR) algorithms to estimate alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the intermediate and deep waters of the Southern Hemisphere (south of 25° S) from only hydrographic data (temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen). A Monte Carlo experiment was used to identify a potential density (σθ) of 27.5 as an optimal break point between the two regimes with different MLR algorithms. The algorithms provide a good estimate of DIC (R2=0.98) and alkalinity (R2=0.91), and excellent agreement for aragonite and calcite saturation states (R2=0.99). Combining the algorithms with the CSIRO Atlas of Regional Seas (CARS), we have mapped the calcite saturation horizon (CSH) and aragonite saturation horizon (ASH) for the Southern Ocean at a spatial resolution of 0.5°. These maps are more detailed and more consistent with the oceanography than the previously gridded GLODAP data. The high-resolution ASH map reveals a dramatic circumpolar shoaling at the polar front. North of 40° S the CSH is deepest in the Atlantic (~ 4000 m) and shallower in the Pacific Ocean (~ 2750 m), while the CSH sits between 3200 and 3400 m in the Indian Ocean. The uptake of anthropogenic carbon by the ocean will alter the relationships between DIC and hydrographic data in the intermediate and deep waters over time. Thus continued sampling will be required, and the MLR algorithms will need to be adjusted in the future to account for these changes.

  12. Cosmic rays modulation of the cloud effects on the radiative flux in the Southern Hemisphere Magnetic Anomaly region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. E.; Silva, L.

    Aerosols are thought to cool the planet s surface through increase scattering and cloud cover and re-radiation of solar energy to space Clouds play an important role in the Earth s radiation budget through trapping outgoing radiation and reflecting incoming radiation Climate models have some representation of direct aerosol effects in them but none have yet fully included the indirect effects A correlation between a global average of low cloud cover and the flux of Galactic Cosmic Rays GCRs incident in the atmosphere has been observed recently The ionizing potential of Earth bound cosmic ray is modulated by the state of the heliosphere which depends on the solar activity 5 Here we show that in the southern Pacific Ocean the cloud effects on the net radiative flux in the atmosphere depends on the intensity of the Earth s magnetic field In the inner region of the Southern Hemisphere Magnetic Anomaly SHMA it is observed a cooling effect of approximately 18 W m 2 while in the outer region it is observed a heating effect of approximately 20 W m 2 The variability in the inner region of SHMA of the net radiative flux is correlated to GCRs flux observed in Huancayo Peru r 0 73 It is observed that correlation decrease as the intensity of the Earth s magnetic field intensity increase The observations are in agreement with the robust mechanism proposed by Brian Tinsley to explain the cloud formation due to GCRs atmospheric ionization The representation of GCRs induced cloud formation process in Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General

  13. Airborne studies of aerosol emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa: 2. Aerosol chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Andreae, T. W.; Annegarn, H.; Beer, J.; Cachier, H.; Le Canut, P.; Elbert, W.; Maenhaut, W.; Salma, I.; Wienhold, F. G.; Zenker, T.

    1998-12-01

    We investigated smoke emissions from fires in savanna, forest, and agricultural ecosystems by airborne sampling of plumes close to prescribed burns and incidental fires in southern Africa. Aerosol samples were collected on glass fiber filters and on stacked filter units, consisting of a Nuclepore prefilter for particles larger than ˜1-2 μm and a Teflon second filter stage for the submicron fraction. The samples were analyzed for soluble ionic components, organic carbon, and black carbon. Onboard the research aircraft, particle number and volume distributions as a function of size were determined with a laser-optical particle counter and the black carbon content of the aerosol with an aethalometer. We determined the emission ratios (relative to CO2 and CO) and emission factors (relative to the amount of biomass burnt) for the various aerosol constituents. The smoke aerosols were rich in organic and black carbon, the latter representing 10-30% of the aerosol mass. K+ and NH4+ were the dominant cationic species in the smoke of most fires, while Cl- and SO42- were the most important anions. The aerosols were unusually rich in Cl-, probably due to the high Cl content of the semiarid vegetation. Comparison of the element budget of the fuel before and after the fires shows that the fraction of the elements released during combustion is highly variable between elements. In the case of the halogen elements, almost the entire amount released during the fire is present in the aerosol phase, while in the case of C, N, and S, only a small proportion ends up as particulate matter. This suggests that the latter elements are present predominantly as gaseous species in the fresh fire plumes studied here.

  14. Seismic Noise Observations from Multiple Arrays in the Southern Hemisphere: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reading, A. M.; Gal, M.; Hemer, M. A.; Koper, K. D.; Tkalcic, H.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic noise holds a two-fold interest for global geophysics. It is a source of energy that may be used to form 3D tomographic images of the Earth. It is also an observable that provides a continuous, and in some cases, multi-decadal record of ocean storm activity. Potential insights include the understanding of global changes in patterns of storm location and severity, and inputs to models of carbon dioxide entrainment into the oceans. While any continuous seismic record has the potential to contribute knowledge on ambient seismic noise (microseisms), seismic arrays provide information that includes inference of the seismic slowness and backazimuth of incoming signals. Given that noise observations have no onset time, array techniques are very important in contributing signal properties that allow backprojection and hence location determination for storm sources. Seismic arrays located in Australia and southeast Asia enable deep ocean noise sources from much of the Southern Ocean and western Pacific to be investigated. We analyze seismic records including those from the Warramunga (WRA), Alice Springs (ASAR) and Pilbara (PSAR) arrays together with WAVEWATCH III oceanographic reanalysis models. We use the IAS Capon technique to identify incoming signals with the aim of detecting multiple noise sources impinging on the array at any one time. The combination of multi-decadal records from WRA, and multi-array perspectives for recent years provides an opportunity to observe seismic noise across a range of frequencies and across many years of seasonal variation. We find some noise sources are consistent between different arrays, but others seem to be much better observed by a particular single array. We summarize these insights with a view to optimizing decadal plans for future installations of multiple arrays. Further, we address the challenge of using new arrays together with existing arrays with contrasting station configurations. Multiple array methods afford the

  15. Significance of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) in the energy budget of the Southern Hemisphere tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurrell, James W.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1987-01-01

    An in-depth investigation of the energetics, including boundary transports, was conducted on four equal-area regions in the tropical Southern Hemisphere during the SOP-1 period in 1979. The regions, each approximately centered on one of the wave axes of maximum warm rising air, include the SPCZ (115 deg W - 155 deg E) and the Australian (155-65 deg E), the African (65 deg E - 25 deg W), and the South American (25-115 deg W) regions. Daily variations of the energy conversions were examined, and time-averaged result of energy contents, conversions, and boundary transports were compiled for January 10-27. Results show that the eddy kinetic energy (KE) exceeds the eddy available potential energy (AE) in all four regions, with the largest excess being in the SPCZ. Of the conversion and flux terms, only the conversion of AE to KE is significant (again, with the greatest value in the SPCZ). An evaluation of boundary fluxes of KE indicates that the only significant transport between regions is a flow of KE from the SPCZ region into the South American region.

  16. The relationship between the summer precipitation in the Yangtze River valley and the boreal spring Southern Hemisphere annular mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Sulan; Li, Jianping

    2003-12-01

    The relationship between the boreal spring (April-May) Southern Hemisphere annular mode (SAM) and the following summer (June-August) precipitation in China for the period of 1951-2001 is examined statistically in this study. There is a significantly positive correlation between the boreal spring SAM index (SAMI) and the following summer rainfall in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The summer large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia are also related to the boreal spring SAMI events. A strong SAM in boreal spring is followed by a weakened East Asian summer monsoon, a strengthened and westward expanded western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), as well as increased ascending vertical velocity, specific humidity and water vapor flux convergence. These situations provide necessary circulation and water vapor conditions for increasing the summer precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. The boreal spring SAM variation provides a potential valuable signal for predicting the summertime precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley.

  17. The Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2002 Tropical Ozone Climatology. 3; Instrumentation and Station-to-Station Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacqueline C.; Smit, Herman G. J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Schmidlin, Francis J.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has collected more than 2000 ozone profiles from a dozen tropical and subtropical sites using balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. The data (with accompanying pressure-temperature-humidity soundings) are archived. Analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset revealed that variations in ozonesonde technique could lead to station-to-station biases in the measurements. In this paper imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. When SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release), discrepancies between sonde and satellite datasets decline 1-2 percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS. Variability among stations is evaluated using total ozone normalized to TOMS and results of laboratory tests on ozonesondes (JOSE-2O00, Julich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment). Ozone deviations from a standard instrument in the JOSE flight simulation chamber resemble those of SHADOZ station data relative to a SHADOZ-defined climatological reference. Certain systematic variations in SHADOZ ozone profiles are accounted for by differences in solution composition, data processing and instrument (manufacturer). Instrument bias leads to a greater ozone measurement above 25 km over Nairobi and to lower total column ozone at three Pacific sites compared to other SHADOZ stations at 0-20 deg.S.

  18. Southern Hemisphere humpback whales wintering off Central America: insights from water temperature into the longest mammalian migration.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kristin; Palacios, Daniel M; Calambokidis, John; Saborío, Marco T; Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Secchi, Eduardo R; Steiger, Gretchen H; Allen, Judith M; Stone, Gregory S

    2007-06-22

    We report on a wintering area off the Pacific coast of Central America for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) migrating from feeding areas off Antarctica. We document seven individuals, including a mother/calf pair, that made this migration (approx. 8300km), the longest movement undertaken by any mammal. Whales were observed as far north as 11 degrees N off Costa Rica, in an area also used by a boreal population during the opposite winter season, resulting in unique spatial overlap between Northern and Southern Hemisphere populations. The occurrence of such a northerly wintering area is coincident with the development of an equatorial tongue of cold water in the eastern South Pacific, a pattern that is repeated in the eastern South Atlantic. A survey of location and water temperature at the wintering areas worldwide indicates that they are found in warm waters (21.1-28.3 degrees C), irrespective of latitude. We contend that while availability of suitable reproductive habitat in the wintering areas is important at the fine scale, water temperature influences whale distribution at the basin scale. Calf development in warm water may lead to larger adult size and increased reproductive success, a strategy that supports the energy conservation hypothesis as a reason for migration.

  19. Estimates of relatedness in groups of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) on two wintering grounds of the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Pomilla, Cristina; Rosenbaum, Howard C

    2006-08-01

    Group formation in humpback whales has been described in relation to different components of the migratory cycle, yet it is debated whether such groups represent real social bonding or ephemeral aggregations. Cooperative behaviours are exhibited during feeding activities, and it has been suggested that males may cooperate during competition for mates. Since most cooperative behaviours are expected to originate among kin, genetic relatedness represents a critical variable in the understanding of any social phenomenon, especially when cooperation cannot be confirmed unequivocally. Using an approach combining multi-locus microsatellite genotyping and several genetic relatedness estimators, we analyzed whale associations for two different wintering grounds in the Southern Hemisphere. The analyses included 648 whales sampled from 292 groups off the coast of Gabon and Northeast Madagascar, and screened for eleven microsatellite loci. Through simulations, we assessed the performance of three pairwise relatedness estimators. The individuals were molecularly sexed and their associations were investigated in the context of sex and group type. No significant association among relatives was found with the exception of mother-offspring pairs, supporting previous indications of extended maternal care. The analysis from the Gabon population also suggests that related males may avoid each other during competitive activities. Our results demonstrate that if cooperative behaviours occur on wintering grounds they are not favoured by kin selection.

  20. Morbillivirus-associated unusual mortality event in South Australian bottlenose dolphins is largest reported for the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Tomo, I.; Bingham, J.; Bastianello, S. S.; Wang, J.; Gibbs, S. E.; Woolford, L.; Dickason, C.; Kelly, D.

    2016-01-01

    Cases of morbillivirus have been recorded in the Southern Hemisphere but have not been linked to significant marine mammal mortality. Post-mortems were conducted on 58 carcasses (44 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, two common bottlenose dolphins, 12 short-beaked common dolphins) from South Australia during 2005–2013, including an unusual mortality event (UME) in St Vincent Gulf Bioregion (SVG) during 2013. Diagnostic pathology, circumstance of death, body condition, age and stomach contents were documented for Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins. At least 50 dolphins died during the UME, 41 were Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and most were young. The UME lasted about seven months and had two peaks, the first being the largest. Effect on the population is unknown. Diagnostic testing for morbillivirus was conducted on 57 carcasses, with evidence for infection in all species during 2011–2013. All tested UME bottlenose dolphins were positive for cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV), and the pathology included interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion and syncytia. Concurrent pathologies, including lung parasite and fungal infections, and severe cutaneous bruising were observed in many dolphins. The event coincided with elevated water temperatures, a diatom bloom and significant fish die-offs. We conclude that the cause for the UME was multifactorial and that CeMV was a major contributor. PMID:28083115

  1. Signal of central Pacific El Niño in the Southern Hemispheric stratosphere during austral spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chengyun; Li, Tao; Dou, Xiankang; Xue, Xianghui

    2015-11-01

    Using ERA-Interim and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis data sets, we investigated the effects of the central Pacific (CP) El Niño on the Southern Hemispheric (SH) stratosphere particularly during the austral spring. SH stratosphere warming is at a maximum in September rather than in November and December, as suggested by previous studies. SH stratospheric temperature anomalies become significant beginning in July and reach a peak of approximately 4 K in September, reflecting a weakened SH vortex and a strengthened SH stratospheric Brewer-Dobson circulation. The anomalous Eliassen-Palm flux and its divergence in the SH midlatitudes are most significantly enhanced in August, leading to the SH maximum stratospheric temperature anomalies approximately 1 month later. In the middle latitudes of the SH, the poleward and upward propagation of enhanced planetary waves (PWs) during the austral winter (July-September) causes anomalous SH polar warming and tropical cooling in the stratosphere. The wave number 1 (WN1) pattern is responsible for PW anomalies in August, whereas the WN2 pattern is responsible for those in September. Eddy heat flux during CP El Niño is also anomalously enhanced in extratropical SH stratosphere in both August and September and subsequently weaken during the following months.

  2. Vertical distribution of lipids, fatty acids and organochlorine contaminants in the blubber of southern hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Waugh, Courtney A; Nichols, Peter D; Schlabach, Martin; Noad, Michael; Bengtson Nash, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as toxic lipophilic organochlorine (OC) compounds, accumulate in the blubber tissue of marine mammals. Toxicological sampling methods most frequently target only the superficial blubber layer. Vertical distribution of these contaminants through the blubber mantle may, however, not be homogenous and could reflect any dissemination of lipids and fatty acids (FAs). It is therefore critical to assess stratification patterns in a species of interest as a quality control measure for interpretation of toxicological data. Here, we analysed and compared the distribution of lipids, FAs, and OCs in the outermost and innermost blubber layer of southern hemisphere humpback whales. FA stratification was evident for short-chain (≤18) monounsaturated fatty acids (SC-MUFA), which were concentrated in the outer layer, consistent with the thermoregulatory role of this blubber layer. This stratification was, however, not reflected in OC distribution, which was similar in the inner and outer blubber layers of male humpback whales. By comparison, a noticeable gradient in total blubber lipid from the outer to the inner layer was observed in two lactating females, which coincided with higher lipid normalised contaminant levels in the inner layer. This study contains the most comprehensive assessment of humpback whale blubber stratification to date, however, further investigation of biological and ecological influencing factors is required.

  3. Soluble β-1,3/1,6-glucan in seaweed from the southern hemisphere and its immunomodulatory effect.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, Francisca; Rodriguez-Tirado, Carolina; Imarai, Mónica; Galotto, María José; Andersson, Roger

    2013-01-30

    Five types of macroalgae from the southern hemisphere were analysed for the presence of β-1,3/1,6-glucan and its immunostimulant properties. We were able to extract soluble β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan from Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso) Hariot (DA). The morphology of the brown algae influenced extraction, and the highest percentage of β-glucan was found in the fronds. The content of β-glucan in the stipes and holdfast was on average 33% and <5%, respectively, of that in the fronds. A simple laboratory extraction process was developed. A highly pure water-soluble polysaccharide, mainly composed of glucose residues, was obtained with a dominant average molecular weight of 6.9 kDa. NMR spectroscopy confirmed the polysaccharide structure to be of β-1,3/1,6-glucan type, comprising a β-1,3-glucan backbone and 21% degree of branching of β-1,6-glucan side chains. Mouse cells were exposed to four DA extract concentrations in water (50, 100, 250 and 500 μg/mL) and no adverse effects on survival were noted. Remarkably, the β-glucan induced a 16.9% increase in activated CD19+ B lymphocytes compared with the control sample. The optimal concentration for maximum activity was 100 μg DA extract/mL.

  4. Region of permanent generation of large-scale irregularities in the daytime winter ionosphere of the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpachev, A. T.; Zhbankov, G. A.; Telegin, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    With the use of data from topside sounding on board the Interkosmos-19 (IK-19) satellite, the region of permanent generation of large-scale irregularities in the daytime winter ionosphere of the Southern Hemisphere is differentiated. This region is characterized by low values of foF2 and hmF2 and occupies a rather large latitudinal band, from the equatorial anomaly ridge to ~70° S within the longitudinal range from 180° to 360°. Irregularities with a dimension of hundreds kilometers are regularly observed in the period from 0700-0800 to 1800-1900 LT, i.e., mainly in the daytime. In the IK-19 ionograms, they normally appear in the form of an extra trace with a critical frequency higher than that of the main trace reflected from the ionosphere with lower density. The electron density in the irregularity maximum sometimes exceeds the density of the background ionosphere by nearly a factor of 3. A model of the ionosphere with allowance for its irregular structure was created, and it was shown on the basis of trajectory calculations how the IK-19 ionograms related to these irregularities are formed. A possible mechanism of the generation of large-scale irregularities of the ionospheric plasma is discussed.

  5. Revision of Southern Hemisphere taxa referred to Fosterella (Crustacea: Cirripedia), and their extinction in response to Pleistocene cooling.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John

    2015-11-01

    Extensive barnacle coquinas (barnamols) formed around New Zealand's North and Chatham Islands during the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The inner-shelf megabalanine Fosterella is the primary constituent of these lithofacies, which also include epifaunal bivalves, bryozoans and less modified balanids like Notobalanus and Notomegabalanus. The status of genus Fosterella is reviewed, 3 species are retained and a new genus, Porobalanus, is proposed for Fosterella hennigi, a species restricted to the Early Pliocene of Cockburn Island, Antarctica. Significantly, Fosterella did not survive the New Zealand Pleistocene, although Notobalanus and Notomegabalanus, which have fossil records extending back to the Early Miocene, remain important components of present day cool-temperate Southern Hemisphere faunas. Extinction of Fosterella, in shelf waters off Argentina, is explained through a combination of changing circulatory and sedimentary regimes, competition for food and space, predation and physiological constraints. The driver of these factors was rapid regional cooling. Zoobank registration: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:DBB1CB34-83E4-48BA-AA10-81823017F37A.

  6. On the maintenance of short-term subtropical wind maxima in the Southern Hemisphere during SOP-1, FGGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurrell, James W.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1991-01-01

    The extent to which divergent circulations, induced by tropical heating, help to maintain westerly maxima in the Southern Hemisphere subtropics during the SOP-1 of FGGE is explored using Level III-b analyses from the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres. The contribution of the divergent wind component to the total ageostrophic flow in the subtropics is examined, as are the roles of other forcing terms in the localized Eliassen-Palm (1961) flux zonal momentum equation. Throughout the summertime subtropics, it is generally found that the dominant term in the zonal momentum budget is the Coriolis force applied to the diabatically driven meridional circulation. The largest positive tendencies due to this term are found in the entrance regions of the subtropical westerly maxima, and divergent circulations account for nearly all of the total ageostrophic flow. In the SPCZ region, however, it is found that transient eddies play an important role by partially offsetting the strong Coriolis acceleration in the entrance region of the local jet, and they help accelerate the westerly flow in the exit region through both barotropic and baroclinic processes. Energetically, the dominant term in the rotational kinetic energy budget throughout the subtropical belt is the conversion of divergent to rotational kinetic energy. The evidence supports the view that tropical heating in transient events drives or enhances local meridional overturning in the atmosphere, which, in turn, strengthens the summer subtropical westerly jet stream.

  7. Population structure and phylogeography of the short-tailed stingray, Dasyatis brevicaudata (Hutton 1875), in the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Le Port, Agnès; Lavery, Shane

    2012-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the degree of vagility explains little of the extent of population subdivision found within elasmobranch species. Instead, patterns of gene flow in elasmobranchs appear more closely linked to the presence of dispersal barriers, either physical or biological. Here, we investigate the potential role of some of these isolating mechanisms in shaping the population structure of a member of the stingray family Dasyatidae (Dasyatis brevicaudata) at various scales (southern hemisphere vs. coastal New Zealand). Analyses of the mitochondrial DNA control region from 176 individuals revealed significant genetic structure between South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand populations (analysis of molecular variance [AMOVA], overall Ф(ST) = 0.67, P < 0.001), although New Zealand and Australia shared some haplotypes. Surprisingly, significant population differentiation was found among several coastal New Zealand locations (AMOVA, overall Ф(ST) = 0.05, P < 0.05). However, data did not support the genetic differentiation between individuals from an offshore breeding area and mainland individuals. Comparisons suggest that these stingrays exhibit similar levels of population differentiation as other coastal elasmobranchs, with high divergence across oceanic basins and lower differentiation along continuous coastal habitats. Differences in coastal population structuring in elasmobranch species studied to date may be attributed to species-specific preferences for coastal habitats, which may be linked to life history functions (e.g., feeding and pupping).

  8. Coordinated Airborne, Spaceborne, and Ground-Based Measurements of Massive, Thick Aerosol Layers During the Dry Season in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Hobbs, P. V.; Hlavka, D. L.; McGill, M. J.; Holben, B. N.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J.; Torres, O.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the dry-season airborne campaign of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000), unique coordinated observations were made of massive, thick aerosol layers. These layers were often dominated by aerosols from biomass burning. We report on airborne Sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth (lambda=354-1558 nm), columnar water vapor, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and water vapor density that were obtained aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft. We compare these with ground-based AERONET Sun/sky radiometer results, with ground based lidar data MPL-Net), and with measurements from a downward-pointing lidar aboard the high-flying NASA ER-2 aircraft. Finally, we show comparisons between aerosol optical depths from the Sunphotometer and those retrieved over land and over water using four spaceborne sensors (TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), MISR (Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer) and ATSR-2 (Along Track Scanning Radiometer)).

  9. Coordinated Airborne, Spaceborne and Ground-based Measurements of Massive Thick Aerosol Layers during the Dry Season in Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Hobbs, P. V.; Hlavka, D. L.; McGill, M. J.; Holben, B. N.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Torres, O.

    2003-01-01

    During the dry season airborne campaign of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000), coordinated observations were made of massive thick aerosol layers. These layers were often dominated by aerosols from biomass burning. We report on airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth (lambda = 0.354- 1.557 microns), columnar water vapor, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and water vapor density that were obtained aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft. We compare these with ground-based AERONET Sun/sky radiometer results, with ground based lidar data (MPL-Net), and with measurements from a downward pointing lidar aboard the high-flying NASA ER-2 aircraft. Finally, we show comparisons between aerosol optical depths fiom the Sun photometer and those retrieved over land and over water using four spaceborne sensors (TOMS, MODIS, MISR, and ATSR-2).

  10. Southern Hemisphere Cloudiness In Extratropical Cyclones: An Observational Evaluation Of ERA-interim And MERRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C. M.; Booth, J. F.; Del Genio, A. D.; Posselt, D. J.; van den Heever, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, underestimates in modeled southern oceans cloud cover were reported for most major general circulation models. However, it is unclear if reanalyses that assimilate multiple observations, and as such are deemed more reliable, also have this issue. Using MODIS, MISR and CloudSat-CALIPSO cloud cover datasets as a reference, we show that the same problem is found in both the ERA-interim and the MERRA reanalysis. We find that both reanalyses underestimate cloud cover by 5% to 20% in the 30S to 60S latitude band. Since extratropical cyclones are ubiquitous in this region, we determined whether clouds in these systems were also underestimated in both reanalyses. The MAP climatology of midlatitude storminess database is used to locate extratropical cyclones, and MODIS, MISR and CloudSat-CALIPSO provide the coincident and collocated cloud cover. An intercomparison between MODIS, MISR and CloudSat-CALIPSO cyclone-centered composites of cloud fractions was performed to provide a measure of the observational uncertainty. Uncertainty in the datasets was found to be less than the cloud cover bias in the reanalyses. It was evident that both ERA-interim and MERRA underestimate cloud cover in extratropical cyclones. Additionally, the underestimation was regime dependent, with a minimum bias in the cyclone warm sector north east of the low-pressure center and a maximum bias to the west of the low-pressure center and west of the cold front. MODIS and MISR cloud properties indicate that this maximum bias in cloud cover occurs in an area populated by low-level clouds often of broken nature. Comparison between reanalyses and CloudSat-CALIPSO vertical profiles reveal that this lack of low level clouds is also present to the east of the low-pressure centers in the warm frontal region. The cloud cover low bias is more pronounced in the MERRA reanalysis than ERA-interim, but differences between the two reanalyses in the dynamical and thermodynamical properties of the cyclones

  11. A 4500 year Southern Hemisphere record of ENSO activity from kauri tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Anthony; Boswijk, Gretel; Lorrey, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Kauri (Agathis australis (D. Don) Lindl.) is a long-lived closed-canopy emergent conifer endemic to northern New Zealand. Its clear annual rings carry a regional-scale climate signal which is amplified by pooling data across the modern growth range. Annual rings are predominantly laid down in September through December, coincident with El Niño and La Niña events peaking and with the strongest El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnection to New Zealand. Statistical analyses indicate that ENSO was the dominant 20th century driver of inter-annual variability of kauri growth with El Niño and La Niña events usually associated with wide and narrow tree rings respectively. A consequence is that the waxing and waning of ENSO activity through time is registered in kauri master tree-ring chronologies as evolving time series variance (variance increases during ENSO active periods). A multi-millennial master kauri tree-ring chronology has been built from samples extracted from living trees, historic building timbers, logging relics, and wood preserved in swamps. Recent work has extended the chronology to 2489 BCE and has increased sample depth to a minimum of nine trees from 1589 BCE (to 2002 CE). We describe this chronology and critically evaluate the utility of its running variance as a proxy for ENSO activity and/or regional teleconnection changes. Issues related to signal contamination, associated with complex evolving sample mix and depth, are highlighted. Inferred changes in past ENSO activity and/or teleconnections are related to plausible climate drivers (solar activity, volcanism, and global warming). In line with multi-proxy ENSO studies, our results indicate increasing ENSO activity as the world has warmed over the last 500 years or so, with superimposed quasi-periodic multi-decadal oscillations. We also find evidence of decadal-scale spectral features emerging at times of high chronology variance, consistent with the results of wavelet analysis of 20th

  12. Reconstructing southern Greenland Ice Sheet history during the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation: Insights from IODP Site U1307

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake-Mizen, Keziah; Bailey, Ian; Carlson, Anders; Stoner, Joe; Hatfield, Rob; Xuan, Chuang; Lawrence, Kira

    2016-04-01

    Should it ever melt entirely, the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) would contribute to ~7 metres of global sea-level rise. Understanding how the GIS might respond to anthropogenic-induced global warming over the coming century is therefore important. Central to this goal is constraining how this ice sheet has responded to radiative forcing during both warmer- and colder-than-present climate states in the geological past. Little is known in detail, however, about the GIS prior to the Late Pleistocene and large uncertainty exists in our understanding of its history across the last great climate transition during the Cenozoic, the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation (iNHG; ~3.6-2.4 Ma). This time encompasses two intervals of interest: (1) the mid-Piacenzian warm period (mPWP, ~3.3-3 Ma), widely considered an analogue for a future equilibrium climate state when atmospheric CO2 levels were comparable to modern (~400 ppmv) and sea-level and global temperatures were elevated relative to today (by ~25 metres and ~2-3°C) and, (2) a subsequent gradual deterioration in global climate and decline in atmospheric CO2 that led to the development of Quaternary-magnitude glaciations from ~2.5 Ma. Important unresolved questions include: to what extent did the southern GIS retreat during the mPWP, and when did a modern-day sized GIS first develop during iNHG? To tackle these issues our project focuses on the southern GIS history that can be extracted from Eirik Drift IODP Site U1307 between ~3.3 and 2.2 Ma. To achieve this we are developing an independent orbital-resolution age model, one of the first for high-latitude marine sediments deposited during iNHG, by producing a relative paleointensity (RPI) record for Site U1307; and generating multi-proxy geochemical and sedimentological datasets that track the provenance of the sand and bulk terrigenous sediment fraction glacially eroded by the southern GIS and delivered to the study site by both ice-rafting and the Western

  13. First Search for a Dark Matter Annual Modulation Signal with NaI(Tl) in the Southern Hemisphere by DM-Ice17

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa de Souza, E.; et al.

    2016-02-18

    The first search for a dark matter annual modulation signal with NaI(Tl) target material in the Southern Hemisphere conducted with the DM-Ice17 experiment is presented. DM-Ice17 consists of 17 kg of NaI(Tl) scintillating crystal under 2200 m.w.e. overburden of Antarctic glacial ice. The analysis presented here utilizes a 60.8 kg yr exposure. While unable to exclude the signal reported by DAMA/LIBRA, the DM-Ice17 data are consistent with no modulation in the energy range of 4-20 keV, providing the strongest limits on WIMP candidates from a direct detection experiment located in the Southern Hemisphere. Additionally, the successful deployment and stable operation of 17 kg of NaI(Tl) crystal over 3.5 years establishes the South Pole ice as a viable location for future underground, low-background experiments.

  14. The influence of the tropics upon the prediction of the Southern Hemisphere circulation within the GLAS GCM. [Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. E.; Paegle, J.

    1983-01-01

    An examination is undertaken of the sensitivity of short term Southern Hemisphere circulation prediction to tropical wind data and tropical latent heat release. The data assimilation experiments employ the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences' fourth-order general circulation model. Two of the experiments are identical, but for the fact that one uses tropical wind data while the other does not. A third experiment contains the identical initial conditions of forecasts with tropical winds, while suppressing tropical latent heat release.

  15. KELT-10b and KELT-11b: Two Sub-Jupiter Mass Planets well-Suited for Atmospheric Characterization in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.

    2015-12-01

    The Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) project is a photometric survey in both the northern and southern hemispheres for transiting planets around bright stars (8 < V < 11), and has discovered 15 planets to date. Of these, several possess unique characteristics that make them especially well suited for study of planet atmospheres. Here, I present the first two discoveries from the KELT-South survey. KELT-10b is an inflated transiting sub-Jupiter mass planet (0.68 MJ) around a V=10.7 early G-star. It has the 3rd deepest transit (1.4%) in the southern hemisphere for a star V < 12.5, making it a great target for transmission spectroscopy. KELT-11b is a highly inflated transiting Saturn mass planet (0.22 MJ) orbiting one of the brightest planet-hosting stars in the southern hemisphere. Interestingly, KELT-11b's host star is a clear sub-giant star (log(g) ~ 3.7). I will discuss their impact for atmospheric characterization. For example, the highly inflated nature of the KELT-11b planet provides the ability to study a sub-Jupiter atmosphere at very low planetary gravity, while the sub-giant nature of its host star allows us to study the effects of post main sequence evolution of a host star on a hot Jupiter.

  16. Atmospheric thermal structure and cloud features in the southern hemisphere of Venus as retrieved from VIRTIS/VEX radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haus, R.; Kappel, D.; Arnold, G.

    2014-04-01

    Thermal structure and cloud features in the atmosphere of Venus are investigated using spectroscopic nightside measurements recorded by the Visible and InfraRed Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) aboard ESA’s Venus Express mission in the moderate resolution infrared mapping channel (M-IR, 1-5 μm). New methodical approaches and retrieval results for the northern hemisphere have been recently described by Haus et al. (Haus, R., Kappel, D., Arnold, G. [2013]. Planet. Space Sci. 89, 77-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pss.2013.09.020). Now, southern hemisphere maps of mesospheric temperature and cloud parameter fields are presented that cover variations with altitude, latitude, local time, and mission time. Measurements from the entire usable data archive are utilized comprising radiation spectra recorded during eight Venus solar days between April 2006 and October 2008. Zonal averages of retrieved temperature altitude profiles in both hemispheres are very similar and give evidence of global N-S axial symmetry of atmospheric temperature structure. Cold collar and warmer polar vortex regions exhibit the strongest temperature variability with standard deviations up to 8.5 K at 75°S and 63 km altitude compared with about 1.0 K at low and mid latitudes above 75 km. The mesospheric temperature field strongly depends on local time. At altitudes above about 75 km, the atmosphere is warmer in the second half of night, while the dawn side at lower altitudes is usually colder than the dusk side by about 8 K. Local minimum temperature of 220 K occurs at 03:00 h local time at 65 km and 60°S. Temperature standard deviation at polar latitudes is particularly large near midnight. Temperature variability with solar longitude is forced by solar thermal tides with a dominating diurnal component. The influence of observed cloud parameter changes on retrieved mesospheric zonal average temperature structure is moderate and does not exceed 2-3 K at altitudes between 60 and 75 km

  17. Stable isotope-based Plio-Pleistocene southern hemisphere climate and vegetation reconstructions (Chiwondo Beds, Northern Malawi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedecke, T.; Thiemeyer, H.; Schrenk, F.; Mulch, A.

    2013-12-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope geochemistry of multi-proxy archives is a powerful tool to reconstruct paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental conditions in particular when climate seasonality plays a key role in the evolution of ecosystems. Here we present the first pedogenic Plio-Pleistocene long-term East-African carbon, oxygen and clumped isotope (Δ47) records from some of the earliest hominid fossil sites in Eastern Africa. The studied 5.0 to 0.6 Ma paleosol, fluviatile, and lacustrine deposits of the Chiwondo Beds (Karonga-Chilumba area, NE shore of Lake Malawi) comprise abundant pedogenic carbonates and fossil remains of a diverse fauna which are dominated by large terrestrial mammals. The sediments are also home to two hominid fossil finds, a maxillary fragment of Paranthropus boisei and a mandible of Homo rudolfensis, both dated around 2.4 Ma. Here, we present stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope data from fossil enamel of different suid, bovid, and equid species as well as δ13C and δ18O values of pedogenic carbonate. We complement the latter by clumped isotope data as proxy for soil temperature. Our data represent the first southern hemisphere record in the East African Rift (EAR), a region particularly interesting for reconstructing vegetation patterns and correlating these across the ITCZ with data on the evolution and migration of early hominids. As our study site is situated between the well-known hominid-bearing sites of eastern and southern Africa it fills an important geographical gap for early hominid research. The δ13C values of enamel and pedogenic carbonate assess the evolutionary history of C3 and C4 biomass which is closely linked to climate patterns in the Malawi Rift Valley during the time of early hominid evolution. The reconstruction of the development of C4-grasslands give insights of changing atmospheric CO2-concentration, seasonality and distribution of precipitation, and the retreat of tree cover. Results of almost 500

  18. Stretching the truth: length data highlight falsification of Japanese sperm whale catch statistics in the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Clapham, Phillip J; Ivashchenko, Yulia V

    2016-09-01

    Falsification of reports on Japanese catches of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) is known to have occurred at both land whaling stations and in North Pacific factory fleets. Here, we conduct an analysis of pelagic sperm whale catches in the Southern Hemisphere: we compare true Soviet length data from the Yuri Dolgorukiy factory fleet during 1960-1975 to data for the same period reported to the International Whaling Commission (IWC) by Japan. Prior to implementation of the International Observer Scheme (IOS) in 1972, the Soviet fleet killed 5536 females, of which only 153 (2.8%) were at or above the minimum legal length of 11.6 m. During the same period, Japan killed 5799 females and reported that 5686 (98.5%) were of legal size, with 88.5% of the entire length distribution reported as being between 11.6 and 12.0 m. This unrealistic distribution, together with the fact that Japanese fleets were supposedly able to catch 37 times the number of legal-sized females as the Soviet fleet, indicates extensive falsification of catch data by Japan. Further evidence of misreporting is that females >11.5 m dropped to 9.1% of the Japanese catch after 1971, when the IOS made cheating much more difficult. That 99.6% of 10 433 males in the pre-IOS catch were also reported to be of legal size, indicates that illegal catches were not confined to females. We caution that the Japanese sperm whale data in the IWC Catch Database are unreliable and should not be used in population assessments. The ease with which illegal catches were apparently made underscores the past failures of the IWC to effectively regulate whaling.

  19. Stretching the truth: length data highlight falsification of Japanese sperm whale catch statistics in the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Ivashchenko, Yulia V.

    2016-01-01

    Falsification of reports on Japanese catches of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) is known to have occurred at both land whaling stations and in North Pacific factory fleets. Here, we conduct an analysis of pelagic sperm whale catches in the Southern Hemisphere: we compare true Soviet length data from the Yuri Dolgorukiy factory fleet during 1960–1975 to data for the same period reported to the International Whaling Commission (IWC) by Japan. Prior to implementation of the International Observer Scheme (IOS) in 1972, the Soviet fleet killed 5536 females, of which only 153 (2.8%) were at or above the minimum legal length of 11.6 m. During the same period, Japan killed 5799 females and reported that 5686 (98.5%) were of legal size, with 88.5% of the entire length distribution reported as being between 11.6 and 12.0 m. This unrealistic distribution, together with the fact that Japanese fleets were supposedly able to catch 37 times the number of legal-sized females as the Soviet fleet, indicates extensive falsification of catch data by Japan. Further evidence of misreporting is that females >11.5 m dropped to 9.1% of the Japanese catch after 1971, when the IOS made cheating much more difficult. That 99.6% of 10 433 males in the pre-IOS catch were also reported to be of legal size, indicates that illegal catches were not confined to females. We caution that the Japanese sperm whale data in the IWC Catch Database are unreliable and should not be used in population assessments. The ease with which illegal catches were apparently made underscores the past failures of the IWC to effectively regulate whaling. PMID:27703712

  20. Ionosphere dynamics over the Southern Hemisphere during the 31 March 2001 severe magnetic storm using multi-instrument measurement data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Dyson, P. L.; Essex, E. A.; Moldwin, M. B.

    2005-03-01

    The effects of the 31 March 2001 severe magnetic storm on the Southern Hemisphere ionosphere have been studied using ground-based and satellite measurements. The prime goal of this comprehensive study is to track the ionospheric response from high-to-low latitude to obtain a clear understanding of storm-time ionospheric change. The study uses a combination of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) obtained from GPS signal group delay and phase advance measurements, ionosonde data, and data from satellite in-situ measurements, such as the Defense Metrological Satellite Program (DMSP), TOPographic EXplorer (TOPEX), and solar wind data from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). A chain of Global Positioning System (GPS) stations near the 150° E meridian has been used to give comprehensive latitude coverage extending from the cusp to the equatorial region. A tomographic inversion algorithm has been applied to the GPS TEC measurements to obtain maps of the latitudinal structure of the ionospheric during this severe magnetic storm period, enabling both the spatial and temporal response of the ionosphere to be studied. Analysis of data from several of the instruments indicates that a strong density enhancement occurred at mid-latitudes at 11:00 UT on 31 March 2001 and was followed by equatorward propagating large-scale Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs). The tomographic reconstruction revealed important features in ionospheric structure, such as quasi-wave formations extending finger-like to higher altitudes. The most pronounced ionospheric effects of the storm occurred at high- and mid-latitudes, where strong positive disturbances occurred during the storm main phase, followed by a long lasting negative storm effect during the recovery phase. Relatively minor storm effects occurred in the equatorial region.

  1. A new perspective of the climatological features of upper-level cut-off lows in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Henri Rossi; Hodges, Kevin Ivan; Gan, Manoel Alonso; Ferreira, Nelson Jesuz

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a detailed view of the seasonal variability of upper-level cut-off lows (COLs) in the Southern Hemisphere. The COLs are identified and tracked using data from a 36-year period of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast reanalysis (ERA-Interim). The objective identification of the COLs uses a new approach, which is based on 300 hPa relative vorticity minima, and three restrictive criteria of the presence of a cold-core, stratospheric potential vorticity intrusion, and cut-off cyclonic circulation. The highest COL activity is in agreement with previous studies, located near three main continental areas (Australia, South America, and Africa), with maximum frequencies usually observed in the austral autumn. The COL mean intensity values show a marked seasonal and spatial variation, with maximum (minimum) values during the austral winter (summer), a unique feature that has not been observed previously in studies based on the geopotential. The link between intensity and lysis is examined, and finds that weaker systems are more susceptible to lysis in the vicinity of the Andes Cordillera, associated with the topographic Rossby wave. Lysis and genesis regions are close to each other, confirming that COLs are quasi-stationary systems. Also, COLs tend to move eastward and are faster over the higher latitudes. The mean growth/decay rates coincide with the major genesis and lysis density regions, such as the significant decay values across the Andes all year. As a consequence of using vorticity for the tracking method a longer lifetime of COLs is detected than in other studies, but this does not affect the total frequency of occurrence. Comparisons with other studies suggest that the differences in seasonality are due to uncertainties in the reanalyses and the methods used to identify COLs.

  2. Trends and projections of Southern Hemisphere baroclinicity: the role of external forcing and impact on Australian rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederiksen, Carsten S.; Frederiksen, Jorgen S.; Sisson, Janice M.; Osbrough, Stacey L.

    2016-07-01

    Changes in the characteristics of Southern Hemisphere (SH) storms, in all seasons, during the second half of the twentieth century, have been related to changes in the annual cycle of SH baroclinic instability. In particular, significant negative trends in baroclinic instability, as measured by the Phillips Criterion, have been found in the region of the climatological storm tracks; a zonal band of significant positive trends occur further poleward. Corresponding to this decrease/increase in baroclinic instability there is a decrease/increase in the growth rate of storm formation at these latitudes over this period, and in some cases a preference for storm formation further poleward than normal. Based on model output from a multi-model ensemble (MME) of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models, it is shown that these trends are the result of external radiative forcing, including anthropogenic greenhouse gases, ozone, aerosols and land-use change. The MME is used in an analysis of variance method to separate the internal (natural) variability in the Phillips Criterion from influences associated with anomalous external radiative forcing. In all seasons, the leading externally forced mode has a significant trend and a loading pattern highly correlated with the pattern of trends in the Phillips Criterion. The covariance between the externally forced component of SH rainfall and the leading external mode strongly resembles the MME pattern of SH rainfall trends. A comparison between similar analyses of MME simulations using the second half of the twenty-first century of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios show that trends in the Phillips Criterion and rainfall are projected to continue and intensify under increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.

  3. Impact of Land Surface Initialization Approach on Subseasonal Forecast Skill: a Regional Analysis in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, Annette L.; Kala, Jatin; Pitman, Andy J.; Carouge, Claire; Evans, Jason P.; Haverd, Vanessa; Mocko, David

    2014-01-01

    The authors use a sophisticated coupled land-atmosphere modeling system for a Southern Hemisphere subdomain centered over southeastern Australia to evaluate differences in simulation skill from two different land surface initialization approaches. The first approach uses equilibrated land surface states obtained from offline simulations of the land surface model, and the second uses land surface states obtained from reanalyses. The authors find that land surface initialization using prior offline simulations contribute to relative gains in subseasonal forecast skill. In particular, relative gains in forecast skill for temperature of 10%-20% within the first 30 days of the forecast can be attributed to the land surface initialization method using offline states. For precipitation there is no distinct preference for the land surface initialization method, with limited gains in forecast skill irrespective of the lead time. The authors evaluated the asymmetry between maximum and minimum temperatures and found that maximum temperatures had the largest gains in relative forecast skill, exceeding 20% in some regions. These results were statistically significant at the 98% confidence level at up to 60 days into the forecast period. For minimum temperature, using reanalyses to initialize the land surface contributed to relative gains in forecast skill, reaching 40% in parts of the domain that were statistically significant at the 98% confidence level. The contrasting impact of the land surface initialization method between maximum and minimum temperature was associated with different soil moisture coupling mechanisms. Therefore, land surface initialization from prior offline simulations does improve predictability for temperature, particularly maximum temperature, but with less obvious improvements for precipitation and minimum temperature over southeastern Australia.

  4. Relationship between eastern tropical Pacific cooling and recent trends in the Southern Hemisphere zonal-mean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, Kyle R.; Renwick, James A.; McGregor, James

    2016-08-01

    During 1979-2014, eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures significantly cooled, which has generally been attributed to the transition of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to its negative phase after 1999. We find the eastern tropical Pacific cooling to be associated with: (1) an intensified Walker Circulation during austral summer (December-February, DJF) and autumn (March-May, MAM); (2) a weakened South Pacific Hadley cell and subtropical jet during MAM; and (3) a strengthening of the circumpolar westerlies between 50 and 60°S during DJF and MAM. Observed cooling in the eastern tropical Pacific is linearly congruent with 60-80 % of the observed Southern Hemisphere positive zonal-mean zonal wind trend between 50 and 60°S during DJF (~35 % of the interannual variability), and around half of the observed positive zonal-mean zonal wind trend during MAM (~15 % of the interannual variability). Although previous studies have linked the strengthened DJF and MAM circumpolar westerlies to stratospheric ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases, we note that the continuation of the positive SAM trends into the twenty-first century is partially associated with eastern tropical Pacific cooling, especially during MAM when zonal wind anomalies associated with eastern tropical Pacific cooling project strongly onto the observed trends. Outside of DJF and MAM, eastern tropical Pacific cooling is associated with opposing zonal wind anomalies over the Pacific and Indian sectors, which we infer is the reason for the absence of significant positive SAM trends outside of DJF and MAM despite significant eastern tropical Pacific cooling seen during all seasons.

  5. The DEEP-SOUTH: Round-the-clock physical characterization of near-Earth objects in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Yim, H.; Bae, Y.; Ishiguro, M.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Byun, Y.; Larson, S.; Alcock, C.

    2014-07-01

    1. Introduction: Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute started a project to build a network of wide-field optical telescopes called the KMTNet (Korea Micro-lensing Telescope Network) in 2009 [1]. Its primary scientific goal is to discover, catalogue and characterize Earth-mass exoplanets in the southern hemisphere when the Galactic Bulge lies above the horizon. While in winter this network will be devoted to other key science programs. The ''Deep Ecliptic Patrol of the Southern Sky (DEEP-SOUTH)'' is one of such secondary science projects [2]. 2. Facilities: The KMTNet consists of three identical 1.6-m prime focus optics and 18K×18K mosaic CCD cameras that result in 2×2 degrees field of view with a delivered image quality of less than 1.0 arcsec FWHM under atmospheric seeing of 0.75 arcsec in V- and I-bands. These telescopes will be located at CTIO in Chile, SAAO in South Africa, and SSO in Australia. The three stations are longitudinally well separated, and hence will have a benefit of 24-hour continuous monitoring of the southern sky. The wide-field and round-the-clock operation capabilities of the facility are ideal for discovery and physical characterization of asteroids and comets. 3. Future Plans: As of April 2014, more than 10,000 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been catalogued by the Minor Planet Center; however their observational properties such as broadband colors and spin periods are known only for less than five percent of the catalogued objects. Based on time series observations with the KMTNet, orbits, absolute magnitudes (H), spin states, shapes and activity levels of asteroids and comets including NEOs will be systematically investigated at the same time. Their approximate surface mineralogy will also be discriminated using SDSS and Johnson Cousins BVRI colors. The DEEP-SOUTH has several observation modes; Opposition Census (OC) is focused on opposition in either side of the ecliptic, while Sweet spot Survey (SsS) is designed to discover the

  6. Southern hemisphere deep-water stylasterid corals including a new species, Errinalabrosa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae), with notes on some symbiotic scalpellids (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Scalpellidae).

    PubMed

    Pica, Daniela; Cairns, Stephen D; Puce, Stefania; Newman, William A

    2015-01-01

    A number of stylasterid corals are known to act as host species and create refuges for a variety of mobile and sessile organisms, which enhances their habitat complexity. These include annelids, anthozoans, cirripeds, copepods, cyanobacteria, echinoderms, gastropods, hydroids and sponges. Here we report the first evidence of a diverse association between stylasterids and scalpellid pedunculate barnacles and describe a new stylasterid species, Errinalabrosa, from the Tristan da Cunha Archipelago. Overall, five stylasterid species are found to host eight scalpellid barnacles from several biogeographic regions in the southern hemisphere (Southern Ocean, temperate South America and the southern Indo-Pacific realms). There is an apparent lack of specificity in this kind of association and different grades of reaction to the symbiosis have been observed in the coral. These records suggest that the association between pedunculate barnacles and hard stylasterid corals has a wide distribution among different biogeographic realms and that it is relatively rare and confined largely to deep water.

  7. Southern hemisphere deep-water stylasterid corals including a new species, Errina labrosa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae), with notes on some symbiotic scalpellids (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Scalpellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pica, Daniela; Cairns, Stephen D.; Puce, Stefania; Newman, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A number of stylasterid corals are known to act as host species and create refuges for a variety of mobile and sessile organisms, which enhances their habitat complexity. These include annelids, anthozoans, cirripeds, copepods, cyanobacteria, echinoderms, gastropods, hydroids and sponges. Here we report the first evidence of a diverse association between stylasterids and scalpellid pedunculate barnacles and describe a new stylasterid species, Errina labrosa, from the Tristan da Cunha Archipelago. Overall, five stylasterid species are found to host eight scalpellid barnacles from several biogeographic regions in the southern hemisphere (Southern Ocean, temperate South America and the southern Indo-Pacific realms). There is an apparent lack of specificity in this kind of association and different grades of reaction to the symbiosis have been observed in the coral. These records suggest that the association between pedunculate barnacles and hard stylasterid corals has a wide distribution among different biogeographic realms and that it is relatively rare and confined largely to deep water. PMID:25632246

  8. First search for a dark matter annual modulation signal with NaI(Tl) in the Southern Hemisphere by DM-Ice17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa de Souza, E.; Cherwinka, J.; Cole, A.; Ezeribe, A. C.; Grant, D.; Halzen, F.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; Hubbard, A. J. F.; Jo, J. H.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lim, K. E.; Macdonald, C.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mouton, F.; Paling, S. M.; Pettus, W.; Pierpoint, Z. P.; Reilly, B. N.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, F. R.; Sandstrom, P.; Scarff, A.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Telfer, S.; Yang, L.; DM-Ice Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    We present the first search for a dark matter annual modulation signal in the Southern Hemisphere conducted with NaI(Tl) detectors, performed by the DM-Ice17 experiment. Nuclear recoils from dark matter interactions are expected to yield an annually modulated signal independent of location within the Earth's hemispheres. DM-Ice17, the first step in the DM-Ice experimental program, consists of 17 kg of NaI(Tl) located at the South Pole under 2200 m.w.e. overburden of Antarctic glacial ice. Taken over 3.6 years for a total exposure of 60.8 kg yr, DM-Ice17 data are consistent with no modulation in the energy range of 4-20 keV, providing the strongest limits on weakly interacting massive particle dark matter from a direct detection experiment located in the Southern Hemisphere. The successful deployment and stable long-term operation of DM-Ice17 establishes the South Pole ice as a viable location for future dark matter searches and in particular for a high-sensitivity NaI(Tl) dark matter experiment to directly test the DAMA/LIBRA claim of the observation of dark matter.

  9. Role of viral RNA and lipid in the adverse events associated with the 2010 Southern Hemisphere trivalent influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Rockman, Steve; Becher, Dorit; Dyson, Allison; Koernig, Sandra; Morelli, Adriana Baz; Barnden, Megan; Camuglia, Sarina; Soupourmas, Peter; Pearse, Martin; Maraskovsky, Eugene

    2014-06-24

    In Australia, during the 2010 Southern Hemisphere (SH) influenza season, there was an unexpected increase in post-marketing adverse event reports of febrile seizures (FS) in children under 5 years of age shortly after vaccination with the CSL 2010 SH trivalent influenza vaccine (CSL 2010 SH TIV) compared to previous CSL TIVs and other licensed 2010 SH TIVs. In an accompanying study, we described the contribution to these adverse events of the 2010 SH influenza strains as expressed in the CSL 2010 SH TIV using in vitro cytokine/chemokine secretion from whole blood cells and induction of NF-κB activation in HEK293 reporter cells. The aim of the present study was to identify the root cause components that elicited the elevated cytokine/chemokine and NF-κB signature. Our studies demonstrated that the pyrogenic signal was associated with a heat-labile, viral-derived component(s) in the CSL 2010 SH TIV. Further, it was found that viral lipid-mediated delivery of short, fragmented viral RNA was the key trigger for the increased cytokine/chemokine secretion and NF-κB activation. It is likely that the FS reported in children <5 years were due to a combination of the new influenza strains included in the 2010 SH TIV and the CSL standard method of manufacture preserving strain-specific viral components of the new influenza strains (particularly B/Brisbane/60/2008 and to a lesser extent H1N1 A/California/07/2009). These combined to heighten immune activation of innate immune cells, which in a small proportion of children <5 years of age is associated with the occurrence of FS. The data also demonstrates that CSL TIVs formulated with increased levels of splitting agent (TDOC) for the B/Brisbane/60/2008 strain can attenuate the pro-inflammatory signals in vitro, identifying a potential path forward for generating a CSL TIV indicated for use in children <5 years.

  10. Multi-model simulation of CO and HCHO in the Southern Hemisphere: comparison with observations and impact of biogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, G.; Williams, J. E.; Fisher, J. A.; Emmons, L. K.; Jones, N. B.; Morgenstern, O.; Robinson, J.; Smale, D.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Griffith, D. W. T.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the impact of biogenic emissions on carbon monoxide (CO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), with simulations using two different biogenic emission inventories for isoprene and monoterpenes. Results from four atmospheric chemistry models are compared to continuous long-term ground-based CO and HCHO column measurements at the SH Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) sites, the satellite measurement of tropospheric CO columns from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), and in situ surface CO measurements from across the SH, representing a subset of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Global Monitoring Division (NOAA GMD) network. Simulated mean model CO using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (v2.1) computed in the frame work of the Land Community Model (CLM-MEGANv2.1) inventory is in better agreement with both column and surface observations than simulations adopting the emission inventory generated from the LPJ-GUESS dynamical vegetation model framework, which markedly underestimate measured column and surface CO at most sites. Differences in biogenic emissions cause large differences in CO in the source regions which propagate to the remote SH. Significant inter-model differences exist in modelled column and surface CO, and secondary production of CO dominates these inter-model differences, due mainly to differences in the models' oxidation schemes for volatile organic compounds, predominantly isoprene oxidation. While biogenic emissions are a significant factor in modelling SH CO, inter-model differences pose an additional challenge to constrain these emissions. Corresponding comparisons of HCHO columns at two SH mid-latitude sites reveal that all models significantly underestimate the observed values by approximately a factor of 2. There is a much smaller impact on HCHO of the significantly different biogenic emissions in remote regions

  11. A detailed record of the Lower Jaramillo Polarity Transition from a southern hemisphere, deep-sea sediment core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Bradford M.; Kent, Dennis V.

    1984-02-01

    A detailed record of the lower Jaramillo (reversed to normal) polarity transition was obtained from a southern hemisphere, deep-sea sediment core (latitude = 35.91°E, longitude = 59.97°E) The record consists of over 850 samples taken across 140 cm of section. The transition itself is recorded across approximately 70 cm and is represented by more than 475 specimens from about 160 levels giving intermediate directions. The transition is identified by a nearly 180° shift from directions in good agreement with a reversed, axial dipole field to those closely aligned with a normal, axial dipole field for the core site latitude. The inclinations shallow gradually early in the reversal and pass through very steep negative values (-80°) late in the transition. The declinations show little appreciable variation until the inclinations have moved through the near vertical, and then slowly approach values in agreement with a normal polarity field. An intensity low accompanies the directional change during which the intensity drops to less than 15% of the maximum values observed in this sample interval. The intensity fluctuation spans a wider interval than the directional change, decreasing prior to any systematic change in the directions and then increasing to pre-transition levels by the same depth at which the directions have stabilized. The VGP path constructed for this reversal is longitudinally constrained to a certain extent, between 140° and 230° for intermediate VGP latitudes and is roughly centered 120° from the site longitude. This path is therefore a far-sided VGP path in Hoffman's [1977] terminology. Assuming a constant sedimentation rate (67m/Ma) through the Jaramillo Subchron, the duration of the transition is estimated to be 11,200 years to 4,500 years (depending on the criteria) for the directional change, whereas the associated intensity variation occurred over 15,000 to 20,000 years. Considered together with records of the most recent reversal

  12. Seasonal cycle of carbon dioxide and atmospheric circulation in Mars' southern hemisphere as observed by neutron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T. H.; Wiens, R. C.; Reisner, J. M.; Murphy, J. R.; Feldman, W. C.

    2004-01-01

    ice as a function of position and time in the southern hemisphere. Data acquired by the neutron spectrometer span the advance and recession of the south polar cap during a single martian year. The spectrometer can resolve spatial features on the surface that are 10{sup o} of arc length in scale (600 km) and temporal variations on the order of 5{sup o} of L{sub S} can be monitored.

  13. Assessing the impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño event on multi-satellite soil moisture over the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorigo, Wouter; Bauer-Marschallinger, Bernhard; Depoorter, Mathieu; Miralles, Diego

    2016-04-01

    In the past, El Niño has severely invigorated drought conditions over large parts of the Southern Hemisphere causing enormous ecological and socio-economic damage (e.g., agricultural loss, water scarcity, bush fires). Accurate assessments of its impacts are therefore crucial for improving seasonal predictions that can help to prevent and mitigate these consequences. However, the impact of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on drought conditions over land are not yet well understood, partly because of the difficulty of linking sea surface temperature anomalies to regional precipitation anomalies over land, partly because it is not straightforward to disentangle the ENSO signal from other seasonal and climate variability in the data. Here, we present a new statistical method for assessing the impact of ENSO on drought conditions over land, based on the relationship between the NINO3.4 ENSO index and ESA CCI long-term satellite observations of soil moisture. The new method is able to clearly separate the ENSO signal from other short-term and long-term variability in the soil moisture data, both in time and space. In the presentation we will show how the recent 2015/2016 El Niño has affected soil moisture in the Southern Hemisphere. In addition, we will show how the statistical method can be coupled to ENSO forecasts to predict the impact of future El Niño events on drought conditions up to 9 months ahead.

  14. The Last Termination in the South Indian Ocean: A unique terrestrial record from Kerguelen Islands (49°S) situated within the Southern Hemisphere westerly belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Putten, Nathalie; Verbruggen, Cyriel; Björck, Svante; Michel, Elisabeth; Disnar, Jean-Robert; Chapron, Emmanuel; Moine, Bertrand N.; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis

    2015-08-01

    The awareness of the significance of the Southern Ocean in the Earth's climate system has become increasingly obvious. The deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise during warming periods in Antarctica has been attributed to CO2 ventilation from the deep ocean caused by enhanced upwelling around the Antarctic Divergence. It has been hypothesized that, more intense Southern Hemisphere westerly winds aligned with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current due to a southward shift of the wind belt from its Last Glacial Maximum equator-ward position, are the main drivers. Reconstructions of past changes in atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere are still scarce and the overall picture is patchy with sometimes contradictory results. For obvious reasons, most terrestrial records originate from southern South America and New Zealand. Here we present a terrestrial record from the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, from Kerguelen Islands located at 49°S. A peat record is investigated using a multi-proxy approach (pollen and plant macrofossils, magnetic susceptibility, XRF analyses, biogenic silica content, Rock-Eval6 analysis and humification degree). Peat accumulation starts at about 16,000 cal yr BP with relatively warm and dry conditions. The most prominent change in our proxy data occurs at 13,600 cal yr BP, when peat ponds were established on the peat surface, resulting in lacustrine-type deposits, as a result of very high humidity, and with proxies implying very windy conditions. Within chronological uncertainties, this onset coincides with the onset of the so-called Oceanic Cold Reversal, based on the deuterium excess data in the EPICA Dome C ice core record. Kerguelen Islands are located in the moisture source area of Dome C and a change in atmospheric circulation at that time could explain both records. Around 12,900 cal yr BP, at the end of the Antarctic Cold Reversal, pond/lake sediments give way to more peaty deposits, with proxies suggesting slightly drier, less

  15. Airborne grass and ragweed pollen in the southern Panonnian Valley--consideration of rural and urban environment.

    PubMed

    Sikoparija, Branko; Radisic, Predrag; Pejak, Tatjana; Simic, Smiljka

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe and compare the characteristics of grass and ragweed airborne pollen in rural and urban areas in the southern Panonnian Valley. Airborne pollen data were collected by using Hirst type volumetric samplers simultaneously in rural and urban localities. If rural and urban environment are considered, both grass and ragweed daily pollen concentrations showed a significant degree of association. Observed parameters (pollen index, maximum daily concentration, number of days during which the pollen is recorded in the air and start day of main pollen season), showed year-to-year variations for both grass and ragweed aeropollen. Average values of these parameters were higher in the rural environment, but the difference was statistically significant only for grass pollen index. Such a low difference indicates the possibility for conducting dose response clinical trials based on data obtained from one sampling station. The least year-to-year variations as well as the least difference between rural and urban environment, have been observed in the case of start date of the MPS. Such a situation suggests the possibility for using data obtained in one type of environment for the development of long-term forecast models for an entire region.

  16. Airborne Hyperspectral Infrared Imaging Survey of the Southern San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. K.; Tratt, D. M.; Buckland, K. N.; Johnson, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The San Andreas Fault (SAF) between Desert Hot Springs and Bombay Beach has been surveyed with Mako, an airborne hyperspectral imager operating across the wavelength range 7.6-13.2 μm in the thermal-infrared (TIR) spectral region. The data were acquired with a 4-km swath width centered on the SAF, and many tectonic features are recorded in the imagery. Spectral analysis using diagnostic features of minerals can identify rocks, soils and vegetation. Mako imagery can also locate rupture zones and measure slip distances. Designed and built by The Aerospace Corporation, the innovative and highly capable airborne imaging spectrometer used for this work enables low-noise performance (NEΔT ≲ 0.1 K @ 10 μm) at small pixel IFOV (0.55 mrad) and high frame rates, making possible an area-coverage rate of 20 km2 per minute with 2-m ground resolution from 12,500 ft (3.8 km) above-ground altitude. Since its commissioning in 2010, Mako has been used in numerous studies involving other earthquake fault systems (Hector Mine, S. Bristol Mts.), mapping of surface geology, geothermal sources (fumaroles near the Salton Sea), urban surveys, and the detection, quantification, and tracking of natural and anthropogenic gaseous emission plumes. Mako is available for airborne field studies and new applications are of particular interest. It can be flown at any altitude below 20,000 ft to achieve the desired GSD.

  17. A comprehensive assessment of mercury exposure in penguin populations throughout the Southern Hemisphere: Using trophic calculations to identify sources of population-level variation.

    PubMed

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J; Raya Rey, Andrea; Emslie, Steven D

    2015-08-15

    The wide geographic distribution of penguins (Order Sphenisciformes) throughout the Southern Hemisphere provided a unique opportunity to use a single taxonomic group as biomonitors of mercury among geographically distinct marine ecosystems. Mercury concentrations were compared among ten species of penguins representing 26 geographically distinct breeding populations. Mercury concentrations were relatively low (⩽2.00ppm) in feathers from 18/26 populations considered. Population-level differences in trophic level explained variation in mercury concentrations among Little, King, and Gentoo penguin populations. However, Southern Rockhopper and Magellanic penguins breeding on Staten Island, Tierra del Fuego, had the highest mercury concentrations relative to their conspecifics despite foraging at a lower trophic level. The concurrent use of stable isotope and mercury data allowed us to document penguin populations at the greatest risk of exposure to harmful concentrations of mercury as a result of foraging at a high trophic level or in geographic 'hot spots' of mercury availability.

  18. Humpback whale “super-groups” – A novel low-latitude feeding behaviour of Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Benguela Upwelling System

    PubMed Central

    Seakamela, S. Mduduzi; Meÿer, Michael A.; Kirkman, Stephen P.; Barendse, Jaco; Cade, David E.; Hurwitz, David; Kennedy, Amy S.; Kotze, Pieter G. H.; McCue, Steven A.; Thornton, Meredith; Vargas-Fonseca, O. Alejandra; Wilke, Christopher G.

    2017-01-01

    Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) generally undertake annual migrations from polar summer feeding grounds to winter calving and nursery grounds in subtropical and tropical coastal waters. Evidence for such migrations arises from seasonality of historic whaling catches by latitude, Discovery and natural mark returns, and results of satellite tagging studies. Feeding is generally believed to be limited to the southern polar region, where Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been identified as the primary prey item. Non-migrations and / or suspended migrations to the polar feeding grounds have previously been reported from a summer presence of whales in the Benguela System, where feeding on euphausiids (E. lucens), hyperiid amphipods (Themisto gaudichaudii), mantis shrimp (Pterygosquilla armata capensis) and clupeid fish has been described. Three recent research cruises (in October/November 2011, October/November 2014 and October/November 2015) identified large tightly-spaced groups (20 to 200 individuals) of feeding humpback whales aggregated over at least a one-month period across a 220 nautical mile region of the southern Benguela System. Feeding behaviour was identified by lunges, strong milling and repetitive and consecutive diving behaviours, associated bird and seal feeding, defecations and the pungent “fishy” smell of whale blows. Although no dedicated prey sampling could be carried out within the tightly spaced feeding aggregations, observations of E. lucens in the region of groups and the full stomach contents of mantis shrimp from both a co-occurring predatory fish species (Thyrsites atun) and one entangled humpback whale mortality suggest these may be the primary prey items of at least some of the feeding aggregations. Reasons for this recent novel behaviour pattern remain speculative, but may relate to increasing summer humpback whale abundance in the region. These novel, predictable, inter-annual, low latitude feeding

  19. Humpback whale "super-groups" - A novel low-latitude feeding behaviour of Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Benguela Upwelling System.

    PubMed

    Findlay, Ken P; Seakamela, S Mduduzi; Meÿer, Michael A; Kirkman, Stephen P; Barendse, Jaco; Cade, David E; Hurwitz, David; Kennedy, Amy S; Kotze, Pieter G H; McCue, Steven A; Thornton, Meredith; Vargas-Fonseca, O Alejandra; Wilke, Christopher G

    2017-01-01

    Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) generally undertake annual migrations from polar summer feeding grounds to winter calving and nursery grounds in subtropical and tropical coastal waters. Evidence for such migrations arises from seasonality of historic whaling catches by latitude, Discovery and natural mark returns, and results of satellite tagging studies. Feeding is generally believed to be limited to the southern polar region, where Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been identified as the primary prey item. Non-migrations and / or suspended migrations to the polar feeding grounds have previously been reported from a summer presence of whales in the Benguela System, where feeding on euphausiids (E. lucens), hyperiid amphipods (Themisto gaudichaudii), mantis shrimp (Pterygosquilla armata capensis) and clupeid fish has been described. Three recent research cruises (in October/November 2011, October/November 2014 and October/November 2015) identified large tightly-spaced groups (20 to 200 individuals) of feeding humpback whales aggregated over at least a one-month period across a 220 nautical mile region of the southern Benguela System. Feeding behaviour was identified by lunges, strong milling and repetitive and consecutive diving behaviours, associated bird and seal feeding, defecations and the pungent "fishy" smell of whale blows. Although no dedicated prey sampling could be carried out within the tightly spaced feeding aggregations, observations of E. lucens in the region of groups and the full stomach contents of mantis shrimp from both a co-occurring predatory fish species (Thyrsites atun) and one entangled humpback whale mortality suggest these may be the primary prey items of at least some of the feeding aggregations. Reasons for this recent novel behaviour pattern remain speculative, but may relate to increasing summer humpback whale abundance in the region. These novel, predictable, inter-annual, low latitude feeding events

  20. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset 1998-2000 in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2003-01-01

    A network of 12 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations in the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 profiles of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone since 1998. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature and relative humidity measurements. The archived data are available at:http: //croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. In Thompson et al., accuracies and imprecisions in the SHADOZ 1998- 2000 dataset were examined using ground-based instruments and the TOMS total ozone measurement (version 7) as references. Small variations in ozonesonde technique introduced possible biases from station-to-station. SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are now compared to version 8 TOMS; discrepancies between the two datasets are reduced 2\\% on average. An evaluation of ozone variations among the stations is made using the results of a series of chamber simulations of ozone launches (JOSIE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which a standard reference ozone instrument was employed with the various sonde techniques used in SHADOZ. A number of variations in SHADOZ ozone data are explained when differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer) are taken into account.

  1. Mother Knows Best: Occurrence and Associations of Resighted Humpback Whales Suggest Maternally Derived Fidelity to a Southern Hemisphere Coastal Feeding Ground

    PubMed Central

    Barendse, Jaco; Best, Peter B.; Carvalho, Inês; Pomilla, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Site fidelity is common among migratory cetaceans, including humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). In the Northern Hemisphere it has been found that fidelity to humpback whale feeding grounds is transferred maternally but this has never been shown for the species in the Southern Hemisphere. We examined this in a unique feeding area off west South Africa using resighting data of 68 individually identified humpback whales by means of photographic (tail flukes and dorsal fins) and/or molecular methods (microsatellite genotyping) over an 18 year span. We found short-term association patterns and recurrent visits typical of other feeding grounds. Males and females had different seasonality of attendance. Significant female-dominated presence corresponded to timing of an expected influx of females on their southward migration from the breeding ground: firstly non-nursing (possibly pregnant) females in mid-spring, and mothers and calves in mid-to late summer. The potential benefit of this mid-latitude feeding area for females is illustrated by a record of a cow with known age of at least 23 years that produced calves in three consecutive years, each of which survived to at least six months of age: the first record of successful post-partum ovulation for this species in the Southern Hemisphere. We recorded association of a weaned calf with its mother, and a recurring association between a non-lactating female and male over more than two years. Moreover, three animals first identified as calves returned to the same area in subsequent years, sometimes on the same day as their mothers. This, together with numerous Parent-Offspring relations detected genetically among and between resighted and non-resighted whales is strongly suggestive of maternally derived site fidelity at a small spatial scale by a small sub-population of humpback whales. PMID:24349047

  2. Mother knows best: occurrence and associations of resighted humpback whales suggest maternally derived fidelity to a Southern Hemisphere coastal feeding ground.

    PubMed

    Barendse, Jaco; Best, Peter B; Carvalho, Inês; Pomilla, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Site fidelity is common among migratory cetaceans, including humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). In the Northern Hemisphere it has been found that fidelity to humpback whale feeding grounds is transferred maternally but this has never been shown for the species in the Southern Hemisphere. We examined this in a unique feeding area off west South Africa using resighting data of 68 individually identified humpback whales by means of photographic (tail flukes and dorsal fins) and/or molecular methods (microsatellite genotyping) over an 18 year span. We found short-term association patterns and recurrent visits typical of other feeding grounds. Males and females had different seasonality of attendance. Significant female-dominated presence corresponded to timing of an expected influx of females on their southward migration from the breeding ground: firstly non-nursing (possibly pregnant) females in mid-spring, and mothers and calves in mid-to late summer. The potential benefit of this mid-latitude feeding area for females is illustrated by a record of a cow with known age of at least 23 years that produced calves in three consecutive years, each of which survived to at least six months of age: the first record of successful post-partum ovulation for this species in the Southern Hemisphere. We recorded association of a weaned calf with its mother, and a recurring association between a non-lactating female and male over more than two years. Moreover, three animals first identified as calves returned to the same area in subsequent years, sometimes on the same day as their mothers. This, together with numerous Parent-Offspring relations detected genetically among and between resighted and non-resighted whales is strongly suggestive of maternally derived site fidelity at a small spatial scale by a small sub-population of humpback whales.

  3. Evidence for lamprey GnRH-I and -III-like molecules in the brains of the southern hemisphere lampreys Geotria australis and Mordacia mordax.

    PubMed

    Sower, S A; McGregor, A J; Materne, O L; Chase, C; Potter, I; Joss, J

    2000-11-01

    The present study has characterized gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH)-like molecules in the brains of representatives of the two southern hemisphere families of lampreys, Geotriidae and Mordaciidae. Chromatographic and immunocytochemical evidence showed that the brains of Geotria australis and Mordacia mordax contain two forms of GnRH-like molecules. These two forms correspond to lamprey GnRH-I and -III, which were first sequenced from the brain of the anadromous sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, a representative of the family Petromyzontidae that is found only in the northern hemisphere. In chromatographic studies (HPLC) using lamprey GnRH-I and -III antiserum, two early eluting GnRH forms coeluted with synthetic lamprey GnRH-I and -III standards. Our studies thus indicate that, despite their apparently long period of separation, the three families of extant lampreys have each retained both of the lamprey GnRH (-I and -III forms) molecules. Moreover, immunocytochemical localization of lamprey GnRH indicated that the pattern of its distribution in the adult brain of at least one of these southern hemisphere lampreys (G. australis) is similar to that previously described for P. marinus. Distribution of GnRH in the brain of larval G. australis was not as extensive as that in larval P. marinus, which may account for the later gonadal development in the former species. The fact that lamprey GnRH-I and -III are the dominant GnRH forms in all three families of lampreys implies that these neurohormones have an ancient origin.

  4. Airborne DIAL and ground-based Raman lidar measurements of water vapor over the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrare, Richard A.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Kooi, Susan; Brackett, Vince G.; Clayton, Marian; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn F.; Barrick, John; Diskin, Glenn; Lesht, Barry; Schmidlin, Frank J.; Turner, Dave; Whiteman, David; Miloshevich, Larry

    2003-12-01

    Measurements of water vapor profiles over the Southern Great Plains acquired by two different lidars are presented. NASA's airborne DIAL Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system measured water vapor, aerosol, and cloud profiles during the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) in November-December 2000 and during the International H2O Project (IHOP) in May-June 2002. LASE measurements acquired during AFWEX are used to characterize upper troposphere water vapor measured by ground-based Raman lidars, radiosondes, and in situ aircraft sensors. LASE measurements acquired during IHOP are being used to better understand the influence water vapor variability on the initiation of deep convection and to improve the quantification and prediction of precipitation associated with these storms. The automated Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar (CARL) has been routinely measuring profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, relative humidity, aerosol extinction, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol and cloud depolarization during both daytime and nighttime operations. Aerosol and water vapor profiles acquired since March 1998 are used to investigate the seasonal variability of the vertical distributions of water vapor and aerosols.

  5. A comparative evaluation of MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) data and burn indices for mapping southern California fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, S. L.; Hook, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Large fires occur annually in southern California, producing impacts at a number of scales, from local impacts on vegetation, hydrology and microclimates, to global impacts such as emissions, affecting atmospheric chemistry, air quality, radiation balance and biogeochemical cycling. As a consequence fires are routinely mapped using various sensors and burn indices. However, the indices employed for mapping these fires have not been developed and optimized for mapping southern California burned surfaces. Therefore, this study utilizes the high spatial and spectral resolution imagery from the MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) to identify the most effective bands and indices specifically for burned area mapping of the southern California region. The fire perimeter is based on the Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) map created by the United States Forest Service (USFS), Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) and a supervised classification which defines the burned and unburned regions. A separability index is employed to identify the bands and indices that can best distinguish between classes. The results identify a range of well performing indices, such as the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) and the Vegetation Index based on mid-infrared spectral region (VI3), and some poor performing indices, such as the Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI) and the Burned Area Index (BAI). Additionally this study highlights the indices that perform better over certain vegetation types. These results are useful for understanding the application of remotely sensed data for mapping burned surfaces. Improved burned area mapping capabilities are essential for informing land managers when identifying regions susceptible to hazards (such as debris and flood flows) and for deciding where to allocate time and resources in recovery efforts. Additionally, these results can be used to validate other sensors that are used to map burned surfaces on greater spatial and

  6. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology: Ozonesonde Precision, Accuracy and Station-to-Station Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, Anne M.; McPeters, R. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As part of the SAFARI-2000 campaign, additional launches of ozonesondes were made at Irene, South Africa and at Lusaka, Zambia. These represent campaign augmentations to the SHADOZ database described in this paper. This network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 profiles from ozonesondes and radiosondes during the period 1998-2000. (Since that time, two more stations, one in southern Africa, have joined SHADOZ). Archived data are available at: http://code9l6.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data-services/shadoz>. Uncertainties and accuracies within the SHADOZ ozone data set are evaluated by analyzing: (1) imprecisions in stratospheric ozone profiles and in methods of extrapolating ozone above balloon burst; (2) comparisons of column-integrated total ozone from sondes with total ozone from the Earth-Probe/TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite and ground-based instruments; (3) possible biases from station-to-station due to variations in ozonesonde characteristics. The key results are: (1) Ozonesonde precision is 5%; (2) Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are in good agreement (2-10%) with independent measurements from ground-based instruments at five SHADOZ sites and with overpass measurements from the TOMS satellite (version 7 data). (3) Systematic variations in TOMS-sonde offsets and in groundbased-sonde offsets from station to station reflect biases in sonde technique as well as in satellite retrieval. Discrepancies are present in both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. (4) There is evidence for a zonal wave-one pattern in total and tropospheric ozone, but not in stratospheric ozone.

  7. Monitoring of reported sudden emission rate changes of major radioxenon emitters in the northern and southern hemispheres in 2008 to assess their contribution to the respective radioxenon backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saey, P. R. J.; Auer, M.; Becker, A.; Colmanet, S.; Hoffmann, E.; Nikkinen, M.; Schlosser, C.; Sonck, M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric radioxenon monitoring is a key component of the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Radiopharmaceutical production facilities (RPF) have recently been identified of emitting the major part of the environmental radioxenon measured at globally distributed monitoring sites deployed to strengthen the radionuclide part of the CTBT verification regime. Efforts to raise a global radioxenon emission inventory revealed that the global total emission from RPF's is 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than the respective emissions related to maintenance of all nuclear power plants (NPP). Given that situation we have seen in 2008 two peculiar hemisphere-specific situations: 1) In the northern hemisphere, a joint shutdown of the global largest four radiopharmaceutical facilities revealed the contribution of the normally 'masked' NPP related emissions. Due to an incident, the Molybdenum production at the "Institut des Radioéléments" (IRE) in Fleurus, Belgium, was shut down between Monday 25 August and 2 December 2008. IRE is the third largest global producer of medical isotopes. In the same period, but for different reasons, the other three worldwide largest producers (CRL in Canada, HFR in The Netherlands and NTP in South Africa) also had scheduled and unscheduled shutdowns. The activity concentrations of 133Xe measured at the Schauinsland Mountain station near Freiburg in Germany (situated 380 km SW of Fleurus) which have a mean of 4.8 mBq/m3 for the period February 2004 - August 2008, went down to 0.87 mBq/m3 for the period September - November 2008. 2) In the southern hemisphere, after a long break, the only radiopharmaceutical facility in Australia started up test production in late November 2008. In the period before the start-up, the background of radioxenon in Australia (Melbourne and Darwin) was below measurable quantities. During six test runs of the renewed RPF at ANSTO in Lucas Heights, up to 6 mBq/m3 of 133Xe were measured in

  8. Seasonal variability of surface and column carbon monoxide over the megacity Paris, high-altitude Jungfraujoch and Southern Hemispheric Wollongong stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Té, Yao; Jeseck, Pascal; Franco, Bruno; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Jones, Nicholas; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Griffith, David W. T.; Buchholz, Rebecca R.; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette; Hurtmans, Daniel; Janssen, Christof

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies the seasonal variation of surface and column CO at three different sites (Paris, Jungfraujoch and Wollongong), with an emphasis on establishing a link between the CO vertical distribution and the nature of CO emission sources. We find the first evidence of a time lag between surface and free tropospheric CO seasonal variations in the Northern Hemisphere. The CO seasonal variability obtained from the total columns and free tropospheric partial columns shows a maximum around March-April and a minimum around September-October in the Northern Hemisphere (Paris and Jungfraujoch). In the Southern Hemisphere (Wollongong) this seasonal variability is shifted by about 6 months. Satellite observations by the IASI-MetOp (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) and MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) instruments confirm this seasonality. Ground-based FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) measurements provide useful complementary information due to good sensitivity in the boundary layer. In situ surface measurements of CO volume mixing ratios at the Paris and Jungfraujoch sites reveal a time lag of the near-surface seasonal variability of about 2 months with respect to the total column variability at the same sites. The chemical transport model GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model) is employed to interpret our observations. GEOS-Chem sensitivity runs identify the emission sources influencing the seasonal variation of CO. At both Paris and Jungfraujoch, the surface seasonality is mainly driven by anthropogenic emissions, while the total column seasonality is also controlled by air masses transported from distant sources. At Wollongong, where the CO seasonality is mainly affected by biomass burning, no time shift is observed between surface measurements and total column data.

  9. Observational and modeling study of the maintenance of short-term subtropical wind maxima in the Southern Hemisphere during SOP-1, FGGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurrell, James W.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1991-01-01

    The findings of the earlier observational work of Hurrel and Vincent (1990) are substantiated using a recent version of the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres fourth-order general circulation model. The observed heating and subtropical zonal flow structure over the South Pacific is reproduced by a control integration with full model physics, for the period of 6-20 January 1979. A subtropical westerly maximum observed over the central South Pacific is found to be highly correlated to enhancements of poleward-moving divergent outflow from tropical heat sources. The divergent meridional flow accounted for much of the total ageostrophic meridional wind in the Southern Hemisphere subtropics, and, consequently, resulted in strong Coriolis accelerations in the entrance regions westerly maxima.

  10. Ozone, cloud, solar and UV-B levels at a low pollution, Southern Hemisphere, sub-tropical site for winter/spring 1995.

    PubMed

    Sabburg, J; Parisi, A; Wong, J

    1997-12-01

    This paper analyses daily ozone, cloud cover, solar radiation and broadband UV-B data for winter/spring at a low pollution Southern Hemispheric sub-tropical site (27.80 degrees S). The average ozone concentration for the period was 290 DU. An anti-correlation is presented between the ozone and UV-B data over a 5 day period during winter. An ozone deficiency of 45 DU was calculated for the cloud free day on the 16th July, 1995, in which the UV-B level exceeded the clear sky envelope by about 6%. Part of this increase may be attributed to a decrease in cloud cover. In winter, the July average of the daily integrated UV-B irradiance was 29.0 kJ/m2, (a level which is comparable to that observed in Japan during the summer months).

  11. Winds and tides in the mid-latitude Southern Hemisphere upper mesosphere recorded with the Falkland Islands SuperDARN radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbins, R. E.; Freeman, M. P.; Milan, S. E.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2011-11-01

    Meteor wind data from the first year of operation of the Falkland Islands SuperDARN radar (52° S, 59° W) are used to characterize the atmospheric tides and background winds in the upper mesosphere above the South Atlantic. Strong (>40 m s-1) semidiurnal tides are observed in the winter time and large amplitude (>60 m s-1) bursts of quasi two-day wave activity are seen in January 2011. Data are in good agreement with those presented from the SAAMER meteor radar (54° S, 68° W). Comparison with SuperDARN meteor wind data from a geographically similar Northern Hemisphere site at Goose Bay (53° N 60° W) reveal clear interhemispheric differences especially in the semidiurnal and terdiurnal components of the tides. The winter time amplitudes of the tides are much stronger in the Southern Hemisphere than in the north. Background winds are observed to be significantly more polewards and westwards throughout the year than those predicted by the empirical horizontal wind model HWM07.

  12. Statistical Comparison of a Southern Auroral Electrojet Index with Northern Hemisphere AE Indices as a Function of Solar Wind and IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudouridis, A.; Weygand, J. M.; Zesta, E.

    2014-12-01

    A Southern Auroral Electrojet (SAE) index has been recently constructed using seven Antarctica magnetometer stations. It has been compared for case studies with the standard Auroral Electrojet (AE) index, and a near-conjugate to the southern stations Northern Auroral Electrojet (NAE) index. Both similarities and differences with the Northern Hemisphere indices have been detected, and they reveal information about the conjugacy of geomagnetic disturbances. In this work we compare the three indices statistically as a function of the accompanying solar wind (SW) and Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) conditions to further explore conjugacy issues. We use 274 days of common north/south data presence between December 2005 and August 2010. We calculate the cross correlation coefficients and differences between all three pairs, AE-SAE, NAE-SAE, and AE-NAE. We estimate the effect of the SW/IMF conditions on the index correlations and differences using three groups of data: 1) the entire data set, 2) periods when there is no station in the Southern Hemisphere located within the 20-02 Magnetic Local Time (MLT) sector where substorms occur, and 3) separately for the four different seasons. We consider the following SW/IMF quantities: IMF By, Bz, clock angle θ = tan-1(|By|/Bz), coupling parameter sin2(θ/2), SW dynamic pressure, density, velocity, and electric field. We find that high north-south correlation coefficients are more common during strong SW/IMF driving, e.g., southward IMF, high IMF |By|, high SW dynamic pressure, high SW electric field, and high θ and sin2(θ/2). All the above studies are also conducted for the index differences instead of their correlations. We find that the index differences are higher for higher SW/IMF driving, suggesting that the SAE index follows the northern indices trend, but has in general lower values than either the standard AE or the conjugate NAE index. The MLT study shows that the number of high AE/SAE correlations is slightly

  13. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes}: What Have We Learned About Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from the First Three Years (1998-2000) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on an Trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approximately 7 hPa and relative humidity to approximately 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in 1998-2000. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole, and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa, South American and the Maritime Continent is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  14. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes): What Have We Learned About Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from the First Three Years' (1998-2000) Data?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Bhartia, Pawan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; RCunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in 1998-2000. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone, a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone, and signatures of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in stratospheric ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole, and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa, South American and the Maritime Continent is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  15. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 1. Comparison with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; McPeters, Richard D.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Johnson, Bryan J.; VöMel, Holger; Labow, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    A network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 ozone profiles during the period 1998-2000. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes, combined with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature, and relative humidity measurements, collected profiles in the troposphere and lower to midstratosphere at: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; and Natal, Brazil. The archived data are available at: . In this paper, uncertainties and accuracies within the SHADOZ ozone data set are evaluated by analyzing: (1) imprecisions in profiles and in methods of extrapolating ozone above balloon burst; (2) comparisons of column-integrated total ozone from sondes with total ozone from the Earth-Probe/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and ground-based instruments; and (3) possible biases from station to station due to variations in ozonesonde characteristics. The key results are the following: (1) Ozonesonde precision is 5%. (2) Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are usually to within 5% of independent measurements from ground-based instruments at five SHADOZ sites and overpass measurements from the TOMS satellite (version 7 data). (3) Systematic variations in TOMS-sonde offsets and in ground-based-sonde offsets from station to station reflect biases in sonde technique as well as in satellite retrieval. Discrepancies are present in both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. (4) There is evidence for a zonal wave-one pattern in total and tropospheric ozone, but not in stratospheric ozone.

  16. Diatom community response to climate variability over the past 37,000 years in the sub-tropics of the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Hembrow, Sarah C; Taffs, Kathryn H; Atahan, Pia; Parr, Jeff; Zawadzki, Atun; Heijnis, Henk

    2014-01-15

    Climate change is impacting global surface water resources, increasing the need for a deeper understanding of the interaction between climate and biological diversity. This is particularly the case in the Southern Hemisphere sub-tropics, where little information exists on the aquatic biota response to climate variations. Palaeolimnological techniques, in particular the use of diatoms, are well established and can significantly contribute to the understanding of climatic variability and the impacts that change in climate have on aquatic ecosystems. A sediment core from Lake McKenzie, Fraser Island (Australia), was used to investigate interactions between climate influences and aquatic ecosystems. This study utilises a combination of proxies including biological (diatom), geochemical and chronological techniques to investigate long-term aquatic changes within the perched-dune lake. A combination of (210)Pb and AMS (14)C dates showed that the retrieved sediment represented a history of ca. 37,000 cal.yBP. The sedimentation rate in Lake McKenzie is very low, ranging on average from 0.11 mm to 0.26 mm per year. A sediment hiatus was observed between ca. 18,300 and 14,000 cal.yBP suggesting a period of dry conditions at the site. The diatom record shows little variability over the period of record, with benthic, freshwater acidic tolerant species dominating. Relative abundance of planktonic species and geochemical results indicates a period of increased water depth and lake productivity in the early Holocene and a gradual decrease in effective precipitation throughout the Holocene. Results from this study not only support earlier work conducted on Fraser Island using pollen reconstructions but also demonstrate that diatom community diversity has been relatively consistent throughout the Holocene and late Pleistocene with only minor cyclical fluctuation evident. This record is consistent with the few other aquatic palaeoecological records from the Southern Hemisphere sub-tropics.

  17. Contribution of the airborne geophysical survey to the study of the regolith : A case study in southern Paris Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prognon, Francois; Lacquement, Fréderic; Deparis, Jacques; Martelet, Guillaume; Perrin, José

    2010-05-01

    Studies of soil and subsoil, also called regolith, are at the crossroads of scientific new challenging questions as well as new environmental needs. Historically, geological maps were focussed on solid geology. Present societal needs increasingly require knowledge of regolith properties: superficial studies combining geology, geochemistry and geophysics become essential to better understand the natural processes which govern the repartition and evolution of subsoil formations. Such progress is critical to better orient the use and management of natural and groundwater resources. Among other techniques, airborne geophysics is appropriate to provide information on near surface, because of i) its high spatial coverage ii) the rapidity of acquisition and iii) the variety of available sensors (magnetic, spectral radiometry, electromagnetic …). We illustrate the results of an airborne geophysical survey carried out in France, in "Région Centre" administrative region in the southern part of the Paris Basin. Spectral radiometry data were collected throughout "Région Centre" with a line spacing of 1 km. This method provides maps of potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th) which are the only naturally occurring elements with direct or indirect radioisotopes that produce gamma rays of sufficient intensity to be measured at airborne survey heights. Gamma-rays emitted from the Earth surface are related to the primary mineralogy and geochemistry of the bedrock and/or the nature of secondary weathering including regolith materials. Obtained images are confronted with former geological investigations (1:50 000e geological maps). Geophysical data and geological maps are generally consistent on most of the covered area since the first-rate information delivered by the spectrometry derives from the geochemistry of the solid geology. Second-rate gamma-ray responses come from superimposed allochtonous deposits as well as in situ geochemical modifications. For instance

  18. Airborne PCB patterns and urban scale in the Southern Río de la Plata Basin, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Astoviza, Malena J; Cappelletti, Natalia; Bilos, Claudio; Migoya, Maria C; Colombo, Juan C

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs: ∑ 42 congeners) collected by polyurethane passive samplers (PAS-PUFs) in 29 stations from July 2010 to February 2014 (n=141) in the most productive and populated Southern Rio de la Plata area in Argentina were evaluated to assess concentration gradients, potential sources and compositional profiles related to different land use and urbanization. On a global scale, total airborne PCBs concentrations are low/very low (below detection limit to 937pgm(-3)) and show a significant potential correlation with urban scale increasing 2.5 times each 10 times increase of population reflecting the primary role of urbanization controlling PCB emissions. Compositional patterns evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) of individual congeners indicated that highly populated atmospheres are enriched in lighter, more volatile tri, tetra and penta chlorine congeners of lighter Aroclor mixtures (from 1242 to 1254) suggesting actual emission of fresh PCBs signatures from sealants, combustion and/or electrical equipment. Sub urban and rural sites show a gradual transition to heavier Aroclor mixtures (from 1254 to 1260) with predominance of more persistent hexa and hepta PCBs indicating an aged background signal resulting from long range transport and/or re-emission from historic reservoirs such as soils.

  19. Atmospheric and surface temperatures and airborne dust amounts during late southern summer from Mariner 9 IRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santee, M.; Crisp, D.

    1992-01-01

    The temperature structure and dust loading of the Martian atmosphere are investigated using thermal emission spectra recorded in 1972 by the Mariner 9 infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS). The analysis focuses on a subset of data consisting of approximately 2400 spectra obtained near the end of the southern summer season (L(sub s) equal to 343 deg to 348 deg), after the global dust storm had largely abated and airborne dust amounts were subsiding to background values. Simultaneous retrieval of the vertical distribution of both atmospheric temperature and dust optical depth is accomplished through an iterative procedure which is performed on each individual spectrum. The atmospheric transmittances are calculated using a Voigt quasi-random band model, which includes absorption by CO2 and dust, but neglects the effects of multiple scattering. Vertical profiles of temperature and dust optical depth are obtained using modified algorithms. These profiles are used to construct global maps of temperature and dust optical depth as functions of latitude (+/- 90 deg), altitude (approximately 0-50 km), and local time of day.

  20. First measurements of (236)U concentrations and (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratios in a Southern Hemisphere soil far from nuclear test or reactor sites.

    PubMed

    Srncik, M; Tims, S G; De Cesare, M; Fifield, L K

    2014-06-01

    The variation of the (236)U and (239)Pu concentrations as a function of depth has been studied in a soil profile at a site in the Southern Hemisphere well removed from nuclear weapon test sites. Total inventories of (236)U and (239)Pu as well as the (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratio were derived. For this investigation a soil core from an undisturbed forest area in the Herbert River catchment (17°30' - 19°S) which is located in north-eastern Queensland (Australia) was chosen. The chemical separation of U and Pu was carried out with a double column which has the advantage of the extraction of both elements from a relatively large soil sample (∼20 g) within a day. The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry using the 14UD pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. The highest atom concentrations of both (236)U and (239)Pu were found at a depth of 2-3 cm. The (236)U/(239)Pu isotopic ratio in fallout at this site, as deduced from the ratio of the (236)U and (239)Pu inventories, is 0.085 ± 0.003 which is clearly lower than the Northern Hemisphere value of ∼0.2. The (236)U inventory of (8.4 ± 0.3) × 10(11) at/m(2) was more than an order of magnitude lower than values reported for the Northern Hemisphere. The (239)Pu activity concentrations are in excellent agreement with a previous study and the (239+240)Pu inventory was (13.85 ± 0.29) Bq/m(2). The weighted mean (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio of 0.142 ± 0.005 is slightly lower than the value for global fallout, but our results are consistent with the average ratio of 0.173 ± 0.027 for the southern equatorial region (0-30°S).

  1. Overriding control of methane flux temporal variability by water table dynamics in a Southern Hemisphere, raised bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, J. P.; Campbell, D. I.; Roulet, N. T.; Clearwater, M. J.; Schipper, L. A.

    2015-05-01

    There are still large uncertainties in peatland methane flux dynamics and insufficient understanding of how biogeochemical processes scale to ecosystems. New Zealand bogs differ from Northern Hemisphere ombrotrophic systems in climatic setting, hydrology, and dominant vegetation, offering an opportunity to evaluate our knowledge of peatland methane biogeochemistry gained primarily from northern bogs and fens. We report eddy covariance methane fluxes from a raised bog in New Zealand over 2.5 years. Annual total methane flux in 2012 was 29.1 g CH4 m-2 yr-1, whereas during a year with a severe drought (2013) it was 20.6 g CH4 m-2 yr-1, both high compared to Northern Hemisphere bogs and fens. Drier conditions led to a decrease in fluxes from ~100 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 to ~20 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, and subsequent slow recovery of flux after postdrought water table rise. Water table depth regulated the temperature sensitivity of methane fluxes, and this sensitivity was greatest when the water table was within 100 mm of the surface, corresponding to the shallow rooting zone of the dominant vegetation. A correlation between daytime CO2 uptake and methane fluxes emerged during times with shallow water tables, suggesting that controls on methane production were critical in determining fluxes, more so than oxidation. Water table recession through this shallow zone led to increasing methane fluxes, whereas changes in temperature during these periods were not correlated. Models of methane fluxes should consider drought-induced lags in seasonal flux recovery that depend on drought characteristics and location of the critical zone for methane production.

  2. Shallow-Water Northern Hemisphere Jaera (Crustacea, Isopoda, Janiridae) Found on Whale Bones in the Southern Ocean Deep Sea: Ecology and Description of Jaera tyleri sp. nov

    PubMed Central

    Linse, Katrin; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Malyutina, Marina V.; Brandt, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    The skeleton of a natural whale fall discovered in the Southern Ocean at 1,445 m was densely covered by one small, janirid isopod. Jaera tyleri sp. nov. is the first of its genus found in the southern hemisphere and in the deep sea and is described herein. Morphological and molecular investigations revealed the systematic position of this species new to science. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S locus confirms that this species falls in a strongly supported monophyletic clade of Jaera species. The whale bone habitat of J. tyleri sp. nov. is quite different from those of other species of the genus Jaera. The analysis of bathymetric and distribution patterns of the Janiridae in general and Jaera specifically confirm the unusualness of the habitat for this isopod species. The abundance of J. tyleri sp. nov. on the whale bones and its absence from other nearby habitats suggests it to be a whale-fall specialist. The analysis of the size-frequency distributions of J. tyleri sp. nov. suggests multimodal population structure with continuous breeding activity throughout the year. The fecundity of the species is low but in line with reduced fecundity observed in polar and small-sized isopods. PMID:24663246

  3. Trends in Southern Hemisphere Albedo using a 27-yr Composite TOMS/SBUV(/2)/OMI Dataset of UV Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Moorthi, S.; Pan, H.; Kumar, A.

    2005-05-01

    This study uses eight NASA and NOAA satellite datasets of ultraviolet Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER): Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Nimbus 7 Solar Backscatter UltraViolet (SBUV), NOAA-11, -14, -16 and -17 SBUV/2, Earth Probe TOMS and Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The principal data product presented here is monthly mean LER, zonally averaged over 5-degree latitude bands over the period 1978-2005. All datasets have been processed with the common TOMS/SBUV/OMI version 8 retrieval algorithm, resulting in a 27-yr composite dataset of reflectivity (albedo) with a reliable, geophysically validated, long-term calibration. Linear trends in zonal monthly mean LER are calculated over the entire 27-year period using a standard least squares fit method. A significant increase in LER is found for the Southern Hemisphere, increasing linearly from the Equator to 60°S. The increase in LER at high Southern latitudes is attributed to an increase in cloud reflectivity. It is further found that the increase in LER is inversely proportional to the GISS Surface Temperature Anomaly trend over the same 27-yr period (R2=0.98 over 10°S-60°S). This statistically significant correlation between LER and surface temperatures has implications for global warming and global dimming studies.

  4. Trends in Southern Hemisphere Albedo using a 27-yr Composite TOMS/SBUV(/2)/OMI Dataset of UV Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    This study uses eight NASA and NOAA satellite datasets of ultraviolet Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER): Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Nimbus 7 Solar Backscatter UltraViolet (SBUV), NOAA-11, -14, -16 and -17 SBUV/2, Earth Probe TOMS and Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The principal data product presented here is monthly mean LER, zonally averaged over 5-degree latitude bands over the period 1978-2005. All datasets have been processed with the common TOMS/SBUV/OMI version 8 retrieval algorithm, resulting in a 27-yr composite dataset of reflectivity (albedo) with a reliable, geophysically validated, long-term calibration. Linear trends in zonal monthly mean LER are calculated over the entire 27-year period using a standard least squares fit method. A significant increase in LER is found for the Southern Hemisphere, increasing linearly from the Equator to 60°S. The increase in LER at high Southern latitudes is attributed to an increase in cloud reflectivity. It is further found that the increase in LER is inversely proportional to the GISS Surface Temperature Anomaly trend over the same 27-yr period (R2=0.98 over 10°S-60°S). This statistically significant correlation between LER and surface temperatures has implications for global warming and global dimming studies.

  5. The 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) Tropical Ozone Climatology. 2; Stratospheric and Tropospheric Ozone Variability and the Zonal Wave-One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, Francoise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This is the second 'reference' or 'archival' paper for the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network and is a follow-on to the recently accepted paper with similar first part of title. The latter paper compared SHADOZ total ozone with satellite and ground-based instruments and showed that the equatorial wave-one in total ozone is in the troposphere. The current paper presents details of the wave-one structure and the first overview of tropospheric ozone variability over the southern Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. The principal new result is that signals of climate effects, convection and offsets between biomass burning seasonality and tropospheric ozone maxima suggest that dynamical factors are perhaps more important than pollution in determining the tropical distribution of tropospheric ozone. The SHADOZ data at () are setting records in website visits and are the first time that the zonal view of tropical ozone structure has been recorded - thanks to the distribution of the 10 sites that make up this validation network.

  6. Airborne measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Novakov, T.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Magi, Brian

    2002-06-17

    Particulate matter collected aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 research aircraft over southern Africa during the dry, biomass burning season was analyzed for total carbon, organic carbon, and black carbon contents using thermal and optical methods. Samples were collected in smoke plumes of burning savanna and in regional haze. A known artifact, produced by the adsorption of organic gases on the quartz filter substrates used to collect the particulate matter samples, comprised a significant portion of the total carbon collected. Consequently, conclusions derived from the data are greatly dependent on whether or not organic carbon concentrations are corrected for this artifact. For example, the estimated aerosol co-albedo (1 - single scattering albedo), which is a measure of aerosol absorption, of the biomass smoke samples is 60 percent larger using corrected organic carbon concentrations. Thus, the corrected data imply that the biomass smoke is 60 percent more absorbing than do the uncorrected data. The black carbon to (corrected) organic carbon mass ratio (BC/OC) of smoke plume samples (0.18/2610.06) is lower than that of samples collected in the regional haze (0.25/2610.08). The difference may be due to mixing of biomass smoke with background air characterized by a higher BC/OC ratio. A simple source apportionment indicates that biomass smoke contributes about three-quarters of the aerosol burden in the regional haze, while other sources (e.g., fossil fuel burning) contribute the remainder.

  7. The relationship between clouds and dynamics in Southern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones in the real world and a climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govekar, Pallavi D.; Jakob, Christian; Catto, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    The representation of clouds over the Southern Ocean in contemporary climate models remains a major challenge. A major dynamical influence on the structure of clouds is the passage of extratropical cyclones. They exert significant dynamical influences on the clouds in the dynamically active frontal regions as well as in the dynamically suppressed regions ahead and behind the cyclones. A cyclone compositing methodology is applied to a reanalysis and vertical profiles of cloudiness from CloudSat/CALIPSO to quantify the relationship between clouds and dynamics in extratropical cyclones over the Southern Ocean. It is found that the range of cloud fraction, vertical motion, and relative humidity changes considerably with height. There is a strong quasi-linear relationship between the three variables which changes with altitude. After establishing the observed relationships, the methodology is applied to the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator to evaluate the model's ability to simulate the identified cloud-dynamics relationships. While the model is able to qualitatively reproduce the overall cloud structure, the circulation around the cyclone is generally too weak. As a result, the model fails to represent the observed cloud to dynamics relationship. This wrong relationship in the model leads to a misrepresentation of the cloud field manifested as either an error in the cloud fraction or as simulating the "right" clouds for the "wrong" reason. The result underscores the importance of relationship-oriented model evaluation techniques over simple right or wrong assessments.

  8. Airborne synthetic aperture radar observations of “spiral eddy” slick patterns in the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmorino, George O.; Holt, Benjamin; Molemaker, M. Jeroen; Digiacomo, Paul M.; Sletten, Mark A.

    2010-05-01

    Repeat sampling on hourly time scales using an airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is used to investigate the occurrence and evolving characteristics of spiral-shaped slick patterns, commonly presumed to be indicators of submesoscale ocean eddies, in the area around Santa Catalina Island, California (˜33.4°N, 118.4°W). Simultaneous SAR imagery and boat survey data are examined over two ˜5 h long periods spaced 3 days apart in April 2003. The SAR imagery reveals several spiral-like patterns, roughly 5 km in diameter, occurring downstream of the western end of Catalina. We believe that the most likely formation mechanism for these patterns is current-wake instability related to the flow of the Southern California Countercurrent along the north shore of Catalina. In one case, there is an observed cold-core eddy and vortex sheet attached to the tip of the island, similar to island-wake simulations done by Dong and McWilliams (2007). In another case, the SAR imagery shows a series of slick patterns that, at least initially, resemble spiral eddies, but the data show no clear evidence of actual ocean eddies being present either at depth or through a rotating surface expression. A speculation is that such features signify island-wake eddies that are relatively weak and dissipate quickly. An unexpected finding was how quickly a spiral slick pattern could deteriorate, suggesting a time scale for the surface feature of the order of only several hours. An implication of this result is that care is needed when interpreting a single satellite SAR imagery for evidence of active submesoscale eddies. Recommendations are made for future field studies.

  9. Physical sense of massive development of low density minerals on the highly standing southern hemisphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    Rotating celestial bodies are built with variously uplifted tectonic blocks of various sizes. The largest blocks are two hemispheres or two antipodean segments: one uplifted and the opposite subsided (a consequence of the wave structurization [1& others]). Having differing planetary radii and same angular velocities of rotation, these blocks must equilibrate their angular momenta by differing densities of infilling them materials (otherwise, a body will be destroyed like a not balanced car weal). For the terrestrial inner rock planets the nature normally uses dense basalts for infilling lowlands and lighter lithologies for building highlands. As relief ranges increase from Mercury to asteroids, density ranges between lowlands and highlands must also increase. Thus, in Venus it could be estimated as ~0.1 g/cm3 (lowlands -Mg-basalt, highlands -alkali basalt), in Earth as ~0.25 (tholeiite - andesite), in Mars as ~ 0.45 (Fe-basalt - syenite, granite) [2-4 & others]. Further outwards, in the asteroid belt there are representatives of very dense lithologies (irons, iron-stones) and very light lithologies (carbonaceous material). Further inwards, in Mercury with its very low relief range prevail low Fe (?)- volcanics. Low density lithologies of martian highlands include already detected by various methods alkaline and subalkaline rocks (Columbia Hills) , dacites (THEMIS data), hydrosilicates and salts (Meridiani Planum and elsewhere). It seems that salts, judging by high contents in rocks S, Cl, Br, not only serve as very abundant cement for eolian sands but also impregnate magmatic and metasomatic highland rocks diminishing their density. The giant very high Martian volcanoes are poor in Fe but not very rich in Si (Gamma-ray orbital spectrometry), as one might expect. A reasonable explanation for this discrepancy is in a high share of salts in composition of their volcanics. yNumerous areas (from 1 to 25 square km) are detected on the highlands with spectral signatures

  10. A surprise southern hemisphere meteor shower on New-Year's Eve 2015: the Volantids (IAU#758, VOL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Baggaley, J.; Crumpton, I.; Aldous, P.; Gural, P. S.; Samuels, D.; Albers, J.; Soja, R.

    2016-04-01

    A new 32-camera CAMS network in New Zealand, spread over two stations on South Island, has detected a high southern declination shower that was active on New Year's Eve, 2015 December 31. During the observing interval from 09h12m - 15h45m UT, 21 out of 59 detected meteors radiated from the constellation of Volans, the flying fish, with a geocentric radiant at RA = 122.9 deg +- 4.7 deg, Dec = -71.9 deg +- 1.9 deg, and speed V_g = 28.4 +- 1.5 km/s. The new year arrived in New Zealand at 11h00m UT. Two more were detected the next night. No activity from this shower was observed the year prior. The meteoroids move in a 48 deg-inclined Jupiter-family comet orbit. The parent body has not yet been identified.

  11. Optical Spectroscopic Observations of γ-Ray Blazar Candidates. III. The 2013/2014 Campaign in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landoni, M.; Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; D'Abrusco, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Masetti, N.; Smith, H. A.; Tosti, G.; Chomiuk, L.; Strader, J.; Cheung, C. C.

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of our exploratory program carried out with the southern Astrophysical Research telescope aimed at associating counterparts and establishing the nature of the Fermi Unidentified γ-ray Sources (UGSs). We selected the optical counterparts of six UGSs from the Fermi catalog on the basis of our recently discovered tight connection between infrared and γ-ray emission found for the γ-ray blazars detected by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer in its all-sky survey. We perform for the first time a spectroscopic study of the low-energy counterparts of the Fermi UGSs, in the optical band, confirming the blazar-like nature of the whole sample. We also present new spectroscopic observations of six active galaxies of uncertain type associated with Fermi sources which appear to be BL Lac objects. Finally, we report the spectra collected for six known γ-ray blazars belonging to the Roma BZCAT that were obtained to establish their nature or better estimate their redshifts. Two interesting cases of high redshift and extremely luminous BL Lac objects (z ≥ 1.18 and z ≥ 1.02, based on the detection of Mg ii intervening systems) are also discussed. Based on observations obtained at the southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  12. A radio/optical reference frame. 5: Additional source positions in the mid-latitude southern hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. L.; Reynolds, J. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; De Vegt, C.; Zacharias, N.; Ma, C.; Fey, A. L.; Johnston, K. J.; Hindsley, R.; Hughes, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We report new accurate radio position measurements for 30 sources, preliminary positions for two sources, improved radio postions for nine additional sources which had limited previous observations, and optical positions and optical-radio differences for six of the radio sources. The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are part of the continuing effort to establish a global radio reference frame of about 400 compact, flat spectrum sources, which are evenly distributed across the sky. The observations were made using Mark III data format in four separate sessions in 1988-89 with radio telescopes at Tidbinbilla, Australia, Kauai, USA, and Kashima, Japan. We observed a total of 54 sources, including ten calibrators and three which were undetected. The 32 new source positions bring the total number in the radio reference frame catalog to 319 (172 northern and 147 southern) and fill in the zone -25 deg greater than delta greater than -45 deg which, prior to this list, had the lowest source density. The VLBI positions have an average formal precision of less than 1 mas, although unknown radio structure effects of about 1-2 mas may be present. The six new optical postion measurements are part of the program to obtain positions of the optical counterparts of the radio reference frame source and to map accurately the optical on to the radio reference frames. The optical measurements were obtained from United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Black Birch astrograph plates and source plates from the AAT, and Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) 4 m, and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Schmidt. The optical positions have an average precision of 0.07 sec, mostly due to the zero point error when adjusted to the FK5 optical frame using the IRS catalog. To date we have measured optical positions for 46 sources.

  13. Latitudinal distributions of atmospheric MSA and MSA/nss-SO42- ratios in summer over the high latitude regions of the Southern and Northern Hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liqi; Wang, Jianjun; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Guojie; Yang, Xulin; Lin, Qi; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2012-05-01

    To characterize the spatial distributions of methane-sulfonic acid (MSA) as represented by measured aerosol methane sulfonate (MS) and its relationships with non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate (SO42-) in the marine atmospheric boundary layer over high-latitude regions, bulk aerosol samples were collected during eight cruises during the Chinese National Antarctic and Arctic Research Expeditions from 1998 to 2008. The concentrations of MSA (an indicator of marine biogenic sulfur production), sulfate, sodium and chloride in samples were analyzed using ion chromatography. Increases in the aerosol MSA concentrations and MSA/nss-SO42- ratios were observed as functions of latitudes in the Pacific Ocean, more abruptly near high southern latitudes as compared to those in high northern latitudes. The MSA concentrations increased from 0.011 μg m-3 near the equator to 0.26 μg m-3 at 63°S, 23°W and from 0.0013 μg m-3 at northern midlatitudes to 0.19 μg m-3 at 58°N, 175°E. However, MSA decreased in the latitudes north of 58°N in the Pacific, where air temperature was lower. MSA/nss-SO42- ratios increased from 0.024 near the equator to 0.93 at 62°S, 4°E and from 0.0031 around northern midlatitudes to 0.39 at 68°N, 169°W. The MSA concentrations were more correlated with MSA/nss-SO42- (R2 = 0.43, n = 60) in Southern Hemisphere than Northern Hemisphere (R2 = 0.091, n = 40). No significant correlation was found between MSA/nss-SO42- and air temperature at high latitudes, indicating latitudinal temperature variations were not a main factor responsible for the MSA/nss-SO42- variation in those regions. Substantial increases in the concentrations of MSA in coastal Antarctica may indicate additional sources of biogenic S besides the emissions of dimethylsulfide from the sea.

  14. Vegetation and climate in Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes since 210 ka: new insights from marine and terrestrial pollen records from New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, M. T.; Dunbar, G. B.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Neil, H. L.; Hannah, M. J.; Newnham, R. M.; Bostock, H.; Alloway, B. V.

    2012-08-01

    Paleo-vegetation records developed from marine sedimentary sequences offer considerable potential for examining changes in terrestrial climate beyond the range of 14C dating because they can be independently dated by δ18O stratigraphy. Here we present the first pollen record of vegetation from a marine core site in the Tasman Sea, TAN0513-14 (42°18'S, 169°53'E), ˜110 km west of New Zealand's South Island. An independent chronology provided by correlating the Globigerina bulloides δ18O record at TAN0513-14 to a global isotope stack shows that the record extends back to 210 ka. Glacial to interglacial changes in palynomorph content are characterised by shrub and podocarp-broadleaf forest taxa respectively and are correlated with similar changes in the ca 150 kyr-long terrestrial pollen record from Okarito Pakihi (bog), 110 km to the south southeast. Both records are placed on the same timescale by matching variations in Dacrydium cupressinum and Fuscospora between sites, with a unique tie point provided by the ca 25.4 ka Kawakawa Tephra. Our Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude vegetation records show forest extent is greatest during periods of low ice volume, high mean annual sea surface temperature (MASST) and anti-phased with local insolation intensity. However, there are several features not attributable to changes in mean annual temperature. First, a fundamental change in forest composition occurred at Termination II (TII), with a loss of southern beech (Nothofagus) from the study area. Second, the amplitude of MASST change through MIS 5 is not reflected in corresponding changes in forest extent, suggesting other feature(s) of regional climate (seasonality, frostiness, ice cover) exert important controls over vegetation patterns at these latitudes.

  15. Gravity and Rossby Wave Signatures in the Tropical Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere Based on Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ), 1998-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Allen, Amber L.; Lee, Sukyoung; Miller, Sonya K.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior investigations attempted to determine the relative influence of advection and convective processes on ozone and water vapor distributions in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) through analyses of tracers, related physical parameters (e.g., outgoing long-wave radiation, precipitable water, and temperature), or with models. In this study, stable laminae in Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesonde Network (SHADOZ) ozone profIles from 1998 to 2007 are interpreted in terms of gravity waves (GW) or Rossby waves (RW) that are identified with vertical and quasi-horizontal displacements, respectively. Using the method of Pierce and Grant (1998) as applied by Thompson et al. (2007a, 2007b, 2010, 2011), amplitudes and frequencies in ozone laminae are compared among representative SHADOZ sites over Africa and the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans. GW signals maximize in the TTL and lower stratosphere. Depending on site and season, GW are identified in up to 90% of the soundings. GW are most prevalent over the Pacific and eastern Indian oceans, a distribution consistent with vertically propagating equatorial Kelvin waves. Ozone laminae from RW occur more often below the tropical tropopause and with lower frequency 20%). Gravity wave and Rossby wave indices (GWI, RWI) are formulated to facilitate analysis of interannual variability of wave signatures among sites. GWI is positively correlated with a standard ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) index over American Samoa (14degS, 171degW) and negatively correlated at Watukosek, Java (7.5degS, 114degE), Kuala Lumpur (3degN, 102degE), and Ascension Island (80degS, 15degW). Generally, the responses of GW and RW to ENSO are consistent with prior studies.

  16. The Search for Eight Glacial Cycles of Deep-Water Temperatures and Global ice Volume From the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, P.; Elderfield, H.; Greaves, M.; McCave, N.

    2007-12-01

    It has been recently suggested "a substantial portion of the marine 100-ky cycle that has been object of so much attention over the past quarter of a century is, in reality, a deep-water temperature signal and not an ice volume signal" (Shackleton, 2000). There are currently few records available of deep-water temperature variations during the Pleistocene and most of our understanding is inferred from the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of benthic foraminifera from deep-sea sediments. However, variations in benthic δ18O reflect some combination of local to regional changes in water mass properties (largely deep- water temperature) as well as global changes in seawater δ18O (δ18Osw) resulting from the growth and decay of continental ice. Recent studies suggest that benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca may be useful in reconstructing deep-water temperature changes, but the application of this method to benthic species has been hampered by a number of unresolved issues, such as uncertainties related to the calibration for benthic Mg at the coldest temperatures. Here we present deep-sea Mg/Ca and δ18O records for the past eight glacial cycles in benthic foraminiferal ( Uvigerina spp.) calcite from a marine sediment core recovered in the mid Southern latitudes. Ocean Drilling Program Site 1123 was retrieved from Chatham Rise, east of New Zealand in the Southwest Pacific Ocean (3290 m water depth). This site lies under the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) that flows into the Pacific Ocean, and is responsible for most of the deep water in that ocean; DWBC strength is directly related to processes occurring around Antarctica. Temperatures derived via pore fluid modeling of the last glacial maximum are available from Site 1123 and represent an important tool to constrain deep-water temperatures estimates using Mg/Ca. In selected time slices, we measured B/Ca ratios in Uvigerina in order to gain information on the deep-water carbonate saturation state and have data of Mg

  17. An 'ameridelphian' marsupial from the early Eocene of Australia supports a complex model of Southern Hemisphere marsupial biogeography.

    PubMed

    Beck, Robin M D

    2012-09-01

    Recent molecular data strongly support the monophyly of all extant Australian and New Guinean marsupials (Eomarsupialia) to the exclusion of extant South American marsupials. This, together with available geological and fossil evidence, has been used to argue that the presence of marsupials in Australia is simply the result of a single dispersal event from South America during the latest Cretaceous or Palaeocene, without subsequent dispersals between the two continents. Here, I describe an isolated ankle bone (calcaneus) of a metatherian from the early Eocene Tingamarra Local Fauna in northeastern Australia. Strikingly, this specimen, QM F30060, lacks the 'continuous lower ankle joint pattern' (CLAJP), presence of which is a highly distinctive apomorphy of the marsupial clade Australidelphia, which includes Eomarsupialia, the living South American microbiotherian Dromiciops and the Tingamarran fossil marsupial Djarthia. Comparisons with a range of marsupials and stem-metatherians strongly suggest that the absence of the CLAJP in QM F30060 is plesiomorphic, and that this specimen represents the first unequivocal non-australidelphian ('ameridelphian') metatherian known from Australia. This interpretation is confirmed by phylogenetic analyses that place QM F30060 within (crown-group) Marsupialia, but outside Australidelphia. Based on these results, the distribution of marsupials within Gondwana cannot be explained by simply a single dispersal event from South America and Australia. Either there were multiple dispersals by marsupials (and possibly also stem-metatherians) between South America and Australia, in one or both directions, or, alternatively, there was a broadly similar metatherian fauna stretching across southern South America, Antarctica and Australia during the Late Cretaceous-early Palaeogene.

  18. An `ameridelphian' marsupial from the early Eocene of Australia supports a complex model of Southern Hemisphere marsupial biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Robin M. D.

    2012-09-01

    Recent molecular data strongly support the monophyly of all extant Australian and New Guinean marsupials (Eomarsupialia) to the exclusion of extant South American marsupials. This, together with available geological and fossil evidence, has been used to argue that the presence of marsupials in Australia is simply the result of a single dispersal event from South America during the latest Cretaceous or Palaeocene, without subsequent dispersals between the two continents. Here, I describe an isolated ankle bone (calcaneus) of a metatherian from the early Eocene Tingamarra Local Fauna in northeastern Australia. Strikingly, this specimen, QM F30060, lacks the `continuous lower ankle joint pattern' (CLAJP), presence of which is a highly distinctive apomorphy of the marsupial clade Australidelphia, which includes Eomarsupialia, the living South American microbiotherian Dromiciops and the Tingamarran fossil marsupial Djarthia. Comparisons with a range of marsupials and stem-metatherians strongly suggest that the absence of the CLAJP in QM F30060 is plesiomorphic, and that this specimen represents the first unequivocal non-australidelphian (`ameridelphian') metatherian known from Australia. This interpretation is confirmed by phylogenetic analyses that place QM F30060 within (crown-group) Marsupialia, but outside Australidelphia. Based on these results, the distribution of marsupials within Gondwana cannot be explained by simply a single dispersal event from South America and Australia. Either there were multiple dispersals by marsupials (and possibly also stem-metatherians) between South America and Australia, in one or both directions, or, alternatively, there was a broadly similar metatherian fauna stretching across southern South America, Antarctica and Australia during the Late Cretaceous-early Palaeogene.

  19. Borrelia chilensis, a new member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex that extends the range of this genospecies in the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Larisa B.; Tomova, Alexandra; González-Acuña, Daniel; Murúa, Roberto; Moreno, Claudia X.; Hernández, Claudio; Cabello, Javier; Cabello, Carlos; Daniels, Thomas J.; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks, is the causative agent of Lyme disease. Although Ixodes spp. ticks are distributed in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres, evidence for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in South America apart from Uruguay is lacking. We now report the presence of culturable spirochetes with flat-wave morphology and borrelial DNA in endemic Ixodes stilesi ticks collected in Chile from environmental vegetation and long-tailed rice rats (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Cultured spirochetes and borrelial DNA in ticks were characterized by multilocus sequence typing and by sequencing five other loci (16S and 23S ribosomal genes, 5S-23S intergenic spacer, flaB, ospC). Phylogenetic analysis placed this spirochete as a new genospecies within the Lyme borreliosis group. Its plasmid profile determined by PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis differed from that of B. burgdorferi B31A3. We propose naming this new South American member of the Lyme borreliosis group Borrelia chilensis VA1, in honor of its country of origin. PMID:24148079

  20. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere from the 1998 - 200 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A.; Witte, J.; Oltmans, S.; Coetzee, G.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.

    The first view of lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric structure from sondes is provided by a 3 year, 10-site record from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional- OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: . Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Crist"bal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the UT/LS (upper troposphere-lower stratosphere) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week- to- week and seasonal basis. The tropopause is lower in September-October-November than in March-April- May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern (referring to ozone mixing ratios greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean), persists all year. The wave, predominantly in the troposphere and with variable magnitude, appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection - most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  1. Interannual variability of the 4-day wave and isentropic mixing inside the polar vortex in midwinter of the Southern Hemisphere upper stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuta, Ryo; Yoden, Shigeo

    2002-12-01

    Interannual variations of the flow field and large-scale horizontal transport and mixing inside the wintertime polar vortex of the Southern Hemisphere upper stratosphere are investigated using isentropic winds obtained from the U.K. Met Office assimilated data for nine years of 1992-2000. We focused on the midwinter, July, when the polar vortex is not much distorted, although an eastward propagating wave called the 4-day wave is observed in some years in the polar region. Finite-time Lyapunov exponents are computed, and contour advections are done to examine stirring and mixing in the polar region. When the 4-day wave has a large amplitude, effective mixing through a stretching and folding process is seen inside the polar vortex. Finite-time Lyapunov exponents are sometimes as large as the midlatitudes, and the material contours of small areas grow exponentially in time on the poleward side of 70°S. Such mixing properties are not uniform inside the vortex. When the wave is not clearly seen, on the other hand, wind fields are close to a solid body rotation around the pole, and mixing is very small; Lyapunov exponents are small, and the material contours grow linearly in time by the stretching due to the meridional shear of the polar night jet. Such interannual variability of the strength of the mixing is correlated with the variability of the perturbation amplitude of potential vorticity in the polar region.

  2. Modelling of the outburst on July 29th , 2015 observed with OSIRIS in the southern hemisphere of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gicquel, Adeline; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Sierks, Holger; Rose, Martin; Agarwal, Jessica; Deller, Jakob; Guettler, Carsten; Hoefner, Sebastian; Hofmann, Marc; Hu, Xuanyu; Kovacs, Gabor; Oklay Vincent, Nilda; Shi, Xian; Tubiana, Cecilia; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Phylippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; OSIRIS Team

    2016-10-01

    Images of the nucleus and the coma (gas and dust) of comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko have been acquired by the OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) cameras system since March 2014 using both the wide angle camera (WAC) and the narrow angle camera (NAC). We are using the NAC camera to study the bright outburst observed on July 29th, 2015 in the southern hemisphere. The NAC camera's wavelength ranges between 250-1000 nm with a combination of 12 filters. The high spatial resolution is needed to localize the source point of the outburst on the surface of the nucleus. At the time of the observations, the heliocentric distance was 1.25AU and the distance between the spacecraft and the comet was 126 km. We aim to understand the physics leading to such outgassing: Is the jet associated to the outbursts controlled by the micro-topography? Or by ice suddenly exposed? We are using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to study the gas flow close to the nucleus. The goal of the DSMC code is to reproduce the opening angle of the jet, and constrain the outgassing ratio between outburst source and local region. The results of this model will be compared to the images obtained with the NAC camera.

  3. Genomic insights into the carbohydrate catabolism of Cairneyella variabilis gen. nov. sp. nov., the first reports from a genome of an ericoid mycorrhizal fungus from the southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Midgley, David J; Rosewarne, Carly P; Greenfield, Paul; Li, Dongmei; Vockler, Cassandra J; Hitchcock, Catherine J; Sawyer, Nicole A; Brett, Robyn; Edwards, Jacqueline; Pitt, John I; Tran-Dinh, Nai

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a novel species of ericoid mycorrhizal fungus from Australia, Cairneyella variabilis, Midgley and Tran-Dinh, gen. nov. sp. nov. The genome of C. variabilis was sequenced and a draft genome assembled. The draft genome of C. variabilis is 52.4 Mbp in length, and to our knowledge, this is the first study to present a genome of an ericoid mycorrhizal fungus from the southern hemisphere. Using the SignalP and dbCAN bioinformatic pipelines, a study of the catabolic potential of C. variabilis was undertaken and showed genes for an array of degradative enzymes, most of which appear to be secreted from the hyphae, to access a suite of different carbon sources. Isolates of C. variabilis have been previously shown to utilise cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), cellobiose, xylan, pectin, starch and tannic acid for growth, and in the current study, putative enzymes for these processes were revealed. These enzymes likely play key roles in nutrient cycling and other edaphic processes in heathland environments. ITS phylogenetic analyses showed C. variabilis to be distinct from the fungi of the "Hymenoscyphus ericae aggregate".

  4. Variability in Ozone in the Tropical Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere from the 1998-2000 SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; McPeters, R. D.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Posny, F.; Kawakami, S.; Ogawa, T.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first view of lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric structure from sondes is provided by a 3-year, 10-site record from the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network: . Observations covering 1998-2000 were made over Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Taking the UT/LS (upper troposphere- lower stratosphere) as the region between 12 and 17 km, we examine ozone variability in this region on a week-to-week and seasonal basis. The tropopause is lower in September-October-November than in March-April-May, when ozone is a minimum at most SHADOZ stations. A zonal wave-one pattern (referring to ozone mixing ratios greater over the Atlantic and adjacent continents than over the Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean), persists all year. The wave, predominantly in the troposphere and with variable magnitude, appears to be due to general circulation - with subsidence over the Atlantic and frequent deep convection over the Pacific and Indian Ocean. The variability of deep convection most prominent at Java, Fiji, Samoa and Natal - is explored in time-vs-altitude ozone curtains. Stratospheric incursions into the troposphere are most prominent in soundings at Irene and Reunion Island.

  5. Changes in meridional fluxes and water properties in the Southern Hemisphere subtropical oceans between 1992/1995 and 2003/2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, K.; Fukasawa, M.

    2011-04-01

    As part of the WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment) Hydrographic Programme (WHP), nominally zonal lines across the subtropical gyres in the Southern Hemisphere oceans were occupied from 1992 to 1995: line P06 (nominally along 32.5°S in the Pacific Ocean), A10 (along 30°S in the Atlantic Ocean), and I03 and I04 (along 20°S in the Indian Ocean). These lines were revisited from 2003 to 2004 to examine changes in circulation and water properties over the 8- to 12-year interval between visits. A simple comparison of the two hydrographic sections would be affected by variations with time scales shorter than the interval between visits even in the deep ocean, so two ocean global circulation models, OFES and SODA, were employed to study meridional flux changes. A time series of the heat flux across the latitude circle 32.5°S from 1980 to 2005 shows moderate negative correlations (with the correlation coefficient r = -0.5 to -0.6) with the Southern Oscillation Index. A composite study shows that during El Niño years, the westerly jet just south of 32.5°S in the Pacific shifts northward, resulting in a northward Ekman temperature transport anomaly, and thus weaker southward temperature transport. The transport variations also show moderate negative correlations ( r = -0.4 to -0.6) with the Southern Annular Mode Index. A similar composite study shows that during positive Southern Annular Mode Index years, the Ekman pumping anomaly around 32.5°S spins down the wind-driven gyre over the South Indian and South Pacific oceans, causing a southward transport anomaly. The Atlantic transport is not sensitive to either index. An Ekman transport anomaly in the South Indian Ocean also contributes to the southward transport anomaly. The salt transports are correlated negatively with the Southern Oscillation Index which is similarly explained by the Ekman transport, but the relationship between the salt transport and the Southern Annular Mode Index remains unknown. The

  6. Historical and projected changes in the Southern Hemisphere Sub-tropical Jet during winter from the CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenoli, Sheeba Nettukandy; Ahmad Mazuki, Muhammad Yunus; Turner, John; Samah, Azizan Abu

    2017-01-01

    We present projected changes in the speed and meridional location of the Subtropical Jet (STJ) during winter using output of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. We use the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset to evaluate the historical simulations of the STJ by 18 of the CMIP5 models for the period 1979-2012. Based on the climatology of the STJ from ERA-Interim, we selected the area of study as 70°E-290°E and 20°S-40°S, which is over the Indian and Southern Pacific Oceans, and 300-100 hPa to reduce altitude-related bias. An assessment of the ability of the CMIP5 models in simulating ENSO effects on the jet stream were carried out using standardized zonal wind anomalies at 300-100 hPa. Results show that 47 % of the CMIP5 models used in this study were able to simulate ENSO impacts realistically. In addition, it is more difficult for the models to reproduce the observed intensity of ENSO impacts than the patterns. The historical simulations of the CMIP5 models show a wide range of trends in meridional movement and jet strength, with a multi-model mean of 0.04° decade-1 equatorward and 0.42 ms-1 decade-1 respectively. In contrast to the ERA-Interim analysis, 94 % of the CMIP5 models show a strengthening of the jet in the historical runs. Variability of the jet strength is significantly (5 %) linked to the sea surface temperature changes over the eastern tropical Pacific. The CMIP5 model projections with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 were used for analysis of changes of the STJ for the period 2011-2099. Based on the RCP 4.5 (RCP 8.5) scenario the multi-model mean trend of the 18 CMIP5 models project a statistically significant (5 % level) increase in jet strength by the end of the century of 0.29 ms-1 decade-1 (0.60 ms-1 decade-1). Also, the mean meridional location of the jet is projected to shift poleward by 0.006° decade-1 (0.042° decade-1) in 2099 during winter, with the only significant (5 %) trend being

  7. TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF AIRBORNE PESTICIDES IN THE HABITATE OF THE MOUNTAIN YELLOW-LEGGED FROG IN THE SOUTHERN SIERRA NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne agricultural pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a possible cause for recent, dramatic population declines of several amphibian species in remote mountain locations. To determine the temporal variation of pesticide levels in the habit...

  8. S-N secular ocean tide: explanation of observably coastal velocities of increase of a global mean sea level and mean sea levels in northern and southern hemispheres and prediction of erroneous altimetry velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    The phenomenon of contrast secular changes of sea levels in the southern and northern hemispheres, predicted on the basis of geodynamic model about the forced relative oscillations and displacements of the Earth shells, has obtained a theoretical explanation. In northern hemisphere the mean sea level of ocean increases with velocity about 2.45±0.32 mm/yr, and in a southern hemisphere the mean sea level increases with velocity about 0.67±0.30 mm/yr. Theoretical values of velocity of increase of global mean sea level of ocean has been estimated in 1.61±0.36 mm/yr. 1 Introduction. The secular drift of the centre of mass of the Earth in the direction of North Pole with velocity about 12-20 mm/yr has been predicted by author in 1995 [1], [2], and now has confirmed with methods of space geodesy. For example the DORIS data in period 1999-2008 let us to estimate velocity of polar drift in 5.24±0.29 mm/yr [3]. To explain this fundamental planetary phenomenon it is possible only, having admitted, that similar northern drift tests the centre of mass of the liquid core relatively to the centre of mass of viscous-elastic and thermodynamically changeable mantle with velocity about 2-3 cm/yr in present [4]. The polar drift of the Earth core with huge superfluous mass results in slow increase of a gravity in northern hemisphere with a mean velocity about 1.4 ?Gal and to its decrease approximately with the same mean velocity in southern hemisphere [5]. This conclusion-prediction has obtained already a number of confirmations in precision gravimetric observations fulfilled in last decade around the world [6]. Naturally, a drift of the core is accompanied by the global changes (deformations) of all layers of the mantle and the core, by inversion changes of their tension states when in one hemisphere the tension increases and opposite on the contrary - decreases. Also it is possible that thermodynamical mechanism actively works with inversion properties of molting and

  9. Trends and variations in CO, C2H6, and HCN in the Southern Hemisphere point to the declining anthropogenic emissions of CO and C2H6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, G.; Wood, S. W.; Morgenstern, O.; Jones, N. B.; Robinson, J.; Smale, D.

    2012-08-01

    We analyse the carbon monoxide (CO), ethane (C2H6) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) partial columns (from the ground to 12 km) derived from measurements by ground-based solar Fourier Transform Spectroscopy at Lauder, New Zealand (45° S, 170° E), and at Arrival Heights, Antarctica (78° S, 167° E), from 1997 to 2009. Significant negative trends are calculated for all species at both locations, based on the daily-mean observed time series, namely CO (-0.94 ± 0.47% yr-1), C2H6 (-2.37 ± 1.18% yr-1) and HCN (-0.93 ± 0.47% yr-1) at Lauder and CO (-0.92 ± 0.46% yr-1), C2H6 (-2.82 ± 1.37% yr-1) and HCN (-1.41 ± 0.71% yr-1) at Arrival Heights. The uncertainties reflect the 95% confidence limits. However, the magnitudes of the trends are influenced by the anomaly associated with the 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation event at the beginning of the time series reported. We calculate trends for each month from 1997 to 2009 and find negative trends for all months. The largest monthly trends of CO and C2H6 at Lauder, and to a lesser degree at Arrival Heights, occur during austral spring during the Southern Hemisphere tropical and subtropical biomass burning period. For HCN, the largest monthly trends occur in July and August at Lauder and around November at Arrival Heights. The correlations between CO and C2H6 and between CO and HCN at Lauder in September to November, when the biomass burning maximizes, are significantly larger that those in other seasons. A tropospheric chemistry-climate model is used to simulate CO, C2H6, and HCN partial columns for the period of 1997-2009, using interannually varying biomass burning emissions from GFED3 and annually periodic but seasonally varying emissions from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The model-simulated partial columns of these species compare well with the measured partial columns and the model accurately reproduces seasonal cycles of all three species at both locations. However, while the model satisfactorily

  10. Discoveries about Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from Satellite and SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) and a Future Perspective on NASA's Ozone Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne

    2003-01-01

    We have been producing near-real tropical tropospheric ozone ('TTO') data from TOMS since 1997 with Prof. Hudson and students at the University of Maryland. Maps for 1996-2000 for the operational Earth-Probe instrument reside at: . We also have archived 'TTO' data from the Nimbus 7/TOMS satellite (1979-1992). The tropics is a region strongly influenced by natural variability and anthropogenic activity and the satellite data have been used to track biomass burning pollution and to detect interannual variability and climate signals in ozone. We look forward to future ozone sensors from NASA; four will be launched in 2004 as part of the EOS AURA Mission. The satellite view of chemical-dynamical interactions in tropospheric ozone is not adequate to capture vertical variability. Thus, in 1998, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) and a team of international sponsors established the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) project to address the gap in tropical ozone soundings. SHADOZ augments launches at selected sites and provides a public archive of ozonesonde data from twelve tropical and subtropical stations at http://croc.nsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. The stations are: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; R,union Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil, Malindi, Kenya; Paramaribo, Surinam. From the first 3-4 years of data (presently greater than 1700 sondes), the following features emerge: (a) highly variable tropospheric ozone; (b) a zonal wave-one pattern in tropospheric column ozone; (c) tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays strong convective signatures.

  11. Southern hemisphere all-sky imaging investigations into the latitude extent of the 6300 Å emission feature associated with the midnight temperature maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colerico, M. J.; Mendillo, M.

    2001-05-01

    An all-sky imaging system has been in operation in Arequipa, Peru, (16.2\\symbol{23}S, 71.35\\symbol{23}W) from October 1993 - October 2000 conducting routine observations of 6300 Å airglow emissions. Using this imaging system, Colerico et al. [1996] reported on the persistent occurrence of an enhanced 6300 Å emission feature with an apparent north-south propagation through the field of view past 24\\symbol{23}S near local midnight. This enhanced airglow feature was referred to as the midnight brightness wave (MBW). The authors concluded that MBW was the airglow signature of the thermospheric midnight temperature maximum (MTM), a highly variable, large scale neutral temperature anomaly which occurs at low latitudes. The MTM is accompanied by a pressure increase and a signature reversal/abatement in the meridional winds from equatorward to poleward. Poleward winds serve to move plasma down magnetic field lines to altitudes where it can dissociatively recombine and produce 6300 Å emissions. Additional imaging systems in operation south of Arequipa in Tucuman, Argentina, (26.5\\symbol{23}S, 65.15\\symbol{23}W) and El Leoncito, Argentina, (31.8\\symbol{23}S, 69.0\\symbol{23}W) extend the latitude range over which MBW events can be observed to 39\\symbol{23}S. In this paper, we use the combined latitude range of the three imaging systems to investigate the latitudinal extent of the MTM's influence on upper atmospheric parameters. Observations of MBW propagation past 39\\symbol{23}S suggest that the MTM's influence may be felt at mid-latitudes in the southern hemisphere.

  12. A three-dimensional analysis on the role of atmospheric waves in the climatology and interannual variability of stratospheric final warming in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Soichiro; Kohma, Masashi; Sato, Kaoru

    2016-07-01

    Stratospheric final warming (SFW) in the Southern Hemisphere is examined in terms of their interannual variability and climatology using reanalysis data from January 1979 to March 2014. First, it is shown from a two-dimensional transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) analysis that a time-integrated vertical component of Eliassen-Palm flux during the spring is significantly related with SFW date. To clarify the role of residual mean flow in the interannual variability of the SFW date, SFWs are categorized into early and late groups according to the SFW date and their differences are examined. Significant difference in potential temperature tendency is observed in the middle and lower stratosphere in early October. Their structure in the meridional cross section accords well with that of vertical potential temperature advection by the residual mean flow. Difference in heating rate by shortwave radiation is minor. These results suggest that the adiabatic heating associated with the residual mean flow largely affects polar stratospheric temperature during austral spring and SFW date. The analysis is extended to investigate the longitudinal structure by using a three-dimensional (3-D) TEM theory. The significant difference in potential temperature tendency is mainly observed around the Weddell Sea at 10 hPa. Next, climatological 3-D structure of a vertical component of the residual mean flow in association with SFW is examined in terms of the effect on the troposphere. The results suggest that a downward residual mean flow from the stratosphere penetrates into underlying troposphere over East Antarctica and partly influences tropospheric temperature there.

  13. Sources and pathways of the upscale effects on the Southern Hemisphere jet in MPAS-CAM4 variable-resolution simulations: UPSCALE EFFECTS IN MPAS-CAM4

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Koichi; Lu, Jian; Leung, L. Ruby; Zhao, Chun; Li, Yanjie; Hagos, Samson

    2016-11-11

    Impacts of regional grid refinement on large-scale circulations ("upscale effects") were detected in a previous study that used the Model for Prediction Across Scales ¬– Atmosphere coupled to the physics parameterizations of the Community Atmosphere Model version 4. The strongest upscale effect was identified in the Southern Hemisphere jet during austral winter. This study examines the detailed underlying processes by comparing two simulations at quasi-uniform resolutions (30 and 120 km) to three variable-resolution simulations in which the horizontal grids are regionally refined to 30 km in North America, South America, or Asia from 120 km elsewhere. In all the variable-resolution simulations, precipitation increases in convective areas inside the high-resolution domains, as in the reference quasi-uniform high-resolution simulation. With grid refinement encompassing the tropical Americas, the increased condensational heating expands the local divergent circulations (Hadley cell) meridionally such that their descending branch is shifted poleward, which also pushes the baroclinically unstable regions, momentum flux convergence, and the eddy-driven jet poleward. This teleconnection pathway is not found in the reference high-resolution simulation due to a strong resolution sensitivity of cloud radiative forcing that dominates the aforementioned teleconnection signals. The regional refinement over Asia enhances Rossby wave sources and strengthens the upper-level southerly flow, both facilitating the cross-equatorial propagation of stationary waves. Evidence indicates that this teleconnection pathway is also found in the reference high-resolution simulation. The result underlines the intricate diagnoses needed to understand the upscale effects in global variable-resolution simulations, with implications for science investigations using the computationally efficient modeling framework.

  14. The Importance of Southern Hemisphere CZOs for Evaluating Spatial Patterns of Chemical Structure in the Critical Zone and Assisting Human Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, O.

    2014-12-01

    The US Critical Zone Exploration Network (CZEN) is a network of sites designed to provide a better understanding of the integrated Earth surface system. The capacity of the critical zone to withstand perturbations, whether driven by climate, land use change, or spread of invasive species, depends on its chemical composition and physical state, which in turn depends on the time evolution of the critical zone. Many temperate and/or tectonically active critical zones contain a relatively short history due to rapid erosion but tectonically quiescent, tropical regions of the planet contain much longer records that need to be understood to cover the full suite of critical zone processes. Southern Hemisphere Critical Zone Observatories such as those proposed for Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa and for portions of the Yilgarn Craton in Western Australa will allow us to extend our temporal understanding of development of spatial heterogeneity in the chemical and physical structure of the critical zone. In addition to considering Earth and climate boundary conditions, these sites incorporate the roles that humans play in driving critical zone processes. For instance along the edges of KNP there is strong evidence of soil erosions due to periurbanization and small-scale agriculture. The existence of KNP provides an important contrast between a "natural" and "human-dominated" landscape that can be exploited to evaluate human impacts on critical zone resources and to develop targeted mitigation strategies. Western Australia has an exploitive economy that relies on large-scale agriculture and mineral extraction, both are intensive users of water which is scarce. The proposed CZO there will be partly focused on managing water under intense economic pressures. It is evident that if funding can be found for these sites they will enhance both critical zone science and practical applied science.

  15. January-february Tropospheric Climate for the Northern Hemisphere and the 11-year Solar Cycle, the QBO and the Southern Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnston, Anthony G.; Livezey, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Examined here is a recently discovered association between the 11-year solar cycle and the atmosphere that is most easily detectable when the two phases of the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO) are considered individually rather than pooled. The influence of the Southern Oscillation (SO) for either of the two QBO phases is then combined with that of the solar cycle in the form of two-predictor multiple regression. The strong and well-defined relationship between the 11-year 10.7 cm solar flux cycle and the lower troposphere Northern Hemisphere January-February climate for QBO phase-stratified samples (van Loon and Labitzke 1988, Barnston and Livezey 1989) failed for the west QBO phase in 1989. Here, the opposing 1989 event is explained, at least in part, on the basis of the phase of the SO (the cold tropical Pacific SST event of 1988 to 1989). It is demonstrated that both the SO and the solar flux have moderate and quasi-independent correlations with the climate over certain regions, and where there is strong overlap they can work either in harmony or in opposition. In 1989 in North America the influences of the SO and the flux conflicted to an unprecedented extent, and the SO was the controlling influence in most regions of the continent (western Canada being one exception). The 1989 event draws attention to the smallness of the QBO phase-stratified samples and the still more serious holes in the two-dimensional sample space of flux and SO when both factors are viewed as predictors within one QBO phase.

  16. Proceedings of the SMBE Tri-National Young Investigators' Workshop 2005. Southern hemisphere springtails: could any have survived glaciation of Antarctica?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Mark I; Greenslade, Penelope; Hogg, Ian D; Sunnucks, Paul

    2006-05-01

    Throughout the Southern Hemisphere many terrestrial taxa have circum-Antarctic distributions. This pattern is generally attributed to ongoing dispersal (by wind, water, or migrating birds) or relict Gondwanan distributions. Few of these terrestrial taxa have extant representatives in Antarctica, but such taxa would contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary origins of the continental Antarctic fauna. Either these taxa have survived the harsh climate cooling in Antarctica over the last 23 Myr (Gondwanan/vicariance origin) or they have dispersed there more recently (<2 MYA). In this context, we examined mtDNA (COI) sequence variation in Cryptopygus and related extant Antarctic and subantarctic terrestrial springtails (Collembola). Sequence divergence was estimated under a maximum likelihood model (general time reversible+I+Gamma) between individuals from subantarctic islands, Australia, New Zealand, Patagonia, Antarctic Peninsula, and continental Antarctica. Recent dispersal/colonization (<2 MYA) of Cryptopygus species was inferred between some subantarctic islands, and there was a close association between estimated times of divergences based on a molecular clock and proposed geological ages of islands. Most lineages generally grouped according to geographic proximity or by inferred dispersal/colonization pathways. In contrast, the deep divergences found for the four endemic Antarctic species indicate that they represent a continuous chain of descent dating from the break up of Gondwana to the present. We suggest that the diversification of these springtail species (21-11 MYA) in ice-free glacial refugia throughout the Trans-Antarctic Mountains was caused by the glaciation of the Antarctic continent during the middle to late Miocene.

  17. A Southern Hemisphere ammonia survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, W. L.; Forster, J. R.; Gardner, F. F.; Whiteoak, J. B.; Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1986-01-01

    A spectral line survey for interstellar NH3 is being carried out using the 64-m telescopes at Parkes and Tidbinbilla. Both telescopes are equipped with K-band maser receivers yielding system temperatures below 100 K. The preliminary survey is being made with the Parkes antenna (beam = 1.35 arcmin), with follow-up mapping of the more interesting sources at Tidbinbilla (beam = 0.9 arcmin). The selected sources have in general been H II regions from the H2CO surveys made at Parkes. Statistical results from initial observations of the (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) lines in the preliminary survey are presented.

  18. Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) is damage ...

  19. Hemispheric Amphigory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngblood, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Reviewing some empirical studies on brain hemisphere functions, the author concludes that though the brain is lateralized for specific tasks, this fact has no necessary bearing on educational methodology. He asserts that we do not yet know enough to label and teach art as a "right brain" activity. (Author/SJL)

  20. Evidence of horizontal and vertical transport of water in the Southern Hemisphere tropical tropopause layer (TTL) from high-resolution balloon observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaykin, Sergey M.; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Riviere, Emmanuel D.; Held, Gerhard; Ploeger, Felix; Ghysels, Melanie; Amarouche, Nadir; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Wienhold, Frank G.; Ionov, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    High-resolution in situ balloon measurements of water vapour, aerosol, methane and temperature in the upper tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and lower stratosphere are used to evaluate the processes affecting the stratospheric water budget: horizontal transport (in-mixing) and hydration by cross-tropopause overshooting updrafts. The obtained in situ evidence of these phenomena are analysed using satellite observations by Aura MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) together with trajectory and transport modelling performed using CLaMS (Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere) and HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model. Balloon soundings were conducted during March 2012 in Bauru, Brazil (22.3° S) in the frame of the TRO-Pico campaign for studying the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget. The balloon payloads included two stratospheric hygrometers: FLASH-B (Fluorescence Lyman-Alpha Stratospheric Hygrometer for Balloon) and Pico-SDLA instrument as well as COBALD (Compact Optical Backscatter Aerosol Detector) sondes, complemented by Vaisala RS92 radiosondes. Water vapour vertical profiles obtained independently by the two stratospheric hygrometers are in excellent agreement, ensuring credibility of the vertical structures observed. A signature of in-mixing is inferred from a series of vertical profiles, showing coincident enhancements in water vapour (of up to 0.5 ppmv) and aerosol at the 425 K (18.5 km) level. Trajectory analysis unambiguously links these features to intrusions from the Southern Hemisphere extratropical stratosphere, containing more water and aerosol, as demonstrated by MLS and CALIPSO global observations. The in-mixing is successfully reproduced by CLaMS simulations, showing a relatively moist filament extending to 20° S. A signature of local cross-tropopause transport of water is observed in a particular

  1. High-resolution Imaging of Transiting Extrasolar Planetary systems (HITEP). I. Lucky imaging observations of 101 systems in the southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. F.; Southworth, J.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Skottfelt, J.; Hundertmark, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Dominik, M.; Alsubai, K. A.; Andersen, M. I.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Gu, S.-H.; Haugbølle, T.; Hinse, T. C.; Juncher, D.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Peixinho, N.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Schmidt, R. W.; Snodgrass, C.; Starkey, D.; Surdej, J.; Tronsgaard, R.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Yi-Bo; Wertz, O.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Wide binaries are a potential pathway for the formation of hot Jupiters. The binary fraction among host stars is an important discriminator between competing formation theories, but has not been well characterised. Additionally, contaminating light from unresolved stars can significantly affect the accuracy of photometric and spectroscopic measurements in studies of transiting exoplanets. Aims: We observed 101 transiting exoplanet host systems in the Southern hemisphere in order to create a homogeneous catalogue of both bound companion stars and contaminating background stars, in an area of the sky where transiting exoplanetary systems have not been systematically searched for stellar companions. We investigate the binary fraction among the host stars in order to test theories for the formation of hot Jupiters. Methods: Lucky imaging observations from the Two Colour Instrument on the Danish 1.54 m telescope at La Silla were used to search for previously unresolved stars at small angular separations. The separations and relative magnitudes of all detected stars were measured. For 12 candidate companions to 10 host stars, previous astrometric measurements were used to evaluate how likely the companions are to be physically associated. Results: We provide measurements of 499 candidate companions within 20 arcsec of our sample of 101 planet host stars. 51 candidates are located within 5 arcsec of a host star, and we provide the first published measurements for 27 of these. Calibrations for the plate scale and colour performance of the Two Colour Instrument are presented. Conclusions: We find that the overall multiplicity rate of the host stars is 38+17-13 %, consistent with the rate among solar-type stars in our sensitivity range, suggesting that planet formation does not preferentially occur in long period binaries compared to a random sample of field stars. Long period stellar companions (P> 10 yr) appear to occur independently of short period companions

  2. Identification and Functional Expression of a Glutamate- and Avermectin-Gated Chloride Channel from Caligus rogercresseyi, a Southern Hemisphere Sea Louse Affecting Farmed Fish

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, María Isabel; Marabolí, Vanessa; González-Nilo, F. Danilo; Teulon, Jacques; Sepúlveda, Francisco V.; Cid, L. Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic sea lice represent a major sanitary threat to marine salmonid aquaculture, an industry accounting for 7% of world fish production. Caligus rogercresseyi is the principal sea louse species infesting farmed salmon and trout in the southern hemisphere. Most effective control of Caligus has been obtained with macrocyclic lactones (MLs) ivermectin and emamectin. These drugs target glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl) and act as irreversible non-competitive agonists causing neuronal inhibition, paralysis and death of the parasite. Here we report the cloning of a full-length CrGluClα receptor from Caligus rogercresseyi. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and electrophysiological assays show that CrGluClα is activated by glutamate and mediates chloride currents blocked by the ligand-gated anion channel inhibitor picrotoxin. Both ivermectin and emamectin activate CrGluClα in the absence of glutamate. The effects are irreversible and occur with an EC50 value of around 200 nM, being cooperative (nH = 2) for ivermectin but not for emamectin. Using the three-dimensional structure of a GluClα from Caenorabditis elegans, the only available for any eukaryotic ligand-gated anion channel, we have constructed a homology model for CrGluClα. Docking and molecular dynamics calculations reveal the way in which ivermectin and emamectin interact with CrGluClα. Both drugs intercalate between transmembrane domains M1 and M3 of neighbouring subunits of a pentameric structure. The structure displays three H-bonds involved in this interaction, but despite similarity in structure only of two these are conserved from the C. elegans crystal binding site. Our data strongly suggest that CrGluClα is an important target for avermectins used in the treatment of sea louse infestation in farmed salmonids and open the way for ascertaining a possible mechanism of increasing resistance to MLs in aquaculture industry. Molecular modeling could help in the design of new, more efficient

  3. Mapping and discriminating the Pan-African granitoids in the Hoggar (southern Algeria) using Landsat 7 ETM+ data and airborne geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerrouk, Siham; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane; Hamoudi, Mohamed; Liégeois, Jean Paul; Boubekri, Hichem; El Khaznadji, Riad Ben

    2017-03-01

    This study presents a multidisciplinary approach to discriminate and map different types and generations of Pan-African granitoids in the Hoggar, southern Algeria, using remote sensing and airborne geophysics in close correlation with previous works and established geological maps. RGB (Red, Green, Blue) combinations of band ratios; principal component analysis (PCA) and image classification for Landsat 7 ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), allow spatial discrimination and mapping of granitoid rocks of the studied area (200*350 km). This area extend over four contrasted Pan-African terranes (In Tedeini, Iskel, Tefedest and Laouni terranes, the two latter belong to the LATEA (Laouni-Azrou-n-Fad-Tefedest-Egéré-Aleksod-Assodé-Issalane) metacraton. The airborne magnetic intensity provides a wide range of responses from high values (youngest granitoids) to low values (volcano-sedimentary and gneissic country-rocks). Radiometric data, displaying radioelements concentration, discriminate efficiently the late alkaline granitoids (high values), the calk-alkaline granitoids (intermediate values) and the Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite series (low values). This study led to the establishment of a more accurate geological map where the geochemical characteristics of the Pan-African granitoids are determined, including plutons not yet studied, especially in the poorly known In Tedeini terrane, and brings new constraints for the geodynamic development of the Tuareg Shield, which includes the Hoggar.

  4. Interhemispheric comparison of atmospheric circulation features as evaluated from Nimbus satellite data. A comparison of the structure and flow characteristics of the upper troposphere and stratosphere of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Ph.D. Thesis. Annual Report, 1 Nov. 1973 - 31 Oct. 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, E. R.; Adler, R.; Fields, A.

    1974-01-01

    The general circulations of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are compared with regard to the upper troposphere and stratosphere, using atmospheric structure obtained from multi-channel radiance data from the satellite infrared spectrometer instrument aboard the Nimbus 3 spacecraft. The inter-hemispheric comparisons are based on two months of data (one summer month and one winter month) in each hemisphere. Topics studied include: (1) mean meridional circulation in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere; (2) magnitude and distribution of tropospheric eddy heat flux; (3) relative importance of standing and transient eddies in the two hemispheres; (4) magnitudes of energy cycle components; and (5) the relation of vortex structure to the breakdown climatology of the Antarctic stratospheric polar vortex.

  5. Water-soluble inorganic ions in airborne particulates from the nano to coarse mode: a case study of aerosol episodes in southern region of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li-Peng; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Kai-Lun; Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-06-01

    In 2004, airborne particulate matter (PM) was collected for several aerosol episodes occurring in the southern region of Taiwan. The particulate samples were taken using both a MOUDI (Micro-orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) and a nano-MOUDI sampler. These particulate samples were analyzed for major water-soluble ionic species with an emphasis to characterize the mass concentrations and distributions of these ions in the ambient ultrafine (PM0.1, diameter <0.1 microm) and nano mode (PMnano, diameter <0.056 microm) particles. Particles collected at the sampling site (the Da-Liao station) on the whole exhibited a typical tri-modal size distribution on mass concentration. The mass concentration ratios of PMnano/PM2.5, PM0.1/PM2.5, and PM1/PM2.5 on average were 1.8, 2.9, and 71.0%, respectively. The peak mass concentration appeared in the submicron particle mode (0.1 microm < diameter <1.0 microm). Mass fractions (percentages) of the three major water-soluble ions (nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium) as a group in PMnano, PM0.1, PM1, and PM2.5 were 18.4, 21.7, 50.0, and 50.7%, respectively. Overall, results from this study supported the notion that secondary aerosols played a significant role in the formation of ambient submicron particulates (PM0.1-1). Particles smaller than 0.1 microm were essentially basic, whereas those greater than 2.5 microm were neutral or slightly acidic. The neutralization ratio (NR) was close to unity for airborne particles with diameters ranging from 0.18 to 1 microm. The NRs of these airborne particles were found strongly correlated with their sizes, at least for samples taken during the aerosol episodes under study. Insofar as this study is exploratory in nature, as only a small number of particulate samples were used, there appears to be a need for further research into the chemical composition, source contribution, and formation of the nano and ultrafine mode airborne particulates.

  6. Evaluation of Terms in the Water Vapor Budget Using Airborne Dial and In Situ Measurements from the Southern Great Plans 1997 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senff, Christoph J.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lenschow, Donald H.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed

    1998-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP97) field experiment was conducted in Oklahoma during June and July 1997 primarily to validate soil moisture retrieval algorithms using microwave radiometer measurements from aircraft as well as in situ surface measurements. One important objective of the SGP97 experiment plan was to examine the effect of soil moisture on the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and clouds over the Southern Great Plains during the warm season. To support boundary layer studies during SGP97. the NASA Langley Research Center's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) was flown on a NASA-P3 aircraft in conjunction with the Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR). The LASE instrument is an airborne, downward-looking differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system capable of measuring water vapor concentration as well as aerosol backscatter with high horizontal and vertical resolution in the ABL. Here, we will demonstrate how the LASE data can be used to determine water vapor statistics and most of the water vapor budget terms in the ABL. This information can then be related to spatial variations in soil moisture and the surface energy budget. The extensive surface and aircraft in situ measurements conducted during SGP97 provide information on the ABL that cannot be retrieved from the LASE data alone and also offer an excellent opportunity to validate the remote water vapor budget measurements with LASE.

  7. Hemispheric sunspot unit area: comparison with hemispheric sunspot number and sunspot area

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K. J.; Xiang, N. B.; Qu, Z. N.; Xie, J. L.

    2014-03-01

    The monthly mean northern and southern hemispheric sunspot numbers (SNs) and sunspot areas (SAs) in the time interval of 1945 January to 2012 December are utilized to construct the monthly northern and southern hemispheric sunspot unit areas (SUAs), which are defined as the ratio of hemispheric SA to SN. Hemispheric SUAs are usually found to rise at the beginning and to fall at the ending time of a solar cycle more rapidly, forming a more irregular cycle profile than hemispheric SNs and SAs, although it also presents Schwabe-cycle-like hemispheric SNs and SAs. Sunspot activity (SN, SA, and SUA) is found asynchronously and is asymmetrically distributed in the northern and southern hemispheres, and hemispheric SNs, SAs, and SUAs are not in phase in the two hemispheres. The similarity of hemispheric SNs and SAs is found to be much more obvious than that of hemispheric SUAs and SNs (or SAs), and also for their north-south asymmetry. A notable feature is found for the behavior of the SUA around the minimum time of cycle 24: the SUA rapidly decreases from the cycle maximum value to the cycle minimum value of sunspot cycles 19-24 within just 22 months.

  8. Interpretation of an airborne geophysical survey in southern Paris Basin: towards a lithological cartography, key tool for the management of shrinking/swelling clay problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prognon, F.; Tourliere, B.; Perrin, J.; Lacquement, F.; Martelet, G.; Deparis, J.; Gourdier, S.; Drufin, S.

    2011-12-01

    Regolith formations support a full spectrum of human activities. Among others, they provide a source of extractable materials and form the substratum of soils. As such, they should be considered as a capital to be managed and protected. Moreover, one of the main challenges for present and future land settlement is to prevent house building programs from being planned inside shrink-swell risky areas which is only possible thanks to an complete lithological mapping of the french regolith. We illustrate here the results of the geological interpretation of an airborne geophysical survey carried out in "Région Centre" administrative region in the southern part of the Paris Basin, in France. Among other techniques, airborne geophysics is appropriate to quickly provide information on near surface, because of i) its high spatial coverage ii) the rapidity of acquisition and iii) the variety of available sensors (magnetic, spectral radiometry, electromagnetic...). Spectral radiometry data were collected with a line spacing of 1 km. This method provides maps of potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th) which are the only naturally occurring elements with direct or indirect radioisotopes that produce gamma rays of sufficient intensity to be measured at airborne survey heights. On the radiometric data we applied the HAC (Hierarchical Ascendant Classification) computation procedure: taking into account several variables, the statistical HAC method groups individuals based on their resemblance. Also in this study, calibrated Total Count channel (TCm) is compared to an estimated dose rate (TCe) computed from the measured radioelement abundances: TCe = 13.078 * K + 5.675 * U + 2.494 * Th. Our results show that the ratio TCe/TCm came out to be a good indicator of ground property changes within Sologne mixed sandy-clay environment. Processed geophysical data are cross-checked with geological data (from field observations) and field or laboratory measurements of mineralogical data

  9. Temporal and spatial variations in bomb-produced radiocarbon along BEAGLE2003 lines—Revisits of WHP P06, A10, and I03/I04 in the Southern Hemisphere Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Murata, Akihiko; Watanabe, Shuichi; Fukasawa, Masao

    2011-04-01

    southern subtropical regions of the South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans. In the Indian Ocean, an increase in the natural 14C as a result of circulation changes also contributed to the apparent decadal increase of the bomb 14C. All of our results suggest that the distribution of bomb 14C in the Southern Hemisphere is governed primarily by thermocline ventilation processes within the Southern Hemisphere.

  10. The First Combined Search for Neutrino Point-sources in the Southern Hemisphere with the ANTARES and IceCube Neutrino Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration; Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; De Young, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of searches for point-like sources of neutrinos based on the first combined analysis of data from both the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes. The combination of both detectors, which differ in size and location, forms a window in the southern sky where the sensitivity to point sources improves by up to a factor of 2 compared with individual analyses. Using data recorded by ANTARES from 2007 to 2012, and by IceCube from 2008 to 2011, we search for sources of neutrino emission both across the southern sky and from a preselected list of candidate objects. No significant excess over background has been found in these searches, and flux upper limits for the candidate sources are presented for E -2.5 and E -2 power-law spectra with different energy cut-offs.

  11. Multi-proxy analyses of a peat bog on Isla de los Estados, easternmost Tierra del Fuego: a unique record of the variable Southern Hemisphere Westerlies since the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, Svante; Rundgren, Mats; Ljung, Karl; Unkel, Ingmar; Wallin, Åsa

    2012-05-01

    We have analyzed an almost 14,000 year old peat sequence on the island of Isla de los Estados (55° S, 64° W), east of Tierra del Fuego, in the core of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies. A multitude of methods have been used: high resolution 14C dating; detailed lithologic descriptions including humification degree; loss on ignition; magnetic susceptibility; bulk density; pollen and spore analysis and determination of Aeolian sand influx. By combining proxies for wind and precipitation we have been able to reconstruct how the westerlies have varied over time in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. It shows that this westerly wind belt was most intense at the onset of the record, 13,600-13,200 cal BP, coinciding with the mid to late part of the Antarctic Cold Reversal, followed by a gradual decline. At 12,200 cal BP the westerlies seem to have shifted to a position south of Tierra del Fuego and this phase, the calmest and driest period on the island throughout the sequence, ended at 10,000 cal BP when the westerlies moved equatorward again. Since then the westerlies have been present but with a variable impact on the 55° S latitude of the Atlantic. Mostly conditions have been fairly similar to today, but occasionally with a wider or narrower and/or weaker or stronger wind belt. At 7200 cal BP wind intensity began to increase and between 4500 and 3500 cal BP these southern latitudes experienced a distinct wind and precipitation maximum, both in terms of perseverance and intensity. Our results show a both wide and strong wind belt, with possible niveo-aeolian activity in Tierra del Fuego in winter, and possibly creating milder summers around the Antarctic Peninsula. In the later part of the Holocene, expansion-contraction phases of the wind belt, especially in winter, seem to have been a common phenomenon.

  12. Long-term (∼57 ka) controls on mercury accumulation in the Southern Hemisphere reconstructed using a peat record from Pinheiro mire (Minas Gerais, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marta; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Aboal, Jesús R; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio

    2015-02-03

    Natural archives have been used to reconstruct mercury atmospheric deposition at different spatial and temporal scales during the Holocene in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we present the results from a Brazilian mountain mire (Pinheiro mire, Minas Gerais, SE Brazil), extending back to ∼57 ka. The core was analyzed for mercury concentration, organic matter content, organic carbon isotopic composition, and tracers of mineral matter flux. Principal components analysis followed by principal components regression enabled us to determine the evolution of the weight of the latent processes governing the accumulation of mercury through time. We show that climate change was the main driver for the variations of mercury concentrations, either indirectly by (i) enhancing soil erosion in the mire's catchment, which led to a decrease in mercury concentration due to dilution by low mercury-containing mineral matter, (ii) increasing regional dust deposition, which resulted in increased concentrations, or directly, by long-term changes in atmospheric wet deposition (arid vs humid periods). Internal peat processes (i.e., decomposition and mass loss) had a minor influence at the time scale represented by the core.

  13. Accuracy of analyzed temperatures, winds and trajectories in the Southern Hemisphere tropical and midlatitude stratosphere as compared to long-duration balloon flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, B. M.; Christensen, T.; Hertzog, A.; Deme, A.; Vial, F.; Pommereau, J.-P.

    2006-12-01

    Eight super-pressure balloons floating at constant level between 50 and 80 hPa and three Infra-Red Montgolfier balloons of variable altitude (15 hPa daytime, 40-80 hPa night time) have been launched at 22° S from Brazil in February-May 2004 in the frame of the HIBISCUS project. The flights lasted for 7 to 79 days residing mainly in the tropics, but some of them passed the tropical barrier and went to southern midlatitudes. Compared to the balloon measurements just above the tropical tropopause the ECMWF operational temperatures show a systematic cold bias of 0.9 K and the easterly zonal winds are too strong by 0.7 m/s. This bias in the zonal wind adds to the ECMWF trajectory errors, but they still are relatively small with e.g. about an error of 700 km after 5 days. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis trajectory errors are substantially larger (1300 km after 5 days). In the southern midlatitudes the cold bias is the same, but the zonal wind bias is almost zero. The trajectories are generally more accurate than in the tropics, but for one balloon a lot of the calculated trajectories end up on the wrong side of the tropical barrier and this leads to large trajectory errors.

  14. The significance of biomass burning as a source of carbon monoxide and ozone in the Southern Hemisphere tropics - A satellite analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Catherine E.; Fishman, Jack; Reichle, Henry G., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon monoxide mixing ratios obtained by the October 1984 Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) experiment are compared with the distribution of October 1984 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) ozone concentrations. The TOMS and MAPS data show coincident high values of ozone and carbon monoxide over central South America and southeastern Africa. The 1984 MAPS data are also compared with tropospheric ozone concentrations derived from 6 years of TOMS and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) I and II measurements. Examination of the October climatological distribution of tropospheric ozone also reveals high concentrations over central South America and southeastern Africa. These coincident high values of CO and ozone in the rural southern tropics are most likely due to biomass burning and the subsequent transport of CO and ozone by large-scale weather patterns. It appears that both CO and ozone are being transported thousands of kilometers from their source regions by the prevailing winds.

  15. Responses of ocean circulation and carbon cycle to changes in the position of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies at Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Völker, Christoph; Köhler, Peter

    2013-12-01

    We explore the impact of a latitudinal shift in the westerly wind belt over the Southern Ocean on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and on the carbon cycle for Last Glacial Maximum background conditions using a state-of-the-art ocean general circulation model. We find that a southward (northward) shift in the westerly winds leads to an intensification (weakening) of no more than 10% of the AMOC. This response of the ocean physics to shifting winds agrees with other studies starting from preindustrial background climate, but the responsible processes are different. In our setup changes in AMOC seemed to be more pulled by upwelling in the south than pushed by downwelling in the north, opposite to what previous studies with different background climate are suggesting. The net effects of the changes in ocean circulation lead to a rise in atmospheric pCO2 of less than 10 μatm for both northward and southward shift in the winds. For northward shifted winds the zone of upwelling of carbon- and nutrient-rich waters in the Southern Ocean is expanded, leading to more CO2outgassing to the atmosphere but also to an enhanced biological pump in the subpolar region. For southward shifted winds the upwelling region contracts around Antarctica, leading to less nutrient export northward and thus a weakening of the biological pump. These model results do not support the idea that shifts in the westerly wind belt play a dominant role in coupling atmospheric CO2 rise and Antarctic temperature during deglaciation suggested by the ice core data.

  16. Regular in situ measurements of HDO/H216O in the northern and southern hemispherical upper troposphere reveal tropospheric transport processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christner, Emanuel; Dyroff, Christoph; Sanati, Shahrokh; Brenninkmeijer, Carl; Zahn, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric water in form of water vapor and clouds is an enormously crucial trace species. It is responsible for ~70 % of the natural greenhouse effect (Schmidt et al., JGR, 2010), carries huge amounts of latent heat, and is the major source of OH in the troposphere. The isotopic composition of water vapor is an elegant tracer for a better understanding and quantification of the extremely complex and variable hydrological cycle in Earth's atmosphere (evaporation, cloud condensation, rainout, re-evaporation, snow), which in turn is a prerequisite to improve climate modeling and predictions. In this context, water-isotopologues (here the isotope ratio HDO/H216O) can be used to study the atmospheric transport of water and in-cloud processes. As H216O and HDO differ in vapor pressure and molecular diffusion, fractionation occurs during condensation and rainout events. For that reason the ratio HDO/H216O preserves information about the transport and condensation history of an air mass. The tunable diode-laser absorption spectrometer ISOWAT was developed for airborne measurements of the water-isotopologue concentrations of H216O and HDO, probing fundamental rovibrational water-absorption lines at around 2.66 μm. Since April 2010 the spectrometer is regularly operated aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container - Lufthansa, Airbus 340-600), which measures ~100 trace gases and aerosol components in the UTLS (9-12 km altitude) on four long-distance flights per month. During several flights across the equator (Africa) or close to the equator (Venezuela and Malaysia) an increase of HDO/H216O from the subtropics towards the tropics was measured (by more than 100 permil) at an altitude of ~12 km. This isotopic gradient can partly be attributed to differences in humidity. In addition there is a humidity independent latitudinal gradient (by more than 50 permil), revealing the strong

  17. Rare earth element and Pb isotope variations in a 52 kyr peat core from Lynch’s Crater (NE Queensland, Australia): Proxy development and application to paleoclimate in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylander, M. E.; Muller, J.; Wüst, R. A. J.; Gallagher, K.; Garcia-Sanchez, R.; Coles, B. J.; Weiss, D. J.

    2007-02-01

    Accurate prediction of future climate scenarios is contingent on our understanding of past and present climate mechanisms. This is done in part through the reconstruction of historical climate changes using proxy records from terrestrial and marine archives. Terrestrial archives covering the Holocene and late Pleistocene are limited, most acutely in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, Rare earth elements (REE) and Pb isotopes are developed as inorganic geochemical proxies of mineral dust source changes and, by extension, climate change. Using a peat core from Lynch's Crater in NE Queensland, Australia, we present the first long-term (c. 52 kyr) terrestrial record of atmospheric REE and Pb deposition (with the exception of four wet events which represent periods of erosion from the crater itself) in the Southern Hemisphere covering both glacial and interglacial times. Based on a combination of correlation analyses, Al and Ti normalised profiles and elemental patterns, we establish REE are immobile within the peat deposit and not subject to significant post depositional diagenetic changes (important particularly for Ce). This is vital as REE can be mobile under acid and organic rich conditions like those that can occur during the development of a peat deposit. The volcanic provinces of eastern Australia have characteristic Eu anomaly signatures, which allowed their use in a novel way to detect changes in dust source to Lynch's Crater. Between 41,095 and 52,505 BP the deposit was under the influence of dust carried by long distance transport (>1500 km) from SE Australia. From 8525 to 40,815 BP regional sources (100-1500 km) dominated the deposited signals while between 1740 and 8390 BP the dust signal was controlled by local sources (<100 km). These findings were also confirmed by Pb isotope data. Changepoint modelling refined the timing of these changes in dust source, recognizing concurrent shifts in our tracing tools ((Eu/Eu ∗) PAAS and 206Pb/ 207Pb). These

  18. A Multi-Year Record of Airborne Continuous CO2 in the U.S. Southern Great Plains: Observations and Mixing Across the PBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biraud, S.; Riley, W. J.; Williams, I. N.; Torn, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    We report on two years of airborne measurements of continuous atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. These continuous measurements are collected weekly from a small aircraft (Cessna 206) on a series of horizontal legs ranging from 17,500 feet down to 1,500 feet above sea level. The continuous CO2 observations are measured using a CO2 analyzer built by Atmospheric Observing System Inc., based in Boulder, Colorado. The analyzer has non-imaging optics and negligible sensitivity to motion of platform. The NDIR Analyzer is the core element of the system. Accuracy, including bias, is approximately 0.1 ppm of CO2 DMF at 1 Hz. Each flight lasts between 2.5 and 3 h, yielding about 10,000 CO2 measurements per flight. Since November 2007, more than 100 continuous CO2 vertical profiles have been collected, along with NOAA/ESRL 12-flask (carbon cycle gases and isotopes) packages for validation. Comparison between the continuous and flask CO2 measurements indicates a difference of no larger than 0.2 ppm. Gradients between the mixed layer and free troposphere varied seasonally, reflecting variations in surface fluxes and large-scale vertical and horizontal transport. We focus on the resolving vertical transport, which is poorly constrained in most models. The high-resolution observations revealed large variation in CO2 concentrations near the PBL. For example, a typical summertime transect through the PBL entrainment zone can have larger than 3 ppm variation on a single horizontal leg, which we hypothesize results from dry convective activity. We relate the spatial structure of these variations to estimates of the convective scaling velocity and to ACRF LIDAR observations of the PBL structure, using flights with relatively large mixed-layer to free troposphere CO2 gradients (> 3 ppm). We then compare mixing estimates from this analysis with predictions from the

  19. Episodic Endogenetic-driven Atmospheric and Hydrologic Cycles and Their Influence on the Geologic Records of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Fairen, A. G.; Baker, V. R.; Ferris, J. C.; Anderson, R. C.; Uceda, E. R.

    2003-01-01

    Diverse evidence shows a direct correlation between episodic endogenetic events of the Tharsis magmatic complex (TMC)/Superplume, flood inundations in the northern plains, and glacial/ lacustrine/ice sheet activity in the south polar region, which includes Hellas and Argyre impact basins, corroborating the MEGAOUTFLO hypothesis. The TMC encompasses a total surface area of approximately 2 x 10(exp 7) sq km, which is slightly larger than the estimated size of the Southern Pacific Superplume. These hydrologic events include: (1) a Noachian to possibly Early Hesperian oceanic epoch and related atmospheric and environmental change (a water body covering about 1/3 of the planet s surface area) related to the incipient development of Tharsis Superplume and the northwestern sloping valleys (NSVs) and possibly early circum-Chryse development, the northwest and northeast watersheds of Tharsis, respectively, (2) a smaller ocean inset within the former larger ocean related to extensive Late Hesperian to Early Amazonian effusive volcanism at Tharsis and Elysium and incisement of the circum-Chryse outflow system. During this time, magmatic/plume-driven tectonic activity transitioned into more centralized volcanism. This Late Hesperian water body may have simply diminished into smaller seas and/or lakes during the Amazonian Period, or renewed activity at Tharsis and Elysium resulted in brief perturbations from the prevailing cold and dry climatic conditions to later form minor seas or lakes. All of the hydrologic phases transitioned into extensive periods of quiescence.

  20. RELEVANT ASPECTS OF MEDIUM-SCALE TIDs RELATED WITH MIDLATITUDES SPREAD- F OBSERVED BY ALL-SKY IMAGING SYSTEM IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OVER TWO FULL SOLAR CYCLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenta, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Using ground-based measurements we investigate the occurrence of medium-scale TIDs (MSTIDs) in the OI 630 nm nightglow emission all-sky images in the Brazilian low latitudes region related with midlatitude Spread F, during over two full solar cycles. The OI 630 nm images obtained during these periods show thermospheric dark band structures (MSTIDs) in low latitudes region propagating from southeast to northwest. These dark patches moved with average speed of about 50-200 m/s. Only during low solar activity period (LSA), ascending solar activity period (ASA) and descending solar activity period the DBS occurrences were observed in the OI630 nm nightglow emission all-sky images. However, during high solar activity (HAS) we didn’t observe the DBS in the all-sky images. In addition, ionospheric data over two stations in Brazil, one at the magnetic equator (São Luís) and the other close to the southern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (Cachoeira Paulista) were used to study this kind of structures during high and low solar activity periods. It should be pointed out that these thermospheric/ionospheric events are not related to geomagnetic disturbed conditions. In this work, we present and discuss this phenomenon in the Brazilian sector over two full solar cycles under different solar activity conditions. A possible mechanism for generation of these dark band structures is presented.

  1. THE SMARTS MULTI-EPOCH OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY ATLAS (SaMOSA): AN ANALYSIS OF EMISSION LINE VARIABILITY IN SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE FERMI BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Isler, Jedidah C.; Urry, C. M.; Bailyn, C.; Coppi, P.; Brady, M.; MacPherson, E.; Hasan, I.; Buxton, M.; Smith, P. S.

    2015-05-01

    We present multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of seven southern Fermi-monitored blazars from 2008 to 2013 using the Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS), with supplemental spectroscopy and polarization data from the Steward Observatory. We find that the emission lines are much less variable than the continuum; four of seven blazars had no detectable emission line variability over the 5 yr observation period. This is consistent with photoionization primarily by an accretion disk, allowing us to use the lines as a probe of disk activity. Comparing optical emission line flux with Fermi γ-ray flux and optical polarized flux, we investigate whether relativistic jet variability is related to the accretion flow. In general, we see no such dependence, suggesting that the jet variability is likely caused by internal processes like turbulence or shock acceleration rather than a variable accretion rate. However, three sources showed statistically significant emission line flares in close temporal proximity to very large Fermi γ-ray flares. While we do not have sufficient emission line data to quantitatively assess their correlation with the γ-ray flux, it appears that in some cases the jet might provide additional photoionizing flux to the broad-line region (BLR), which implies that some γ-rays are produced within the BLR, at least for these large flares.

  2. Observation of NO(x) Enhancement and Ozone Depletion in the Northern and Southern hemispheres after the October-November 2003 Solar Proton Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Gil-Lopez, S.; vonClarmann, T.; Stiller, G. P.; Hoepfner, M.; Kellmann, S.; Fischer, H.; Jackman, C. H.

    2005-01-01

    The large solar storms in October-November 2003 produced enormous solar proton events (SPEs) where high energetic particles reached the Earth and penetrated into the middle atmosphere in the polar regions. At this time, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) was observing the atmosphere in the 6-68 km altitude range. MIPAS observations of NO(x) (NO+NO2) and O3 of the period from 25 October to 14 November 2003 are the first global measurements of NO(x) species, covering both the summer (daylight) and winter (dark) polar regions during an SPE. Very large values of NO(x) in the upper stratosphere of 180 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) have been measured, and a large asymmetry in Northern and Southern polar cap NO(x) enhancements was found. Arctic mean polar cap (>60 deg) NO(x) enhancements of 20 to 70 ppbv between 40 to 60 km lasted for at least two weeks, while the Antarctic mean NO(x) enhancement was between 10 and 35 ppbv and was halved after two weeks. Ozone shows depletion signatures associated with both HO(x) (H+OH+HO2) and NO(x) enhancements but at different time scales. Arctic lower mesospheric (upper stratospheric) ozone is reduced by 50-70% (30-40%) for about two weeks The large solar storms in October-November 2003 produced after the SPEs. A smaller ozone depletion signal was observed in the Antarctic atmosphere. After the locally produced Arctic middle and upper stratospheric as well as mesospheric NO(x) enhancement, large amounts of NO(x) were observed until the end of December. These are explained by downward transport processes.

  3. The interaction of a magnetic cloud with the Earth - Ionospheric convection in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for a wide range of quasi-steady interplanetary magnetic field conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, M. P.; Farrugia, C. J.; Burlaga, L. F.; Hairston, M. R.; Greenspan, M. E.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Lepping, R. P.

    1993-01-01

    Observations are presented of the ionospheric convection in cross sections of the polar cap and auroral zone as part of the study of the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the magnetic cloud of January 13-15, 1988. For strongly northward IMF, the convection in the Southern Hemisphere is characterized by a two-cell convection pattern comfined to high latitudes with sunward flow over the pole. The strength of the flows is comparable to that later seen under southward IMF. Superimposed on this convection pattern there are clear dawn-dusk asymmetries associated with a one-cell convection component whose sense depends on the polarity of the magnetic cloud's large east-west magnetic field component. When the cloud's magnetic field turns southward, the convection is characterized by a two-cell pattern extending to lower latitude with antisunward flow over the pole. There is no evident interhemispheric difference in the structure and strength of the convection. Superimposed dawn-dusk asymmetries in the flow patterns are observed which are only in part attributable to the east-west component of the magnetic field.

  4. Europa Hemispherical Globes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The images used for the base of this globe were chosen from coverage supplied by the Galileo solid-state imaging (SSI) camera and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. The individual images were radiometrically calibrated and photometrically normalized using a Lunar-Lambert function with empirically derived values. A linear correction based on the statistics of all overlapping areas was then applied to minimize image brightness variations. The image data were selected on the basis of overall image quality, reasonable original input resolution (from 20 km/pixel for gap fill to as much as 200 m/pixel), and availability of moderate emission/incidence angles for topography. Although consistency was achieved where possible, different filters were included for global image coverage as necessary: clear/blue for Voyager 1 and 2, and clear, near-IR (757 nm), and green (559 nm) for Galileo SSI. Individual images were projected to a Sinusoidal Equal-Area projection at an image resolution of 500 m/pixel, and a final global mosaic was constructed in this same Sinusoidal projection.

    The global mosaic was then reprojected so that the entire surface of Europa is portrayed in a manner suitable for the production of a globe. A specialized program was used to create the 'flower petal' appearance of the images; the area of each petal from 0 to 75 degrees latitude is in the Transverse Mercator projection, and the area from 75 to 90 degrees latitude is in the Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection. The projections for adjacent petals overlap by 2 degrees of longitude, so that some features are shown twice.

    Names shown on the globe are approved by the International Astronomical Union. The number, size, and placement of text were chosen for a 9-inch globe. A complete list of Europa nomenclature can be found at the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature at http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov. The northern hemisphere is shown on the left, and the southern hemisphere is shown on the right.

  5. Callisto Hemispherical Globes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The images used for the base of this globe were chosen from the best image quality and moderate resolution coverage supplied by Galileo SSI and Voyager 1 and 2 (Batson, 1987; Becker and others, 1998; Becker and others, 1999; Becker and others, 2001). The digital map was produced using Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) (Eliason, 1997; Gaddis and others, 1997; Torson and Becker, 1997). The individual images were radiometrically calibrated and photometrically normalized using a Lunar-Lambert function with empirically derived values (McEwen, 1991; Kirk and others, 2000). A linear correction based on the statistics of all overlapping areas was then applied to minimize image brightness variations. The image data were selected on the basis of overall image quality, reasonable original input resolution (from 20 km/pixel for gap fill to as much as 150 m/pixel), and availability of moderate emission/incidence angles for topography. Although consistency was achieved where possible, different filters were included for global image coverage as necessary: clear for Voyager 1 and 2; clear and green (559 nm) for Galileo SSI. Individual images were projected to a Sinusoidal Equal-Area projection at an image resolution of 1.0 kilometer/pixel, and a final global mosaic was constructed in this same projection. The final mosaic was enhanced using commercial software. The global mosaic was then reprojected so that the entire surface of Callisto is portrayed in a manner suitable for the production of a globe. A specialized program was used to create the 'flower petal' appearance of the images; the area of each petal from 0 to 75 degrees latitude is in the Transverse Mercator projection, and the area from 75 to 90 degrees latitude is in the Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection. The projections for adjacent petals overlap by 2 degrees of longitude, so that some features are shown twice. The northern hemisphere is shown on the left, and the southern hemisphere is

  6. Inter-Hemispherical Currents for Realistic Model of Ionospheric Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyatsky, S.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2013-12-01

    We present results of modeling of the global 3-D ionosphere-magnetosphere current system including in addition to the R1 and R2 field-aligned currents also inter-hemispherical currents. The inter-hemispherical currents flow between Northern and Southern conjugate ionospheres in case of a North-South asymmetry in ionospheric conductivity in two hemispheres. These currents link together the ionospheric currents in two hemispheres, so the currents observed in one hemisphere can provide us with information about currents in the opposite hemisphere, which is especially important when their magnitude can not be obtained from direct observation (e.g., in Antarctica). In this study, we investigate the generation of the inter-hemispherical currents for several distributions of ionospheric conductivity in two hemispheres including a simplified model of ionospheric conductivity, which is important for better understanding of the expected distribution and magnitude of these currents, and a more realistic model of ionospheric conductivity, which is observed during magnetospheric substorms, when the geometry of the inter-hemispherical currents is more complicated. Simulation results show that the inter-hemispherical currents during substorms could play a very significant role, and neglecting these currents does not allow obtaining the correct picture of 3-D magnetosphere-ionosphere current system. These currents are an important part of 3-D field-aligned current system, and they are especially strong during summer-winter months, when they are comparable in magnitude with the R2 currents (about ~0.5 MA). Inter-hemispherical currents map. Left panel is related to Northern hemisphere, right panel to Southern. R1 and R2 currents are not shown; their locations are indicated by the red and blue dashed circles, respectively. The inter-hemispherical currents appear inside the auroral zone in the region of conductivity gradient. The currents in both hemispheres are equal in magnitude and

  7. The Equatorial Coordinates and B-Magnitudes of the Stars in the Southern Hemisphere Zones Based on the Digitized Astronegatives of FON Project at the Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuldoshev, Q. X.; Muminov, M. M.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Usmanov, O. U.; Relke, H.; Protsyuk, Yu. I.; Kovylianska, O. E.; Protsyuk, S. V.; Andruk, V. N.

    FON (Russian abbreviation of the Photographic Sky Survey) were carried out at 6 observatories. The Kitab Observatory (KO) of Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute (UBAI) of the Uzbek Academy of Sciences (UzAS) was involved in this project from 1981 to 1996. For the observations the Double Astrograph of Zeiss (DAZ, D/F = 40/300, 69"/mm) was used. On the FON project about 2600 photographic plates were exposed. In October, 2015 digitization of these astroplates were started using EPSON Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner with the spatial resolution of 1200 dpi and completed in June, 2016. The first stage of the work is the processing of the 2000 photographic plates in zones of the southern hemisphere with the declination between 0 and -20 degrees. The 1704 plates have already been processed. The equatorial coordinates α, δ of stars and galaxies were determined in the system of the Tycho2 catalogue and the Bmagnitudes in the system of the photoelectric standards. UBAI UzAS, Tashkent (Uzbekistan), ASU, Andijan (Uzbekistan), WHO, Essen (Germany), RI NAO, Nikolaev (Ukraine), MAO NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine) have taken part in the processing of the digitized images. For the data reduction the MIDAS package and software, developed in the MAO NASU were used. Based on the results of the processing of the astronegatives in the sectors of right ascension from 0 hours to 24 hours and declination from - 20° to 0° the internal errors of the catalogue were estimated. The errors calculated for all stars are 0.17" and 0.18m respectively. For the stars brighter than 14 magnitude the errors are 0.08" and 0.07m for the equatorial coordinates and B-magnitudes respectively.

  8. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Substorm Recovery Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Chua, D H.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Previous statistical observations have shown that the recovery time scales of substorms occurring in the winter and near equinox (when the nighttime auroral zone was in darkness) are roughly twice as long as the recovery time scales for substorms occurring in the summer (when the nighttime auroral region was sunlit). This suggests that auroral substorms in the northern and southern hemispheres develop asymmetrically during solstice conditions with substorms lasting longer in the winter (dark) hemisphere than in the summer (sunlit) hemisphere. Additionally, this implies that more energy is deposited by electron precipitation in the winter hemisphere than in the summer one during substorms. This result, coupled with previous observations that have shown that auroral activity is more common when the ionosphere is in darkness and is suppressed when the ionosphere is in daylight, strongly suggests that the ionospheric conductivity plays an important role governing how magnetospheric energy is transferred to the ionosphere during substorms. Therefore, the ionosphere itself may dictate how much energy it will accept from the magnetosphere during substorms rather than this being an externally imposed quantity. Here, we extend our earlier work by statistically analyzing the recovery time scales for a large number of substorms observed in the conjugate hemispheres simultaneously by two orbiting global auroral imagers: Polar UVI and IMAGE FUV. Our current results are consistent with previous observations. The recovery time scales are observed to be longer in the winter (dark) hemisphere while the auroral activity has a shorter duration in the summer (sunlit) hemisphere. This leads to an asymmetric energy input from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere with more energy being deposited in the winter hemisphere than in the summer hemisphere.

  9. Mars: Morphology of Southern Hemisphere intracrater dunefields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, N.; Greeley, R.

    1987-01-01

    Viking Orbiter images of intracrater dunefields in the Noachis Terra region were examined in order to study the morphology of these landforms and to assess their relationship to local geological settings. The sizes of the dunefields range from 40 to 3600 sq km and vary directly with crater size. Preliminary studies reveal dunefields of two varieties. The most common type is composed of massed straight to slightly wavy crescentic dunes similar to those described by Breed. Dunefields of this type occupy more than 20% of the area of the crater floor, with the dunefield margins often marked by a large dune wall or rampart. Dune spacing ranges between 0.7 and 1.2 km. The second type of dune accumulation consists of clusters of large, widely spaced straight or curved ridges, which often intersect to create rectilinear patterns. Dunes are typically spaced 1.6 to 4 km apart. Earth terrestrial analogs for these dunes are discussed.

  10. Morphology of Southern Hemisphere Riometer Auroral Absorption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Research, Japan, which funded my research stay there. Support for this study has also come from the Chilean Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y...Administration Technical Report IER-1-ITSA 1, U.S. Government Printing Office. [7] Bilitza, D. (1992) “Solar-terrestrial model and application software

  11. The Deep South Clouds & Aerosols project: Improving the modelling of clouds in the Southern Ocean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Olaf; McDonald, Adrian; Harvey, Mike; Davies, Roger; Katurji, Marwan; Varma, Vidya; Williams, Jonny

    2016-04-01

    Southern-Hemisphere climate projections are subject to persistent climate model biases affecting the large majority of contemporary climate models, which degrade the reliability of these projections, particularly at the regional scale. Southern-Hemisphere specific problems include the fact that satellite-based observations comparisons with model output indicate that cloud occurrence above the Southern Ocean is substantially underestimated, with consequences for the radiation balance, sea surface temperatures, sea ice, and the position of storm tracks. The Southern-Ocean and Antarctic region is generally characterized by an acute paucity of surface-based and airborne observations, further complicating the situation. In recognition of this and other Southern-Hemisphere specific problems with climate modelling, the New Zealand Government has launched the Deep South National Science Challenge, whose purpose is to develop a new Earth System Model which reduces these very large radiative forcing problems associated with erroneous clouds. The plan is to conduct a campaign of targeted observations in the Southern Ocean region, leveraging off international measurement campaigns in this area, and using these and existing measurements of cloud and aerosol properties to improve the representation of clouds in the nascent New Zealand Earth System Model. Observations and model development will target aerosol physics and chemistry, particularly sulphate, sea salt, and non-sulphate organic aerosol, its interactions with clouds, and cloud microphysics. The hypothesis is that the cloud schemes in most GCMs are trained on Northern-Hemisphere data characterized by substantial anthropogenic or terrestrial aerosol-related influences which are almost completely absent in the Deep South.

  12. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  13. Airborne Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Carl F.; Ojala, Eric J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students collect airborne particles using a common vacuum cleaner. Suggests ways for the students to convert their data into information related to air pollution and human health. Urges consideration of weather patterns when analyzing the results of the investigation. (TW)

  14. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  15. Hemispherical Laue camera

    DOEpatents

    Li, James C. M.; Chu, Sungnee G.

    1980-01-01

    A hemispherical Laue camera comprises a crystal sample mount for positioning a sample to be analyzed at the center of sphere of a hemispherical, X-radiation sensitive film cassette, a collimator, a stationary or rotating sample mount and a set of standard spherical projection spheres. X-radiation generated from an external source is directed through the collimator to impinge onto the single crystal sample on the stationary mount. The diffracted beam is recorded on the hemispherical X-radiation sensitive film mounted inside the hemispherical film cassette in either transmission or back-reflection geometry. The distances travelled by X-radiation diffracted from the crystal to the hemispherical film are the same for all crystal planes which satisfy Bragg's Law. The recorded diffraction spots or Laue spots on the film thereby preserve both the symmetry information of the crystal structure and the relative intensities which are directly related to the relative structure factors of the crystal orientations. The diffraction pattern on the exposed film is compared with the known diffraction pattern on one of the standard spherical projection spheres for a specific crystal structure to determine the orientation of the crystal sample. By replacing the stationary sample support with a rotating sample mount, the hemispherical Laue camera can be used for crystal structure determination in a manner previously provided in conventional Debye-Scherrer cameras.

  16. Hemispheric contributions to pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, E; Kasher, A; Soroker, N; Batori, G; Giora, R; Graves, D

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with right-hemisphere damage (RBD) and thirty-one patients with left-hemisphere damage (LBD) received a new pragmatics battery in Hebrew consisting of two parts: (1) comprehension and production of basic speech acts (BSAs), including tests of assertions, questions, requests, and commands, and (2) comprehension of implicatures, including implicatures of quantity, quality, relevance, and manner. Each test had a verbal and a nonverbal version. Patients also received Hebrew versions of the Western Aphasia Battery and of the Right Hemisphere Communication Battery. Both LBD and RBD patients were impaired relative to controls but did not differ from each other in their overall scores on BSAs and on Implicatures when scores were corrected by aphasia and neglect indices. There was a systematic localization of BSAs in the left hemisphere (LH) but not in the right hemisphere (RH). There was poor localization of Implicatures in either hemisphere. In LBD patients, BSAs were associated with language functions measured with the WAB, suggesting the radical possibility that the classic localization of language functions in aphasia is influenced by the localization of the BSAs required by aphasia language tests. Both BSAs and implicatures show greater functional independence from other pragmatic, language and cognitive functions in the RBD than in the LBD patients. Thus, the LH is more likely to contain an unmodular domain-nonspecific set of central cognitive mechanisms for applying means-ends rationality principles to intentional activity.

  17. Wave Propagation from Tropospheric Sources up to the Lower Thermosphere Observed by the DEEPWAVE Airborne Lidars and Correlative Instrumen