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Sample records for airborne subscale transport

  1. Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

  2. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  3. Modeling impacts of subscale heterogeneities on dispersive solute transport in subsurface systems.

    PubMed

    Vishal, Vikrant; Leung, Juliana Y

    2015-11-01

    Previous works in the literature demonstrated that dispersion increases with heterogeneities and travel distance in heterogeneous reservoirs. However, it remains challenging to quantify the effects of subscale heterogeneities on dispersion. Scale-up of input dispersivity and other reservoir attributes to the transport modeling scale should account for subscale heterogeneity and its variability. A method is proposed to quantify the uncertainties in reservoir attributes and dispersivity introduced by scale-up. A random walk particle tracking (RWPT) method, which is not prone to numerical dispersion, is used for transport modeling. First, to scale-up rock properties including porosity and permeability, volume variance at the transport modeling scale is computed corresponding to a given spatial correlation model; numerous sets of "conditioning data" are sampled from probability distributions whose mean is the block average of the actual measure values and the variance is the variance of block mean. Stochastic simulations are subsequently performed to generate multiple realizations at the transport modeling scale. Next, multiple sub-grid geostatistical realizations depicting detailed fine-scale heterogeneities and of the same physical sizes as the transport modeling grid block are subjected to RWPT simulation. Effective longitudinal and transverse (horizontal) dispersivities in two-dimensional models are determined simultaneously by matching the corresponding breakthrough concentration history for each realization with an equivalent medium consisting of averaged homogeneous rock properties. Aggregating results derived with all realizations, we generate probability distributions of scaled-up dispersivities conditional to particular averaged rock properties, from which values representative of the transport modeling scale are randomly drawn. The method is applied to model a tracer injection process. Results obtained from coarse-scale models, where reservoir properties and

  4. Development of the Transport Class Model (TCM) Aircraft Simulation From a Sub-Scale Generic Transport Model (GTM) Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    A six degree-of-freedom, flat-earth dynamics, non-linear, and non-proprietary aircraft simulation was developed that is representative of a generic mid-sized twin-jet transport aircraft. The simulation was developed from a non-proprietary, publicly available, subscale twin-jet transport aircraft simulation using scaling relationships and a modified aerodynamic database. The simulation has an extended aerodynamics database with aero data outside the normal transport-operating envelope (large angle-of-attack and sideslip values). The simulation has representative transport aircraft surface actuator models with variable rate-limits and generally fixed position limits. The simulation contains a generic 40,000 lb sea level thrust engine model. The engine model is a first order dynamic model with a variable time constant that changes according to simulation conditions. The simulation provides a means for interfacing a flight control system to use the simulation sensor variables and to command the surface actuators and throttle position of the engine model.

  5. Experimental Validation: Subscale Aircraft Ground Facilities and Integrated Test Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Roger M.; Hostetler, Robert W., Jr.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Belcastro, Celeste M.; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental testing is an important aspect of validating complex integrated safety critical aircraft technologies. The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) Testbed is being developed at NASA Langley to validate technologies under conditions that cannot be flight validated with full-scale vehicles. The AirSTAR capability comprises a series of flying sub-scale models, associated ground-support equipment, and a base research station at NASA Langley. The subscale model capability utilizes a generic 5.5% scaled transport class vehicle known as the Generic Transport Model (GTM). The AirSTAR Ground Facilities encompass the hardware and software infrastructure necessary to provide comprehensive support services for the GTM testbed. The ground facilities support remote piloting of the GTM aircraft, and include all subsystems required for data/video telemetry, experimental flight control algorithm implementation and evaluation, GTM simulation, data recording/archiving, and audio communications. The ground facilities include a self-contained, motorized vehicle serving as a mobile research command/operations center, capable of deployment to remote sites when conducting GTM flight experiments. The ground facilities also include a laboratory based at NASA LaRC providing near identical capabilities as the mobile command/operations center, as well as the capability to receive data/video/audio from, and send data/audio to the mobile command/operations center during GTM flight experiments.

  6. Transport of airborne particles within a room.

    PubMed

    Richmond-Bryant, J; Eisner, A D; Brixey, L A; Wiener, R W

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study is to test a technique used to analyze contaminant transport in the wake of a bluff body under controlled experimental conditions for application to aerosol transport in a complex furnished room. Specifically, the hypothesis tested by our work is that the dispersion of contaminants in a room is related to the turbulence kinetic energy and length scale. This turbulence is, in turn, determined by the size and shape of furnishings within the room and by the ventilation characteristics. This approach was tested for indoor dispersion through computational fluid dynamics simulations and laboratory experiments. In each, 3 mum aerosols were released in a furnished room with varied contaminant release locations (at the inlet vent or under a desk). The realizable k approximately epsilon model was employed in the simulations, followed by a Lagrangian particle trajectory simulation used as input for an in-house FORTRAN code to compute aerosol concentration. For the experiments, concentrations were measured simultaneously at seven locations by laser photometry, and air velocity was measured using laser Doppler velocimetry. The results suggest that turbulent diffusion is a significant factor in contaminant residence time in a furnished room. This procedure was then expanded to develop a simplified correlation between contaminant residence time and the number of enclosing surfaces around a point containing the contaminant. Practical Implications The work presented here provides a methodology for relating local aerosol residence time to properties of room ventilation and furniture arrangement. This technique may be used to assess probable locations of high concentration by knowing only the particle release location, furniture configuration, inlet and outlet locations, and air speeds, which are all observable features. Applications of this method include development of 'rules of thumb' for first responders entering a room where an agent has been released

  7. Subscale Flight Testing for Aircraft Loss of Control: Accomplishments and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, David E.; Cunningham, Kevin; Jordan, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Subscale flight-testing provides a means to validate both dynamic models and mitigation technologies in the high-risk flight conditions associated with aircraft loss of control. The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) facility was designed to be a flexible and efficient research facility to address this type of flight-testing. Over the last several years (2009-2011) it has been used to perform 58 research flights with an unmanned, remotely-piloted, dynamically-scaled airplane. This paper will present an overview of the facility and its architecture and summarize the experimental data collected. All flights to date have been conducted within visual range of a safety observer. Current plans for the facility include expanding the test volume to altitudes and distances well beyond visual range. The architecture and instrumentation changes associated with this upgrade will also be presented.

  8. Airborne biological hazards and urban transport infrastructure: current challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Campos, Luiza Cintra; Christie, Nicola; Colbeck, Ian

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to airborne biological hazards in an ever expanding urban transport infrastructure and highly diverse mobile population is of growing concern, in terms of both public health and biosecurity. The existing policies and practices on design, construction and operation of these infrastructures may have severe implications for airborne disease transmission, particularly, in the event of a pandemic or intentional release of biological of agents. This paper reviews existing knowledge on airborne disease transmission in different modes of transport, highlights the factors enhancing the vulnerability of transport infrastructures to airborne disease transmission, discusses the potential protection measures and identifies the research gaps in order to build a bioresilient transport infrastructure. The unification of security and public health research, inclusion of public health security concepts at the design and planning phase, and a holistic system approach involving all the stakeholders over the life cycle of transport infrastructure hold the key to mitigate the challenges posed by biological hazards in the twenty-first century transport infrastructure.

  9. Airborne biological hazards and urban transport infrastructure: current challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Campos, Luiza Cintra; Christie, Nicola; Colbeck, Ian

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to airborne biological hazards in an ever expanding urban transport infrastructure and highly diverse mobile population is of growing concern, in terms of both public health and biosecurity. The existing policies and practices on design, construction and operation of these infrastructures may have severe implications for airborne disease transmission, particularly, in the event of a pandemic or intentional release of biological of agents. This paper reviews existing knowledge on airborne disease transmission in different modes of transport, highlights the factors enhancing the vulnerability of transport infrastructures to airborne disease transmission, discusses the potential protection measures and identifies the research gaps in order to build a bioresilient transport infrastructure. The unification of security and public health research, inclusion of public health security concepts at the design and planning phase, and a holistic system approach involving all the stakeholders over the life cycle of transport infrastructure hold the key to mitigate the challenges posed by biological hazards in the twenty-first century transport infrastructure. PMID:27318484

  10. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, B.; Davis, K.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Browell, E. V.; Chen, G.; Dobler, J. T.; Fried, A.; Lauvaux, T.; Lin, B.; McGill, M. J.; Miles, N. L.; Nehrir, A. R.; Obland, M. D.; O'Dell, C.; Sweeney, C.; Yang, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital - 2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT - America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT - America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2 and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  11. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, Byron; Davis, Ken; Barrick, John; Browell, Edward; Chen, Gao; Dobler, Jeremy; Fried, Alan; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lin, Bing; McGill, Matt; Miles, Natasha; Nehrir, Amin; Obland, Michael; O'Dell, Chris; Sweeney, Colm; Yang, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital -2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport -America (ACT -America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT -America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  12. Airborne lidar measurements of pollution transport in central and southern California during CalNEX 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senff, C. J.; Alvarez, R. J., II; Hardesty, R.; Langford, A. O.; Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Davies, F.; Sandberg, S.; Marchbanks, R.; Weickmann, A.

    2010-12-01

    During the CalNEX experiment from May through July 2010, we co-deployed NOAA’s airborne ozone and aerosol lidar TOPAZ and the University of Leeds scanning Doppler wind lidar on a Twin Otter aircraft. We flew a total of 46 missions over central and southern California, focusing primarily on the Los Angeles Basin and Sacramento areas. The downward-looking lidars provided highly resolved measurements of ozone concentration, aerosol backscatter, and wind speed and direction in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere. We will use the airborne lidar data to characterize transport of ozone and aerosols on regional and local scales. In particular, we will focus on pollutant transport between air basins and the role of flow patterns in complex terrain, such as gap flows and orographic lifting and venting along mountain slopes, on pollutant distribution.

  13. Shuttle subscale ablative nozzle tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, L. B.; Bailey, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent subscale nozzle tests have identified new and promising carbon phenolic nozzle ablatives which utilize staple rayon, PAN, and pitch based carbon cloth. A 4-inch throat diameter submerged test nozzle designed for the 48-inch Jet Propulsion Laboratory char motor was used to evaluate five different designs incorporating 20 candidate ablatives. Test results indicate that several pitch and PAN-based carbon phenolic ablatives can provide erosion and char performance equivalent or superior to the present continuous rayon-based SRM ablative.

  14. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    PubMed

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations. PMID:27443456

  15. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    PubMed

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations.

  16. Nitrogen transport and deposition during the Rocky Mountain Airborne Nitrogen and Sulfur (RoMANS) study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, J. L.; Raja, S.; Taylor, C.; Carrico, C.; Schwandner, F.; Beem, K.; Lee, T.; Sullivan, A.; Day, D.; McMeeking, G.; Kreidenweis, S.; Hand, J.; Schichtel, B.; Malm, W.

    2007-12-01

    A number of deleterious effects have been noted due to increasing deposition of nitrogen compounds in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP). The Rocky Mountain Airborne Nitrogen and Sulfur (RoMANS) study was conducted to improve our understanding of the sources and transport of airborne nitrogen and sulfur species within RMNP as well as their deposition pathways. Two field campaigns were conducted, in spring and summer 2006, to characterize pollutant transport and deposition during seasons with historically high nitrogen inputs. Several measurements sites were operated within the park, at locations west and east of the park boundaries, and at locations near the NE, NW, and SE boundaries of the state of Colorado. Measurements at several sites included 24-hour integrated gas concentrations (ammonia, nitric acid, sulfur dioxide), PM2.5 composition, and wet deposition. A core measurement site in the park included more detailed and higher time resolution chemical, optical, and particle size distribution measurements. An overview of study findings will be presented including the composition of collected PM2.5, concentrations of key trace gas species, and observations of wet and dry deposition composition and fluxes. Concentrations of N species in RMNP varied significantly with local and regional transport patterns. High concentrations of nitrate/nitric acid and ammonia/ammonium observed routinely on the eastern plains of Colorado reflect a mixture of urban and agricultural emissions. The highest concentrations of N species in RMNP were generally associated with upslope transport from the east. Nitrogen deposition in RMNP during the spring campaign was dominated by a single, upslope snowstorm. A combination of high pollutant concentrations and heavy precipitation during this upslope event acted to produce N deposition fluxes that far outweighed other spring precipitation events. During the summer study, by contrast, numerous events contributed more equally to total N wet

  17. Airborne bacteria transported with Sahara dust particles from Northern Africa to the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaro, A.; Meola, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Sahara Desert is the most important source of aerosols transported across the Mediterranean towards Europe. Airborne microorganisms associated with aerosols may be transported over long distances and act as colonizers of distant habitats. However, little is known on the composition and viability of such microorganisms, due to difficulties related to their detection, collection and isolation. Here we describe an in-depth assessment of the bacterial communities associated with Sahara dust (SD) particles deposited on snow. Two distinct SD events reaching the European Alps in February and May 2014 were preserved as distinct ochre-coloured layers within the snowpack. In June 2014, we collected samples from a snow profile at 3621 m a.s.l. close to the Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps). SD particles were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Backward trajectories were calculated using the NOAA HYSPLIT model. Bacterial communities were charac-terized by MiSeq Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial physiological profiles were assessed by incubation of samples on BIOLOG plates. The SD-layers were generally enriched in illite and kaolinite particles as compared to the adjacent snow layers. The source of SD could be traced back to Algeria. We observed distinct bacterial community structures in the SD-layers as compared to the clean snow layers. While sporulating bacteria were not enriched in the SD-layers, low abundant (<1%) phyla such as Gemmatimonadetes and Deinococcus-Thermus appeared to be specific bioindicators for SD. Both phyla are adapted to arid oligotrophic environments and UV radiation and thus are well suited to survive the harsh conditions of long-distance airborne transport. Our results show that bacteria are viable and metabolically active after the trek to the European Alps.

  18. A3 Subscale Diffuser Test Article Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, G. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Article Design. The subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude rocket facility. It was designed and built to support the SDT risk mitigation project located at the E3 facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC) supporting the design and construction of the A3 facility at SSC. The subscale test article is outfitted with a large array of instrumentation to support the design verification of the A3 facility. The mechanical design of the subscale diffuser and test instrumentation are described here

  19. Unmanned Airborne Platforms for Validation of Volcanic Emission Composition and Transport Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing realization that current remote sensing retrieval and transport models to detect, characterize, and track airborne volcanic emissions will be much improved fundamentally, and in their application, by the acquisition of in situ validation data. This issue was highlighted by the need for operational estimates of airborne ash concentrations during the 2010 eruption at Eyjafjallajökull-Fimmvörduháls in Iceland. In response, important campaigns were mounted in Europe to conduct airborne in situ observations with manned aircraft to validate ash concentration estimates based on remote sensing data. This effort had immediate application providing crucial accuracy and precision estimates for predicting locations, trajectories, and concentrations of the drifting ash to mitigate the severe economic impacts caused by the continent-wide grounding of aircraft. Manned flying laboratories, however, sustain serious risks if flown into the areas of volcanic plumes and drifting clouds that are of the highest interest, namely the zones of most concentrated ash and gas, which are often opaque to upwelling radiation at the longer infrared wavelengths (e.g., 8-12μm), where ash and gas can be most readily detected. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs), of course, can provide volcanic aerosol and gas sampling and measurement platforms with no risk to flight crews, and can penetrate the most ash-concentrated zones of plumes and drifting clouds. Current interest has been high in developing and testing small UAVs (e.g., NASA, University of Costa Rica, University of Düsseldorf; INGV-Catania and Rome, and others) for proximal sulfur dioxide and solid aerosol observations and sampling in relatively quiescently erupting plumes as a first step toward more far ranging and higher altitude deployments into drifting volcanic ash clouds at regional scales. Nevertheless, in the aftermath of the Icelandic crisis, ash and gas concentrations from analysis of

  20. Airborne dust transport to the eastern Pacific Ocean off southern California: Evidence from San Clemente Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.

    2007-01-01

    Islands are natural dust traps, and San Clemente Island, California, is a good example. Soils on marine terraces cut into Miocene andesite on this island are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols with vertic properties. These soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles, 5-20 cm thick, that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich subsoils. The silt mantles have a mineralogy that is distinct from the island bedrock. Silt mantles are rich in quartz, which is rare in the island andesite. The clay fraction of the silt mantles is dominated by mica, also absent from local andesite, and contrasts with the subsoils, dominated by smectite. Ternary plots of immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) show that the island andesite has a composition intermediate between average upper continental crust and average oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantles have compositions closer to average upper continental crust. The silt mantles have particle size distributions similar to loess and Mojave Desert dust, but are coarser than long-range-transported Asian dust. We infer from these observations that the silt mantles are derived from airborne dust from the North American mainland, probably river valleys in the coastal mountains of southern California and/or the Mojave Desert. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. Examination of satellite imagery shows that easterly Santa Ana winds carry abundant dust to the eastern Pacific Ocean and the California Channel Islands. Airborne dust from mainland North America may be an important component of the offshore sediment budget in the easternmost Pacific Ocean, a finding of potential biogeochemical and climatic significance.

  1. [Index assessment of airborne VOCs pollution in automobile for transporting passengers].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Kai; Cheng, He-Ming; Luo, Hui-Long

    2013-12-01

    Car for transporting passenger is the most common means of transport and in-car airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) cause harm to health. In order to analyze the pollution levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene and TVOC, index evaluation method was used according to the domestic and international standards of indoor and in-car air quality (IAQ). For Chinese GB/T 18883-2002 IAQ Standard, GB/T 17729-2009 Hygienic Standard for the Air Quality inside Long Distance Coach, GB/T 27630-2011 Guideline for Air Quality Assessment of Passenger Car, IAQ standard of South Korea, Norway, Japan and Germany, the heaviest pollution of VOCs in passenger car was TVOC, TVOC, benzene, benzene, TVOC, toluene and TVOC, respectively, the average pollution grade of automotive IAQ was median pollution, median pollution, clean, light pollution, median pollution, clean and heavy pollution, respectively. Index evaluation can effectively analyze vehicular interior air quality, and the result has a significant difference with different standards; German standard is the most stringent, while Chinese GB/T 18883-2002 standard is the relatively stringent and GB/T 27630-2011 is the most relaxed.

  2. Ares I Upper Stage Subscale Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The launch vehicle's first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor that burns a specially formulated and shaped solid propellant called polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN). The second or upper stage will be propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This HD video image depicts a test firing of a 40k subscale J2X injector at MSFC's test stand 115. (Highest resolution available)

  3. Identification and Atmospheric Transport of Microcystin Around Southern California Using Airborne Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlin, J.; Kudela, R. M.; Broughton, J.

    2014-12-01

    Microcystin, a hepatotoxin produced by the cyanobacteria Microcystis, has been known to contaminate fresh water sources around southern California. Ingesting this toxin can cause death in animals and illnesses in humans, which has promoted the World Health Organization (WHO) and California to establish preliminary guidelines for microcystin concentrations in the water (1 μg/L in drinking water and 0.8 μg/L for recreational exposure respectively). However, very few studies have been done to assess the effects of this toxin when aerosolized, even though Fitzgeorge et al. (1994) describes the toxin as potentially 12x more deadly if inhaled rather than swallowed. This project aimed to identify areas with the potential for high microcystin concentrations using airborne data and then model the potential atmospheric transport of the toxin. After applying the Master Scattering Line Height (MSLH) and Aphanizomenon-Microcystis Index (AMI) algorithms to Airborne Visible/ Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), multiple water bodies were identified as having the potential for Microcystis, although many of the observed water bodies had AMI values indicating the presence of Aphanizomenon-- a non-toxic cyanobacteria that is usually present before Microcystis. A relationship between toxins and biomass was developed and used to estimate the amount of phycocyanin and dissolved microcystin in the water. Brevetoxin, common in the Florida 'red tides', was used as a proxy to estimate the amount of microcystin that becomes aerosolized given a known water concentration (Kirkpatrick et al, 2010). These amounts were then run and averaged with the HYSPLIT dispersion model for 4 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours. The final results show that most areas are exposed to less than 0.1 ng/m^3 after 4 hours. As a worst case scenario, one final model was run to show the exposure amount when Pinto Lake was observed to have the maximum amount of microcystin recorded in 2007. The results show that after 4

  4. Optimized Field Sampling and Monitoring of Airborne Hazardous Transport Plumes; A Geostatistical Simulation Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, DI-WEN

    2001-11-21

    Airborne hazardous plumes inadvertently released during nuclear/chemical/biological incidents are mostly of unknown composition and concentration until measurements are taken of post-accident ground concentrations from plume-ground deposition of constituents. Unfortunately, measurements often are days post-incident and rely on hazardous manned air-vehicle measurements. Before this happens, computational plume migration models are the only source of information on the plume characteristics, constituents, concentrations, directions of travel, ground deposition, etc. A mobile ''lighter than air'' (LTA) system is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will be part of the first response in emergency conditions. These interactive and remote unmanned air vehicles will carry light-weight detectors and weather instrumentation to measure the conditions during and after plume release. This requires a cooperative computationally organized, GPS-controlled set of LTA's that self-coordinate around the objectives in an emergency situation in restricted time frames. A critical step before an optimum and cost-effective field sampling and monitoring program proceeds is the collection of data that provides statistically significant information, collected in a reliable and expeditious manner. Efficient aerial arrangements of the detectors taking the data (for active airborne release conditions) are necessary for plume identification, computational 3-dimensional reconstruction, and source distribution functions. This report describes the application of stochastic or geostatistical simulations to delineate the plume for guiding subsequent sampling and monitoring designs. A case study is presented of building digital plume images, based on existing ''hard'' experimental data and ''soft'' preliminary transport modeling results of Prairie Grass Trials Site. Markov Bayes Simulation, a coupled Bayesian/geostatistical methodology, quantitatively combines soft information

  5. A Transport Analysis of In Situ Airborne Ozone Measurements from the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkinson, H. L.; Brent, L. C.; He, H.; Loughner, C.; Stehr, J. W.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Baltimore and Washington are currently designated as nonattainment areas with respect to the 2008 EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for 8-hour Ozone (O3). Tropospheric O3 is the dominant component of summertime photochemical smog, and at high levels, has deleterious effects on human health, ecosystems, and materials. The University of Maryland (UMD) Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling and Prediction Program (RAMMPP) strives to improve understanding of air quality in the Mid-Atlantic States and to elucidate contributions of pollutants such as O3 from regional transport versus local sources through a combination of modeling and in situ measurements. The NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) project investigates the connection between column measurements and surface conditions to explore the potential of remote sensing observations in diagnosing air quality at ground level where pollutants can affect human health. During the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign, in situ airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols were performed along the Interstate 95 corridor between Baltimore and Washington from the NASA P3B aircraft. To augment this data and provide regional context, measurements of trace gases and aerosols were also performed by the RAMMPP Cessna 402B aircraft over nearby airports in Maryland and Virginia. This work presents an analysis of O3 measurements made by the Ultraviolet (UV) Photometric Ambient O3 Analyzer on the RAMMPP Cessna 402B and by the NCAR 4-Channel Chemiluminescence instrument on the NASA P3B. In this analysis, spatial and temporal patterns of O3 data are examined within the context of forward and backward trajectories calculated from 12-km North American Mesoscale (NAM) meteorological data using the NOAA Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Model and from a high resolution Weather Research and

  6. Ethical Perspectives: Leadership Subscales Applied to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Sherry K.; Kavich, Larry L.

    Ethical perspectives are needed to gain insight into the history of leader behavior, especially as related to the current emphasis on contingency and Path-Goal Theories. An instrument to help select professionals who reflect ethical traits is the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire with 12 leadership subscales (LBDQ, Form XII). Selected…

  7. The Airborne Cloud-Aerosol Transport System. Part I; Overview and Description of the Instrument and Retrival Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorks, John E.; Mcgill, Matthew J.; Scott, V. Stanley; Kupchock, Andrew; Wake, Shane; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Selmer, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The Airborne Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (ACATS) is a multi-channel Doppler lidar system recently developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). A unique aspect of the multi-channel Doppler lidar concept such as ACATS is that it is also, by its very nature, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL). Both the particulate and molecular scattered signal can be directly and unambiguously measured, allowing for direct retrievals of particulate extinction. ACATS is therefore capable of simultaneously resolving the backscatterextinction properties and motion of a particle from a high altitude aircraft. ACATS has flown on the NASA ER-2 during test flights over California in June 2012 and science flights during the Wallops Airborne Vegetation Experiment (WAVE) in September 2012. This paper provides an overview of the ACATS method and instrument design, describes the ACATS retrieval algorithms for cloud and aerosol properties, and demonstrates the data products that will be derived from the ACATS data using initial results from the WAVE project. The HSRL retrieval algorithms developed for ACATS have direct application to future spaceborne missions such as the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS). Furthermore, the direct extinction and particle wind velocity retrieved from the ACATS data can be used for science applications such 27 as dust or smoke transport and convective outflow in anvil cirrus clouds.

  8. Subscale Test Methods for Combustion Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Sisco, J. C.; Long, M. R.; Sung, I.-K.

    2005-01-01

    Stated goals for long-life LRE s have been between 100 and 500 cycles: 1) Inherent technical difficulty of accurately defining the transient and steady state thermochemical environments and structural response (strain); 2) Limited statistical basis on failure mechanisms and effects of design and operational variability; and 3) Very high test costs and budget-driven need to protect test hardware (aversion to test-to-failure). Ambitious goals will require development of new databases: a) Advanced materials, e.g., tailored composites with virtually unlimited property variations; b) Innovative functional designs to exploit full capabilities of advanced materials; and c) Different cycles/operations. Subscale testing is one way to address technical and budget challenges: 1) Prototype subscale combustors exposed to controlled simulated conditions; 2) Complementary to conventional laboratory specimen database development; 3) Instrumented with sensors to measure thermostructural response; and 4) Coupled with analysis

  9. The subscale orbital fluid transfer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Frank G.; Antar, Basil N.; Menzel, Reinhard W.; Meserole, Jere S.; Meserole, Jere S.; Jones, Ogden

    1990-01-01

    The Subscale Orbital Fluid Transfer Experiment (SOFTE) is a planned Shuttle Orbiter fluid transfer experiment. CASP (Center for Advanced Space Propulsion) performed certain aspects of the conceptual design of this experiment. The CASP work consisted of the conceptual design of the optical system, the search for alternative experimental fluids, the determination of the flow meter specifications and the examination of materials to use for a bladder that will empty one of the tanks in the experiment.

  10. A3 Subscale Rocket Hot Fire Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, G. P.; Yen, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a description of the methodology and results of J2-X Subscale Simulator (JSS) hot fire testing supporting the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) project at the E3 test facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC). The A3 subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude simulating rocket test facility. This paper focuses on the methods used to operate the facility and obtain the data to support the aerodynamic verification of the A3 rocket diffuser design and experimental data quantifying the heat flux throughout the facility. The JSS was operated at both 80% and 100% power levels and at gimbal angle from 0 to 7 degrees to verify the simulated altitude produced by the rocket-rocket diffuser combination. This was done with various secondary GN purge loads to quantify the pumping performance of the rocket diffuser. Also, special tests were conducted to obtain detailed heat flux measurements in the rocket diffuser at various gimbal angles and in the facility elbow where the flow turns from vertical to horizontal upstream of the 2nd stage steam ejector.

  11. NASA Langley's AirSTAR Testbed: A Subscale Flight Test Capability for Flight Dynamics and Control System Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Bailey, Roger M.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) project, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a subscaled flying testbed in order to conduct research experiments in support of the goals of NASA s Aviation Safety Program. This research capability consists of three distinct components. The first of these is the research aircraft, of which there are several in the AirSTAR stable. These aircraft range from a dynamically-scaled, twin turbine vehicle to a propeller driven, off-the-shelf airframe. Each of these airframes carves out its own niche in the research test program. All of the airplanes have sophisticated on-board data acquisition and actuation systems, recording, telemetering, processing, and/or receiving data from research control systems. The second piece of the testbed is the ground facilities, which encompass the hardware and software infrastructure necessary to provide comprehensive support services for conducting flight research using the subscale aircraft, including: subsystem development, integrated testing, remote piloting of the subscale aircraft, telemetry processing, experimental flight control law implementation and evaluation, flight simulation, data recording/archiving, and communications. The ground facilities are comprised of two major components: (1) The Base Research Station (BRS), a LaRC laboratory facility for system development, testing and data analysis, and (2) The Mobile Operations Station (MOS), a self-contained, motorized vehicle serving as a mobile research command/operations center, functionally equivalent to the BRS, capable of deployment to remote sites for supporting flight tests. The third piece of the testbed is the test facility itself. Research flights carried out by the AirSTAR team are conducted at NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The UAV Island runway is a 50 x 1500 paved runway that lies within restricted airspace at Wallops Flight Facility. The

  12. Important features of pollutant transport and diffusion in complex terrain/coastal settings revealed by airborne lidar

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, J.L.; Smith, T.B.

    1994-12-31

    Our knowledge of transport and dispersion of air pollutants in complicated terrain or complex coastal/lakeshore settings is considerably less than that over simple, level terrain. This is largely because of induced microscale and mesoscale flows and lack of representative sites for ground-based monitors and inaccessibility for airborne in situ platforms. This knowledge, for instance, is required to improve the formulations of and validate air quality models, which in turn are used to develop strategies for alleviation of air pollution problems. Remote sensing devices, particularly those from aircraft or satellite platforms, have the capability of providing measurements with the requisite space and time detail for the understanding of the physical governing processes in such locales and also for improving and using air quality models for strategy development. One such device, the airborne lidar, has been widely used during field investigations to study pollutant distributions and attendant boundary layer structure and physical processes in relevant locales as various parts of Southern California. Each of these field investigations focussed on specific aspects or features of pollutant transport and diffusion. This paper summarizes pertinent and presents explicit examples of these aspects or features.

  13. Investigation of Ozone Sources in California Using AJAX Airborne Measurements and Models: Implications for Stratospheric Intrusion and Long Range Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Johnson, Matthew S.; Iraci, Laura T.; Yates, Emma L.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Gore, Warren

    2015-01-01

    High ozone concentrations at low altitudes near the surface were detected from airborne Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) measurements on May 30, 2012. We investigate the causes of the elevated ozone concentrations using the airborne measurements and various models. GEOS-chem and WRF-STILT model simulations show that the contribution from local sources is small. From MERRA reanalysis, it is found that high potential vorticity (PV) is observed at low altitudes. This high PV appears to be only partially coming through the stratospheric intrusions because the air inside the high PV region is moist, which shows that mixing appears to be enhanced in the low altitudes. Considering that diabatic heating can also produce high PV in the lower troposphere, high ozone is partially coming through stratospheric intrusion, but this cannot explain the whole ozone concentration in the target areas of the western U.S. A back-trajectory model is utilized to see where the air masses originated. The air masses of the target areas came from the lower stratosphere (LS), upper (UT), mid- (MT), and lower troposphere (LT). The relative number of trajectories coming from LS and UT is low (7.7 and 7.6, respectively) compared to that from LT (64.1), but the relative ozone concentration coming from LS and UT is high (38.4 and 20.95, respectively) compared to that from LT (17.7). The air mass coming from LT appears to be mostly coming from Asia. Q diagnostics show that there is sufficient mixing along the trajectory to indicate that ozone from the different origins is mixed and transported to the western U.S. This study shows that high ozone concentrations can be detected by airborne measurements, which can be analyzed by integrated platforms such as models, reanalysis, and satellite data.

  14. Investigating Ozone Sources in California Using AJAX Airborne Measurements and Models: Implications for Stratospheric Intrusion and Long Range Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Johnson, Matthew S.; Iraci, Laura T.; Yates, Emma L.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Gore, Warren

    2016-01-01

    High ozone concentrations at low altitudes near the surface were detected from airborne Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) measurements on May 30, 2012. We investigate the causes of the elevated ozone concentrations using the airborne measurements and various models. GEOSchem and WRF-STILT model simulations show that the contribution from local sources is small. From MERRA reanalysis, it is found that high potential vorticity (PV) is observed at low altitudes. This high PV appears to be only partially coming through the stratospheric intrusions because the air inside the high PV region is moist, which shows that mixing appears to be enhanced in the low altitudes. Considering that diabatic heating can also produce high PV in the lower troposphere, high ozone is partially coming through stratospheric intrusion, but this cannot explain the whole ozone concentration in the target areas of the western U.S. A back-trajectory model is utilized to see where the air masses originated. The air masses of the target areas came from the lower stratosphere (LS), upper (UT), mid- (MT), and lower troposphere (LT). The relative number of trajectories coming from LS and UT is low (7.7% and 7.6%, respectively) compared to that from LT (64.1%), but the relative ozone concentration coming from LS and UT is high (38.4% and 20.95%, respectively) compared to that from LT (17.7%). The air mass coming from LT appears to be mostly coming from Asia. Q diagnostics show that there is sufficient mixing along the trajectory to indicate that ozone from the different origins is mixed and transported to the western U.S. This study shows that high ozone concentrations can be detected by airborne measurements, which can be analyzed by integrated platforms such as models, reanalysis, and satellite data.

  15. Real-Time Airborne Gamma-Ray Background Estimation Using NASVD with MLE and Radiation Transport for Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Jordan, David V.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Kernan, Warnick J.

    2015-06-01

    Helicopter-mounted gamma-ray detectors can provide law enforcement officials the means to quickly and accurately detect, identify, and locate radiological threats over a wide geographical area. The ability to accurately distinguish radiological threat-generated gamma-ray signatures from background gamma radiation in real time is essential in order to realize this potential. This problem is non-trivial, especially in urban environments for which the background may change very rapidly during flight. This exacerbates the challenge of estimating background due to the poor counting statistics inherent in real-time airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. To address this, we have developed a new technique for real-time estimation of background gamma radiation from aerial measurements. This method is built upon on the noise-adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD) technique that was previously developed for estimating the potassium (K), uranium (U), and thorium (T) concentrations in soil post-flight. The method can be calibrated using K, U, and T spectra determined from radiation transport simulations along with basis functions, which may be determined empirically by applying maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to previously measured airborne gamma-ray spectra. The method was applied to both measured and simulated airborne gamma-ray spectra, with and without man-made radiological source injections. Compared to schemes based on simple averaging, this technique was less sensitive to background contamination from the injected man-made sources and may be particularly useful when the gamma-ray background frequently changes during the course of the flight.

  16. The long distance transport of airborne Ambrosia pollen to the UK and the Netherlands from Central and south Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Weger, Letty A.; Pashley, Catherine H.; Šikoparija, Branko; Skjøth, Carsten A.; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Grewling, Łukasz; Thibaudon, Michel; Magyar, Donat; Smith, Matt

    2016-04-01

    The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common or short ragweed) is increasing its range in Europe. In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air (above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms) were recorded in Leicester (UK) and Leiden (NL) on 4 and 5 September 2014. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectory and atmospheric dispersion calculations were performed using HYSPLIT_4. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses (1500 m) originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. During the episode, air masses veered to the west and passed over the Rhône Valley. Dispersion calculations showed that the atmospheric conditions were suitable for Ambrosia pollen released from the Pannonian Plain and the Rhône Valley to reach the higher levels and enter the airstream moving to northwest Europe where they were deposited at ground level and recorded by monitoring sites. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.e. the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine, as well as the Rhône Valley in France.

  17. Subscale Composite Liquid Oxygen Tank Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, Neil A.; Davis, Kevin; McBain, Michael; Austin, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company recently completed a two-year fabrication and test program on subscale composite liquid oxygen (LO2) tanks. The goals of this program included the development of fabrication and inspection techniques, cryogenic acceptance testing of composite articles, and demonstrating oxygen compatibility under launch vibration loads. Two subscale diameter test bottles were fabricated using a proprietary Lockheed Martin material, known as LM21C03. The bottles were then inspected using an array of NDE techniques and then put through a cryogenic acceptance test program at Lockheed Martin. A NASA/Lockheed Martin test team then subjected a composite bottle to testing at an X-33 vibration profile for 15 minutes at use pressure. The tests were run at various LO2 fill levels, with and without intentionally added debris. All tests were successful in that the composite bottle showed no signs of ignition or combustion as a result of the vibration testing. This test program is an important bridge between coupon-level and subcomponent LO2 compatibility tests and full-scale composite LO2 tank use.

  18. The Subscale Orbital Fluid Transfer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meserole, J. S.; Collins, Frank G.; Jones, Ogden; Antar, Basil; Menzel, Reinhard; Gray, Perry

    1989-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Spacecraft Propulsion (CASP) is a subcontractor to Boeing Aerospace Corporation to provide support for the concept definition and design of a subscale orbital fluid transfer experiment (SOFTE). SOFTE is an experiment that will look at the fluid mechanics of the process of transfer of a saturated fluid between two tanks. The experiment will be placed in two get away special (GAS) can containers; the tanks will be in one container and the power and electronics will be in a second container. Since GAS cans are being used, the experiment will be autonomous. The work during the present year consisted of examining concepts for visual observation of the fluid transfer process, methods for accurately metering the amount of fluid transferred between the two tanks, possible test fluids, and materials for the elastomeric diaphragm.

  19. Transport of airborne Picea schrenkiana pollen on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains (Xinjiang, China) and its implication for paleoenvironmental reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yanfang; Yan, Shun; Behling, Hermann; Mu, Guijin

    2013-06-01

    The understanding of airborne pollen transportation is crucial for the reconstruction of the paleoenvironment. Under favorable conditions, a considerable amount of long-distance-transported pollen can be deposited far from its place of origin. In extreme arid regions, in most cases, such situations occur and increase the difficulty to interpret fossil pollen records. In this study, three sets of Cour airborne pollen trap were installed on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains to collect airborne Picea schrenkiana (spruce) pollen grains from July 2001 to July 2006. The results indicate that Picea pollen disperses extensively and transports widely in the lower atmosphere far away from spruce forest. The airborne Picea pollen dispersal period is mainly concentrated between mid-May and July. In desert area, weekly Picea pollen began to increase and peaked suddenly in concentration. Also, annual pollen indices do not decline even when the distance increased was probably related to the strong wind may pick up the deposited pollen grains from the topsoil into the air stream, leading to an increase of pollen concentration in the air that is irrelevant to the normal and natural course of pollen transport and deposition. This, in turn, may lead to erroneous interpretations of the pollen data in the arid region. This study provided insight into the shift in the Picea pollen season regarding climate change in arid areas. It is recorded that the pollen pollination period starts earlier and the duration became longer. The results also showed that the temperature of May and June was positively correlated with the Picea pollen production. Furthermore, the transport of airborne Picea pollen data is useful for interpreting fossil pollen records from extreme arid regions. PMID:23576840

  20. Saharan dust long-range transport across the Atlantic studied by an airborne Doppler wind lidar and the MACC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Benedetti, Angela; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-09-01

    A huge amount of dust is transported every year from north Africa into the Caribbean region. This paper presents an investigation of this long-range transport process based on airborne Doppler wind lidar (DWL) measurements conducted during the SALTRACE campaign (June-July 2013), as well as an evaluation of the ability of the MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) global aerosol model to reproduce it and its associated features. Although both the modeled winds from MACC and the measurements from the DWL show a generally good agreement, some differences, particularly in the African easterly jet (AEJ) intensity, were noted. The observed differences between modeled and measured wind jet speeds are between 5 and 10 m s-1. The vertical aerosol distribution within the Saharan dust plume and the marine boundary layer is investigated during the June-July 2013 period based on the MACC aerosol model results and the CALIOP satellite lidar measurements. While the modeled Saharan dust plume extent shows a good agreement with the measurements, a systematic underestimation of the marine boundary layer extinction is observed. Additionally, three selected case studies covering different aspects of the Saharan dust long-range transport along the west African coast, over the North Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean are presented. For the first time, DWL measurements are used to investigate the Saharan dust long-range transport. Simultaneous wind and backscatter measurements from the DWL are used, in combination with the MACC model, to analyze different features associated with the long-range transport, including an African easterly wave trough, the AEJ and the intertropical convergence zone.

  1. Benefits of Sharing Information from Commercial Airborne Forward-Looking Sensors in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Philip R.; Harrah, Steven; Neece, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    The air transportation system of the future will need to support much greater traffic densities than are currently possible, while preserving or improving upon current levels of safety. Concepts are under development to support a Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that by some estimates will need to support up to three times current capacity by the year 2025. Weather and other atmospheric phenomena, such as wake vortices and volcanic ash, constitute major constraints on airspace system capacity and can present hazards to aircraft if encountered. To support safe operations in the NextGen environment advanced systems for collection and dissemination of aviation weather and environmental information will be required. The envisioned NextGen Network Enabled Weather (NNEW) infrastructure will be a critical component of the aviation weather support services, providing access to a common weather picture for all system users. By taking advantage of Network Enabled Operations (NEO) capabilities, a virtual 4-D Weather Data Cube with aviation weather information from many sources will be developed. One new source of weather observations may be airborne forward-looking sensors, such as the X-band weather radar. Future sensor systems that are the subject of current research include advanced multi-frequency and polarimetric radar, a variety of Lidar technologies, and infrared imaging spectrometers.

  2. Impact of long-range transport airborne pollution on human health in a region of the upper Ohio River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, J.

    1981-01-01

    This study examines empirically the problem of long-range transport of pollutants and their impact on human health. The study focuses on airborne pollutants generated by coal-fired power plants in the Lower Ohio River Basin and transported by persistent winds into a region composed of 100 countries sharingt Ohio-Pennsylvania-West-Virginia borders in the Upper Ohio River Basin. An econometric model is constructed to generate the physical damage function relating mortality of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in three age groups to TSP, SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 4/, Population Density (PD), and Income per Capita (IC). OLS is used as the technique under two different specifications, simple multivariate regression and linear log-log. ..beta.. coefficients are generated by using total pollution concentrations for the base year 1976. The annual cumulative excess number of deaths are estimated for two time periods, 1977 to 1985 and 1986 to 2000, under two different scenarios characterized by compliance and non-compliance with State Implementation Plans regulations. Model results indicate that there is a significant relationship between mortality and the explanatory variables. SO/sub 4/ is found as the most deadly pollutant in respiratory diseases and as deadly as SO/sub 2/ in cardiovascular. A significant amount of cumulative excess deaths are found associated with outside pollutants, being the major finding that non-compliance with State Implementation Plans results in over sixty percent more deaths than it would be otherwise.

  3. Impact of long-range transport airborne pollution on human health in a region of the Upper Ohio River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, J.

    1981-01-01

    This study examines empirically the problem of long-range transport of pollutants and their impact on human health. The study focuses on airborne pollutants generated by coal-fired power plants in the Lower Ohio River Basin and transported by persistent winds into a region composed of 100 counties sharing the Ohio-Pennsylvania-West Virginia borders in the Upper Ohio River Basin. An econometric model is constructed to generate the physical damage function relating mortality of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in three age groups to TSP, SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 4/, population density (PD), and income per capita (IC). OLS is used as the technique under two different specifications, simple multivariate regression and linear log-log. ..beta.. coefficients are generated by using total pollution concentrations for the base year 1976. The annual cumulative excess number of deaths are estimated for two time period, 1977 to 1985 and 1986 to 2000, under two different scenarios characterized by compliance and non-compliance with State Implementation Plans regulations. Model results indicate that there is a significant relationship between mortality and the explanatory variables. SO/sub 4/ is found as the most deadly pollutant in respiratory diseases and as deadly as SO/sub 2/ in cardiovascular. A significant amount of cumulative excess deaths are found associated with outside pollutants, being the major finding that non-compliance with State implementation Plans results in over sixty percent more deaths than it would be otherwise.

  4. Subscale Testing of Prompt Agent Defeat Formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milby, Christopher; Stamatis, Demitrios; Daniels, Amber; Svingala, Forrest; Lightstone, Jim; Miller, Kendra; Bensman, Misty; Bohmke, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    There is a need to improve the current bioagent defeat systems with formulations that produce lower peak pressure, impulse, sustained high temperatures, and release of biocidal species for prompt defeat applications. In this work, explosive charge configurations similar to fuel-air explosives were detonated in a semi-enclosed chamber configuration. Binder type and fuel-to-oxidizer ratios were varied to observe the effects on combustion performance. Thermocouple measurements and high-speed video were used to monitor the combustion of the dispersed formulation. The down-selected formulations were then tested in a sub-scale vented agent defeat system developed to evaluate performance of formulations against aerosolized Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) spores. Diagnostics such as thermocouples, piezoelectric pressure gauges, and pyrometry were utilized to characterize the detonation event. Biological sampling with surface coupons, liquid impingement, and filters of the post detonation environment were utilized to determine spore survivability and rank the relative effectiveness of each formulation. Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited

  5. Transport of mineral dust derived from airborne wind lidar measurements during SALTRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Groß, Silke; Rahm, Stephan; Freudenthaler, Volker; Toledano, Carlos; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2015-04-01

    During the SALTRACE field experiment conducted between the 10 of June and the 15 of July 2013, the transport and properties of Saharan dust were characterized by a 2-µm Doppler wind lidar (DWL) deployed on the DLR Falcon 20 research aircraft. Unlike aerosol lidars, the DLW is able to simultaneously measure wind fields and -by means of an adequate calibration- aerosol optical properties, which is more adequate for aerosol transport studies. The retrieved horizontal and vertical wind speed provide a direct observation of dust long range transport mechanisms across the Atlantic (e.g. by the African easterly jet) from Western Africa to the Caribbean. Vertical wind observations revealed the structure of island induced lee waves in the Cape Verde and Barbados regions. A novel method for the calibration of DWLs based on simultaneous measurements with a ground-based aerosol lidar and sun photometer was developed. After being calibrated, the system is able to retrieve quantitative aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients, which is usually not obtained from coherent lidars. Results from the validation with a ground-based aerosol lidar in Barbados and the CALIPSO satellite instrument will be discussed.

  6. Longitudinal Construct Validity of Brief Symptom Inventory Subscales in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jeffrey D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, John S.; Test, Mary Ann; Greenberg, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal validity of Brief Symptom Inventory subscales was examined in a sample (N = 318) with schizophrenia-related illness measured at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years. Nonlinear factor analysis of items was used to test graded response models (GRMs) for subscales in isolation. The models varied in their within-time and between-times…

  7. A Composite View of Lower Stratospheric Ozone Developed Using a Chemistry Transport Model and Observations from Airborne Lidar and Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, A. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Browell, E. V.

    1999-01-01

    An ozone simulation from the Goddard three-dimensional chemistry and transport model for the 1995-96 northern hemisphere winter is compared with ozone observations from airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL), from the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM), from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE). The 3D model uses winds from the Goddard Data Assimilation System. The 3D model reproduces the latitude dependence of the horizontal and vertical ozone gradients of the subtropical DIAL observations. Comparisons with subtropical satellite observations, which lack the spatial resolution of DIAL but provide near continuous coverage throughout the subtropics, show that the model also reproduces longitude and temporal dependence in the tropical-midlatitude boundary. At polar latitudes, observations from DIAL flights on December 9 and January 30, and POAM and MLS between late December and late January are compared with the 3D model. Data from the three platforms consistently show that the observed ozone has a negative trend relative to the modeled ozone, and that the trend is uniform in time between early and mid winter, with no obvious dependence on proximity to the vortex edge.

  8. Real-time airborne gamma-ray background estimation using NASVD with MLE and radiation transport for calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulisek, J. A.; Schweppe, J. E.; Stave, S. C.; Bernacki, B. E.; Jordan, D. V.; Stewart, T. N.; Seifert, C. E.; Kernan, W. J.

    2015-06-01

    Helicopter-mounted gamma-ray detectors can provide law enforcement officials the means to quickly and accurately detect, identify, and locate radiological threats over a wide geographical area. The ability to accurately distinguish radiological threat-generated gamma-ray signatures from background gamma radiation in real time is essential in order to realize this potential. This problem is non-trivial, especially in urban environments for which the background may change very rapidly during flight. This exacerbates the challenge of estimating background due to the poor counting statistics inherent in real-time airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. To address this challenge, we have developed a new technique for real-time estimation of background gamma radiation from aerial measurements without the need for human analyst intervention. The method can be calibrated using radiation transport simulations along with data from previous flights over areas for which the isotopic composition need not be known. Over the examined measured and simulated data sets, the method generated accurate background estimates even in the presence of a strong, 60Co source. The potential to track large and abrupt changes in background spectral shape and magnitude was demonstrated. The method can be implemented fairly easily in most modern computing languages and environments.

  9. Transport of airborne pollen into the city of Thessaloniki: the effects of wind direction, speed and persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damialis, Athanasios; Gioulekas, Dimitrios; Lazopoulou, Chariklia; Balafoutis, Christos; Vokou, Despina

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effect of the wind vector analyzed into its three components (direction, speed and persistence), on the circulation of pollen from differe nt plant taxa prominent in the Thessaloniki area for a 4-year period (1996- 1999). These plant taxa were Ambrosia spp., Artemisia spp., Chenopodiaceae, spp., Cupressaceae, Olea europaea, Pinaceae, Platanus spp., Poaceae, Populus spp., Quercus spp., and Urticaceae. Airborne pollen of Cupressaceae, Urticaceae, Quercus spp. and O. europaea make up approximately 70% of the total average annual pollen counts. The set of data that we worked with represented days without precipitation and time intervals during which winds blew from the same direction for at least 4 consecutive hours. We did this in order to study the effect of the different wind components independently of precipitation, and to avoid secondary effects produced by pollen resuspension phenomena. Factorial regression analysis among the summed bi-hourly pollen counts for each taxon and the values of wind speed and persistence per wind direction gave significant results in 22 cases (combinations of plant taxa and wind directions). The pollen concentrations of all taxa correlated significantly with at least one of the three wind components. In seven out of the 22 taxon-wind direction combinations, the pollen counts correlated positively with wind persistence, whereas this was the case for only two of the taxon-wind speed combinations. In seven cases, pollen counts correlated with the interaction effect of wind speed and persistence. This shows the importance of wind persistence in pollen transport, particularly when weak winds prevail for a considerable part of the year, as is the case for Thessaloniki. Medium/long-distance pollen transport was evidenced for Olea (NW, SW directions), Corylus (NW, SW), Poaceae (SW) and Populus (NW).

  10. Intercontinental transport of pollution from North America to Europe: Airborne trace gas measurements over Central and Northern Europe during CONTRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntrieser, H.; Schlager, H.; Heland, J.; Forster, C.; Stohl, A.; Lawrence, M.; Arnold, F.; Aufmhoff, H.; Cooper, O.

    2003-04-01

    The CONTRACE project investigates the uplift of pollution in frontal systems (warm conveyor belts) over North America and the transport of these air masses to Europe. The first airborne field experiment was carried out from Southern Germany in fall 2001. The DLR research aircraft Falcon was equipped with a complex instrumentation to measure NO, NOy, CO, CO2, O3, J(NO2), acetone, SO2, ions, H2O2, formaldehyde, NMHC, J(O1D) and particles. An extensive set of chemical and meteorological forecast products, including trajectory calculations, was developed and used in combination with satellite images to plan the flights. A passive tracer for surface emissions (CO) was included in the forecast models to separate the regional and intercontinental transport of polluted air masses. For the first time it succeeded to guide the Falcon aircraft into pollution plumes transported all the way from North America (NA). On 22nd November a complex chemical weather situation was predicted for Central Europe with lifting of European emissions into the lower troposphere ahead of an approaching cold front and simultaneously, the advection of a pollution plume from Eastern NA in mid tropospheric layers. Similar CO mixing ratios were observed in both plumes making it difficult to distinguish the two plumes without additional trace gas information. The European pollution plume was characterized by large enhancements in the CO (150 ppbv) and NOy (6 ppbv) mixing ratios. The NOy/CO ratio was 0.135 (typical value for fresh emissions). In comparison the estimated NOy/CO ratio for the NA pollution plume was 0.010 which indicate a tracer age of 4 days. The observed CO and NOy mixing ratios in this plume were 160 ppbv and 1 ppbv. The two plumes were also characterized by very different O3/CO relationships. In the plume from NA a positive O3/CO slope was observed indicating photochemical ozone production (O3 mixing ratios up to 50 ppbv were observed). Most likely O3 was produced photochemically in

  11. Experimental investigation of airborne contaminant transport by a human wake moving in a ventilated aircraft cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poussou, Stephane B.

    The air ventilation system in jetliners provides a comfortable and healthy environment for passengers. Unfortunately, the increase in global air traffic has amplified the risks presented by infectious aerosols or noxious material released during flight. Inside the cabin, air typically flows continuously from overhead outlets into sidewall exhausts in a circular pattern that minimizes secondary flow between adjacent seat rows. However, disturbances frequently introduced by individuals walking along an aisle may alter air distribution, and contribute to spreading of contaminants. Numerical simulation of these convoluted transient flow phenomena is difficult and complex, and experimental assessment of contaminant distribution in real cabins often impractical. A fundamental experimental study was undertaken to examine the transport phenomena, to validate computations and to improve air monitoring systems. A finite moving body was modeled in a 10:1 scale simplified aircraft cabin equipped with ventilation, at a Reynolds number (based on body diameter) of the order of 10,000. An experimental facility was designed and constructed to permit measurements of the ventilation and wake velocity fields using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Contaminant migration was imaged using the planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. The effect of ventilation was estimated by comparison with a companion baseline study. Results indicate that the evolution of a downwash predominant behind finite bodies of small aspect ratio is profoundly perturbed by the ventilation flow. The reorganization of vortical structures in the near-wake leads to a shorter longitudinal recirculation region. Furthermore, mixing in the wake is modified and contaminant is observed to convect to higher vertical locations corresponding to seated passenger breathing level.

  12. Overview: Small Aircraft Transportation System Airborne Remote Sensing Fuel Droplet Evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Holmes, Bruce; Gogos, George; Narayanan, Ram; Smith, Russell; Woods, Sara

    2004-01-01

    , Codes, and Strategic Enterprises. During the first year of funding, Nebraska established open and frequent lines of communication with university affairs officers and other key personnel at all NASA Centers and Enterprises, and facilitated the development of collaborations between and among junior faculty in the state and NASA researchers. As a result, Nebraska initiated a major research cluster, the Small Aircraft Transportation System Nebraska Implementation Template.

  13. An Overview of the A-3 Subscale Diffuser Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James E.; Mulkey, Christopher; Raines, Nickey; Saunders, Grady P.

    2008-01-01

    The Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Project comprised a series of tests of a subscale model of SSC s A-3 Test Stand diffuser. SDT was conducted at NASA s Stennis Space Center (SSC) Apr 2007 - Jan 2008. Purpose of SDT was to mitigate design risk for the A-3 diffuser. Initial scope of the SDT project successfully completed in Jan 2008. Follow-on A-3 risk mitigation testing being planned/considered. This presentation presents an overview of the SDT project.

  14. TRANSPORT, AIR-SURFACE EXCHANGE AND LANDSCAPE ACCUMULATION OF AIRBORNE POLLUTANTS DEPOSITED ONTO RURAL CATCHMENTS: THE CASE OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a modeling analysis of airborne mercury fate in rural catchments by coupling components of simulation models developed and published previously by the authors. Results for individual rural catchments are presented and discussed, with a focus on the major mercu...

  15. Subscale Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental heat rejection devices are required in many spacecraft as the radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demand. One means of obtaining additional heat rejection is through the use of phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HX's). PCM HX's utilize phase change to store energy in unfavorable thermal environments (melting) and reject the energy in favorable environments (freezing). Traditionally, wax has been used as a PCM on spacecraft. However, water is an attractive alternative because it is capable of storing about 40% more energy per unit mass due to its higher latent heat of fusion. The significant problem in using water as a PCM is its expansion while freezing, leading to structural integrity concerns when housed in an enclosed heat exchanger volume. Significant investigation and development has taken place over the past five years to understand and overcome the problems associated with water PCM HX's. This paper reports on the final efforts by Johnson Space Center's Thermal Systems Branch to develop a water based PCM HX. The test article developed and reported on is a subscale version of the full-scale water-based PCM HX's constructed by Mezzo Technologies. The subscale unit was designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation and previous full-scale water PCM HX development. Design modifications to the subscale unit included use of urethane bladder, decreased aspect ratio, perforated protection sheet, and use of additional mid-plates. Testing of the subscale unit was successful and 150 cycles were completed without fail.

  16. A Search for Subscales in the "Science Process Inventory."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Gary C.

    Reported are the findings of a research project designed to identify subscales in the "Science Process Inventory" (SPI) developed by Welch in the 1960's to assess student knowledge about the nature and processes of science. Form D of the instrument was used with a random subsample of 435 students who were included in the Harvard Project Physics…

  17. Airborne Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Lois Thommason

    1984-01-01

    Starting from a science project on flight, art students discussed and investigated various means of moving in space. Then they made acetate illustrations which could be used as transparencies. The projection phenomenon made the illustrations look airborne. (CS)

  18. Subscale hot-fire testing of a formed platelet liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra K.; Hayes, William A.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate low-cost options for fabricating main combustion chambers, formed platelet liners are being developed. The savings in manufacturing time and cost associated with platelet liners are accompanied by promising thermal advantages, such as lower-wall temperatures and increased cycle life. A subscale liner was tested by NASA at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to demonstrate its thermal performance. Testing to date has provided chamber pressures up to 2524 psia, while a maximum chamber pressure of 2700 psia is planned. In general, the liner has remained in good condition and performed well, with only minor areas of localized roughening. Data from this subscale test program is being used to develop a full size chamber for testing on a Space Shuttle Main Engine at MSFC in 1994.

  19. Subscale Test Program for the Orion Conical Ribbon Drogue Parachute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sengupta, Anita; Stuart, Phil; Machin, Ricardo; Bourland, Gary; Schwing, Allen; Longmire, Ellen; Henning, Elsa; Sinclair, Rob

    2011-01-01

    A subscale wind tunnel test program for Orion's conical ribbon drogue parachute is under development. The desired goals of the program are to quantify aerodynamic performance of the parachute in the wake of the entry vehicle, including understanding of the coupling of the parachute and command module dynamics, and an improved understanding of the load distribution within the textile elements of the parachute. The test program is ten percent of full scale conducted in a 3x2.1 m (10x7 ft) closed loop subsonic wind tunnel. The subscale test program is uniquely suited to probing the aerodynamic and structural environment in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. Non-intrusive diagnostics, including Particle Image Velocimetry for wake velocity surveys, high speed pressure transducers for canopy pressure distribution, and a high speed photogrammetric reconstruction, will be used to quantify the parachute's performance.

  20. Chug and Dynamics of the RS-84 Subscale Preburner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casiano, M. J; Morgan, C. J.; Scholten, N.

    2015-01-01

    The development of the RS-84 engine began in 2002 as part of the Space Launch Initiative. It was intended to be a reusable liquid oxygen/RP-1 booster engine of approximately 1 Mlbf thrust. Part of the test campaign consisted of testing subscale components to study key technologies such as oxygenrich, liquid oxygen/RP-1 combustion. In late 2003, the subscale preburner completed 4 hot-fire tests at Stennis Space Center with various hardware configurations and operating conditions, but before all planned tests could be completed the RS-84 engine development program was canceled in 2004. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the development of an oxygen-rich, liquid oxygen/RP-1 combustion engine. Aerojet Rocketdyne and NASA completed testing of the subscale preburner in 2014 at Marshall Space Flight Center in an effort to better understand the chug encountered during the 2003 testing and to collect performance information over a wider range of operating conditions. The 2003 and 2014 data sets included extreme chug oscillations that reached nearly 200% of the chamber pressure and were reduced to well below 10% of the chamber pressure by incorporating a fuel orifice upstream of the fuel manifold. Depending on the hardware configuration and operating condition, a wide range of chug oscillation amplitudes were encountered. The dynamics for both test series were characterized and the data were used in the development of a chug model.

  1. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  2. Subscale Injector Testing to Support J-2X Engine Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Elam, Sandy; Weber, Jim; Miller, Ken

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X engine being pursued for the Ares I will be a derivative of the J-2 engine developed by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). As part of the engine development, a subscale injector was fabricated by PWR and hot-fire tested at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to evaluate performance data. This subscale injector had a reduced injector diameter and fewer elements than the full scale design, but the element density (#elements / injector area), and element geometries nearly identical to the full scale design. Three different materials were used for the LOX posts in order to test for durability. The subscale injector included 46 standard elements and 6 baffle elements, corresponding to the ratio of baffled elements to core elements in the full scale design. The baffle elements were included to demonstrate thermal compatibility of the baffles and to more closely represent the full scale performance. Fifteen hot-fire tests were conducted totaling over 200 seconds of mainstage time on the injector. Chamber pressures with oxygen/hydrogen propellants ranged from 870-1380 psig with mixture ratios ranging from 4.8-6.1. Fuel manifold inlet temperatures were varied from 190 to 300 R. Modular, water cooled, calorimeter chamber assemblies were used to provide heating rate data and evaluate the effects of characteristic length (L*). Performance was evaluated relative to the resulting characteristic velocity (C*) efficiency. Performance met the value required in order to proceed with this design for the full scale hardware. Hardware inspections show no evidence of cracking at the tip of the LOX post for any of the materials tested. Minor erosion of the baffle element tips was observed in the early testing. A design change was quickly implemented and tested, and this change resolved the issue. Development of the J-2X is continuing with this element density and design.

  3. Description and Operation of the A3 Subscale Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, G. P.; Varner, D. G.; Grover, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the general design and operation of the A3 Subscale test facility. The goal is to provide the reader with a general understanding of what the major facility systems are, where they are located, and how they are used to meet the objectives supporting the design of the A3 altitude rocket test facility. This paper also provides the reader with the background information prior to reading the subsequent papers detailing the design and test results of the various systems described herein.

  4. Hot fire test results of subscale tubular combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazaroff, John M.; Jankovsky, Robert S.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced, subscale, tubular combustion chambers were built and test fired with hydrogen-oxygen propellants to assess the increase in fatigue life that can be obtained with this type of construction. Two chambers were tested: one ran for 637 cycles without failing, compared to a predicted life of 200 cycles for a comparable smooth-wall milled-channel liner configuration. The other chamber failed at 256 cycles, compared to a predicted life of 118 cycles for a comparable smooth-wall milled-channel liner configuration. Posttest metallographic analysis determined that the strain-relieving design (structural compliance) of the tubular configuration was the cause of this increase in life.

  5. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  6. Providing Subscale Scores for Diagnostic Information: A Case Study when the Test Is Essentially Unidimensional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Clement A.; Ye, Feifei; Zhu, Xiaowen; Lane, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Although reliability of subscale scores may be suspect, subscale scores are the most common type of diagnostic information included in student score reports. This research compared methods for augmenting the reliability of subscale scores for an 8th-grade mathematics assessment. Yen's Objective Performance Index, Wainer et al.'s augmented scores,…

  7. Spatial-temporal variations, sources, and transport of airborne inhalable metals (PM10) in urban and rural areas of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X. S.; Ip, C. C. M.; Li, W.; Tao, S.; Li, X. D.

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particle pollution is a serious environmental issue in China, especially the northern regions. Ambient air loadings (ng m-3), pollution sources and apportionment, and transport pathways of trace (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) and major (Al, Ca, Fe, and Mg) metals associated with inhalable particulate matters (PM10 aerosols) were characterized in urban, rural village, and rural field areas of seven cities (from inland in the west to the coast in the east: Wuwei, Yinchuan, Taiyuan, Beijing, Dezhou, Yantai, and Dalian) across northern China by taking one 72 h sample each site within a month for a whole year (April 2010 to March 2011). Ambient PM10 pollution in northern China is especially significant in the cold season (October-March) due to the combustion of coal for heating and dust storms in the winter and spring. Owing to variations in emission intensity and meteorological conditions, there is a trend of decrease in PM10 levels in cities from west to east. Both air PM10 and the associated metal loadings for urban and rural areas were comparable, showing that the current pattern of regional pollution in China differs from the decreasing urban-rural-background transect that is usual in other parts of the world. The average metal levels are Zn (276 ng m-3) ≫ Pb (93.7) ≫ Cu (54.9) ≫ Ni (9.37) > V (8.34) ≫ Cd (2.84) > Co (1.76). Judging from concentrations (mg kg-1), enrichment factors (EFs), a multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA), and a receptor model (absolute principal component scores-multiple linear regression analysis, APCS-MLR), the airborne trace metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd) in northern China were mainly anthropogenic, and mostly attributable to coal combustion and vehicle emissions with additional industrial sources. However, the Co was mostly of crustal origin, and the V and Ni were mainly from soil/dust in the western region and mostly from the petrochemical industry/oil combustion in the east. The

  8. Software Considerations for Subscale Flight Testing of Experimental Control Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murch, Austin M.; Cox, David E.; Cunningham, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The NASA AirSTAR system has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient subscale flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. In this paper, software elements of this system are described, with an emphasis on components which allow for rapid prototyping and deployment of aircraft control laws. Through model-based design and automatic coding a common code-base is used for desktop analysis, piloted simulation and real-time flight control. The flight control system provides the ability to rapidly integrate and test multiple research control laws and to emulate component or sensor failures. Integrated integrity monitoring systems provide aircraft structural load protection, isolate the system from control algorithm failures, and monitor the health of telemetry streams. Finally, issues associated with software configuration management and code modularity are briefly discussed.

  9. Subscale Diffuser Testing, E-3 produces first steam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Phase 2 of the A-3 Test Facility Subscale Diffuser Risk Mitigation Project at Stennis Space Center reached a milestone Oct. 25 when the E-3 Test Facility produced superheated (500+ degrees) steam for approximately 3 seconds at more than 400 psi. The test team, led by Barry Robinson of NASA's Test Projects Office, followed that success with further tests to lengthen the duration of steam production. On Nov. 1, they were able to maintain a consistent pressure and temperature of steam for 60 seconds. In December, the team began Phase 3 of the testing, providing data for the design and procurement to build the full-scale version of the steam diffuser for SSC's A-3 Test Stand.

  10. Active Piezoelectric Vibration Control of Subscale Composite Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Min, James B.; Kray, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Fundamental Aeronautics program, researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are investigating new technologies supporting the development of lighter, quieter, and more efficient fans for turbomachinery applications. High performance fan blades designed to achieve such goals will be subjected to higher levels of aerodynamic excitations which could lead to more serious and complex vibration problems. Piezoelectric materials have been proposed as a means of decreasing engine blade vibration either through a passive damping scheme, or as part of an active vibration control system. For polymer matrix fiber composite blades, the piezoelectric elements could be embedded within the blade material, protecting the brittle piezoceramic material from the airflow and from debris. To investigate this idea, spin testing was performed on two General Electric Aviation (GE) subscale composite fan blades in the NASA GRC Dynamic Spin Rig Facility. The first bending mode (1B) was targeted for vibration control. Because these subscale blades are very thin, the piezoelectric material was surface-mounted on the blades. Three thin piezoelectric patches were applied to each blade two actuator patches and one small sensor patch. These flexible macro-fiber-composite patches were placed in a location of high resonant strain for the 1B mode. The blades were tested up to 5000 rpm, with patches used as sensors, as excitation for the blade, and as part of open- and closed-loop vibration control. Results show that with a single actuator patch, active vibration control causes the damping ratio to increase from a baseline of 0.3% critical damping to about 1.0% damping at 0 RPM. As the rotor speed approaches 5000 RPM, the actively controlled blade damping ratio decreases to about 0.5% damping. This occurs primarily because of centrifugal blade stiffening, and can be observed by the decrease in the generalized electromechanical coupling with rotor speed.

  11. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  12. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  13. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  14. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  15. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  16. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  17. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  18. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  19. 14 CFR 135.175 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.175 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate a large, transport category aircraft in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne...

  20. 14 CFR 121.357 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... § 121.357 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate any transport... December 31, 1964, unless approved airborne weather radar equipment has been installed in the airplane....

  1. The Mechanical Performance of Subscale Candidate Elastomer Docking Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastrzyk, Marta B.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing a Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) for future exploration missions. The mechanism is a new state-of-the-art device for in-space assembly of structures and rendezvous of vehicles. At the interface between two pressurized modules, each with a version of the LIDS attached, a composite elastomer-metal seal assembly prevents the breathable air from escaping into the vacuum of space. Attached to the active LIDS, this seal mates against the passive LIDS during docking operation. The main interface seal assembly must exhibit low leak and outgas values, must be able to withstand various harsh space environments, must remain operational over a range of temperatures from -50 C to 75 C, and perform after numerous docking cycles. This paper presents results from a comprehensive study of the mechanical performance of four candidate subscale seal assembly designs at -50, 23, 50, and 75 C test temperatures. In particular, the force required to fully compress the seal during docking, and that which is required for separation during the undocking operation were measured. The height of subscale main interface seal bulbs, as well as the test temperature, were shown to have a significant effect on the forces the main interface seal of the LIDS may experience during docking and undocking operations. The average force values required to fully compress each of the seal assemblies were shown to increase with test temperature by approximately 50% from -50 to 75 C. Also, the required compression forces were shown to increase as the height of the seal bulb was increased. The seal design with the tallest elastomer seal bulb, which was 31% taller than that with the shortest bulb, required force values approximately 45% higher than those for the shortest bulb, independent of the test temperature. The force required to separate the seal was shown to increase with decreasing temperature after 15 hours of simulated docking. No adhesion

  2. Results of a sub-scale model rotor icing test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemming, Robert J.; Bond, Thomas H.; Britton, Randall K.

    1991-01-01

    A heavily instrumented sub-scale model of a helicopter main rotor was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) in September and November 1989. The four-bladed main rotor had a diameter of 1.83 m (6.00 ft) and the 0.124 m (4.9 in) chord rotor blades were specially fabricated for this experiment. The instrumented rotor was mounted on a Sikorsky Aircraft Powered Force Model, which enclosed a rotor balance and other measurement systems. The model rotor was exposed to a range of icing conditions that included variations in temperature, liquid water content, and median droplet diameter, and was operated over ranges of advance ratio, shaft angle, tip Mach number (rotor speed) and weight coefficient to determine the effect of these parameters on ice accretion. In addition to strain gage and balance data, the test was documented with still, video, and high speed photography, ice profile tracings, and ice molds. The sensitivity of the model rotor to the test parameters, is given, and the result to theoretical predictions are compared. Test data quality was excellent, and ice accretion prediction methods and rotor performance prediction methods (using published icing lift and drag relationships) reproduced the performance trends observed in the test. Adjustments to the correlation coefficients to improve the level of correlation are suggested.

  3. Powdered aluminum and oxygen rocket propellants: Subscale combustion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Mike L.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum combined with oxygen has been proposed as a potential lunar in situ propellant for ascent/descent and return missions for future lunar exploration. Engine concepts proposed to use this propellant have not previously been demonstrated, and the impact on performance from combustion and two-phase flow losses could only be estimated. Therefore, combustion tests were performed for aluminum and aluminum/magnesium alloy powders with oxygen in subscale heat-sink rocket engine hardware. The metal powder was pneumatically injected, with a small amount of nitrogen, through the center orifice of a single element O-F-O triplet injector. Gaseous oxygen impinged on the fuel stream. Hot-fire tests of aluminum/oxygen were performed over a mixture ratio range of 0.5 to 3.0, and at a chamber pressure of approximately 480 kPa (70 psia). The theoretical performance of the propellants was analyzed over a mixture ratio range of 0.5 to 5.0. In the theoretical predictions the ideal one-dimensional equilibrium rocket performance was reduced by loss mechanisms including finite rate kinetics, two-dimensional divergence losses, and boundary layer losses. Lower than predicted characteristic velocity and specific impulse performance efficiencies were achieved in the hot-fire tests, and this was attributed to poor mixing of the propellants and two-phase flow effects. Several tests with aluminum/9.8 percent magnesium alloy powder did not indicate any advantage over the pure aluminum fuel.

  4. Performance of Subscale Docking Seals Under Simulated Temperature Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ian M.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2008-01-01

    A universal docking system is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit (LEO), to the moon, and to Mars. The candidate docking seals for the system are a composite design consisting of elastomer seal bulbs molded into the front and rear sides of a metal ring. The test specimens were subscale seals with two different elastomer cross-sections and a 12-in. outside diameter. The seal assemblies were mated in elastomer seal-on-metal plate and elastomer seal-on-elastomer seal configurations. The seals were manufactured from S0383-70 silicone elastomer compound. Nominal and off-nominal joint configurations were examined. Both the compression load required to mate the seals and the leak rate observed were recorded while the assemblies were subjected to representative docking system operating temperatures of -58, 73, and 122 F (-50, 23, and 50 C). Both the loads required to fully compress the seals and their leak rates were directly proportional to the test temperature.

  5. ALS LOX/H2 subscale coaxial injector testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, Carol E.

    1991-01-01

    Tests of a 40K subscale LOX/H2 coaxial LOX swirl injector conducted without injector or chamber degradation are reported. Chamber pressures ranged from 1572 to 2355 psia with overall mixture ratios from 5.04 to 6.39. The highest characteristic velocities were measured when the mixture ratio across the injector face was uniform. Scarfing of the outer row LOX posts had the largest effect on chamber heating rates. As a result of the tests, the LSI design was modified to arrange the outer row LOX posts in a circular pattern, eliminate O/F biasing and fuel film cooling, and modify the interpropellant plate to allow for larger pressure differentials during the start and cutoff transients. Testing of a 100 K LOX/H2 coaxial LOX swirl injector involved chamber pressure ranging from 700 to 2500 psia with overall mixture ratios from 3.2 to 8.8. Stable combustion was observed to a fuel temperature of 90R and characteristic velocity efficiencies were good.

  6. Aging of mineral dust during transport from the Sahara into the Cape Verde area - results from airborne measurements during SAMUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzierl, B.; Sauer, D.; Esselborn, M.; Petzold, A.; Veira, A.; Rose, M.; Mund, S.; Wirth, M.; Ansmann, A.; Tesche, M.; Groß, S.; Freudenthaler, V.

    2012-04-01

    aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region and compare the properties of aged dust with those of fresh dust observed close the Sahara. Changes in the size distribution during transport will be discussed and the impact of the changed size distribution on the radiation budget will be evaluated.

  7. Tracking long-range transported upper-tropospheric pollution layers with a newly developed airborne Hyperspectral Sun/Sky spectrometer (4STAR): Results from the TCAP 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Flynn, C. J.; Johnson, R.; Dunagan, S.; Shinozuka, Y.; Herman, J. R.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Comstock, J. M.; Hubbe, J.

    2013-12-01

    TCAP, the Two Column Aerosol Project, was aimed at providing a detailed set of observations to investigate topics related to radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions, and to learn about aging and transport of atmospheric aerosols and gaseous constituents that are related to tropospheric pollution events. During the year-long campaign, an intensive airborne deployment was held in the summer of 2012 based at the Hyannis airport, Cape-Cod, MA. In the course of the campaign, the newly developed Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) flew onboard the DOE Gulfstream 1 (G-1) aircraft, together with a suite of in-situ instruments to measure atmospheric state parameters and aerosol and cloud characteristics. One of the unique features of the 4STAR instrument, stemming from its design using grating spectrometers that cover the UV-VIS-SWIR spectral range (i.e. 350-1700nm), is its capability to measure atmospheric trace gases such as water vapor, O3 and NO2 concurrently with spectrally resolved aerosol optical depth (AOD). Here, we utilize the 4STAR measurements above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) (i.e. above 3000 meters) to investigate atmospheric composition of elevated pollution layers transported from the continental US and Canada during the TCAP summer phase. The 4STAR-retrieved values of AOD at 500 nm, Ångstrom exponent (AE) at 500 nm, columnar water vapor (CWV), and NO2 are used as variables in a k-means clustering algorithm to determine the atmospheric composition characteristics of the observed elevated polluted layers during the July flights. We found that, compared to AOD, NO2 displays less variability in plumes that are related to biomass-burning (BB) emissions over the course of several days. HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis has confirmed our clustering results of two major air-mass sources: a relatively dry and clean upper tropospheric source and a humid, polluted one. Our clustering analysis, resulting in different ocean

  8. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift

  9. Applying Posttraumatic Stress Disorder MMPI Subscale to World War II POW Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Query, William T.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) subscale in diagnosing older prisoner of war (POW) veterans. Results indicated that the PTSD subscale can be generalized to older veterans. PTSD was more common among POWs from the Pacific theater than those from Europe, however, the…

  10. Subscale Injector Testing to Support Ares Engines Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Elam, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X and RS-68B rocket engines are being developed for NASA's Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles. In support of the development of these engines, hot-fire testing on subscale coaxial injectors has been performed at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to evaluate performance data relative to injector type, liquid oxygen (LOX) post tip design features, element density and various operating conditions. Shear coaxial injectors with element densities of 1.1, 1.6, and 2.3 elements/in2 and a swirl coaxial injector with element density of 1.6 elements/in2 were evaluated at conditions relevant to the Ares applications. Chamber pressures with oxygen/hydrogen propellants ranged from 815-1630 psig with mixture ratios ranging from 4.7-6.9. Fuel manifold inlet temperatures were varied from 90 to 270 R. Shear coaxial LOX post tip thicknesses ranged from 0.006 in. to 0.0175 in. Modular, water cooled, calorimeter chamber assemblies were used to provide heating rate data and evaluate the effects of characteristic length (L*). Performance was evaluated relative to the resulting characteristic velocity (C*) efficiency. Testing with both the 2.3 and 1.1 elements/in2 shear coaxial injectors demonstrated no improvement in performance of the "thin" tip configuration versus the "thick" tip configuration. The loss in chamber pressure and associated performance loss seen in previous testing at low fuel temperatures could not be reliably repeated, indicating that this loss is not the result of a fluidic process in the injector elements. Further, no performance loss could be demonstrated once a faceplate seal specifically designed for operation with low temperature hydrogen was implemented in the 1.1 elements/sq in shear coaxial injector. Results for the 1.6 elements/sq in swirl injector at cold fuel temperatures showed performance higher than both the 1.6 elements/in2 shear coaxial injector and the 2.3 elements/in2 shear coaxial injector.

  11. Airborne Microalgae: Insights, Opportunities, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Tesson, Sylvie V M; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Löndahl, Jakob

    2016-04-01

    Airborne dispersal of microalgae has largely been a blind spot in environmental biological studies because of their low concentration in the atmosphere and the technical limitations in investigating microalgae from air samples. Recent studies show that airborne microalgae can survive air transportation and interact with the environment, possibly influencing their deposition rates. This minireview presents a summary of these studies and traces the possible route, step by step, from established ecosystems to new habitats through air transportation over a variety of geographic scales. Emission, transportation, deposition, and adaptation to atmospheric stress are discussed, as well as the consequences of their dispersal on health and the environment and state-of-the-art techniques to detect and model airborne microalga dispersal. More-detailed studies on the microalga atmospheric cycle, including, for instance, ice nucleation activity and transport simulations, are crucial for improving our understanding of microalga ecology, identifying microalga interactions with the environment, and preventing unwanted contamination events or invasions. PMID:26801574

  12. Airborne Microalgae: Insights, Opportunities, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Löndahl, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Airborne dispersal of microalgae has largely been a blind spot in environmental biological studies because of their low concentration in the atmosphere and the technical limitations in investigating microalgae from air samples. Recent studies show that airborne microalgae can survive air transportation and interact with the environment, possibly influencing their deposition rates. This minireview presents a summary of these studies and traces the possible route, step by step, from established ecosystems to new habitats through air transportation over a variety of geographic scales. Emission, transportation, deposition, and adaptation to atmospheric stress are discussed, as well as the consequences of their dispersal on health and the environment and state-of-the-art techniques to detect and model airborne microalga dispersal. More-detailed studies on the microalga atmospheric cycle, including, for instance, ice nucleation activity and transport simulations, are crucial for improving our understanding of microalga ecology, identifying microalga interactions with the environment, and preventing unwanted contamination events or invasions. PMID:26801574

  13. Static Aeroelastic Scaling and Analysis of a Sub-Scale Flexible Wing Wind Tunnel Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the development of a scaled wind tunnel model for static aeroelastic similarity with a full-scale wing model. The full-scale aircraft model is based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with flexible wing structures referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The baseline stiffness of the ESAC wing represents a conventionally stiff wing model. Static aeroelastic scaling is conducted on the stiff wing configuration to develop the wind tunnel model, but additional tailoring is also conducted such that the wind tunnel model achieves a 10% wing tip deflection at the wind tunnel test condition. An aeroelastic scaling procedure and analysis is conducted, and a sub-scale flexible wind tunnel model based on the full-scale's undeformed jig-shape is developed. Optimization of the flexible wind tunnel model's undeflected twist along the span, or pre-twist or wash-out, is then conducted for the design test condition. The resulting wind tunnel model is an aeroelastic model designed for the wind tunnel test condition.

  14. Coupled Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport/Weather Forecast and Research/Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model. Part II; Simulations of Tower-Based and Airborne CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Wofsy, Steven C.; Matross, Daniel; Gerbig, Christoph; Lin, John C.; Freitas, Saulo; Longo, Marcos; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Peters, Wouter

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates simulations of atmospheric CO2 measured in 2004 at continental surface and airborne receptors, intended to test the capability to use data with high temporal and spatial resolution for analyses of carbon sources and sinks at regional and continental scales. The simulations were performed using the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model driven by the Weather Forecast and Research (WRF) model, and linked to surface fluxes from the satellite-driven Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (VPRM). The simulations provide detailed representations of hourly CO2 tower data and reproduce the shapes of airborne vertical profiles with high fidelity. WRF meteorology gives superior model performance compared with standard meteorological products, and the impact of including WRF convective mass fluxes in the STILT trajectory calculations is significant in individual cases. Important biases in the simulation are associated with the nighttime CO2 build-up and subsequent morning transition to convective conditions, and with errors in the advected lateral boundary condition. Comparison of STILT simulations driven by the WRF model against those driven by the Brazilian variant of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS) shows that model-to-model differences are smaller than between an individual transport model and observations, pointing to systematic errors in the simulated transport. Future developments in the WRF model s data assimilation capabilities, basic research into the fundamental aspects of trajectory calculations, and intercomparison studies involving other transport models, are possible venues for reducing these errors. Overall, the STILT/WRF/VPRM offers a powerful tool for continental and regional scale carbon flux estimates.

  15. Screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders: are subscale scores reliable? A bifactor model analysis.

    PubMed

    DeSousa, Diogo Araújo; Zibetti, Murilo Ricardo; Trentini, Clarissa Marceli; Koller, Silvia Helena; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of creating and scoring subscales for the self-report version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) by examining whether subscale scores provide reliable information after accounting for a general anxiety factor in a bifactor model analysis. A total of 2420 children aged 9-18 answered the SCARED in their schools. Results suggested adequate fit of the bifactor model. The SCARED score variance was hardly influenced by the specific domains after controlling for the common variance in the general factor. The explained common variance (ECV) for the general factor was large (63.96%). After accounting for the general total score (ωh=.83), subscale scores provided very little reliable information (ωh ranged from .005 to .04). Practitioners that use the SCARED should be careful when scoring and interpreting the instrument subscales since there is more common variance to them than specific variance.

  16. Space-based LH 2 propellant storage system: subscale ground testing results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggett, M. W.

    An orbital cryogenic liquid storage facility will be one of the essential elements of the US Space Program to realize the benefits of space-based cryogenic propulsion vehicles such as NASA's space transfer vehicle (STV) for transporting personnel and scientific packages from a space station in low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the moon and beyond. Long-term thermal control of LH 2 and LO 2 storage cryotanks is a key technical objective for many NASA and SDI programmes. Improved retention using refrigeration, boil-off vapour-cooled shields (VCSs), multilayer superinsulation (MLI) and para-ortho (P-O) hydrogen conversion are the required state-of-the-art techniques. The cryotank system level development testing (CSLDT) programme has supported the development of these technologies. Under the programme, trade studies and analyses were followed by the design and construction of a subscale LH 2 storage facility test article for steady-state and transient thermal tests. A two-stage gaseous helium (GHe) refrigerator was integrated with the test article and used to reduce boil-off and/or decrease the time required between passive test configuration steady-state conditions. The LH 2 tank, mounted in a vacuum chamber, was thermally shielded from the chamber wall by MLI blankets and two VCSs. The VCSs were cooled with either LH 2 boil-off gas (through an optional P-O converter) or refrigerated GHe. The CSLDT test article design, assembly and results from 400 hours of thermal tests are presented along with important conclusions. A comparison of predicted and measured steady-state boil-off rates is provided for 10 test configurations, and the system time constant is addressed. Also presented are some of the unique issues and challenges encountered during these tests that are related to instrumentation and control.

  17. Effects of zinc supplementation on subscales of anorexia in children: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Khademian, Majid; Farhangpajouh, Neda; Shahsanaee, Armindokht; Bahreynian, Maryam; Mirshamsi, Mehran; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on improving the appetite and its subscales in children. Methods: This study was conducted in 2013 in Isfahan, Iran. It had two phases. At the first step, after validation of the Child Eating Behaviour Questionaire (CEBQ), it was completed for 300 preschool children, who were randomly selected. The second phase was conducted as a randomized controlled trial. Eighty of these children were randomly selected, and were randomly assigned to two groups of equal number receiving zinc (10 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Results: Overall 77 children completed the trial (39 in the case and 3 in the control group).The results showed that zinc supplement can improve calorie intake in children by affecting some CEBQ subscales like Emotional over Eating and Food Responsible. Conclusion: Zinc supplementation had positive impact in promoting the calorie intake and some subscales of anorexia. PMID:25674110

  18. An Overview of Follow-On Testing Activities of the A-3 Subscale Diffuser Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James E.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC) A-3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Project is presented. The original scope of the SDT Project, conducted from April 2007 to January 2008, collected data to support mitigation of risk associated with design and procurement activities of the A-3 Test Stand Project, an effort to construct a simulated altitude test facility at SSC in support of NASA's Constellation Program. Follow-on tests were conducted from May 2008 through August 2009, utilizing the SDT test setup as a testbed for additional risk mitigation activities. Included are descriptions of the Subscale Diffuser (SD) test article, the test facility configuration, and test approaches.

  19. Reliability and validity of a short version of the general functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device.

    PubMed

    Boterhoven de Haan, Katrina L; Hafekost, Jennifer; Lawrence, David; Sawyer, Michael G; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2015-03-01

    The General Functioning 12-item subscale (GF12) of The McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD) has been validated as a single index measure to assess family functioning. This study reports on the reliability and validity of using only the six positive items from the General Functioning subscale (GF6+). Existing data from two Western Australian studies, the Raine Study (RS) and the Western Australian Child Health Survey (WACHS), was used to analyze the psychometric properties of the GF6+ subscale. The results demonstrated that the GF6+ subscale had virtually equivalent psychometric properties and was able to identify almost all of the same families who had healthy or unhealthy levels of functioning as the full GF12 subscale. In consideration of the constraints faced by large-scale population-based surveys, the findings of this study support the use of a GF6+ subscale from the FAD, as a quick and effective tool to assess the overall functioning of families.

  20. Development of a Dynamically Scaled Generic Transport Model Testbed for Flight Research Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas; Langford, William; Belcastro, Christine; Foster, John; Shah, Gautam; Howland, Gregory; Kidd, Reggie

    2004-01-01

    This paper details the design and development of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) test-bed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The aircraft is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, remotely piloted, twin-turbine, swept wing, Generic Transport Model (GTM) which will be used to provide an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. The unique design challenges arising from the dimensional, weight, dynamic (inertial), and actuator scaling requirements necessitated by the research community are described along with the specific telemetry and control issues associated with a remotely piloted subscale research aircraft. Development of the necessary operational infrastructure, including operational and safety procedures, test site identification, and research pilots is also discussed. The GTM is a unique vehicle that provides significant research capacity due to its scaling, data gathering, and control characteristics. By combining data from this testbed with full-scale flight and accident data, wind tunnel data, and simulation results, NASA will advance and validate control upset prevention and recovery technologies for transport aircraft, thereby reducing vehicle loss-of-control accidents resulting from adverse and upset conditions.

  1. The CPI Subscales as Predictors of Parental Coping with Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupst, Mary Jo; Schulman, Jerome L.

    1981-01-01

    Determined the role of the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) in prediction of parental coping with leukemia. None of the standard CPI subscales was a significant predictor of coping. Coping with the specific situation may be a better predictor of later coping with a similar situation than more global assessments. (Author)

  2. Design and Test of a Nb3Sn Subscale Dipole Magnet for Training Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, Helene; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Felice, Helene; Ferracin, Paolo; Gourlay, Steve A.; Hafalia, Aurelo R.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mailfert, Alain; Sabbi, GainLuca; Vedrine, Pierre

    2007-06-01

    As part of a collaboration between CEA/Saclay and the Superconducting Magnet Group at LBNL, a subscale dipole structure has been developed to study training in Nb3Sn coils under variable pre-stress conditions. This design is derived from the LBNL Subscale Magnet and relies on the use of identical Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack coils. Whereas the original LBNL subscale magnet was in a dual bore 'common-coil' configuration, the new subscale dipole magnet (SD) is assembled as a single bore dipole made of two superposed racetrack coils. The dipole is supported by a new mechanical structure developed to withstand the horizontal and axial Lorentz forces and capable of applying variable vertical, horizontal and axial preload. The magnet was tested at LBNL as part of a series of training studies aiming at understanding of the relation between pre-stress and magnet performance. Particular attention is given to the coil ends where the magnetic field peaks and stress conditions are the least understood. After a description of SD design, assembly, cool-down and tests results are reported and compared with the computations of the OPERA3D and ANSYS magnetic and mechanical models.

  3. Using Data from Multidimensional Pain Inventory Subscales to Assess Functioning in Pain Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlacher, Uwe; Persson, Ann L.; Rivano-Fischer, Marcelo; Sjolund, Bengt H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) subscale score changes can be used for monitoring interdisciplinary cognitive behavioural pain rehabilitation programmes, using the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) index as an independent variable of rehabilitation outcome. Data from 434 consecutively…

  4. Sub-scale Inverse Wind Turbine Blade Design Using Bound Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Christopher; Berg, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    A goal of the National Rotor Testbed project at Sandia is to design a sub-scale wind turbine blade that has similitude to a modern, commercial size blade. However, a smaller diameter wind turbine operating at the same tip-speed-ratio exhibits a different range of operating Reynolds numbers across the blade span, thus changing the local lift and drag coefficients. Differences to load distribution also affect the wake dynamics and stability. An inverse wind turbine blade design tool has been implemented which uses a target, dimensionless circulation distribution from a full-scale blade to find the chord and twist along a sub-scale blade. In addition, airfoil polar data are interpolated from a few specified span stations leading to a smooth, manufacturable blade. The iterative process perturbs chord and twist, after running a blade element momentum theory code, to reduce the residual sum of the squares between the modeled sub-scale circulation and the target full-scale circulation. It is shown that the converged sub-scale design also leads to performance similarity in thrust and power coefficients. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Criterion validity of the financial skills subscale of the direct assessment of functional status scale.

    PubMed

    Barrett, John J; Hart, Kathleen J; Schmerler, Jeanne T; Willmarth, Kevin; Carey, Jo Anne; Mohammed, Somaia

    2009-04-30

    Among the severely mentally ill, some individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder can manage their finances independently, while others depend upon a court-appointed guardian or a representative payee. The present study examined the criterion validity of the financial skills subscale of the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS) scale in classifying those who manage their finances independently from those who do not. Scores on the financial skills subscale of the DAFS scale of 25 severely mentally ill outpatients without a guardian/payee were compared to scores of 24 severely mentally ill outpatients with a guardian/payee; 25 non-mentally ill participants served as controls. Logistic regression analyses, Bayesian statistics, and Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses revealed moderate classification accuracy in a sample with mild cognitive impairment. These analyses were also conducted on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and revealed generally lower accuracy than the DAFS financial skills subscale. The DAFS financial skills subscale can inform the clinician's opinion about the financial capacity of the severely mentally ill. PMID:19269693

  6. The Psychometric Properties of The Religious Status Inventory--"Being Ethical" Subscale among Northern Irish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullan, Mary; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2007-01-01

    There are few self-report measures of morality. The Religious Status Inventory--"Being Ethical" subscale represents one approach. However, at present there is limited information on the psychometric properties of either the original 20-item version (RSInv-20) or the shortened embedded 10-item version (RSInv-S10). The aim of the present study was…

  7. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  8. The Development of Affective Subscales To Reflect Variation in Students' Experiences of Studying Mathematics in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, J. H. F.; Eley, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    Developed conceptually discrete subscales to represent affective sources of variation in student learning that are specific to learning mathematics. Tested these subscales, the Experiences of Studying Mathematics Inventory, with 317 South African and Australian undergraduate mathematics students and groups of 1,439 and 387 British, South African,…

  9. Relating Unidimensional IRT Parameters to a Multidimensional Response Space: A Review of Two Alternative Projection IRT Models for Scoring Subscales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahraman, Nilufer; Thompson, Tony

    2011-01-01

    A practical concern for many existing tests is that subscore test lengths are too short to provide reliable and meaningful measurement. A possible method of improving the subscale reliability and validity would be to make use of collateral information provided by items from other subscales of the same test. To this end, the purpose of this article…

  10. [Association of Braden subscales with the risk of development of pressure ulcer].

    PubMed

    Zambonato, Bruna Pochmann; de Assis, Michelli Cristina Silva; Beghetto, Mariur Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Pressure ulcers (PU) may increase the incidence of hospital complications, and one should prevent this damage. The Braden Scale stands out as a tool to assess the risk of PU. The study aimed to identify changes in the score of the Braden subscales are associated with the risk of developing PCU. Logistic regression was used in a retrospective cohort study conducted in Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in adults hospitalized in surgical clinical units from October 2005 to June 2006. We evaluated the records database of 1503 patients with a mean aged 55.5 +/- 16 years, 52.7% female. The incidence of PU was 1.8% and was associated with diabetes and heart failure. There was a higher PU in patients worst in sensory perception, mobility, and activity and the presence of moisture. No association was found between nutrition and PU. Except nutrition, the other Braden sub-scales shown to be predictive of PU.

  11. A Data System for a Rapid Evaluation Class of Subscale Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogge, Edward F.; Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Hill, Boyd L.

    2011-01-01

    A low cost, rapid evaluation, test aircraft is used to develop and test airframe damage diagnosis algorithms at Langley Research Center as part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program. The remotely operated subscale aircraft is instrumented with sensors to monitor structural response during flight. Data is collected for good and compromised airframe configurations to develop data driven models for diagnosing airframe state. This paper describes the data acquisition system (DAS) of the rapid evaluation test aircraft. A PC/104 form factor DAS was developed to allow use of Matlab, Simulink simulation code in Langley's existing subscale aircraft flight test infrastructure. The small scale of the test aircraft permitted laboratory testing of the actual flight article under controlled conditions. The low cost and modularity of the DAS permitted adaptation to various flight experiment requirements.

  12. Development and Validation of a Pressurization System Model for a Crossfeed Subscale Water Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Han; Mazurkivich, Pete

    2006-01-01

    A pressurization system model was developed for a crossfeed subscale water test article using the EASY5 modeling software. The model consisted of an integrated tank pressurization and pressurization line model. The tank model was developed using the general purpose library, while the line model was assembled from the gas dynamic library. The pressurization system model was correlated to water test data obtained from nine test runs conducted on the crossfeed subscale test article. The model was first correlated to a representative test run and frozen. The correlated model was then used to predict the tank pressures and compared with the test data for eight other runs. The model prediction showed excellent agreement with the test data, allowing it to be used in a later study to analyze the pressurization system performance of a full-scale bimese vehicle with cryogenic propellants.

  13. Subscale solid motor nozzle tests, phase 4 and nozzle materials screening and thermal characterization, phase 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J.; Dodson, J.; Laub, B.

    1979-01-01

    Subscale solid motor nozzles containing a baseline material or low cost materials to be considered as potential replacements for the baseline material are designed and tested. Data are presented from tests of four identically designed 2.5 inch throat diameter nozzles and one 7 inch throat diameter nozzle. The screening of new candidate low cost materials, as well as their thermophysical and thermochemical characterization is also discussed.

  14. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  15. Investigation of off-site airborne transport of lead from a superfund removal action site using lead isotope ratios and concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pribil, Michael J.; Maddaloni, Mark A.; Staiger, Kimberly; Wilson, Eric; Magriples, Nick; Ali, Mustafa; Santella, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic composition of surface and subsurface soil samples were used to investigate the potential for off-site air transport of Pb from a former white Pb processing facility to neighboring residential homes in a six block area on Staten Island, NY. Surface and subsurface soil samples collected on the Jewett White Pb site were found to range from 1.122 to 1.138 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.393 to 2.411 for 208Pb/207Pb. The off-site surface soil samples collected from residential backyards, train trestle, near site grass patches and background areas varied from 1.144 to 1.196 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.427 to 2.464 for 208Pb/207Pb. Two soil samples collected along Richmond Terrace, where Jewett site soils accumulated after major rain events, varied from 1.136 to 1.147 for 206Pb/207Pb and 2.407 to 2.419 for 208Pb/207Pb. Lead concentration for on-site surface soil samples ranged from 450 to 8000 ug/g, on-site subsurface soil samples ranged from 90,000 to 240,000 ug/g and off-site samples varied from 380 to 3500 ug/g. Lead concentration and isotopic composition for the Staten Island off-site samples were similar to previously published data for other northeastern US cities and reflect re-suspension and re-mobilization of local accumulated Pb. The considerable differences in both the Pb isotopic composition and Pb concentration of on-site and off-site samples resulted in the ability to geochemically trace the transport of particulate Pb. Data in this study indicate minimal off-site surface transport of Pb from the Jewett site into the neighboring residential area.

  16. Development of a sub-scale dynamics model for pressure relaxation of multi-material cells in Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Alan K; Shashkov, Mikhail J; Fung, Jimmy; Canfield, Thomas R; Kamm, James R

    2010-10-14

    We have extended the Sub-Scale Dynamics (SSD) closure model for multi-fluid computational cells. Volume exchange between two materials is based on the interface area and a notional interface translation velocity, which is derived from a linearized Riemann solution. We have extended the model to cells with any number of materials, computing pressure-difference-driven volume and energy exchange as the algebraic sum of pairwise interactions. In multiple dimensions, we rely on interface reconstruction to provide interface areas and orientations, and centroids of material polygons. In order to prevent unphysically large or unmanageably small material volumes, we have used a flux-corrected transport (FCT) approach to limit the pressure-driven part of the volume exchange. We describe the implementation of this model in two dimensions in the FLAG hydrodynamics code. We also report on Lagrangian test calculations, comparing them with others made using a mixed-zone closure model due to Tipton, and with corresponding calculations made with only single-material cells. We find that in some cases, the SSD model more accurately predicts the state of material in mixed cells. By comparing the algebraic forms of both models, we identify similar dependencies on state and dynamical variables, and propose explanations for the apparent higher fidelity of the SSD model.

  17. Free-to-roll tests of X-31 and F-18 subscale models with correlation to flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David L., II; Nelson, Robert C.; Fisher, David F.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will concentrate on a series of low-speed wind tunnel tests conducted on a 2.5 percent subscale F-18 model and a 2 percent subscale X-31 model. The model's control surfaces were unaugmented; and for the most part, were deflected at a constant angle throughout the tests. The tests consisted mostly of free-to-roll experiments conducted with the use of an air-bearing, surface pressure measurements, off-surface flow visualization, and force-balance tests. Where possible the results of the subscale tests have been compared to flight test data, or to other wind tunnel data taken at higher Reynolds numbers.

  18. Airborne data acquisition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arro, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of standards on acceptable procedures for assessing building heat loss has created a dilemma for the contractor performing airborne thermographic surveys. These standards impose specifications on instrumentation, data acquisition, recording, interpretation, and presentation. Under the standard, the contractor has both the obligation of compliance and the requirement of offering his services at a reasonable price. This paper discusses the various aspects of data acquisition for airborne thermographic surveys and various techniques to reduce the costs of this operation. These techniques include the calculation of flight parameters for economical data acquisition, the selection and use of maps for mission planning, and the use of meteorological forecasts for flight scheduling and the actual execution of the mission. The proper consideration of these factors will result in a cost effective data acquisition and will place the contractor in a very competitive position in offering airborne thermographic survey services.

  19. Application of computational fluid dynamics to the design of the film cooled STME subscale nozzle for the National Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Joseph L.

    1992-01-01

    The status of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations for the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) film/dump cooled nozzle design is presented, with an emphasis on the timely impact of CFD on the design of the sub-scale nozzle coolant system. The following aspects of the sub-scale coolant delivery system were analyzed with CFD: 1) a design trade study of a mechanical flow splitting device for uniform distribution of the subsonic cavity flow, 2) a design trade study of the subsonic cavity lip to achieve film integrity, and 3) an analysis of the primary flow interaction with the core/secondary coolant streams. All design calculations were performed with the Generalized Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP), a 3-D, multi-block, generalized Navier-Stokes code capable of solving with frozen, finite-rate or equilibrium chemical kinetics. The initial design of the subsonic cavity flow used square posts to distribute the sonic orifice jets into a uniform flow. Calculations for this design indicated that an unacceptable mal-distribution of film occurred. Design modifications involving curved and slotted posts were computed in an effort to uniformly distribute the secondary coolant flow. Analysis of these configurations showed that although the flowfield improved in uniformity, it was still unacceptable, especially at higher feed pressures. Results from these studies were then incorporated into a design that resulted in the insertion of a porous metal ring into the subsonic cavity. Subsequent water flow model studies showed that this concept was successful in uniformly distributing flow exiting the cavity. In addition to the design of the subsonic cavity, CFD was also used to analyze the secondary coolant lip and the primary flow interaction with the core/secondary coolant streams. A series of calculations were first performed to modify the subsonic cavity lip contour. The flow over the modified lip was then computed simultaneously with the primary injectors to

  20. Global deposition of airborne dioxin.

    PubMed

    Booth, Shawn; Hui, Joe; Alojado, Zoraida; Lam, Vicky; Cheung, William; Zeller, Dirk; Steyn, Douw; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-10-15

    We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot spots' of deposition are likely to be in northern Europe, eastern North America, and in parts of Asia with the highest marine dioxin depositions being the northeast and northwest Atlantic, western Pacific, northern Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. It also reveals that approximately 40% of airborne dioxin emissions are deposited to marine environments and that many countries in Africa receive more dioxin than they produce, which results in these countries being disproportionately impacted. Since human exposure to dioxin is largely through diet, this work highlights food producing areas that receive higher atmospheric deposits of dioxin than others.

  1. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  2. Airborne rain mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Parks, G. S.; Li, F. K.; Im, K. E.; Howard, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An airborne scanning radar system for remote rain mapping is described. The airborne rain mapping radar is composed of two radar frequency channels at 13.8 and 24.1 GHz. The radar is proposed to scan its antenna beam over + or - 20 deg from the antenna boresight; have a swath width of 7 km; a horizontal spatial resolution at nadir of about 500 m; and a range resolution of 120 m. The radar is designed to be applicable for retrieving rainfall rates from 0.1-60 mm/hr at the earth's surface, and for measuring linear polarization signatures and raindrop's fall velocity.

  3. Numerical and experimental investigation of the methane film cooling in subscale combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daimon, Y.; Negishi, H.; Koshi, M.; Suslov, D.

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of film cooling in a CH4/O2 subscale chamber with multiinjector elements and two kinds of film cooling slot dimensions are investigated using a calorimeter chamber in experiments and simulations, in which the finite rate chemistry with a reduced CH4/O2 reaction mechanism is taken into account. The computed wall heat flux and pressure distributions are compared to the experimental results, which overall show good agreement. A large slot dimension is shown to induce mixing with core flow. This mixing causes a low heat-flux distribution near face plate along with high combustion efficiency.

  4. Further validation of the self-loathing subscale as a screening tool for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Aruguete, Mara S; Yates, Alayne; Edman, Jeanne L

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the reliability and validity of the Self Loathing Subscale (SLSS) of the Exercise Orientation Questionnaire (EOQ) as a screening tool for possible eating disorders. We administered the SLSS and two other eating disorder screening instruments to 160 college students. Results indicate that the SLSS shows high internal consistency, concurrent validity, and convergent validity. Since the SLSS is based on questions about exercise and is not easily identifiable as a screening tool for eating disorders, the scale may be particularly useful in identifying possible pathology among individuals who may try to suppress or deny obvious symptoms of eating disorders.

  5. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  6. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  7. Reactive Nitrogen in Asian Continental Outflow over the Western Pacific: Results from the NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P)Airborne Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R.; Dibb, J.; Scheuer, E.; Seid, G.; Russo, R.; Sandholm, S.; Tan, D.; Blake, D.; Blake, N.; Singh, H.

    2003-01-01

    We present here results for reactive nitrogen species measured aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific TRACE-P) mission. The large-scale distributions total reactive nitrogen (NO(sub y,sum) = NO + NO2 + HNO3 + PAN + C(sub 1)-C(sub 5) alkyl nitrates) and O3 and CO were better defined in the boundary layer with significant degradation of the relationships as altitude increased. Typically, NO(sub y,sum) was enhanced over background levels of approx.260 pptv by 20-to-30-fold. The ratio C2H2/CO had values of 1-4 at altitudes up to 10 km and as far eastward as 150degE, implying significant vertical mixing of air parcels followed by rapid advection across the Pacific. Analysis air parcels originating from five principal Asian source regions showed that HNO3 and PAN dominated NO(sub y,sum). Correlations of NO(sub y,sum) with C2Cl4 (urban tracer) were not well defined in any of the source regions, and they were only slightly better with CH3Cl (biomass tracer). Air parcels over the western Pacific contained a complex mixture of emission sources that are not easily resolvable as shown by analysis of the Shanghai mega-city plume. It contained an intricate mixture of pollution emissions and exhibited the highest mixing ratios of NO(sub y,sum) species observed during TRACE-P. Comparison of tropospheric chemistry between the earlier PEM-West B mission and the recent TRACE-P data showed that in the boundary layer significant increases in the mixing ratios of NO(sub y,sum)species have occurred, but the middle and upper troposphere seems to have been affected minimally by increasing emissions on the Asian continent over the last 7 years.

  8. Reactive nitrogen in Asian continental outflow over the western Pacific: Results from the NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) airborne mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, R.; Dibb, J.; Scheuer, E.; Seid, G.; Russo, R.; Sandholm, S.; Tan, D.; Singh, H.; Blake, D.; Blake, N.; Atlas, E.; Sachse, G.; Jordan, C.; Avery, M.

    2003-10-01

    We present here results for reactive nitrogen species measured aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) mission. The large-scale distributions total reactive nitrogen (NOy,sum = NO + NO2 + HNO3 + PAN + C1-C5 alkyl nitrates) and O3 and CO were better defined in the boundary layer with significant degradation of the relationships as altitude increased. Typically, NOy,sum was enhanced over background levels of ˜260 pptv by 20-to-30-fold. The ratio C2H2/CO had values of 1-4 at altitudes up to 10 km and as far eastward as 150°E, implying significant vertical mixing of air parcels followed by rapid advection across the Pacific. Analysis air parcels originating from five principal Asian source regions showed that HNO3 and PAN dominated NOy,sum. Correlations of NOy,sum with C2Cl4 (urban tracer) were not well defined in any of the source regions, and they were only slightly better with CH3Cl (biomass tracer). Air parcels over the western Pacific contained a complex mixture of emission sources that are not easily resolvable as shown by analysis of the Shanghai mega-city plume. It contained an intricate mixture of pollution emissions and exhibited the highest mixing ratios of NOy,sum species observed during TRACE-P. Comparison of tropospheric chemistry between the earlier PEM-West B mission and the recent TRACE-P data showed that in the boundary layer significant increases in the mixing ratios of NOy,sum species have occurred, but the middle and upper troposphere seems to have been affected minimally by increasing emissions on the Asian continent over the last 7 years.

  9. Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with transportation and energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the implication of energy usage as it applies to the area of transportation. Some topics covered are efficiencies of various transportation…

  10. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  11. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  12. Airborne asbestos in buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Van Orden, D R

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings nationwide is reported in this study. A total of 3978 indoor samples from 752 buildings, representing nearly 32 man-years of sampling, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all airborne asbestos structures was 0.01structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of airborne asbestos > or = 5microm long was 0.00012fibers/ml (f/ml). For all samples, 99.9% of the samples were <0.01 f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm; no building averaged above 0.004f/ml for fibers longer than 5microm. No asbestos was detected in 27% of the buildings and in 90% of the buildings no asbestos was detected that would have been seen optically (> or = 5microm long and > or = 0.25microm wide). Background outdoor concentrations have been reported at 0.0003f/ml > or = 5microm. These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants.

  13. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  14. Development of a Low-Cost Sub-Scale Aircraft for Flight Research: The FASER Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Donald B.; Cox, David E.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2006-01-01

    An inexpensive unmanned sub-scale aircraft was developed to conduct frequent flight test experiments for research and demonstration of advanced dynamic modeling and control design concepts. This paper describes the aircraft, flight systems, flight operations, and data compatibility including details of some practical problems encountered and the solutions found. The aircraft, named Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research, or FASER, was outfitted with high-quality instrumentation to measure aircraft inputs and states, as well as vehicle health parameters. Flight data are stored onboard, but can also be telemetered to a ground station in real time for analysis. Commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software were used as often as possible. The flight computer is based on the PC104 platform, and runs xPC-Target software. Extensive wind tunnel testing was conducted with the same aircraft used for flight testing, and a six degree-of-freedom simulation with nonlinear aerodynamics was developed to support flight tests. Flight tests to date have been conducted to mature the flight operations, validate the instrumentation, and check the flight data for kinematic consistency. Data compatibility analysis showed that the flight data are accurate and consistent after corrections are made for estimated systematic instrumentation errors.

  15. Numerical Simulations of Subscale Wind Turbine Rotor Inboard Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, Myra L.; Maniaci, David Charles; Resor, Brian R.

    2015-04-01

    New blade designs are planned to support future research campaigns at the SWiFT facility in Lubbock, Texas. The sub-scale blades will reproduce specific aerodynamic characteristics of utility-scale rotors. Reynolds numbers for megawatt-, utility-scale rotors are generally above 2-8 million. The thickness of inboard airfoils for these large rotors are typically as high as 35-40%. The thickness and the proximity to three-dimensional flow of these airfoils present design and analysis challenges, even at the full scale. However, more than a decade of experience with the airfoils in numerical simulation, in the wind tunnel, and in the field has generated confidence in their performance. Reynolds number regimes for the sub-scale rotor are significantly lower for the inboard blade, ranging from 0.7 to 1 million. Performance of the thick airfoils in this regime is uncertain because of the lack of wind tunnel data and the inherent challenge associated with numerical simulations. This report documents efforts to determine the most capable analysis tools to support these simulations in an effort to improve understanding of the aerodynamic properties of thick airfoils in this Reynolds number regime. Numerical results from various codes of four airfoils are verified against previously published wind tunnel results where data at those Reynolds numbers are available. Results are then computed for other Reynolds numbers of interest.

  16. Design, Activation, and Operation of the J2-X Subscale Simulator (JSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Grady P.; Raines, Nickey G.; Varner, Darrel G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a detailed description of the design, activation, and operation of the J2-X Subscale Simulator (JSS) installed in Cell 1 of the E3 test facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC). The primary purpose of the JSS is to simulate the installation of the J2-X engine in the A3 Subscale Rocket Altitude Test Facility at SSC. The JSS is designed to give aerodynamically and thermodynamically similar plume properties as the J2-X engine currently under development for use as the upper stage engine on the ARES I and ARES V spacecraft. The JSS is a scale pressure fed, LOX/GH fueled rocket that is geometrically similar to the J2-X from the throat to the nozzle exit plane (NEP) and is operated at the same oxidizer to fuel ratios and chamber pressures. This paper describes the heritage hardware used as the basis of the JSS design, the newly designed rocket hardware, igniter systems used, and the activation and operation of the JSS.

  17. Photonically enabled Ka-band radar and infrared sensor subscale testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohr, Michele B.; Sova, Raymond M.; Funk, Kevin B.; Airola, Marc B.; Dennis, Michael L.; Pavek, Richard E.; Hollenbeck, Jennifer S.; Garrison, Sean K.; Conard, Steven J.; Terry, David H.

    2014-10-01

    A subscale radio frequency (RF) and infrared (IR) testbed using novel RF-photonics techniques for generating radar waveforms is currently under development at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to study target scenarios in a laboratory setting. The linearity of Maxwell's equations allows the use of millimeter wavelengths and scaled-down target models to emulate full-scale RF scene effects. Coupled with passive IR and visible sensors, target motions and heating, and a processing and algorithm development environment, this testbed provides a means to flexibly and cost-effectively generate and analyze multi-modal data for a variety of applications, including verification of digital model hypotheses, investigation of correlated phenomenology, and aiding system capabilities assessment. In this work, concept feasibility is demonstrated for simultaneous RF, IR, and visible sensor measurements of heated, precessing, conical targets and of a calibration cylinder. Initial proof-of-principle results are shown of the Ka-band subscale radar, which models S-band for 1/10th scale targets, using stretch processing and Xpatch models.

  18. Revisiting the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire: A Theoretical and Statistical Reevaluation of the Metacognitive Self-Regulation and Effort Regulation Subscales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Karee E.; Lo, Wen-Juo; Mulvenon, Sean W.; Sutcliffe, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) has dominated self-regulated learning research since the early 1990s. In this study, the two MSLQ subscales specifically designed to assess self-regulation--Metacognitive Self-Regulation subscale and Effort Regulation subscale--were examined. Results indicated that the structure of the two…

  19. Photoreactivation in Airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum

    PubMed Central

    Peccia, Jordan; Hernandez, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Photoreactivation was observed in airborne Mycobacterium parafortuitum exposed concurrently to UV radiation (254 nm) and visible light. Photoreactivation rates of airborne cells increased with increasing relative humidity (RH) and decreased with increasing UV dose. Under a constant UV dose with visible light absent, the UV inactivation rate of airborne M. parafortuitum cells decreased by a factor of 4 as RH increased from 40 to 95%; however, under identical conditions with visible light present, the UV inactivation rate of airborne cells decreased only by a factor of 2. When irradiated in the absence of visible light, cellular cyclobutane thymine dimer content of UV-irradiated airborne M. parafortuitum and Serratia marcescens increased in response to RH increases. Results suggest that, unlike in waterborne bacteria, cyclobutane thymine dimers are not the most significant form of UV-induced DNA damage incurred by airborne bacteria and that the distribution of DNA photoproducts incorporated into UV-irradiated airborne cells is a function of RH. PMID:11526027

  20. [Air-borne disease].

    PubMed

    Lameiro Vilariño, Carmen; del Campo Pérez, Victor M; Alonso Bürger, Susana; Felpeto Nodar, Irene; Guimarey Pérez, Rosa; Pérez Alvarellos, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    Respiratory protection is a factor which worries nursing professionals who take care of patients susceptible of transmitting microorganisms through the air more as every day passes. This type of protection covers the use of surgical or hygienic masks against the transmission of infection by airborne drops to the use of highly effective masks or respirators against the transmission of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis or SARS, a recently discovered disease. The adequate choice of this protective device and its correct use are fundamental in order to have an effective protection for exposed personnel. The authors summarize the main protective respiratory devices used by health workers, their characteristics and degree of effectiveness, as well as the circumstances under which each device is indicated for use. PMID:14705591

  1. Particle size distribution measurements in a subscale motor for the Ariane 5 solid rocket booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traineau, J. C.; Kuentzmann, P.; Prevost, M.; Tarrin, P.; Delfour, A.

    1992-07-01

    An experimental determination of the combustion-chamber aluminum oxide particle-size distribution for the Ariane 5 Solid Rocket Booster is carried out. A subscale motor using a helium injection technique for quenching the reaction products is designed, manufactured and tested. A 30 percent helium-mass flow rate injection close to the head-end of the combustion chamber is found to give an exhaust aluminum oxide particle-size distribution representative of the combustion chamber distribution. A laser light-scattering technique and a particle-capturing technique are used and large particles found with both sizing techniques. A stretched particle size volume distribution with particle diameters ranging from 1 to 120 microns, with a maximum around 45 microns is demonstrated.

  2. Subscale Validation of the Subsurface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) Approach to the NTP Ground Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William M.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Bulman, Mel; Joyner, Russell; Martin, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has been recognized as an enabling technology for missions to Mars and beyond. However, one of the key challenges of developing a nuclear thermal rocket is conducting verification and development tests on the ground. A number of ground test options are presented, with the Sub-surface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) method identified as a preferred path forward for the NTP program. The SAFE concept utilizes the natural soil characteristics present at the Nevada National Security Site to provide a natural filter for nuclear rocket exhaust during ground testing. A validation method of the SAFE concept is presented, utilizing a non-nuclear sub-scale hydrogen/oxygen rocket seeded with detectible radioisotopes. Additionally, some alternative ground test concepts, based upon the SAFE concept, are presented. Finally, an overview of the ongoing discussions of developing a ground test campaign are presented.

  3. Predicting Print-thru for the Sub-scale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (SBMD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Larry; J. Kevin Russell (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This document presents a finite element method for predicting print-thru or quilting for a lightweight mirror in a low temperature environment. The mirror is represented with quadrilateral and triangular plate finite elements. The SBMD (Sub-scale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator) is circular with a diameter of 50 cm and one flat side. The mirror structure is a thin-wall triangular cell core with a single facesheet. There is a 4 mm radius fillet between the facesheet and cell walls. It is made entirely of Beryllium. It is assumed that polishing the mirror surface creates a thin surface layer with different material properties. Finite element results are compared with measured values at cryogenic temperatures.

  4. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  5. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  6. Design of a Subscale Propellant Slag Evaluation Motor Using Two-Phase Fluid Dynamic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitesides, R. Harold; Dill, Richard A.; Purinton, David C.; Sambamurthi, Jay K.

    1996-01-01

    Small pressure perturbations in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) are caused by the periodic expulsion of molten aluminum oxide slag from a pool that collects in the aft end of the motor around the submerged nozzle nose during the last half of motor operation. It is suspected that some motors produce more slag than others due to differences in aluminum oxide agglomerate particle sizes that may relate to subtle differences in propellant ingredient characteristics such as particle size distributions or processing variations. A subscale motor experiment was designed to determine the effect of propellant ingredient characteristics on the propensity for slag production. An existing 5 inch ballistic test motor was selected as the basic test vehicle. The standard converging/diverging nozzle was replaced with a submerged nose nozzle design to provide a positive trap for the slag that would increase the measured slag weights. Two-phase fluid dynamic analyses were performed to develop a nozzle nose design that maintained similitude in major flow field features with the full scale RSRM. The 5 inch motor was spun about its longitudinal axis to further enhance slag collection and retention. Two-phase flow analysis was used to select an appropriate spin rate along with other considerations, such as avoiding bum rate increases due to radial acceleration effects. Aluminum oxide particle distributions used in the flow analyses were measured in a quench bomb for RSRM type propellants with minor variations in ingredient characteristics. Detailed predictions for slag accumulation weights during motor bum compared favorably with slag weight data taken from defined zones in the subscale motor and nozzle. The use of two-phase flow analysis proved successful in gauging the viability of the experimental program during the planning phase and in guiding the design of the critical submerged nose nozzle.

  7. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles.

  8. Mammalian airborne allergens.

    PubMed

    Aalberse, Rob C

    2014-01-01

    Historically, horse dandruff was a favorite allergen source material. Today, however, allergic symptoms due to airborne mammalian allergens are mostly a result of indoor exposure, be it at home, at work or even at school. The relevance of mammalian allergens in relation to the allergenic activity of house dust extract is briefly discussed in the historical context of two other proposed sources of house dust allergenic activity: mites and Maillard-type lysine-sugar conjugates. Mammalian proteins involved in allergic reactions to airborne dust are largely found in only 2 protein families: lipocalins and secretoglobins (Fel d 1-like proteins), with a relatively minor contribution of serum albumins, cystatins and latherins. Both the lipocalin and the secretoglobin family are very complex. In some instances this results in a blurred separation between important and less important allergenic family members. The past 50 years have provided us with much detailed information on the genomic organization and protein structure of many of these allergens. However, the complex family relations, combined with the wide range of post-translational enzymatic and non-enzymatic modifications, make a proper qualitative and quantitative description of the important mammalian indoor airborne allergens still a significant proteomic challenge. PMID:24925404

  9. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  10. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  11. The criterion of subscale sufficiency and its application to the relationship between static capillary pressure, saturation and interfacial areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzeja, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Modern imaging techniques, increased simulation capabilities and extended theoretical frameworks, naturally drive the development of multiscale modelling by the question: which new information should be considered? Given the need for concise constitutive relationships and efficient data evaluation; however, one important question is often neglected: which information is sufficient? For this reason, this work introduces the formalized criterion of subscale sufficiency. This criterion states whether a chosen constitutive relationship transfers all necessary information from micro to macroscale within a multiscale framework. It further provides a scheme to improve constitutive relationships. Direct application to static capillary pressure demonstrates usefulness and conditions for subscale sufficiency of saturation and interfacial areas.

  12. Temporal Patterns of Airborne Pesticides in Alpine Lakes of the Sierra Nevada, California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne agricultural pesticides are being transported many tens of kilometers to remote mountain areas, and have been implicated as a causal agent for recent, dramatic population declines of several amphibian species in such locations. Largely unmeasured, however, are the magnit...

  13. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  14. Fatigue life prediction of liquid rocket engine combustor with subscale test verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, In-Kyung

    Reusable rocket systems such as the Space Shuttle introduced a new era in propulsion system design for economic feasibility. Practical reusable systems require an order of magnitude increase in life. To achieve this improved methods are needed to assess failure mechanisms and to predict life cycles of rocket combustor. A general goal of the research was to demonstrate the use of subscale rocket combustor prototype in a cost-effective test program. Life limiting factors and metal behaviors under repeated loads were surveyed and reviewed. The life prediction theories are presented, with an emphasis on studies that used subscale test hardware for model validation. From this review, low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep-fatigue interaction (ratcheting) were identified as the main life limiting factors of the combustor. Several life prediction methods such as conventional and advanced viscoplastic models were used to predict life cycle due to low cycle thermal stress, transient effects, and creep rupture damage. Creep-fatigue interaction and cyclic hardening were also investigated. A prediction method based on 2D beam theory was modified using 3D plate deformation theory to provide an extended prediction method. For experimental validation two small scale annular plug nozzle thrusters were designed, built and tested. The test article was composed of a water-cooled liner, plug annular nozzle and 200 psia precombustor that used decomposed hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizer and JP-8 as the fuel. The first combustor was tested cyclically at the Advanced Propellants and Combustion Laboratory at Purdue University. Testing was stopped after 140 cycles due to an unpredicted failure mechanism due to an increasing hot spot in the location where failure was predicted. A second combustor was designed to avoid the previous failure, however, it was over pressurized and deformed beyond repair during cold-flow test. The test results are discussed and compared to the analytical and numerical

  15. The 'Technology - Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire': a version with a technology-related subscale

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; López, Oscar L.; Riveros, Rodrigo; Nuñez-Huasaf, Javier; Flores, Patricia; Slachevsky, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background Information and communication technology (ICT) has become an increasingly important part of daily life. The ability to use technology is becoming essential for autonomous functioning in society. Current functional scales for patients with cognitive impairment do not evaluate the use of technology. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new version of the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADLQ) that incorporates an ICT subscale. Method A new technology-based subscale was incorporated into the Spanish Version of the ADLQ (SV-ADLQ), entitled The Technology Version of the ADLQ (T-ADLQ). The T-ADLQ was administered to 63 caregivers of dementia patients, 21 proxies of mild cognitive impairment patients and 44 proxies of normal elderly subjects (mean age of the sample ± SD: 73.5 ± 8.30). We analysed the convergent validity, internal consistency, reliability cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ. The results of the T-ADLQ were compared to the SV-ADLQ. Results The T-ADLQ showed significant correlations with the Mini-mental Test (MMSE), the Frontal Assesment Battery (FAB) as well as other measures of functional impairment and dementia severity (MMSE: r = −0.70; FAB: r = −0.65; Functional Assessment Questionnaire: r = 0.77; Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale: r = −0.75; Clinical Dementia Rating Scale: r = 0.72; p<0.001). The T-ADLQ showed a good reliability with a relatively high Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.861). When considering a functional impairment cut-off point greater than 29.25%, the sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ were 82% and 90%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.937 for the T-ADLQ and 0.932 for the original version of the test. Conclusions The T-ADLQ revealed adequate indicators of validity and reliability for the functional assessment of activities of daily living in dementia patients. However, the inclusion of technology items in

  16. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  17. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown.

  18. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  19. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  20. Airborne Trailblazer: Two decades with NASA Langley's 737 flying laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Lane E.

    1994-01-01

    This book is the story of a very unique aircraft and the contributions it has made to the air transportation industry. NASA's Boeing 737-100 Transport Systems Research Vehicle started life as the prototype for Boeing's 737 series of aircraft. The airplane was acquired by LaRC in 1974 to conduct research into advanced transport aircraft technologies. In the twenty years that followed, the airplane participated in more than twenty different research projects, evolving from a research tool for a specific NASA program into a national airborne research facility. It played a critical role in developing and gaining acceptance for numerous significant transport technologies including 'glass cockpits,' airborne windshear detection systems, data links for air traffic control communications, the microwave landing system, and the satellite-based global positioning system (GPS).

  1. Visualizing Airborne and Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierwirth, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing is a process able to provide information about Earth to better understand Earth's processes and assist in monitoring Earth's resources. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is one remote sensing instrument dedicated to the cause of collecting data on anthropogenic influences on Earth as well as assisting scientists in understanding land-surface and atmospheric interactions. Landsat is a satellite program dedicated to collecting repetitive coverage of the continental Earth surfaces in seven regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Combining these two aircraft and satellite remote sensing instruments will provide a detailed and comprehensive data collection able to provide influential information and improve predictions of changes in the future. This project acquired, interpreted, and created composite images from satellite data acquired from Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). Landsat images were processed for areas covered by CAR during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCT AS), Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC), Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEXB), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 missions. The acquisition of Landsat data will provide supplemental information to assist in visualizing and interpreting airborne and satellite imagery.

  2. Sub-Scale Testing and Development of the J-2X Fuel Turbopump Inducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Scott R.; Becht, David G.

    2011-01-01

    In the early stages of the J-2X upper stage engine program, various inducer configurations proposed for use in the fuel turbopump (FTP) were tested in water. The primary objectives of this test effort were twofold. First, to obtain a more comprehensive data set than that which existed in the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) historical archives from the original J-2S program, and second, to supplement that data set with information regarding the cavitation induced vibrations for both the historical J-2S configuration as well as those tested for the J-2X program. The J-2X FTP inducer, which actually consists of an inducer stage mechanically attached to a kicker stage, underwent 4 primary iterations utilizing sub-scaled test articles manufactured and tested in PWR's Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL). The kicker remained unchanged throughout the test series. The four inducer configurations tested retained many of the basic design features of the J-2S inducer, but also included variations on leading edge blade thickness and blade angle distribution, primarily aimed at improving suction performance at higher flow coefficients. From these data sets, the effects of the tested design variables on hydrodynamic performance and cavitation instabilities were discerned. A limited comparison of impact to the inducer efficiency was determined as well.

  3. With a small stabilization parachute trailing behind, the X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator is

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    With a small stabilization parachute trailing behind, the X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator is suspended under a U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook cargo helicopter during a captive-carry test flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The captive carry flights are designed to verify the X-40's navigation and control systems, rigging angles for its sling, and stability and control of the helicopter while carrying the X-40 on a tether. Following a series of captive-carry flights, the X-40 made free flights from a launch altitude of about 15,000 feet above ground, gliding to a fully autonomous landing. The X-40 is an unpowered 82 percent scale version of the X-37, a Boeing-developed spaceplane designed to demonstrate various advanced technologies for development of future lower-cost access to space vehicles. The X-37 will be carried into space aboard a space shuttle and then released to perform various maneuvers and a controlled re-entry through the Earth's atmosphere to an airplane-style landing on a runway, controlled entirely by pre-programmed computer software.

  4. Testing Lunar Return Thermal Protection Systems using Sub-Scale Flight Test Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, George; De Jong, Christian; Ivanov, Mark; Ong, Chester; Seybold, Calina; Hash, David

    2007-01-01

    A key objective of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is to revisit the lunar surface. Such an ambitious goal requires the development of a new human-rated spacecraft, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), to ferry crews to low earth orbit and to the moon. The successful conclusion of both types of missions will require a thermal protection system (TPS) capable of protecting the vehicle and crew from the extreme heat of atmospheric reentry. As a part of the TPS development, various materials are being tested in arcjet tunnels; however, the combined lunar return aerothermal environment of high heat flux, shear stress, and surface pressure cannot be duplicated using only existing ground test facilities. To ensure full TPS qualification, a flight test program using sub-scale Orion capsules has been proposed to test TPS materials and heat shield construction techniques under the most stressing combination of lunar return aerothermal environments. Originally called Testing Of Reentry Capsule Heat Shield, or TORCH, but later renamed LEX, for Lunar Reentry Experiment, the proposed flight test program is presented along with the driving requirements and descriptions of the vehicle and the TPS instrumentation suite slated to conduct in-flight measurements.

  5. AOCM program 1992 to 1993 status report: Basilisk subscale laser experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, M.; Norton, M.; Honig, J.; Hackel, L.

    1994-01-13

    This report summarizes the work performed by the Advanced Optical Counter Measures (AOCM) program from January 1992 to February 1993, funded by the US DOD and administered by the US Army`s Night Vision and Electro-optics Directorate (NVEOD). The AOCM program objective was the development of an advanced anti-sensor weapon system, the Basilisk laser. Basilisk is a high power, white light laser. Its compact size permits deployment on a variety of platforms, including the Bradley Fighting vehicle, where Basilisk would augment the Bradley`s conventional weapon systems. The effectiveness of Basilisk was recently demonstrated in a series of battlefield simulations, CTAS 2.5, where its Mission Defeat Score was eight times higher than lower energy anti-sensor laser systems. In November 1991, a five phase strategy was proposed to develop the Basilisk white light laser system. This report documents the experimental activities performed by the AOCM program and describes several major experimental milestones we achieved during the first year of funding. The focus of this report is on a series of subscale experiments to demonstrate key laser physics and engineering technologies.

  6. Subscale and Full-Scale Testing of Buckling-Critical Launch Vehicle Shell Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Haynie, Waddy T.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Roberts, Michael G.; Norris, Jeffery P.; Waters, W. Allen; Herring, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    New analysis-based shell buckling design factors (aka knockdown factors), along with associated design and analysis technologies, are being developed by NASA for the design of launch vehicle structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles and can help mitigate some of NASA s launch vehicle development and performance risks by reducing the reliance on testing, providing high-fidelity estimates of structural performance, reliability, robustness, and enable increased payload capability. However, in order to validate any new analysis-based design data or methods, a series of carefully designed and executed structural tests are required at both the subscale and full-scale level. This paper describes recent buckling test efforts at NASA on two different orthogrid-stiffened metallic cylindrical shell test articles. One of the test articles was an 8-ft-diameter orthogrid-stiffened cylinder and was subjected to an axial compression load. The second test article was a 27.5-ft-diameter Space Shuttle External Tank-derived cylinder and was subjected to combined internal pressure and axial compression.

  7. Test results of a Nb3Al/Nb3Sn subscale magnet for accelerator application

    DOE PAGES

    Iio, Masami; Xu, Qingjin; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Sasaki, Ken -ichi; Ogitsu, Toru; Yamamoto, Akira; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Sugano, Michinaka; Enomoto, Shun; et al

    2015-01-28

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) has been developing a Nb3Al and Nb3Sn subscale magnet to establish the technology for a high-field accelerator magnet. The development goals are a feasibility demonstration for a Nb3Al cable and the technology acquisition of magnet fabrication with Nb3Al superconductors. KEK developed two double-pancake racetrack coils with Rutherford-type cables composed of 28 Nb3Al wires processed by rapid heating, quenching, and transformation in collaboration with the National Institute for Materials Science and the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The magnet was fabricated to efficiently generate a high magnetic field in a minimum-gap common-coil configuration with twomore » Nb3Al coils sandwiched between two Nb3Sn coils produced by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A shell-based structure and a “bladder and key” technique have been used for adjusting coil prestress during both the magnet assembly and the cool down. In the first excitation test of the magnet at 4.5 K performed in June 2014, the highest quench current of the Nb3Sn coil, i.e., 9667 A, was reached at 40 A/s corresponding to 9.0 T in the Nb3Sn coil and 8.2 T in the Nb3Al coil. The quench characteristics of the magnet were studied.« less

  8. Development of combustion response functions in a subscale high-pressure transverse combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierman, M.; Pomeroy, B.; Anderson, W.

    2016-07-01

    Combustion response functions describe the magnitude and time lag behavior of a flame in response to unsteady pressure and velocity. By understanding the feedback between unsteady flowfields and heat release, the growth and decay of combustion instability can be better predicted. An automated data isolation and reduction method has been developed to generate meaningful graphical combustion response functions from a combination of pressure amplitude and various image analysis metrics. It was developed and tested using pressure measurements and high-speed imaging of combustion light taken from a single element at the midspan of an unstable high-pressure subscale transverse combustor. The code was used to isolate time slices of near stationary pressure amplitude and to process the corresponding images into combustion response approximated by aggregate intensity, intensity weighted spatial center, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD). Overall, the generated combustion response functions generally agreed with expected behavior of an element located at a first width (1W) velocity antinode and second width (2W) pressure antinode. Results from both POD and DMD successfully isolated the prominent spatial and temporal light emission behavior.

  9. Validity of the Sleep Subscale of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Malone, Carrie J.

    2006-01-01

    Currently there are no available sleep disorder measures for individuals with severe and profound intellectual disability. We, therefore, attempted to establish the external validity of the "Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II" (DASH-II) sleep subscale by comparing daily observational sleep data with the responses of direct care…

  10. Preliminary engineering report for design of a subscale ejector/diffuser system for high expansion ratio space engine testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.; Kurzius, S. C.; Doktor, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The design of a subscale jet engine driven ejector/diffuser system is examined. Analytical results and preliminary design drawings and plans are included. Previously developed performance prediction techniques are verified. A safety analysis is performed to determine the mechanism for detonation suppression.

  11. An Analysis of Irish Pre-School Practice and Pedagogy Using the Early Childhood Environmental Four Curricular Subscales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neylon, Gerardine

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of original research which applied the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale Extension (ECERS/E) four Curricular Subscales in 26 pre-schools throughout Ireland to measure and assess the provision of literacy, maths, science and environment, and diversity as follows: inadequate, minimal, good or excellent. The…

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PKBS-2 Subscales for Assessing Social Skills and Behavioral Problems in Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria; Benitez, Juan L.; Pichardo, M. Carmen; Fernandez, Eduardo; Justicia, Fernando; Garcia, Trinidad; Garcia-Berben, Ana; Justicia, Ana; Alba, Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Different research studies point out the importance of social competence as a protective factor against antisocial behavior. They likewise alert us of the importance of having valid, reliable instruments that measure these constructs in early childhood. Method: The objective of this research is to validate the subscales of the…

  13. Preliminary study of the bilingual version of the self-actualization value subscale of the Personal Orientation Inventory.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, A K

    1994-12-01

    A bilingual version of Shostrom's Self-actualization Value subscale of the Personal Orientation Inventory was administered to 62 Malaysian students. For the 26-item paired-opposite inventory, test-retest reliability over 6 mo. was .39 (for boys .42, for girls .37) and criterion validity was .57. Replication with other groups is recommended.

  14. A rating scale for psychotic symptoms (RSPS) part I: theoretical principles and subscale 1: perception symptoms (illusions and hallucinations).

    PubMed

    Chouinard, G; Miller, R

    1999-08-17

    The authors present a new rating scale for the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia and related psychoses. The scale links specific symptoms of psychopathology to dysfunction and overactivity of dopaminergic mechanisms underlying the processes of reward and selective attention. The Rating Scale for Psychotic Symptoms (RSPS) is a 44-item rating instrument with a seven-point severity scale for each item. Psychotic symptoms are classified into three groups: Pathological amplification of mental images (perception symptoms) (subscale 1), Distraction symptoms (including catatonia and passivity experiences) (subscale 2), and Delusions (subscale 3). A dimensional, rather than a categorical, conceptualization of psychosis is assumed. Rating is accomplished through a manual and a semi-structured interview (SSCI-RSPS). In this first of two papers, general issues about the construction of the scale and the derivation of symptom groups are discussed. Dopamine-mediated modification of cortico-striatal synapses is seen as being of critical importance in all three groups of symptoms. In this first paper, we present subscale I (perception symptoms), which includes both amplified perceptual images (illusions) and hallucinations. A total of seven illusions and 11 hallucinations are rated as individual items.

  15. Hot-gas-side heat transfer characteristics of subscale, plug-nozzle rocket calorimeter chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quentmeyer, Richard J.; Roncace, Elizabeth A.

    1993-07-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the hot-gas-side heat transfer characteristics for a liquid-hydrogen-cooled, subscale, plug-nozzle rocket test apparatus. This apparatus has been used since 1975 to evaluate rocket engine advanced cooling concepts and fabrication techniques, to screen candidate combustion chamber liner materials, and to provide data for model development. In order to obtain the data, a water-cooled calorimeter chamber having the same geometric configuration as the plug-nozzle test apparatus was tested. It also used the same two showerhead injector types that were used on the test apparatus: one having a Rigimesh faceplate and the other having a platelet faceplate. The tests were conducted using liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen as the propellants over a mixture ratio range of 5.8 to 6.3 at a nominal chamber pressure of 4.14 MPa abs (600 psia). The two injectors showed similar performance characteristics with the Rigimesh faceplate having a slightly higher average characteristic-exhaust-velocity efficiency of 96 percent versus 94.4 percent for the platelet faceplate. The throat heat flux was 54 MW/m(sup 2) (33 Btu/in.(sup 2)-sec) at the nominal operating condition, which was a chamber pressure of 4.14 MPa abs (600 psia), a hot-gas-side wall temperature of 730 K (1314 R), and a mixture ratio of 6.0. The chamber throat region correlation coefficient C(sub g) for a Nusselt number correlation of the form Nu =C(sub g)Re(sup 0.8)Pr(sup 0.3) averaged 0.023 for the Rigimesh faceplate and 0.026 for the platelet faceplate.

  16. High-fidelity cryothermal test of a subscale large space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Ollendorf, S.; Mattern, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Jackson, M.; Francis, J.; Hait, T.; Cleveland, P.; Muheim, D.; Mastropietro, A. J.

    2007-09-01

    To take advantage of the unique environment of space and optimize infrared observations for faint sources, space telescopes must be cooled to low temperatures. The new paradigm in cooling large space telescopes is to use a combination of passive radiative cooling and mechanical cryocoolers. The passive system must shield the telescope from the Sun, Earth, and the warm spacecraft components while providing radiative cooling to deep space. This shield system is larger than the telescope itself, and must attenuate the incoming energy by over one million to limit heat input to the telescope. Testing of such a system on the ground is a daunting task due to the size of the thermal/vacuum chamber required and the degree of thermal isolation necessary between the room temperature and cryogenic parts of the shield. These problems have been attacked in two ways: by designing a subscale version of a larger sunshield and by carefully closing out radiation sneak paths. The 18% scale (the largest diameter shield was 1.5 m) version of the SPIRIT Origins Probe telescope shield was tested in a low cost helium shroud within a 3.1 m diameter x 4.6 m long LN II shrouded vacuum chamber. Thermal straps connected from three shield stages to the liquid helium cooled shroud were instrumented with heaters and thermometers to simulate mechanical cryocooler stages at 6 K, 18-20 K, and 45-51 K. Performance data showed that less than 10 microwatts of radiative heat leaked from the warm to cold sides of the shields during the test. The excellent agreement between the data and the thermal models is discussed along with shroud construction techniques.

  17. Hot-gas-side heat transfer characteristics of subscale, plug-nozzle rocket calorimeter chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quentmeyer, Richard J.; Roncace, Elizabeth A.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the hot-gas-side heat transfer characteristics for a liquid-hydrogen-cooled, subscale, plug-nozzle rocket test apparatus. This apparatus has been used since 1975 to evaluate rocket engine advanced cooling concepts and fabrication techniques, to screen candidate combustion chamber liner materials, and to provide data for model development. In order to obtain the data, a water-cooled calorimeter chamber having the same geometric configuration as the plug-nozzle test apparatus was tested. It also used the same two showerhead injector types that were used on the test apparatus: one having a Rigimesh faceplate and the other having a platelet faceplate. The tests were conducted using liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen as the propellants over a mixture ratio range of 5.8 to 6.3 at a nominal chamber pressure of 4.14 MPa abs (600 psia). The two injectors showed similar performance characteristics with the Rigimesh faceplate having a slightly higher average characteristic-exhaust-velocity efficiency of 96 percent versus 94.4 percent for the platelet faceplate. The throat heat flux was 54 MW/m(sup 2) (33 Btu/in.(sup 2)-sec) at the nominal operating condition, which was a chamber pressure of 4.14 MPa abs (600 psia), a hot-gas-side wall temperature of 730 K (1314 R), and a mixture ratio of 6.0. The chamber throat region correlation coefficient C(sub g) for a Nusselt number correlation of the form Nu =C(sub g)Re(sup 0.8)Pr(sup 0.3) averaged 0.023 for the Rigimesh faceplate and 0.026 for the platelet faceplate.

  18. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  19. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  20. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  1. Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project - N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concepts Study and Conceptual Design of Subscale Test Vehicle (STV) Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonet, John T.; Schellenger, Harvey G.; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Elmer, Kevin R.; Wakayama, Sean R.; Brown, Derrell L.; Guo, Yueping

    2011-01-01

    NASA has set demanding goals for technology developments to meet national needs to improve fuel efficiency concurrent with improving the environment to enable air transportation growth. A figure shows NASA's subsonic transport system metrics. The results of Boeing ERA N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concept Study show that the Blended Wing Body (BWB) vehicle, with ultra high bypass propulsion systems have the potential to meet the combined NASA ERA N+2 goals. This study had 3 main activities. 1) The development of an advanced vehicle concepts that can meet the NASA system level metrics. 2) Identification of key enabling technologies and the development of technology roadmaps and maturation plans. 3) The development of a subscale test vehicle that can demonstrate and mature the key enabling technologies needed to meet the NASA system level metrics. Technology maturation plans are presented and include key performance parameters and technical performance measures. The plans describe the risks that will be reduced with technology development and the expected progression of technical maturity.

  2. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  3. Airborne GLM Simulator (FEGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stewart, M. F.; Podgorny, S.; Corredor, D.

    2015-12-01

    Real time lightning observations have proven to be useful for advanced warning and now-casting of severe weather events. In anticipation of the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard GOES-R that will provide continuous real time observations of total (both cloud and ground) lightning, the Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS) is in production. FEGS is an airborne instrument designed to provide cal/val measurements for GLM from high altitude aircraft. It consists of a 5 x 5 array of telescopes each with a narrow passband filter to isolate the 777.4 nm neutral oxygen emission triplet radiated by lightning. The telescopes will measure the optical radiance emitted by lightning that is transmitted through the cloud top with a temporal resolution of 10 μs. When integrated on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the FEGS array with its 90° field-of-view will observe a cloud top area nearly equal to a single GLM pixel. This design will allow FEGS to determine the temporal and spatial variation of light that contributes to a GLM event detection. In addition to the primary telescope array, the instrument includes 5 supplementary optical channels that observe alternate spectral emission features and will enable the use of FEGS for interesting lightning physics applications. Here we present an up-to-date summary of the project and a description of its scientific applications.

  4. Childhood Depression Subscales Using Repeated Sessions on Children's Depression Rating Scale – Revised (CDRS-R) Scores

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Ira; Trivedi, Madhukar; Mayes, Taryn; Kennard, Betsy; Emslie, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Although acute treatments have been shown to be effective in treating early-onset depression, only one-third or thereabouts reach a remission within 3 months. Unfortunately, delayed time to remission in early-onset depression leads to poorer therapeutic outcomes. Clearly, there is a need to identify, diagnose, and provide effective treatment of a depressed patient quickly. A sophisticated understanding of depression subscales and their change over time with treatment could enhance pathways to individualized treatment approaches for childhood depression. Objective: Previous studies have found that the clinician-measured instrument, Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) measures multiple subscales (or components) of depression. The aim of this study was to see how these subscales may change over the course of a 12-week study. This knowledge will help determine if dimensions/subscales of childhood depression (paralleling the adult literature) using the subscales derived from factor analysis procedure is useful. Methods: We examined two clinical trials in which youth (n=234) with major depressive disorder (MDD) were treated openly with fluoxetine for eight sessions spread over 12 weeks. The CDRS-R was completed based on clinician interviews with parent and child at each session. Classical test theory and component analysis with associated parallel analysis (oblique rotation) were conducted on each week's scores. Results: Although more factors were needed for the baseline and first two therapy sessions, a two-factor solution sufficed thereafter. Depressed facial affect, listless speech, and hypoactivity best defined Factor I, whereas sleep problems, appetite disturbance, physical symptoms, irritability, guilt, and weeping best defined Factor II. All other symptoms cross-loaded almost equally on the two factors. The scale's reliability (internal consistency) improved from baseline to exit sessions (α=0.65–0.91). As a result, the

  5. Photoacoustic study of airborne and model aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alebić-Juretić, A.; Zetzsch, C.; Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Airborne particulates of either natural or anthropogenic origin constitute a significant portion of atmospheric pollution. Environmental xenobiotics, among which are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides, often adsorb to aerosols and as such are transported through the atmosphere with the physicochemical properties of the aerosols determining the lifetime of these organic compounds. As an example, the resistance of some PAHs against the photolysis is explained by the effect of the aerosol's "inner filter" that reduces the intensity of incident light reaching the mineral particles. On the other hand, some constituents of the aerosols can act as catalytic and/or stoichiometric reagents in atmospheric reactions on the solid surfaces. In the study described here the photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy in the UV-Vis was used to investigate natural and model aerosols. The PA spectra obtained from coal and wood ashes and of Saharan sand, all three representatives of airborne aerosols, provide the evidence for the existence of the "inner filter." Furthermore, valuable information about the different nature of the interaction between the model aerosols and adsorbed organics (e.g., PAH-pyranthrene and silica, alumina, and MgO) has been obtained. Finally, the outcome of the study conducted with powdered mixtures of chalk and black carbon suggests that the PA method is a candidate method for determination of carbon content in stack ashes.

  6. Airborne Laser Polar Nephelometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Gerald W.

    1973-01-01

    A polar nephelometer has been developed at NCAR to measure the angular variation of the intensity of light scattered by air molecules and particles. The system has been designed for airborne measurements using outside air ducted through a 5-cm diameter airflow tube; the sample volume is that which is common to the intersection of a collimated source beam and the detector field of view within the airflow tube. The source is a linearly polarized helium-neon laser beam. The optical system defines a collimated field-of-view (0.5deg half-angle) through a series of diaphragms located behind a I72-mm focal length objective lens. A photomultiplier tube is located immediately behind an aperture in the focal plane of the objective lens. The laser beam is mechanically chopped (on-off) at a rate of 5 Hz; a two-channel pulse counter, synchronized to the laser output, measures the photomultiplier pulse rate with the light beam both on and off. The difference in these measured pulse rates is directly proportional to the intensity of the scattered light from the volume common to the intersection of the laser beam and the detector field-of-view. Measurements can be made at scattering angles from 15deg to 165deg with reference to the direction of propagation of the light beam. Intermediate angles are obtained by selecting the angular increments desired between these extreme angles (any multiple of 0.1deg can be selected for the angular increment; 5deg is used in normal operation). Pulses provided by digital circuits control a stepping motor which sequentially rotates the detector by pre-selected angular increments. The synchronous photon-counting system automatically begins measurement of the scattered-light intensity immediately after the rotation to a new angle has been completed. The instrument has been flown on the NASA Convair 990 airborne laboratory to obtain data on the complex index of refraction of atmospheric aerosols. A particle impaction device is operated simultaneously

  7. Airborne laser topographic mapping results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of terrain mapping experiments utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) over forested areas are presented. The flight tests were conducted as part of a joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) investigation aimed at evaluating the potential of an airborne laser ranging system to provide cross-sectional topographic data on flood plains that are difficult and expensive to survey using conventional techniques. The data described in this paper were obtained in the Wolf River Basin located near Memphis, TN. Results from surveys conducted under winter 'leaves off' and summer 'leaves on' conditions, aspects of day and night operation, and data obtained from decidous and coniferous tree types are compared. Data processing techniques are reviewed. Conclusions relative to accuracy and present limitations of the AOL, and airborne lidar systems in general, to terrain mapping over forested areas are discussed.

  8. An airborne isothermal haze chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal gradient diffusion cloud chambers (TGDCC) are used to determine the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with critical supersaturations greater than or equal to about 0.2%. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than theoretically predicted by factors ranging between 7.9 and 9.0. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than the concentrations measured with the larger laboratory IHC's by factors ranging between 3.9 and 7.5. The bounds of the supersaturation ranges of the airborne IHC and the CSU-Mee TGDCC do not overlap. Nevertheless, the slopes of the interpolated data between the bounds agree favorably with the theoretical slopes.

  9. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  10. Airborne Transmission of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Jason M.; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J.

    2012-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets. PMID:22807521

  11. NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon ... continuing to January 1984. Transcribed from the following NASA Tech Reports: McCormick, M. P., and M. T. Osborn, Airborne lidar ...

  12. Space Suit Portable Life Support System Rapid Cycle Amine Repackaging and Sub-Scale Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Rivera, Fatonia L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies to meet requirements for an extravehicular activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for exploration. The PLSS Ventilation Subsystem transports clean, conditioned oxygen to the pressure garment for space suit pressurization and human consumption, and recycles the ventilation gas, removing carbon dioxide, humidity, and trace contaminants. This paper provides an overview of the development efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center to redesign the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) canister and valve assembly into a radial flow, cylindrical package for carbon dioxide and humidity control of the PLSS ventilation loop. Future work is also discussed.

  13. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  14. Airborne fungi--a resurvey

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.H.; Prince, H.E.; Raymer, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    A 15-month survey of airborne fungi at 14 geographical stations was conducted to determine the incidence of different fungal genera. Five of these stations were surveyed 25 years earlier. A comparison between previous studies and present surveys revealed similar organisms at each station with slight shifts in frequency of dominant genera.

  15. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  16. Airborne chemicals and forest health

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, J.N.; Cowling, E.B.

    1987-02-01

    Over the past few years the possible contribution of acid rain to the problem of forest decline has been a cause of increasing public concern. Research has begun to determine whether airborne chemicals are causing or contributing to visible damage and mortality in eastern spruce-fir and sugar maple forests and to changes in tree growth, usually without visible symptoms, in other parts of North America. This paper describes some of the complex biological relationships that determine health and productivity of forests and that make it difficult to distinguish effects of airborne chemicals from effects of natural stress. It describes four major research approaches for assessment of the effects of airborne chemicals on forests, and it summarizes current understanding of the known and possible effects of airborne chemicals on forest trees in North America and Europe. It also briefly describes the major air quality and forest health research programs in North America, and it assesses how ell these programs are likely to meet information needs during the coming decade. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  18. Validation of the Greek version of the device subscale of the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology 2.0 (QUEST 2.0).

    PubMed

    Koumpouros, Yiannis; Karavasili, Alexandra; Papageorgiou, Effie; Siavelis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the device subscale of the QUEST 2.0 instrument and provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the Greek version. To this end, a cross-cultural adaptation was performed. Field test studies were conducted to validate the appropriateness of the final outcome. Data were drawn from a study of 115 subjects who had been administered the GR-QUEST questionnaire. Ratings related to the different items were statistically analyzed. The exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation conducted revealed a three factors structure of the device subscale in contrast with previous studies. Our "Safe Use" subscale contains the items adjustments, safety and effectiveness of the original instrument, the "Fit to Use" subscale contains the dimensions, weight and ease of use items, and the "Endurance" subscale contains the items durability and comfort of the original questionnaire. Reliability measures (ICC=0.949, Pearson´s correlation=0.903, Cronbach´s α=0.754) yielded high values. Test-retest outcome showed great stability. Based on the results, the GR-QUEST can be considered as a valid and reliable instrument and thus it can be used to measure the satisfaction of patients with assistive devices, while it is applicable to the Greek population. Further assessment of the services subscale is needed.

  19. Validation of the Greek version of the device subscale of the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology 2.0 (QUEST 2.0).

    PubMed

    Koumpouros, Yiannis; Karavasili, Alexandra; Papageorgiou, Effie; Siavelis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the device subscale of the QUEST 2.0 instrument and provide evidence for the validity and reliability of the Greek version. To this end, a cross-cultural adaptation was performed. Field test studies were conducted to validate the appropriateness of the final outcome. Data were drawn from a study of 115 subjects who had been administered the GR-QUEST questionnaire. Ratings related to the different items were statistically analyzed. The exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation conducted revealed a three factors structure of the device subscale in contrast with previous studies. Our "Safe Use" subscale contains the items adjustments, safety and effectiveness of the original instrument, the "Fit to Use" subscale contains the dimensions, weight and ease of use items, and the "Endurance" subscale contains the items durability and comfort of the original questionnaire. Reliability measures (ICC=0.949, Pearson´s correlation=0.903, Cronbach´s α=0.754) yielded high values. Test-retest outcome showed great stability. Based on the results, the GR-QUEST can be considered as a valid and reliable instrument and thus it can be used to measure the satisfaction of patients with assistive devices, while it is applicable to the Greek population. Further assessment of the services subscale is needed. PMID:26854178

  20. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  1. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, James S.; Jones, Byron W.; Hosni, Mohammad H.; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L.; Dietrich, Watts L.

    2015-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins. PMID:26526769

  2. Migration of contaminated soil and airborne particulates to indoor dust.

    PubMed

    Layton, David W; Beamer, Paloma I

    2009-11-01

    We have developed a modeling and measurement framework for assessing transport of contaminated soils and airborne particulates into a residence, their subsequent distribution indoors via resuspension and deposition processes, and removal by cleaning and building exhalation of suspended particles. The model explicitly accounts for the formation of house dust as a mixture of organic matter (OM) such as shed skin cells and organic fibers, soil tracked-in on footwear, and particulate matter (PM) derived from the infiltration of outdoor air. We derived formulas for use with measurements of inorganic contaminants, crustal tracers, OM, and PM to quantify selected transport parameters. Application of the model to residences in the U.S. Midwest indicates that As in ambient air can account for nearly 60% of the As input to floor dust, with soil track-in representing the remainder. Historic data on Pb contamination in Sacramento, CA, were used to reconstruct sources of Pb in indoor dust, showing that airborne Pb was likely the dominant source in the early 1980s. However, as airborne Pb levels declined due to the phase-out of leaded gasoline, soil resuspension and track-in eventually became the primary sources of Pb in house dust.

  3. Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James S; Jones, Byron W; Hosni, Mohammad H; Zhang, Yuanhui; Topmiller, Jennifer L; Dietrich, Watts L

    2013-01-01

    Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins. PMID:26526769

  4. Effect of land uses and wind direction on the contribution of local sources to airborne pollen.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Rapp, Ana; Lara, Beatriz; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-12-15

    The interpretation of airborne pollen levels in cities based on the contribution of the surrounding flora and vegetation is a useful tool to estimate airborne allergen concentrations and, consequently, to determine the allergy risk for local residents. This study examined the pollen spectrum in a city in central Spain (Guadalajara) and analysed the vegetation landscape and land uses within a radius of 20km in an attempt to identify and locate the origin of airborne pollen and to determine the effect of meteorological variables on pollen emission and dispersal. The results showed that local wind direction was largely responsible for changes in the concentrations of different airborne pollen types. The land uses contributing most to airborne pollen counts were urban green spaces, though only 0.1% of the total surface area studied, and broadleaved forest which covered 5% of the study area. These two types of land use together accounted for 70% of the airborne pollen. Crops, scrubland and pastureland, though covering 80% of the total surface area, contributed only 18.6% to the total pollen count, and this contribution mainly consisted of pollen from Olea and herbaceous plants, including Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Pollen from ornamental species were mainly associated with easterly (Platanus), southerly (Cupressaceae) and westerly (Cupressaceae and Platanus) winds from the areas where the city's largest parks and gardens are located. Quercus pollen was mostly transported by winds blowing in from holm-oak stands on the eastern edge of the city. The highest Populus pollen counts were associated with easterly and westerly winds blowing in from areas containing rivers and streams. The airborne pollen counts generally rose with increasing temperature, solar radiation and hours of sunlight, all of which favour pollen release. In contrast, pollen counts declined with increased relative humidity and rainfall, which hinder airborne pollen transport.

  5. Effect of land uses and wind direction on the contribution of local sources to airborne pollen.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Rapp, Ana; Lara, Beatriz; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-12-15

    The interpretation of airborne pollen levels in cities based on the contribution of the surrounding flora and vegetation is a useful tool to estimate airborne allergen concentrations and, consequently, to determine the allergy risk for local residents. This study examined the pollen spectrum in a city in central Spain (Guadalajara) and analysed the vegetation landscape and land uses within a radius of 20km in an attempt to identify and locate the origin of airborne pollen and to determine the effect of meteorological variables on pollen emission and dispersal. The results showed that local wind direction was largely responsible for changes in the concentrations of different airborne pollen types. The land uses contributing most to airborne pollen counts were urban green spaces, though only 0.1% of the total surface area studied, and broadleaved forest which covered 5% of the study area. These two types of land use together accounted for 70% of the airborne pollen. Crops, scrubland and pastureland, though covering 80% of the total surface area, contributed only 18.6% to the total pollen count, and this contribution mainly consisted of pollen from Olea and herbaceous plants, including Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Pollen from ornamental species were mainly associated with easterly (Platanus), southerly (Cupressaceae) and westerly (Cupressaceae and Platanus) winds from the areas where the city's largest parks and gardens are located. Quercus pollen was mostly transported by winds blowing in from holm-oak stands on the eastern edge of the city. The highest Populus pollen counts were associated with easterly and westerly winds blowing in from areas containing rivers and streams. The airborne pollen counts generally rose with increasing temperature, solar radiation and hours of sunlight, all of which favour pollen release. In contrast, pollen counts declined with increased relative humidity and rainfall, which hinder airborne pollen transport

  6. Airborne Electromagnetic Mapping of Subsurface Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J. D.; Minsley, B. J.; Cannia, J. C.; Smith, B. D.; Walvoord, M. A.; Voss, C. I.; Jorgenson, T. T.; Wylie, B. K.; Anderson, L.

    2011-12-01

    Concerns over the impacts of climate change have recently energized research on the potential impacts thawing permafrost may have on groundwater flow, infrastructure, forest health, ecosystems, energy production, CO2 release, and contaminant transport. There is typically little knowledge about subsurface permafrost distributions, such as thickness and where groundwater-surface-water connections may occur through taliks. In June of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey in the area of Fort Yukon, Alaska in order to map the 3-D distribution of permafrost and provide information for the development of groundwater models within the Yukon River Basin. Prior to the development of these models, information on areas of groundwater-surface water interaction was extremely limited. Lithology determined from a borehole drilled in Fort Yukon in 1994 agrees well with the resistivity depth sections inferred from the airborne survey. In addition to lithology, there a thermal imprint appears on the subsurface resistivity values. In the upper 20-50 m, the sections show continuous areas of high electrical resistivity, consistent with alluvial gravel deposits that are likely frozen. At depth, unfrozen gravel deposits have intermediate-to-high resistivity; frozen silts have intermediate resistivity; and unfrozen silts have low resistivity. Under the Yukon River and lakes where the subsurface is not frozen, zones of moderate resistivity intermix with areas of low resistivity. The areas of loess hills on the margins of the Yukon Flats have very-high electrical resistivity, indicating higher ice content, and are associated with the some of the greatest thickness of permafrost in the survey area. This work provides the first look into the 3-D distribution of permafrost in the areas around Fort Yukon and is a demonstration of the application of AEM to permafrost mapping. The AEM survey provides unprecedented 3-D images of subsurface electrical

  7. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) flight mission participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.

    1988-01-01

    From February 1986 to the present, the AOL participated in six interagency flight missions. (1) Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP II) (Department of Energy). The SEEP experiments are designed to assess the assimilative capacity of the Continental Shelf to absorb the energy by-products introduced into the near-shore ocean environment from coastal communities and marine activities such as energy production plants and offshore oil operations. (2) BIOWATT II (Office of Naval Research). The major objective of this study was to provide a better understanding of the relationships between ocean physics, biology, bioluminescence, and optics in oligotrophic portions of the Atlantic Ocean. (3) Fall Experiment (FLEX) (Department of Energy). The FLEX studies were designed to determine the fate of low salinity water in the coastal boundary zone that is advected south towards the Florida coast during autumn. (4) Greenland Sea and Icelandic Marine Biological Experiments (NASA). The investigations were designed to evaluate the distribution of surface layer chlorophyll in the Greeland Sea and in the coastal waters in the vicinity of Iceland. (5) Submerged Oceanic Scattering Layer Experiment (Naval Ocean Systems Center). This flight experiment demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of detecting and metrically measuring the depth to submerged layers of particulate matter in the shelf break region and in the inner coastal zone. (6) Microbial Exchanges and Coupling in Coastal Atlantic Systems (National Science Foundation). This investigation was designed to study the transportation and fate of particulates in coastal waters and in particular the Chesapeake Bay/coastal Atlantic Ocean. Shortly after the conduct of the flight experiments, airborne laser-induced chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin fluorescence data, as well as sea surface temperature and airborne expendable bathythermograph water column temperature profiles are supplied to cooperating institutions.

  8. FIELD ACTIVITIES AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE INVESTIGATION OF WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS IN TWO HIGH ELEVATION WATERSHEDS OF ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Park Service initiated the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) in 2002 to determine if airborne contaminants from long-range transport and/or regional sources are having an impact on remote western ecosystems, including AK. Rocky Mountain Nation...

  9. Airborne rotary separator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drnevich, R. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle mission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various fuels and fuel combinations with the objective of minimizing the weight and increase the ready alert capability of the plane. Fuels will be used to provide energy as well as act as heat sinks for the on-board heat rejection system. Fuel energy was used to provide power for air separation as well as to produce refrigeration for liquefaction of oxygen enriched air, besides its primary purpose of vehicle propulsion. The heat generated in the cycle was rejected to the fuel and water which is also carried on board the vehicle.The fuels that were evaluated include JP4, methane, and hydrogen. Hydrogen served as a comparison to the JP4 and methane cases.

  10. Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Marguerite; Stilianakis, Nikolaos I; Drossinos, Yannis

    2012-03-21

    Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets (∼0.4μm) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets (∼4μm) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localized susceptible population. Droplet diffusion is found to be an inefficient mode of droplet transport leading to minimal spatial spread of infection. A threshold air velocity is derived, above which disease transmission is impaired even when the basic reproduction number R(0) exceeds unity.

  11. ARIES: NASA Langley's Airborne Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wusk, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    In 1994, the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) acquired a B-757-200 aircraft to replace the aging B-737 Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The TSRV was a modified B-737-100, which served as a trailblazer in the development of glass cockpit technologies and other innovative aeronautical concepts. The mission for the B-757 is to continue the three-decade tradition of civil transport technology research begun by the TSRV. Since its arrival at Langley, this standard 757 aircraft has undergone extensive modifications to transform it into an aeronautical research "flying laboratory". With this transformation, the aircraft, which has been designated Airborne Research Integrated Experiments System (ARIES), has become a unique national asset which will continue to benefit the U.S. aviation industry and commercial airline customers for many generations to come. This paper will discuss the evolution of the modifications, detail the current capabilities of the research systems, and provide an overview of the research contributions already achieved.

  12. Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Marguerite; Stilianakis, Nikolaos I; Drossinos, Yannis

    2012-03-21

    Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets (∼0.4μm) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets (∼4μm) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localized susceptible population. Droplet diffusion is found to be an inefficient mode of droplet transport leading to minimal spatial spread of infection. A threshold air velocity is derived, above which disease transmission is impaired even when the basic reproduction number R(0) exceeds unity. PMID:22207025

  13. Large aperture scanning airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J.; Bindschadler, R.; Boers, R.; Bufton, J. L.; Clem, D.; Garvin, J.; Melfi, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A large aperture scanning airborne lidar facility is being developed to provide important new capabilities for airborne lidar sensor systems. The proposed scanning mechanism allows for a large aperture telescope (25 in. diameter) in front of an elliptical flat (25 x 36 in.) turning mirror positioned at a 45 degree angle with respect to the telescope optical axis. The lidar scanning capability will provide opportunities for acquiring new data sets for atmospheric, earth resources, and oceans communities. This completed facility will also make available the opportunity to acquire simulated EOS lidar data on a near global basis. The design and construction of this unique scanning mechanism presents exciting technological challenges of maintaining the turning mirror optical flatness during scanning while exposed to extreme temperatures, ambient pressures, aircraft vibrations, etc.

  14. Aircraft ground test and subscale model results of axial thrust loss caused by thrust vectoring using turning vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven A.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA-Dryden F/A-18 high alpha research vehicle was modified to incorporate three independently controlled turning vanes located aft of the primary nozzle of each engine to vector thrust for pitch and yaw control. Ground measured axial thrust losses were compared with the results from a 14.25 pct. cold jet model for single and dual vanes inserted up to 25 degs into the engine exhaust. Data are presented for nozzle pressure ratios of 2.0 and 3.0 and nozzle exit areas of 253 and 348 sq in. The results indicate that subscale nozzle test results properly predict trends but underpredict the full scale results by approx. 1 to 4.5 pct. in thrust loss.

  15. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development & Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    ATA-002 Technical Team has successfully designed, developed, tested and assessed the SLS Pathfinder propulsion systems for the Main Base Heating Test Program. Major Outcomes of the Pathfinder Test Program: Reach 90% of full-scale chamber pressure Achieved all engine/motor design parameter requirements Reach steady plume flow behavior in less than 35 msec Steady chamber pressure for 60 to 100 msec during engine/motor operation Similar model engine/motor performance to full-scale SLS system Mitigated nozzle throat and combustor thermal erosion Test data shows good agreement with numerical prediction codes Next phase of the ATA-002 Test Program Design & development of the SLS OML for the Main Base Heating Test Tweak BSRM design to optimize performance Tweak CS-REM design to increase robustness MSFC Aerosciences and CUBRC have the capability to develop sub-scale propulsion systems to meet desired performance requirements for short-duration testing.

  16. Psychometric properties of a MOVE!23 subscale: Perceived Contributors to Weight Change in a national sample of veterans.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Diana M; Buta, Eugenia; Dorflinger, Lindsey; Heapy, Alicia A; Ruser, Christopher B; Goulet, Joseph L; Masheb, Robin M

    2016-07-01

    The MOVE!23, a questionnaire to assess weight-related domains in veterans, was examined. Factor analysis of Perceived Contributors to Weight Change revealed three factors (psychosocial, eating behavior, and medical) that were positively correlated with body mass index, and psychiatric and medical comorbidity (p's < 0.001). Multivariable cumulative logit models modeling the factor scores indicated that women were more likely than men to endorse psychosocial (odds ratio = 2.15, confidence interval = 2.04-2.27) and medical (odds ratio = 1.69, confidence interval = 1.59-1.79) items. The MOVE!23 Perceived Contributors to Weight Change subscale is a reliable and valid measure that is associated with body mass index and may assist in tailoring treatments according to gender and comorbidity.

  17. Experimental determination of the particle sizes in a subscale motor for application to the Ariane 5 solid rocket booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traineau, J. C.; Kuentzmann, P.; Prevost, M.; Tarrin, P.; Delfour, A.

    The knowledge of the aluminum oxide particle size distribution inside the combustion chamber of a solid propellant rocket motor is an important factor for assessing the combustion stability or the slag mass accumulation in the motor. A representative subscale motor for the Ariane 5 P230 Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), in which helium is injected to quench the condensed phase reactions, has been designed and manufactured. Its use for combustion stability purpose has given the aluminum oxide particle size distribution in conditions representative of the actual Ariane 5 SRB. The experimental techniques, optical and particle capturing, have been found to give results in good agreement. A stretched distribution, with particles ranging from 1 micron to 120 microns and a maximum around 45 microns, has been demonstrated.

  18. Design and Analysis of Subscale and Full-Scale Buckling-Critical Cylinders for Launch Vehicle Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Thornburgh, Robert P.; Rankin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) project has the goal of developing new analysis-based shell buckling design factors (knockdown factors) and design and analysis technologies for launch vehicle structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles. However, in order to validate any new analysis-based design data or methods, a series of carefully designed and executed structural tests are required at both the subscale and full-scale levels. This paper describes the design and analysis of three different orthogrid-stiffeNed metallic cylindrical-shell test articles. Two of the test articles are 8-ft-diameter, 6-ft-long test articles, and one test article is a 27.5-ft-diameter, 20-ft-long Space Shuttle External Tank-derived test article.

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Lower Extremity Subscale of the Fugl-Myer Assessment for Community-dwelling Hemiplegic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Choi, Yoo Im

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the lower extremity subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment lower extremity (FMA-LE) for community-dwelling hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects] The participants were 140 community-dwelling hemiplegic stroke patients. [Methods] To determine the psychometric properties of the FMA-LE, we examined construct validity, response characteristics, item discrimination, and internal consistency. [Results] Factor analysis of the FMA-LE revealed that the first factor explained 61.73% of the variance and provided evidence of unidimensionality. The FMA-LE did not show ceiling or floor effects; Cronbach's α was 0.935 (95% CI: 0.919-0.950). [Conclusion] Because the FMA-LE seems to be both valid and reliable, we conclude that it is appropriate for the measurement of the lower extremity motor impairment of community-dwelling hemiplegic stroke patients.

  20. Magnetic airborne survey - geophysical flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Camara, Erick; Nei Pereira Guimarães, Suze

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a technical review process in the area of airborne acquisition of geophysical data, with emphasis for magnetometry. In summary, it addresses the calibration processes of geophysical equipment as well as the aircraft to minimize possible errors in measurements. The corrections used in data processing and filtering are demonstrated with the same results as well as the evolution of these techniques in Brazil and worldwide.

  1. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  2. NASA Student Airborne Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students majoring in the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2012, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA P-3B aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program from the first four summers and discuss plans for the future.

  3. Measurements of HNO3, SO2 High Resolution Aerosol SO4 (sup 2-), and Selected Aerosol Species Aboard the NASA DC-8 Aircraft: During the Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific Airborne Mission (TRACE-P)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, Robert W.; Dibb, Jack E.

    2004-01-01

    The UNH investigation during TRACE-P provided measurements of selected acidic gases and aerosol species aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. Our investigation focused on measuring HNO3, SO2, and fine (less than 2 microns) aerosol SO4(sup 2-) with two minute time resolution in near-real-time. We also quantified mixing ratios of aerosol ionic species, and aerosol (210)Pb and (7)Be collected onto bulk filters at better than 10 minute resolution. This suite of measurements contributed extensively to achieving the principal objectives of TRACE-P. In the context of the full data set collected by experimental teams on the DC-8, our observations provide a solid basis for assessing decadal changes in the chemical composition and source strength of Asian continental outflow. This region of the Pacific should be impacted profoundly by Asian emissions at this time with significant degradation of air quality over the next few decades. Atmospheric measurements in the western Pacific region will provide a valuable time series to help quantify the impact of Asian anthropogenic activities. Our data also provide important insight into the chemical and physical processes transforming Asian outflow during transport over the Pacific, particularly uptake and reactions of soluble gases on aerosol particles. In addition, the TRACE-P data set provide strong constraints for assessing and improving the chemical fields simulated by chemical transport models.

  4. Modeling Airborne Beryllium Concentrations From Open Air Dynamic Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, N. M.

    2003-12-01

    A heightened awareness of airborne beryllium contamination from industrial activities was reestablished during the late 1980's and early 1990's when it became recognized that Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD) had not been eradicated, and that the Occupational Health and Safety Administration standards for occupational air exposure to beryllium may not be sufficiently protective. This was in response to the observed CBD increase in multiple industrial settings where beryllium was manufactured and/or machined, thus producing beryllium particulates which are then available for redistribution by airborne transport. Sampling and modeling design activities were expanded at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico to evaluate potential airborne beryllium exposure to workers who might be exposed during dynamic testing activities associated with nuclear weapons Stockpile Stewardship. Herein is presented the results of multiple types of collected air measurements that were designed to characterize the production and dispersion of beryllium used in components whose performance is evaluated during high explosive detonation at open air firing sites. Data from fallout, high volume air, medium volume air, adhesive film, particle size impactor, and fine-particulate counting techniques will be presented, integrated, and applied in dispersion modeling to assess potential onsite and offsite personal exposures resulting from dynamic testing activities involving beryllium.

  5. Computational Analyses in Support of Sub-scale Diffuser Testing for the A-3 Facility. Part 1; Steady Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Graham, Jason S.; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin

    2010-01-01

    Simulation technology can play an important role in rocket engine test facility design and development by assessing risks, providing analysis of dynamic pressure and thermal loads, identifying failure modes and predicting anomalous behavior of critical systems. Advanced numerical tools assume greater significance in supporting testing and design of high altitude testing facilities and plume induced testing environments of high thrust engines because of the greater inter-dependence and synergy in the functioning of the different sub-systems. This is especially true for facilities such as the proposed A-3 facility at NASA SSC because of a challenging operating envelope linked to variable throttle conditions at relatively low chamber pressures. Facility designs in this case will require a complex network of diffuser ducts, steam ejector trains, fast operating valves, cooling water systems and flow diverters that need to be characterized for steady state performance. In this paper, we will demonstrate with the use of CFD analyses s advanced capability to evaluate supersonic diffuser and steam ejector performance in a sub-scale A-3 facility at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) where extensive testing was performed. Furthermore, the focus in this paper relates to modeling of critical sub-systems and components used in facilities such as the A-3 facility. The work here will address deficiencies in empirical models and current CFD analyses that are used for design of supersonic diffusers/turning vanes/ejectors as well as analyses for confined plumes and venting processes. The primary areas that will be addressed are: (1) supersonic diffuser performance including analyses of thermal loads (2) accurate shock capturing in the diffuser duct; (3) effect of turning duct on the performance of the facility (4) prediction of mass flow rates and performance classification for steam ejectors (5) comparisons with test data from sub-scale diffuser testing and assessment of confidence

  6. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  7. Airborne wavemeter validation and calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goad, Joseph H., Jr.; Rinsland, Pamela L.; Kist, Edward H., Jr.; Geier, Erika B.; Banziger, Curtis G.

    1992-01-01

    This manuscript outlines a continuing effort to validate and verify the performance of an airborne autonomous wavemeter for tuning solid state lasers to a desired wavelength. The application is measuring the vertical profiles of atmospheric water vapor using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. Improved wavemeter performance data for varying ambient temperatures are presented. This resulted when the electronic grounding and shielding were improved. The results with short pulse duration lasers are also included. These lasers show that similar performance could be obtained with lasers operating in the continuous and the pulsed domains.

  8. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  9. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  10. Cyberinfrastructure for Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004 the NASA Airborne Science Program has been prototyping and using infrastructure that enables researchers to interact with each other and with their instruments via network communications. This infrastructure uses satellite links and an evolving suite of applications and services that leverage open-source software. The use of these tools has increased near-real-time situational awareness during field operations, resulting in productivity improvements and the collection of better data. This paper describes the high-level system architecture and major components, with example highlights from the use of the infrastructure. The paper concludes with a discussion of ongoing efforts to transition to operational status.

  11. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  12. Biological monitoring of airborne pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ditz, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Common plants such as grasses, mosses, and even goldenrod may turn out to have a new high-tech role as monitors of airborne pollution from solid waste incinerators. Certain plants that respond to specific pollutants can provide continuous surveillance of air quality over long periods of time: they are bio-indicators. Other species accumulate pollutants and can serve as sensitive indicators of pollutants and of food-chain contamination: they are bio-accumulators. Through creative use of these properties, biological monitoring can provide information that cannot be obtained by current methods such as stack testing.

  13. Toolsets for Airborne Data - URS and New Documentation

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-23

    ... airborne field missions, documentation, and EOSDIS User Registration System (URS) authentication. This web application features an intuitive user interface for variable selection across different airborne field studies and ...

  14. Meeting Review: Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Huebert, Barry; Wilson, Chuck

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings from the Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop are presented. The two central topics of discussion were the role of aerosols in atmospheric processes and the difficulties in characterizing aerosols. The following topics were discussed during the working sessions: airborne observations to date; identification of inlet design issues; inlet modeling needs and directions; objectives for aircraft experiments; and future laboratory and wind tunnel studies.

  15. Airborne Relay-Based Regional Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyuman; Noh, Hongjun; Lim, Jaesung

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based pseudolite systems have some limitations, such as low vertical accuracy, multipath effects and near-far problems. These problems are not significant in airborne-based pseudolite systems. However, the monitoring of pseudolite positions is required because of the mobility of the platforms on which the pseudolites are mounted, and this causes performance degradation. To address these pseudolite system limitations, we propose an airborne relay-based regional positioning system that consists of a master station, reference stations, airborne relays and a user. In the proposed system, navigation signals are generated from the reference stations located on the ground and are relayed via the airborne relays. Unlike in conventional airborne-based systems, the user in the proposed system sequentially estimates both the locations of airborne relays and his/her own position. Therefore, a delay due to monitoring does not occur, and the accuracy is not affected by the movement of airborne relays. We conducted several simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. Based on the simulation results, we demonstrated that the proposed system guarantees a higher accuracy than airborne-based pseudolite systems, and it is feasible despite the existence of clock offsets among reference stations. PMID:26029953

  16. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) (Global Carbon Cycle)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This bimonthly contractor progress report covers the operation, maintenance and data management of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Monthly activities included: mission planning, sensor operation and calibration, data processing, data analysis, network development and maintenance and instrument maintenance engineering and fabrication.

  17. Global Test Range: Toward Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.; Freudinger, Larry; DelFrate John H.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned global sensor network that will monitor the Earth's climate, and resources using airborne sensor systems. The vision is an intelligent, affordable Earth Observation System. Global Test Range is a lab developing trustworthy services for airborne instruments - a specialized Internet Service Provider. There is discussion of several current and planned missions.

  18. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  19. The Continuous wavelet in airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Liu, L.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravimetry is an efficient method to recover medium and high frequency band of earth gravity over any region, especially inaccessible areas, which can measure gravity data with high accuracy,high resolution and broad range in a rapidly and economical way, and It will play an important role for geoid and geophysical exploration. Filtering methods for reducing high-frequency errors is critical to the success of airborne gravimetry due to Aircraft acceleration determination based on GPS.Tradiontal filters used in airborne gravimetry are FIR,IIR filer and so on. This study recommends an improved continuous wavelet to process airborne gravity data. Here we focus on how to construct the continuous wavelet filters and show their working principle. Particularly the technical parameters (window width parameter and scale parameter) of the filters are tested. Then the raw airborne gravity data from the first Chinese airborne gravimetry campaign are filtered using FIR-low pass filter and continuous wavelet filters to remove the noise. The comparison to reference data is performed to determinate external accuracy, which shows that continuous wavelet filters applied to airborne gravity in this thesis have good performances. The advantages of the continuous wavelet filters over digital filters are also introduced. The effectiveness of the continuous wavelet filters for airborne gravimetry is demonstrated through real data computation.

  20. Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communications Program (AVLOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of airborne and ground-based laser communications and laser radar hardware is described in support of the Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communication program. The major emphasis is placed on the development of a highly flexible test bed for the evaluation of laser communications systems techniques and components in an operational environment.

  1. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of airborne archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Ruzene Nespoli, C.; Pickersgill, D. A.; Galand, P. E.; Müller-Germann, I.; Nunes, T.; Gomes Cardoso, J.; Almeida, S. M.; Pio, C.; Andreae, M. O.; Conrad, R.; Pöschl, U.; Després, V. R.

    2014-11-01

    Archaea are widespread and abundant in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, and are thus outside extreme environments, accounting for up to ~10% of the prokaryotes. Compared to bacteria and other microorganisms, however, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and dispersal of archaea in the atmosphere. By means of DNA analysis and Sanger sequencing targeting the 16S rRNA (435 sequences) and amoA genes in samples of air particulate matter collected over 1 year at a continental sampling site in Germany, we obtained first insights into the seasonal dynamics of airborne archaea. The detected archaea were identified as Thaumarchaeota or Euryarchaeota, with soil Thaumarchaeota (group I.1b) being present in all samples. The normalized species richness of Thaumarchaeota correlated positively with relative humidity and negatively with temperature. This together with an increase in bare agricultural soil surfaces may explain the diversity peaks observed in fall and winter. The detected Euryarchaeota were mainly predicted methanogens with a low relative frequency of occurrence. A slight increase in their frequency during spring may be linked to fertilization processes in the surrounding agricultural fields. Comparison with samples from the Cape Verde islands (72 sequences) and from other coastal and continental sites indicates that the proportions of Euryarchaeota are enhanced in coastal air, which is consistent with their suggested abundance in marine surface waters. We conclude that air transport may play an important role in the dispersal of archaea, including assumed ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and methanogens.

  2. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of airborne Archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Ruzene Nespoli, C.; Pickersgill, D. A.; Galand, P. E.; Müller-Germann, I.; Nunes, T.; Gomes Cardoso, J.; Marta Almeida, S.; Pio, C.; Andreae, M. O.; Conrad, R.; Pöschl, U.; Després, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    Archaea are widespread and abundant in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, accounting for up to ∼10% of the prokaryotes. Compared to Bacteria and other microorganisms, however, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and dispersal of Archaea in the atmosphere. By DNA analysis targeting the 16S rRNA and amoA genes in samples of air particulate matter collected over one year at a continental sampling site in Germany, we obtained first insights into the seasonal dynamics of airborne Archaea. The detected Archaea were identified as Thaumarchaeota or Euryarchaeota, with soil Thaumarchaeota (group I.1b) being present in all samples. The normalized species richness of Thaumarchaeota correlated positively with relative humidity and negatively with temperature. This together with an increase of bare agricultural soil surfaces may explain the diversity peaks observed in fall and winter. The detected Euryarchaeota were mainly methanogens with a low relative frequency of occurrence. A slight increase in their frequency during spring may be linked to fertilization processes in the surrounding agricultural fields. Comparison with samples from the Cape Verde islands and from other coastal and continental sites indicates that the proportions of Euryarchaeota are enhanced in coastal air, which is consistent with their suggested abundance in marine surface waters. We conclude that air transport may play an important role for the dispersal of Archaea, including ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and methanogens. Also, anthropogenic activities might influence the atmospheric abundance and diversity of Archaea.

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Existence Subscale of the Purpose in Life Questionnaire for Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ben M. F.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aims to test the psychometric properties of the Existence Subscale of the Purpose in Life Questionnaire (EPIL) for early adolescence. The Purpose in Life Questionnaire (PIL), originally created by Craumbaugh and Maholick, is a 20-item scale measuring different dimensions of life purposes. The current study selected seven items representative of the existence dimension to form another scale, the EPIL. The analysis was based on 2842 early adolescents, ranging from 11 to 14 years old. Principal axis factoring found one factor, with 60% variance being explained. Cronbach's alpha for the EPIL was 0.89, which was high. The factor structure was stable across genders. Criterion-related validity was determined when the scale was used to differentiate volunteers and nonvolunteers. Construct validity was found when the scale was associated with life satisfaction. The results give support to the fact that the EPIL could be used alone to measure the psychological well-being of early adolescents and the appropriateness of the EPIL in adolescent research. PMID:22927785

  4. The X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator and its U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter mothership fly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator and its U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter mothership fly over a dry lakebed runway during a captive-carry test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The X-40 is attached to a sling which is suspended from the CH-47 by a 110-foot-long cable during the tests, while a small parachute trails behind to provide stability. The captive carry flights are designed to verify the X-40's navigation and control systems, rigging angles for its sling, and stability and control of the helicopter while carrying the X-40 on a tether. Following a series of captive-carry flights, the X-40 made free flights from a launch altitude of about 15,000 feet above ground, gliding to a fully autonomous landing. The X-40 is an unpowered 82 percent scale version of the X-37, a Boeing-developed spaceplane designed to demonstrate various advanced technologies for development of future lower-cost access to space vehicles. The X-37 will be carried into space aboard a space shuttle and then released to perform various maneuvers and a controlled re-entry through the Earth's atmosphere to an airplane-style landing on a runway, controlled entirely by pre-programmed computer software.

  5. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development and Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan; Kirchner, Robert; Engel, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) base heating test is broken down into two test programs: (1) Pathfinder and (2) Main Test. The Pathfinder Test Program focuses on the design, development, hot-fire test and performance analyses of the 2% sub-scale SLS core-stage and booster element propulsion systems. The core-stage propulsion system is composed of four gaseous oxygen/hydrogen RS-25D model engines and the booster element is composed of two aluminum-based model solid rocket motors (SRMs). The first section of the paper discusses the motivation and test facility specifications for the test program. The second section briefly investigates the internal flow path of the design. The third section briefly shows the performance of the model RS-25D engines and SRMs for the conducted short duration hot-fire tests. Good agreement is observed based on design prediction analysis and test data. This program is a challenging research and development effort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle.

  6. Measurements on Subscale Y-Ba-Cu-O Racetrack Coils at 77 K and Self-Field

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D. W.; Dietderich, D. R.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Godeke, A.; Joseph, J. M.; Lizarazo, J.; Prestemon, S. O.; Sabbi, G.

    2009-10-19

    YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) tapes carry significant amount of current at fields beyond the limit of Nb-based conductors. This makes the YBCO tapes a possible conductor candidate for insert magnets to increase the bore field of Nb{sub 3}Sn high-field dipoles. As an initial step of the YBCO insert technology development, two subscale racetrack coils were wound using Kapton-insulated commercial YBCO tapes. Both coils had two layers; one had 3 turns in each layer and the other 10 turns. The coils were supported by G10 side rails and waxed strips and not impregnated. The critical current of the coils was measured at 77 K and self-field. A 2D model considering the magnetic-field dependence of the critical current was used to estimate the expected critical current. The measured results show that both coils reached 80%-95% of the expected values, indicating the feasibility of the design concept and fabrication process.

  7. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  8. Airborne cw Doppler lidar (ADOLAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahm, Stefan; Werner, Christian; Nagel, E.; Herrmann, H.; Klier, M.; Knott, H. P.; Haering, R.; Wildgruber, J.

    1994-12-01

    During the last 10 years the DLR container LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometer) was used for many wind related measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. The experience out of this were used to construct an airborne Doppler lidar ADOLAR. Based on the available Doppler lidars it is now proposed to perform a campaign to demonstrate the concept of the spaceborne sensor ALADIN, and to answer some questions concerning the signal quality from clouds, water and land. For the continuous wave CO2 laser, the energy is focused by the telescope into the region of investigation. Some of the radiation is back scattered by small aerosol particles drifting with the wind speed through the sensing volume. The back scattered radiation is collected by the telescope and detected by coherent technique. With the laser Doppler method one gets the radial wind component. To determine the magnitude and direction of the horizontal wind, some form of scanning in azimuth and elevation is required. To keep the airborne system compact, the transceiver optics is directly coupled to a wedge scanner which provides the conical scan with the axis in Nadir direction from the aircraft. The system ADOLAR was tested in 1994. Results of the flight over the lake Ammersee are presented and are compared with the data of the inertial reference system of the aircraft.

  9. Airborne thermography applications in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Eduardo H.; Selles, Eduardo J.; Costanzo, Marcelo; Franco, Oscar; Diaz, Jose

    2002-03-01

    Forest fires in summer and sheep buried under the snow in winter have become important problems in the south of our country, in the region named Patagonia. We are studying to find a solution by means of an airborne imaging system whose construction we have just finished. It is a 12 channel multispectral airborne scanner system that can be mounted in a Guarani airplane or in a Learjet; the first is a non- pressurized aircraft for flight at low height and the second is a pressurized one for higher flights. The scanner system is briefly described. Their sensors can detect radiation from the ultra violet to the thermal infrared. The images are visualized in real time in a monitor screen and can be stored in the hard disc of the PC for later processing. The use of this scanner for some applications that include the prevention and fighting of forest fires and the study of the possibility of detection of sheep under snow in the Patagonia is now being accomplished. Theoretical and experimental results in fire detection and a theoretical model for studying the possibility of detection of the buried sheep are presented.

  10. The Potential of the PSI and SCL-90R Subscales To Predict Post-Intake Client Return at a University Counseling Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Kathryn A.; Gold, Joshua M.

    This study sought to identify differential psychological symptom status and demographic variability between male/female returners and non-returners to a university counseling center. Data were collected during intake interviews over a 9-month period (N=261). The information analyzed consisted of nine distinct subscale scores of the Symptomatic…

  11. The Predictive Validity of Subscales of An Academic Self-Concept Measure Administered Nine Semesters Prior To Acquisition of Criterion Data Reflecting School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darakjian, Gregory P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    In a longitudinal investigation of 179 seventh graders, the current investigation covers a surviving sample of eleventh graders. Predictive validity coefficients of five Dimensions of Self-Concept (DOSC), Form S subscales were ascertained relative to total grade point average (GPA) and to GPA in several subjects during three enrollment periods.…

  12. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    throughout the project. During the data processing meshes for multiple purposes like monitoring sediment transport or accumulation and hydro-dynamic numeric modeling were generated. The meshes were professionally conditioned considering the adherence of, both, geometric and physical mesh quality criterions. Whereas the research is focused on the design and implementation of monitoring database structures, the airborne hydrographic data are also made available for classical processing means (cross sections, longitudinal section).

  13. Technology-enabled Airborne Spacing and Merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, James; Barmore, Bryan; Abbott, Tetence

    2005-01-01

    Over the last several decades, advances in airborne and groundside technologies have allowed the Air Traffic Service Provider (ATSP) to give safer and more efficient service, reduce workload and frequency congestion, and help accommodate a critically escalating traffic volume. These new technologies have included advanced radar displays, and data and communication automation to name a few. In step with such advances, NASA Langley is developing a precision spacing concept designed to increase runway throughput by enabling the flight crews to manage their inter-arrival spacing from TRACON entry to the runway threshold. This concept is being developed as part of NASA s Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) project under the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program. Precision spacing is enabled by Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), which provides air-to-air data exchange including position and velocity reports; real-time wind information and other necessary data. On the flight deck, a research prototype system called Airborne Merging and Spacing for Terminal Arrivals (AMSTAR) processes this information and provides speed guidance to the flight crew to achieve the desired inter-arrival spacing. AMSTAR is designed to support current ATC operations, provide operationally acceptable system-wide increases in approach spacing performance and increase runway throughput through system stability, predictability and precision spacing. This paper describes problems and costs associated with an imprecise arrival flow. It also discusses methods by which Air Traffic Controllers achieve and maintain an optimum interarrival interval, and explores means by which AMSTAR can assist in this pursuit. AMSTAR is an extension of NASA s previous work on in-trail spacing that was successfully demonstrated in a flight evaluation at Chicago O Hare International Airport in September 2002. In addition to providing for precision inter-arrival spacing, AMSTAR

  14. Overview of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Pfister, Leonhard

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATIREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, clouds, multiple gaseous tracers (CO, CO2, CH4, NMHC, SF6, CFCs, N2O), reactive chemical compounds (O3, BrO, NO2), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. ATTREX flight series have been conducted in the fall of 2011 from Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in California, in the winter of 2013 from AFRC, and in the winter/spring of 2014 from Guam. The first two f light series provided extensive sampling of the central and eastern Pacific, whereas the last flight series permitted sampling in the western Pacific. The sampling strategy has primarily involved repeated ascents and descents through the depth of the TTL (about 13-19 km). Over 100 TTL profiles were obtained on each flight series. The ATTREX dataset includes TTL water vapor measurements with unprecedented accuracy, ice crystal size distributions and habits. The cloud and water measurements provide unique information about TTL cloud formation, the persistence of supersaturation with respect to ice, and dehydration. The plethora of tracers measured on the Global Hawk flights are providing unique information about TTL transport pathways and time scales. The meteorological measurements are revealing dynamical phenomena controlling the TTL thermal structure, and the radiation measurements are providing information about heating rates associated with TTL clouds and water vapor. This presentation

  15. Utility of Braden Scale Nutrition Subscale Ratings as an Indicator of Dietary Intake and Weight Outcomes among Nursing Home Residents at Risk for Pressure Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kennerly, Susan; Boss, Lisa; Yap, Tracey L; Batchelor-Murphy, Melissa; Horn, Susan D; Barrett, Ryan; Bergstrom, Nancy

    2015-09-24

    The Braden Scale for Pressure Sore Risk(©) is a screening tool to determine overall risk of pressure ulcer development and estimate severity of specific risk factors for individual residents. Nurses often use the Braden nutrition subscale to screen nursing home (NH) residents for nutritional risk, and then recommend a more comprehensive nutritional assessment as indicated. Secondary data analysis from the Turn for Ulcer ReductioN (TURN) study's investigation of U.S. and Canadian NH residents (n = 690) considered at moderate or high pressure ulcer (PrU) risk was used to evaluate the subscale's utility for identifying nutritional intake risk factors. Associations were examined between Braden Nutritional Risk subscale screening, dietary intake (mean % meal intake and by meal timing, mean number of protein servings, protein sources, % intake of supplements and snacks), weight outcomes, and new PrU incidence. Of moderate and high PrU risk residents, 61.9% and 59.2% ate a mean meal % of <75. Fewer than 18% overall ate <50% of meals or refused meals. No significant differences were observed in weight differences by nutrition subscale risk or in mean number protein servings per meal (1.4 (SD = 0.58) versus 1.3 (SD = 0.53)) for moderate versus high PrU risk residents. The nutrition subscale approximates subsequent estimated dietary intake and can provide insight into meal intake patterns for those at either moderate or high PrU risk. Findings support the Braden Scale's use as a preliminary screening method to identify focused areas for potential intervention.

  16. Antisocial Personality Disorder Subscale (Chinese Version) of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II disorders: validation study in Cantonese-speaking Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Tang, D Y Y; Liu, A C Y; Leung, M H T; Siu, B W M

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a risk factor for violence and is associated with poor treatment response when it is a co-morbid condition with substance abuse. It is an under-recognised clinical entity in the local Hong Kong setting, for which there are only a few available Chinese-language diagnostic instruments. None has been tested for its psychometric properties in the Cantonese-speaking population in Hong Kong. This study therefore aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the ASPD subscale of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) in Hong Kong Chinese. METHODS. This assessment tool was modified according to dialectal differences between Mainland China and Hong Kong. Inpatients in Castle Peak Hospital, Hong Kong, who were designated for priority follow-up based on their assessed propensity for violence and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the study, were recruited. To assess the level of agreement, best-estimate diagnosis made by a multidisciplinary team was compared with diagnostic status determined by the SCID-II ASPD subscale. The internal consistency, sensitivity, and specificity of the subscale were also calculated. RESULTS. The internal consistency of the subscale was acceptable at 0.79, whereas the test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability showed an excellent and good agreement of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. Best-estimate clinical diagnosis-SCID diagnosis agreement was acceptable at 0.76. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.91, 0.86, 0.83, and 0.93, respectively. CONCLUSION. The Chinese version of the SCID-II ASPD subscale is reliable and valid for diagnosing ASPD in a Cantonese-speaking clinical population.

  17. Potential sources of airborne Alternaria spp. spores in South-west Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Sadyś, Magdalena; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Maya-Manzano, José María; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2015-11-15

    Fungi belonging to the genus of Alternaria are recognised as being significant plant pathogens, and Alternaria allergens are one of the most important causes of respiratory allergic diseases in Europe. This study aims to provide a detailed and original analysis of Alternaria transport dynamics in Badajoz, SW Spain. This was achieved by examining daily mean and hourly observations of airborne Alternaria spores recorded during days with high airborne concentrations of Alternaria spores (>100 s m(-3)) from 2009 to 2011, as well as four inventory maps of major Alternaria habitats, the overall synoptic weather situation and analysis of air mass transport using Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model and geographic information systems. Land use calculated within a radius of 100 km from Badajoz shows that crops and grasslands are potentially the most important local sources of airborne Alternaria spores recorded at the site. The results of back trajectory analysis show that, during the examined four episodes, the two main directions where Alternaria source areas were located were: (1) SW-W; and (2) NW-NE. Regional scale and long distance transport could therefore supplement the airborne catch recorded at Badajoz with Alternaria conidia originating from sources such as crops and orchards situated in other parts of the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:26156135

  18. Potential sources of airborne Alternaria spp. spores in South-west Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Sadyś, Magdalena; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Maya-Manzano, José María; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2015-11-15

    Fungi belonging to the genus of Alternaria are recognised as being significant plant pathogens, and Alternaria allergens are one of the most important causes of respiratory allergic diseases in Europe. This study aims to provide a detailed and original analysis of Alternaria transport dynamics in Badajoz, SW Spain. This was achieved by examining daily mean and hourly observations of airborne Alternaria spores recorded during days with high airborne concentrations of Alternaria spores (>100 s m(-3)) from 2009 to 2011, as well as four inventory maps of major Alternaria habitats, the overall synoptic weather situation and analysis of air mass transport using Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model and geographic information systems. Land use calculated within a radius of 100 km from Badajoz shows that crops and grasslands are potentially the most important local sources of airborne Alternaria spores recorded at the site. The results of back trajectory analysis show that, during the examined four episodes, the two main directions where Alternaria source areas were located were: (1) SW-W; and (2) NW-NE. Regional scale and long distance transport could therefore supplement the airborne catch recorded at Badajoz with Alternaria conidia originating from sources such as crops and orchards situated in other parts of the Iberian Peninsula.

  19. The Sandia Airborne Computer (SANDAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, E.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Sandia Airborne Computer (SANDAC) is a small, modular, high performance, multiprocessor computer originally designed for aerospace applications. It can use a combination of Motorola 68020 and 68040 based processor modules along with AT&T DSP32C based signal processing modules. The system is designed to use up to 15 processors in almost any combination and a complete system can include up to 20 modules. Depending on the mix of processors, total computational throughput can range from 2.5 to greater than 225 Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS). The system is designed so that processors can access all resources in the machine and the inter-processor communication details are completely transparent to the software. In addition to processors, the system includes input/output, memory, and special function modules. Because of its ease of use, small size, durability, and configuration flexibility, SANDAC has been used on applications ranging from missile navigation, guidance, and control systems to medical imaging systems.

  20. Modis-N airborne simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cech, Steven D.

    1992-01-01

    All required work associated with the above referenced contract has been successfully completed at this time. The Modis-N Airborne Simulator has been developed from existing AB184 Wildfire spectrometer parts as well as new detector arrays, optical components, and associated mechanical and electrical hardware. The various instrument components have been integrated into an operational system which has undergone extensive laboratory calibration and testing. The instrument has been delivered to NASA Ames where it will be installed on the NASA ER-2. The following paragraphs detail the specific tasks performed during the contract effort, the results obtained during the integration and testing of the instrument, and the conclusions which can be drawn from this effort.

  1. Less Is More: Using Static-2002R Subscales to Predict Violent and General Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; Blais, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Given that sexual offenders are more likely to reoffend with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense, it is useful to have risk scales that predict general recidivism among sexual offenders. In the current study, we examined the extent to which two commonly used risk scales for sexual offenders (Static-99R and Static-2002R) predict violent and general recidivism, and whether it would be possible to improve predictive accuracy for these outcomes by revising their items. Based on an aggregated sample of 3,536 adult male sex offenders from Canada, the United States, and Europe (average age of 39 years), we found that a scale created from the Age at Release item and the General Criminality subscale of Static-2002R predicted nonsexual violent, any violent, and general recidivism significantly better than Static-99R or Static-2002R total scores. The convergent validity of this new scale (Brief Assessment of Recidivism Risk-2002R [BARR-2002R]) was examined in a new, independent data set of Canadian high-risk adult male sex offenders (N = 360) where it was found to be highly correlated with other risk assessment tools for general recidivism and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), as well as demonstrated similar discrimination and calibration as in the development sample. Instead of using total scores from the Static-99R or Static-2002R, we recommend that evaluators use the BARR-2002R for predicting violent and general recidivism among sex offenders, and for screening for the psychological dimension of antisocial orientation.

  2. Computational Analyses in Support of Sub-scale Diffuser Testing for the A-3 Facility. Part 1; Steady Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Graham, Jason S.; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin

    2008-01-01

    Simulation technology can play an important role in rocket engine test facility design and development by assessing risks, providing analysis of dynamic pressure and thermal loads, identifying failure modes and predicting anomalous behavior of critical systems. Advanced numerical tools assume greater significance in supporting testing and design of high altitude testing facilities and plume induced testing environments of high thrust engines because of the greater inter-dependence and synergy in the functioning of the different sub-systems. This is especially true for facilities such as the proposed A-3 facility at NASA SSC because of a challenging operating envelope linked to variable throttle conditions at relatively low chamber pressures. Facility designs in this case will require a complex network of diffuser ducts, steam ejector trains, fast operating valves, cooling water systems and flow diverters that need to be characterized for steady state performance. In this paper, we will demonstrate with the use of CFD analyses s advanced capability to evaluate supersonic diffuser and steam ejector performance in a sub-scale A-3 facility at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) where extensive testing was performed. Furthermore, the focus in this paper relates to modeling of critical sub-systems and components used in facilities such as the A-3 facility. The work here will address deficiencies in empirical models and current CFD analyses that are used for design of supersonic diffusers/turning vanes/ejectors as well as analyses for confined plumes and venting processes. The primary areas that will be addressed are: (1) supersonic diffuser performance including analyses of thermal loads (2) accurate shock capturing in the diffuser duct; (3) effect of turning duct on the performance of the facility (4) prediction of mass flow rates and performance classification for steam ejectors (5) comparisons with test data from sub-scale diffuser testing and assessment of confidence

  3. Airborne thermography or infrared remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Goillot, C C

    1975-01-01

    Airborne thermography is part of the more general remote sensing activity. The instruments suitable for image display are infrared line scanners. A great deal of interest has developed during the past 10 years in airborne thermal remote sensing and many applications are in progress. Infrared scanners on board a satellite are used for observation of cloud cover; airborne infrared scanners are used for forest fire detection, heat budget of soils, detecting insect attack, diseases, air pollution damage, water stress, salinity stress on vegetation, only to cite some main applications relevant to agronomy. Using this system it has become possible to get a 'picture' of our thermal environment.

  4. Ambrosia airborne pollen concentration modelling and evaluation over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Vautard, Robert; Viovy, Nicolas; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Colette, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    Native from North America, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common Ragweed) is an invasive annual weed introduced in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. It has a very high spreading potential throughout Europe and releases very allergenic pollen leading to health problems for sensitive persons. Because of its health effects, it is necessary to develop modelling tools to be able to forecast ambrosia air pollen concentration and to inform allergy populations of allergenic threshold exceedance. This study is realised within the framework of the ATOPICA project (https://www.atopica.eu/) which is designed to provide first steps in tools and estimations of the fate of allergies in Europe due to changes in climate, land use and air quality. To calculate and predict airborne concentrations of ambrosia pollen, a chain of models has been built. Models have been developed or adapted for simulating the phenology (PMP phonological modelling platform), inter-annual production (ORCHIDEE vegetation model), release and airborne processes (CHIMERE chemical transport model) of ragweed pollen. Airborne pollens follow processes similar to air quality pollutants in CHIMERE with some adaptations. The detailed methodology, formulations and input data will be presented. A set of simulations has been performed to simulate airborne concentrations of pollens over long time periods on a large European domain. Hindcast simulations (2000 - 2012) driven by ERA-Interim re-analyses are designed to best simulate past periods airborne pollens. The modelled pollen concentrations are calibrated with observations and validated against additional observations. Then, 20-year long historical simulations (1986 - 2005) are carried out using calibrated ambrosia density distribution and climate model-driven weather in order to serve as a control simulation for future scenarios. By comparison with multi-annual observed daily pollen counts we have shown that the model captures well the gross features of the pollen

  5. Theoretical support for the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, D.L.

    1992-03-01

    This investigation was to provide theoretical support during and after the deployment of NASA research aircraft to Punta Arenas, Chile during August and September of 1987 to conduct the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The experiment was very successful in demonstrating the role of anthropogenic chlorine in producing the ozone hole over Antarctica during September and October of 1987. The PI worked primarily on using tracer data from the ER-2 aircraft to show that transport could not have caused the ozone hole in 1987, and that transport of chemical species into the polar vortex was very weak during the period of the experiment. The presence of gravity waves was also very apparent in the ER-2 data, and papers were published on this analysis and on the use of meteorological analyses to position the aircraft within the vortex.

  6. Differential Item Functioning in the SF-36 Physical Functioning and Mental Health Sub-Scales: A Population-Based Investigation in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study

    PubMed Central

    Lix, Lisa M.; Wu, Xiuyun; Hopman, Wilma; Mayo, Nancy; Sajobi, Tolulope T.; Liu, Juxin; Prior, Jerilynn C.; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Josse, Robert G.; Towheed, Tanveer E.; Davison, K. Shawn; Sawatzky, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-reported health status measures, like the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36), can provide rich information about the overall health of a population and its components, such as physical, mental, and social health. However, differential item functioning (DIF), which arises when population sub-groups with the same underlying (i.e., latent) level of health have different measured item response probabilities, may compromise the comparability of these measures. The purpose of this study was to test for DIF on the SF-36 physical functioning (PF) and mental health (MH) sub-scale items in a Canadian population-based sample. Methods Study data were from the prospective Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), which collected baseline data in 1996–1997. DIF was tested using a multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) method. Confirmatory factor analysis defined the latent variable measurement model for the item responses and latent variable regression with demographic and health status covariates (i.e., sex, age group, body weight, self-perceived general health) produced estimates of the magnitude of DIF effects. Results The CaMos cohort consisted of 9423 respondents; 69.4% were female and 51.7% were less than 65 years. Eight of 10 items on the PF sub-scale and four of five items on the MH sub-scale exhibited DIF. Large DIF effects were observed on PF sub-scale items about vigorous and moderate activities, lifting and carrying groceries, walking one block, and bathing or dressing. On the MH sub-scale items, all DIF effects were small or moderate in size. Conclusions SF-36 PF and MH sub-scale scores were not comparable across population sub-groups defined by demographic and health status variables due to the effects of DIF, although the magnitude of this bias was not large for most items. We recommend testing and adjusting for DIF to ensure comparability of the SF-36 in population-based investigations. PMID:26998611

  7. Principles for Sampling Airborne Radioactivity from Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2010-10-18

    This book chapter describes the special processes involved in sampling the airborne effluents from nuclear faciities. The title of the book is Radioactive Air Sampling Methods. The abstract for this chapter was cleared as PNNL-SA-45941.

  8. Airborne Gamma-Spectrometry in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Butterweck, Gernot; Bucher, Benno; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2008-08-07

    Airborne gamma-spectrometry is able to obtain fast radiological information over large areas. The airborne gamma-spectrometry unit deployed in Switzerland by the Swiss National Emergency Operations Centre (NEOC) consists of a Swiss army Super Puma helicopter equipped with four NaI-Detectors with a total volume of 17 liters, associated electronics and a real-time data evaluation and mapping unit developed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). The operational readiness of the airborne gamma-spectrometry system is validated in annual exercises of one week duration. Data from 2005 and 2006 exercises are represented in maps of {sup 137}Cs activity concentration for two towns located in southern and western Switzerland. An indicator of man-made radioactivity (MMGC ratio) is demonstrated for an area with four different types of nuclear installations. The intercomparison between airborne gamma-spectrometry and ground measurements showed good agreement between both methods.

  9. SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....

  10. [Work-related stress and psychological distress assessment in urban and suburban public transportation companies].

    PubMed

    Romeo, L; Lazzarini, G; Farisè, E; Quintarelli, E; Riolfi, A; Perbellini, L

    2012-01-01

    The risk of work-related stress has been determined in bus drivers and workers employed in the service department of two urban and suburban public transportation companies. The INAIL evaluation method (Check list and HSE indicator tool) was used. The GHQ-12 questionnaire, which is widely used to assess the level of psychological distress, was also employed. 81.9% of workers involved in the survey answered both the HSE indicator tool and the GHQ-12 questionnaire. The Check list evaluation showed an increase in quantifiable company stress indicators while close examination using the HSE indicator tool demonstrated critical situations for all the subscales, with the control subscales more problematic in bus drivers. The demand, manager's support, relationships and change subscales were most associated with psychological distress in bus drivers, while relationships, role, change and demand subscales were negatively related in workers of the service department. PMID:23405761

  11. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  12. Challenges and opportunities of airborne metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-06

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles.

  13. Challenges and Opportunities of Airborne Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Gojobori, Takashi; Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Recent metagenomic studies of environments, such as marine and soil, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the diverse microbial communities living in these habitats and their essential roles in sustaining vast ecosystems. The increase in the number of publications related to soil and marine metagenomics is in sharp contrast to those of air, yet airborne microbes are thought to have significant impacts on many aspects of our lives from their potential roles in atmospheric events such as cloud formation, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry to their major impact on human health. In this review, we will discuss the current progress in airborne metagenomics, with a special focus on exploring the challenges and opportunities of undertaking such studies. The main challenges of conducting metagenomic studies of airborne microbes are as follows: 1) Low density of microorganisms in the air, 2) efficient retrieval of microorganisms from the air, 3) variability in airborne microbial community composition, 4) the lack of standardized protocols and methodologies, and 5) DNA sequencing and bioinformatics-related challenges. Overcoming these challenges could provide the groundwork for comprehensive analysis of airborne microbes and their potential impact on the atmosphere, global climate, and our health. Metagenomic studies offer a unique opportunity to examine viral and bacterial diversity in the air and monitor their spread locally or across the globe, including threats from pathogenic microorganisms. Airborne metagenomic studies could also lead to discoveries of novel genes and metabolic pathways relevant to meteorological and industrial applications, environmental bioremediation, and biogeochemical cycles. PMID:25953766

  14. Utility of Braden Scale Nutrition Subscale Ratings as an Indicator of Dietary Intake and Weight Outcomes among Nursing Home Residents at Risk for Pressure Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Kennerly, Susan; Boss, Lisa; Yap, Tracey L.; Batchelor-Murphy, Melissa; Horn, Susan D.; Barrett, Ryan; Bergstrom, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The Braden Scale for Pressure Sore Risk© is a screening tool to determine overall risk of pressure ulcer development and estimate severity of specific risk factors for individual residents. Nurses often use the Braden nutrition subscale to screen nursing home (NH) residents for nutritional risk, and then recommend a more comprehensive nutritional assessment as indicated. Secondary data analysis from the Turn for Ulcer ReductioN (TURN) study’s investigation of U.S. and Canadian NH residents (n = 690) considered at moderate or high pressure ulcer (PrU) risk was used to evaluate the subscale’s utility for identifying nutritional intake risk factors. Associations were examined between Braden Nutritional Risk subscale screening, dietary intake (mean % meal intake and by meal timing, mean number of protein servings, protein sources, % intake of supplements and snacks), weight outcomes, and new PrU incidence. Of moderate and high PrU risk residents, 61.9% and 59.2% ate a mean meal % of <75. Fewer than 18% overall ate <50% of meals or refused meals. No significant differences were observed in weight differences by nutrition subscale risk or in mean number protein servings per meal (1.4 (SD = 0.58) versus 1.3 (SD = 0.53)) for moderate versus high PrU risk residents. The nutrition subscale approximates subsequent estimated dietary intake and can provide insight into meal intake patterns for those at either moderate or high PrU risk. Findings support the Braden Scale’s use as a preliminary screening method to identify focused areas for potential intervention. PMID:27417802

  15. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  16. Music therapy assessment tool for awareness in disorders of consciousness (MATADOC): standardisation of the principal subscale to assess awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Magee, Wendy L; Siegert, Richard J; Daveson, Barbara A; Lenton-Smith, Gemma; Taylor, Steve M

    2014-01-01

    Establishing valid and reliable measures for use with patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) following profound brain injury is challenging due to a number of factors including the complex presentation of such patients and assessor variability. The auditory modality has been demonstrated to have greater sensitivity for detecting awareness in DOC patients. However, there are no measures developed to assess auditory responsiveness specifically. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the principal subscale of a music therapy assessment tool (MATADOC) developed for use with adult DOC patients. The subscale assesses behavioural domains essential for diagnosis of awareness. Twenty-one adult patients were recruited from a specialist rehabilitation unit. In a prospective study with repeated measures, internal consistency, inter-rater and test-retest reliability and dimensionality were examined. The five-item scale showed satisfactory internal reliability (α = .76) and a strong first principal component. Corrected item-total correlations were all > .45. Inter-rater intra-class correlations (ICCs) ranged from 0.65-1.00 and intra-rater ICCs from 0.77-0.90. Rasch analysis confirmed these impressions of a reliable, unidimensional and homogenous scale. Diagnostic outcomes had 100% agreement with a validated external reference standard. The results indicate that the MATADOC principal subscale provides a new behavioural measure that can contribute to interdisciplinary assessment of awareness with DOC patients.

  17. Medicinal smoke reduces airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nene, Yeshwant Laxman

    2007-12-01

    This study represents a comprehensive analysis and scientific validation of our ancient knowledge about the effect of ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care on airborne bacterial composition and dynamics, using the Biolog microplate panels and Microlog database. We have observed that 1h treatment of medicinal smoke emanated by burning wood and a mixture of odoriferous and medicinal herbs (havan sámagri=material used in oblation to fire all over India), on aerial bacterial population caused over 94% reduction of bacterial counts by 60 min and the ability of the smoke to purify or disinfect the air and to make the environment cleaner was maintained up to 24h in the closed room. Absence of pathogenic bacteria Corynebacterium urealyticum, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes (Klebsiella mobilis), Kocuria rosea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. tardicrescens in the open room even after 30 days is indicative of the bactericidal potential of the medicinal smoke treatment. We have demonstrated that using medicinal smoke it is possible to completely eliminate diverse plant and human pathogenic bacteria of the air within confined space. PMID:17913417

  18. Pulsed Doppler lidar airborne scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimarzio, C. A.; Mcvicker, D. B.; Morrow, C. E.; Negus, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    This report covers the work accomplished during the reporting period on Pulsed Doppler Lidar Airborne Scanner and describes plans for the next reporting period. The objectives during the current phase of the contract are divided into four phases. Phase 1 includes ground testing of the system and analysis of data from the 1981 Severe Storms Test Flights. Phase 2 consists of preflight preparation and planning for the 1983 flight series. The flight test itself will be performed during Phase 3, and Phase 4 consists of post-flight analysis and operation of the system after that flight test. The range profile from five samples taken during Flight 10, around 1700 Z is given. The lowest curve is taken from data collected upwind of Mt. Shasta at about 10,000 feet of altitude, in a clear atmosphere, where no signals were observed. It thus is a good representation of the noise level as a function of range. The next curve was taken downwind of the mountain, and shows evidence of atmospheric returns. There is some question as to whether the data are valid at all ranges, or some ranges are contaminated by the others.

  19. Performance Basis for Airborne Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging applications of Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) technologies make possible new and powerful methods in Air Traffic Management (ATM) that may significantly improve the system-level performance of operations in the future ATM system. These applications typically involve the aircraft managing certain components of its Four Dimensional (4D) trajectory within the degrees of freedom defined by a set of operational constraints negotiated with the Air Navigation Service Provider. It is hypothesized that reliable individual performance by many aircraft will translate into higher total system-level performance. To actually realize this improvement, the new capabilities must be attracted to high demand and complexity regions where high ATM performance is critical. Operational approval for use in such environments will require participating aircraft to be certified to rigorous and appropriate performance standards. Currently, no formal basis exists for defining these standards. This paper provides a context for defining the performance basis for 4D-ASAS operations. The trajectory constraints to be met by the aircraft are defined, categorized, and assessed for performance requirements. A proposed extension of the existing Required Navigation Performance (RNP) construct into a dynamic standard (Dynamic RNP) is outlined. Sample data is presented from an ongoing high-fidelity batch simulation series that is characterizing the performance of an advanced 4D-ASAS application. Data of this type will contribute to the evaluation and validation of the proposed performance basis.

  20. Research Of Airborne Precision Spacing to Improve Airport Arrival Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Baxley, Brian T.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In September 2004, the European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) and the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation to mutually develop, modify, test, and evaluate systems, procedures, facilities, and devices to meet the need for safe and efficient air navigation and air traffic control in the future. In the United States and Europe, these efforts are defined within the architectures of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Program and Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) Program respectively. Both programs have identified Airborne Spacing as a critical component, with Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) as a key enabler. Increased interest in reducing airport community noise and the escalating cost of aviation fuel has led to the use of Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures to reduce noise, emissions, and fuel usage compared to current procedures. To provide these operational enhancements, arrival flight paths into terminal areas are planned around continuous vertical descents that are closer to an optimum trajectory than those in use today. The profiles are designed to be near-idle descents from cruise altitude to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) and are typically without any level segments. By staying higher and faster than conventional arrivals, CDAs also save flight time for the aircraft operator. The drawback is that the variation of optimized trajectories for different types and weights of aircraft requires the Air Traffic Controller to provide more airspace around an aircraft on a CDA than on a conventional arrival procedure. This additional space decreases the throughput rate of the destination airport. Airborne self-spacing concepts have been developed to increase the throughput at high-demand airports by managing the inter-arrival spacing to be more precise and consistent using on-board guidance. It has been proposed that the

  1. Airborne-Managed Spacing in Multiple Arrival Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan; Abbott, Terence; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2004-01-01

    A significant bottleneck in the current air traffic system occurs at the runway. Expanding airports and adding new runways will help solve this problem; however, this comes at a significant cost, financially, politically and environmentally. A complementary solution is to safely increase the capacity of current runways. This can be achieved by precise spacing at the runway threshold with a resulting reduction in the spacing buffer required under today s operations. At the NASA Langley Research Center, the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project is investigating airborne technologies and procedures that will assist the pilot in achieving precise spacing behind another aircraft. This new spacing clearance instructs the pilot to follow speed cues from a new on-board guidance system called Airborne Merging and Spacing for Terminal Arrivals (AMSTAR). AMSTAR receives Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) reports from the leading aircraft and calculates the appropriate speed for the ownership to fly in order to achieve the desired spacing interval, time or distance-based, at the runway threshold. Since the goal is overall system capacity, the speed guidance algorithm is designed to provide system benefit over individual efficiency. This paper discusses the concept of operations and design of AMSTAR to support airborne precision spacing. Results from the previous stage of development, focused only on in-trail spacing, are discussed along with the evolution of the concept to include merging of converging streams of traffic. This paper also examines how this operation might support future wake vortex-based separation and other advances in terminal area operations. Finally, the research plan for the merging capabilities, to be performed during the summer and fall of 2004 is presented.

  2. Webinar: Airborne Data Discovery and Analysis with Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-18

    Webinar: Airborne Data Discovery and Analysis with Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD) Wednesday, October 26, 2016 Join us on ... based on high-level parameter groups, mission, platform and flight data ranges are available. Registration is now open.  Access the full ...

  3. NASA's Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Dungan, J. L.; Edwards, M.; Russell, P. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Hooker, S.; Myers, J.; Kudela, R. M.; Dunagan, S.; Soulage, M.; Ellis, T.; Clinton, N. E.; Lobitz, B.; Martin, K.; Zell, P.; Berthold, R. W.; Smith, C.; Andrew, D.; Gore, W.; Torres, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed (COAST) Project is a NASA Earth-science flight mission that will advance coastal ecosystems research by providing a unique airborne payload optimized for remote sensing in the optically complex coastal zone. Teaming NASA Ames scientists and engineers with Biospherical Instruments, Inc. (San Diego) and UC Santa Cruz, the airborne COAST instrument suite combines a customized imaging spectrometer, sunphotometer system, and a new bio-optical radiometer package to obtain ocean/coastal/atmosphere data simultaneously in flight for the first time. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue region of the spectrum to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data will be accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Based on optical detectors called microradiometers, the NASA Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Calibration and Validation (cal/val) Office team has deployed advanced commercial off-the-shelf instrumentation that provides in situ measurements of the apparent optical properties at the land/ocean boundary including optically shallow aquatic ecosystems (e.g., lakes, estuaries, coral reefs). A complimentary microradiometer instrument package (Biospherical Instruments, Inc.), optimized for use above water, will be flown for the first time with the airborne instrument suite. Details of the October 2011 COAST airborne mission over Monterey Bay demonstrating this new airborne instrument suite capability will be presented, with associated preliminary data on coastal ocean color products, coincident spatial and temporal data on aerosol optical depth and water vapor column content, as well as derived exact water-leaving radiances.

  4. Airborne radionuclides in mosses collected at different latitudes.

    PubMed

    Krmar, M; Wattanavatee, K; Radnović, D; Slivka, J; Bhongsuwan, T; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S

    2013-03-01

    Terrestrial mosses are a promising medium for investigation and monitoring of airborne radionuclide depositions due to their widespread occurrence, ease of sampling, and the possibility of high-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements without preparatory chemical treatment of samples. The overall objective of the present study was to compare (7)Be, (210)Pb and (137)Cs activity concentrations (in Bq/kg) in moss samples collected at two different climate zones: the south of Thailand (7 °N) and in Serbia (∼45 °N) in order to examine deposition of airborne radionuclide in these distant areas. Significant difference of the (210)Pb content (almost a factor of 2) in mosses was observed. The mean value of (7)Be activity in samples from Serbia was almost 40% higher than activity of those collected in Thailand. Level of (137)Cs in Thailand mosses was below the detection limit. It was shown that air transport of water droplets in the area of waterfalls and strong turbulence can deposit U and Th daughter nuclei. PMID:21880403

  5. In vitro evaluation of pulmonary deposition of airborne volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lähde, Anna; Sæunn Gudmundsdottir, Sigurbjörg; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Tapper, Unto; Ruusunen, Jarno; Ihalainen, Mika; Karhunen, Tommi; Torvela, Tiina; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Järvinen, Kristiina; Gíslason, Sigurður Reynir; Briem, Haraldur; Gizurarson, Sveinbjörn

    2013-05-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the effects of volcanic eruption on the environment, climate, and health following two recent volcanic eruptions in Iceland. Although health issues are mainly focused on subjects living close to the eruption due to the high concentration of airborne ash and gasses in close vicinity to the volcanoes, the ash may also reach high altitude and get distributed thousands of kilometers away from the volcano. Ash particles used in the studies were collected at the Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn eruption sites. The composition, size, density and morphology of the particles were analyzed and the effect of particle properties on the re-dispersion and lung deposition were studied. The aerodynamic size and morphology of the particles were consistent with field measurement results obtained during the eruptions. Due to their size and structure, the ash particles can be re-suspended and transported into the lungs. The total surface area of submicron ash particles deposited into the alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs were 3-9% and 1-2%, respectively. Although the main fraction of the surface area is deposited in the head airways region, a significant amount of particles can deposit into the alveolar and tracheobronchial regions. The results indicate that a substantial increase in the concentration of respirable airborne ash particles and associated health hazard can take place if the deposited ash particles are re-suspended under dry, windy conditions or by outdoor human activity.

  6. Airborne Management of Traffic Conflicts in Descent With Arrival Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Barhydt, Richard; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2005-01-01

    NASA is studying far-term air traffic management concepts that may increase operational efficiency through a redistribution of decisionmaking authority among airborne and ground-based elements of the air transportation system. One component of this research, En Route Free Maneuvering, allows trained pilots of equipped autonomous aircraft to assume responsibility for traffic separation. Ground-based air traffic controllers would continue to separate traffic unequipped for autonomous operations and would issue flow management constraints to all aircraft. To evaluate En Route Free Maneuvering operations, a human-in-the-loop experiment was jointly conducted by the NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers. In this experiment, test subject pilots used desktop flight simulators to resolve conflicts in cruise and descent, and to adhere to air traffic flow constraints issued by test subject controllers. Simulators at NASA Langley were equipped with a prototype Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) flight deck toolset to assist pilots with conflict management and constraint compliance tasks. Results from the experiment are presented, focusing specifically on operations during the initial descent into the terminal area. Airborne conflict resolution performance in descent, conformance to traffic flow management constraints, and the effects of conflicting traffic on constraint conformance are all presented. Subjective data from subject pilots are also presented, showing perceived levels of workload, safety, and acceptability of autonomous arrival operations. Finally, potential AOP functionality enhancements are discussed along with suggestions to improve arrival procedures.

  7. Airborne radionuclides in mosses collected at different latitudes.

    PubMed

    Krmar, M; Wattanavatee, K; Radnović, D; Slivka, J; Bhongsuwan, T; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S

    2013-03-01

    Terrestrial mosses are a promising medium for investigation and monitoring of airborne radionuclide depositions due to their widespread occurrence, ease of sampling, and the possibility of high-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements without preparatory chemical treatment of samples. The overall objective of the present study was to compare (7)Be, (210)Pb and (137)Cs activity concentrations (in Bq/kg) in moss samples collected at two different climate zones: the south of Thailand (7 °N) and in Serbia (∼45 °N) in order to examine deposition of airborne radionuclide in these distant areas. Significant difference of the (210)Pb content (almost a factor of 2) in mosses was observed. The mean value of (7)Be activity in samples from Serbia was almost 40% higher than activity of those collected in Thailand. Level of (137)Cs in Thailand mosses was below the detection limit. It was shown that air transport of water droplets in the area of waterfalls and strong turbulence can deposit U and Th daughter nuclei.

  8. Laboratory and field portable system for calibrating airborne multispectral scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlow, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Manufacturers of airborne multispectral scanners suggest procedures for calibration and alignment that are usually awkward and even questionable. For example, the procedures may require: separating the scanner from calibration and alignment sources by 100 feet or more, employing folding mirrors, tampering with the detectors after the procedures are finished, etc. Under the best of conditions such procedures require about three hours yielding questionable confidence in the results; under many conditions, however, procedures commonly take six to eight hours, yielding no satisfactory results. EG and G, Inc. has designed and built a calibration and alignment system for airborne scanners which solves those problems, permitting the procedures to be carried out in about two to three hours. This equipment can be quickly disassembled, transported with the scanner in all but the smallest single engine aircraft, and reassembled in a few hours. The subsystems of this equipment are commonly available from manufacturers of optical and electronic equipment. The other components are easily purchased, or fabricated. The scanner discussed is the Model DS-1260 digital line scanner manufactured by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. It is a dual-sensor system which is operated in one of two combination of sensors: one spectrometer head (which provides simultaneous coverage in ten visible channels) and one thermal infrared detector, or simply two thermal infrared detectors.

  9. Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, B.D.

    1994-06-01

    In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ``cold,`` or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications.

  10. Airborne laser communication technology and flight test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Li-xin; Zhang, Li-zhong; Li, Xiao-ming; Li, Ying-chao; Jiang, Hui-lin

    2015-11-01

    Reconnaissance aircraft is an important node of the space-air-ground integrated information network, on which equipped with a large number of high-resolution surveillance equipment, and need high speed communications equipment to transmit detected information in real time. Currently RF communication methods cannot meet the needs of communication bandwidth. Wireless laser communication has outstanding advantages high speed, high capacity, security, etc., is an important means to solve the high-speed information transmission of airborne platforms. In this paper, detailed analysis of how the system works, the system components, work processes, link power and the key technologies of airborne laser communication were discussed. On this basis, a prototype airborne laser communications was developed, and high-speed, long-distance communications tests were carried out between the two fixed-wing aircraft, and the airborne precision aiming, atmospheric laser communication impacts on laser communication were tested. The experiments ultimately realize that, the communication distance is 144km, the communication rate is 2.5Gbps. The Airborne laser communication experiments provide technical basis for the application of the conversion equipment.

  11. Correlative Stratospheric Ozone Measurements with the Airborne UV DIAL System during TOTE/VOTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.; Fenn, Marta A.; Browell, Edward V.; McGee, Thomas J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Gross, Michael R.; McDermid, I. Stuart; Froidevaux, Lucien; Wang, Pi-Huang

    1998-01-01

    The airborne UV differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system participated in the Tropical Ozone Transport Experiment/Vortex Ozone Transport Experiment (TOTE/VOTE) in late 1995/early 1996. This mission afforded the opportunity to compare the DIAL system's stratospheric ozone measuring capability with other remote-sensing instruments through correlative measurements over a latitude range from the tropics to the Arctic. These instruments included ground-based DIAL and space-based stratospheric instruments: HALOE; MLS; and SAGE II. The ozone profiles generally agreed within random error estimates for the various instruments in the middle of the profiles in the tropics, but regions of significant systematic differences, especially near or below the tropopause or at the higher altitudes were also found. The comparisons strongly suggest that the airborne UV DIAL system can play a valuable role as a mobile lower-stratospheric ozone validation instrument.

  12. Sensitivity to changes during antidepressant treatment: a comparison of unidimensional subscales of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André

    2012-06-01

    In the efficacy evaluation of antidepressant treatments, the total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is still regarded as the 'gold standard'. We previously had shown that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) was more sensitive to detect depressive symptom changes than the HAMD17 (Helmreich et al. 2011). Furthermore, studies suggest that the unidimensional subscales of the HAMD, which capture the core depressive symptoms, outperform the full HAMD regarding the detection of antidepressant treatment effects. The aim of the present study was to compare several unidimensional subscales of the HAMD and the IDS regarding their sensitivity to changes in depression symptoms in a sample of patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C28 and HAMD17 data from 287 patients of a 10-week randomised, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with MIND were converted to subscale scores and analysed during the antidepressant treatment course. We investigated sensitivity to depressive change for all scales from assessment-to-assessment, in relation to depression severity level and placebo-verum differences. The subscales performed similarly during the treatment course, with slight advantages for some subscales in detecting treatment effects depending on the treatment modality and on the items included. Most changes in depressive symptomatology were detected by the IDS short scale, but regarding the effect sizes, it performed worse than most subscales. Unidimensional subscales are a time- and cost-saving option in judging drug therapy outcomes, especially in antidepressant treatment efficacy studies. However, subscales do not cover all facets of depression (e.g. atypical symptoms, sleep disturbances), which might be important for comprehensively understanding the nature of the disease depression. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be

  13. Sensitivity to changes during antidepressant treatment: a comparison of unidimensional subscales of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André

    2012-06-01

    In the efficacy evaluation of antidepressant treatments, the total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is still regarded as the 'gold standard'. We previously had shown that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) was more sensitive to detect depressive symptom changes than the HAMD17 (Helmreich et al. 2011). Furthermore, studies suggest that the unidimensional subscales of the HAMD, which capture the core depressive symptoms, outperform the full HAMD regarding the detection of antidepressant treatment effects. The aim of the present study was to compare several unidimensional subscales of the HAMD and the IDS regarding their sensitivity to changes in depression symptoms in a sample of patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C28 and HAMD17 data from 287 patients of a 10-week randomised, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with MIND were converted to subscale scores and analysed during the antidepressant treatment course. We investigated sensitivity to depressive change for all scales from assessment-to-assessment, in relation to depression severity level and placebo-verum differences. The subscales performed similarly during the treatment course, with slight advantages for some subscales in detecting treatment effects depending on the treatment modality and on the items included. Most changes in depressive symptomatology were detected by the IDS short scale, but regarding the effect sizes, it performed worse than most subscales. Unidimensional subscales are a time- and cost-saving option in judging drug therapy outcomes, especially in antidepressant treatment efficacy studies. However, subscales do not cover all facets of depression (e.g. atypical symptoms, sleep disturbances), which might be important for comprehensively understanding the nature of the disease depression. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be

  14. Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Airborne Contaminants Relative to Amphibian Population in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne agricultural pesticides are being transported many tens of kilometers to remote locations in mountain areas, and they have been implicated as a cause for recent, dramatic population declines of several amphibian species in such areas. The strongest case is for the mount...

  15. An algorithm for generalizing topography to grids while preserving subscale morphologic characteristics—creating a glacier bed DEM for Jakobshavn trough as low-resolution input for dynamic ice-sheet models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzfeld, Ute C.; Wallin, Bruce F.; Leuschen, Carlton J.; Plummer, Joel

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to derive an algorithm for preserving important subscale morphologic characteristics at grids of lower-resolution, in particular for linear features such as canyons and ridge lines. The development of such an algorithm is necessitated by applications that require reduced spatial resolution, as is common in cartographic generalization, GIS applications, and geophysical modeling. Since any algorithm that results in weighted averages, including optimum interpolation and ordinary kriging, cannot reproduce correct depths, a new algorithm is designed based on principles of mathematical morphology. The algorithm described here is applied to derive a subglacial bed of the Greenland Ice Sheet that includes the trough of Jakobshavn Isbræ as a continuous canyon at correct depth in a low-resolution (5-km) digital elevation model (DEM). Data from recent airborne radar measurements of the elevation of the subglacial bed as part of the CReSIS project are utilized. The morphologic algorithm is designed with geophysical ice-sheet modeling in mind, in the following context. Currently occurring changes in the Earth's climate and the cryosphere cause changes in sea level, and the societal relevance of these natural processes motivates estimation of maximal sea-level rise in the medium-term future. The fast-moving outlet glaciers are more sensitive to climatic change than other parts of the Greenland ice sheet. Jakobshavn Isbrae, the fastest-moving ice stream in Greenland, follows a subglacial geologic trough. Since the existence of the trough causes the acceleration of the slow-moving inland ice in the Jakobshavn region and the formation of the ice stream, correct representation of the trough in a DEM is essential to model changes in the dynamics of the ice sheet and resultant sea-level predictions, even if current ice-sheet models can typically be run only at 5-km resolution. The DEM resultant from this study helps to bridge the conceptual gap between

  16. Airborne space laser communication system and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-Xin

    2015-11-01

    Airborne space laser communication is characterized by its high speed, anti-electromagnetic interference, security, easy to assign. It has broad application in the areas of integrated space-ground communication networking, military communication, anti-electromagnetic communication. This paper introduce the component and APT system of the airborne laser communication system design by Changchun university of science and technology base on characteristic of airborne laser communication and Y12 plan, especially introduce the high communication speed and long distance communication experiment of the system that among two Y12 plans. In the experiment got the aim that the max communication distance 144Km, error 10-6 2.5Gbps - 10-7 1.5Gbps capture probability 97%, average capture time 20s. The experiment proving the adaptability of the APT and the high speed long distance communication.

  17. Airborne pollen trends in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Aira, M J; Belmonte, J; Diaz de la Guardia, C; Fernández-González, D; Gutierrez-Bustillo, M; Moreno-Grau, S; Pérez-Badía, R; Rodríguez-Rajo, J; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L; Tormo, R; Trigo, M M; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    2016-04-15

    Airborne pollen monitoring is an effective tool for studying the reproductive phenology of anemophilous plants, an important bioindicator of plant behavior. Recent decades have revealed a trend towards rising airborne pollen concentrations in Europe, attributing these trends to an increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions and temperature. However, the lack of water availability in southern Europe may prompt a trend towards lower flowering intensity, especially in herbaceous plants. Here we show variations in flowering intensity by analyzing the Annual Pollen Index (API) of 12 anemophilous taxa across 12 locations in the Iberian Peninsula, over the last two decades, and detecting the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Results revealed differences in the distribution and flowering intensity of anemophilous species. A negative correlation was observed between airborne pollen concentrations and winter averages of the NAO index. This study confirms that changes in rainfall in the Mediterranean region, attributed to climate change, have an important impact on the phenology of plants.

  18. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties During SAFARI-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) operated onboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft during the SAFARI-2000 field campaign. The CPL provided high spatial resolution measurements of aerosol optical properties at both 1064 nm and 532 nm. We present here results of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol optical depth analysis and profiles of aerosol extinction. Variation of optical depth and extinction are examined as a function of regional location. The wide-scale aerosol mapping obtained by the CPL is a unique data set that will aid in future studies of aerosol transport. Comparisons between the airborne CPL and ground-based MicroPulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net) sites are shown to have good agreement.

  19. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  20. Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    Mhuireach, Gwynne; Johnson, Bart R; Altrichter, Adam E; Ladau, Joshua; Meadow, James F; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2016-11-15

    Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p=0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the "settling dish" method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing

  1. Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    Mhuireach, Gwynne; Johnson, Bart R; Altrichter, Adam E; Ladau, Joshua; Meadow, James F; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2016-11-15

    Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p=0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the "settling dish" method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing

  2. Predictors of airborne endotoxin concentrations in inner city homes.

    PubMed

    Mazique, D; Diette, G B; Breysse, P N; Matsui, E C; McCormack, M C; Curtin-Brosnan, J; Williams, D L; Peng, R D; Hansel, N N

    2011-05-01

    Few studies have assessed in home factors which contribute to airborne endotoxin concentrations. In 85 inner city Baltimore homes, we found no significant correlation between settled dust and airborne endotoxin concentrations. Certain household activities and characteristics, including frequency of dusting, air conditioner use and type of flooring, explained 36-42% of the variability of airborne concentrations. Measurements of both airborne and settled dust endotoxin concentrations may be needed to fully characterize domestic exposure in epidemiologic investigations. PMID:21429483

  3. Crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Sommer, J.; Frederiksen, L.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.

    2012-06-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source to airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the source to the overall load is mainly local, but with intermittent Long Distance Transport (LDT) from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  4. Sandia Multispectral Airborne Lidar for UAV Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.W.; Hargis,Jr. P.J.; Henson, T.D.; Jordan, J.D.; Lang, A.R.; Schmitt, R.L.

    1998-10-23

    Sandia National Laboratories has initiated the development of an airborne system for W laser remote sensing measurements. System applications include the detection of effluents associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the detection of biological weapon aerosols. This paper discusses the status of the conceptual design development and plans for both the airborne payload (pointing and tracking, laser transmitter, and telescope receiver) and the Altus unmanned aerospace vehicle platform. Hardware design constraints necessary to maintain system weight, power, and volume limitations of the flight platform are identified.

  5. Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1998-04-01

    A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

  6. Detection and enumeration of airborne biocontaminants.

    PubMed

    Stetzenbach, Linda D; Buttner, Mark P; Cruz, Patricia

    2004-06-01

    The sampling and analysis of airborne microorganisms has received attention in recent years owing to concerns with mold contamination in indoor environments and the threat of bioterrorism. Traditionally, the detection and enumeration of airborne microorganisms has been conducted using light microscopy and/or culture-based methods; however, these analyses are time-consuming, laborious, subjective and lack sensitivity and specificity. The use of molecular methods, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification, can enhance monitoring strategies by increasing sensitivity and specificity, while decreasing the time required for analysis.

  7. National center for airborne laser mapping proposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Bill; Shrestha, Ramesh L.; Dietrich, Bill

    Researchers from universities, U.S. government agencies, U.S. national laboratories, and private industry met in the spring to learn about the current capabilities of Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM), share their experiences in using the technology for a wide variety of research applications, outline research that would be made possible by research-grade ALSM data, and discuss the proposed operation and management of the brand new National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM).The workshop successfully identified a community of researchers with common interests in the advancement and use of ALSM—a community which strongly supports the immediate establishment of the NCALM.

  8. An Item Response Analysis of the Motor and Behavioral Subscales of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale in Huntington Disease Gene Expansion Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarino, Anthony L.; Anderson, Karen; Borowsky, Beth; Duff, Kevin; Giuliano, Joseph; Guttman, Mark; Ho, Aileen K.; Orth, Michael; Paulsen, Jane S.; Sills, Terrence; van Kammen, Daniel P.; Evans, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    Although the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) is widely used in the assessment of Huntington disease (HD), the ability of individual items to discriminate individual differences in motor or behavioral manifestations has not been extensively studied in HD gene expansion carriers without a motor-defined clinical diagnosis (i.e., prodromal-HD or prHD). To elucidate the relationship between scores on individual motor and behavioral UHDRS items and total score for each subscale, a non-parametric item response analysis was performed on retrospective data from two multicentre, longitudinal studies. Motor and Behavioral assessments were supplied for 737 prHD individuals with data from 2114 visits (PREDICT-HD) and 686 HD individuals with data from 1482 visits (REGISTRY). Option characteristic curves were generated for UHDRS subscale items in relation to their subscale score. In prHD, overall severity of motor signs was low and participants had scores of 2 or above on very few items. In HD, motor items that assessed ocular pursuit, saccade initiation, finger tapping, tandem walking, and to a lesser extent saccade velocity, dysarthia, tongue protrusion, pronation/supination, Luria, bradykinesia, choreas, gait and balance on the retropulsion test were found to discriminate individual differences across a broad range of motor severity. In prHD, depressed mood, anxiety, and irritable behavior demonstrated good discriminative properties. In HD, depressed mood demonstrated a good relationship with the overall behavioral score. These data suggest that at least some UHDRS items appear to have utility across a broad range of severity, although many items demonstrate problematic features. PMID:21370269

  9. The relationship between baseline Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment subscale scores and implementation of hepatitis prevention services in substance use disorders treatment clinics: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment (ORCA) is a measure of organizational readiness for implementing practice change in healthcare settings that is organized based on the core elements and sub-elements of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework. General support for the reliability and factor structure of the ORCA has been reported. However, no published study has examined the utility of the ORCA in a clinical setting. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between baseline ORCA scores and implementation of hepatitis prevention services in substance use disorders (SUD) clinics. Methods Nine clinic teams from Veterans Health Administration SUD clinics across the United States participated in a six-month training program to promote evidence-based practices for hepatitis prevention. A representative from each team completed the ORCA evidence and context subscales at baseline. Results Eight of nine clinics reported implementation of at least one new hepatitis prevention practice after completing the six-month training program. Clinic teams were categorized by level of implementation-high (n = 4) versus low (n = 5)-based on how many hepatitis prevention practices were integrated into their clinics after completing the training program. High implementation teams had significantly higher scores on the patient experience and leadership culture subscales of the ORCA compared to low implementation teams. While not reaching significance in this small sample, high implementation clinics also had higher scores on the research, clinical experience, staff culture, leadership behavior, and measurement subscales as compared to low implementation clinics. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the ORCA was able to measure differences in organizational factors at baseline between clinics that reported high and low implementation of practice recommendations at follow-up. This

  10. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  11. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  12. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  13. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  14. 14 CFR 125.223 - Airborne weather radar equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne weather radar equipment... Equipment Requirements § 125.223 Airborne weather radar equipment requirements. (a) No person may operate an airplane governed by this part in passenger-carrying operations unless approved airborne weather...

  15. Experimental investigation into wing span and angle-of-attack effects on sub-scale race car wing/wheel interaction aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diasinos, S.; Gatto, A.

    2008-09-01

    This paper details a quantitative 3D investigation using LDA into the interaction aerodynamics on a sub-scale open wheel race car inverted front wing and wheel. Of primary importance to this study was the influence of changing wing angle of attack and span on the resulting near-field and far-field flow characteristics. Results obtained showed that both variables do have a significant influence on the resultant flow-field, particularly on wing vortex and wheel wake development and propagation.

  16. Statistical analysis of the size and elemental composition of airborne coal mine dust

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.

    1986-01-01

    The specific purpose of this thesis is to analyze two of the basic characteristics of airborne coal mine dust, size and elemental composition, and to study their ramifications on dust control measures and medical studies of coal workers' pneumoconiosis. A dust-sampling strategy using multi-stage cascade impactors is established for characterization purposes. Analysis of the size data based upon the aerodynamic diameter is performed to examine the two assumptions implicitly made in the current practice for coal mine dust size presentation; lognormality and unimodality in the mass size distribution. The bimodal lognormal model is able to identify the major modal patterns observed in the empirical models. Association of the elemental composition of coal with the rank is tested to be significant. Size dependency and locational variation of elemental composition of airborne coal mine dust are significant. The size dependency is more significant in the immediate return of the continuous miner operation and the elements showing significant locational variability are found to be enriched near the roof bolter operation. The coal seam is the main source of major elements in airborne coal mine dust, while no consistent relationship exists for the trace elements. The significance of the dust in the intake air as a potential source for the elements in airborne coal mine dust is shown. Dust reentrained along the shuttle car route is also found to be a significant dust source. Dust particles in the respirable size range are likely to transport through the working area.

  17. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Airborne Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, T.; Beer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an instrument being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System Chemistry Platform. TES will measure the distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) is an aircraft precursor to TES. Applicable descriptions are given of instrument design, technology challenges, implementation and operations for both.

  18. Simulation system of airborne FLIR searcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kefeng; Li, Yu; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jilong; Xie, Junhu; Ding, Na; Sun, Dandan

    2014-11-01

    Airborne Forward looking infra-red (FLIR) searcher simulation system can provide multi-mode simulated test environment that almost actual field environment, and can simulate integrated performance and external interface of airborne FLIR simulation system. Furthermore, the airborne FLIR searcher simulation system can support the algorithm optimization of image processing, and support the test and evaluation of electro-optical system, and also support the line test of software and evaluate the performance of the avionics system. The detailed design structure and information cross-linking relationship of each component are given in this paper. The simulation system is composed of the simulation center, the FLIR actuator, the FLIR emulator, and the display control terminal. The simulation center can generate the simulated target and aircraft flying data in the operation state of the airborne FLIR Searcher. The FLIR actuator can provide simulation scene. It can generate the infrared target and landform based scanning scene, response to the commands from simulation center and the FLIR actuator and operation control unit. The infrared image generated by the FLIR actuator can be processed by the FLIR emulator using PowerPC hardware framework and processing software based on VxWorks system. It can detect multi-target and output the DVI video and the multi-target detection information which corresponds to the working state of the FLIR searcher. Display control terminal can display the multi-target detection information in two-dimension situation format, and realize human-computer interaction function.

  19. Toolsets for Airborne Data Beta Release

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-17

    ... for Airborne Data (TAD), developed at the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to promote ... and Houston, and DC3 will be added shortly. Early next year we plan to add DISCOVER-AQ Colorado and SEAC4RS to the TAD database. We ...

  20. A Technique for Airborne Aerobiological Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mill, R. A.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Report of a study of airborne micro-organisms collected over the Oklahoma City Metropolitan area and immediate environments, to investigate the possibility that a cloud of such organisms might account for the prevalence of some respiratory diseases in and around urban areas. (LK)

  1. Airborne Satcom Terminal Research at NASA Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoder, Doug; Zakrajsek, Robert

    2002-01-01

    NASA Glenn has constructed an airborne Ku-band satellite terminal, which provides wideband full-duplex ground-aircraft communications. The terminal makes use of novel electronically-steered phased array antennas and provides IP connectivity to and from the ground. The satcom terminal communications equipment may be easily changed whenever a new configuration is required, enhancing the terminal's versatility.

  2. Infrared airborne spectroradiometer survey results in the western Nevada area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.; Chang, S. H.; Kuo, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark II airborne spectroradiometer system was flown over several geologic test sites in western Nevada. The infrared mineral absorption bands were observed and recorded for the first time using an airborne system with high spectral resolution in the 2.0 to 2.5 micron region. The data show that the hydrothermal alteration zone minerals, carbonates, and other minerals are clearly visible in the airborne survey mode. The finer spectral features that distinguish the various minerals with infrared bands are also clearly visible in the airborne survey data. Using specialized computer pattern recognition methods, it is possible to identify mineralogy and map alteration zones and lithologies by airborne spectroradiometer survey techniques.

  3. CALIOPE airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system design

    SciTech Connect

    Mietz, D.; Archuleta, B.; Archuleta, J.

    1997-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently developing an airborne CO{sub 2} Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system based on second generation technology demonstrated last summer at NTS. The CALIOPE Airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system requirements have been compiled based on the mission objectives and SONDIAL model trade studies. Subsystem designs have been developed based on flow down from these system requirements, as well as experience gained from second generation ground tests and N-ABLE (Non-proliferation AirBorne Lidar Experiments) airborne experiments. This paper presents the CACDI mission objectives, system requirements, the current subsystem design, and provides an overview of the airborne experimental plan.

  4. Aerosol Backscatter and Extinction Retrieval from Airborne Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, F.; Reitebuch, O.; Groß, S.; Rahm, S.; Freudenthaler, V.; Toledano, C.; Weinzierl, B.

    2016-06-01

    A novel method for coherent Doppler wind lidars (DWLs) calibration is shown in this work. Concurrent measurements of a ground based aerosol lidar operating at 532 nm and an airborne DWL at 2 μm are used in combination with sun photometer measurements for the retrieval of backscatter and extinction profiles. The presented method was successfully applied to the measurements obtained during the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE: http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/saltrace), which aimed to characterize the Saharan dust long range transport between Africa and the Caribbean.

  5. An Acoustical Comparison of Sub-Scale and Full-Scale Far-Field Measurements for the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Jared; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Recently, members of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Fluid Dynamics Branch and Wyle Labs measured far-field acoustic data during a series of three Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) horizontal static tests conducted in Promontory, Utah. The test motors included the Technical Evaluation Motor 13 (TEM-13), Flight Verification Motor 2 (FVM-2), and the Flight Simulation Motor 15 (FSM-15). Similar far-field data were collected during horizontal static tests of sub-scale solid rocket motors at MSFC. Far-field acoustical measurements were taken at multiple angles within a circular array centered about the nozzle exit plane, each positioned at a radial distance of 80 nozzle-exit-diameters from the nozzle. This type of measurement configuration is useful for calculating rocket noise characteristics such as those outlined in the NASA SP-8072 "Acoustic Loads Generated by the Propulsion System." Acoustical scaling comparisons are made between the test motors, with particular interest in the Overall Sound Power, Acoustic Efficiency, Non-dimensional Relative Sound Power Spectrum, and Directivity. Since most empirical data in the NASA SP-8072 methodology is derived from small rockets, this investigation provides an opportunity to check the data collapse between a sub-scale and full-scale rocket motor.

  6. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: Testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the ‘active ingredient’ of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. Methods A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy‐balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption). Results A four-item automaticity subscale (the ‘Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index’; ‘SRBAI’) was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. Conclusion The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption. PMID:22935297

  7. A Nonlinear Dynamic Subscale Model for Partially Resolved Numerical Simulation (PRNS)/Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES) of Internal Non-Reacting Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, nan-Suey

    2010-01-01

    A brief introduction of the temporal filter based partially resolved numerical simulation/very large eddy simulation approach (PRNS/VLES) and its distinct features are presented. A nonlinear dynamic subscale model and its advantages over the linear subscale eddy viscosity model are described. In addition, a guideline for conducting a PRNS/VLES simulation is provided. Results are presented for three turbulent internal flows. The first one is the turbulent pipe flow at low and high Reynolds numbers to illustrate the basic features of PRNS/VLES; the second one is the swirling turbulent flow in a LM6000 single injector to further demonstrate the differences in the calculated flow fields resulting from the nonlinear model versus the pure eddy viscosity model; the third one is a more complex turbulent flow generated in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor, the calculated result has demonstrated that the current PRNS/VLES approach is capable of capturing the dynamically important, unsteady turbulent structures while using a relatively coarse grid.

  8. Establishing a Common Metric for Self-Reported Pain: Linking BPI Pain Interference and SF-36 Bodily Pain Subscale Scores to the PROMIS Pain Interference Metric

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Karon F.; Schalet, Benjamin D.; Kallen, Michael A.; Rutsohn, Joshua P.; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The study purposes were to mathematically link scores of the Brief Pain Inventory Pain Interference (BPI-PI) subscale and the Short Form-36 Bodily Pain (SF36-BP) subscale (legacy pain interference measures) to the NIH Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Pain Interference (PROMIS-PI) metric and evaluate results. Methods Linking was accomplished using both equipercentile and item response theory (IRT) methods. Item parameters for legacy items were estimated on the PROMIS-PI metric to allow for pattern scoring. Crosswalk tables also were developed that associated raw scores (summed or average) on legacy measures to PROMIS-PI scores. For each linking strategy, participants’ actual PROMIS-PI scores were compared to those predicted based on their legacy scores. To assess the impact of different sample sizes, we conducted random resampling with replacement across 10,000 replications with sample sizes of n=25, 50, and 75. Results Analyses supported the assumption that all three scales were measuring similar constructs. IRT methods produced marginally better results than equipercentile linking. Accuracy of the links was substantially affected by sample size. Conclusions The linking tools (crosswalks and item parameter estimates) developed in this study are robust methods for estimating the PROMIS-PI scores of samples based on legacy measures. We recommend using pattern scoring for users who have the necessary software and score crosswalks for those who do not. PMID:25894063

  9. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism differentially affects performance on subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III).

    PubMed

    Lamb, Yvette N; Thompson, Christopher S; McKay, Nicole S; Waldie, Karen E; Kirk, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene influence brain structure and function, as well as cognitive abilities. They are most influential in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC), respectively. Recall and recognition are forms of memory proposed to have different neural substrates, with recall having a greater dependence on the PFC and hippocampus. This study aimed to determine whether the BDNF val(66)met or COMT val(158)met polymorphisms differentially affect recall and recognition, and whether these polymorphisms interact. A sample of 100 healthy adults was assessed on recall and familiarity-based recognition using the Faces and Family Pictures subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III). COMT genotype did not affect performance on either task. The BDNF polymorphism (i.e., met carriers relative to val homozygotes) was associated with poorer recall ability, while not influencing recognition. Combining subscale scores in memory tests such as the WMS might obscure gene effects. Our results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between recall and familiarity-based recognition in neurogenetics research.

  10. Regional airborne flux measurements in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioli, B.; Miglietta, F.; Vaccari, F. P.; Zaldei, A.; Hutjes, R. W. A.

    2003-04-01

    The problem of identifying the spatial and temporal distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 is the subject of considerable scientific and political debate. Even if it is now possible to estimate within reasonable accuracy the sink strength of European forests at the local scale, difficulties still exist in determining the partitioning of the sinks at the global and regional scales. The aim of the EU-project RECAB (Regional Assessment of the Carbon Balance in Europe) that is coordinated by Alterra, Wageningen (NL), is to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements and continental scale inversion models by a generic modelling effort and measurement program, focussing on a limited number of selected regions in Europe for which previous measurements exists. This required the establishment of a European facility for airborne measurement of surface fluxes of CO2 at very low altitude, and a research aircraft capable of performing airborne eddy covariance measurements has been acquired by this project and used on several occasions at the different RECAB sites. The aircraft is the italian Sky Arrows ERA (Environmental Research Aircraft) equipped with the NOAA/ARA Mobile Flux Platform (MFP), and a commercial open-path infrared gas analyser. Airborne eddy covariance measurements were made from June 2001 onwards in Southern Spain near Valencia (June and December 2001), in Central Germany near Jena (July 2001), in Sweden near Uppsala (August 2001), in The Netherlands near Wageningen (January and July 2002) and in Italy near Rome (June 2002). Flux towers were present at each site to provide a validation of airborne eddy covariance measurements. This contribution reports some validation results based on the comparison between airborne and ground based flux measurements and some regional scale results for different locations and different seasons, in a wide range of meteorological and ecological settings.

  11. Airborne laser sensors and integrated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Gardi, Alessandro; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2015-11-01

    The underlying principles and technologies enabling the design and operation of airborne laser sensors are introduced and a detailed review of state-of-the-art avionic systems for civil and military applications is presented. Airborne lasers including Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), Laser Range Finders (LRF), and Laser Weapon Systems (LWS) are extensively used today and new promising technologies are being explored. Most laser systems are active devices that operate in a manner very similar to microwave radars but at much higher frequencies (e.g., LIDAR and LRF). Other devices (e.g., laser target designators and beam-riders) are used to precisely direct Laser Guided Weapons (LGW) against ground targets. The integration of both functions is often encountered in modern military avionics navigation-attack systems. The beneficial effects of airborne lasers including the use of smaller components and remarkable angular resolution have resulted in a host of manned and unmanned aircraft applications. On the other hand, laser sensors performance are much more sensitive to the vagaries of the atmosphere and are thus generally restricted to shorter ranges than microwave systems. Hence it is of paramount importance to analyse the performance of laser sensors and systems in various weather and environmental conditions. Additionally, it is important to define airborne laser safety criteria, since several systems currently in service operate in the near infrared with considerable risk for the naked human eye. Therefore, appropriate methods for predicting and evaluating the performance of infrared laser sensors/systems are presented, taking into account laser safety issues. For aircraft experimental activities with laser systems, it is essential to define test requirements taking into account the specific conditions for operational employment of the systems in the intended scenarios and to verify the performance in realistic environments at the test ranges. To support the

  12. Trends in transport aircraft avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of avionics onboard present commercial transport aircraft was conducted to identify trends in avionics systems characteristics and to determine the impact of technology advances on equipment weight, cost, reliability, and maintainability. Transport aircraft avionics systems are described under the headings of communication, navigation, flight control, and instrumentation. The equipment included in each section is described functionally. However, since more detailed descriptions of the equipment can be found in other sources, the description is limited and emphasis is put on configuration requirements. Since airborne avionics systems must interface with ground facilities, certain ground facilities are described as they relate to the airborne systems, with special emphasis on air traffic control and all-weather landing capability.

  13. The Beginnings of Airborne Astronomy, 1920 - 1930: an Historical Narrative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craine, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    The emergence of airborne astronomy in the early twentieth century is recounted. The aerial expedition to observe the solar eclipse on September 10, 1923, is described. Observation of the total solar eclipse of January 24, 1925, is discussed. The Honey Lake aerial expedition to study the solar eclipse of April 28, 1930, is also described. Four major accomplishments in airborne astronomy during the period 1920 to 1930 are listed. Airborne expeditions were undertaken at every logical opportunity, starting a continuous sequence of airborne astronomical expeditions which was to remain unbroken, except by World War II, to the present day. Although the scientific returns of the first ten years were modest, they did exist. Interest in, and support for, airborne astronomy was generated not only among astronomers but also among the public. Albert Stevens, arguably the true father of airborne astronomy, was to become interested in applying his considerable skill and experience to the airborne acquisition of astronomical data.

  14. Similarity and Complementarity of Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR Data in High Mountain Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamp, Nicole; Glira, Philipp; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2013-04-01

    Glacier melt and a consequential increased sediment transport (erosion, transportation and accumulation) in high mountain regions are causing a frequent occurrence of geomorphic processes such as landslides and other natural hazards. These effects are investigated at the Gepatschferner (Kaunertal, Oetztal Alps, Tyrol), the second largest glacier in Austria, in the PROSA project (Catholic University Eichstätt - Ingolstadt, Vienna University of Technology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, University of Innsbruck, Munich University of Technology). To monitor these geomorphic processes, data with a very high spatial and very high temporally accuracy and resolution are needed. For this purpose multi-temporal terrestrial and aerial laser scanning data are acquired, processed and analysed. Airborne LiDAR data are collected with a density of 10 points/m² over the whole study area of the glacier and its foreland. Terrestrial LiDAR data are gathered to complement and improve the airborne LiDAR data. The different viewing geometry results in differences between airborne and terrestrial data. Very steep slopes and rock faces (around 90°, depending on the viewing direction) are not visible from the airborne view point. On the other hand, terrestrial viewpoints exhibit shadows for areas above the scanner position and in viewing direction behind vertical or steep faces. In addition, the density of terrestrial data is varying strongly, but has for most of the covered area a much higher level of detail than the airborne dataset. A small temporal baseline is also inevitable and may cause differences between acquisition of airborne and terrestrial data. The goal of this research work is to develop a method for merging airborne and terrestrial LiDAR data. One prerequisite for merging is the identification of areas which are measurements of the same physical surface in either data set. This allows a transformation of the

  15. Airborne Four-Dimensional Flight Management in a Time-based Air Traffic Control Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Green, Steven M.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems are being developed which contain time-based (4D) trajectory predictions of aircraft. Airborne flight management systems (FMS) exist or are being developed with similar 4D trajectory generation capabilities. Differences between the ATC generated profiles and those generated by the airborne 4D FMS may introduce system problems. A simulation experiment was conducted to explore integration of a 4D equipped aircraft into a 4D ATC system. The NASA Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle cockpit simulator was linked in real time to the NASA Ames Descent Advisor ATC simulation for this effort. Candidate procedures for handling 4D equipped aircraft were devised and traffic scenarios established which required time delays absorbed through speed control alone or in combination with path stretching. Dissimilarities in 4D speed strategies between airborne and ATC generated trajectories were tested in these scenarios. The 4D procedures and FMS operation were well received by airline pilot test subjects, who achieved an arrival accuracy at the metering fix of 2.9 seconds standard deviation time error. The amount and nature of the information transmitted during a time clearance were found to be somewhat of a problem using the voice radio communication channel. Dissimilarities between airborne and ATC-generated speed strategies were found to be a problem when the traffic remained on established routes. It was more efficient for 4D equipped aircraft to fly trajectories with similar, though less fuel efficient, speeds which conform to the ATC strategy. Heavy traffic conditions, where time delays forced off-route path stretching, were found to produce a potential operational benefit of the airborne 4D FMS.

  16. Latest Advancement In Airborne Relative Gravity Instrumentation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2011-12-01

    Airborne gravity surveying has been performed with widely varying degrees of success since early experimentation with the Lacoste and Romberg dynamic meter in the 1950s. There are a number of different survey systems currently in operation including relative gravity meters and gradiometers. Airborne gravity is ideally suited to rapid, wide coverage surveying and is not significantly more expensive in more remote and inhospitable terrain which makes airborne measurements one of the few viable options available for cost effective exploration. As improved instrumentation has become available, scientific applications have also been able to take advantage for use in determining sub surface geologic structures, for example under ice sheets in Antarctica, and more recently direct measurement of the geoid to improve the vertical datum in the United States. In 2004, Lacoste and Romberg (now Micro-g Lacoste) decided to build on their success with the newly developed AirSea II dynamic meter and use that system as the basis for a dedicated airborne gravity instrument. Advances in electronics, timing and positioning technology created the opportunity to refine both the hardware and software, and to develop a truly turnkey system that would work well for users with little or no airborne gravity experience as well as those with more extensive experience. The resulting Turnkey Airborne Gravity System (TAGS) was successfully introduced in 2007 and has since been flown in applications from oil, gas and mineral exploration surveys to regional gravity mapping and geoid mapping. The system has been mounted in a variety of airborne platforms including depending on the application of interest. The development experience with the TAGS enabled Micro-g Lacoste to embark on a new project in 2010 to completely redesign the mechanical and electronic components of the system rather than continuing incremental upgrades. Building on the capabilities of the original TAGS, the objectives for the

  17. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Wexler, Anthony; Ristenpart, William

    2014-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in modulating the pathogen transmission, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulence intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of a standard axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We demonstrate that the fan speed counterintuitively has no effect on the downstream plume width, a result replicated with a variety of different fan types and configurations. The results point toward a useful simplification in modeling of airborne disease transmission via fan-generated flows.

  18. Analysis of Traffic Conflicts in a Mixed-Airspace Evaluation of Airborne Separation Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    A pair of human-in-the-loop simulation evaluations of a distributed air/ground separation assurance system have been conducted to investigate the function allocation between humans and automation systems as well as ground-based and airborne agents in the Next Generation Air Transportation System and beyond. This paper focuses on an analysis of certain critical conflicts observed between self-separating aircraft and ground-managed traffic in the same airspace. The principal cause of each conflict is identified and potential mitigations are discussed, such as: the sharing of trajectory intent information between the ground and the air; more cautious trajectory planning by the self-separating aircraft; and more equitable rules-of-the-road between the self-separating aircraft and ground-managed aircraft. This analysis will inform the ongoing design of an airborne separation assurance automation tool.

  19. Airborne rotary air separator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acharya, A.; Gottzmann, C. F.; Nowobilski, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    Several air breathing propulsion concepts for future earth-to-orbit transport vehicles utilize air collection and enrichment, and subsequent storage of liquid oxygen for later use in the vehicle emission. Work performed during the 1960's established the feasibility of substantially reducing weight and volume of a distillation type air separator system by operating the distillation elements in high 'g' fields obtained by rotating the separator assembly. This contract studied the capability test and hydraulic behavior of a novel structured or ordered distillation packing in a rotating device using air and water. Pressure drop and flood points were measured for different air and water flow rates in gravitational fields of up to 700 g. Behavior of the packing follows the correlations previously derived from tests at normal gravity. The novel ordered packing can take the place of trays in a rotating air separation column with the promise of substantial reduction in pressure drop, volume, and system weight. The results obtained in the program are used to predict design and performance of rotary separators for air collection and enrichment systems of interest for past and present concepts of air breathing propulsion (single or two-stage to orbit) systems.

  20. Investigation of fugitive emissions from petrochemical transport barges using optical remote sensing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent airborne remote sensing survey data acquired with passive gas imaging equipment (PGIE), in this case infrared cameras, have shown potentially significant fugitive volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from petrochemical transport barges. The experiment found remote sens...

  1. Molecular spectroscopy from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckwith, S.

    1985-01-01

    Interstellar and circumstellar molecules are investigated through medium-resolution infrared spectrosocpy of the vibration-rotation and pure rotational transitions. A primary goal was the construction and improvement of instrumentation for the near and middle infrared regions, wavelengths between 2 and 10 microns. The main instrument was a cooled grating spectrometer with an interchangeable detector focal plane which could be used on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) for airborne observations, and also at ground-based facilities. Interstellar shock waves were investigated by H2 emission from the Orion Nebula, W51, and the proto-planetary nebulae CRL 2688 and CRL 618. The observations determined the physical conditions in shocked molecular gas near these objects. From these it was possible to characterize the energetic history of mass loss from both pre- and post-main sequence stars in the regions.

  2. Performance metrics for an airborne imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.

    2004-11-01

    A series of airborne imaging experiments have been conducted on the island of Maui and at North Oscura Peak in New Mexico. Two platform altitudes were considered 3000 meters and 600 meters, both with a slant range to the target up to 10000 meters. The airborne imaging platform was a Twin Otter aircraft, which circled ground target sites. The second was a fixed platform on a mountain peak overlooking a valley 600 meters below. The experiments were performed during the day using solar illuminated target buildings. Imaging system performance predictions were calculated using standard atmospheric turbulence models, and aircraft boundary layer models. Several different measurement approaches were then used to estimate the actual system performance, and make comparisons with the calculations.

  3. Airborne Infrared Spectroscopy of 1994 Western Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Helen; Beer, Reinhard; Rinsland, Curtis P.

    1997-01-01

    In the summer of 1994 the 0.07/ cm resolution infrared Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) acquired spectral data over two wildfires, one in central Oregon on August 3 and the other near San Luis Obispo, California, on August 15. The spectrometer was on board a NASA DC-8 research aircraft, flying at an altitude of 12 km. The spectra from both fires clearly show features due to water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and ethylene at significantly higher abundance and temperature than observed in downlooking spectra of normal atmospheric and ground conditions. Column densities are derived for several species, and molar ratios are compared with previous biomass fire measurements. We believe that this is the first time such data have been acquired by airborne spectral remote sensing.

  4. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry

    2008-03-01

    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  5. BOREAS RSS-12 Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Lobitz, Brad; Spanner, Michael; Wrigley, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-12 team collected both ground and airborne sunphotometer measurements for use in characterizing the aerosol optical properties of the atmosphere during the BOREAS data collection activities. These measurements are to be used to: 1) measure the magnitude and variability of the aerosol optical depth in both time and space; 2) determine the optical properties of the boreal aerosols; and 3) atmospherically correct remotely sensed data acquired during BOREAS. This data set contains airborne tracking sunphotometer data that were acquired from the C-130 aircraft during its flights over the BOREAS study areas. The data cover selected days and times from May to September 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  6. The Callaway Plant's airborne tritium sampling cart

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Roselius, R.R. )

    1986-07-01

    The water vapor condensation method for sampling airborne tritium offers significant advantages over other methods, including minimal sample preparation, high sensitivity, and independence from collection efficiency and sample flow rate. However, it does have disadvantages that must be overcome in the design of a sampler. This article describes a cart-mounted, portable airborne tritium sampler used at the Callaway Nuclear Plant that incorporates the advantages of the condensation technique while minimizing its shortcomings. The key elements in the design of the sampler are the use of a refrigerated bath to cool a series of three water vapor collection traps and the use of an optical condensation dew point hygrometer to measure the moisture content of the sample. Design considerations for the proper operation of dew point hygrometers are presented, and the method used to convert due point readings to water vapor content is described.

  7. Airborne Microwave Imaging of River Velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project was to determine whether airborne microwave remote sensing systems can measure river surface currents with sufficient accuracy to make them prospective instruments with which to monitor river flow from space. The approach was to fly a coherent airborne microwave Doppler radar, developed by APL/UW, on a light airplane along several rivers in western Washington state over an extended period of time. The fundamental quantity obtained by this system to measure river currents is the mean offset of the Doppler spectrum. Since this scatter can be obtained from interferometric synthetic aperture radars (INSARs), which can be flown in space, this project provided a cost effective means for determining the suitability of spaceborne INSAR for measuring river flow.

  8. ARMAR: An airborne rain-mapping radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S. L.; Im, E.; Li, F. K.; Ricketts, W.; Tanner, A.; Wilson, W.

    1994-01-01

    A new airborne rain-mapping radar (ARMAR) has been developed by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for operation on the NASA Ames DC-8 aircraft. The radar operates at 13.8 GHz, the frequency to be used by the radar on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). ARMAR simulates the TRMM radar geometry by looking downward and scanning its antenna in the cross-track direction. This basic compatibility between ARMAR and TRMM allows ARMAR to provide information useful for the TRMM radar design, for rain retrieval algorithm development, and for postlaunch calibration. ARMAR has additional capabilities, including multiple polarization, Doppler velocity measurement, and a radiometer channel for brightness temperature measurement. The system has been tested in both ground-based and airborne configurations. This paper describes the design of the system and shows results of field tests.

  9. Airborne detection of diffuse carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, T.M.; Doukas, M.P.; McGee, K.A.; Kessler, R.

    1999-01-01

    We report the first airborne detection of CO2 degassing from diffuse volcanic sources. Airborne measurement of diffuse CO2 degassing offers a rapid alternative for monitoring CO2 emission rates at Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations, temperatures, and barometric pressures were measured at ~2,500 GPS-referenced locations during a one-hour, eleven-orbit survey of air around Mammoth Mountain at ~3 km from the summit and altitudes of 2,895-3,657 m. A volcanic CO2 anomaly 4-5 km across with CO2 levels ~1 ppm above background was revealed downwind of tree-kill areas. It contained a 1-km core with concentrations exceeding background by >3 ppm. Emission rates of ~250 t d-1 are indicated. Orographic winds may play a key role in transporting the diffusely degassed CO2 upslope to elevations where it is lofted into the regional wind system.We report the first airborne detection of CO2 degassing from diffuse volcanic sources. Airborne measurement of diffuse CO2 degassing offers a rapid alternative for monitoring CO2 emission rates at Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations, temperatures, and barometric pressures were measured at approximately 2,500 GPS-referenced locations during a one-hour, eleven-orbit survey of air around Mammoth Mountain at approximately 3 km from the summit and altitudes of 2,895-3,657 m. A volcanic CO2 anomaly 4-5 km across with CO2 levels approximately 1 ppm above background was revealed downwind of tree-kill areas. It contained a 1-km core with concentrations exceeding background by >3 ppm. Emission rates of approximately 250 t d-1 are indicated. Orographic winds may play a key role in transporting the diffusely degassed CO2 upslope to elevations where it is lofted into the regional wind system.

  10. Evidence-based improvement of the National Trauma Triage Protocol: The Glasgow Coma Scale versus Glasgow Coma Scale motor subscale

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joshua B.; Forsythe, Raquel M.; Stassen, Nicole A.; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Sperry, Jason L.; Gestring, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ideal triage uses simple criteria to identify severely injured patients. Glasgow Coma Scale motor (GCSm) may be easier for field use and was considered for the National Trauma Triage Protocol (NTTP). This study evaluated performance of the NTTP if GCSm is substituted for the current GCS score ≤ 13 criterion. METHODS Subjects in the National Trauma Data Bank undergoing scene transport were included. Presence of NTTP physiologic (Step 1) and anatomic (Step 2) criteria was determined. GCSm score ≤ 5 was defined as a positive criterion. Trauma center need (TCN) was defined as Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 15, intensive care unit admission, urgent operation, or emergency department death. Test characteristics were calculated to predict TCN. Area under the curve was compared between GCSm and GCS scores, individually and within the NTTP. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of GCSm score ≤ 5 and GCS score ≤ 13 with TCN after adjusting for other triage criteria. Predicted versus actual TCN was compared. RESULTS There were 811,143 subjects. Sensitivity was lower (26.7% vs. 30.3%), specificity was higher (95.1% vs. 93.1%), and accuracy was similar (66.1% vs. 66.3%) for GCSm score ≤ 5 compared with GCS score ≤ 13. Incorporated into the NTTP Steps 1 + 2, GCSm score ≤ 5 traded sensitivity (60.4% vs. 62.1%) for specificity (67.1% vs. 65.7%) with similar accuracy (64.2% vs. 64.2%) to GCS score ≤ 13. There was no difference in the area under the curve between GCSm score ≤ 5 and GCS score ≤ 13 when incorporated into the NTTP Steps 1 + 2 (p = 0.10). GCSm score ≤ 5 had a stronger association with TCN (odds ratio, 3.37; 95% confidence interval, 3.27–3.48; p < 0.01) than GCS score ≤ 13 (odds ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 2.94–3.13; p < 0.01). GCSm had a better fit of predicted versus actual TCN than GCS at the lower end of the scales. CONCLUSION GCSm score ≤ 5 increases specificity at the expense of sensitivity

  11. Airborne Chemical Sensing with Mobile Robots

    PubMed Central

    Lilienthal, Achim J.; Loutfi, Amy; Duckett, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Airborne chemical sensing with mobile robots has been an active research area since the beginning of the 1990s. This article presents a review of research work in this field, including gas distribution mapping, trail guidance, and the different subtasks of gas source localisation. Due to the difficulty of modelling gas distribution in a real world environment with currently available simulation techniques, we focus largely on experimental work and do not consider publications that are purely based on simulations.

  12. NASA's Airborne Astronomy Program - Lessons For SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.

    2007-07-01

    Airborne astronomy was pioneered and has evolved at NASA Ames Research Center near San Francisco, California, since 1965. Nowhere else in the world has a similar program been implemented. Its many unique features deserve description, especially for the benefit of planning the operation of SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, and in particular since NASA Headquarters’ recent decision to base SOFIA operations at Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California instead of at Ames. The history of Ames’ airborne astronomy program is briefly summarized. Discussed in more detail are the operations and organization of the 21-year Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) program, which provide important lessons for SOFIA. The KAO program is our best prototype for planning effective SOFIA operations. Principal features of the KAO program which should be retained on SOFIA are: unique science, innovative new science instruments and technologies, training of young scientists, an effective education and public outreach program, flexibility, continuous improvement, and efficient operations with a lean, well integrated team. KAO program features which should be improved upon with SOFIA are: (1) a management structure that is dedicated primarily to safely maximizing scientific productivity for the resources available, headed by a scientist who is the observatory director, and (2) stimuli to assure prompt distribution and accessibility of data to the scientific community. These and other recommendations were recorded by the SOFIA Science Working Group in 1995, when the KAO was decommissioned to start work on SOFIA. Further operational and organizational factors contributing to the success of the KAO program are described. Their incorporation into SOFIA operations will help assure the success of this new airborne observatory. SOFIA is supported by NASA in the U.S. and DLR (the German Aerospace Center) in Germany.

  13. Flight results for the airborne Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.; Burris, John F.

    1995-01-01

    The airborne Raman lidar recently completed a series of flight tests aboard a C-130 aircraft operated by the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. The Raman lidar is intended to make simultaneous remote measurements of methane, water vapor, temperature, and pressure. The principal purpose of the measurements is to aid in the investigation of polar phenomena related to the formation of ozone 'holes' by permitting the identification of the origin of air parcels using methane as a tracer.

  14. Airborne electronics for automated flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, G. B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The increasing importance of airborne electronics for use in automated flight systems is briefly reviewed with attention to both basic aircraft control functions and flight management systems for operational use. The requirements for high levels of systems reliability are recognized. Design techniques are discussed and the areas of control systems, computing and communications are considered in terms of key technical problems and trends for their solution.

  15. Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.

    1998-01-01

    Scanning holographic lidar receivers are currently in use in two operational lidar systems, PHASERS (Prototype Holographic Atmospheric Scanner for Environmental Remote Sensing) and now HARLIE (Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment). These systems are based on volume phase holograms made in dichromated gelatin (DCG) sandwiched between 2 layers of high quality float glass. They have demonstrated the practical application of this technology to compact scanning lidar systems at 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths, the ability to withstand moderately high laser power and energy loading, sufficient optical quality for most direct detection systems, overall efficiencies rivaling conventional receivers, and the stability to last several years under typical lidar system environments. Their size and weight are approximately half of similar performing scanning systems using reflective optics. The cost of holographic systems will eventually be lower than the reflective optical systems depending on their degree of commercialization. There are a number of applications that require or can greatly benefit from a scanning capability. Several of these are airborne systems, which either use focal plane scanning, as in the Laser Vegetation Imaging System or use primary aperture scanning, as in the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar or the Large Aperture Scanning Airborne Lidar. The latter class requires a large clear aperture opening or window in the aircraft. This type of system can greatly benefit from the use of scanning transmission holograms of the HARLIE type because the clear aperture required is only about 25% larger than the collecting aperture as opposed to 200-300% larger for scan angles of 45 degrees off nadir.

  16. Airborne Infrared Spectrograph for Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, L.; Cheimets, P.; DeLuca, E. E.; Samra, J.; Judge, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    Direct measurements of the coronal magnetic field have significant potential to enhance our understanding of coronal dynamics, and improve forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of coronal field lines in the Transition Corona, the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on eruptive instabilities and on the origin of the slow solar wind. While current instruments routinely observe the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, the proposed airborne spectrometer will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. The targeted lines are five forbidden magnetic dipole transitions between 1.4 and 4 um. The airborne system will consist of a telescope, grating spectrometer and pointing/stabilization system to be flown on the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) during the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse. We will discuss the scientific objectives of the 2017 flight, describe details of the instrument design, and present the observing program for the eclipse.

  17. Optical Communications Link to Airborne Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regehr, Martin W.; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Biswas, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    An optical link from Earth to an aircraft demonstrates the ability to establish a link from a ground platform to a transceiver moving overhead. An airplane has a challenging disturbance environment including airframe vibrations and occasional abrupt changes in attitude during flight. These disturbances make it difficult to maintain pointing lock in an optical transceiver in an airplane. Acquisition can also be challenging. In the case of the aircraft link, the ground station initially has no precise knowledge of the aircraft s location. An airborne pointing system has been designed, built, and demonstrated using direct-drive brushless DC motors for passive isolation of pointing disturbances and for high-bandwidth control feedback. The airborne transceiver uses a GPS-INS system to determine the aircraft s position and attitude, and to then illuminate the ground station initially for acquisition. The ground transceiver participates in link-pointing acquisition by first using a wide-field camera to detect initial illumination from the airborne beacon, and to perform coarse pointing. It then transfers control to a high-precision pointing detector. Using this scheme, live video was successfully streamed from the ground to the aircraft at 270 Mb/s while simultaneously downlinking a 50 kb/s data stream from the aircraft to the ground.

  18. Airborne myxomycete spores: detection using molecular techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamono, Akiko; Kojima, Hisaya; Matsumoto, Jun; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fukui, Manabu

    2009-01-01

    Myxomycetes are organisms characterized by a life cycle that includes a fruiting body stage. Myxomycete fruiting bodies contain spores, and wind dispersal of the spores is considered important for this organism to colonize new areas. In this study, the presence of airborne myxomycetes and the temporal changes in the myxomycete composition of atmospheric particles (aerosols) were investigated with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for Didymiaceae and Physaraceae. Twenty-one aerosol samples were collected on the roof of a three-story building located in Sapporo, Hokkaido Island, northern Japan. PCR analysis of DNA extracts from the aerosol samples indicated the presence of airborne myxomycetes in all the samples, except for the one collected during the snowfall season. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the PCR products showed seasonally varying banding patterns. The detected DGGE bands were subjected to sequence analyses, and four out of nine obtained sequences were identical to those of fruiting body samples collected in Hokkaido Island. It appears that the difference in the fruiting period of each species was correlated with the seasonal changes in the myxomycete composition of the aerosols. Molecular evidence shows that newly formed spores are released and dispersed in the air, suggesting that wind-driven dispersal of spores is an important process in the life history of myxomycetes. This study is the first to detect airborne myxomycetes with the use of molecular ecological analyses and to characterize their seasonal distribution.

  19. Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Roy; Neil, George

    2007-02-01

    The goal of 100 kilowatts (kW) of directed energy from an airborne tactical platform has proved challenging due to the size and weight of most of the options that have been considered. However, recent advances in Free-Electron Lasers appear to offer a solution along with significant tactical advantages: a nearly unlimited magazine, time structures for periods from milliseconds to hours, radar like functionality, and the choice of the wavelength of light that best meets mission requirements. For an Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser (ATFEL) on a platforms such as a Lockheed C-130J-30 and airships, the two most challenging requirements, weight and size, can be met by generating the light at a higher harmonic, aggressively managing magnet weights, managing cryogenic heat loads using recent SRF R&D results, and using FEL super compact design concepts that greatly reduce the number of components. The initial R&D roadmap for achieving an ATFEL is provided in this paper. Performing this R&D is expected to further reduce the weight, size and power requirements for the FELs the Navy is currently developing for shipboard applications, as well as providing performance enhancements for the strategic airborne MW class FELs. The 100 kW ATFEL with its tactical advantages may prove sufficiently attractive for early advancement in the queue of deployed FELs.

  20. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, John K.; Suh, Charles P.-C.; Yang, Chenghai; Lan, Yubin; Eyster, Ritchie S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective methods are needed for timely areawide detection of regrowth cotton plants because boll weevils (a quarantine pest) can feed and reproduce on these plants beyond the cotton production season. Airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots were acquired on several dates after three shredding (i.e., stalk destruction) dates. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classification was applied to high-resolution airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots to estimate the minimum detectable size and subsequent growth of plants. We found that regrowth cotton fields can be identified when the mean plant width is ˜0.2 m for an image resolution of 0.1 m. LSU estimates of canopy cover of regrowth cotton plots correlated well (r2=0.81) with the ratio of mean plant width to row spacing, a surrogate measure of plant canopy cover. The height and width of regrowth plants were both well correlated (r2=0.94) with accumulated degree-days after shredding. The results will help boll weevil eradication program managers use airborne multispectral images to detect and monitor the regrowth of cotton plants after stalk destruction, and identify fields that may require further inspection and mitigation of boll weevil infestations.

  1. Improved Airborne System for Sensing Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeown, Donald; Richardson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Wildfire Airborne Sensing Program (WASP) is engaged in a continuing effort to develop an improved airborne instrumentation system for sensing wildfires. The system could also be used for other aerial-imaging applications, including mapping and military surveillance. Unlike prior airborne fire-detection instrumentation systems, the WASP system would not be based on custom-made multispectral line scanners and associated custom- made complex optomechanical servomechanisms, sensors, readout circuitry, and packaging. Instead, the WASP system would be based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment that would include (1) three or four electronic cameras (one for each of three or four wavelength bands) instead of a multispectral line scanner; (2) all associated drive and readout electronics; (3) a camera-pointing gimbal; (4) an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver for measuring the position, velocity, and orientation of the aircraft; and (5) a data-acquisition subsystem. It would be necessary to custom-develop an integrated sensor optical-bench assembly, a sensor-management subsystem, and software. The use of mostly COTS equipment is intended to reduce development time and cost, relative to those of prior systems.

  2. Methods for Sampling of Airborne Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Verreault, Daniel; Moineau, Sylvain; Duchaine, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Summary: To better understand the underlying mechanisms of aerovirology, accurate sampling of airborne viruses is fundamental. The sampling instruments commonly used in aerobiology have also been used to recover viruses suspended in the air. We reviewed over 100 papers to evaluate the methods currently used for viral aerosol sampling. Differentiating infections caused by direct contact from those caused by airborne dissemination can be a very demanding task given the wide variety of sources of viral aerosols. While epidemiological data can help to determine the source of the contamination, direct data obtained from air samples can provide very useful information for risk assessment purposes. Many types of samplers have been used over the years, including liquid impingers, solid impactors, filters, electrostatic precipitators, and many others. The efficiencies of these samplers depend on a variety of environmental and methodological factors that can affect the integrity of the virus structure. The aerodynamic size distribution of the aerosol also has a direct effect on sampler efficiency. Viral aerosols can be studied under controlled laboratory conditions, using biological or nonbiological tracers and surrogate viruses, which are also discussed in this review. Lastly, general recommendations are made regarding future studies on the sampling of airborne viruses. PMID:18772283

  3. MITAS: multisensor imaging technology for airborne surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, John D.

    1991-08-01

    MITAS, a unique and low-cost solution to the problem of collecting and processing multisensor imaging data for airborne surveillance operations has been developed, MITAS results from integrating the established and proven real-time video processing, target tracking, and sensor management software of TAU with commercially available image exploitation and map processing software. The MITAS image analysis station (IAS) supports airborne day/night reconnaissance and surveillance missions involving low-altitude collection platforms employing a suite of sensors to perform reconnaissance functions against a variety of ground and sea targets. The system will detect, locate, and recognize threats likely to be encountered in support of counternarcotic operations and in low-intensity conflict areas. The IAS is capable of autonomous, near real-time target exploitation and has the appropriate communication links to remotely located IAS systems for more extended analysis of sensor data. The IAS supports the collection, fusion, and processing of three main imaging sensors: daylight imagery (DIS), forward looking infrared (FLIR), and infrared line scan (IRLS). The MITAS IAS provides support to all aspects of the airborne surveillance mission, including sensor control, real-time image enhancement, automatic target tracking, sensor fusion, freeze-frame capture, image exploitation, target data-base management, map processing, remote image transmission, and report generation.

  4. Cryospheric Applications of Modern Airborne Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne photogrammetry is undergoing a renaissance. Lower-cost equipment, more powerful software, and simplified methods have lowered the barriers-to-entry significantly and now allow repeat-mapping of cryospheric dynamics that were previously too expensive to consider. The current state-of-the-art is the ability to use an airborne equipment package costing less than $20,000 to make topographic maps on landscape-scales at 10 cm pixel size with a vertical repeatability of about 10 cm. Nearly any surface change on the order of decimeters can be measured using these techniques through analysis of time-series of such maps. This presentation will discuss these new methods and their application to cryospheric dynamics such as the measurement of snow depth, coastal erosion, valley-glacier volume-change, permafrost thaw, frost heave of infrastructure, river bed geomorphology, and aufeis melt. Because of the expense of other airborne methods, by necessity measurements of these dynamics are currently most often made on the ground along benchmark transects that are then extrapolated to the broader scale. The ability to directly measure entire landscapes with equal or higher accuracy than transects eliminates the need to extrapolate them and the ability to do so at lower costs than transects may revolutionize the way we approach studying change in the cryosphere, as well as our understanding of the cryosphere itself.

  5. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  6. Concentration and distribution of platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Rh) in airborne particulate matter in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

    PubMed

    Zereini, Fathi; Alt, Friedrich; Messerschmidt, Jürge; von Bohlen, Alex; Liebl, Karlheinz; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2004-03-15

    The concentrations and distribution of platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Rh) in airborne particulate matter were studied in a period of one year from August 2001 to July 2002 in urban and in nonurban areas. Airborne dust samples were collected as a total amount (particles with an aerodynamic diameter <22 microm) and classified using an eight-stage Andersen impactor (<10 microm) at three locations with different traffic density roads in the Frankfurt am Main and nonurban areas. Sampling at the three locations was performed simultaneously for total airborne dust and fractionated airborne dust. Pd was determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence after Hg coprecipitation. Pt and Rh were analyzed by adsorptive striping voltammetry after HPA digestion. The results show that the PGE concentrations in airborne samples depend on the traffic density. The highest PGE concentrations in air were found in the vicinity of major roads with heavy traffic, and the lowest ones were found in the nonurban area. The presence of PGE at the sampling station relatively free of traffic in a nonurban area hints to a transport of some of the emitted PGE from the city to this station by wind. At all three sampling locations, a heterogeneous distribution of the Pd, Pt, and Rh concentrations during the sampling year can be observed. The sum of PGE concentrations in total airborne dust is comparable with the sum of impactor samples. However, the concentration of Pt and Rh in total airborne dust (<22 microm) is on average higher than in impactor samples (<10 microm). On the contrary, Pd concentration is higher in impactor samples in most cases. The airborne PGE distribution is dominated by Pt, followed by Pd and Rh. The impactor samples are dominated by Pd, followed by Pt and Rh. This fact indicates that palladium occurs mainly in relatively fine airborne particles. The main fraction of PGE is found on average in particle sizes between 1.1 and 4.7 microm. Knowledge of the size distribution of

  7. Airborne infectious disease and the suppression of pulmonary bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Fiegel, Jennifer; Clarke, Robert; Edwards, David A

    2006-01-01

    The current understanding of airborne pathogen spread in relation to the new methods of suppressing exhaled bioaerosols using safe surface-active materials, such as isotonic saline, is reviewed here. We discuss the physics of bioaerosol generation in the lungs, what is currently known about the relationship between expired bioaerosols and airborne infectious disease and current methods of airborne infectious disease containment. We conclude by reviewing recent experiments that suggest the delivery of isotonic saline can significantly diminish exhaled aerosol--generated from airway lining fluid in the course of natural breathing. We also discuss these implications in relation to airborne infectious disease control.

  8. Raytheon low temperature RSP2 cryocooler airborne testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Raytheon Cryocooler Product Line tested the Low Temperature Stirling / Pulse Tube Hybrid 2-Stage (LTRSP2) cryocooler for an airborne application during 2012. Several tests were carried out to verify the ability of the machine to operate in an airborne environment. The vacuum level and heat rejection surface temperatures were varied to determine the performance over the excursions. Vibration testing was performed to prove that the LT-RSP2 cryocooler can operate on an airborne platform. This paper will present the results of the airborne characterization testing.

  9. Raytheon low temperature RSP2 cryocooler airborne testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J.

    2013-09-01

    The Raytheon Cryocooler Product Line tested the Low Temperature Stirling / Pulse Tube Hybrid 2-Stage (LTRSP2) cryocooler for an airborne application during 2012. Several tests were carried out to verify the ability of the machine to operate in an airborne environment. The vacuum level and heat rejection surface temperatures were varied to determine the performance over the excursions. Vibration testing was performed to prove that the LT-RSP2 cryocooler can operate on an airborne platform. This paper will present the results of the airborne characterization testing.

  10. Airborne lidar experiments at the Savannah River Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    The results of remote sensing experiments at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Nuclear Facility utilizing the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are presented. The flights were conducted in support of the numerous environmental monitoring requirements associated with the operation of the facility and for the purpose of furthering research and development of airborne lidar technology. Areas of application include airborne laser topographic mapping, hydrologic studies using fluorescent tracer dye, timber volume estimation, baseline characterization of wetlands, and aquatic chlorophyll and photopigment measurements. Conclusions relative to the usability of airborne lidar technology for the DOE for each of these remote sensing applications are discussed.

  11. Airborne 2-Micron Double-Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for Column CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Fay, James J.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Double-pulse 2-micron lasers have been demonstrated with energy as high as 600 millijouls and up to 10 Hz repetition rate. The two laser pulses are separated by 200 microseconds and can be tuned and locked separately. Applying double-pulse laser in DIAL system enhances the CO2 measurement capability by increasing the overlap of the sampled volume between the on-line and off-line. To avoid detection complicity, integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar provides higher signal-to-noise ratio measurement compared to conventional range-resolved DIAL. Rather than weak atmospheric scattering returns, IPDA rely on the much stronger hard target returns that is best suited for airborne platforms. In addition, the IPDA technique measures the total integrated column content from the instrument to the hard target but with weighting that can be tuned by the transmitter. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. Currently, NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micron IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  12. Long-Term Variability of Airborne Asian Dust Observed from TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Hsu, N. C.; Seftor, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Holben, B. N.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that airborne Asian dust may not only play an important role in the regional radiation budget, but also influence the air quality over North America through long-range transport. In this paper, we use satellite data to investigate the long-term variability of airborne Asian dust as well as the daily variation of the dust aerosol distribution. By combining the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index with National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) wind data, our analysis shows a strong correlation between the generation of dust storms in the region and the passage of springtime weather fronts. This is consistent with earlier studies performed by other researchers. According to both the Nimbus-7 and Earth-Probe TOMS data the Takla Makan desert, the Gobi desert, and the and region of Inner Mongolia are major sources of the eastward-flowing airborne Asian dust. Heavily populated areas in eastern China (e.g., Beijing) are often on the primary path of the dust storms originating in these desert regions. The increasing desertification north of the Beijing region has served to exacerbate problems stemming from these storms. The time series derived from 20 years of TOMS aerosol index data shows the first significant satellite evidence of the atmospheric effect of increasing desertification, indicating that the amount of dust blown eastward has increased strongly during the past few years including the year 2000.

  13. Resolving the abundance and air-sea fluxes of airborne microorganisms in the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mayol, Eva; Jiménez, María A; Herndl, Gerhard J; Duarte, Carlos M; Arrieta, Jesús M

    2014-01-01

    Airborne transport of microbes may play a central role in microbial dispersal, the maintenance of diversity in aquatic systems and in meteorological processes such as cloud formation. Yet, there is almost no information about the abundance and fate of microbes over the oceans, which cover >70% of the Earth's surface and are the likely source and final destination of a large fraction of airborne microbes. We measured the abundance of microbes in the lower atmosphere over a transect covering 17° of latitude in the North Atlantic Ocean and derived estimates of air-sea exchange of microorganisms from meteorological data. The estimated load of microorganisms in the atmospheric boundary layer ranged between 6 × 10(4) and 1.6 × 10(7) microbes per m(2) of ocean, indicating a very dynamic air-sea exchange with millions of microbes leaving and entering the ocean per m(2) every day. Our results show that about 10% of the microbes detected in the boundary layer were still airborne 4 days later and that they could travel up to 11,000 km before they entered the ocean again. The size of the microbial pool hovering over the North Atlantic indicates that it could play a central role in the maintenance of microbial diversity in the surface ocean and contribute significantly to atmospheric processes.

  14. Predicting emissions of SVOCs from polymeric materials and their interaction with airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Little, John C

    2006-01-15

    A model that predicts the emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from building materials is extended and used to predict the emission rate of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from polymeric materials. Reasonable agreement between model predictions and gas-phase di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) concentrations is achieved using data collected in a previous experimental study that measured emissions of DEHP from vinyl flooring in two very different chambers. While emissions of highly volatile VOCs are subject to "internal" control (the material-phase diffusion coefficient), emissions of the very low volatility SVOCs are subject to "external" control (partitioning into the gas phase, the convective mass-transfer coefficient, and adsorption onto interior surfaces). The effect of SVOCs partitioning onto airborne particles is also examined. The DEHP emission rate is increased when the gas-phase concentration is high, and especially when partitioning to the airborne particles is strong. Airborne particles may play an important role in inhalation exposure as well as in transporting SVOCs well beyond the source. Although more rigorous validation is needed, the model should help elucidate the mechanisms governing emissions of phthalate plasticizers, brominated flame retardants, biocides, and other SVOCs from a wide range of building materials and consumer products. PMID:16468389

  15. Resolving the abundance and air-sea fluxes of airborne microorganisms in the North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Mayol, Eva; Jiménez, María A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Arrieta, Jesús M.

    2014-01-01

    Airborne transport of microbes may play a central role in microbial dispersal, the maintenance of diversity in aquatic systems and in meteorological processes such as cloud formation. Yet, there is almost no information about the abundance and fate of microbes over the oceans, which cover >70% of the Earth's surface and are the likely source and final destination of a large fraction of airborne microbes. We measured the abundance of microbes in the lower atmosphere over a transect covering 17° of latitude in the North Atlantic Ocean and derived estimates of air-sea exchange of microorganisms from meteorological data. The estimated load of microorganisms in the atmospheric boundary layer ranged between 6 × 104 and 1.6 × 107 microbes per m2 of ocean, indicating a very dynamic air-sea exchange with millions of microbes leaving and entering the ocean per m2 every day. Our results show that about 10% of the microbes detected in the boundary layer were still airborne 4 days later and that they could travel up to 11,000 km before they entered the ocean again. The size of the microbial pool hovering over the North Atlantic indicates that it could play a central role in the maintenance of microbial diversity in the surface ocean and contribute significantly to atmospheric processes. PMID:25400625

  16. Airborne Astronomy Symposium. A symposium commemorating the tenth anniversary of operations of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, H. A., Jr. (Editor); Erickson, E. F. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Airborne infrared astronomy is discussed with respect to observations of the solar system, stars, star formation, and the interstellar medium. Far infrared characteristics of the Milky Way, its center, and other galaxies are considered. The instrumentation associated with IR astronomy is addressed.

  17. Changes in the Airborne Bacterial Community in Outdoor Environments following Asian Dust Events

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Park, Jonguk; Kodama, Makiko; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Baba, Takashi; Nasu, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial abundance and community compositions have been examined in aeolian dust in order to clarify their possible impacts on public health and ecosystems. The influence of transcontinentally transported bacterial cells on microbial communities in the outdoor environments of downwind areas should be determined because the rapid influx of a large amount of bacterial cells can disturb indigenous microbial ecosystems. In the present study, we analyzed bacteria in air samples (approximately 100 m3 d−1) that were collected on both Asian dust days and non-Asian dust days over 2 years (between November 2010 and July 2012). Changes in bacterial abundance and community composition were investigated based on their 16S rRNA gene amount and sequence diversity. Seasonal monitoring revealed that airborne bacterial abundance was more than 10-fold higher on severe dust days, while moderate dust events did not affect airborne bacterial abundance. A comparison of bacterial community compositions revealed that bacteria in Asian dust did not immediately disturb the airborne microbial community in areas 3,000–5,000 km downwind of dust source regions, even when a large amount of bacterial cells were transported by the atmospheric event. However, microbes in aeolian dust may have a greater impact on indigenous microbial communities in downwind areas near the dust source. Continuous temporal and spatial analyses from dust source regions to downwind regions (e.g., from the Gobi desert to China, Korea, Japan, and North America) will assist in estimating the impact of atmospherically transported bacteria on indigenous microbial ecosystems in downwind areas. PMID:24553107

  18. Laser links for mobile airborne nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griethe, Wolfgang; Knapek, Markus; Horwath, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    Remotely Piloted Aircrafts (RPA's) and especially Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) are currently operated over long distances, often across several continents. This is only made possible by maintaining Beyond Line Of Side (BLOS) radio links between ground control stations and unmanned vehicles via geostationary (GEO) satellites. The radio links are usually operated in the Ku-frequency band and used for both, vehicle command & control (C2) - it also refers to Command and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) - as well as transmission of intelligence data - the associated communication stream also refers to Payload Link (PL). Even though this scheme of communication is common practice today, various other issues are raised thereby. The paper shows that the current existing problems can be solved by using the latest technologies combined with altered intuitive communication strategies. In this context laser communication is discussed as a promising technology for airborne applications. It is clearly seen that for tactical reasons, as for instance RPA cooperative flying, Air-to-Air communications (A2A) is more advantageous than GEO satellite communications (SatCom). Hence, together with in-flight test results the paper presents a design for a lightweight airborne laser terminal, suitable for use onboard manned or unmanned airborne nodes. The advantages of LaserCom in combination with Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) technologies particularly for Persistent Wide Area Surveillance (PWAS) are highlighted. Technical challenges for flying LaserCom terminals aboard RPA's are outlined. The paper leads to the conclusion that by combining both, LaserCom and ISR, a new quality for an overall system arises which is more than just the sum of two separate key technologies.

  19. Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James G.; Toon, Owen B.

    1993-01-01

    The sudden onset of ozone depletion in the antarctic vortex set a precedent for both the time scale and the severity of global change. The Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE), staged from Punta Arenas, Chile, in 1987, established that CFCs, halons, and methyl bromide, the dominant sources of chlorine and bromine radicals in the stratosphere, control the rate of ozone destruction over the Antarctic; that the vortex is depleted in reactive nitrogen and water vapor; and that diabatic cooling during the antarctic winter leads to subsidence within the vortex core, importing air from higher altitudes and lower latitudes. This last conclusion is based on observed dramatic distortion in the tracer fields, most notably N2O. In 1989, the first Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-I), staged from Stavanger, Norway, and using the same aircraft employed for AAOE (the NASA ER-2 and the NASA DC-8), discovered that while NO(x) and to some degree NO(y) were perturbed within the arctic vortex, there was little evidence for desiccation. Under these (in contrast to the antarctic) marginally perturbed conditions, however, Cl0 was found to be dramatically enhanced such that a large fraction of the available (inorganic) chlorine resided in the form of Cl0 and its dimer ClOOCl. This leaves two abiding issues for the northern hemisphere and the mission of the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-II): (1) Will significant ozone erosion occur within the arctic vortex in the next ten years as chlorine loading in the stratosphere exceeds four parts per billion by volume? and (2) Which mechanisms are responsible for the observed ozone erosion poleward of 30 deg N in the winter/spring northern hemisphere reported in satellite observations?

  20. Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition 2: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James G.; Toon, Owen B.

    1993-01-01

    The sudden onset of ozone depletion in the antarctic vortex set a precedent for both the time scale and the severity of global change. The Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE), stages from Punta Arenas, Chile, in 1987, established that CFCs, halons, and methyl bromide, the dominant sources of chlorine and bromide radicals in the stratosphere, control the rate of ozone destruction over the Antarctic; that the vortex is depleted in reactive nitrogen and water vapor; and that diabatic cooling during the antarctic winter leads to subsidence within the vortex core, importing air from higher altitudes and lower latitudes. This last conclusion is based on observed dramatic distortion in the tracer fields, most notably N2O. In 1989, the first Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-1), staged from Stavanger, Norway, and using the same aircraft employed for AAOE (the NASA ER-2 and the NASA DC-8), discovered that while NO(x) and to some degree NO(y) were perturbed within the arctic vortex, there was little evidence for desiccation. Under these (in contrast to the antarctic) marginally perturbed conditions, however, ClO was found to be dramatically enhanced such that a large fraction of the available (inorganic) chlorine resided in the form of ClO and its dimer ClOOCl. This leaves two abiding issues for the northern hemisphere and the mission of the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-2): (1) Will significant ozone erosion occur within the arctic vortex in the next ten years as chlorine loading in the stratosphere exceeds four parts per billion by volume? (2) Which mechanisms are responsible for the observed ozone erosion poleward of 30 deg N in the winter/spring northern hemisphere reported in satellite observations?

  1. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  2. Airborne seeker evaluation and test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jollie, William B.

    1991-08-01

    The Airborne Seeker Evaluation Test System (ASETS) is an airborne platform for development, test, and evaluation of air-to-ground seekers and sensors. ASETS consists of approximately 10,000 pounds of equipment, including sixteen racks of control, display, and recording electronics, and a very large stabilized airborne turret, all carried by a modified C- 130A aircraft. The turret measures 50 in. in diameter and extends over 50 in. below the aircraft. Because of the low ground clearance of the C-130, a unique retractor mechanism was designed to raise the turret inside the aircraft for take-offs and landings, and deploy the turret outside the aircraft for testing. The turret has over 7 cubic feet of payload space and can accommodate up to 300 pounds of instrumentation, including missile seekers, thermal imagers, infrared mapping systems, laser systems, millimeter wave radar units, television cameras, and laser rangers. It contains a 5-axis gyro-stabilized gimbal system that will maintain a line of sight in the pitch, roll, and yaw axes to an accuracy better than +/- 125 (mu) rad. The rack-mounted electronics in the aircraft cargo bay can be interchanged to operate any type of sensor and record the data. Six microcomputer subsystems operate and maintain all of the system components during a test mission. ASETS is capable of flying at altitudes between 200 and 20,000 feet, and at airspeeds ranging from 100 to 250 knots. Mission scenarios can include air-to-surface seeker testing, terrain mapping, surface target measurement, air-to-air testing, atmospheric transmission studies, weather data collection, aircraft or missile tracking, background signature measurements, and surveillance. ASETS is fully developed and available to support test programs.

  3. Airborne LIDAR Data Processing and Analysis Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.

    2007-12-01

    Airborne LIDAR technology allows accurate and inexpensive measurements of topography, vegetation canopy heights, and buildings over large areas. In order to provide researchers high quality data, NSF has created the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) to collect, archive, and distribute the LIDAR data. However, the LIDAR systems collect voluminous irregularly-spaced, three-dimensional point measurements of ground and non-ground objects scanned by the laser beneath the aircraft. To advance the use of the technology and data, NCALM is developing public domain algorithms for ground and non-ground measurement classification and tools for data retrieval and transformation. We present the main functions of the ALDPAT (Airborne LIDAR Data Processing and Analysis Tools) developed by NCALM. While Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provide a useful platform for storing, analyzing, and visualizing most spatial data, the shear volume of raw LIDAR data makes most commercial GIS packages impractical. Instead, we have developed a suite of applications in ALDPAT which combine self developed C++ programs with the APIs of commercial remote sensing and GIS software. Tasks performed by these applications include: 1) transforming data into specified horizontal coordinate systems and vertical datums; 2) merging and sorting data into manageable sized tiles, typically 4 square kilometers in dimension; 3) filtering point data to separate measurements for the ground from those for non-ground objects; 4) interpolating the irregularly spaced elevations onto a regularly spaced grid to allow raster based analysis; and 5) converting the gridded data into standard GIS import formats. The ALDPAT 1.0 is available through http://lidar.ihrc.fiu.edu/.

  4. Verification of engineering assumptions in modeling of airborne release of Carbon-14

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, S.A.; Yim, Man-Sung

    1996-10-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure variation on the flow velocity, water vapor transport, and oxygen depletion within a hypothetical low-level engineered waste facility were recently modeled with a set of engineering assumptions. The model that resulted from these activates is termed {open_quotes}GETAR{close_quote} for gas evolution, transport and reaction. Results of transport calculations show that the pumping effect of barometric pressure changes is the dominant mechanism for inducing the release of carbon-14 in a facility with a monitoring well. Coupled with this calculation, are recent results that indicate that a greater fraction of the carbon-14 within a hypothetical waste facility would be available for biodegradation and release via an airborne pathway rather than into groundwater.

  5. Aircraft deployment, and airborne arctic stratospheric expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Estelle; Tuck, Adrian; Hipskind, Steve; Toon, Brian; Wegener, Steve

    1990-01-01

    The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition had two primary objectives: to study the production and loss mechanisms of ozone in the north polar stratosphere and to study the effect on ozone distribution of the Arctic Polar Vortex and of the cold temperatures associated with the formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds. Two specially instrumented NASA aircraft were flown over the Arctic region. Each aircraft flew to acquire data on the meteorological, chemical and cloud physical phenomena that occur in the polar stratosphere during winter. The chemical processes which occur in the polar stratosphere during winter were also observed and studied. The data acquired are being analyzed.

  6. Airborne optical detection of oil on water.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Airborne measurements were made over controlled oil-spill test sites to evaluate various techniques, utilizing reflected sunlight, for detecting oil on water. The results of these measurements show that (1) maximum contrast between oil and water is in the UV and red portions of the spectrum; (2) minimum contrast is in the blue-green; (3) differential polarization appears to be a very promising technique; (4) no characteristic absorption bands, which would permit one oil to be distinguished from another, were discovered in the spectral regions measured; (5) sky conditions greatly influence the contrast between oil and water; and (6) highest contrast was achieved under overcast sky conditions.

  7. The fate of airborne polycyclic organic matter.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, T; Ramdahl, T; Bjørseth, A

    1983-01-01

    Biological tests have shown that a significant part of the mutagenicity of organic extracts of collected airborne particulate matter is not due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It is possible that part of these unknown compounds are transformation products of PAH. This survey focuses on the reaction of PAH in the atmosphere with other copollutants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, ozone and free radicals and their reaction products. Photochemically induced reactions of PAH are also included. The reactivity of particle-associated PAH is discussed in relation to the chemical composition and the physical properties of the carrier. Recommendations for future work are given. PMID:6825615

  8. CCD video camera and airborne applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturz, Richard A.

    2000-11-01

    The human need to see for ones self and to do so remotely, has given rise to video camera applications never before imagined and growing constantly. The instant understanding and verification offered by video lends its applications to every facet of life. Once an entertainment media, video is now ever present in out daily life. The application to the aircraft platform is one aspect of the video camera versatility. Integrating the video camera into the aircraft platform is yet another story. The typical video camera when applied to more standard scene imaging poses less demanding parameters and considerations. This paper explores the video camera as applied to the more complicated airborne environment.

  9. Discrimination of airborne radioactivity from radon progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Ching-Jiang Chen; Pao-Shan Weng; Tieh-Chi Chu

    1994-05-01

    Naturally occurring radon and thoron progeny are the most interfering nuclides in the aerosol monitoring system. The high background and fluctuation of natural radioactivity on the filter can cause an error message to the aerosol monitor. A theoretical model was applied in the simulation of radon and thoron progeny behavior in the environment and on the filter. Results show that even a small amount of airborne nuclides on the filter could be discriminated by using the beta:alpha activity ratio instead of gross beta or alpha counting. This method can increase the sensitivity and reliability of real-time aerosol monitoring. 8 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Refractive acoustic devices for airborne sound.

    PubMed

    Cervera, F; Sanchis, L; Sánchez-Pérez, J V; Martínez-Sala, R; Rubio, C; Meseguer, F; López, C; Caballero, D; Sánchez-Dehesa, J

    2002-01-14

    We show that a sonic crystal made of periodic distributions of rigid cylinders in air acts as a new material which allows the construction of refractive acoustic devices for airborne sound. It is demonstrated that, in the long-wave regime, the crystal has low impedance and the sound is transmitted at subsonic velocities. Here, the fabrication and characterization of a convergent lens are presented. Also, an example of a Fabry-Perot interferometer based on this crystal is analyzed. It is concluded that refractive devices based on sonic crystals behave in a manner similar to that of optical systems.

  11. The GeoTASO airborne spectrometer project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitch, J. W.; Delker, T.; Good, W.; Ruppert, L.; Murcray, F.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Nowlan, C.; Janz, S. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Kowalewski, M.; Wang, J.

    2014-10-01

    The NASA ESTO-funded Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) development project demonstrates a reconfigurable multi-order airborne spectrometer and tests the performance of spectra separation and filtering on the sensor spectral measurements and subsequent trace gas and aerosol retrievals. The activities support mission risk reduction for the UV-Visible air quality measurements from geostationary orbit for the TEMPO and GEMS missions1 . The project helps advance the retrieval algorithm readiness through retrieval performance tests using scene data taken with varying sensor parameters. We report initial results of the project.

  12. Refractive acoustic devices for airborne sound.

    PubMed

    Cervera, F; Sanchis, L; Sánchez-Pérez, J V; Martínez-Sala, R; Rubio, C; Meseguer, F; López, C; Caballero, D; Sánchez-Dehesa, J

    2002-01-14

    We show that a sonic crystal made of periodic distributions of rigid cylinders in air acts as a new material which allows the construction of refractive acoustic devices for airborne sound. It is demonstrated that, in the long-wave regime, the crystal has low impedance and the sound is transmitted at subsonic velocities. Here, the fabrication and characterization of a convergent lens are presented. Also, an example of a Fabry-Perot interferometer based on this crystal is analyzed. It is concluded that refractive devices based on sonic crystals behave in a manner similar to that of optical systems. PMID:11801014

  13. Pictures of blockscale transport: Effective versus ensemble dispersion and its uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, Felipe P. J.; Dentz, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Solute transport models tend to use coarse numerical grid blocks to alleviate computational costs. Aside from computational issues, the subsurface environment is usually characterized over a coarse measurement network where only large scale fluctuations of the flow field are captured. Neglecting the subscale velocity fluctuations in transport simulators can lead to erroneous predictions with consequences in risk analysis and remediation. For such reasons, upscaled dispersion coefficients in spatially heterogeneous flow fields must (1) account for the subscale variability that is filtered out by homogenization and (2) be modeled as a random function to incorporate the uncertainty associated with non-ergodic solute bodies. In this work, we examine the low order statistical properties of the blockscale dispersion tensor. The blockscale is defined as the scale upon which the spatially variable flow field is homogenized (e.g. the numerical grid block). Using a Lagrangian framework, we discuss different conceptualizations of the blockscale dispersion tensor. We distinguish effective and ensemble blockscale dispersion, which measure the impact of subscale velocity fluctuations on solute dispersion. Ensemble dispersion quantifies subscale velocity fluctuations between realizations, which overestimates the actual velocity variability. Effective dispersion on the other hand quantifies the actual blockscale velocity variability and thus reflects the impact of subscale velocity fluctuations on mixing and spreading. Based on these concepts, we quantify the impact of subscale velocity fluctuations on solute particle spreading and determine the governing equations for the coarse-grained concentration distributions. We develop analytical and semi-analytical expressions for the average and variance of the blockscale dispersion tensor in 3D flow fields as a function of the structural parameters characterizing the subsurface. Our results illustrate the relevance of the blockscale

  14. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Aerosol Measurements during MILAGRO and TEXAQS/GOMACCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, Richard; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John; Cook Anthony; Harper, David; Burton, Sharon; Clayton, Marian; Clarke, Antony; Russell, Phil; Redemann, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Two1 field experiments conducted during 2006 provided opportunities to investigate the variability of aerosol properties near cities and the impacts of these aerosols on air quality and radiative transfer. The Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) /Megacity Aerosol Experiment in Mexico City (MAX-MEX)/Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B (INTEX-B) joint experiment conducted during March 2006 investigated the evolution and transport of pollution from Mexico City. The Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS)/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) (http://www.al.noaa.gov/2006/) conducted during August and September 2006 investigated climate and air quality in the Houston/Gulf of Mexico region. During both missions, the new NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 King Air aircraft and measured profiles of aerosol extinction, backscattering, and depolarization to: 1) characterize the spatial and vertical distributions of aerosols, 2) quantify aerosol extinction and optical thickness contributed by various aerosol types, 3) investigate aerosol variability near clouds, 4) evaluate model simulations of aerosol transport, and 5) assess aerosol optical properties derived from a combination of surface, airborne, and satellite measurements.

  15. SOFIA's Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors: An External Evaluation of Cycle 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) represents a partnership between NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The observatory itself is a Boeing 747 SP that has been modified to serve as the world's largest airborne research observatory. The SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program is a component of SOFIA's…

  16. 54. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET (LEFT) AND ASSOCIATED GOULD BRUSH CHART RECORDERS (RIGHT). ELAPSED TIME COUNTER SITS ATOP AIRBORNE BEACON EQUIPMENT TEST SET. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. OPTIMIZING THE PAKS METHOD FOR MEASURING AIRBORNE ACROLEIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne acrolein is produced from the combustion of fuel and tobacco and is of concern due to its potential for respiratory tract irritation and other adverse health effects. DNPH active-sampling is a method widely used for sampling airborne aldehydes and ketones (carbonyls); ...

  18. Enumerating Spore-Forming Bacteria Airborne with Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Barengoltz, Jack

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory method has been conceived to enable the enumeration of (1) Cultivable bacteria and bacterial spores that are, variously, airborne by themselves or carried by, parts of, or otherwise associated with, other airborne particles; and (2) Spore-forming bacteria among all of the aforementioned cultivable microbes.

  19. Experimental evaluation of an airborne depth sounding lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Koppari, Kurt; Karlsson, Ulf

    1992-12-01

    An experimental evaluation of an airborne depth sounding lidar called FLASH (FOA Laser Airborne Sounder for Hydrography) is presented. The lidar is based on a scanning frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser and is borne by a helicopter. An example of measured waveforms is compared with those obtained by analytical and Monte Carlo modeling.

  20. 76 FR 76333 - Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES) AGENCY...,'' to airborne wind energy systems (AWES). In addition, this notice requests information from...

  1. Adaptive Restoration of Airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    D. Yuan; E. Doak; P. Guss; A. Will

    2002-01-01

    To incorporate the georegistration and restoration processes into airborne data processing in support of U.S. Department of Energy's nuclear emergency response task, we developed an adaptive restoration filter for airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM thermal data based on the Wiener filtering theory. Preliminary assessment shows that this filter enhances the detectability of small weak thermal anomalies in AADS1268 thermal images.

  2. Adaptive restoration of airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM thermal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ding; Doak, Edwin L.; Guss, Paul; Will, Alan

    2002-03-01

    To incorporate the georegistration and restoration processes into airborne data processing in support of DOE's nuclear emergency response task, we developed an adaptive restoration filter for airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM thermal data based on the Wiener filtering theory. Preliminary assessment shows that this filter enhances the detectability of small weak thermal anomalies in AADS1268 thermal images.

  3. 14 CFR 135.173 - Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements. (a) No person may... the aircraft is equipped with either approved thunderstorm detection equipment or approved...

  4. 14 CFR 135.173 - Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements. (a) No person may... the aircraft is equipped with either approved thunderstorm detection equipment or approved...

  5. 14 CFR 135.173 - Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements. (a) No person may... the aircraft is equipped with either approved thunderstorm detection equipment or approved...

  6. 14 CFR 135.173 - Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.173 Airborne thunderstorm detection equipment requirements. (a) No person may... the aircraft is equipped with either approved thunderstorm detection equipment or approved...

  7. Crop harvest in Denmark and Central Europe contributes to the local load of airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Sommer, J.; Frederiksen, L.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source of airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the contribution to the overall load is mainly local or regional, but with intermittent long distance transport (LDT) from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes (daily average spore concentration above 100 m-3) with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  8. Inversion of Airborne Contaminants in a Regional Model

    SciTech Connect

    Akcelik, V.; Biros, G.; Draganescu, A.; Ghattas, O.; Hill, J.; van Bloemen Waanders, B.; /SLAC /Pennsylvania U. /Texas U. /Sandia

    2007-01-10

    We are interested in a DDDAS problem of localization of airborne contaminant releases in regional atmospheric transport models from sparse observations. Given measurements of the contaminant over an observation window at a small number of points in space, and a velocity field as predicted for example by a mesoscopic weather model, we seek an estimate of the state of the contaminant at the beginning of the observation interval that minimizes the least squares misfit between measured and predicted contaminant field, subject to the convection-diffusion equation for the contaminant. Once the ''initial'' conditions are estimated by solution of the inverse problem, we issue predictions of the evolution of the contaminant, the observation window is advanced in time, and the process repeated to issue a new prediction, in the style of 4D-Var. We design an appropriate numerical strategy that exploits the spectral structure of the inverse operator, and leads to efficient and accurate resolution of the inverse problem. Numerical experiments verify that high resolution inversion can be carried out rapidly for a well-resolved terrain model of the greater Los Angeles area.

  9. Detect-to-warn scenarios for defense against airborne contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, Daniel; Campbell, Steven D.; Joseph, Rose

    2004-12-01

    Detect-to-warn defense strategies against airborne contamination are based on providing warning to personnel to take temporary protective actions. The effectiveness of such detect-to-warn active strategies is measured by the reduction in contaminant exposure compared to passive exposure. Effectiveness depends on several factors, including the contaminant release and transport properties, the warning sensor performance and the protective actions taken. In this paper we analyze effectiveness for several specific scenarios where certain reasonable protective actions are assumed and sensor performance is varied. One type of scenario analyzed is the protection of outdoor personnel against an upwind instantaneous point release. Meteorological conditions such as wind speed, turbulence level and heat flux, which result in high exposure levels are assumed. Personnel are warned to temporarily use filter masks based on a warning signal from a sensor placed between them and the release point. Another type of scenario is the protection of personnel inside of a building using active ventilation control. The building air handling properties, such as air exchange and recirculation, degree of leakage and filtration and zone volume, are representative of modern office buildings. Different sensor locations and ventilation control strategies are chosen to defend against outside and inside instantaneous point releases. In each scenario, we evaluate the dependence of effectiveness on sensor sensitivity threshold and response time. In addition, we describe desired values of other sensor attributes, such as false positive sensing rate, size, power consumption, maintenance frequency and procurement cost, to support realistic deployment and operations.

  10. Methane emissions from Alaska in 2012 from CARVE airborne observations

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Steven J.; Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Daube, Bruce C.; Henderson, John M.; Mountain, Marikate E.; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Miller, John B.; Bruhwiler, Lori M. P.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    We determined methane (CH4) emissions from Alaska using airborne measurements from the Carbon Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). Atmospheric sampling was conducted between May and September 2012 and analyzed using a customized version of the polar weather research and forecast model linked to a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (stochastic time-inverted Lagrangian transport model). We estimated growing season CH4 fluxes of 8 ± 2 mg CH4⋅m−2⋅d−1 averaged over all of Alaska, corresponding to fluxes from wetlands of 56−13+22 mg CH4⋅m−2⋅d−1 if we assumed that wetlands are the only source from the land surface (all uncertainties are 95% confidence intervals from a bootstrapping analysis). Fluxes roughly doubled from May to July, then decreased gradually in August and September. Integrated emissions totaled 2.1 ± 0.5 Tg CH4 for Alaska from May to September 2012, close to the average (2.3; a range of 0.7 to 6 Tg CH4) predicted by various land surface models and inversion analyses for the growing season. Methane emissions from boreal Alaska were larger than from the North Slope; the monthly regional flux estimates showed no evidence of enhanced emissions during early spring or late fall, although these bursts may be more localized in time and space than can be detected by our analysis. These results provide an important baseline to which future studies can be compared. PMID:25385648

  11. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements VI (ACME VI) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S

    2015-12-01

    From October 1 through September 30, 2016, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility will deploy the Cessna 206 aircraft over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, collecting observations of trace-gas mixing ratios over the ARM’s SGP facility. The aircraft payload includes two Atmospheric Observing Systems, Inc., analyzers for continuous measurements of CO2 and a 12-flask sampler for analysis of carbon cycle gases (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, 13CO2, 14CO2, carbonyl sulfide, and trace hydrocarbon species, including ethane). The aircraft payload also includes instrumentation for solar/infrared radiation measurements. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s ARM Climate Research Facility and Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Program and builds upon previous ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) missions. The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange at the SGP site, 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative forcing, convective processes and CO2 concentrations over the SGP site, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  12. Stellar Occultations from Airborne Platforms: 1988 to 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosh, Amanda S.; Dunham, Edward W.; Zuluaga, Carlos; Levine, Stephen; Person, Michael J.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.

    2016-10-01

    Observing a stellar occultation by a solar system body with an airborne telescope requires precise positioning of the observer within the shadow cast onto the Earth. For small bodies like Pluto and Kuiper Belt objects, smaller than the Earth, the challenge is particularly intense, with the accuracy of the astrometric and flight planning determining whether the observation succeeds or fails. From our first airborne occultation by Pluto in 1988 aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), to our most recent event by Pluto in 2015 aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), we have refined our astrometric and flight planning systems to the point where we can now place an airborne observer into the small central flash zone. We will discuss the history of airborne observation of occultations while detailing the improvements in the astrometric processes. Support for this work was provided by NASA SSO grant NNX15AJ82G to Lowell Observatory.

  13. Airborne gamma radiation soil moisture measurements over short flight lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Carrol, Thomas R.; Lipinski, Daniel M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture condition, carried out along short flight lines as part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE). Data were collected over an area in Kansas during the summers of 1987 and 1989. The airborne surveys, together with ground measurements, provide the most comprehensive set of airborne and ground truth data available in the U.S. for calibrating and evaluating airborne gamma flight lines. Analysis showed that, using standard National Weather Service weights for the K, Tl, and Gc radiation windows, the airborne soil moisture estimates for the FIFE lines had a root mean square error of no greater than 3.0 percent soil moisture. The soil moisture estimates for sections having acquisition time of at least 15 sec were found to be reliable.

  14. CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grainger, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this award was to supply a platform for the airborne measurements of gases associated with the CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne Study (COBRA). The original program was to consist of three field programs: the first was to be in 1999, the second in 2000, and the third in 2001. At the end of the second field program, it was agreed that the science could better be served by making the measurements in northern Brazil, rather than in North America. The final North American program would be postponed until after two field programs in Brazil. A substantial amount of effort was diverted into making plans and preparations for the Brazil field programs. The Brazil field programs were originally scheduled to take place in the Fall of 2002 and Spring of 2003. Carrying out the field program in Brazil was going to logistically much more involved than a program in the US. Shipping of equipment, customs, and site preparations required work to begin many months prior to the actual measurement program. Permission to fly in that country was also not trivial and indeed proved to be a major obstacle. When we were not able to get permission to fly in Brazil for the 2002 portion of the experiment, the program was pushed back to 2003. When permission by the Brazilian government was not given in time for a Spring of 2003 field program, the experiment was postponed again to begin in the Fall of 2003.

  15. Airborne Dust in Space Vehicles and Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John

    2006-01-01

    Airborne dust, suspended inside a space vehicle or in future celestial habitats, can present a serious threat to crew health if it is not controlled. During the Apollo missions to the moon, lunar dust brought inside the capsule caused eye irritation and breathing difficulty to the crew when they launched from the moon and re-acquired "microgravity." During Shuttle flights reactive and toxic dusts such as lithium hydroxide have created a risk to crew health, and fine particles from combustion events can be especially worrisome. Under nominal spaceflight conditions, airborne dusts and particles tend to be larger than on earth because of the absence of gravity settling. Aboard the ISS, dusts are effectively managed by HEPA filters, although floating dust in newly-arrived modules can be a nuisance. Future missions to the moon and to Mars will present additional challenges because of the possibility that external dust will enter the breathing atmosphere of the habitat and reach the crew's respiratory system. Testing with simulated lunar and Martian dust has shown that these materials are toxic when placed into the lungs of test animals. Defining and evaluating the physical and chemical properties of Martian dusts through robotic missions will challenge our ability to prepare better dust simulants and to determine the risk to crew health from exposure to such dusts.

  16. Sampling of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Otson, R.; Leach, J.M.; Chung, L.T.K.

    1987-07-01

    Limitations of NIOSH sampling method P and CAM 183 were defined for airborne standard mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) generated as vapors in a flow-through apparatus. The PAH fell into three categories: those that were too volatile to be collected by the NIOSH filtration method at normal ambient temperatures and were best sampled with Tenax or XAD-2 sorbent (i.e., indane, naphthalene, biphenyl, acenaphthene, fluorene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, phenathrene, and anthracene); those that were quantitatively collected by filters, even after a brief airborne residence time (i.e., benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(ghi)perylene); and those that partitioned between filter and sorbent (i.e., fluoranthene and pyrene). A combination glass fiber/silver membrane filter backed by two sorbent tubes in series gave overall mean recoveries of 94-96% for the 15 PAH studied at total concentrations of, nominally, 0.2 and 0.02 mg/m/sup 3/. Individual PAH concentrations were 0.03-0.05 and 0.003-0.005 mg/m/sup 3/, respectively.

  17. Solid state recorders for airborne reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klang, Mark R.

    2003-08-01

    Solid state recorders have become the recorder of choice for meeting airborne ruggedized requirements for reconnaissance and flight test. The cost of solid state recorders have decreased over the past few years that they are now less expense than the traditional high speed tape recorders. CALCULEX, Inc manufactures solid state recorders called MONSSTR (Modular Non-volatile Solid State Recorder). MONSSTR is being used on many different platforms such as F/A-22, Global Hawk, F-14, F-15, F-16, U-2, RF-4, and Tornado. This paper will discuss the advantages of using solid state recorders to meet the airborne reconnaissance requirement and the ability to record instrumentation data. The CALCULEX recorder has the ability to record sensor data and flight test data in the same chassis. This is an important feature because it eliminates additional boxes on the aircraft. The major advantages to using a solid state recorder include; reliability, small size, light weight, and power. Solid state recorders also have a larger storage capacity and higher bandwidth capability than other recording devices.

  18. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth's climate, public health, air quality, and hydrological and carbon cycles. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemical composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. We suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events.

  19. Airborne Methane Measurements using Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riris, H.; Numata, K.; Li, S.; Wu, S.; Ramanathan, A.; Dawsey, M.; Abshire, J. B.; Kawa, S. R.; Mao, J.

    2012-12-01

    We report on airborne methane measurements with an active sensing instrument using widely tunable, seeded optical parametric generation (OPG). Methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Earth and it is also a potential biogenic marker on Mars and other planetary bodies. Methane in the Earth's atmosphere survives for a shorter time than CO2 but its impact on climate change can be larger than CO2. Carbon and methane emissions from land are expected to increase as permafrost melts exposing millennial-age carbon stocks to respiration (aerobic-CO2 and anaerobic-CH4) and fires. Methane emissions from clathrates in the Arctic Ocean and on land are also likely to respond to climate warming. However, there is considerable uncertainty in present Arctic flux levels, as well as how fluxes will change with the changing environment and more measurements are needed. In this paper we report on an airborne demonstration of atmospheric methane column optical depth measurements at 1.65 μm using widely tunable, seeded optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and a photon counting detector. Our results show good agreement between the experimentally derived optical depth measurements and theoretical calculations and follow the expected changes for aircraft altitudes from 3 to 11 km. The technique has also been used to measure carbon dioxide and monoxide, water vapor, and other trace gases in the near and mid-infrared spectral regions on the ground.

  20. An airborne sunphotometer for use with helicopters

    SciTech Connect

    Walthall, C.L.; Halthore, R.N.; Elman, G.C.; Schafer, J.R.; Markham, B.L.

    1996-04-01

    One solution for atmospheric correction and calibration of remotely sensed data from airborne platforms is the use of radiometrically calibrated instruments, sunphotometers and an atmospheric radiative transfer model. Sunphotometers are used to measure the direct solar irradiance at the level at which they are operating and the data are used in the computation of atmospheric optical depth. Atmospheric optical depth is an input to atmospheric correction algorithms that convert at-sensor radiance to required surface properties such as reflectance and temperature. Airborne sun photometry has thus far seen limited use and has not been used with a helicopter platform. The hardware, software, calibration and deployment of an automatic sun-tracking sunphotometer specifically designed for use on a helicopter are described. Sample data sets taken with the system during the 1994 Boreal Ecosystem and Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) are presented. The addition of the sun photometer to the helicopter system adds another tool for monitoring the environment and makes the helicopter remote sensing system capable of collecting calibrated, atmospherically corrected data independent of the need for measurements from other systems.

  1. Calibration Matters: Advances in Strapdown Airborne Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, D.

    2015-12-01

    Using a commercial navigation-grade strapdown inertial measurement unit (IMU) for airborne gravimetry can be advantageous in terms of cost, handling, and space consumption compared to the classical stable-platform spring gravimeters. Up to now, however, large sensor errors made it impossible to reach the mGal-level using such type IMUs as they are not designed or optimized for this kind of application. Apart from a proper error-modeling in the filtering process, specific calibration methods that are tailored to the application of aerogravity may help to bridge this gap and to improve their performance. Based on simulations, a quantitative analysis is presented on how much IMU sensor errors, as biases, scale factors, cross couplings, and thermal drifts distort the determination of gravity and the deflection of the vertical (DOV). Several lab and in-field calibration methods are briefly discussed, and calibration results are shown for an iMAR RQH unit. In particular, a thermal lab calibration of its QA2000 accelerometers greatly improved the long-term drift behavior. Latest results from four recent airborne gravimetry campaigns confirm the effectiveness of the calibrations applied, with cross-over accuracies reaching 1.0 mGal (0.6 mGal after cross-over adjustment) and DOV accuracies reaching 1.1 arc seconds after cross-over adjustment.

  2. Spatial variability in airborne pollen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Raynor, G S; Ogden, E C; Hayes, J V

    1975-03-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the relationship between airborne pollen concentrations and distance. Simultaneous samples were taken in 171 tests with sets of eight rotoslide samplers spaced from one to 486 M. apart in straight lines. Use of all possible pairs gave 28 separation distances. Tests were conducted over a 2-year period in urban and rural locations distant from major pollen sources during both tree and ragweed pollen seasons. Samples were taken at a height of 1.5 M. during 5-to 20-minute periods. Tests were grouped by pollen type, location, year, and direction of the wind relative to the line. Data were analyzed to evaluate variability without regard to sampler spacing and variability as a function of separation distance. The mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, ratio of maximum to the mean, and ratio of minimum to the mean were calculated for each test, each group of tests, and all cases. The average coefficient of variation is 0.21, the maximum over the mean, 1.39 and the minimum over the mean, 0.69. No relationship was found with experimental conditions. Samples taken at the minimum separation distance had a mean difference of 18 per cent. Differences between pairs of samples increased with distance in 10 of 13 groups. These results suggest that airborne pollens are not always well mixed in the lower atmosphere and that a sample becomes less representative with increasing distance from the sampling location.

  3. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  4. Auxiliary DCP data acquisition system. [airborne system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. V.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne DCP Data Aquisition System has been designed to augment the ERTS satellite data recovery system. The DCP's are data collection platforms located at pertinent sites. With the appropriate sensors they are able to collect, digitally encode and transmit environmental parameters to the ERTS satellite. The satellite in turn relays these transmissions to a ground station for processing. The satellite is available for such relay duty a minimum of two times in a 24-hour period. The equipment is to obtain continuous DCP data during periods of unusual environmental activity--storms, floods, etc. Two circumstances contributed to the decision to design such a system; (1) Wallops Station utilizes surveillance aircraft in support of rocket launches and also in support of earth resources activities; (2) the area in which Wallops is located, the Delaware and Chesapeake Bay areas, are fertile areas for DCP usage. Therefore, by developing an airborne DCP receiving station and installing it on aircraft more continuous DCP data can be provided from sites in the surrounding areas at relatively low cost.

  5. Asthmatic responses to airborne acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Wiener, M.B.; Selner, J.C. )

    1991-06-01

    Controlled exposure studies suggest that asthmatics may be more sensitive to the respiratory effects of acidic aerosols than individuals without asthma. This study investigates whether acidic aerosols and other air pollutants are associated with respiratory symptoms in free-living asthmatics. Daily concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+), nitric acid, fine particulates, sulfates and nitrates were obtained during an intensive air monitoring effort in Denver, Colorado, in the winter of 1987-88. A panel of 207 asthmatics recorded respiratory symptoms, frequency of medication use, and related information in daily diaries. We used a multiple regression time-series model to analyze which air pollutants, if any, were associated with health outcomes reported by study participants. Airborne H+ was found to be significantly associated with several indicators of asthma status, including moderate or severe cough and shortness of breath. Cough was also associated with fine particulates, and shortness of breath with sulfates. Incorporating the participants' time spent outside and exercise intensity into the daily measure of exposure strengthened the association between these pollutants and asthmatic symptoms. Nitric acid and nitrates were not significantly associated with any respiratory symptom analyzed. In this population of asthmatics, several outdoor air pollutants, particularly airborne acidity, were associated with daily respiratory symptoms.

  6. Handling Trajectory Uncertainties for Airborne Conflict Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Doble, Nathan A.; Karr, David; Palmer, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne conflict management is an enabling capability for NASA's Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept. DAGTM has the goal of significantly increasing capacity within the National Airspace System, while maintaining or improving safety. Under DAG-TM, autonomous aircraft maintain separation from each other and from managed aircraft unequipped for autonomous flight. NASA Langley Research Center has developed the Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP), an onboard decision support system that provides airborne conflict management (ACM) and strategic flight planning support for autonomous aircraft pilots. The AOP performs conflict detection, prevention, and resolution from nearby traffic aircraft and area hazards. Traffic trajectory information is assumed to be provided by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). Reliable trajectory prediction is a key capability for providing effective ACM functions. Trajectory uncertainties due to environmental effects, differences in aircraft systems and performance, and unknown intent information lead to prediction errors that can adversely affect AOP performance. To accommodate these uncertainties, the AOP has been enhanced to create cross-track, vertical, and along-track buffers along the predicted trajectories of both ownship and traffic aircraft. These buffers will be structured based on prediction errors noted from previous simulations such as a recent Joint Experiment between NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers and from other outside studies. Currently defined ADS-B parameters related to navigation capability, trajectory type, and path conformance will be used to support the algorithms that generate the buffers.

  7. Airborne transmission and precautions: facts and myths.

    PubMed

    Seto, W H

    2015-04-01

    Airborne transmission occurs only when infectious particles of <5 μm, known as aerosols, are propelled into the air. The prevention of such transmission is expensive, requiring N95 respirators and negative pressure isolation rooms. This lecture first discussed whether respiratory viral infections are airborne with reference to published reviews of studies before 2008, comparative trials of surgical masks and N95 respirators, and relevant new experimental studies. However, the most recent experimental study, using naturally infected influenza volunteers as the source, showed negative results from all the manikins that were exposed. Modelling studies by ventilation engineers were then summarized to explain why these results were not unexpected. Second, the systematic review commissioned by the World Health Organization on what constituted aerosol-generating procedures was summarized. From the available evidence, endotracheal intubation either by itself or combined with other procedures (e.g. cardiopulmonary resuscitation or bronchoscopy) was consistently associated with increased risk of transmission by the generation of aerosols. PMID:25578684

  8. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Itten, Klaus I.; Dell'Endice, Francesco; Hueni, Andreas; Kneubühler, Mathias; Schläpfer, Daniel; Odermatt, Daniel; Seidel, Felix; Huber, Silvia; Schopfer, Jürg; Kellenberger, Tobias; Bühler, Yves; D'Odorico, Petra; Nieke, Jens; Alberti, Edoardo; Meuleman, Koen

    2008-01-01

    The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB) by using the Control Test Master (CTM), the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC), quality flagging (QF) and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF), and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output) introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a) satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b) helping the understanding of the Earth's complex mechanisms.

  9. Airborne system for testing multispectral reconnaissance technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Doergeloh, Heinrich; Keil, Heiko; Wetjen, Wilfried

    1999-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for future airborne reconnaissance systems to obtain aerial images for tactical or peacekeeping operations. Especially Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensor system and with real time jam resistant data transmission capabilities are of high interest. An airborne experimental platform has been developed as testbed to investigate different concepts of reconnaissance systems before their application in UAVs. It is based on a Dornier DO 228 aircraft, which is used as flying platform. Great care has been taken to achieve the possibility to test different kinds of multispectral sensors. Hence basically it is capable to be equipped with an IR sensor head, high resolution aerial cameras of the whole optical spectrum and radar systems. The onboard equipment further includes system for digital image processing, compression, coding, and storage. The data are RF transmitted to the ground station using technologies with high jam resistance. The images, after merging with enhanced vision components, are delivered to the observer who has an uplink data channel available to control flight and imaging parameters.

  10. Computational Analyses in Support of Sub-scale Diffuser Testing for the A-3 Facility. Part 3; Aero-Acoustic Analyses and Experimental Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Graham, Jason S.; McVay, Greg P.; Langford, Lester L.

    2008-01-01

    A unique assessment of acoustic similarity scaling laws and acoustic analogy methodologies in predicting the far-field acoustic signature from a sub-scale altitude rocket test facility at the NASA Stennis Space Center was performed. A directional, point-source similarity analysis was implemented for predicting the acoustic far-field. In this approach, experimental acoustic data obtained from "similar" rocket engine tests were appropriately scaled using key geometric and dynamic parameters. The accuracy of this engineering-level method is discussed by comparing the predictions with acoustic far-field measurements obtained. In addition, a CFD solver was coupled with a Lilley's acoustic analogy formulation to determine the improvement of using a physics-based methodology over an experimental correlation approach. In the current work, steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculations were used to model the internal flow of the rocket engine and altitude diffuser. These internal flow simulations provided the necessary realistic input conditions for external plume simulations. The CFD plume simulations were then used to provide the spatial turbulent noise source distributions in the acoustic analogy calculations. Preliminary findings of these studies will be discussed.

  11. The X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator is suspended under a U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook cargo helico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator is suspended under a U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook cargo helicopter during a captive-carry test flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The captive carry flights are designed to verify the X-40's navigation and control systems, rigging angles for its sling, and stability and control of the helicopter while carrying the X-40 on a tether. Following a series of captive-carry flights, the X-40 made free flights from a launch altitude of about 15,000 feet above ground, gliding to a fully autonomous landing. The X-40 is an unpowered 82 percent scale version of the X-37, a Boeing-developed spaceplane designed to demonstrate various advanced technologies for development of future lower-cost access to space vehicles. The X-37 will be carried into space aboard a space shuttle and then released to perform various maneuvers and a controlled re-entry through the Earth's atmosphere to an airplane-style landing on a runway, controlled entirely by pre-programmed computer software.

  12. A U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter slowly lowers the X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator to the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter slowly lowers the X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator to the ground under the watchful eyes of ground crew at the conclusion of a captive-carry test flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Several captive-carry flights were conducted to check out all operating systems and procedures before the X-40 made its first free flight at Edwards, gliding to a fully-autonomous approach and landing on the Edwards runway. The X-40 is an unpowered 82 percent scale version of the X-37, a Boeing-developed spaceplane designed to demonstrate various advanced technologies for development of future lower-cost access to space vehicles. The X-37 will be carried into space aboard a space shuttle and then released to perform various maneuvers and a controlled re-entry through the Earth's atmosphere to an airplane-style landing on a runway, controlled entirely by pre-programmed computer software. Flight tests of the X-40 are designed to reduce the risks associated with research flights of the larger, more complex X-37.

  13. A Very Large Eddy Simulation of the Nonreacting Flow in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection Combustor Using PRNS with a Nonlinear Subscale Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2009-01-01

    Very large eddy simulation (VLES) of the nonreacting turbulent flow in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor has been successfully performed via the approach known as the partially resolved numerical simulation (PRNS/VLES) using a nonlinear subscale model. The grid is the same as the one used in a previous RANS simulation, which was considered as too coarse for a traditional LES simulation. In this study, we first carry out a steady RANS simulation to provide the initial flow field for the subsequent PRNS/VLES simulation. We have also carried out an unsteady RANS (URANS) simulation for the purpose of comparing its results with that of the PRNS/VLES simulation. In addition, these calculated results are compared with the experimental data. The present effort has demonstrated that the PRNS/VLES approach, while using a RANS type of grid, is able to reveal the dynamically important, unsteady large-scale turbulent structures occurring in the flow field of a single-element LDI combustor. The interactions of these coherent structures play a critical role in the dispersion of the fuel, hence, the mixing between the fuel and the oxidizer in a combustor.

  14. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.

    2013-04-01

    NCAR's Electra Doppler radar (ELDORA) with a dual-beam slotted waveguide array using dual-transmitter, dual-beam, rapid scan and step-chirped waveform significantly improved the spatial scale to 300m (Hildebrand et al. 1996). However, ELDORA X-band radar's penetration into precipitation is limited by attenuation and is not designed to collect polarimetric measurements to remotely estimate microphysics. ELDORA has been placed on dormancy because its airborne platform (P3 587) was retired in January 2013. The US research community has strongly voiced the need to continue measurement capability similar to the ELDORA. A critical weather research area is quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting (QPE/QPF). In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006). In the case of convective precipitation, two issues, namely, (1) when and where convection will be initiated, and (2) determining the organization and structure of ensuing convection, are key for QPF. Therefore collocated measurements of 3-D winds and precipitation microphysics are required for achieving significant skills in QPF and QPE. Multiple radars in dual-Doppler configuration with polarization capability estimate dynamical and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation are mostly available over land. However, storms over complex terrain, the ocean and in forest regions are not observable by ground-based radars (Bluestein and Wakimoto, 2003). NCAR/EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next generation airborne radar that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. ELDORA's slotted waveguide array radar is not compatible for dual-polarization measurements. Therefore, the new design has to address both dual-polarization capability and platform requirements to replace the ELDORA system. NCAR maintains a C-130

  15. Scanning Web-based ICARTT File Tool (SWIFT): an online tool used to validate ICARTT-formatted airborne science data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucker, P. L.; Mangosing, D. C.; Chen, G.; Rinsland, P.; Brennan, J. H.; Clodius, B. F.

    2011-12-01

    The ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) file format was recently endorsed by the NASA Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process Group (ESDS SPG) as a standard (ESDS-RFC-019) for specifying airborne-based Earth System Data Records (ESDR). In order to accelerate adoption of the new standard in the airborne science data community, SWIFT (Scanning Web-based ICARTT File Tool) was developed to provide a means for data providers to validate their own originated ICARTT-formatted file before submission to data archival facilities provided by NASA Langley's Atmospheric Science Data Center and the NASA Langley Airborne Science Data for Atmospheric Composition group. SWIFT builds upon a predecessor, a software utility named: FSCAN (File Scan). A major upgrade to FSCAN, the objective of SWIFT is to support all valid ICARTT files and to extract and store the file metadata in an ESDR relational database. The SWIFT-validated search metadata make it possible for COTS software and web applications to leverage the built-in spatial and temporal query capabilities of the relational database and to enable file and parameter sub-setting capabilities, as well as facilitating the generation of airborne science data merge products. These enhancements help to minimize development time of other related web applications and open up opportunities for robust data queries.

  16. Convergent Validity of the Autism Spectrum Disorders-Diagnostic Adult (ASD-DA) with the Pervasive Developmental Disorder/Autism Subscale of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belva, Brian C.; Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Kozlowski, Allison M.; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2012-01-01

    The "Autism Spectrum Disorders-Diagnosis for Adults" ("ASD-DA") is a standardized assessment used to measure autistic symptomatology in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). In order to further establish the validity of this measure, convergent validity of the "ASD-DA" was established by comparing "ASD-DA" total and subscales scores with the…

  17. COCAP - A compact carbon dioxide analyser for airborne platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Martin; Lavrič, Jošt V.; Jeschag, Wieland; Bryzgalov, Maksym; Hök, Bertil; Heimann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Airborne platforms are a valuable tool for atmospheric trace gas measurements due to their capability of movement in three dimensions, covering spatial scales from metres to thousands of kilometres. Although crewed research aircraft are flexible in payload and range, their use is limited by high initial and operating costs. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have the potential for substantial cost reduction, but require lightweight, miniaturized and energy-efficient scientific equipment. We are developing a COmpact Carbon dioxide analyser for Airborne Platforms (COCAP). It contains a non-dispersive infrared CO2sensor with a nominal full scale of 3000 μmol/mol. Sampled air is dried with magnesium perchlorate before it enters the sensor. This enables measurement of the dry air mole fraction of CO2, as recommended by the World Meteorological Organization. During post-processing, the CO2 measurement is corrected for temperature and pressure variations in the gas line. Allan variance analysis shows that we achieve a precision of better than 0.4 μmol/mol for 10 s averaging time. We plan to monitor the analyser's stability during flight by measuring reference air from a miniature gas tank in regular intervals. Besides CO2, COCAP measures relative humidity, temperature and pressure of ambient air. An on-board GPS receiver delivers accurate timestamps and allows georeferencing. Data is both stored on a microSD card and simultaneously transferred over a wireless serial interface to a ground station for real-time review. The target weight for COCAP is less than 1 kg. We deploy COCAP on a commercially available fixed-wing UAV (Bormatec Explorer) with a wingspan of 2.2 metres. The UAV has high payload capacity (2.5 kg) as well as sufficient space in the fuselage (80x80x600 mm3). It is built from a shock-resistant foam material, which allows quick repair of minor damages in the field. In case of severe damage spare parts are readily available. Calculations suggest that the

  18. Overview of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATTREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, clouds, multiple gaseous tracers (CO, CO2, CH4, NMHC, SF6, CFCs, N2O), reactive chemical compounds (O3, BrO, NO2), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. ATTREX flight series have been conducted in the fall of 2011 from Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in California, in the winter of 2013 from AFRC, and in the winter/spring of 2014 from Guam. The first two flight series provided extensive sampling of the central and eastern Pacific, whereas the last flight series permitted sampling in the western Pacific. The sampling strategy has primarily involved repeated ascents and descents through the depth of the TTL (about 13-19 km). Over 100 TTL profiles were obtained on each flight series. The ATTREX dataset includes TTL water vapor measurements with unprecedented accuracy, ice crystal size distributions and habits. The cloud and water measurements provide unique information about TTL cloud formation, the persistence of super-saturation with respect to ice, and dehydration. The plethora of tracers measured on the Global Hawk flights are providing unique information about TTL transport pathways and time scales. The meteorological measurements are revealing dynamical phenomena controlling the TTL thermal structure, and the radiation measurements are providing information about heating rates associated with TTL clouds and water vapor. This presentation

  19. Overview of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H. B.; Jensen, E. J.; Pfister, L.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATTREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, clouds, multiple gaseous tracers (CO, CO2, CH4, NMHC, SF6, CFCs, N2O), reactive chemical compounds (O3, BrO, NO2), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes.ATTREX flight series have been conducted in the fall of 2011 from Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in California, in the winter of 2013 from AFRC, and in the winter/spring of 2014 from Guam. The first two flight series provided extensive sampling of the central and eastern Pacific, whereas the last flight series permitted sampling in the western Pacific. The sampling strategy has primarily involved repeated ascents and descents through the depth of the TTL (about 13-19 km). Over 100 TTL profiles were obtained on each flight series. The ATTREX dataset includes TTL water vapor measurements with unprecedented accuracy, ice crystal size distributions and habits. The cloud and water measurements provide unique information about TTL cloud formation, the persistence of supersaturation with respect to ice, and dehydration. The plethora of tracers measured on the Global Hawk flights are providing unique information about TTL transport pathways and time scales. The meteorological measurements are revealing dynamical phenomena controlling the TTL thermal structure, and the radiation measurements are providing information about heating rates associated with TTL clouds and water vapor.This presentation will

  20. Characteristics of an airborne demonstrator for MERLIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amediek, A.; Büdenbender, C.; Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Quatrevalet, M.; Wirth, M.; Dieter, H.; Löhring, J.; Klein, V.

    2012-12-01

    After three years development time, first test measurements on DLR's (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) CO2 and CH4 airborne Lidar have started. It is an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar for the simultaneous measurement of CO2 and CH4 columns, designed for operation onboard the new German research aircraft HALO. In the framework of the project "CHARM-F", funded by the German ministry of education and research, the lidar was developed in collaboration with Fraunhofer Institut für Lasertechnik and Kayser-Threde. Due to the special features of the aircraft, such as the maximum flight altitude of 15 km and its long range, as well as the special design of the lidar, the system is particularly suitable to be an airborne demonstrator for the French-German MERLIN project, a spaceborne IPDA lidar sounder for methane. The layout of the receiver optics allows a large field of view, i.e. a large laser footprint on ground is possible, comparable to the size obtained by a spaceborne system. So, important features that come along with ground reflectivity issues, such as albedo variations on different spatial scales, can be taken into account in the same way and can be investigated in detail. Furthermore, two detector types are used, PIN photodiodes and APDs, each with specially adapted telescopes, to compare their respective properties. The basic design of the transmitter is identical to the one envisaged for MERLIN. Also important subsystems of the presented lidar, like wavelengths stabilization and output power monitoring, can serve as demonstrators for the satellite system. The main features of the airborne system are: Two almost identical laser systems for CH4 and CO2. Nd:YAG lasers serve as the pump sources for optical parametric oscillators (OPO), injection seeded by laser diodes, to generate the desired online and offline wavelengths in single mode operation. The online wavelength is tuned to an absorption line of the measured trace gas, the

  1. Alternative analysis of airborne laser data collected within conventional multi-parameter airborne geophysical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahl, Andreas; Supper, R.; Motschka, K.; Schattauer, I.

    2010-05-01

    For the interpretation of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry as well as airborne electromagnetics it is of great importance to determine the distance between the geophysical sensor and the ground surface. Since radar altimeters do not penetrate vegetation, laser altimeters became popular in airborne geophysics over the past years. Currently the airborne geophysical platform of the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) is equipped with a Riegl LD90-3800VHS-FLP high resolution laser altimeter, measuring the distances according to the first and the last reflected pulse. The goal of the presented study was to explore the possibilities of deriving additional information about the survey area from the laser data and to determine the accuracy of such results. On one hand the difference between the arrival time of the first and the last reflected pulse can be used to determine the height of the vegetation. This parameter is for example important for the correction of damping effects on airborne gamma-ray measurements caused by vegetation. Moreover especially for groundwater studies at catchment scale, this parameter can also be applied to support the spatial assessment of evapotranspiration. In combination with the altitude above geoid, determined by a GPS receiver, a rough digital elevation model of the survey area can be derived from the laser altimetry. Based on a data set from a survey area in the northern part of Austria, close to the border with the Czech Republic, the reliability of such a digital elevation model and the calculated vegetation height was tested. In this study a mean deviation of -1.4m, with a standard deviation of ±3.4m, between the digital elevation model from Upper Austria (25m spatial resolution) and the determined elevation model was determined. We also found an obvious correlation between the calculated vegetation heights greater 15m and the mapped forest published by the ‘Department of Forest Inventory' of the ‘Federal Forest Office' of Austria

  2. NASA Standard for Airborne Data: ICARTT Format ESDS-RFC-019

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornhill, A.; Brown, C.; Aknan, A.; Crawford, J. H.; Chen, G.; Williams, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    Airborne field studies generate a plethora of data products in the effort to study atmospheric composition and processes. Data file formats for airborne field campaigns are designed to present data in an understandable and organized way to support collaboration and to document relevant and important meta data. The ICARTT file format was created to facilitate data management during the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) campaign in 2004 that involved government-agencies and university participants from five countries. Since this mission the ICARTT format has been used in subsequent field campaigns such as Polar Study Using Aircraft Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models of Climates, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport (POLARCAT) and the first phase of Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ). The ICARTT file format has been endorsed as a standard format for airborne data by the Standard Process Group (SPG), one of the Earth Science Data Systems Working Groups (ESDSWG) in 2010. The detailed description of the ICARTT format can be found at http://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/missions/etc/ESDS-RFC-019-v1.00.pdf. The ICARTT data format is an ASCII, comma delimited format that was based on the NASA Ames and GTE file formats. The file header is detailed enough to fully describe the data for users outside of the instrument group and includes a description of the meta data. The ICARTT scanning tools, format structure, implementations, and examples will be presented.

  3. Extracting dynamic spatial data from airborne imaging sensors to support traffic flow estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, C. K.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    The recent transition from analog to totally digital data acquisition and processing techniques in airborne surveying represents a major milestone in the evolution of spatial information science and practice. On one hand, the improved quality of the primary sensor data can provide the foundation for better automation of the information extraction processes. This phenomenon is also strongly supported by continuously expanding computer technology, which offers almost unlimited processing power. On the other hand, the variety of the data, including rich information content and better temporal characteristics, acquired by the new digital sensors and coupled with rapidly advancing processing techniques, is broadening the applications of airborne surveying. One of these new application areas is traffic flow extraction aimed at supporting better traffic monitoring and management. Transportation mapping has always represented a significant segment of civilian mapping and is mainly concerned with road corridor mapping for design and engineering purposes, infrastructure mapping and facility management, and more recently, environmental mapping. In all these cases, the objective of the mapping is to extract the static features of the object space, such as man-made and natural objects, typically along the road network. In contrast, the traffic moving in the transportation network represents a very dynamic environment, which complicates the spatial data extraction processes as the signals of moving vehicles should be identified and removed. Rather than removing and discarding the signals, however, they can be turned into traffic flow information. This paper reviews initial research efforts to extract traffic flow information from laserscanner and digital camera sensors installed in airborne platforms.

  4. [Phylogenetic diversity of airborne microbes in Qingdao downtown in autumn].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Song, Zhi-wen; Xu, Ai-ling; Wu, Deng-deng; Xia, Yan

    2015-04-01

    To determine the community structure of airborne microbes in Qingdao downtown in autumn, the airborne bacteria and fungi were collected by the KC-6120 air sampler and analyzed using the 16S/18S rDNA gene clone library method. Phylogenetic analysis of airborne bacteria showed that they belonged to six major phylogenetic groups: Proteobacteria (78. 8%), Firmicutes (14.6%), Actinobacteria (4.0%), Planctomycetes (1.3%), Cyanobacteria (0.7%), and Deinococcus-Thermus (0.7%). The dominant genera of airborne bacteria included Acinetobacter (39.7%), Staphylococcus (11.3%), Sphingomonas (8.6%), Paracoccus (6.0%) and Massilia (5.3%). The main types of airborne fungi were Ascomycota (97.5%) and Basidiomycota (2.5%). Dominant genera of airborne fungi included Pyrenophora (76.5%), Xylaria (13.6%) and Exophiala (2.5%). The pathogens or conditioned pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus, or Sphingomonas were detected in the airborne bacteria, whereas certain kinds of fungi, such as P. graminea, X. hypoxylon and Zasmidium angulare that could cause a variety of crop diseases were also detected. PMID:26259454

  5. NASA'S Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed (COAST): Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Dungan, J. L.; Edwards, M.; Russell, P. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Kudela, R. M.; Myers, J. S.; Livingston, J.; Lobitz, B.; Torres-Perez, J.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Coastal and Ocean Airborne Science Testbed (COAST) project advances coastal ecosystems research and ocean color calibration and validation capability by providing a unique airborne payload optimized for remote sensing in the optically complex coastal zone. The COAST instrument suite combines a customized imaging spectrometer, sunphotometer system, and a new bio-optical radiometer package to obtain ocean/coastal/atmosphere data simultaneously in flight for the first time. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue region of the spectrum to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data is accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Coastal Airborne In situ Radiometers (C-AIR, Biospherical Instruments, Inc.), developed for COAST for airborne campaigns from field-deployed microradiometer instrumentation, will provide measurements of apparent optical properties at the land/ocean boundary including optically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Ship-based measurements allowed validation of airborne measurements. Radiative transfer modeling on in-water measurements from the HyperPro and Compact-Optical Profiling System (C-OPS, the in-water companion to C-AIR) profiling systems allows for comparison of airborne and in-situ water leaving radiance measurements. Results of the October 2011 Monterey Bay COAST mission include preliminary data on coastal ocean color products, coincident spatial and temporal data on aerosol optical depth and water vapor column content, as well as derived exact water-leaving radiances.

  6. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    Airborne research management and shuttle sortie planning at the Ames Research Center are reported. Topics discussed include: basic criteria and procedures for the formulation and approval of airborne missions; ASO management structure and procedures; experiment design, development, and testing aircraft characteristics and experiment interfaces; information handling for airborne science missions; mission documentation requirements; and airborne science methods and shuttle sortie planning.

  7. Composite mapping experiences in airborne gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bucher, B

    2014-08-01

    During an international intercomparison exercise of airborne gamma spectrometry held in Switzerland 2007 teams from Germany, France and Switzerland were proving their capabilities. One of the tasks was the composite mapping of an area around Basel. Each team was mainly covering the part of its own country at its own flying procedures. They delivered the evaluated data in a data format agreed in advance. The quantities to be delivered were also defined in advance. Nevertheless, during the process to put the data together a few questions raised: Which dose rate was meant? Had the dose rate to be delivered with or without cosmic contribution? Activity per dry or wet mass? Which coordinate system was used? Finally, the data could be put together in one map. For working procedures in case of an emergency, quantities of interest and exchange data format have to be defined in advance. But the procedures have also to be proved regularly. PMID:24664949

  8. SOFIA'S Challenge: Scheduling Airborne Astronomy Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is NASA's next generation airborne astronomical observatory, and will commence operations in 2005. The facility consists of a 747-SP modified to accommodate a 2.5 meter telescope. SOFIA is expected to fly an average of 140 science flights per year over its 20 year lifetime. Depending on the nature of the instrument used during flight, 5-15 observations per flight are expected. The SOFIA telescope is mounted aft of the wings on the port side of the aircraft and is articulated through a range of 20deg to 60deg of elevation. The telescope has minimal lateral flexibility; thus, the aircraft must turn constantly to maintain the telescope's focus on an object during observations. A significant problem in future SOFIA operations is that of scheduling flights in support of observations. Investigators are expected to propose small numbers of observations, and many observations must be grouped together to make up single flights. Flight planning for the previous generation airborne observatory, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), was done by hand; planners had to choose takeoff time, observations to perform, and decide on setup-actions (called "dead-legs") to position the aircraft prior to observing. This task frequently required between 6-8 hours to plan one flight The scope of the flight planning problem for supporting GI observations with the anticipated flight rate for SOFIA makes the manual approach for flight planning daunting. In response, we have designed an Automated Flight Planner (AFP) that accepts as input a set of requested observations, designated flight days, weather predictions and fuel limitations, and searches automatically for high-quality flight plans that satisfy all relevant aircraft and astronomer specified constraints. The AFP can generate one candidate flight plan in 5-10 minutes, of computation time, a feat beyond the capabilities of human flight planners. The rate at which the AFP can

  9. The Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition - Prologue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, Richard; Plumb, Alan; Condon, Estelle

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the initial scientific results of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE), as well as data from other atmospheric experiments and analyses carried out during the Arctic polar winter of 1989. Mission objectives of the AASE were to study the mechanisms of ozone depletion and redistribution in the northern polar stratosphere, including the influences of Arctic meteorology, and polar stratospheric clouds formed at low temperatures. Some major aspects of the AASE are described including: logistics and operations, meteorology, polar stratospheric clouds, trace composition and chemistry, and ozone depletion. It is concluded that the Arctic-89 experiments have provided the scientific community with a wealth of new information that will contribute to a better understanding of the polar winter stratosphere and the critical problem of global ozone depletion.

  10. Airborne intercomparisons of carbon monoxide measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, James M., Jr.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Mcdougal, David S.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, Gerald F.; Condon, Estelle P.

    1987-01-01

    Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of carbon monoxide (CO) are discussed. The intercomparison was conducted as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment and included a laser differential absorption method and two grab sample/gas chromatograph methods. Measurements were obtained during approximately 90 flight hours, during which the CO mixing ratios ranged from about 60 to 140 ppbv. The level of agreement observed for the ensemble of measurements was well within the overall accuracy stated for each instrument. The correlation observed between the measurements from the respective pairs of instruments ranged from 0.85 to 0.98, with no evidence for the presence of either a constant or proportional bias between any of the instruments.

  11. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1954-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

  12. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1953-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totalling 5,600 traverse miles were made in ten areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for the occurrence of uraniferous phosphate deposits. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in eight of the ten areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; samples of the river pebble contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphate rock containing as much as 0.016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported to occur.

  13. Determination of airborne nanoparticles from welding operations.

    PubMed

    Gomes, João Fernando Pereira; Albuquerque, Paula Cristina Silva; Miranda, Rosa Maria Mendes; Vieira, Maria Teresa Freire

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in welding processes (tungsten inert gas [TIG], metal active gas [MAG] of carbon steel, and friction stir welding [FSW] of aluminum) in terms of deposited area in pulmonary alveolar tract using a nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM) analyzer. The obtained results showed the dependence of process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles compared to background levels. Data indicated that the process that resulted in the lowest levels of alveolar deposited surface area (ADSA) was FSW, followed by TIG and MAG. However, all tested processes resulted in significant concentrations of ultrafine particles being deposited in humans lungs of exposed workers.

  14. NASA Airborne Science Program: NASA Stratospheric Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducts a wide variety of remote sensing projects using several unique aircraft platforms. These vehicles have been selected and modified to provide capabilities that are particularly important for geophysical research, in particular, routine access to very high altitudes, long range, long endurance, precise trajectory control, and the payload capacity to operate multiple, diverse instruments concurrently. While the NASA program has been in operation for over 30 years, new aircraft and technological advances that will expand the capabilities for airborne observation are continually being assessed and implemented. This presentation will review the current state of NASA's science platforms, recent improvements and new missions concepts as well as provide a survey of emerging technologies unmanned aerial vehicles for long duration observations (Global Hawk and Predator). Applications of information technology that allow more efficient use of flight time and the ability to rapidly reconfigure systems for different mission objectives are addressed.

  15. Airborne chemistry coupled to Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Santesson, Sabina; Johansson, Jonas; Taylor, Lynne S; Levander, Ia; Fox, Shannon; Sepaniak, Michael; Nilsson, Staffan

    2003-05-01

    In this paper, the use of airborne chemistry (acoustically levitated drops) in combination with Raman spectroscopy is explored. We report herein the first Raman studies of crystallization processes in levitated drops and the first demonstration of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection in this medium. Crystallization studies on the model compounds benzamide and indomethacin resulted in the formation of two crystal modifications for each compound, suggesting that this methodology may be useful for investigation of polymorphs. SERS detection resulted in a signal enhancement of 27 000 for benzoic acid and 11 000 for rhodamine 6-G. The preliminary results presented here clearly indicate that several important applications of the combination between Raman spectroscopy and acoustic drop levitation can be expected in the future. PMID:12720359

  16. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop: Summary Minutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The general theme for the workshop revolved around global environmental change. Over 170 individuals participated in the presentations and ensuing discussions about the many agency activities using airborne platforms and sensors in support of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (GCRP). The U.S. GCRP was developed as a central component of the U.S. Government's approach to global change and its contribution to worldwide efforts. An all-encompassing U.S. plan was developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES), which continues as the interagency coordinating group for the program. The U.S. GCRP was established as a Presidential initiative in the FY90 budget, making it a particularly relevant topic for the workshop. The following are presented in the appendices: (1) final agenda and list of registrants; (2) final list of poster presenters; (3) steering group luncheon participants; (4) the draft resolution; and (5) selected handouts.

  17. Dual channel airborne hygrometer for climate research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatrai, David; Gulyas, Gabor; Bozoki, Zoltan; Szabo, Gabor

    2015-04-01

    Airborne hygrometry has an increasing role in climate research and nowadays the determination of cloud content especially of cirrus clouds is gaining high interest. The greatest challenges for such measurements are being used from ground level up to the lower stratosphere with appropriate precision and accuracy the low concentration and varying environment pressure. Such purpose instrument was probably presented first by our research group [1-2]. The development of the system called WaSUL-Hygro and some measurement results will be introduced. The measurement system is based on photoacoustic spectroscopy and contains two measuring cells, one is used to measure water vapor concentration which is typically sampled by a sideward or backward inlet, while the second one measures total water content (water vapor plus ice crystals) after evaporation in a forward facing sampler. The two measuring cells are simultaneously illuminated through with one distributed feedback diode laser (1371 or 1392 nm). Two early versions have been used within the CARIBIC project. During the recent years, efforts were made to turn the system into a more reliable and robust one [3]. The first important development was the improvement of the wavelength stabilization method of the applied laser. As a result the uncertainty of the wavelength is less than 40fm, which corresponds to less than 0.05% of PA signal uncertainty. This PA signal uncertainty is lower than the noise level of the system itself. The other main development was the improvement of the concentration determination algorithm. For this purpose several calibration and data evaluation methods were developed, the combination of the latest ones have made the system traceable to the humidity generator applied during the calibration within 1.5% relative deviation or within noise level, whichever is greater. The improved system was several times blind tested at the Environmental Simulation Facility (Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany) in

  18. Airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    1992-01-01

    Proper interpretation of airborne gravimetry and altimetry requires good knowledge of aircraft trajectory. Recent advances in precise navigation with differential GPS have made it possible to measure gravity from the air with accuracies of a few milligals, and to obtain altimeter profiles of terrain or sea surface correct to one decimeter. These developments are opening otherwise inaccessible regions to detailed geophysical mapping. Navigation with GPS presents some problems that grow worse with increasing distance from a fixed receiver: the effect of errors in tropospheric refraction correction, GPS ephemerides, and the coordinates of the fixed receivers. Ionospheric refraction and orbit error complicate ambiguity resolution. Optimal navigation should treat all error sources as unknowns, together with the instantaneous vehicle position. To do so, fast and reliable numerical techniques are needed: efficient and stable Kalman filter-smoother algorithms, together with data compression and, sometimes, the use of simplified dynamics.

  19. Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

  20. SOFIA: The future of airborne astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.; Davidson, Jacqueline A.

    1995-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the 91 cm telescope in NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) has enabled scientists to observe infrared sources which are obscured by the earth's atmosphere at ground-based sites, and to observe transient astronomical events from anywhere in the world. To augment this capability, the United States and German Space Agencies (NASA and DARA) are collaborating in plans to replace the KAO with a 2.5 meter telescope installed in a Boeing 747 aircraft: SOFIA - The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. SOFIA's large aperture, wide wavelength coverage, mobility, accessibility, and sophisticated instruments will permit a broad range of scientific studies, some of which are described here. Its unique features complement the capabilities of other future space missions. In addition, SOFIA has important potential as a stimulus for development of new technology and as a national resource for education of K-12 teachers. If started in 1996, SOFIA will be flying in the year 2000.

  1. CALIOPE and TAISIR airborne experiment platform

    SciTech Connect

    Chocol, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    Between 1950 and 1970, scientific ballooning achieved many new objectives and made a substantial contribution to understanding near-earth and space environments. In 1986, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began development of ballooning technology capable of addressing issues associated with precision tracking of ballistic missiles. In 1993, the Radar Ocean Imaging Project identified the need for a low altitude (1 km) airborne platform for its Radar system. These two technologies and experience base have been merged with the acquisition of government surplus Aerostats by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The CALIOPE and TAISIR Programs can benefit directly from this technology by using the Aerostat as an experiment platform for measurements of the spill facility at NTS.

  2. Determination of airborne nanoparticles from welding operations.

    PubMed

    Gomes, João Fernando Pereira; Albuquerque, Paula Cristina Silva; Miranda, Rosa Maria Mendes; Vieira, Maria Teresa Freire

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in welding processes (tungsten inert gas [TIG], metal active gas [MAG] of carbon steel, and friction stir welding [FSW] of aluminum) in terms of deposited area in pulmonary alveolar tract using a nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM) analyzer. The obtained results showed the dependence of process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles compared to background levels. Data indicated that the process that resulted in the lowest levels of alveolar deposited surface area (ADSA) was FSW, followed by TIG and MAG. However, all tested processes resulted in significant concentrations of ultrafine particles being deposited in humans lungs of exposed workers. PMID:22788362

  3. CARABAS - an airborne VHF SAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, B.; Frolined, P.O.; Gustavsson, A.

    1996-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in imaging radar systems operating at low frequencies, Examples of civilian and military applications are detection of stealth-designed man-made objects, targets hidden under foliage, biomass estimation, and penetration into glaciers or ground. CARABAS (Coherent All Radio Band Sensing) is a new airborne SAR system developed by FOA. It is designed for operation in the lowest part of the VHF band (20-90 NHz), using horizontal polarisation. This frequency region gives the system a good ability to penetrate vegetation and to some extent ground. CARABAS is the first known SAR sensor with a capability of diffraction limited imaging, i.e. a resolution in magnitude of the adopted wavelengths. A Sabreliner business jet aircraft is used as the airborne platform. Critical parts in the development have been the antenna system, the receiver and the processing algorithms. Based upon the experiences gained with CARABAS I a major system upgrade is now taking place. The new CARABAS II system is scheduled to fly in May 1996. This system is designed to give operational performance while CARABAS I was used to verify the feasibility. The first major field campaigns are planned for the second half of 1996. CARABAS II is jointly developed by FOA and Ericsson Microwave Systems AB in Sweden. This paper will give an overview of the system design and data collected with the current radar system, including some results for forested regions. The achieved system performance will be discussed, with a presentation of the major modifications made in the new CARABAS 11 system. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Rapid approximate inversion of airborne TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullagar, Peter K.; Pears, Glenn A.; Reid, James E.; Schaa, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    Rapid interpretation of large airborne transient electromagnetic (ATEM) datasets is highly desirable for timely decision-making in exploration. Full solution 3D inversion of entire airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys is often still not feasible on current day PCs. Therefore, two algorithms to perform rapid approximate 3D interpretation of AEM have been developed. The loss of rigour may be of little consequence if the objective of the AEM survey is regional reconnaissance. Data coverage is often quasi-2D rather than truly 3D in such cases, belying the need for `exact' 3D inversion. Incorporation of geological constraints reduces the non-uniqueness of 3D AEM inversion. Integrated interpretation can be achieved most readily when inversion is applied to a geological model, attributed with lithology as well as conductivity. Geological models also offer several practical advantages over pure property models during inversion. In particular, they permit adjustment of geological boundaries. In addition, optimal conductivities can be determined for homogeneous units. Both algorithms described here can operate on geological models; however, they can also perform `unconstrained' inversion if the geological context is unknown. VPem1D performs 1D inversion at each ATEM data location above a 3D model. Interpretation of cover thickness is a natural application; this is illustrated via application to Spectrem data from central Australia. VPem3D performs 3D inversion on time-integrated (resistive limit) data. Conversion to resistive limits delivers a massive increase in speed since the TEM inverse problem reduces to a quasi-magnetic problem. The time evolution of the decay is lost during the conversion, but the information can be largely recovered by constructing a starting model from conductivity depth images (CDIs) or 1D inversions combined with geological constraints if available. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated on Spectrem data from Brazil. Both separately and in

  5. Identifying Airborne Pathogens in Time to Respond

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-25

    Among the possible terrorist activities that might threaten national security is the release of an airborne pathogen such as anthrax. Because the potential damage to human health could be severe, experts consider 1 minute to be an operationally useful time limit for identifying the pathogen and taking action. Many commercial systems can identify airborne pathogenic microbes, but they take days or, at best, hours to produce results. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other U.S. government agencies are interested in finding a faster approach. To answer this national need, a Livermore team, led by scientist Eric Gard, has developed the bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) system--the only instrument that can detect and identify spores at low concentrations in less than 1 minute. BAMS can successfully distinguish between two related but different spore species. It can also sort out a single spore from thousands of other particles--biological and nonbiological--with no false positives. The BAMS team won a 2005 R&D 100 Award for developing the system. Livermore's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program funded the biomedical aspects of the BAMS project, and the Department of Defense's Technical Support Working Group and Defense Advanced Research Project Agency funded the biodefense efforts. Developing a detection system that can analyze small samples so quickly has been challenging. Livermore engineer Vincent Riot, who worked on the BAMS project, explains, ''A typical spore weighs approximately one-trillionth of a gram and is dispersed in the atmosphere, which contains naturally occurring particles that could be present at concentrations thousands of times higher. Previous systems also had difficulty separating benign organisms from those that are pathogenic but very similar, which has resulted in false alarms''.

  6. Exposure to airborne asbestos in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.J.; Van Orden, D.R.; Corn, M.; Crump, K.S. )

    1992-08-01

    The concentration of airborne asbestos in buildings and its implication for the health of building occupants is a major public health issue. A total of 2892 air samples from 315 public, commercial, residential, school, and university buildings has been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The buildings that were surveyed were the subject of litigation related to suits alleging the general building occupants were exposed to a potential health hazard as a result of exposure to the presence of asbestos containing materials (ACM). The average concentration of all asbestos structures was 0.02 structures/ml (s/ml) and the average concentration of asbestos greater than or equal to 5 microns long was 0.00013 fibers/ml (f/ml). The concentration of asbestos was higher in schools than in other buildings. In 48% of indoor samples and 75% of outdoor samples, no asbestos fibers were detected. The observed airborne concentration in 74% of the indoor samples and 96% of the outdoor samples is below the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act clearance level of 0.01 s/ml. Finally, using those fibers which could be seen optically, all indoor samples and all outdoor samples are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level of 0.1 f/ml for fibers greater than or equal to 5 microns in length. These results provide substantive verification of the findings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency public building study which found very low ambient concentrations of asbestos fibers in buildings with ACM, irrespective of the condition of the material in the buildings.

  7. Application of Two-Phase CFD to the Design and Analysis of a Subscale Motor Experiment to Evaluate Propellant Slag Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitesides, R. Harold; Dill, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    The redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) Pressure Perturbation Investigation Team concluded that the cause of recent pressure spikes during both static and flight motor burns was the expulsion of molten aluminum oxide slag from a pool which collects in the aft end of the motor around the submerged nozzle nose during the last half of motor operation. It is suspected that some motors produce more slag than others due to differences in aluminum oxide agglomerate particle sizes which may relate to subtle differences in propellant ingredient characteristics such as particle size distribution, contaminants, or processing variations. In order to determine the effect of suspect propellant ingredient characteristics on the propensity for slag production in a real motor environment, a subscale motor experiment was designed. An existing 5 inch ballistic test motor was selected as the basic test vehicle due to low cost and quick turn around times. The standard converging/diverging nozzle was replaced with a submerged nozzle nose design to provide a positive trap for the slag which would increase both the quantity and repeatability of measured slag weights. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to assess a variety of submerged nose configurations to identify the design which possessed the best capability to reliably collect slag. CFD also was used to assure that the final selected nozzle design would result in flow field characteristics such as dividing streamline location, nose attach point, and separated flow structure which would have similtude with the RSRM submerged nozzle nose flow field. It also was decided to spin the 5 inch motor about its longitudinal axis to further enhance slag collection quantities. Again, CFD was used to select an appropriate spin rate along with other considerations, including the avoidance of burn rate enhancement from radial acceleration effects.

  8. Test results of a Nb3Al/Nb3Sn subscale magnet for accelerator application

    SciTech Connect

    Iio, Masami; Xu, Qingjin; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Sasaki, Ken -ichi; Ogitsu, Toru; Yamamoto, Akira; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Sugano, Michinaka; Enomoto, Shun; Higashi, Norio; Terashima, Akio; Tanaka, Kenichi; Okada, Ryutaro; Takahashi, Naoto; Ikemoto, Yukiko; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Takeuchi, Takao; Sabbi, Gianluca; Zlobin, Alexander; Barzi, Emanuela

    2015-01-28

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) has been developing a Nb3Al and Nb3Sn subscale magnet to establish the technology for a high-field accelerator magnet. The development goals are a feasibility demonstration for a Nb3Al cable and the technology acquisition of magnet fabrication with Nb3Al superconductors. KEK developed two double-pancake racetrack coils with Rutherford-type cables composed of 28 Nb3Al wires processed by rapid heating, quenching, and transformation in collaboration with the National Institute for Materials Science and the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The magnet was fabricated to efficiently generate a high magnetic field in a minimum-gap common-coil configuration with two Nb3Al coils sandwiched between two Nb3Sn coils produced by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A shell-based structure and a “bladder and key” technique have been used for adjusting coil prestress during both the magnet assembly and the cool down. In the first excitation test of the magnet at 4.5 K performed in June 2014, the highest quench current of the Nb3Sn coil, i.e., 9667 A, was reached at 40 A/s corresponding to 9.0 T in the Nb3Sn coil and 8.2 T in the Nb3Al coil. The quench characteristics of the magnet were studied.

  9. Apparatus and method for automated monitoring of airborne bacterial spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponce, Adrian (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus and method for automated monitoring of airborne bacterial spores. The apparatus is provided with an air sampler, a surface for capturing airborne spores, a thermal lysis unit to release DPA from bacterial spores, a source of lanthanide ions, and a spectrometer for excitation and detection of the characteristic fluorescence of the aromatic molecules in bacterial spores complexed with lanthanide ions. In accordance with the method: computer-programmed steps allow for automation of the apparatus for the monitoring of airborne bacterial spores.

  10. An approach to evaluating reactive airborne wind shear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Joseph P., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An approach to evaluating reactive airborne windshear detection systems was developed to support a deployment study for future FAA ground-based windshear detection systems. The deployment study methodology assesses potential future safety enhancements beyond planned capabilities. The reactive airborne systems will be an integral part of planned windshear safety enhancements. The approach to evaluating reactive airborne systems involves separate analyses for both landing and take-off scenario. The analysis estimates the probability of effective warning considering several factors including NASA energy height loss characteristics, reactive alert timing, and a probability distribution for microburst strength.

  11. NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Instrument Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, David B.; Cook, Anthony; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John W.; Mack, Terry L.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) recently developed the LaRC Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to make measurements of aerosol and cloud distribution and optical properties. The Airborne HSRL has undergone as series of test flights and was successfully deployed on the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field mission in March 2006 (see Hair et al. in these proceedings). This paper provides an overview of the design of the Airborne HSRL and descriptions of some key subsystems unique to this instrument.

  12. AIRBORNE CONTACT DERMATITIS – CURRENT PERSPECTIVES IN ETIOPATHOGENESIS AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Sanjeev; De, Dipankar; Mahajan, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    The increasing recognition of occupational origin of airborne contact dermatitis has brought the focus on the variety of irritants, which can present with this typical morphological picture. At the same time, airborne allergic contact dermatitis secondary to plant antigens, especially to Compositae family, continues to be rampant in many parts of the world, especially in the Indian subcontinent. The recognition of the contactant may be difficult to ascertain and the treatment may be even more difficult. The present review focuses on the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic issues in airborne contact dermatitis. PMID:22345774

  13. Exploring Liquid Water Beneath Glaciers and Permafrost in Antarctica Through Airborne Electromagnetic Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auken, E.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Foley, N.; Dugan, H.; Schamper, C.; Peter, D.; Virginia, R. A.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Here, we demonstrate how high powered airborne electromagnetic resistivity is efficiently used to map 3D domains of unfrozen water below glaciers and permafrost in the cold regions of the Earth. Exploration in these parts of the world has typically been conducted using radar methods, either ground-based or from an airborne platform. Radar is an excellent method if the penetrated material has a low electrical conductivity, but in materials with higher conductivity, such as sediments with liquid water, the energy is attenuated . Such cases are efficiently explored with electromagnetic methods, which attenuate less quickly in conductive media and can therefore 'see through' conductors and return valuable information about their electrical properties. In 2011, we used a helicopter-borne, time-domain electromagnetic sensor to map resistivity in the subsurface across the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV). The MDV are a polar desert in coastal Antarctica where glaciers, permafrost, ice-covered lakes, and ephemeral summer streams coexist. In polar environments, this airborne electromagnetic system excels at finding subsurface liquid water, as water which remains liquid under cold conditions must be sufficiently saline, and therefore electrically conductive. In Taylor Valley, in the MDV, our data show extensive subsurface low resistivity layers beneath higher resistivity layers, which we interpret as cryoconcentrated hypersaline brines lying beneath glaciers and frozen permafrost. These brines appear to be contiguous with surface lakes, subglacial regions, and the Ross Sea, which could indicate a regional hydrogeologic system wherein solutes may be transported between surface reservoirs by ionic diffusion and subsurface flow. The system as of 2011 had a maximum exploration depth of about 300 m. However, newer and more powerful airborne systems can explore to a depth of 500 - 600 m and new ground based instruments will get to 1000 m. This is sufficient to penetrate to the base of

  14. The hydrological assessment of aerosol effects by the idealized airborne cloud seeding experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Lee, B.; Chae, S.; Lee, C.; Choi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The main source of aerosols over East Asia including the Korean Peninsula is the anthropogenic emission of atmospheric pollutants transported from Chinese industrial areas. For this reason, the researches of aerosol effects are very active in East Asian countries. In case of South Korea, aircraft measurement campaigns and airborne cloud seeding experiments for the meteorological and environmental research have been conducted over the local area of Korean Peninsula since the year of 2010. This project is related with the weather modification research to build up strategies for the regulation or enhancement of precipitation and snowpack for a severe drought in South Korea during a winter season. For this study, the aerosol effect on precipitation by the airborne cloud seeding was simulated using WRF-CHEM model with RADM2/MADE,SORGAM modules. Emission data of 10000μg/(m2s) of unspeciated primary PM2.5 were input at 0.5km altitude for aerosol scenario cases which is the height of airborne cloud seeding experiment. For the control run, the original WRF model with no chemistry/aerosol modules was used. Also, the hydrological model, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, USDA/ARS) is incorporated to evaluate this aerosol effects hydrologically for the enhancement of precipitation or snowfall from the results of WRF-CHEM model. The target area is the Andong dam basin (1,584 km2) which is known as one of the important water resources in southern part of South Korea. The date was chosen based on the conditions of airborne cloud seeding experiment (RH>50%, Low Temp.<-3°C, Wind Speeds<5m/s, etc). During the 24 forecasting hour, the aerosol scenario case showed more amounts of accumulated precipitation (about 12%) than those of control run. According to the analysis of SWAT, the enhancement of precipitation in aerosol scenario cases of WRF-CHEM model could influence the increase of about 1.0×106m3 water resources when we assumed the 10% of effective area over the Andong dam

  15. Bats Increase the Number of Cultivable Airborne Fungi in the "Nietoperek" Bat Reserve in Western Poland.

    PubMed

    Kokurewicz, Tomasz; Ogórek, Rafał; Pusz, Wojciech; Matkowski, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    The "Nietoperek" bat reserve located in Western Poland is one of the largest bat hibernation sites in the European Union with nearly 38,000 bats from 12 species. Nietoperek is part of a built underground fortification system from WWII. The aims of the study were (1) to determine the fungal species composition and changes during hibernation season in relation to bat number and microclimatic conditions and (2) evaluate the potential threat of fungi for bat assemblages and humans visiting the complex. Airborne fungi were collected in the beginning, middle and end of hibernation period (9 November 2013 and 17 January and 15 March 2014) in 12 study sites, one outside and 11 inside the complex. Ambient temperature (T a) and relative humidity (RH) were measured by the use of data loggers, and species composition of bats was recorded from the study sites. The collision method (Air Ideal 3P) sampler was used to detect 34 species of airborne fungi including Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). The density of airborne fungi isolated from the outdoor air samples varied from 102 to 242 CFU/1 m(3) of air and from 12 to 1198 CFU in the underground air samples. There was a positive relationship between number of bats and the concentration of fungi. The concentration of airborne fungi increased with the increase of bats number. Analysis of other possible ways of spore transport to the underground indicated that the number of bats was the primary factor determining the number of fungal spores in that hibernation site. Microclimatic conditions where Pd was found (median 8.7 °C, min-max 6.1-9.9 °C and 100 %, min-max 77.5-100.0 %) were preferred by hibernating Myotis myotis and Myotis daubentonii; therefore, these species are most probably especially prone to infection by this fungi species. The spores of fungi found in the underground can be pathogenic for humans and animals, especially for immunocompromised persons, even though their concentrations did not exceed limits and

  16. Changes in airborne fungi from the outdoors to indoor air; large HVAC systems in nonproblem buildings in two different climates.

    PubMed

    Kemp, P C; Neumeister-Kemp, H G; Esposito, B; Lysek, G; Murray, F

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the changes in occurrence and distribution of airborne fungi as they are transported in the airstream from the outdoor air through the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system to the indoor air. To better understand this, airborne fungi were analyzed in the HVAC systems of two large office buildings in different climate zones. Fungal samples were taken in each of the walk-in chambers of the HVAC systems using a six-stage Andersen Sampler with malt extract agar. Results showed that fungal species changed with different locations in the HVAC systems. The outdoor air intake produced the greatest filtration effect for both the counts and species of outdoor air fungi. The colony forming unit (CFU) counts and species diversity was further reduced in the air directly after the filters. The cooling coils also had a substantial filtration effect. However, in room air the CFU counts were double and the mixture of fungal species was different from the air leaving the HVAC system at the supply air outlet in most locations. Diffusion of outdoor air fungi to the indoors did not explain the changes in the mixture of airborne fungi from the outdoor air to the indoor air, and some of the fungi present in the indoor air did not appear to be transported indoors by the HVAC systems.

  17. Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop. Volume 2; AIRSAR Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yun-Jin (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, held in Pasadena, California, on March 4-8, 1996, was divided into two smaller workshops:(1) The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) workshop, and The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop. This current paper, Volume 2 of the Summaries of the Sixth Annual JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop, presents the summaries for The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) workshop.

  18. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. Assessment of lightweight mobile nuclear power systems. [for airborne vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Rom, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    A review was made of lightweight mobile nuclear power systems (LMNPS). Data cover technical feasibility studies of LMNPS and airborne vehicles, mission studies, and non-technical conditions that are required to develop and use LMNPS.

  20. NASA’s Sense of Snow: the Airborne Snow Observatory

    NASA Video Gallery

    Water is a critical resource in the western U.S. NASA’s Airborne Snow Observatory is giving California water agencies the first complete measurements of the water available in the Sierra snowpack ...

  1. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Station, Northeast of AGE Storage Facility at far northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. Exploratory Meeting on Airborne Doppler Lidar Wind Velocity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, G. H. (Editor); Kaufman, J. W. (Editor); Vaughan, W. W. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The scientific interests and applications of the Airborne Doppler Lidar Wind Velocity Measurement System to severe storms and local weather are discussed. The main areas include convective phenomena, local circulation, atmospheric boundary layer, atmospheric dispersion, and industrial aerodynamics.

  3. The Western Airborne Contaminant Assessment Project (WACAP): An interdisciplinary evaluation of the impacts of airborne contaminants in Western U.S. National Parks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) was initiated in 2002 by the National Park Service to determine if airborne contaminants were having an impact on remote western ecosystems. Multiple sample media (snow, water, sediment, fish and terrestrial vegetation...

  4. The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX):High-Altitude Aircraft Measurements in the Tropical Western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, E. J.; Pfister, L.; Jordan, D. E.; Bui, T. V.; Ueyama, R.; Singh, H. B.; Lawson, P.; Thornberry, T.; Diskin, G.; McGill, M.; Pittman, J.; Atlas, E.; Kim, J.

    2016-01-01

    The February through March 2014 deployment of the NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) provided unique in situ measurements in the western Pacific Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). Six flights were conducted from Guam with the long-range, high-altitude, unmanned Global Hawk aircraft. The ATTREX Global Hawk payload provided measurements of water vapor, meteorological conditions, cloud properties, tracer and chemical radical concentrations, and radiative fluxes. The campaign was partially coincident with the CONTRAST and CAST airborne campaigns based in Guam using lower-altitude aircraft The ATTREX dataset is being used for investigations of TTL cloud, transport, dynamical, and chemical processes as well as for evaluation and improvement of global-model representations of TTL processes.

  5. Modeling Airborne Gravimetry with High-Degree Harmonic Expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Simon; Wang, Yan Ming; Roman, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Since its official unveiling at the 2008 General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union, EGM2008 has demonstrated that high-degree harmonic expansions constitute a useful and effective final representation for high-resolution global gravitational models. However, such expansions also provide a versatile means of capturing (modeling), inter-comparing, and optimally combining local and regional high-resolution terrestrial data sets of different types. Here we present a general recipe for using high-degree expansions to capture, downward-continue and assimilate airborne survey data. This approach relies on the production of two ‘competing' high-degree expansions. A first, ‘terrestrial-only' expansion incorporates EGM2008 globally, and high-resolution terrestrial gravimetry regionally. This expansion can be used to upward-continue the regional terrestrial data to the flight level of the airborne survey, such that the terrestrial gravimetry outside the survey area can be merged with the airborne data inside the survey area, all at flight level. Harmonic analysis of this merged data set, also at flight level, yields a second ‘airborne-augmented' expansion, which closely matches the ‘terrestrial-only' expansion outside the survey area, but which also closely reproduces the airborne survey data inside the survey area. Capturing the airborne and terrestrial data in this way means that downward-continuation of the airborne data, as well as spectral/spatial comparison (and ultimate combination) of the airborne data with the terrestrial (and satellite) data, can all be achieved through spherical- and ellipsoidal-harmonic synthesis of these two competing expansions, and their spectral combination. This general approach is illustrated with a worked example.

  6. User definition and mission requirements for unmanned airborne platforms, revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhner, M. B.; Mcdowell, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The airborne measurement requirements of the scientific and applications experiment user community were assessed with respect to the suitability of proposed strawman airborne platforms. These platforms provide a spectrum of measurement capabilities supporting associated mission tradeoffs such as payload weight, operating altitude, range, duration, flight profile control, deployment flexibility, quick response, and recoverability. The results of the survey are used to examine whether the development of platforms is warranted and to determine platform system requirements as well as research and technology needs.

  7. Soil moisture mapping by ground and airborne microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, G.; Edgerton, A. T.

    1972-01-01

    Extensive ground-based and airborne investigations were undertaken in conjunction with laboratory dielectric measurements of soils and analytical modeling. Radiometric measurements were made in the vicinity of Phoenix, Arizona at observational wavelengths ranging from 0.81 to 21 cm. Ground experiments were conducted with a microwave field laboratory and airborne measurements were obtained from a CV-990 aircraft. Research activities were focused on establishing basic relationships between microwave emission and the distribution of moisture.

  8. Proceedings of the 11th JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.

    2002-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the JPL Airborne Earth Science Workshop forum held to report science research and applications results with spectral images measured by the NASA Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). These papers were presented at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory from March 5-8, 2001. Electronic versions of these papers may be found at the A VIRIS Web http://popo.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/docs/workshops/aviris.proceedings.html

  9. Movement of airborne contaminants in a hospital isolation room

    PubMed Central

    Eames, I.; Shoaib, D.; Klettner, C. A.; Taban, V.

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the characteristics of a force-ventilated isolation room, and the contributions to transport caused by the movement of people and doors opening/closing. The spread of fine droplets and particles can be understood, to leading order, by considering the movement of passive contaminants. A scaled (1:10) model of an isolation room (with water instead of air) was used to analyse the dilution of a passive contaminant (food dye), released either instantaneously or at a constant rate. The high level of turbulence, typical of isolation rooms, ensures that the dye concentration is uniform within the model room and mixing is perfect, and the measured mean concentration can be predicted theoretically. In a second series of experiments, the exchange generated by a door opening/closing is measured for different opening angles. A dipolar vortex is generated at the tip of the door which moves into the centre of the room, with a large coherent structure moving along the wall. The exchange volume is comparable to the swept volume of the door. Larger droplets and particles do not move passively. Their movement within a turbulent flow is studied by combining a Lagrangian model of particle movement with a kinematic simulation of a pseudo turbulent flow. The results show that while the mean fall velocity of particles is largely unchanged, turbulence significantly enhances horizontal and vertical dispersion. The horizontal spread as a function of the level of turbulence and droplet properties is estimated. The conclusions from both studies are brought together and discussed in the context of the airborne spread of contaminants within a general hospital room. PMID:19815576

  10. Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Ren, X.; Brune, W. H.; Olson, J. R.; Crawford, J. H.; Fried, A.; Huey, L. G.; Cohen, R. C.; Heikes, B.; Singh, H. B.; Blake, D. R.; Sachse, G. W.; Diskin, G. S.; Hall, S. R.; Shetter, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of OH reactivity, the inverse of the OH lifetime, provides a powerful tool to investigate atmospheric photochemistry. A new airborne OH reactivity instrument was designed and deployed for the first time on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the second phase of Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B (INTEX-B) campaign, which was focused on the Asian pollution outflow over Pacific Ocean and was based in Hawaii and Alaska. The OH reactivity was measured by adding OH, generated by photolyzing water vapor with 185 nm UV light in a moveable wand, to the flow of ambient air in a flow tube and measuring the OH signal with laser induced fluorescence. As the wand was pulled back away from the OH detector, the OH signal decay was recorded; the slope of -Δln(signal)/Δ time was the OH reactivity. The overall absolute uncertainty at the 2σ confidence levels is about 1 s-1 at low altitudes (for decay about 6 s-1), and 0.7 s-1 at high altitudes (for decay about 2 s-1). From the median vertical profile obtained in the second phase of INTEX-B, the measured OH reactivity (4.0±1.0 s-1) is higher than the OH reactivity calculated from assuming that OH was in steady state (3.3±0.8 s-1), and even higher than the OH reactivity that was calculated from the total measurements of all OH reactants (1.6±0.4 s-1). Model calculations show that the missing OH reactivity is consistent with the over-predicted OH and under-predicted HCHO in the boundary layer and lower troposphere. The over-predicted OH and under-predicted HCHO suggest that the missing OH sinks are most likely related to some highly reactive VOCs that have HCHO as an oxidation product.

  11. Performance of Airborne Precision Spacing Under Realistic Wind Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Frederick; Santos, Michel; Krueger, William; Houston, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    With the expected worldwide increase of air traffic during the coming decade, both the Federal Aviation Administration s (FAA s) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as well as Eurocontrol s Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program have, as part of their plans, air traffic management solutions that can increase performance without requiring time-consuming and expensive infrastructure changes. One such solution involves the ability of both controllers and flight crews to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater accuracy than is possible today. Previous research has shown that time-based spacing techniques, wherein the controller assigns a time spacing to each pair of arriving aircraft, is one way to achieve this goal by providing greater runway delivery accuracy that produces a concomitant increase in system-wide performance. The research described herein focuses on a specific application of time-based spacing, called Airborne Precision Spacing (APS), which has evolved over the past ten years. This research furthers APS understanding by studying its performance with realistic wind conditions obtained from atmospheric sounding data and with realistic wind forecasts obtained from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) short-range weather forecast. In addition, this study investigates APS performance with limited surveillance range, as provided by the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system, and with an algorithm designed to improve APS performance when an ADS-B signal is unavailable. The results presented herein quantify the runway threshold delivery accuracy of APS un-der these conditions, and also quantify resulting workload metrics such as the number of speed changes required to maintain spacing.

  12. Risk-Based Causal Modeling of Airborne Loss of Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geuther, Steven C.; Shih, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining safe separation between aircraft remains one of the key aviation challenges as the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) emerges. The goals of the NextGen are to increase capacity and reduce flight delays to meet the aviation demand growth through the 2025 time frame while maintaining safety and efficiency. The envisioned NextGen is expected to enable high air traffic density, diverse fleet operations in the airspace, and a decrease in separation distance. All of these factors contribute to the potential for Loss of Separation (LOS) between aircraft. LOS is a precursor to a potential mid-air collision (MAC). The NASA Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) is committed to developing aircraft separation assurance concepts and technologies to mitigate LOS instances, therefore, preventing MAC. This paper focuses on the analysis of causal and contributing factors of LOS accidents and incidents leading to MAC occurrences. Mid-air collisions among large commercial aircraft are rare in the past decade, therefore, the LOS instances in this study are for general aviation using visual flight rules in the years 2000-2010. The study includes the investigation of causal paths leading to LOS, and the development of the Airborne Loss of Separation Analysis Model (ALOSAM) using Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) to capture the multi-dependent relations of causal factors. The ALOSAM is currently a qualitative model, although further development could lead to a quantitative model. ALOSAM could then be used to perform impact analysis of concepts and technologies in the AOSP portfolio on the reduction of LOS risk.

  13. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some remote-sensing applications require advanced airborne multi-sensor systems to provide high performance reflective and emissive spectral imaging measurement rapidly over large areas. The key or unique problem of characteristics is associated with a black box back-end system that operates a suite of cutting-edge imaging sensors to collect simultaneously the high throughput reflective and emissive spectral imaging data with precision georeference. This back-end system needs to be portable, easy-to-use, and reliable with advanced onboard processing. The innovation of the black box backend is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS integrates a complex embedded system of systems with dedicated power and signal electronic circuits inside to serve a suite of configurable cutting-edge electro- optical (EO), long-wave infrared (LWIR), and medium-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras, a hyperspectral imaging scanner, and a GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for atmospheric and surface remote sensing. Its compatible sensor packages include NASA s 1,024 1,024 pixel LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) imager; a 60.5 megapixel BuckEye EO camera; and a fast (e.g. 200+ scanlines/s) and wide swath-width (e.g., 1,920+ pixels) CCD/InGaAs imager-based visible/near infrared reflectance (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer. MAICSS records continuous precision georeferenced and time-tagged multisensor throughputs to mass storage devices at a high aggregate rate, typically 60 MB/s for its LWIR/EO payload. MAICSS is a complete stand-alone imaging server instrument with an easy-to-use software package for either autonomous data collection or interactive airborne operation. Advanced multisensor data acquisition and onboard processing software features have been implemented for MAICSS. With the onboard processing for real time image development, correction, histogram-equalization, compression, georeference, and

  14. An assessment of the airborne route in hepatitis B transmission.

    PubMed

    Petersen, N J

    1980-01-01

    The experimental and epidemiologic evidence for airborne transmission of hepatitis B is inconclusive and our efforts to detect airborne HBsAg or blood in environments where hepatitis B transmission occurs have been uniformly unsuccessful. In the specific areas investigated: dialysis centers, laboratories, and dental operatories, other major routes of transmission that can explain the spread of hepatitis B invariably are present. Therefore, while airborne taansmission is theoretically possible and probably has occurred, at this time its contribution to the overfall hepatitis B problem cannot be quantitated. we fell comfortable in concluding that airborne HBV does not play a major role in hepatitis B transmission and that true airborne infections are probably rare. Because of the fine line airborne transmission from contract transmission via droplets, we feel it important to emphasize the need to take those precautions that protect against the latter. These include the use of gloves where surfaces become contaminated and masks and glasses to protect the eyes, nose and mouth where the possibility of spatter exists.

  15. Geoid determination by airborne gravimetry - principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, R.; Olesen, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    The operational development of long-range airborne gravimetry has meant that large areas can be covered in a short time frame with high-quality medium-wavelength gravity field data, perfectly matching the needs of geoid determination. Geoid from a combination of surface, airborne and satellite data not only is able to cover the remaining large data voids on the earth, notably Antarctica and tropical jungle regions, but also provide seamless coverage across the coastal zone, and tie in older marine and land gravity data. Airborne gravity can therefore provide essential data for GPS applications both on land and at sea, e.g. for marine construction projects such as bridges, wind mill farms etc. Current operational accuracies with the DTU-Space/UiB airborne system are in the 1-2 mGal range, which translates into geoid accuracies of 5-10 cm, dependent on track spacing. In the paper we will outline the current accuracy of airborne gravity and geoid determination, and show examples from recent international airborne gravity campaigns, aimed at either providing national survey infrastructure, or scientific applications for e.g. oceanography or sea-ice thickness determination.

  16. Potential of Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy at Czechglobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuš, J.; Fabiánek, T.; Fajmon, L.

    2016-06-01

    Ecosystems, their services, structures and functions are affected by complex environmental processes, which are both natural and human-induced and globally changing. In order to understand how ecosystems behave in globally changing environment, it is important to monitor the current status of ecosystems and their structural and functional changes in time and space. An essential tool allowing monitoring of ecosystems is remote sensing (RS). Many ecosystems variables are being translated into a spectral response recorded by RS instruments. It is however important to understand the complexity and synergies of the key ecosystem variables influencing the reflected signal. This can be achieved by analysing high resolution RS data from multiple sources acquired simultaneously from the same platform. Such a system has been recently built at CzechGlobe - Global Change Research Institute (The Czech Academy of Sciences). CzechGlobe has been significantly extending its research infrastructure in the last years, which allows advanced monitoring of ecosystem changes at hierarchical levels spanning from molecules to entire ecosystems. One of the CzechGlobe components is a laboratory of imaging spectroscopy. The laboratory is now operating a new platform for advanced remote sensing observations called FLIS (Flying Laboratory of Imaging Spectroscopy). FLIS consists of an airborne carrier equipped with passive RS systems. The core instrument of FLIS is a hyperspectral imaging system provided by Itres Ltd. The hyperspectral system consists of three spectroradiometers (CASI 1500, SASI 600 and TASI 600) that cover the reflective spectral range from 380 to 2450 nm, as well as the thermal range from 8 to 11.5 μm. The airborne platform is prepared for mounting of full-waveform laser scanner Riegl-Q780 as well, however a laser scanner is not a permanent part of FLIS. In 2014 the installation of the hyperspectral scanners was completed and the first flights were carried out with all

  17. Locating spilled oil with airborne laser fluorosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.; Nelson, Robert D.; Mullin, Joseph V.

    1999-02-01

    Locating oil in marine and terrestrial environments is a daunting task. There are commercially available off the shelf (COTS) sensors with a wide field-of-view (FOV) which can be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These generic sensors, however, lack the specificity required to positively identify oil and related products. The problem is exacerbated along beach and shoreline environments where a variety of organic and inorganic substrates are present. One sensor that can detect and classify oil in these environments is the laser fluorosensor. Laser fluorosensors have been under development by several agencies around the world for the past two decades. Environment Canada has been involved with laser fluorosensor development since the early 1990s. The prototype system was known as the Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (LEAF). The LEAF has recently been modified to provide real-time oil spill detection and classification. Fluorescence spectra are collected and analyzed at the rate of 100 Hz. Geo-referenced maps showing the locations of oil contamination are produced in real-time onboard the aircraft. While the LEAF has proven to be an excellent prototype sensor and a good operational tool, it has some deficiencies when it comes to oil spill response operations. A consortium including Environment Canada and the Minerals Management Service has recently funded the development of a new fluorosensor, called the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF). The SLEAF was designed to detect and map oil in shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. Oil tends to pile up in narrow bands along the high tide line on beaches. A nadir-looking, small footprint sensor such as the LEAF would have difficulty locating oil in this situation. The SLEAF employs a pair of conical scanning mirrors to direct the laser beam in a circular pattern below the aircraft. With a sampling rate of 400 Hz and real-time spectral analysis

  18. The Origin And Spread Of Airborne Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson-Begg, S. K.; Moffett, B. F.

    2009-12-01

    wind speed and direction, marine organisms would have been airborne for at least 16 hours in the Thursley sample and for at least 4 hours in the East London sample. The origin and spread of airborne organisms warrants further investigation.

  19. The Development of Airborne Data for Assessing Models (ADAM) - A central repository of airborne field campaign data archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Kleb, M. M.; Aknan, A. A.; Brown, C. C.; Mangosing, D. C.; Thornhill, A.; Rinsland, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    NASA, NOAA, and NSF have conducted over 30 airborne campaigns during the past three decades aimed at gaining an understanding of the tropospheric chemical and physical processes related to climate change and air-quality issues. In recent years, the scientific value of this accumulated airborne data has been increasingly recognized for use in satellite validation and model assessment and evaluation activities. In addition to the high spatial-temporal resolutions, the airborne data, especially from the more recent studies, offers a comprehensive view of the atmosphere through a large suite of the simultaneously observed atmospheric species/parameters, ranging from photochemical precursors to products as well as particle chemical, microphysical, and optical properties. To better facilitate the model assessment and evaluation activities, we are actively engaged in the development of a web-based central airborne data archive: ADAM (Airborne Data for Assessing Models). This effort is sponsored by the NASA MEaSUREs program and is intended to archive data from tropospheric chemistry airborne field campaign since the 1980s. The principal design philosophy of the ADAM web site is to provide an intuitive user interface that allows users to browse, visualize, subset (both spatially and temporally), merge, and download the airborne data, as well as providing adequate metadata associated with the data archive. A working version of the web site which shows the ADAM user interface and functionalities will be presented. Also presented are conventions to establish common names for the atmospheric variables which are often observed during airborne campaigns as well as the approaches to handle missing data and limit of detections. This presentation is intended to serve the purpose of getting feedback from the broad atmospheric community, including both modelers and measurement experts.

  20. Airborne pipeline leak detection: UV or IR?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, François; Gravel, Jean-François; Allard, Martin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a study of different approaches to the measurement of the above ground vapor plume created by the spill caused by a small 0.1 l/min (or less) leak in an underground liquid petroleum pipeline. The scenarios are those for the measurement from an airborne platform. The usual approach is that of IR absorption, but in the case of liquid petroleum products, there are drawbacks that will be discussed, especially when using alkanes to detect a leak. The optical measurements studied include UV enhanced Raman lidar, UV fluorescence lidar and IR absorption path integrated lidars. The breadboards used for testing the different approaches will be described along with the set-ups for leak simulation. Although IR absorption would intuitively be the most sensitive, it is shown that UV-Raman could be an alternative. When using the very broad alkane signature in the IR, the varying ground spectral reflectance are a problem. It is also determined that integrated path measurements are preferred, the UV enhanced Raman measurements showing that the vapor plume stays very close to the ground.