Science.gov

Sample records for airborne system uas

  1. Development of Unmanned Airborne System (UAS) instrumentation for air-sea-ice interaction research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reineman, B. D.; Lenain, L.; Melville, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed Unmanned Airborne System (UAS) instrumentation packages to directly measure air-sea momentum transfer, as well as latent, sensible, and radiative heat fluxes, topography, and surface wave kinematics. Two UAS (BAE Manta C1s) flying in vertical formation over the ocean will allow the direct measurement of air-sea fluxes within the marine atmospheric boundary layer, and, with onboard high-resolution video and laser altimetry, simultaneous observation of sea surface kinematics and sea-ice topography. The low altitude required for accurate air-sea or air-ice flux measurements is below the typical safety limit of manned research aircraft; however, with advancements in laser altimeters, small-aircraft flight control, and real-time Differential GPS, it now is within the capability of the UAS platform. Fast response turbulence, hygrometer, and temperature probes in the lower UAS permit surface layer flux measurements, and short and long wave radiometers in the upper UAS allow the determination of net radiation, surface temperature, and albedo. Engineering test flights of the two UAS over land were performed in January 2011 at Camp Roberts, CA. The tests demonstrated the capability of the systems to measure vertical profiles of georeferenced wind, temperature, and moisture content, as well as momentum flux and sensible, latent, and radiative heat fluxes. UAS-derived fluxes from low-altitude (20 -- 30 m) flights are in agreement with fluxes measured by a nearby tower-mounted sonic anemometer-based eddy covariance system. We present a description of the instrumentation, a summary of results from flight tests, and discuss potential applications of these instrumented platforms for air-sea-ice interaction studies.

  2. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  3. An airborne low SWaP-C UAS sense and avoid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhonghai; Lin, Xingping; Xiang, Xingyu; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Jia, Bin; Wang, Gang

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a low size, weight and power - cost (SWaP-C) airborne sense and avoid (ABSAA) system, which is based on a linear frequency modulated continuous wave (LFMCW) radar and can be mounted on small unmanned aircraft system (UAS). The system satisfies the constraint of the available sources on group 2/3 UAS. To obtain the desired sense and avoid range, a narrow band frequency (or range) scanning technique is applied for reducing the receiver's noise floor to improve its sensitivity, and a digital signal integration with fast Fourier transform (FFT) is applied to enhance the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The gate length and chirp rate are intelligently adapted to not only accommodate different object distances, speeds and approaching angle conditions, but also optimize the detection speed, resolution and coverage range. To minimize the radar blind zone, a higher chirp rate and a narrowband intermediate frequency (IF) filter are applied at the near region with a single antenna signal for target detection. The offset IF frequency between transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) is designed to mitigate the TX leakage to the receiver, especially at close distances. Adaptive antenna gain and beam-width are utilized for searching at far distance and fast 360 degree middle range. For speeding up the system update rate, lower chirp rates and wider IF and baseband filters are applied for obtaining larger range scanning step length out of the near region. To make the system working with a low power transmitter (TX), multiple-antenna beamforming, digital signal integration with FFT, and a much narrower receiver (RX) bandwidth are applied at the far region. The ABSAA system working range is 2 miles with a 1W transmitter and single antenna signal detection, and it is 5 miles when a 5W transmitter and 4-antenna beamforming (BF) are applied.

  4. Integrated Sensor Systems for UAS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    narrow band filtered image (1.635μm to 1.645μm) clearly identifying regions of irrigation fallow and treed lands10. Integrated Sensor Systems for UAS...trees, 2) dry fallow land, 3) irrigated land, and 4) water body10. Radio Frequency (RF) Sensing – The use of radio waves reflected from objects of...project, the Micro - SAR stack containing the RF boards and data acquisition module (PC104 A/D and single board computer with two FlashDisks) was

  5. NASA's UAS [Unmanned Aircraft Systems] Related Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    NASA continues to operate all sizes of UAS in all classes of airspace both domestically and internationally. Missions range from highly complex operations in coordination with piloted aircraft, ground, and space systems in support of science objectives to single aircraft operations in support of aeronautics research. One such example is a scaled commercial transport aircraft being used to study recovery techniques due to large upsets. NASA's efforts to support routine UAS operations continued on several fronts last year. At the national level in the United States (U.S.), NASA continued its support of the UAS Executive Committee (ExCom) comprised of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and NASA. The committee was formed in recognition of the need of UAS operated by these agencies to access to the National Airspace System (NAS) to support operational, training, development and research requirements. Recommendations were received on how to operate both manned and unmanned aircraft in class D airspace and plans are being developed to validate and implement those recommendations. In addition the UAS ExCom has begun developing recommendations for how to achieve routine operations in remote areas as well as for small UAS operations in class G airspace. As well as supporting the UAS ExCom, NASA is a participant in the recently formed Aviation Rule Making Committee for UAS. This committee, established by the FAA, is intended to propose regulatory guidance which would enable routine civil UAS operations. As that effort matures NASA stands ready to supply the necessary technical expertise to help that committee achieve its objectives. By supporting both the UAS ExCom and UAS ARC, NASA is positioned to provide its technical expertise across the full spectrum of UAS airspace access related topic areas. The UAS NAS Access Project got underway this past year under the leadership of NASA s Aeronautics

  6. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace and UAS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Many civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been imagined ranging from remote to congested urban areas, including goods delivery, infrastructure surveillance, agricultural support, and medical services delivery. Further, these UAS will have different equipage and capabilities based on considerations such as affordability, and mission needs applications. Such heterogeneous UAS mix, along with operations such as general aviation, helicopters, gliders must be safely accommodated at lower altitudes. However, key infrastructure to enable and safely manage widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations therein does not exist. Therefore, NASA is exploring functional design, concept and technology development, and a prototype UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system. UTM will support safe and efficient UAS operations for the delivery of goods and services

  7. Registration and Marking Requirements for UAS. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The registration of an aircraft is a prerequisite for issuance of a U.S. certificate of airworthiness by the FAA. The procedures and requirements for aircraft registration, and the subsequent issuance of registration numbers, are contained in FAR Part 47. However, the process/method(s) for applying the requirements of Parts 45 & 47 to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has not been defined. This task resolved the application of 14 CFR Parts 45 and 47 to UAS. Key Findings: UAS are aircraft systems and as such the recommended approach to registration is to follow the same process for registration as manned aircraft. This will require manufacturers to comply with the requirements for 14 CFR 47, Aircraft Registration and 14 CFR 45, Identification and Registration Marking. In addition, only the UA should be identified with the N number registration markings. There should also be a documentation link showing the applicability of the control station and communication link to the UA. The documentation link can be in the form of a Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) entry or a UAS logbook entry. The recommended process for the registration of UAS is similar to the manned aircraft process and is outlined in a 6-step process in the paper.

  8. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS): Evolving Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal: Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years; Long-term Goal: Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  9. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Mission Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-03

    Wolverine III Type: Initial 2011-CSA-33-COA Submitted: 04/27/11, Approved: 07/12/11, Location: CCTC, Airframe: Aerosonde Mk4.7, Type: Initial 2011...with the Wolverine III UAV, students learn how to operate a very rudimentary VTOL UAS. After training completion on the Wolverine III they progress to...sUAS including the Aerosonde Mk 4.7 and Wolverine III platforms. Richard is also a proficient RC aircraft pilot and UAS External pilot. He has earned a

  10. NASA UAS Integration into the NAS Project: Human Systems Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the work the Human Systems Integration (HSI) sub-project has done on detect and avoid (DAA) displays while working on the UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) Integration into the NAS project. The most recent simulation on DAA interoperability with Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is discussed in the most detail. The relationship of the work to the larger UAS community and next steps are also detailed.

  11. High-Resolution Debris Flow Volume Mapping with Unmanned Aerial Systems (uas) and Photogrammetric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. S.; Fromm, R.; Lechner, V.

    2016-06-01

    Debris flows cause an average € 30 million damages and 1-2 fatalities every year in Austria. Detailed documentation of their extent and magnitude is essential for understanding, preventing and mitigating these natural hazard events. The recent development of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has provided a new possibility for on-demand high-resolution monitoring and mapping. Here, we present a study, where the spatial extent and volume of a large debris flow event were mapped with different UAS, fitted with commercial off-the-shelf sensors. Orthophotos and digital terrain models (DTM) were calculated using structure-from-motion photogrammetry software. Terrain height differences caused by the debris flow in the catchment and valley floor were derived by subtracting the pre-event airborne laser scanning (ALS) DTM from a post-event UAS-DTM. The analysis of the volumetric sediment budget showed, that approximately 265,000 m³ material was mobilised in the catchment, of which 45,000 m³ settled there; of the material, which reached the valley floor, 120,000 m³ was deposited, while another 10,000 m³ was eroded from there. The UAS-results were validated against ALS data and imagery from a traditional manned-aircraft photogrammetry campaign. In conclusion, the UAS-data can reach an accuracy and precision comparable to manned aircraft data, but with the added benefits of higher flexibility, easier repeatability, less operational constraints and higher spatial resolution.

  12. UAS-Systems Integration, Validation, and Diagnostics Simulation Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttrill, Catherine W.; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Phase 1 efforts of NASA's UAS-in-the-NAS Project a task was initiated to explore the merits of developing a system simulation capability for UAS to address airworthiness certification requirements. The core of the capability would be a software representation of an unmanned vehicle, including all of the relevant avionics and flight control system components. The specific system elements could be replaced with hardware representations to provide Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWITL) test and evaluation capability. The UAS Systems Integration and Validation Laboratory (UAS-SIVL) was created to provide a UAS-systems integration, validation, and diagnostics hardware-in-the-loop simulation capability. This paper discusses how SIVL provides a robust and flexible simulation framework that permits the study of failure modes, effects, propagation paths, criticality, and mitigation strategies to help develop safety, reliability, and design data that can assist with the development of certification standards, means of compliance, and design best practices for civil UAS.

  13. Automated Routing of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    environments than manned aircraft. Weather effects thus become a crucial part of both operational planning and execution of UAS missions. The U.S. Army...and observed and predicted meteorological (Met) parameters to plan routes through weather and other hazards to carry out missions with maximum...4  4.  Route Planning : Avoiding Adverse Weather Impacts 5  4.1  Manual Routing

  14. Modeling and Simulation of an UAS Collision Avoidance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliveros, Edgardo V.; Murray, A. Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a Modeling and Simulation of an Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Collision Avoidance System, capable of representing different types of scenarios for UAS collision avoidance. Commercial and military piloted aircraft currently utilize various systems for collision avoidance such as Traffic Alert and Collision A voidance System (TCAS), Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), Radar and ElectroOptical and Infrared Sensors (EO-IR). The integration of information from these systems is done by the pilot in the aircraft to determine the best course of action. In order to operate optimally in the National Airspace System (NAS) UAS have to work in a similar or equivalent manner to a piloted aircraft by applying the principle of "detect-see and avoid" (DSA) to other air traffic. Hence, we have taken these existing sensor technologies into consideration in order to meet the challenge of researching the modeling and simulation of an approximated DSA system. A Schematic Model for a UAS Collision Avoidance System (CAS) has been developed ina closed loop block diagram for that purpose. We have found that the most suitable software to carry out this task is the Satellite Tool Kit (STK) from Analytical Graphics Inc. (AGI). We have used the Aircraft Mission Modeler (AMM) for modeling and simulation of a scenario where a UAS is placed on a possible collision path with an initial intruder and then with a second intruder, but is able to avoid them by executing a right tum maneuver and then climbing. Radars have also been modeled with specific characteristics for the UAS and both intruders. The software provides analytical, graphical user interfaces and data controlling tools which allow the operator to simulate different conditions. Extensive simulations have been carried out which returned excellent results.

  15. Next Generation UAS Based Spectral Systems for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, P.; Townsend, P.; Mandl, D.; Kingdon, C.; Ly, V.; Sohlberg, R.; Corp, L.; Cappelaere, P.; Frye, S.; Handy, M.; Nagol, J.; Ambrosia, V.; Navarro, F.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides information on the development of a small Unmanned Aerial System(UAS) with a low power, high performance Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) and a hyperspectral imager to enable intelligent gathering of science grade vegetation data over agricultural fields at about 150 ft. The IPM performs real time data processing over the image data and then enables the navigation system to move the UAS to locations where measurements are optimal for science. This is important because the small UAS typically has about 30 minutes of battery power and therefore over large agricultural fields, resource utilization efficiency is important. The key innovation is the shrinking of the IPM and the cross communication with the navigation software to allow the data processing to interact with desired way points while using Field Programmable Gate Arrays to enable high performance on large data volumes produced by the hyperspectral imager.

  16. Water Plume Temperature Measurements by an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    PubMed Central

    DeMario, Anthony; Lopez, Pete; Plewka, Eli; Wix, Ryan; Xia, Hai; Zamora, Emily; Gessler, Dan; Yalin, Azer P.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the development and testing of a proof of principle water temperature measurement system deployed on an unmanned aerial system (UAS), for field measurements of thermal discharges into water. The primary elements of the system include a quad-copter UAS to which has been integrated, for the first time, both a thermal imaging infrared (IR) camera and an immersible probe that can be dipped below the water surface to obtain vertical water temperature profiles. The IR camera is used to take images of the overall water surface to geo-locate the plume, while the immersible probe provides quantitative temperature depth profiles at specific locations. The full system has been tested including the navigation of the UAS, its ability to safely carry the sensor payload, and the performance of both the IR camera and the temperature probe. Finally, the UAS sensor system was successfully deployed in a pilot field study at a coal burning power plant, and obtained images and temperature profiles of the thermal effluent. PMID:28178215

  17. Water Plume Temperature Measurements by an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS).

    PubMed

    DeMario, Anthony; Lopez, Pete; Plewka, Eli; Wix, Ryan; Xia, Hai; Zamora, Emily; Gessler, Dan; Yalin, Azer P

    2017-02-07

    We report on the development and testing of a proof of principle water temperature measurement system deployed on an unmanned aerial system (UAS), for field measurements of thermal discharges into water. The primary elements of the system include a quad-copter UAS to which has been integrated, for the first time, both a thermal imaging infrared (IR) camera and an immersible probe that can be dipped below the water surface to obtain vertical water temperature profiles. The IR camera is used to take images of the overall water surface to geo-locate the plume, while the immersible probe provides quantitative temperature depth profiles at specific locations. The full system has been tested including the navigation of the UAS, its ability to safely carry the sensor payload, and the performance of both the IR camera and the temperature probe. Finally, the UAS sensor system was successfully deployed in a pilot field study at a coal burning power plant, and obtained images and temperature profiles of the thermal effluent.

  18. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) activities at the Department of the Interior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quirk, Bruce K.; Hutt, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    informed decisions. It will also provide a digital baseline record that can be archived and used when monitoring future events or conditions. One possible future scenario has scientists carrying sUAS into the field allowing quick deployment and operation to observe the environment or for emergency response. This scenario could also include a persistent monitoring capability provided by a UAS that can stay airborne over a small geographic area for days or weeks, or possibly longer. While the DOI focus is on sUAS, the Department recognizes that larger UAS systems will also play a role in meeting its mission. The Department anticipates meeting long-duration or specialized acquisition commitments, such as state or national aerial photography, by collaboration with other agencies or through commercial contracts. Even though the DOI continues to evaluate UAS and sensor technology to meet the Department’s mission, some of its bureaus are already moving towards an operational capability. The authors fully anticipate that by 2020 UAS will emerge as one of the primary platforms for DOI remote sensing applications.

  19. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project, UAS Control and Non-Payload Communication System Phase-1 Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project, has partnered with Rockwell Collins to develop a concept Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) system prototype radio, operating on recently allocated UAS frequency spectrum bands. This prototype radio is being used to validate initial proposed performance requirements for UAS control communications. This presentation will give an overview of the current status of the prototype radio development, and results from phase 1 flight tests conducted during 2013.

  20. Analysis of UAS hybrid propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupe, Ryan M.

    Hybrid propulsion technology has been growing over last several years. With the steadily increasing cost of fuel and demand for unmanned aircraft systems to meet an ever expanding variety of responsibilities, research must be conducted into the development of alternative propulsion systems to reduce operating costs and optimize for strategic missions. One of the primary roles of unmanned aircraft systems is to provide aerial surveillance without detection. While electric propulsion systems provide a great option for lower acoustic signatures due to the lack of combustion and exhaust noise, they typically have low flight endurance due to battery limitations. Gas burning propulsion systems are ideal for long range/endurance missions due to the high energy density of hydrocarbon fuel, but can be much easier to detect. Research is conducted into the feasibility of gas/electric hybrid propulsion systems and the tradeoffs involved for reconnaissance mission scenarios. An analysis program is developed to optimize each component of the system and examine their effects on the overall performance of the aircraft. Each subsystem is parameterized and simulated within the program and tradeoffs between payload weight, range, and endurance are tested and evaluated to fulfill mission requirements.

  1. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project, has partnered with Rockwell Collins to develop a concept Control and Non-Payload Communication system prototype radio, operating on recently allocated UAS frequency spectrum bands. The prototype radio will be used to validate initial proposed performance requirements for UAS control communications. This presentation will give an overview of the current status of the design, development, and flight test planning for this prototype radio.

  2. NASA Dryden's UAS Service Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The vision of NASA s Dryden Flight Research Center is to "fly what others only imagine." Its mission is to advance technology and science through flight. Objectives supporting the mission include performing flight research and technology integration to revolutionize aviation and pioneer aerospace technology, validating space exploration concepts, conducting airborne remote sensing and science missions, and supporting operations of the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. A significant focus of effort in recent years has been on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), both in support of the Airborne Science Program and as research vehicles to advance the state of the art in UAS. Additionally, the Center has used its piloted aircraft in support of UAS technology development. In order to facilitate greater access to the UAS expertise that exists at the Center, that expertise has been organized around three major capabilities. The first is access to high-altitude, long-endurance UAS. The second is the establishment of a test range for small UAS. The third is safety case assessment support.

  3. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  4. UAS Integration into the NAS: Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Delegation of Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa Carolynn; Kenny, Caitlin Ailis

    2012-01-01

    FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 mandates UAS integration in the NAS by 2015. Operators must be able to safely maneuver UAS to maintain separation and collision avoidance. Delegated Separation is defined as the transfer of responsibility for maintaining separation between aircraft or vehicles from the air navigation service provider to the relevant flight operator, and will likely begin in sparsely trafficked areas before moving to more heavily populated airspace. As UAS operate primarily in areas with lower traffic density and perform maneuvers routinely that are currently managed through special handling, they have the advantage of becoming an early adopter of delegated separation. This experiment will examine if UAS are capable of performing delegated separation in 5 nm horizontal and 1000 ft vertical distances under two delegation conditions. In Extended Delegation, ATC are in charge of identifying problems and delegating to pilot identification and implementation of the solution and monitoring. In Full Delegation, the pilots are responsible for all tasks related to separation assurance: identification of problems and solutions, implementation and monitoring.

  5. Human Factors Guidelines for UAS in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan; Shively, R. Jay

    2013-01-01

    The ground control stations (GCS) of some UAS have been characterized by less-than-adequate human-system interfaces. In some cases this may reflect a failure to apply an existing regulation or human factors standard. In other cases, the problem may indicate a lack of suitable guidance material. NASA is leading a community effort to develop recommendations for human factors guidelines for GCS to support routine beyond-line-of-sight UAS operations in the national airspace system (NAS). In contrast to regulations, guidelines are not mandatory requirements. However, by encapsulating solutions to identified problems or areas of risk, guidelines can provide assistance to system developers, users and regulatory agencies. To be effective, guidelines must be relevant to a wide range of systems, must not be overly prescriptive, and must not impose premature standardization on evolving technologies. By assuming that a pilot will be responsible for each UAS operating in the NAS, and that the aircraft will be required to operate in a manner comparable to conventionally piloted aircraft, it is possible to identify a generic set of pilot tasks and the information, control and communication requirements needed to support these tasks. Areas where guidelines will be useful can then be identified, utilizing information from simulations, operational experience and the human factors literature. In developing guidelines, we recognize that existing regulatory and guidance material will, at times, provide adequate coverage of an area. In other cases suitable guidelines may be found in existing military or industry human factors standards. In cases where appropriate existing standards cannot be identified, original guidelines will be proposed.

  6. UAS Integration Into the NAS: An Examination of Baseline Compliance in the Current Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa; Kenny, Caitlin A.; Shively, Robert J.; Johnson, Walter

    2012-01-01

    As a result of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are expected to be integrated into the National Airspace System (NAS) by 2015. Several human factors challenges need to be addressed before UAS can safely and routinely fly in the NAS with manned aircraft. Perhaps the most significant challenge is for the UAS to be non-disruptive to the air traffic management system. Another human factors challenge is how to provide UAS pilots with intuitive traffic information in order to support situation awareness (SA) of their airspace environment as well as a see-and-avoid capability comparable to manned aircraft so that a UAS pilot could safely maneuver the aircraft to maintain separation and collision avoidance if necessary. A simulation experiment was conducted to examine baseline compliance of UAS operations in the current airspace system. Researchers also examined the effects of introducing a Cockpit Situation Display (CSD) into a UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) on UAS pilot performance, workload and situation awareness while flying in a positively controlled sector. Pilots were tasked with conducting a highway patrol police mission with a Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAS in L.A. Center airspace with two mission objectives: 1) to reroute the UAS when issued new instructions from their commander, and 2) to communicate with Air Traffic Control (ATC) to negotiate flight plan changes and respond to vectoring and altitude change instructions. Objective aircraft separation data, workload ratings, SA data, and subjective ratings regarding UAS operations in the NAS were collected. Results indicate that UAS pilots were able to comply appropriately with ATC instructions. In addition, the introduction of the CSD improved pilot SA and reduced workload associated with UAS and ATC interactions.

  7. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace by Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet). There is an urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  8. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations In Low-Altitude Airspace By Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet)There is urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  9. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project: Advanced Collision Avoidance System for UAS (ACAS Xu) Interoperability White Paper Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The Phase 1 DAA Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) provided requirements for two classes of DAA equipment: equipment Class 1 contains the basic DAA equipment required to assist a pilot in remaining well clear, while equipment Class 2 integrates the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) II system. Thus, the Class 1 system provides RWC functionality only, while the Class 2 system is intended to provide both RWC and Collision Avoidance (CA) functionality, in compliance with the Minimum Aviation System Performance (MASPS) for the Interoperability of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems. The FAAs TCAS Program Office is currently developing Airborne Collision Avoidance System X (ACAS X) to support the objectives of the Federal Aviation Administrations (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation System Program (NextGen). ACAS X has a suite of variants with a common underlying design that are intended to be optimized for their intended airframes and operations. ACAS Xu being is designed for UAS and allows for new surveillance technologies and tailored logic for platforms with different performance characteristics. In addition to Collision Avoidance (CA) alerting and guidance, ACAS Xu is being tuned to provide RWC alerting and guidance in compliance with the SC 228 DAA MOPS. With a single logic performing both RWC and CA functions, ACAS Xu will provide industry with an integrated DAA solution that addresses many of the interoperability shortcomings of Phase I systems. While the MOPS for ACAS Xu will specify an integrated DAA system, it will need to show compliance with the RWC alerting thresholds and alerting requirements defined in the DAA Phase 2 MOPS. Further, some functional components of the ACAS Xu system such as the remote pilots displayed guidance might be mostly references to the corresponding requirements in the DAA MOPS. To provide a seamless, integrated, RWC-CA system to assist the pilot in remaining well clear and avoiding collisions, several

  10. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project Subcommittee Final

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Chuck; Griner, James H.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Shively, Robert J.; Consiglio, Maria; Muller, Eric; Murphy, James; Kim, Sam

    2012-01-01

    UAS Integration in the NAS Project overview with details from each of the subprojects. Subprojects include: Communications, Certification, Integrated Test and Evaluation, Human Systems Integration, and Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability.

  11. Rangeland remote sensing applications with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the national airspace: challenges and experiences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, civilian applications of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have increased considerably due to their greater availability and the miniaturization of sensors, GPS, inertial measurement units, and other hardware. UAS are well suited for rangeland remote sensing applications, because of the...

  12. Airborne rescue system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The airborne rescue system includes a boom with telescoping members for extending a line and collar to a rescue victim. The boom extends beyond the tip of the helicopter rotor so that the victim may avoid the rotor downwash. The rescue line is played out and reeled in by winch. The line is temporarily retained under the boom. When the boom is extended, the rescue line passes through clips. When the victim dons the collar and the tension in the line reaches a predetermined level, the clips open and release the line from the boom. Then the rescue line can form a straight line between the victim and the winch, and the victim can be lifted to the helicopter. A translator is utilized to push out or pull in the telescoping members. The translator comprises a tape and a rope. Inside the telescoping members the tape is curled around the rope and the tape has a tube-like configuration. The tape and rope are provided from supply spools.

  13. Airborne Global Positioning System Antenna System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-14

    GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM ANTENNA SYSTEM DISTRIBUTION: SMC/ GP (3 cys); AFFSA...standard that airborne Global Positioning System ( GPS ) antenna system must meet to be identified with the applicable MSO marking. The similarity of...UNCLASSIFIED DOCUMENT NO. DATE NO. MSO-C144 14 Oct 04 Initial Release REV: REV: SHEET 1 OF 16 TITLE: AIRBORNE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

  14. Classification of Unmanned Aircraft Systems. UAS Classification/Categorization for Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Category, class, and type designations are primary means to identify appropriate aircraft certification basis, operating rules/limitations, and pilot qualifications to operate in the National Airspace System (NAS). The question is whether UAS fit into existing aircraft categories or classes, or are unique enough to justify the creation of a new category/class. In addition, the characteristics or capabilities, which define when an UAS becomes a regulated aircraft, must also be decided. This issue focuses on UAS classification for certification purposes. Several approaches have been considered for classifying UAS. They basically group into either using a weight/mass basis, or a safety risk basis, factoring in the performance of the UAS, including where the UAS would operate. Under existing standards, aircraft must have a Type Certificate and Certificate of Airworthiness, in order to be used for "compensation or hire", a major difference from model aircraft. Newer technologies may make it possible for very small UAS to conduct commercial services, but that is left for a future discussion to extend the regulated aircraft to a lower level. The Access 5 position is that UAS are aircraft and should be regulated above the weight threshold differentiating them from model airplanes. The recommended classification grouping is summarized in a chart.

  15. Processor architecture for airborne SAR systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Digital processors for spaceborne imaging radars and application of the technology developed for airborne SAR systems are considered. Transferring algorithms and implementation techniques from airborne to spaceborne SAR processors offers obvious advantages. The following topics are discussed: (1) a quantification of the differences in processing algorithms for airborne and spaceborne SARs; and (2) an overview of three processors for airborne SAR systems.

  16. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D [Menan, ID; Schmitt, Michael J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Warren F [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  17. 76 FR 75565 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Subcommittee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Meeting....

  18. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project FY16 Annual Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindle, Laurie; Hackenberg, Davis

    2016-01-01

    This presentation gives insight into the research activities and efforts being executed in order to integrate unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system. This briefing is to inform others of the UAS-NAS FY16 progress and future directions.

  19. NASA Unmanned Aircraft (UA) Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) System Waveform Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Carlos; Hammel, Bruce; Hammel, Allan; Moore, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). To address this deficiency, NASA has established a project called UAS Integration in the NAS (UAS in the NAS), under the Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). This project provides an opportunity to transition concepts, technology, algorithms, and knowledge to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other stakeholders to help them define the requirements, regulations, and issues for routine UAS access to the NAS. The safe, routine, and efficient integration of UAS into the NAS requires new radio frequency (RF) spectrum allocations and a new data communications system which is both secure and scalable with increasing UAS traffic without adversely impacting the Air Traffic Control (ATC) communication system. These data communications, referred to as Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC), whose purpose is to exchange information between the unmanned aircraft and the ground control station to ensure safe, reliable, and effective unmanned aircraft flight operation. A Communications Subproject within the UAS in the NAS Project has been established to address issues related to CNPC development, certification and fielding. The focus of the Communications Subproject is on validating and allocating new RF spectrum and data link communications to enable civil UAS integration into the NAS. The goal is to validate secure, robust data links within the allocated frequency spectrum for UAS. A vision, architectural concepts, and seed requirements for the future commercial UAS CNPC system have been developed by RTCA Special Committee 203 (SC-203) in the process

  20. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project - Gen-4 and Gen-5 Radio Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project, has partnered with Rockwell Collins to develop a concept Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) system prototype radio, operating on recently allocated UAS frequency spectrum bands. This prototype radio is being used to validate initial proposed performance requirements for UAS control communications. This presentation will give an overview of the current plans for the prototype radio development.

  1. Ergonomics and workplace design: application of Ergo-UAS System in Fiat Group Automobiles.

    PubMed

    Vitello, M; Galante, L G; Capoccia, M; Caragnano, G

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008 Fiat Group Automobiles has introduced Ergo-UAS system for the balancing of production lines and to detect ergonomic issues. Ergo-UAS system integrates 2 specific methods: MTM-UAS for time measurement and EAWS as ergonomic method to evaluate biomechanical effort for each workstation. Fiat is using a software system to manage time evaluation and ergo characterization of production cycle (UAS) to perform line balancing and obtain allowance factor in all Italian car manufacturing plant. For new car models, starting from New Panda, FGA is applying Ergo-UAS for workplace design since the earliest phase of product development. This means that workplace design is based on information about new product, new layout, new work organization and is performed by a multidisciplinary team (Work Place Integration Team), focusing on several aspects of product and process: safety, quality and productivity. This allows to find and solve ergonomic threats before the start of production, by means of a strict cooperation between product development, engineering and design, manufacturing. Three examples of workstation design are presented in which application of Ergo-UAS was determinant to find out initial excessive levels of biomechanical load and helped the process designer to improve the workstations and define limits of acceptability. Technical activities (on product or on process), or organizational changes, that have been implemented in order to solve the problems are presented. A comparison between "before" and "new" ergonomic scores necessary to bring workstations in acceptable conditions were made.

  2. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Assessment of Melt Lakes in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, J.; Steffen, K.

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this August 2007 week-long test campaign was to assess the viability of supraglacial lake depths with high-resolution hyperspectral measurements. The knowledge of melt lake depth is essential in determining the volume of water which forms on top of glacial surfaces during the annual melt season. The assessment of melt water volume is a crucial input parameter for modeling the Greenland ice sheet dynamics. UAS operations were flown out of western Greenland. Preliminary results from five hyperspectral data cubes are presented, indicating that supraglacial water depths can be determined from low altitude, high-resolution hyperspectral imaging. The pixel resolution of the hyperspectral sensor is 0.2 meters at an altitude of 300 meters above the ice surface; this provides accuracy that is two orders of magnitude better than imagery obtained by the MODIS sensor or other similar satellite-based methods. Further, a UAS-based hyperspectral approach enables the measurement of supraglacial lake depths under most cloud cover conditions. The capabilities of three UAS types (Manta, Silver Fox, and electric Silver Fox) flight tested in Greenland are discussed. Also, we present future field planning (2008 and 2009) to measure supraglacial lake depths with hyperspectral imagery in conjunction with a green laser altimeter.

  3. Meeting of Experts on NASA's Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace Systems (NAS) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Jean; Bauer, Jeff; Bixby, C.J.; Lauderdale, Todd; Shively, Jay; Griner, James; Hayhurst, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) and UAS Integration in the NAS Project; UAS Integration into the NAS Project; Separation Assurance and Collision Avoidance; Pilot Aircraft Interface Objectives/Rationale; Communication; Certification; and Integrated Tests and Evaluations.

  4. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  5. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  6. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  7. Evaluation of the Trade Space Between UAS Maneuver Performance and SAA System Performance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, Devin P.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    A need exists to safely integrate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System. Replacing manned aircraft's see-and-avoid capability in the absence of an onboard pilot is one of the key challenges associated with safe integration. Sense-and-avoid (SAA) systems will have to achieve yet-to-be-determined required separation distances for a wide range of encounters. They will also need to account for the maneuver performance of the UAS they are paired with. The work described in this paper is aimed at developing an understanding of the trade space between UAS maneuver performance and SAA system performance requirements. An assessment of current manned and unmanned aircraft performance was used to establish potential UAS performance test matrix bounds. Then, nearterm UAS integration work was used to narrow down the scope. A simulator was developed with sufficient fidelity to assess SAA system performance requirements for a wide range of encounters. The simulator generates closest-point-of-approach (CPA) data from the wide range of UAS performance models maneuvering against a single intruder with various encounter geometries. The simulator is described herein and has both a graphical user interface and batch interface to support detailed analysis of individual UAS encounters and macro analysis of a very large set of UAS and encounter models, respectively. Results from the simulator using approximate performance data from a well-known manned aircraft is presented to provide insight into the problem and as verification and validation of the simulator. Analysis of climb, descent, and level turn maneuvers to avoid a collision is presented. Noting the diversity of backgrounds in the UAS community, a description of the UAS aerodynamic and propulsive design and performance parameters is included. Initial attempts to model the results made it clear that developing maneuver performance groups is required. Discussion of the performance groups developed and how

  8. Geomorphological mapping with a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS): Feature detection and accuracy assessment of a photogrammetrically-derived digital terrain model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Whitehead, Ken; Brown, Owen W.; Barchyn, Thomas E.; Moorman, Brian J.; LeClair, Adam; Riddell, Kevin; Hamilton, Tayler

    2013-07-01

    Small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) are a relatively new type of aerial platform for acquiring high-resolution remote sensing measurements of Earth surface processes and landforms. However, despite growing application there has been little quantitative assessment of sUAS performance. Here we present results from a field experiment designed to evaluate the accuracy of a photogrammetrically-derived digital terrain model (DTM) developed from imagery acquired with a low-cost digital camera onboard an sUAS. We also show the utility of the high-resolution (0.1 m) sUAS imagery for resolving small-scale biogeomorphic features. The experiment was conducted in an area with active and stabilized aeolian landforms in the southern Canadian Prairies. Images were acquired with a Hawkeye RQ-84Z Areohawk fixed-wing sUAS. A total of 280 images were acquired along 14 flight lines, covering an area of 1.95 km2. The survey was completed in 4.5 h, including GPS surveying, sUAS setup and flight time. Standard image processing and photogrammetric techniques were used to produce a 1 m resolution DTM and a 0.1 m resolution orthorectified image mosaic. The latter revealed previously un-mapped bioturbation features. The vertical accuracy of the DTM was evaluated with 99 Real-Time Kinematic GPS points, while 20 of these points were used to quantify horizontal accuracy. The horizontal root mean squared error (RMSE) of the orthoimage was 0.18 m, while the vertical RMSE of the DTM was 0.29 m, which is equivalent to the RMSE of a bare earth LiDAR DTM for the same site. The combined error from both datasets was used to define a threshold of the minimum elevation difference that could be reliably attributed to erosion or deposition in the seven years separating the sUAS and LiDAR datasets. Overall, our results suggest that sUAS-acquired imagery may provide a low-cost, rapid, and flexible alternative to airborne LiDAR for geomorphological mapping.

  9. Evaluating Alerting and Guidance Performance of a UAS Detect-And-Avoid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seung Man; Park, Chunki; Thipphavong, David P.; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Santiago, Confesor

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge to the routine, safe operation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) is the development of detect-and-avoid (DAA) systems to aid the UAS pilot in remaining "well clear" of nearby aircraft. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of alerting criteria and pilot response delay on the safety and performance of UAS DAA systems in the context of routine civil UAS operations in the National Airspace System (NAS). A NAS-wide fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess UAS DAA system performance with a large number of encounters and a broad set of DAA alerting and guidance system parameters. Three attributes of the DAA system were controlled as independent variables in the study to conduct trade-off analyses: UAS trajectory prediction method (dead-reckoning vs. intent-based), alerting time threshold (related to predicted time to LoWC), and alerting distance threshold (related to predicted Horizontal Miss Distance, or HMD). A set of metrics, such as the percentage of true positive, false positive, and missed alerts, based on signal detection theory and analysis methods utilizing the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were proposed to evaluate the safety and performance of DAA alerting and guidance systems and aid development of DAA system performance standards. The effect of pilot response delay on the performance of DAA systems was evaluated using a DAA alerting and guidance model and a pilot model developed to support this study. A total of 18 fast-time simulations were conducted with nine different DAA alerting threshold settings and two different trajectory prediction methods, using recorded radar traffic from current Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations, and supplemented with DAA-equipped UAS traffic based on mission profiles modeling future UAS operations. Results indicate DAA alerting distance threshold has a greater effect on DAA system performance than DAA alerting time threshold or ownship trajectory prediction method

  10. Use of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) in Response to the 2014 Eruption of Ontake Volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Terada, A.; Shinohara, H.; Kazahaya, R.; Yoshimoto, M.; Tanaka, R.

    2015-12-01

    On Sept. 27, 2014, a phreatic eruption occurred at Ontake volcano (3067 m a.s.l.), central Japan. The eruption caused an unprecedented volcanic disaster in the last 70 years in Japan. Search and rescue operations started soon after the eruption until they were suspended due to snowfall in late October. Considering the potential hazards of further explosive events and the severe winter condition, an approach to the summit area after late October was very difficult. To reveal the condition of the volcanic activity and foresee the trend, we considered it important to carry out volcanic gas surveys for the dense plumes in the vicinity of the vents using an unmanned aircraft system (UAS). For the surveys at Ontake volcano, the UAS was expected to fly about 8 km roundtrip distance at an altitude of over 3000 m. A multicopter with 8 rotors was adopted and we targeted four types of plume monitoring using the UAS; in-plume monitoring of multiple gas concentrations, SO2 flux measurement with UV spectroscopy, thermography of the vents, and in-plume particle sampling. In order to meet the 1 kg payload of the multicopter, some of the instruments were slimmed down.The UAS campaigns at Ontake volcano were carried out on Nov. 20-21, 2014 and on Jun. 2, 2015 from the safety distance of 3-3.5 km away from the crater. With the UAS surveys, we revealed that the SO2/H2S ratios of volcanic gas were closer to the hydrothermal origin instead of direct magma degassing. The second survey also pointed out that the SO2 emission decreased down below 10 ton/day by June 2015, by taking an advantage of flying the vicinity of the vents before the plume was diluted. Our surveys showed decreasing activity of the volcano, together with the advantages of using UAS in volcano monitoring for inaccessible conditions.

  11. Mapping with Small UAS: A Point Cloud Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Charles; Jozkow, Grzegorz; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota

    2015-12-01

    Interest in using inexpensive Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology for topographic mapping has recently significantly increased. Small UAS platforms equipped with consumer grade cameras can easily acquire high-resolution aerial imagery allowing for dense point cloud generation, followed by surface model creation and orthophoto production. In contrast to conventional airborne mapping systems, UAS has limited ground coverage due to low flying height and limited flying time, yet it offers an attractive alternative to high performance airborne systems, as the cost of the sensors and platform, and the flight logistics, is relatively low. In addition, UAS is better suited for small area data acquisitions and to acquire data in difficult to access areas, such as urban canyons or densely built-up environments. The main question with respect to the use of UAS is whether the inexpensive consumer sensors installed in UAS platforms can provide the geospatial data quality comparable to that provided by conventional systems. This study aims at the performance evaluation of the current practice of UAS-based topographic mapping by reviewing the practical aspects of sensor configuration, georeferencing and point cloud generation, including comparisons between sensor types and processing tools. The main objective is to provide accuracy characterization and practical information for selecting and using UAS solutions in general mapping applications. The analysis is based on statistical evaluation as well as visual examination of experimental data acquired by a Bergen octocopter with three different image sensor configurations, including a GoPro HERO3+ Black Edition, a Nikon D800 DSLR and a Velodyne HDL-32. In addition, georeferencing data of varying quality were acquired and evaluated. The optical imagery was processed by using three commercial point cloud generation tools. Comparing point clouds created by active and passive sensors by using different quality sensors, and finally

  12. The Characterisation of a PEM Fuel-Cell System with a Focus on UAS Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    MITE Micro Tactical Expendable NRL (US) National Research Laboratory PEM Polymer- electrolyte membrane SOFC Solid -oxide fuel cell UAS...fundamental knowledge of polymer- electrolyte membrane fuel- cell characteristics and the methodology used to characterise fuel-cell systems. Given the...authors developed fundamental knowledge of polymer- electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells through experiments conducted on a commercially available

  13. Group 1 Type: Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) as a Force Multiplier to the Fire Support Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-03

    www.navair.navy.mil/pma263. Accessed Jan 2, 2011. 2 Joe Pappalardo , "Air Force Acknowledges Secret Stealth UA V." http://www.popularmechanics.com...T. Kay. February 2, 2011. Office of the Secretary ofDefense. "Unmanned Aerial Systems Roadmap 2005~2030." 2005. Pappalardo , Joe. "Air Force

  14. High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS): Pilot Knowledge, Skills and Abilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial work accomplished by the ACCESS 5 Human System Integration (HSI) team to identify Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Pilot Knowledge, Skill and Ability (KSA), Training and Medical requirements. To derive this information the following tasks were accomplished: a) Mission and Function analyses were performed; b) Applicable FARs and FAA Advisory Circulars (ACs) were reviewed; c) Meetings were conducted with NASA and FAA Human Factors personnel; d) Surveys were completed by ACCESS 5 HSI Working group UA Pilots; e) Coordination meetings were conducted with the ACCESS 5 Policy IPT. The results of these efforts were used to develop a summary of the current qualifications. for an individual to function as a Pilot In Command (PIC) for UAs currently flown by UNITE companies, to develop preliminary Pilot KSAs for each phase of flight, and to delineate preliminary Pilot Training and Medical requirements. These results are to be provided to the Policy IPT to support their development of recommendations for UA Pilot Rating Criteria, training and medical qualifications. It is expected that the initially an instrument rated pilot will be required to serve as the PIC. However, as operational experience is gained, and automation is applied to accomplish various system functions, it is expected that pilot rating criteria could be lessened.

  15. Airborne Relay-Based Regional Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyuman; Noh, Hongjun; Lim, Jaesung

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based pseudolite systems have some limitations, such as low vertical accuracy, multipath effects and near-far problems. These problems are not significant in airborne-based pseudolite systems. However, the monitoring of pseudolite positions is required because of the mobility of the platforms on which the pseudolites are mounted, and this causes performance degradation. To address these pseudolite system limitations, we propose an airborne relay-based regional positioning system that consists of a master station, reference stations, airborne relays and a user. In the proposed system, navigation signals are generated from the reference stations located on the ground and are relayed via the airborne relays. Unlike in conventional airborne-based systems, the user in the proposed system sequentially estimates both the locations of airborne relays and his/her own position. Therefore, a delay due to monitoring does not occur, and the accuracy is not affected by the movement of airborne relays. We conducted several simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. Based on the simulation results, we demonstrated that the proposed system guarantees a higher accuracy than airborne-based pseudolite systems, and it is feasible despite the existence of clock offsets among reference stations. PMID:26029953

  16. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Delegation of Separation in NextGen Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Caitlin A.; Shively, Robert J.; Jordan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) performing delegated separation in the national airspace system (NAS). Delegated separation is the transfer of responsibility for maintaining separation between aircraft or vehicles from air navigation service providers to the relevant pilot or flight operator. The effects of delegated separation and traffic display information level were collected through performance, workload, and situation awareness measures. The results of this study show benefits related to the use of conflict detection alerts being shown on the UAS operator's cockpit situation display (CSD), and to the use of full delegation. Overall, changing the level of separation responsibility and adding conflict detection alerts on the CSD was not found to have an adverse effect on performance as shown by the low amounts of losses of separation. The use of conflict detection alerts on the CSD and full delegation responsibilities given to the UAS operator were found to create significantly reduced workload, significantly increased situation awareness and significantly easier communications between the UAS operator and air traffic controller without significantly increasing the amount of losses of separation.

  17. Airborne microwave radiometric imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Futang; Zhang, Zuyin

    1999-09-01

    A dual channel Airborne Microwave Radiometric Imaging system (AMRI) was designed and constructed for regional environment mapping. The system operates at 35GHz, which collects radiation at horizontal and vertical polarized channels. It runs at mechanical conical scanning with 45 degrees incidence angle. Two Cassegrain antennas with 1.5 degrees beamwidth scan the scene alternately and two pseudo- color images of two channels are displayed on the screen of PC in real time. Simultaneously, all parameters of flight and radiometric data are sorted in hard disk for post- processing. The sensitivity of the radiometer (Delta) T equals 0.16K. A new displaying method, unequal size element arc displaying method, is used in image displaying. Several experiments on mobile tower were carried out and the images demonstrate that the AMRI is available to work steadily and accurately.

  18. Airborne microwave radiometric imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Zhang, Zuyin; Chen, Zhengwen

    1998-08-01

    A dual channel Airborne Microwave Radiometric Imaging system (AMRI) was designed and constructed for regional environment mapping. The system operates at 35GHz, which collects radiation at horizontal and vertical polarized. It runs at mechanical conical scanning with 45 degrees incidence angle. Two Cassegrain antennas with 1.5 degrees 3 dB beamwidth scan the scene alternately and two pseudo-color images of two channels are displayed on the screen of PC in real time. Simultaneously all parameters of flight and radiometric data are stored in hard disk for postprocessing. The sensitivity of the radiometers of flight and radiometric data are stored in hard disk for postprocessing. The sensitivity of the radiometers (Delta) T equals 0.16K. A new display method, unequal size element arc displaying method, is used in image displaying. Several experiments on mobile tower were carried out and the images demonstrate the AMRI is available to work steadily and accurately.

  19. Cohesive ARMD Full UAS Integration Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackenberg, Davis

    2017-01-01

    Introduction / Background; Current Landscape and Future Vision; UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) Demand and Key Challenges; UAS Airspace Access Pillars and Enablers; Overarching UAS Community Strategy; Long Term Vision Considerations; Recommendations and Next Steps.

  20. NASA UAS Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey Ervin; Mulac, Brenda Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Last year may prove to be a pivotal year for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) arena, especially in relation to routine UAS access to airspace as NASA accepted an invitation to join the UAS Executive Committee (UAS ExCom). The UAS ExCom is a multi-agency, Federal executive-level committee comprised of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and NASA with the goals to: 1) Coordinate and align efforts between key Federal Government agencies to achieve routine safe federal public UAS operations in the National Airspace System (NAS); 2) Coordinate and prioritize technical, procedural, regulatory, and policy solutions needed to deliver incremental capabilities; 3) Develop a plan to accommodate the larger stakeholder community at the appropriate time; and 4) Resolve conflicts between Federal Government agencies (FAA, DoD, DHS, and NASA), related to the above goals. The committee was formed in recognition of the need of UAS operated by these agencies to access to the National Airspace System (NAS) to support operational, training, development and research requirements. In order to meet that need, technical, procedural, regulatory, and policy solutions are required to deliver incremental capabilities leading to routine access. The formation of the UAS ExCom is significant in that it represents a tangible commitment by FAA senior leadership to address the UAS access challenge. While the focus of the ExCom is government owned and operated UAS, civil UAS operations are bound to benefit by the progress made in achieving routine access for government UAS. As the UAS ExCom was forming, NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate began to show renewed interest in UAS, particularly in relation to the future state of the air transportation system under the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NASA made funding from the American

  1. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM) Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aircraft System Operations What is the problem? Many beneficial civilian applications of UAS have been proposed, from goods delivery and infrastructure surveillance, to search and rescue, and agricultural monitoring. Currently, there is no established infrastructure to enable and safely manage the widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations, regardless of the type of UAS. A UAS traffic management (UTM) system for low-altitude airspace may be needed, perhaps leveraging concepts from the system of roads, lanes, stop signs, rules and lights that govern vehicles on the ground today, whether the vehicles are driven by humans or are automated. What system technologies is NASA exploring? Building on its legacy of work in air traffic management for crewed aircraft, NASA is researching prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that could develop airspace integration requirements for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude operations. While incorporating lessons learned from the today's well-established air traffic management system, which was a response that grew out of a mid-air collision over the Grand Canyon in the early days of commercial aviation, the UTM system would enable safe and efficient low-altitude airspace operations by providing services such as airspace design, corridors, dynamic geofencing, severe weather and wind avoidance, congestion management, terrain avoidance, route planning and re-routing, separation management, sequencing and spacing, and contingency management. One of the attributes of the UTM system is that it would not require human operators to monitor every vehicle continuously. The system could provide to human managers the data to make strategic decisions related to initiation, continuation, and termination of airspace operations. This approach would ensure that only authenticated UAS could operate

  2. Development of a Heterogeneous sUAS High-Accuracy Positional Flight Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McSwain, Robert G.; Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a heterogeneous FDAS, consisting of a diverse range of instruments was developed to support acoustic flight research programs at NASA Langley Research Center. In addition to a conventional GPS to measure latitude, longitude and altitude, the FDAS also utilizes a small, light-weight, low-cost DGPS system to obtain centimeter accuracy to measure the distance traveled by sound from a sUAS vehicle to a microphone on the ground. Acoustic flight testing using the FDAS installed on several different sUAS platforms has been conducted in support of the NASA CAS DELIVER and ERA ITD projects (Reference 1). The first FDAS prototype was assembled and implemented in the acoustic/flight measurement system in December 2014 to support DELIVER acoustic flight tests. Evaluation of the system performance and results from the data analyses were used to further test, develop and enhance the FDAS over a six-month period to support acoustic flight research for the ERA.

  3. Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2014-01-01

    UAS operations will be safer if a UTM system is available to support the functions associated with Airspace management and geo-fencing (reduce risk of accidents, impact to other operations, and community concerns); Weather and severe wind integration (avoid severe weather areas based on prediction); Predict and manage congestion (mission safety);Terrain and man-made objects database and avoidance; Maintain safe separation (mission safety and assurance of other assets); Allow only authenticated operations (avoid unauthorized airspace use).

  4. Power Management System Design for Solar-Powered UAS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    extreme aerodynamic efficiency in order to minimize the power required to maintain flight, and a recognition that every sub- system in this system of... systems into a lightweight module for particular mission sets. 14. SUBJECT TERMS solar efficiency , maximum power point tracker, solar array, unmanned...requirements. This ultimately contributes to the overall energy efficiency of the system . 3. Power Consumption Considering this research topic, perhaps

  5. Parameter Impact on Sharing Studies Between UAS CNPC Satellite Transmitters and Terrestrial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Bishop, William D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a control and non-payload communication (CNPC) link for civil-use unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) when operating in beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) conditions, satellite communication links are generally required. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has determined that the CNPC link must operate over protected aviation safety spectrum allocations. Although a suitable allocation exists in the 5030-5091 MHz band, no satellites provide operations in this band and none are currently planned. In order to avoid a very lengthy delay in the deployment of UAS in BLOS conditions, it has been proposed to use existing satellites operating in the Fixed Satellite Service (FSS), of which many operate in several spectrum bands. Regulatory actions by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) are needed to enable such a use on an international basis, and indeed Agenda Item (AI) 1.5 for the 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC) was established to decide on the enactment of possible regulatory provisions. As part of the preparation for AI 1.5, studies on the sharing FSS bands between existing services and CNPC for UAS are being contributed by NASA and others. These studies evaluate the potential impact of satellite CNPC transmitters operating from UAS on other in-band services, and on the potential impact of other in-band services on satellite CNPC receivers operating on UAS platforms. Such studies are made more complex by the inclusion of what are essentially moving FSS earth stations, compared to typical sharing studies between fixed elements. Hence, the process of determining the appropriate technical parameters for the studies meets with difficulty. In order to enable a sharing study to be completed in a less-than-infinite amount of time, the number of parameters exercised must be greatly limited. Therefore, understanding the impact of various parameter choices is accomplished through selectivity analyses. In the case of sharing

  6. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, Uwe; Schmehl, Roland

    2016-09-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that cannot be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling effects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mode of operation is at least ten times higher than the energy yield of conventional solar systems. For airborne wind energy systems the yield is defined per square meter wing area. In this paper the dependency of the energy yield on the nominal generator power for systems in the range of 1 kW to 1 MW is investigated. For the onshore location Cabauw, The Netherlands, it is shown, that a generator of just 1.4 kW nominal power and a total system mass of less than 30 kg has the theoretical potential to harvest energy at only twice the price per kWh of large scale airborne wind energy systems. This would make airborne wind energy systems a very attractive choice for small scale remote and mobile applications as soon as the remaining challenges for commercialization are solved.

  7. UAS CNPC Satellite Link Performance - Sharing Spectrum with Terrestrial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Bishop, William D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide for the safe integration of unmanned aircraft systems into the National Airspace System, the control and non-payload communications (CNPC) link connecting the ground-based pilot with the unmanned aircraft must be highly reliable. A specific requirement is that it must operate using aviation safety radiofrequency spectrum. The 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12) provided a potentially suitable allocation for radio line-of-sight (LOS), terrestrial based CNPC link at 5030-5091 MHz. For a beyond radio line-of-sight (BLOS), satellite-based CNPC link, aviation safety spectrum allocations are currently inadequate. Therefore, the 2015 WRC will consider the use of Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) bands to provide BLOS CNPC under Agenda Item 1.5. This agenda item requires studies to be conducted to allow for the consideration of how unmanned aircraft can employ FSS for BLOS CNPC while maintaining existing systems. Since there are terrestrial Fixed Service systems also using the same frequency bands under consideration in Agenda Item 1.5 one of the studies required considered spectrum sharing between earth stations on-board unmanned aircraft and Fixed Service station receivers. Studies carried out by NASA have concluded that such sharing is possible under parameters previously established by the International Telecommunications Union. As the preparation for WRC-15 has progressed, additional study parameters Agenda Item 1.5 have been proposed, and some studies using these parameters have been added. This paper examines the study results for the original parameters as well as results considering some of the more recently proposed parameters to provide insight into the complicated process of resolving WRC-15 Agenda Item 1.5 and achieving a solution for BLOS CNPC for unmanned aircraft.

  8. Automated detection and enumeration of marine wildlife using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and thermal imagery

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, A. C.; Dale, J.; Hammill, M.; Halpin, P. N.; Johnston, D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Estimating animal populations is critical for wildlife management. Aerial surveys are used for generating population estimates, but can be hampered by cost, logistical complexity, and human risk. Additionally, human counts of organisms in aerial imagery can be tedious and subjective. Automated approaches show promise, but can be constrained by long setup times and difficulty discriminating animals in aggregations. We combine unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), thermal imagery and computer vision to improve traditional wildlife survey methods. During spring 2015, we flew fixed-wing UAS equipped with thermal sensors, imaging two grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) breeding colonies in eastern Canada. Human analysts counted and classified individual seals in imagery manually. Concurrently, an automated classification and detection algorithm discriminated seals based upon temperature, size, and shape of thermal signatures. Automated counts were within 95–98% of human estimates; at Saddle Island, the model estimated 894 seals compared to analyst counts of 913, and at Hay Island estimated 2188 seals compared to analysts’ 2311. The algorithm improves upon shortcomings of computer vision by effectively recognizing seals in aggregations while keeping model setup time minimal. Our study illustrates how UAS, thermal imagery, and automated detection can be combined to efficiently collect population data critical to wildlife management. PMID:28338047

  9. Automated detection and enumeration of marine wildlife using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, A. C.; Dale, J.; Hammill, M.; Halpin, P. N.; Johnston, D. W.

    2017-03-01

    Estimating animal populations is critical for wildlife management. Aerial surveys are used for generating population estimates, but can be hampered by cost, logistical complexity, and human risk. Additionally, human counts of organisms in aerial imagery can be tedious and subjective. Automated approaches show promise, but can be constrained by long setup times and difficulty discriminating animals in aggregations. We combine unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), thermal imagery and computer vision to improve traditional wildlife survey methods. During spring 2015, we flew fixed-wing UAS equipped with thermal sensors, imaging two grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) breeding colonies in eastern Canada. Human analysts counted and classified individual seals in imagery manually. Concurrently, an automated classification and detection algorithm discriminated seals based upon temperature, size, and shape of thermal signatures. Automated counts were within 95–98% of human estimates; at Saddle Island, the model estimated 894 seals compared to analyst counts of 913, and at Hay Island estimated 2188 seals compared to analysts’ 2311. The algorithm improves upon shortcomings of computer vision by effectively recognizing seals in aggregations while keeping model setup time minimal. Our study illustrates how UAS, thermal imagery, and automated detection can be combined to efficiently collect population data critical to wildlife management.

  10. Polarimetric sensor systems for airborne ISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenault, David; Foster, Joseph; Pezzaniti, Joseph; Harchanko, John; Aycock, Todd; Clark, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Over the last decade, polarimetric imaging technologies have undergone significant advancements that have led to the development of small, low-power polarimetric cameras capable of meeting current airborne ISR mission requirements. In this paper, we describe the design and development of a compact, real-time, infrared imaging polarimeter, provide preliminary results demonstrating the enhanced contrast possible with such a system, and discuss ways in which this technology can be integrated with existing manned and unmanned airborne platforms.

  11. Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) and UAS Integration in the NAS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Program Goal: Conduct research at an integrated system-level on promising concepts and technologies and explore, assess, or demonstrate the benefits in a relevant environment.Criteria for selection of projects for Integrated Systems Research: a) Technology has attained enough maturity in the foundational research program that they merit more in-depth evaluation at an integrated system level in a relevant environment. b) Technologies which systems analysis indicates have the most potential for contributing to the simultaneous attainment of goals. c) Technologies identified through stakeholder input as having potential for simultaneous attainment of goals. d) Research not being done by other government agencies and appropriate for NASA to conduct. e) Budget augmentation. Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project Explore and assess new vehicle concepts and enabling technologies through system-level experimentation to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise, and emissions Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project Contribute capabilities that reduce technical barriers related to the safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS Innovative Concepts for Green Aviation (ICGA) Project Spur innovation by offering research opportunities to the broader aeronautics community through peer-reviewed proposals, with a focus on making aviation more eco-friendly. Establish incentive prizes similar to the Centennial Challenges and sponsor innovation demonstrations of selected technologies that show promise of reducing aviation s impact on the environment

  12. Analysis of Well-Clear Boundary Models for the Integration of UAS in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Jason M.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Chamberlain, James P.; Consiglio, Maria C.

    2014-01-01

    The FAA-sponsored Sense and Avoid Workshop for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) defnes the concept of sense and avoid for remote pilots as "the capability of a UAS to remain well clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne traffic." Hence, a rigorous definition of well clear is fundamental to any separation assurance concept for the integration of UAS into civil airspace. This paper presents a family of well-clear boundary models based on the TCAS II Resolution Advisory logic. Analytical techniques are used to study the properties and relationships satisfied by the models. Some of these properties are numerically quantifed using statistical methods.

  13. UAS Modeling of the Communication Links Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birr, Richard B.; Girgis, Nancy; Murray, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    to ensure the 99.9% availability, certain values for the telemetry transmitter will have to be increased slightly from I watt up to about 4 watts which is reasonable. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to send commands, during the airborne segment, to the Unmanned Aircraft (UA) and have the UA send back the system health and status with high availability of at least 99.9% of the time. This 99.9% availability included the condition of heavy rain at 90 mm/hr as well as interference from adjacent satellites. The link budget values used in this report were based on the work from the working group.

  14. Airborne space laser communication system and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li-zhong; Meng, Li-Xin

    2015-11-01

    Airborne space laser communication is characterized by its high speed, anti-electromagnetic interference, security, easy to assign. It has broad application in the areas of integrated space-ground communication networking, military communication, anti-electromagnetic communication. This paper introduce the component and APT system of the airborne laser communication system design by Changchun university of science and technology base on characteristic of airborne laser communication and Y12 plan, especially introduce the high communication speed and long distance communication experiment of the system that among two Y12 plans. In the experiment got the aim that the max communication distance 144Km, error 10-6 2.5Gbps - 10-7 1.5Gbps capture probability 97%, average capture time 20s. The experiment proving the adaptability of the APT and the high speed long distance communication.

  15. Mapping of riparian invasive species with supervised classification of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michez, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé; Jonathan, Lisein; Claessens, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Riparian zones are key landscape features, representing the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Although they have been influenced by human activities for centuries, their degradation has increased during the 20th century. Concomitant with (or as consequences of) these disturbances, the invasion of exotic species has increased throughout the world's riparian zones. In our study, we propose a easily reproducible methodological framework to map three riparian invasive taxa using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) imagery: Impatiens glandulifera Royle, Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier and Levier, and Japanese knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis (F. Schmidt Petrop.), Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) and hybrids). Based on visible and near-infrared UAS orthophoto, we derived simple spectral and texture image metrics computed at various scales of image segmentation (10, 30, 45, 60 using eCognition software). Supervised classification based on the random forests algorithm was used to identify the most relevant variable (or combination of variables) derived from UAS imagery for mapping riparian invasive plant species. The models were built using 20% of the dataset, the rest of the dataset being used as a test set (80%). Except for H. mantegazzianum, the best results in terms of global accuracy were achieved with the finest scale of analysis (segmentation scale parameter = 10). The best values of overall accuracies reached 72%, 68%, and 97% for I. glandulifera, Japanese knotweed, and H. mantegazzianum respectively. In terms of selected metrics, simple spectral metrics (layer mean/camera brightness) were the most used. Our results also confirm the added value of texture metrics (GLCM derivatives) for mapping riparian invasive species. The results obtained for I. glandulifera and Japanese knotweed do not reach sufficient accuracies for operational applications. However, the results achieved for H. mantegazzianum are encouraging. The high accuracies values combined to

  16. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS: A Report on the Human Systems Integration Phase 1 Simulation Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa; Rorie, R. Conrad; Shively, R. Jay

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) began a five-year Project to address the technical barriers related to routine access of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Planned in two phases, the goal of the first phase was to lay the foundations for the Project by identifying those barriers and key issues to be addressed to achieve integration. Phase 1 activities were completed two years into the five-year Project. The purpose of this paper is to review activities within the Human Systems Integration (HSI) subproject in Phase 1 toward its two objectives: 1) develop GCS guidelines for routine UAS access to the NAS, and 2) develop a prototype display suite within an existing Ground Control Station (GCS). The first objective directly addresses a critical barrier for UAS integration into the NAS - a lack of GCS design standards or requirements. First, the paper describes the initial development of a prototype GCS display suite and supporting simulation software capabilities. Then, three simulation experiments utilizing this simulation architecture are summarized. The first experiment sought to determine a baseline performance of UAS pilots operating in civil airspace under current instrument flight rules for manned aircraft. The second experiment examined the effect of currently employed UAS contingency procedures on Air Traffic Control (ATC) participants. The third experiment compared three GCS command and control interfaces on UAS pilot response times in compliance with ATC clearances. The authors discuss how the results of these and future simulation and flight-testing activities contribute to the development of GCS guidelines to support the safe integration of UAS into the NAS. Finally, the planned activities for Phase 2, including an integrated human-in-the-loop simulation and two flight tests are briefly described.

  17. Airborne Turbulence Detection System Certification Tool Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, David W.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2006-01-01

    A methodology and a corresponding set of simulation tools for testing and evaluating turbulence detection sensors has been presented. The tool set is available to industry and the FAA for certification of radar based airborne turbulence detection systems. The tool set consists of simulated data sets representing convectively induced turbulence, an airborne radar simulation system, hazard tables to convert the radar observable to an aircraft load, documentation, a hazard metric "truth" algorithm, and criteria for scoring the predictions. Analysis indicates that flight test data supports spatial buffers for scoring detections. Also, flight data and demonstrations with the tool set suggest the need for a magnitude buffer.

  18. Airborne laser sensors and integrated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Gardi, Alessandro; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2015-11-01

    The underlying principles and technologies enabling the design and operation of airborne laser sensors are introduced and a detailed review of state-of-the-art avionic systems for civil and military applications is presented. Airborne lasers including Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), Laser Range Finders (LRF), and Laser Weapon Systems (LWS) are extensively used today and new promising technologies are being explored. Most laser systems are active devices that operate in a manner very similar to microwave radars but at much higher frequencies (e.g., LIDAR and LRF). Other devices (e.g., laser target designators and beam-riders) are used to precisely direct Laser Guided Weapons (LGW) against ground targets. The integration of both functions is often encountered in modern military avionics navigation-attack systems. The beneficial effects of airborne lasers including the use of smaller components and remarkable angular resolution have resulted in a host of manned and unmanned aircraft applications. On the other hand, laser sensors performance are much more sensitive to the vagaries of the atmosphere and are thus generally restricted to shorter ranges than microwave systems. Hence it is of paramount importance to analyse the performance of laser sensors and systems in various weather and environmental conditions. Additionally, it is important to define airborne laser safety criteria, since several systems currently in service operate in the near infrared with considerable risk for the naked human eye. Therefore, appropriate methods for predicting and evaluating the performance of infrared laser sensors/systems are presented, taking into account laser safety issues. For aircraft experimental activities with laser systems, it is essential to define test requirements taking into account the specific conditions for operational employment of the systems in the intended scenarios and to verify the performance in realistic environments at the test ranges. To support the

  19. 76 FR 76333 - Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES) AGENCY...,'' to airborne wind energy systems (AWES). In addition, this notice requests information from airborne wind energy system developers and the public related to these systems so that the FAA...

  20. Supporting the Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems(UAS) for Global Science Observations in Civil and Segregated Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulac, B. L.; Reider. K/

    2010-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are growing more popular within the earth science community as a way to augment measurements currently made with manned aircraft. UAS arc uniquely suited for applications that require long dwell times and/or in locations that are generally too dangerous for manned aircraft. Environmental monitoring in areas like the Arctic or obtaining data within a hurricane are just a couple of examples of many applications to which UAS are ideally suited. However, UAS are not without their challenges. Most unmanned aircraft are unable to meet current airspace regulations that are in place for manned aircraft, and specific airspace standards and regulations for unmanned aircraft do not exist. As a result, gaining access to civil airspace for flights is very difficult around the world. Under Term of Reference 48 within the ISPRS Commission 1, WGI/I: Standardization of Aircraft Interfaces, efforts have been made to understand and quantify the current state of UAS airspace access on a global scale. The results of these efforts will be presented along with examples of successful science missions that have been conducted internationally during the past year.

  1. Communications Technology Assessment for the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretmersky, Steven C.; Bishop, William D.; Dailey, Justin E.; Chevalier, Christine T.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is performing communications systems research for the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project. One of the goals of the communications element is to select and test a communications technology for the UAS Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) link. The GRC UAS Modeling and Simulation (M/S) Sub Team will evaluate the performance of several potential technologies for the CNPC link through detailed software simulations. In parallel, an industry partner will implement a technology in hardware to be used for flight testing. The task necessitated a technical assessment of existing Radio Frequency (RF) communications technologies to identify the best candidate systems for use as the UAS CNPC link. The assessment provides a basis for selecting the technologies for the M/S effort and the hardware radio design. The process developed for the technical assessments for the Future Communications Study1 (FCS) was used as an initial starting point for this assessment. The FCS is a joint Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Eurocontrol study on technologies for use as a future aeronautical communications link. The FCS technology assessment process methodology can be applied to the UAS CNPC link; however the findings of the FCS are not directly applicable because of different requirements between a CNPC link and a general aeronautical data link. Additional technologies were added to the potential technologies list from the State of the Art Unmanned Aircraft System Communication Assessment developed by NASA GRC2. This document investigates the state of the art of communications as related to UAS. A portion of the document examines potential communications systems for a UAS communication architecture. Like the FCS, the state of the art assessment surveyed existing communications technologies. It did not, however, perform a detailed assessment of the

  2. Improved Airborne System for Sensing Wildfires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeown, Donald; Richardson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Wildfire Airborne Sensing Program (WASP) is engaged in a continuing effort to develop an improved airborne instrumentation system for sensing wildfires. The system could also be used for other aerial-imaging applications, including mapping and military surveillance. Unlike prior airborne fire-detection instrumentation systems, the WASP system would not be based on custom-made multispectral line scanners and associated custom- made complex optomechanical servomechanisms, sensors, readout circuitry, and packaging. Instead, the WASP system would be based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment that would include (1) three or four electronic cameras (one for each of three or four wavelength bands) instead of a multispectral line scanner; (2) all associated drive and readout electronics; (3) a camera-pointing gimbal; (4) an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver for measuring the position, velocity, and orientation of the aircraft; and (5) a data-acquisition subsystem. It would be necessary to custom-develop an integrated sensor optical-bench assembly, a sensor-management subsystem, and software. The use of mostly COTS equipment is intended to reduce development time and cost, relative to those of prior systems.

  3. A Bird's-Eye View of Eco-Geomorphology From a Small Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeClair, A. J.; Hugenholtz, C.

    2012-12-01

    Physical disturbance regimes play important roles in shaping ecosystems and landscapes; however, our ability to detect disturbance often depends on the method and scale of observation. Here we use a relatively new method in order to detect and map the eco-geomorphic impacts of fossorial mammals in a grassland setting. It is well-known that digging and mound building activity by these animals is a form of biological disturbance that has a number of eco-geomorphic consequences, including: soil formation, hydrology, nutrient cycling, and succession. All these processes contribute to landscape heterogeneity and often increase local micro-topographic variations through mound formation. Most studies that have examined the eco-geomorphic role of fossorial mammals have been limited to observations using traditional field-based methods. While this has yielded important data about the localized effects, the cumulative, landscape-level impacts of such small-scale disturbance events are still largely unknown. While fossorial mammals such as pocket gophers (family Geomyidae) are assumed to be ubiquitous in the environments in which they occur, the small size of individual mounds has meant that mapping their biological footprint using traditional methods has been extremely difficult. Individual mounds disappear in the pixels of conventional remote sensing imagery, while their spatial distribution makes it impractical to study them beyond the plot scale. However, recent advances in both low cost, high-resolution digital cameras, and unmanned aerial systems (UAS), have made it possible to acquire landscape-level data that matches the scale of their disturbance, thus potentially bridging the gap between ground-based field methods and traditional remote sensing imagery. In this study we used UAS-acquired, sub-decimeter resolution imagery to map and quantify the extent of fossorial mammal disturbance in a 4 km2 area of the Great Sand Hills - a stabilized dune field in southwestern

  4. CALIOPE airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system design

    SciTech Connect

    Mietz, D.; Archuleta, B.; Archuleta, J.

    1997-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently developing an airborne CO{sub 2} Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system based on second generation technology demonstrated last summer at NTS. The CALIOPE Airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system requirements have been compiled based on the mission objectives and SONDIAL model trade studies. Subsystem designs have been developed based on flow down from these system requirements, as well as experience gained from second generation ground tests and N-ABLE (Non-proliferation AirBorne Lidar Experiments) airborne experiments. This paper presents the CACDI mission objectives, system requirements, the current subsystem design, and provides an overview of the airborne experimental plan.

  5. Enabling Earth Science Measurements with NASA Uas Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertson, R.; Schoenung, S.; Fladeland, M.; Cutler, F.; Tagg, B.

    2015-04-01

    NASA's Airborne Science Program (ASP) maintains a fleet of manned and unmanned aircraft for Earth Science measurements and observations. The unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) range in size from very large (Global Hawks) to medium (SIERRA, Viking) and relatively small (DragonEye). UAS fly from very low (boundary layer) to very high altitude (stratosphere). NASA also supports science and applied science projects using UAS operated by outside companies or agencies. The aircraft and accompanying data and support systems have been used in numerous investigations. For example, Global Hawks have been used to study both hurricanes and atmospheric composition. SIERRA has been used to study ice, earthquake faults, and coral reefs. DragonEye is being used to measure volcanic emissions. As a foundation for NASA's UAS work, Altair and Ikhana not only flew wildfires in the US, but also provided major programs for the development of real-time data download and processing capabilities. In 2014, an advanced L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar flew for the first time on Global Hawk, demonstrating UAVSAR, which has been flying successfully on a manned aircraft. This paper focuses on two topics: 1) results of a NASA program called UAS-Enabled Earth Science, in which three science teams flew UAS to demonstrate platform and sensor performance, airspace integration, and applied science results from the data collected; 2) recent accomplishments with the high altitude, long-duration Global Hawks. The challenges experienced with flying UAS are discussed. Recent upgrades to data processing, communications, tracking and flight planning systems are described.

  6. Performance metrics for an airborne imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.

    2004-11-01

    A series of airborne imaging experiments have been conducted on the island of Maui and at North Oscura Peak in New Mexico. Two platform altitudes were considered 3000 meters and 600 meters, both with a slant range to the target up to 10000 meters. The airborne imaging platform was a Twin Otter aircraft, which circled ground target sites. The second was a fixed platform on a mountain peak overlooking a valley 600 meters below. The experiments were performed during the day using solar illuminated target buildings. Imaging system performance predictions were calculated using standard atmospheric turbulence models, and aircraft boundary layer models. Several different measurement approaches were then used to estimate the actual system performance, and make comparisons with the calculations.

  7. UAS-NAS Stakeholder Feedback Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, Debra; Murphy, Jim; Grindle, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    The need to fly UAS in the NAS to perform missions of vital importance to national security and defense, emergency management, science, and to enable commercial applications has been continually increasing over the past few years. To address this need, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Integrated Aviation Systems Program (IASP) formulated and funded the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project (hereafter referred to as UAS-NAS Project) from 2011 to 2016. The UAS-NAS Project identified the following need statement: The UAS community needs routine access to the global airspace for all classes of UAS. The Project identified the following goal: To provide research findings to reduce technical barriers associated with integrating UAS into the NAS utilizing integrated system level tests in a relevant environment. This report provides a summary of the collaborations between the UAS-NAS Project and its primary stakeholders and how the Project applied and incorporated the feedback.

  8. Airborne HCl - CO sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartle, E. R.; Hall, G.

    1977-01-01

    A system for measuring air pollutants in-situ using an aircraft was designed, fabricated, and tested. The system is based upon a technique called Gas Filter Correlation (GFC) which provides for high sensitivity and specificity in the presence of interfering species. This particular system was designed for measuring hydrochloric acid and carbon monoxide gases emitted from rocket exhaust effluents.

  9. Airborne Turbulence Warning System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rod

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the development of a system by which aircraft pilots will be warned of turbulence. This networked system of in situ sensors will be mounted on various aircraft all of which are linked through a ground based parabolic antenna. As its end result, this system will attempt to reduce the number of accidents arising from turbulence.

  10. UAS Integration in the NAS Project: Flight Test 3 Data Analysis of JADEM-Autoresolver Detect and Avoid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Chester; Wu, Minghong G.; Santiago, Confesor

    2016-01-01

    The Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System project, or UAS Integration in the NAS, aims to reduce technical barriers related to safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS. The UAS Integration in the NAS Project conducted a flight test activity, referred to as Flight Test 3 (FT3), involving several Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) research prototype systems between June 15, 2015 and August 12, 2015 at the Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC). This report documents the flight testing and analysis results for the NASA Ames-developed JADEM-Autoresolver DAA system, referred to as 'Autoresolver' herein. Four flight test days (June 17, 18, 22, and July 22) were dedicated to Autoresolver testing. The objectives of this test were as follows: 1. Validate CPA prediction accuracy and detect-and-avoid (DAA, formerly known as self-separation) alerting logic in realistic flight conditions. 2. Validate DAA trajectory model including maneuvers. 3. Evaluate TCAS/DAA interoperability. 4. Inform final Minimum Operating Performance Standards (MOPS). Flight test scenarios were designed to collect data to directly address the objectives 1-3. Objective 4, inform final MOPS, was a general objective applicable to the UAS in the NAS project as a whole, of which flight test is a subset. This report presents analysis results completed in support of the UAS in the NAS project FT3 data review conducted on October 20, 2015. Due to time constraints and, to a lesser extent, TCAS data collection issues, objective 3 was not evaluated in this analysis.

  11. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project: KDP-A for Phase 2 Minimum Operational Performance Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindle, Laurie; Hackenberg, Davis L.

    2016-01-01

    UAS Integration in the NAS Project has: a) Developed Technical Challenges that are crucial to UAS integration, aligned with NASA's Strategic Plan and Thrusts, and support FAA standards development. b) Demonstrated rigorous project management processes through the execution of previous phases. c) Defined Partnership Plans. d) Established path to KDP-C. Request approval of Technical Challenges, execution of partnerships and plans, and execution of near-term FY17 activities. There is an increasing need to fly UAS in the NAS to perform missions of vital importance to National Security and Defense, Emergency Management, and Science. There is also an emerging need to enable commercial applications such as cargo transport (e.g. FedEx). Unencumbered NAS Access for Civil/Commercial UAS. Provide research findings, utilizing simulation and flight tests, to support the development and validation of DAA and C2 technologies necessary for integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Roadmap 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cress, Jill J.; Hutt, Michael E.; Sloan, Jeff L.; Bauer, Mark A.; Feller, Mark R.; Goplen, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    This Roadmap provides operational procedures and lessons learned from completed proof-of-concept UAS missions in areas such as wildlife management, resource monitoring, and public land inspections. This information provides not only an implementation framework but can also help increase the awareness by resource managers, scientists, and others of the ability of UAS technology to advance data quality, improve personnel safety, and reduce data acquisition costs.

  13. Airborne Collision Avoidance System X

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    avoidance system on behalf of the Federal Aviation Adminis- tration (FAA). The current Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II...which are used on board an aircraft. The tables provide a cost for each action—no alert , a traffic advisory alerting pilots about nearby aircraft, or a...suitabil- ity than does TCAS II; studies show that ACAS X reduces mid-air collision risk by 59% and unnecessary disruptive alerts by 25% when

  14. A prospectus on airborne laser mapping systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, L. E.; Krabill, W. B.; Swift, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne laser systems have demonstrated enormous potential for topographic and bathymetric mapping. Both profiling and scanning systems have been evaluated for terrain elevation mapping, stream valley cross-section determination, and nearshore bottom profiling. Performance of the laser systems has been impressive and for some applications matches current operational accuracy requirements. Determining the position of individual laser measurements remains a constraint for most applications. Laser technology constrains some terrain and bathymetric applications, particularly for water penetration and frequency of measurements for high-spatial resolution over large areas.

  15. Highly Protable Airborne Multispectral Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehnemann, Robert; Mcnamee, Todd

    2001-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is described that includes and airborne and a ground-based subsytem. It can acquire multispectral image data over swaths of terrain ranging in width from about 1.5 to 1 km. The system was developed especially for use in coastal environments and is well suited for performing remote sensing and general environmental monitoring. It includes a small,munpilotaed, remotely controlled airplance that carries a forward-looking camera for navigation, three downward-looking monochrome video cameras for imaging terrain in three spectral bands, a video transmitter, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) reciever.

  16. Multibeam monopulse radar for airborne sense and avoid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo

    2016-10-01

    The multibeam monopulse radar for Airborne Based Sense and Avoid (ABSAA) system concept is the next step in the development of passive monopulse direction finder proposed by Stephen E. Lipsky in the 80s. In the proposed system the multibeam monopulse radar with an array of directional antennas is positioned on a small aircaraft or Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). Radar signals are simultaneously transmitted and received by multiple angle shifted directional antennas with overlapping antenna patterns and the entire sky, 360° for both horizontal and vertical coverage. Digitizing of amplitude and phase of signals in separate directional antennas relative to reference signals provides high-accuracy high-resolution range and azimuth measurement and allows to record real time amplitude and phase of reflected from non-cooperative aircraft signals. High resolution range and azimuth measurement provides minimal tracking errors in both position and velocity of non-cooperative aircraft and determined by sampling frequency of the digitizer. High speed sampling with high-accuracy processor clock provides high resolution phase/time domain measurement even for directional antennas with wide Field of View (FOV). Fourier transform (frequency domain processing) of received radar signals provides signatures and dramatically increases probability of detection for non-cooperative aircraft. Steering of transmitting power and integration, correlation period of received reflected signals for separate antennas (directions) allows dramatically decreased ground clutter for low altitude flights. An open architecture, modular construction allows the combination of a radar sensor with Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B), electro-optic, acoustic sensors.

  17. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  18. Development of U.S. Government General Technical Requirements for UAS Flight Safety Systems Utilizing the Iridium Satellite Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Jennifer; Birr, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of technical requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) utilization of the Iridium Satellite Constellation to provide flight safety. The Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) required an over-the-horizon communication standard to guarantee flight safety before permitting widespread UAS flights in the National Air Space (NAS). This is important to ensure reliable control of UASs during loss-link and over-the-horizon scenarios. The core requirement was to utilize a satellite system to send GPS tracking data and other telemetry from a flight vehicle down to the ground. Iridium was chosen as the system because it is one of the only true satellite systems that has world wide coverage, and the service has a highly reliable link margin. The Iridium system, the flight modems, and the test flight are described.

  19. Development of an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) for Scaling Terrestrial Ecosystem Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, R.; McMahon, A. M.; Serbin, S.; Rogers, A.

    2015-12-01

    The next generation of Ecosystem and Earth System Models (EESMs) will require detailed information on ecosystem structure and function, including properties of vegetation related to carbon (C), water, and energy cycling, in order to project the future state of ecosystems. High spatial-temporal resolution measurements of terrestrial ecosystem are also important for EESMs, because they can provide critical inputs and benchmark datasets for evaluation of EESMs simulations across scales. The recent development of high-quality, low-altitude remote sensing platforms or small UAS (< 25 kg) enables measurements of terrestrial ecosystems at unprecedented temporal and spatial scales. Specifically, these new platforms can provide detailed information on patterns and processes of terrestrial ecosystems at a critical intermediate scale between point measurements and suborbital and satellite platforms. Given their potential for sub-decimeter spatial resolution, improved mission safety, high revisit frequency, and reduced operation cost, these platforms are of particular interest in the development of ecological scaling algorithms to parameterize and benchmark EESMs, particularly over complex and remote terrain. Our group is developing a small UAS platform and integrated sensor package focused on measurement needs for scaling and informing ecosystem modeling activities, as well as scaling and mapping plant functional traits. To do this we are developing an integrated software workflow and hardware package using off-the-shelf instrumentation including a high-resolution digital camera for Structure from Motion, spectroradiometer, and a thermal infrared camera. Our workflow includes platform design, measurement, image processing, data management, and information extraction. The fusion of 3D structure information, thermal-infrared imagery, and spectroscopic measurements, will provide a foundation for the development of ecological scaling and mapping algorithms. Our initial focus is

  20. Airborne seeker evaluation and test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jollie, William B.

    1991-08-01

    The Airborne Seeker Evaluation Test System (ASETS) is an airborne platform for development, test, and evaluation of air-to-ground seekers and sensors. ASETS consists of approximately 10,000 pounds of equipment, including sixteen racks of control, display, and recording electronics, and a very large stabilized airborne turret, all carried by a modified C- 130A aircraft. The turret measures 50 in. in diameter and extends over 50 in. below the aircraft. Because of the low ground clearance of the C-130, a unique retractor mechanism was designed to raise the turret inside the aircraft for take-offs and landings, and deploy the turret outside the aircraft for testing. The turret has over 7 cubic feet of payload space and can accommodate up to 300 pounds of instrumentation, including missile seekers, thermal imagers, infrared mapping systems, laser systems, millimeter wave radar units, television cameras, and laser rangers. It contains a 5-axis gyro-stabilized gimbal system that will maintain a line of sight in the pitch, roll, and yaw axes to an accuracy better than +/- 125 (mu) rad. The rack-mounted electronics in the aircraft cargo bay can be interchanged to operate any type of sensor and record the data. Six microcomputer subsystems operate and maintain all of the system components during a test mission. ASETS is capable of flying at altitudes between 200 and 20,000 feet, and at airspeeds ranging from 100 to 250 knots. Mission scenarios can include air-to-surface seeker testing, terrain mapping, surface target measurement, air-to-air testing, atmospheric transmission studies, weather data collection, aircraft or missile tracking, background signature measurements, and surveillance. ASETS is fully developed and available to support test programs.

  1. Cooperative Autonomous Observation of Volcanic Environments with sUAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravela, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Cooperative Autonomous Observing System Project (CAOS) at the MIT Earth Signals and Systems Group has developed methodology and systems for dynamically mapping coherent fluids such as plumes using small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS). In the CAOS approach, two classes of sUAS, one remote the other in-situ, implement a dynamic data-driven mapping system by closing the loop between Modeling, Estimation, Sampling, Planning and Control (MESPAC). The continually gathered measurements are assimilated to produce maps/analyses which also guide the sUAS network to adaptively resample the environment. Rather than scan the volume in fixed Eulerian or Lagrangian flight plans, the adaptive nature of the sampling process enables objectives for efficiency and resilience to be incorporated. Modeling includes realtime prediction using two types of reduced models, one based on nowcasting remote observations of plume tracer using scale-cascaded alignment, and another based on dynamically-deformable EOF/POD developed for coherent structures. Ensemble-based Information-theoretic machine learning approaches are used for the highly non-linear/non-Gaussian state/parameter estimation, and for planning. Control of the sUAS is based on model reference control coupled with hierarchical PID. MESPAC is implemented in part on a SkyCandy platform, and implements an airborne mesh that provides instantaneous situational awareness and redundant communication to an operating fleet. SkyCandy is deployed on Itzamna Aero's I9X/W UAS with low-cost sensors, and is currently being used to study the Popocatepetl volcano. Results suggest that operational communities can deploy low-cost sUAS to systematically monitor whilst optimizing for efficiency/maximizing resilience. The CAOS methodology is applicable to many other environments where coherent structures are present in the background. More information can be found at caos.mit.edu.

  2. Small UAS-Based Wind Feature Identification System Part 1: Integration and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Salazar, Leopoldo; Cobano, Jose A.; Ollero, Anibal

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a system for identification of wind features, such as gusts and wind shear. These are of particular interest in the context of energy-efficient navigation of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The proposed system generates real-time wind vector estimates and a novel algorithm to generate wind field predictions. Estimations are based on the integration of an off-the-shelf navigation system and airspeed readings in a so-called direct approach. Wind predictions use atmospheric models to characterize the wind field with different statistical analyses. During the prediction stage, the system is able to incorporate, in a big-data approach, wind measurements from previous flights in order to enhance the approximations. Wind estimates are classified and fitted into a Weibull probability density function. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to determine the shaping and scale parameters of the distribution, which are employed to determine the most probable wind speed at a certain position. The system uses this information to characterize a wind shear or a discrete gust and also utilizes a Gaussian Process regression to characterize continuous gusts. The knowledge of the wind features is crucial for computing energy-efficient trajectories with low cost and payload. Therefore, the system provides a solution that does not require any additional sensors. The system architecture presents a modular decentralized approach, in which the main parts of the system are separated in modules and the exchange of information is managed by a communication handler to enhance upgradeability and maintainability. Validation is done providing preliminary results of both simulations and Software-In-The-Loop testing. Telemetry data collected from real flights, performed in the Seville Metropolitan Area in Andalusia (Spain), was used for testing. Results show that wind estimation and predictions can be calculated at 1 Hz and a wind map can be updated at 0.4 Hz. Predictions

  3. Airborne system for testing multispectral reconnaissance technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Doergeloh, Heinrich; Keil, Heiko; Wetjen, Wilfried

    1999-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for future airborne reconnaissance systems to obtain aerial images for tactical or peacekeeping operations. Especially Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensor system and with real time jam resistant data transmission capabilities are of high interest. An airborne experimental platform has been developed as testbed to investigate different concepts of reconnaissance systems before their application in UAVs. It is based on a Dornier DO 228 aircraft, which is used as flying platform. Great care has been taken to achieve the possibility to test different kinds of multispectral sensors. Hence basically it is capable to be equipped with an IR sensor head, high resolution aerial cameras of the whole optical spectrum and radar systems. The onboard equipment further includes system for digital image processing, compression, coding, and storage. The data are RF transmitted to the ground station using technologies with high jam resistance. The images, after merging with enhanced vision components, are delivered to the observer who has an uplink data channel available to control flight and imaging parameters.

  4. Generic OPC UA Server Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiel, Piotr P.; Farnham, Benjamin; Filimonov, Viatcheslav; Schlenker, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a new approach for generic design and efficient development of OPC UA servers. Development starts with creation of a design file, in XML format, describing an object-oriented information model of the target system or device. Using this model, the framework generates an executable OPC UA server application, which exposes the per-design OPC UA address space, without the developer writing a single line of code. Furthermore, the framework generates skeleton code into which the developer adds the necessary logic for integration to the target system or device. This approach allows both developers unfamiliar with the OPC UA standard, and advanced OPC UA developers, to create servers for the systems they are experts in while greatly reducing design and development effort as compared to developments based purely on COTS OPC UA toolkits. Higher level software may further benefit from the explicit OPC UA server model by using the XML design description as the basis for generating client connectivity configuration and server data representation. Moreover, having the XML design description at hand facilitates automatic generation of validation tools. In this contribution, the concept and implementation of this framework is detailed along with examples of actual production-level usage in the detector control system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and beyond.

  5. Measurements of Atmospheric Aerosol Vertical Distributions above Svalbard, Norway using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Johnson, J. E.; Stalin, S.; Telg, H.; Murphy, D. M.; Burkhart, J. F.; Quinn, P.; Storvold, R.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol vertical distributions were measured above Svalbard, Norway in April 2015 to investigate the processes controlling aerosol concentrations and radiative effects. The aerosol payload was flown in a NOAA/PMEL MANTA Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) on 9 flights totaling 19 flight hours. Measurements were made of particle number concentration and aerosol light absorption at three wavelengths, similar to those conducted in April 2011 (Bates et al., Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2115-2120, 2013). A filter sample was collected on each flight for analyses of trace elements. Additional measurements in the aerosol payload in 2015 included aerosol size distributions obtained using a Printed Optical Particle Spectrometer (POPS) and aerosol optical depth obtained using a four wavelength miniature Scanning Aerosol Sun Photometer (miniSASP). The data show most of the column aerosol mass and resulting optical depth in the boundary layer but frequent aerosol layers aloft with high particle number concentration (2000 cm-3) and enhanced aerosol light absorption (1 Mm-1). Transport of these aerosol layers was assessed using FLEXPART particle dispersion models. The data contribute to an assessment of sources of BC to the Arctic and potential climate impacts.

  6. Enabling Earth Science Measurements with NASA UAS Capabilites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albertson, Randal; Schoenung, Susan; Fladeland, Matthew M.; Cutler, Frank; Tagg, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Airborne Science Program (ASP) maintains a fleet of manned and unmanned aircraft for Earth Science measurements and observations. The unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) range in size from very large (Global Hawks) to medium (SIERRA, Viking) and relatively small (DragonEye). UAS fly from very low (boundary layer) to very high altitude (stratosphere). NASA also supports science and applied science projects using UAS operated by outside companies or agencies. The aircraft and accompanying data and support systems have been used in numerous investigations. For example, Global Hawks have been used to study both hurricanes and atmospheric composition. SIERRA has been used to study ice, earthquake faults, and coral reefs. DragonEye is being used to measure volcanic emissions. As a foundation for NASA's UAS work, Altair and Ikkana not only flew wildfires in the Western US, but also provided major programs for the development of real-time data download and processing capabilities. In early 2014, an advanced L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) also flew for the first time on Global Hawk, proving the utility of UAVSAR, which has been flying successfully on a manned aircraft. In this paper, we focus on two topics: 1) the results of a NASA program called UAS-Enabled Earth Science, in which three different science teams flew (at least) two different UAS to demonstrate platform performance, airspace integration, sensor performance, and applied science results from the data collected; 2) recent accomplishments with the high altitude, long-duration Global Hawks, especially measurements from several payload suites consisting of multiple instruments. The latest upgrades to data processing, communications, tracking and flight planning systems will also be described.

  7. Quantifying streambank erosion: a comparative study using an unmanned aerial system (UAS) and a terrestrial laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, D.; Hamshaw, S. D.; Dewoolkar, M.; ONeil-Dunne, J.; Frolik, J.; Bryce, T. G.; Waldron, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Streambank erosion is a common non-point source contributing to suspended sediment and nutrient loading of waterways, and recently has been estimated to account for 30-80% of sediment loading into receiving waters. There is interest in developing reliable methods to quantify bank erosion in watersheds, so effective management strategies can be devised. However, current methods can be either cost prohibitive or unreliable. Direct measurement approaches (surveys and erosion pins) are labor intensive and yield site-specific measurements that are limited for extrapolation to larger scales. Similar issues arise with analytical methods such as slope stability analysis, which require material parameters that are resource intensive to determine. Newer approaches such as use of aerial LiDAR data have proved effective for watershed level assessment, but come with long turnaround times and high cost. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is also effective and offers high accuracy, however collection over large areas is impractical and post-processing is labor intensive. New technology in the form of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has the potential to significantly enhance the ability to monitor channel migration and quantify bank erosion at variable scales. In this study, 20 km of the Mad and Winooski Rivers in Vermont were flown using a senseFly eBee UAS. Flights were made in spring and fall 2015 in leaf-off conditions with selected portions also flown after large storms in the summer. Change in bank profiles between spring and fall flights provide a comprehensive estimate of bank erosion along the study reaches. Six sites with varying bank heights, erosion sensitivity, and vegetation conditions were selected for simultaneous surveying using a TLS. Point cloud data from both the TLS and UAS were compared to assess the accuracy of the UAS for capturing the bank profile. Changes in bank cross-sections and in volumes calculated from 3D digital surface models were used to compare the

  8. Swarming UAS II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-05

    employed biomimicry to model a swarm of UAS as a colony of ants, where each UAS dynamically updates a global memory map, allowing pheromone-like...matter of design, DSE-R-0808 employed biomimicry to model a swarm of UAS as a colony of ants, where each UAS dynamically updates a global memory map

  9. A multiprocessor airborne lidar data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, C. W.; Bailey, S. A.; Heath, G. E.; Piazza, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    A new multiprocessor data acquisition system was developed for the existing Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL). This implementation simultaneously utilizes five single board 68010 microcomputers, the UNIX system V operating system, and the real time executive VRTX. The original data acquisition system was implemented on a Hewlett Packard HP 21-MX 16 bit minicomputer using a multi-tasking real time operating system and a mixture of assembly and FORTRAN languages. The present collection of data sources produce data at widely varied rates and require varied amounts of burdensome real time processing and formatting. It was decided to replace the aging HP 21-MX minicomputer with a multiprocessor system. A new and flexible recording format was devised and implemented to accommodate the constantly changing sensor configuration. A central feature of this data system is the minimization of non-remote sensing bus traffic. Therefore, it is highly desirable that each micro be capable of functioning as much as possible on-card or via private peripherals. The bus is used primarily for the transfer of remote sensing data to or from the buffer queue.

  10. A multiprocessor airborne lidar data system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C. W.; Bailey, S. A.; Heath, G. E.; Piazza, C. R.

    A new multiprocessor data acquisition system was developed for the existing Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL). This implementation simultaneously utilizes five single board 68010 microcomputers, the UNIX system V operating system, and the real time executive VRTX. The original data acquisition system was implemented on a Hewlett Packard HP 21-MX 16 bit minicomputer using a multi-tasking real time operating system and a mixture of assembly and FORTRAN languages. The present collection of data sources produce data at widely varied rates and require varied amounts of burdensome real time processing and formatting. It was decided to replace the aging HP 21-MX minicomputer with a multiprocessor system. A new and flexible recording format was devised and implemented to accommodate the constantly changing sensor configuration. A central feature of this data system is the minimization of non-remote sensing bus traffic. Therefore, it is highly desirable that each micro be capable of functioning as much as possible on-card or via private peripherals. The bus is used primarily for the transfer of remote sensing data to or from the buffer queue.

  11. Bridging Estimates of Greenness in an Arid Grassland Using Field Observations, Phenocams, and Time Series Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, D. M.; Tweedie, C. E.; Rango, A.

    2013-12-01

    Spatially extensive grasslands and savannas in arid and semi-arid ecosystems (i.e., rangelands) require cost-effective, accurate, and consistent approaches for monitoring plant phenology. Remotely sensed imagery offers these capabilities; however contributions of exposed soil due to modest vegetation cover, susceptibility of vegetation to drought, and lack of robust scaling relationships challenge biophysical retrievals using moderate- and coarse-resolution satellite imagery. To evaluate methods for characterizing plant phenology of common rangeland species and to link field measurements to remotely sensed metrics of land surface phenology, we devised a hierarchical study spanning multiple spatial scales. We collect data using weekly standardized field observations on focal plants, daily phenocam estimates of vegetation greenness, and very high spatial resolution imagery from an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) throughout the growing season. Field observations of phenological condition and vegetation cover serve to verify phenocam greenness indices along with indices derived from time series UAS imagery. UAS imagery is classified using object-oriented image analysis to identify species-specific image objects for which greenness indices are derived. Species-specific image objects facilitate comparisons with phenocam greenness indices and scaling spectral responses to footprints of Landsat and MODIS pixels. Phenocam greenness curves indicated rapid canopy development for the widespread deciduous shrub Prosopis glandulosa over 14 (in April 2012) to 16 (in May 2013) days. The modest peak in greenness for the dominant perennial grass Bouteloua eriopoda occurred in October 2012 following peak summer rainfall. Weekly field estimates of canopy development closely coincided with daily patterns in initial growth and senescence for both species. Field observations improve the precision of the timing of phenophase transitions relative to inflection points calculated from phenocam

  12. An approach to evaluating reactive airborne wind shear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Joseph P., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An approach to evaluating reactive airborne windshear detection systems was developed to support a deployment study for future FAA ground-based windshear detection systems. The deployment study methodology assesses potential future safety enhancements beyond planned capabilities. The reactive airborne systems will be an integral part of planned windshear safety enhancements. The approach to evaluating reactive airborne systems involves separate analyses for both landing and take-off scenario. The analysis estimates the probability of effective warning considering several factors including NASA energy height loss characteristics, reactive alert timing, and a probability distribution for microburst strength.

  13. Advanced airborne ISR demonstration system (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Daniel J.

    2005-05-01

    Recon/Optical, Inc. (ROI) is developing an advanced airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) demonstration system based upon the proven ROI technology used in the SHAred Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) for the U.S. Navy F/A-18. The demonstration system, which includes several state-of-the-art technology enhancements for next-generation ISR, is scheduled for flight testing in the summer of 2005. The demonstration system contains a variant of the SHARP medium altitude CA-270 camera, comprising an inertially stabilized Visible/NIR 5Kx5K imager and MWIR 2Kx2K imager to provide simultaneous high resolution/wide area coverage dual-band operation. The imager has been upgraded to incorporate a LN-100G GPS/INS within the sensor passive isolation loop to improve the accuracy of the NITF image metadata. The Image Processor is also based upon the SHARP configuration, but the demo system contains several enhancements including increased image processing horsepower, Ethernet-based Command & Control, next-generation JPEG2000 image compression, JPEG2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) network data server/client architecture, bi-directional RF datalink, advanced image dissemination/exploitation, and optical Fibrechannel I/O to the solid state recorder. This paper describes the ISR demonstration system and identifies the new network centric CONOPS made possible by the technology enhancements.

  14. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, some remote-sensing applications require advanced airborne multi-sensor systems to provide high performance reflective and emissive spectral imaging measurement rapidly over large areas. The key or unique problem of characteristics is associated with a black box back-end system that operates a suite of cutting-edge imaging sensors to collect simultaneously the high throughput reflective and emissive spectral imaging data with precision georeference. This back-end system needs to be portable, easy-to-use, and reliable with advanced onboard processing. The innovation of the black box backend is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS integrates a complex embedded system of systems with dedicated power and signal electronic circuits inside to serve a suite of configurable cutting-edge electro- optical (EO), long-wave infrared (LWIR), and medium-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras, a hyperspectral imaging scanner, and a GPS and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for atmospheric and surface remote sensing. Its compatible sensor packages include NASA s 1,024 1,024 pixel LWIR quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) imager; a 60.5 megapixel BuckEye EO camera; and a fast (e.g. 200+ scanlines/s) and wide swath-width (e.g., 1,920+ pixels) CCD/InGaAs imager-based visible/near infrared reflectance (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging spectrometer. MAICSS records continuous precision georeferenced and time-tagged multisensor throughputs to mass storage devices at a high aggregate rate, typically 60 MB/s for its LWIR/EO payload. MAICSS is a complete stand-alone imaging server instrument with an easy-to-use software package for either autonomous data collection or interactive airborne operation. Advanced multisensor data acquisition and onboard processing software features have been implemented for MAICSS. With the onboard processing for real time image development, correction, histogram-equalization, compression, georeference, and

  15. Helicopter Airborne Laser Positioning System (HALPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppel, Joseph C.; Christiansen, Howard; Cross, Jeffrey; Totah, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The theory of operation, configuration, laboratory, and ground test results obtained with a helicopter airborne laser positioning system developed by Princeton University is presented. Unfortunately, due to time constraints, flight data could not be completed for presentation at this time. The system measures the relative position between two aircraft in three dimensions using two orthogonal fan-shaped laser beams sweeping across an array of four detectors. Specifically, the system calculates the relative range, elevation, and azimuth between an observation aircraft and a test helicopter with a high degree of accuracy. The detector array provides a wide field of view in the presence of solar interference due to compound parabolic concentrators and spectral filtering of the detector pulses. The detected pulses and their associated time delays are processed by the electronics and are sent as position errors to the helicopter pilot who repositions the aircraft as part of the closed loop system. Accuracies obtained in the laboratory at a range of 80 ft in the absence of sunlight were + or - 1 deg in elevation; +0.5 to -1.5 deg in azimuth; +0.5 to -1.0 ft in range; while elevation varied from 0 to +28 deg and the azimuth varied from 0 to + or - 45 deg. Accuracies in sunlight were approximately 40 deg (+ or - 20 deg) in direct sunlight.

  16. Point Cloud Generation from sUAS-Mounted iPhone Imagery: Performance Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladai, A. D.; Miller, J.

    2014-11-01

    The rapidly growing use of sUAS technology and fast sensor developments continuously inspire mapping professionals to experiment with low-cost airborne systems. Smartphones has all the sensors used in modern airborne surveying systems, including GPS, IMU, camera, etc. Of course, the performance level of the sensors differs by orders, yet it is intriguing to assess the potential of using inexpensive sensors installed on sUAS systems for topographic applications. This paper focuses on the quality analysis of point clouds generated based on overlapping images acquired by an iPhone 5s mounted on a sUAS platform. To support the investigation, test data was acquired over an area with complex topography and varying vegetation. In addition, extensive ground control, including GCPs and transects were collected with GSP and traditional geodetic surveying methods. The statistical and visual analysis is based on a comparison of the UAS data and reference dataset. The results with the evaluation provide a realistic measure of data acquisition system performance. The paper also gives a recommendation for data processing workflow to achieve the best quality of the final products: the digital terrain model and orthophoto mosaic. After a successful data collection the main question is always the reliability and the accuracy of the georeferenced data.

  17. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM) Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2017-01-01

    Conduct research, development and testing to identify airspace operations requirements to enable large-scale visual and beyond visual line of sight UAS operations in the low-altitude airspace. Use build-a-little-test-a-little strategy remote areas to urban areas Low density: No traffic management required but understanding of airspace constraints. Cooperative traffic management: Understanding of airspace constraints and other operations. Manned and unmanned traffic management: Scalable and heterogeneous operations. UTM construct consistent with FAAs risk-based strategy. UTM research platform is used for simulations and tests. UTM offers path towards scalability

  18. Development of a new airborne humidigraph system.

    SciTech Connect

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Schmid, Beat; Chand, Duli; Hubbe, John M.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Nelson, Danny A.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2012-12-06

    Modeling and measurements of aerosol properties is complicated by the hygroscopic behavior of the aerosols adding significant uncertainty to our best estimates of the direct effect aerosols exert on the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Airborne measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity are particularly challenging but critically needed. This motivated the development of a newly designed system which can measure the dependence of the aerosol light scattering coefficient (σsp) on relative humidity (RH), known as f(RH), in real-time at a rapid rate (<10 s) on an aerial platform. The new system has several advantages over existing systems. It consists of three integrating nephelometers and humidity conditioners for simultaneous measurement of the σsp at three different RHs. The humidity is directly controlled in exchanger cells without significant temperature disturbances and without particle dilution, heating or loss of volatile compounds. The single-wavelength nephelometers are illuminated by LED-based light sources thereby minimizing heating of the sample stream. The flexible design of the RH conditioners, consisting of a number of specially designed exchanger cells (driers or humidifiers), enables us to measure f(RH) under hydration or dehydration conditions (always starting with the aerosol in a known state) with a simple system re-configuration. These exchanger cells have been characterized for losses of particles using latex spheres and laboratory generated ammonium sulfate aerosols. Residence times of 6 - 9 s in the exchangers and subsequent lines is sufficient for most aerosols to attain equilibrium with the new water vapor content. The performance of this system has been assessed aboard DOE’s G-1 research aircraft during test flights over California, Oregon, and Washington.

  19. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project. NASA Contributions to the SARP WC Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, Debra K.; Consiglio, Maria Cristina; Santiago, Confesor

    2014-01-01

    To better inform sense and avoid research needs and to understand ongoing investigation of potential solutions that ultimately lead to the assisting the FAA with their Congressional mandate to fly UAS in the NAS.

  20. Assessment of lightweight mobile nuclear power systems. [for airborne vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Rom, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    A review was made of lightweight mobile nuclear power systems (LMNPS). Data cover technical feasibility studies of LMNPS and airborne vehicles, mission studies, and non-technical conditions that are required to develop and use LMNPS.

  1. NASA's UAS NAS Access Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    The vision of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project is "A global transportation system which allows routine access for all classes of UAS." The goal of the UAS Integration in the NAS Project is to "contribute capabilities that reduce technical barriers related to the safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS." This goal will be accomplished through a two-phased approach based on development of system-level integration of key concepts, technologies and/or procedures, and demonstrations of integrated capabilities in an operationally relevant environment. Phase 1 will take place the first two years of the Project and Phase 2 will take place the following three years. The Phase 1 and 2 technical objectives are: Phase 1: Developing a gap analysis between current state of the art and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) UAS Concept of Operations . Validating the key technical areas identified by this Project . Conducting initial modeling, simulation, and flight testing activities . Completing Sub-project Phase 1 deliverables (spectrum requirements, comparative analysis of certification methodologies, etc.) and continue Phase 2 preparation (infrastructure, tools, etc.) Phase 2: Providing regulators with a methodology for developing airworthiness requirements for UAS, and data to support development of certifications standards and regulatory guidance . Providing systems-level, integrated testing of concepts and/or capabilities that address barriers to routine access to the NAS. Through simulation and flight testing, address issues including separation assurance, communications requirements, and human systems integration in operationally relevant environments. The UAS in the NAS Project will demonstrate solutions in specific technology areas, which will address operational/safety issues related to UAS access to the NAS. Since the resource allocation for

  2. A Family of Well-Clear Boundary Models for the Integration of UAS in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony; Chamberlain, James; Consiglio, Maria; Upchurch, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The FAA-sponsored Sense and Avoid Workshop for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) defines the concept of sense and avoid for remote pilots as "the capability of a UAS to remain well clear from and avoid collisions with other airborne traffic." Hence, a rigorous definition of well clear is fundamental to any separation assurance concept for the integration of UAS into civil airspace. This paper presents a family of well-clear boundary models based on the TCAS II Resolution Advisory logic. For these models, algorithms that predict well-clear violations along aircraft current trajectories are provided. These algorithms are analogous to conflict detection algorithms but instead of predicting loss of separation, they predict whether well-clear violations will occur during a given lookahead time interval. Analytical techniques are used to study the properties and relationships satisfied by the models.

  3. UAS Developments Supporting Wildfire Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosia, V. G.; Dahlgren, R. P.; Watts, A.; Reynolds, K. W.; Ball, T.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfires are regularly occurring emergency events that threaten life, property, and natural resources in every U.S. State and many countries around the world. Despite projections that $1.8 billion will be spent by U.S. Federal agencies alone on wildfires in 2014, the decades-long trend of increasing fire size, severity, and cost is expected to continue. Furthermore, the enormous potential for UAS (and concomitant sensor systems) to serve as geospatial intelligence tools to improve the safety and effectiveness of fire management, and our ability to forecast fire and smoke movements, remains barely tapped. Although orbital sensor assets are can provide the geospatial extent of wildfires, generally those resources are limited in use due to their spatial and temporal resolution limitations. These two critical elements make orbital assets of limited utility for tactical, real-time wildfire management, or for continuous scientific analysis of the temporal dynamics related to fire energy release rates and plume concentrations that vary significantly thru a fire's progression. Large UAS platforms and sensors can and have been used to monitor wildfire events at improved temporal, spatial and radiometric scales, but more focus is being placed on the use of small UAS (sUAS) and sensors to support wildfire observation strategies. The use of sUAS is therefore more critical for TACTICAL management purposes, rather than strategic observations, where small-scale fire developments are critical to understand. This paper will highlight the historical development and use of UAS for fire observations, as well as the current shift in focus to smaller, more affordable UAS for more rapid integration into operational use on wildfire events to support tactical observation strategies, and support wildfire science measurement inprovements.

  4. An integrated compact airborne multispectral imaging system using embedded computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuedong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xuguo

    2015-08-01

    An integrated compact airborne multispectral imaging system using embedded computer based control system was developed for small aircraft multispectral imaging application. The multispectral imaging system integrates CMOS camera, filter wheel with eight filters, two-axis stabilized platform, miniature POS (position and orientation system) and embedded computer. The embedded computer has excellent universality and expansibility, and has advantages in volume and weight for airborne platform, so it can meet the requirements of control system of the integrated airborne multispectral imaging system. The embedded computer controls the camera parameters setting, filter wheel and stabilized platform working, image and POS data acquisition, and stores the image and data. The airborne multispectral imaging system can connect peripheral device use the ports of the embedded computer, so the system operation and the stored image data management are easy. This airborne multispectral imaging system has advantages of small volume, multi-function, and good expansibility. The imaging experiment results show that this system has potential for multispectral remote sensing in applications such as resource investigation and environmental monitoring.

  5. Galaxy: a new state of the art airborne lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartsell, Daryl; LaRocque, Paul E.; Tripp, Jeffrey

    2016-10-01

    Recent advancements in lidar technologies have led to significant improvements in Teledyne Optech's airborne lidar systems. This paper will present the performance enhancements that have led to the creation of the Galaxy, a compact scanning lidar system. Unlike the previous generation of conventional airborne lidar, the Galaxy offers fundamentally improved specifications for long-range airborne lidar systems. The Galaxy system is capable of acquiring high-density, multiple-return data with unique pulse separation characteristics and exceptional precision. Utilizing discrete time-of-flight measurement electronics, this new system is capable of seamlessly operating at very high laser repetition rates through blind zones and with multiple pulses in the air. By utilizing even higher scan products , the system outperforms previous generations of systems and optimizes point density during collection.

  6. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 07-2-032 Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Navigation System Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-27

    Dynetics , Inc., 31 March 2007 4. Open Architecture for Telemetry and Instrumentation Systems (OATIS) System Operator’s Manual and ShadowTM 200...Integration Guide, Document Version 1.0, Dynetics , Inc., 19 September 2007. 5. Technical Manual, TM 9-5895-YYY-10, Operator’s Manual for Shadow 200 TUAV

  7. UAS Integration in the NAS Project and Future Autonomy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation highlights NASA use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and related technologies for civil purposes. This briefing will give more insight into the UAS projects progress and future goals.

  8. Airborne water vapor DIAL research: System development and field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Noah S.; Browell, Edward V.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Chyba, Thomas H.; Grossmann, Benoist E.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.; Mayor, Shane D.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurement of water vapor (H2O) and aerosols in the lower atmosphere. The airborne H2O DIAL system was flight tested aboard the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) Electra aircraft in three separate field deployments between 1989 and 1991. Atmospheric measurements were made under a variety of atmospheric conditions during the flight tests, and several modifications were implemented during this development period to improve system operation. A brief description of the system and major modifications will be presented, and the most significant atmospheric observations will be described.

  9. Definition and test of the electromagnetic immunity of UAS for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, C.; Chmel, S.; Jöster, M.; Pusch, T.; Suhrke, M.

    2015-11-01

    Recent technological developments considerably lowered the barrier for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) to be employed in a variety of usage scenarios, comprising live video transmission from otherwise inaccessible vantage points. As an example, in the French-German ANCHORS project several UAS guided by swarm intelligence provide aerial views and environmental data of a disaster site while deploying an ad-hoc communication network for first responders. Since being able to operate in harsh environmental conditions is a key feature, the immunity of the UAS against radio frequency (RF) exposure has been studied. Conventional Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) applied to commercial and industrial electronics is not sufficient since UAS are airborne and can as such move beyond the bounds within which RF exposure is usually limited by regulatory measures. Therefore, the EMC requirements have been complemented by a set of specific RF test frequencies and parameters where strong sources are expected to interfere in the example project test case of an inland port environment. While no essential malfunctions could be observed up to field strengths of 30 V m-1, a sophisticated, more exhaustive approach for testing against potential sources of interference in key scenarios of UAS usage should be derived from our present findings.

  10. Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems and Air Traffic Management Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A new ICAO Policy on Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems is needed, which recognizes it to be an integrated part of the air traffic management system's safety defences; and that should be fully included in hazard analyses for the total system's design safety targets.

  11. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project: Detect and Avoid Display Evaluations in Support of SC-228 Minimum Operational Performance Standards Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa Carolynn

    2017-01-01

    The primary activity for the UAS-NAS Human Systems Integration (HSI) sub-project in Phase 1 was support of RTCA Special Committee 228 Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS). We provide data on the effect of various Detect and Avoid (DAA) display features with respect to pilot performance of the remain well clear function in order to determine the minimum requirements for DAA displays.

  12. Initial Experimental Airworthiness Certification Guidance for UAS. UAS Experimental Certification Process and Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the regulatory processes and requirements already in place by which an applicant might obtain experimental airworthiness certification for a civil Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). It is more extensive and subsequent to an earlier, similar deliverable, PD007, which was an interim study of the same topic. Since few regulatory airworthiness and operating standards exist for UAS like those for traditional manned aircraft and since most UAS have historically been developed and operated under military auspices, civil use of UAS in the NAS is a new and unfamiliar challenge requiring specific and unique considerations. Experimental certification is the most basic level of FAA approval toward routine UAS operation in the NAS. The paper reviews and explains existing FAA requirements for an applicant seeking experimental airworthiness approval and details the process for submission of necessary information. It summarizes the limited purposes for which experimental aircraft may be used and addresses pertinent aspects of UAS design, construction and operation in the NAS in harmony with traditional manned aircraft. Policy IPT position is that UAS, while different from manned aircraft, can use the same initial processes to gain civil operating experience under the experimental approval. Particular note is taken of those UAS-unique characteristics which require extra attention to assure equivalent safety of operation, such as the UAS control station and sense-and-avoid. The paper also provides "best practices" guidance for UAS manufacturers and FAA personnel in two appendices. The material in Appendix A is intended to provide guidance on assuring UAS safety to FAA, and provides FAA personnel with a suggested list of items to review, with a focus on UAS unique factors, prior to issuance of an experimental airworthiness certificate. Appendix B provides an outline for a program letter which a manufacturer could use in preparing the application for an UAS

  13. An airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  14. Influence of UAS Pilot Communication and Execution Delay on Controller's Acceptability Ratings of UAS-ATC Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Morales, Gregory; Chiappe, Dan; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Shively, Jay; Buker, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Successful integration of UAS in the NAS will require that UAS interactions with the air traffic management system be similar to interactions between manned aircraft and air traffic management. For example, UAS response times to air traffic controller (ATCo) clearances should be equivalent to those that are currently found to be acceptable with manned aircraft. Prior studies have examined communication delays with manned aircraft. Unfortunately, there is no analogous body of research for UAS. The goal of the present study was to determine how UAS pilot communication and execution delays affect ATCos' acceptability ratings of UAS pilot responses when the UAS is operating in the NAS. Eight radar-certified controllers managed traffic in a modified ZLA sector with one UAS flying in it. In separate scenarios, the UAS pilot verbal communication and execution delays were either short (1.5 s) or long (5 s) and either constant or variable. The ATCo acceptability of UAS pilot communication and execution delays were measured subjectively via post trial ratings. UAS verbal pilot communication delay, were rated as acceptable 92% of the time when the delay was short. This acceptability level decreased to 64% when the delay was long. UAS pilot execution delay had less of an influence on ATCo acceptability ratings in the present stimulation. Implications of these findings for UAS in the NAS integration are discussed.

  15. Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Miles Q.; Pfeiffer, Joel E.; Sparks, Andrew W.; Jim, Kevin T. C.; Yoon, Dugan

    2002-11-01

    The design, operation, and performance of the fourth generation of Science and Technology International's Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors (AAHIS) are described. These imaging spectrometers have a variable bandwidth ranging from 390-840 nm. A three-axis image stabilization provides spatially and spectrally coherent imagery by damping most of the airborne platform's random motion. A wide 40-degree field of view coupled with sub-pixel detection allows for a large area coverage rate. A software controlled variable aperture, spectral shaping filters, and high quantum efficiency, back-illuminated CCD's contribute to the excellent sensitivity of the sensors. AAHIS sensors have been operated on a variety of fixed and rotary wing platforms, achieving ground-sampling distances ranging from 6.5 cm to 2 m. While these sensors have been primarily designed for use over littoral zones, they are able to operate over both land and water. AAHIS has been used for detecting and locating submarines, mines, tanks, divers, camouflage and disturbed earth. Civilian applications include search and rescue on land and at sea, agricultural analysis, environmental time-series, coral reef assessment, effluent plume detection, coastal mapping, damage assessment, and seasonal whale population monitoring

  16. UAS in the NAS: Survey Responses by ATC, Manned Aircraft Pilots, and UAS Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; McAdaragh, Raymon; Ghatas, Rania W.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA currently is working with industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to establish future requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). To work these issues NASA has established a multi-center UAS Integration in the NAS project. In order to establish Ground Control Station requirements for UAS, the perspective of each of the major players in NAS operations was desired. Three on-line surveys were administered that focused on Air Traffic Controllers (ATC), pilots of manned aircraft, and pilots of UAS. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with some survey respondents. The survey questions addressed UAS control, navigation, and communications from the perspective of small and large unmanned aircraft. Questions also addressed issues of UAS equipage, especially with regard to sense and avoid capabilities. From the ATC and military ATC perspective, of particular interest is how mixed-operations (manned/UAS) have worked in the past and the role of aircraft equipage. Knowledge gained from this information is expected to assist the NASA UAS in the NAS project in directing research foci thus assisting the FAA in the development of rules, regulations, and policies related to UAS in the NAS.

  17. UAS in the NAS: Survey Responses by ATC, Manned Aircraft Pilots, and UAS Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; McAdaragh, Raymon; Ghatas, Rania W.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    NASA currently is working with industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to establish future requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). To work these issues NASA has established a multi-center "UAS Integration in the NAS" project. In order to establish Ground Control Station requirements for UAS, the perspective of each of the major players in NAS operations was desired. Three on-line surveys were administered that focused on Air Traffic Controllers (ATC), pilots of manned aircraft, and pilots of UAS. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with some survey respondents. The survey questions addressed UAS control, navigation, and communications from the perspective of small and large unmanned aircraft. Questions also addressed issues of UAS equipage, especially with regard to sense and avoid capabilities. From the civilian ATC and military ATC perspectives, of particular interest are how mixed operations (manned / UAS) have worked in the past and the role of aircraft equipage. Knowledge gained from this information is expected to assist the NASA UAS Integration in the NAS project in directing research foci thus assisting the FAA in the development of rules, regulations, and policies related to UAS in the NAS.

  18. Formal methods and digital systems validation for airborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1993-01-01

    This report has been prepared to supplement a forthcoming chapter on formal methods in the FAA Digital Systems Validation Handbook. Its purpose is as follows: to outline the technical basis for formal methods in computer science; to explain the use of formal methods in the specification and verification of software and hardware requirements, designs, and implementations; to identify the benefits, weaknesses, and difficulties in applying these methods to digital systems used on board aircraft; and to suggest factors for consideration when formal methods are offered in support of certification. These latter factors assume the context for software development and assurance described in RTCA document DO-178B, 'Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification,' Dec. 1992.

  19. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aerial System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2016-01-01

    Just a year ago we laid out the UTM challenges and NASA's proposed solutions. During the past year NASA's goal continues to be to conduct research, development and testing to identify airspace operations requirements to enable large-scale visual and beyond visual line-of-sight UAS operations in the low-altitude airspace. Significant progress has been made, and NASA is continuing to move forward.

  20. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  1. Development of the ACS+OPC UA based control system for a CTA medium size telescope prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Bagmeet; Oya, Igor; Birsin, Emrah; Köppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schmidt, Torsten; Schwanke, Ullrich; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation Very High Energy (VHE, defined as > 50GeV to several 100TeV) telescope facility, currently in the design and prototyping phase, and expected to come on-line around 2016. The array would have both a Northern and Southern hemisphere site, together delivering nearly complete sky coverage. The CTA array is planned to have ~100 telescopes of several different sizes to fulfill the sensitivity and energy coverage needs. Each telescope has a number of subsystems with varied hardware and control mechanisms; a drive system that gets commands and inputs via OPC UA (OPC Unified Architecture), mirror alignment systems based on XBee/ZigBee protocol and/or CAN bus, weather monitor accessed via serial/Ethernet ports, CCD cameras for calibration, Cherenkov camera, and the data read out electronics, etc. Integrating the control and data-acquisitions of such a distributed heterogeneous system calls for a framework that can handle such a multi-platform, multi-protocol scenario. The CORBA based ALMA Common software satisfies these needs very well and is currently being evaluated as the base software for developing the control system for CTA. A prototype for a Medium Size Telescope (MST, ~12m) is being developed and will be deployed in Berlin, by end of 2012. We present the development being carried out to integrate and control the various hardware subsystems of this MST prototype using ACS.

  2. The Ediacaran Rio Doce magmatic arc revisited (Araçuaí-Ribeira orogenic system, SE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeschi, Mahyra; Novo, Tiago; Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio; Dussin, Ivo; Tassinari, Colombo; Silva, Luiz Carlos; Gonçalves, Leonardo; Alkmim, Fernando; Lana, Cristiano; Figueiredo, Célia; Dantas, Elton; Medeiros, Sílvia; De Campos, Cristina; Corrales, Felipe; Heilbron, Mônica

    2016-07-01

    Described half a century ago, the Galiléia tonalite represents a milestone in the discovery of plate margin magmatic arcs in the Araçuaí-Ribeira orogenic system (southeastern Brazil). In the 1990's, analytical studies on the Galiléia tonalite finally revealed the existence of a Late Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline magmatic arc in the Araçuaí orogen. Meanwhile, the name Rio Doce magmatic arc was applied to calc-alkaline plutons found in the Araçuaí-Ribeira boundary. After those pioneer studies, the calc-alkaline plutons showing a pre-collisional volcanic arc signature and age between 630 Ma and 585 Ma have been grouped in the G1 supersuite, corresponding to the Rio Doce arc infrastructure. Here, we revisit the Rio Doce arc with our solid field knowledge of the region and a robust analytical database (277 lithochemical analyses, and 47 U-Pb, 53 Sm-Nd, 25 87Sr/86Sr and 7 Lu-Hf datasets). The G1 supersuite consists of regionally deformed, tonalitic to granodioritic batholiths and stocks, generally rich in melanocratic to mesocratic enclaves and minor gabbroic to dioritic plutons. Gabbroic to dioritic enclaves show evidence of magma mixing processes. The lithochemical and isotopic signatures clearly reveal a volcanic arc formed on a continental margin setting. Melts from a Rhyacian basement form the bulk of the magma produced, whilst gabbroic plutons and enclaves record involvement of mantle magmas in the arc development. Tonalitic stocks (U-Pb age: 618-575 Ma, εNd(t): -5.7 to -7.8, Nd TDM ages: 1.28-1.68 Ga, 87Sr/86Sr(t): 0.7059-0.7118, and εHf(t): -5.2 to -11.7) form the northernmost segment of the Rio Doce arc, which dies out in the ensialic sector of the Araçuaí orogen. At arc eastern and central zones, several batholiths (e.g., Alto Capim, Baixo Guandu, Galiléia, Muniz Freire, São Vítor) record a long-lasting magmatic history (632-580 Ma; εNd(t): -5.6 to -13.3; Nd TDM age: 1.35-1.80 Ga; 87Sr/86Sr(t): 0.7091-0.7123). At arc western border, the magmatic

  3. Design and implementation of digital airborne multispectral camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhaorong; Zhang, Xuguo; Wang, Li; Pan, Deai

    2012-10-01

    The multispectral imaging equipment is a kind of new generation remote sensor, which can obtain the target image and the spectra information simultaneously. A digital airborne multispectral camera system using discrete filter method had been designed and implemented for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and manned aircraft platforms. The digital airborne multispectral camera system has the advantages of larger frame, higher resolution, panchromatic and multispectral imaging. It also has great potential applications in the fields of environmental and agricultural monitoring and target detection and discrimination. In order to enhance the measurement precision and accuracy of position and orientation, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is integrated in the digital airborne multispectral camera. Meanwhile, the Temperature Control Unit (TCU) guarantees that the camera can operate in the normal state in different altitudes to avoid the window fogging and frosting which will degrade the imaging quality greatly. Finally, Flying experiments were conducted to demonstrate the functionality and performance of the digital airborne multispectral camera. The resolution capability, positioning accuracy and classification and recognition ability were validated.

  4. Airborne system for multispectral, multiangle polarimetric imaging.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Jeffrey H; Korwan, Daniel R; Montes, Marcos J; Gray, Deric J; Gillis, David B; Lamela, Gia M; Miller, W David

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the design, fabrication, calibration, and deployment of an airborne multispectral polarimetric imager. The motivation for the development of this instrument was to explore its ability to provide information about water constituents, such as particle size and type. The instrument is based on four 16 MP cameras and uses wire grid polarizers (aligned at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°) to provide the separation of the polarization states. A five-position filter wheel provides for four narrow-band spectral filters (435, 550, 625, and 750 nm) and one blocked position for dark-level measurements. When flown, the instrument is mounted on a programmable stage that provides control of the view angles. View angles that range to ±65° from the nadir have been used. Data processing provides a measure of the polarimetric signature as a function of both the view zenith and view azimuth angles. As a validation of our initial results, we compare our measurements, over water, with the output of a Monte Carlo code, both of which show neutral points off the principle plane. The locations of the calculated and measured neutral points are compared. The random error level in the measured degree of linear polarization (8% at 435) is shown to be better than 0.25%.

  5. Towards a Multi-Mission, Airborne Science Data System Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crichton, D. J.; Hardman, S.; Law, E.; Freeborn, D.; Kay-Im, E.; Lau, G.; Oswald, J.

    2011-12-01

    NASA earth science instruments are increasingly relying on airborne missions. However, traditionally, there has been limited common infrastructure support available to principal investigators in the area of science data systems. As a result, each investigator has been required to develop their own computing infrastructures for the science data system. Typically there is little software reuse and many projects lack sufficient resources to provide a robust infrastructure to capture, process, distribute and archive the observations acquired from airborne flights. At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we have been developing a multi-mission data system infrastructure for airborne instruments called the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE). ACCE encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation. This includes improving data system interoperability across each instrument. A principal characteristic is being able to provide an agile infrastructure that is architected to allow for a variety of configurations of the infrastructure from locally installed compute and storage services to provisioning those services via the "cloud" from cloud computer vendors such as Amazon.com. Investigators often have different needs that require a flexible configuration. The data system infrastructure is built on the Apache's Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) suite of components which has been used for a number of spaceborne missions and provides a rich set of open source software components and services for constructing science processing and data management systems. In 2010, a partnership was formed between the ACCE team and the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission to support the data processing and data management needs

  6. Covariance analysis of the airborne laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, T. S., Jr.; Hammond, C. L.; Gibbs, B. P.

    1981-01-01

    The requirements and limitations of employing an airborne laser ranging system for detecting crustal shifts of the Earth within centimeters over a region of approximately 200 by 400 km are presented. The system consists of an aircraft which flies over a grid of ground deployed retroreflectors, making six passes over the grid at two different altitudes. The retroreflector baseline errors are assumed to result from measurement noise, a priori errors on the aircraft and retroreflector positions, tropospheric refraction, and sensor biases.

  7. Indoor Unmanned Airship System Airborne Control Module Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YongXia, Gao; YiBo, Li

    By adopting STC12C5A60S2 SCM as a system control unit, assisted by appropriate software and hardware resources, we complete the airborne control module's design of unmanned airship system. This paper introduces hardware control module's structure, airship-driven composition and software realization. Verified by the China Science and Technology Museum special-shaped airship,this control module can work well.

  8. Weather Requirements and Procedures for Step 1: High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Flight Operations in the National Air Space (NAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This cover sheet is for version 2 of the weather requirements document along with Appendix A. The purpose of the requirements document was to identify and to list the weather functional requirements needed to achieve the Access 5 vision of "operating High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) routinely, safely, and reliably in the National Airspace System (NAS) for Step 1." A discussion of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) references and related policies, procedures, and standards is provided as basis for the recommendations supported within this document. Additional procedures and reference documentation related to weather functional requirements is also provided for background. The functional requirements and related information are to be proposed to the FAA and various standards organizations for consideration and approval. The appendix was designed to show that sources of flight weather information are readily available to UAS pilots conducting missions in the NAS. All weather information for this presentation was obtained from the public internet.

  9. The position and orientation system (POS) for airborne survey applications

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, B.; Scherzinger, B.; Lithopoulos, E.

    1996-10-01

    The Position and Orientation System (POS) is an integrated inertial/GPS system that generates accurate position (latitude, longitude, altitude) and orientation (roll, pitch, heading) for airborne survey/mapping applications as well as various other land and marine applications. POS is a GPS-aided strapdown inertial navigator that uses a Kalman filter and a closed-loop error controller to provide an optimally blended position and orientation solution from inertial data from an IMU and aiding data from a GPS receiver. This paper gives a brief description of POS and compares it to other available technologies. It then describes the various application areas of POS for airborne vehicles (POS/AV). Some applications from other POS variants, POS/LV for Land Vehicles, POS/MV for Marine Vessels, are also described. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. An airborne system for detection of volcanic surface deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, J.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is proposed for measuring volcanic deformation on the order of centimeters per day to centimeters per year. An airborne multifrequency pulsed radar, tracking passive ground reflectors spaced at 1 kilometer intervals over a 50 square kilometer area is employed. Identification of targets is accomplished by Doppler and range resolution techniques, with final relative position measurements accomplished by phase comparison of multifrequency signals. Atmospheric path length errors are corrected by an airborne refractometer, meteorological instruments, or other refractive index measuring devices. Anticipated system accuracy is 1-2 cm, with measuring times on the order of minutes. Potential problems exist in the high intrinsic data assimilation rate required of the system to overcome ground backscatter noise.

  11. Inter-agency Working Group for Airborne Data and Telemetry Systems (IWGADTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Chris; Freudinger, Lawrence; Sorenson, Carl; Myers, Jeff; Sullivan, Don; Oolman, Larry

    2009-01-01

    The Interagency Coordinating Committee for Airborne Geosciences Research and Applications (ICCAGRA) was established to improve cooperation and communication among agencies sponsoring airborne platforms and instruments for research and applications, and to serve as a resource for senior level management on airborne geosciences issues. The Interagency Working Group for Airborne Data and Telecommunications Systems (IWGADTS) is a subgroup to ICCAGRA for the purpose of developing recommendations leading to increased interoperability among airborne platforms and instrument payloads, producing increased synergy among research programs with similar goals, and enabling the suborbital layer of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems.

  12. NASA Experience with UAS Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Robert E.; Jennison, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Viewgraphs of NASA's Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) as it applies to Earth science missions is presented. The topics include: 1) Agenda; 2) Background; 3) NASA Science Aircraft Endurance; 4) Science UAS Development Challenges; 5) USCG Alaskan Maritime Surveillance; 6) NOAA/NASA UAV Demonstration Project; 7) Western States Fire Mission; 8) Esperanza Fire Emergency Response; 9) Ikhana (Predator B); 10) UAV Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR); 11) Global Hawk; and 12) Related Technologies

  13. Airborne antenna polarization study for the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilreath, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the microwave landing system (MLS) airborne antenna pattern coverage requirements are investigated for a large commercial aircraft using a single omnidirectional antenna. Omnidirectional antennas having vertical and horizontal polarizations were evaluated at several different station locations on a one-eleventh scale model Boeing 737 aircraft. The results obtained during this experimental program are presented which include principal plane antenna patterns and complete volumetric coverage plots.

  14. Compact Superconducting Power Systems for Airborne Applications (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Timothy J. Haugan, George A. Levin, and Edward B. Durkin Power Generation Branch Power Division JANUARY 2009 Approved...AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Power Generation Branch (AFRL/RZPG) . REPORT NUMBER Power Division AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2010-2061 Air Force...future airborne megawatt-class power generation , it is important to minimize both the size and the weight of the system. The primary means of

  15. Algorithms used in the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, David B.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2016-05-23

    The Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS) analyzes Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data—digitized laser-return waveforms, position, and attitude data—to derive point clouds of target surfaces. A full-waveform airborne lidar system, the EAARL seamlessly and simultaneously collects mixed environment data, including submerged, sub-aerial bare earth, and vegetation-covered topographies.ALPS uses three waveform target-detection algorithms to determine target positions within a given waveform: centroid analysis, leading edge detection, and bottom detection using water-column backscatter modeling. The centroid analysis algorithm detects opaque hard surfaces. The leading edge algorithm detects topography beneath vegetation and shallow, submerged topography. The bottom detection algorithm uses water-column backscatter modeling for deeper submerged topography in turbid water.The report describes slant range calculations and explains how ALPS uses laser range and orientation measurements to project measurement points into the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. Parameters used for coordinate transformations in ALPS are described, as are Interactive Data Language-based methods for gridding EAARL point cloud data to derive digital elevation models. Noise reduction in point clouds through use of a random consensus filter is explained, and detailed pseudocode, mathematical equations, and Yorick source code accompany the report.

  16. NASA three-laser airborne differential absorption lidar system electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. J.; Copeland, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The system control and signal conditioning electronics of the NASA three laser airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system are described. The multipurpose DIAL system was developed for the remote measurement of gas and aerosol profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. A brief description and photographs of the majority of electronics units developed under this contract are presented. The precision control system; which includes a master control unit, three combined NASA laser control interface/quantel control units, and three noise pulse discriminator/pockels cell pulser units; is described in detail. The need and design considerations for precision timing and control are discussed. Calibration procedures are included.

  17. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  18. Unmanned Airborne System Deployment at Turrialba Volcano for Real Time Eruptive Cloud Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, J. A.; Pieri, D. C.; Fladeland, M. M.; Bland, G.; Corrales, E.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Kolyer, R.

    2015-12-01

    The development of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) with a variety of instrument packages enables in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes, even when the active conditions of the volcano do not allow volcanologists and emergency response personnel to get too close to the erupting crater. This has been demonstrated this year by flying a sUAS through the heavy ash driven erupting volcanic cloud of Turrialba Volcano, while conducting real time in situ measurement of gases over the crater summit. The event also achieved the collection of newly released ash samples from the erupting volcano. The interception of the Turrialba ash cloud occurred during the CARTA 2015 field campaign carried out as part of an ongoing program for remote sensing satellite calibration and validation purposes, using active volcanic plumes. These deployments are timed to support overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite on a bimonthly basis using airborne platforms such as tethered balloons, free-flying fixed wing small UAVs at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within about a 5km radius of the summit crater. The onboard instrument includes the MiniGas payload which consists of an array of single electrochemical and infrared gas detectors (SO2, H2S CO2), temperature, pressure, relative humidity and GPS sensors, all connected to an Arduino-based board, with data collected at 1Hz. Data are both stored onboard and sent by telemetry to the ground operator within a 3 km range. The UAV can also carry visible and infrared cameras as well as other payloads, such as a UAV-MS payload that is currently under development for mass spectrometer-based in situ measurements. The presentation describes the ongoing UAV- based in situ remote sensing validation program at Turrialba Volcano, the results of a fly-through the eruptive cloud, as well as future plans to continue these efforts. Work presented here was

  19. Close range ISR (PRISTA) and close quarters combat (CQC) with unmanned aerial systems (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynell, Jon

    2010-04-01

    Ironically, the final frontiers for the UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) are the closest spaces at hand. There is an urgent operational capability gap in the area of proximate reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (PRISTA) as well as close quarters combats (CQC). Needs for extremely close range functionality in land, sea and urban theaters remain unfilled, largely due to the challenges presented by the maneuverability and silent operating floor required to address these missions. The evolution of small, nimble and inexpensive VTOL UAV assets holds much promise in terms of filling this gap. Just as UAVs have evolved from large manned aircraft, so have MAVs (Micro Aerial Vehicles) evolved from UAVs. As unmanned aviation evolves into aerial robotics, NAV (Nano Aerial Vehicle) research will become the next hotbed of unmanned aerial systems development as these systems continue to mature in response to the need to find robotic replacements for humans in PRISTA, CQC, and many other hazardous duties.

  20. Airborne Advanced Reconfigurable Computer System (ARCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjurman, B. E.; Jenkins, G. M.; Masreliez, C. J.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Templeman, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A digital computer subsystem fault-tolerant concept was defined, and the potential benefits and costs of such a subsystem were assessed when used as the central element of a new transport's flight control system. The derived advanced reconfigurable computer system (ARCS) is a triple-redundant computer subsystem that automatically reconfigures, under multiple fault conditions, from triplex to duplex to simplex operation, with redundancy recovery if the fault condition is transient. The study included criteria development covering factors at the aircraft's operation level that would influence the design of a fault-tolerant system for commercial airline use. A new reliability analysis tool was developed for evaluating redundant, fault-tolerant system availability and survivability; and a stringent digital system software design methodology was used to achieve design/implementation visibility.

  1. Unmanned Aircraft System / Remotely Piloted Aircraft (UAS/RPA) Human Factors and Human Systems Integration Research Workshop Held in Dayton, Ohio on November 8-9, 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-25

    station design . These issues include: poor ergonomics ; varying data input methods; multiple inputs required to implement a single command; lack of...facing the UAS/RPA discipline. Major discussion topics included: UAS operator selection, training, control station design , manpower and scheduling...Break 1400 – 1430: Naval UAS Training  LCDR Brent Olde 1430 – 1500: Control Station Design Issues  Melissa Walwanis 1500 – 1600: Tour of NAMRU-D

  2. Evaluation of Early Ground Control Station Configurations for Interacting with a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Martin, Lynne; Mohlenbrink, Christoph; Bienert, Nancy; Wolte, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Claudatos, Lauren; Mercer, Joey

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a human factors evaluation of ground control station design concepts for interacting with an unmanned traffic management system. The data collected for this paper comes from recent field tests for NASA's Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) project, and covers the following topics; workload, situation awareness, as well as flight crew communication, coordination, and procedures. The goal of this evaluation was to determine if the various software implementations for interacting with the UTM system can be described and classified into design concepts to provide guidance for the development of future UTM interfaces. We begin with a brief description of NASA's UTM project, followed by a description of the test range configuration related to a second development phase. We identified (post hoc) two classes in which the ground control stations could be grouped. This grouping was based on level of display integration. The analysis was exploratory and informal. It was conducted to compare ground stations across those two classes and against the aforementioned topics. Herein, we discuss the results.

  3. Airborne water vapor DIAL system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Noah S.; Browell, Edward V.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Grossmann, Benoist E.

    1990-01-01

    A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system developed at NASA Langley Research Center for the remote measurement of atmospheric H2O and aerosols from an aircraft is briefly discussed. This DIAL system utilizes a Nd:YAG laser-pumped dye laser as the off-line transmitter and a narrowband, tunable Alexandrite laser as the on-line transmitter. A 1-m monochromator and a multipass absorption cell are used to position the on-line laser to the center of the H2O line. The receiver system has a 14-in. diameter, f/7 Celestron telescope to collect the backscattered laser light and focus in into the detector optics. Return signals are converted to electrical signals by the optical detector and are digitalized and stored on magnetic tape. The results of fligh tests of the system are shown.

  4. A new COmpact hyperSpectral Imaging system (COSI) for UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Aleksandra; Baeck, Pieter-Jan; Delalieux, Stephanie; Livens, Stefan; Blommaert, Joris; Delauré, Bavo; Boonen, Miet

    2016-04-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the new COmpact hyperSpectral Imaging (COSI) system recently developed at the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO, Belgium) and suitable for multirotor Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) platforms. The camera is compact and lightweight, with a total mass of less than 500g including: an embedded computer, storage and power distribution unit. Such device miniaturization was possible thanks to the application of linear variable filters technology, in which image lines in the across flight direction correspond to different spectral bands as well as a different location on the ground (frame camera). The scanning motion is required to retrieve the complete spectrum for every point on the ground. The COSI camera captures data in 72 narrow (FWHM: 5nm to 10 nm) bands in the spectral range of 600-900 nm. Such spectral information is highly favourable for vegetation studies, since the main chlorophyll absorption feature centred around 680 nm is measured, as well as, the red-edge region (680 nm to 730 nm) which is often linked to plant stress. The NIR region furthermore reflects the internal plant structure, and is often linked to leaf area index and plant biomass. Next to the high spectral resolution, the COSI imager also provides a very high spatial data resolution i.e. images captured with a 9mm lens at 40m altitude cover a swath of ~40m with a ~2cm ground sampling distance. A dedicated data processing chain transforms the raw images into various information and action maps representing the status of the vegetation health and thus allowing for optimization of the management decisions within agricultural fields. In a number of test flights, hyperspectral COSI imager data were acquired covering diverse environments, e.g.: strawberry fields, natural grassland or pear orchards. Next to the COSI system overview, examples of collected data will be presented together with the results of the spectral data analysis. Lessons

  5. Phased-array radar for airborne systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahim, Raghbir S.; Foshee, James J.; Chang, Kai

    2003-09-01

    Phased array antenna systems, which support high pulse rates and high transmit power, are well suited for radar and large-scale surveillance. Sensors and communication systems can function as the eyes and ears for ballistic missile defense applications, providing early warning of attack, target detection and identification, target tracking, and countermeasure decision. In such applications, active array radar systems that contain solid-state transmitter sources and low-noise preamplifiers for transmission and reception are preferred over the conventional radar antennas, because the phased array radar offers the advantages of power management and efficiency, reliability, signal reception, beam steering target detection. The current phased array radar designs are very large, complex and expensive and less efficient because of high RF losses in the phase control circuits used for beam scan. Several thousands of phase shifters and drivers may be required for a single system thus making the system very complex and expensive. This paper describes the phased array radar system based on high power T/R modules, wide-band radiating planar antenna elements and very low loss wide-band phase control circuits (requiring reduced power levels) for beam scan. The phase shifter design is based on micro-strip feed lines perturbed by the proximity of voltage controlled piezoelectric transducer (PET). Measured results have shown an added insertion loss of less than 1 dB for a phase shift of 450 degrees from 2 to 20 GHz. The new wideband phased array radar design provides significant reduction in size cost and weight. Compared to the conventional phased array systems, the cost saving is more than 15 to 1.

  6. Instrumentation Development of an Airborne Recording System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    calculator and suitable peripheral equipment. Accelerometer time histories from an analog recorder are digitized and processed on the programmable calculator system...spectral data in support of materiel air transportability and air delivery testing missions. The new data processing is based on a programmable

  7. Possibilities of Uas for Maritime Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimkowska, A.; Lee, I.; Choi, K.

    2016-06-01

    In the last few years, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have become more important and its use for different application is appreciated. At the beginning UAS were used for military purposes. These successful applications initiated interest among researchers to find uses of UAS for civilian purposes, as they are alternative to both manned and satellite systems in acquiring high-resolution remote sensing data at lower cost while long flight duration. As UAS are built from many components such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), sensing payloads, communication systems, ground control stations, recovery and launch equipment, and supporting equipment, knowledge about its functionality and characteristics is crucial for missions. Therefore, finding appropriate configuration of all elements to fulfill requirements of the mission is a very difficult, yet important task. UAS may be used in various maritime applications such as ship detection, red tide detection and monitoring, border patrol, tracking of pollution at sea and hurricane monitoring just to mention few. One of the greatest advantages of UAV is their ability to fly over dangerous and hazardous areas, where sending manned aircraft could be risky for a crew. In this article brief description of aerial unmanned system components is introduced. Firstly characteristics of unmanned aerial vehicles are presented, it continues with introducing inertial navigation system, communication systems, sensing payloads, ground control stations, and ground and recovery equipment. Next part introduces some examples of UAS for maritime applications. This is followed by suggestions of key indicators which should be taken into consideration while choosing UAS. Last part talks about configuration schemes of UAVs and sensor payloads suggested for some maritime applications.

  8. Demonstration and Validation of an Improved Airborne Electromagnetic System for UXO Detection and Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    basalt flows or other iron-bearing soils and rocks impede the performance of magnetometer systems. Although this is not a universal problem, it occurs...sensors at less than 0.5 m above ground level (AGL). Airborne and ground magnetometer systems are susceptible to interference from magnetic rocks and...where magnetite bearing basaltic rocks are problematic. The airborne TEM-8 system demonstrates a similar advantage over airborne magnetometer systems

  9. Recent modifications, enhancements, and measurements with an airborne lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCoursey, Robert J.; Osborn, Mary T.; Winker, David M.; Woods, David C.

    1996-06-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center's 14-inch airborne aerosol lidar system, which is routinely flown on several NASA aircraft including the DC-8 and the P-3, has been upgraded with several modifications to enhance its measurement capabilities. A new 900 mJ, 10 pps Nd:YAG laser was added with the capability of producing 5 watts of power at 1064 nm, 2.5 watts at 532 nm and 1.5 watts at 355 nm. The existing detector package has been modified to accommodate the three wavelengths and to permit cross-polarization measurements at 532 nm. New software was developed for on- line data visualization and analysis, and computer- controlled laser alignment is being incorporated. The system is now capable of producing real-time color modulated backscatter plots. Other additions include a Pentium/90 processor, GPS (Global Positioning System) and ARINC (Aeronautical Radio Inc.) receivers for acquiring accurate aircraft position data. In 1992 and 1993 this system was flown on several airborne missions to map and characterize the stratospheric aerosol cloud produced by the 1991 eruption of the Mount Pinatubo volcano. Efforts to map the global distribution of Pinatubo were made on both daytime as well as nighttime flights from Moffett Field in California to the South Pacific, to Central and South America, to Australia and to Alaska. In September 1994, the system (aboard NASA's P-3) made correlative measurements along shuttle orbit ground tracks in support of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment flown on the Space Shuttle. In this paper the system upgrades will be discussed and selected data obtained during these recent airborne campaigns will be presented.

  10. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Rapid Near Surface Geophysical Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, J. B.

    2013-08-01

    This paper looks at some of the unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) options and deals with a magnetometer sensor system which might be of interest in conducting rapid near surface geophysical measurements. Few of the traditional airborne geophysical sensors are now capable of being miniaturized to sizes and payload within mini UAS limits (e.g. airborne magnetics, gamma ray spectrometer). Here the deployment of a fluxgate magnetometer mounted on an UAS is presented demonstrating its capability of detecting metallic materials that are buried in the soil. The effectiveness in finding ferrous objects (e.g. UXO, landslides) is demonstrated in two case studies.

  11. Airborne Tomographic Swath Ice Sounding Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Xiaoqing; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Freeman, Anthony; Jezek, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets modulate global sea level by storing water deposited as snow on the surface, and discharging water back into the ocean through melting. Their physical state can be characterized in terms of their mass balance and dynamics. To estimate the current ice mass balance, and to predict future changes in the motion of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, it is necessary to know the ice sheet thickness and the physical conditions of the ice sheet surface and bed. This information is required at fine resolution and over extensive portions of the ice sheets. A tomographic algorithm has been developed to take raw data collected by a multiple-channel synthetic aperture sounding radar system over a polar ice sheet and convert those data into two-dimensional (2D) ice thickness measurements. Prior to this work, conventional processing techniques only provided one-dimensional ice thickness measurements along profiles.

  12. U.S. Army Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) - A Historical Perspective to Identifying and Understanding Stakeholder Relationships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    also collect data from dangerous or remote areas, such as the poles, oceans, wildlands, volcanic islands, and wildfires, enabling better data and...in Beyond-Line- Of-Sight (BLOS) and Line-Of-Sight (LOS) missions. This includes the capability to prevent interception, interference, jamming and...operation of UAS in the NAS must include a communication protocol that aligns with Objective 4.1. Prevention of signal interception for the purpose of

  13. Uas Topographic Mapping with Velodyne LiDAR Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozkow, G.; Toth, C.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology is nowadays willingly used in small area topographic mapping due to low costs and good quality of derived products. Since cameras typically used with UAS have some limitations, e.g. cannot penetrate the vegetation, LiDAR sensors are increasingly getting attention in UAS mapping. Sensor developments reached the point when their costs and size suit the UAS platform, though, LiDAR UAS is still an emerging technology. One issue related to using LiDAR sensors on UAS is the limited performance of the navigation sensors used on UAS platforms. Therefore, various hardware and software solutions are investigated to increase the quality of UAS LiDAR point clouds. This work analyses several aspects of the UAS LiDAR point cloud generation performance based on UAS flights conducted with the Velodyne laser scanner and cameras. The attention was primarily paid to the trajectory reconstruction performance that is essential for accurate point cloud georeferencing. Since the navigation sensors, especially Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), may not be of sufficient performance, the estimated camera poses could allow to increase the robustness of the estimated trajectory, and subsequently, the accuracy of the point cloud. The accuracy of the final UAS LiDAR point cloud was evaluated on the basis of the generated DSM, including comparison with point clouds obtained from dense image matching. The results showed the need for more investigation on MEMS IMU sensors used for UAS trajectory reconstruction. The accuracy of the UAS LiDAR point cloud, though lower than for point cloud obtained from images, may be still sufficient for certain mapping applications where the optical imagery is not useful.

  14. UAS Cross Platform JTA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-18

    SME ) reviews. Data regarding task frequency, importance, difficulty to learn, and mastery requirements, and KSAO importance were collected across 18...related UAS source references, integrating and eliminating redundant statements, and validating statements through subject matter expert ( SME ) reviews...information from 7 subject matter experts ( SMEs ) while minimizing survey time requirements. Our approach to developing and administering the JAQ

  15. A comparison of multicopter and fixed-wing unmanned aerial systems (UAS) applied to mapping debris flows in small alpine catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotier, Bernadette; Lechner, Veronika

    2016-04-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for documenting natural hazard events (e.g. debris flows) is becoming increasingly popular, as UAS allow on-demand, flexible and cost-efficient data acquisition. In this paper, we present the results of a comparison of multicopter and fixed-wing UAS. They were employed in the summer of 2015 to map two small alpine catchments located in Western Austria, where debris flows had occurred recently: The first event took place in the Seigesbach (Tyrol), the second occurred in the Plojergraben (Salzburg). For the Seigesbach mission, a fixed-wing UAS (Multiplex Mentor), equipped with a Sony NEX5 (50 mm prime lens, 14 MP sensor resolution) was employed to acquire approximately 4,000 images. In the Plojergraben an AustroDrones X18 octocopter was used, carrying a Sony ILCE-7R (35 mm prime lens, 36 MP sensor resolution) to record 1,700 images. Both sites had a size of approximately 2km². 20 ground control points (GCP) were distributed within both catchments, and their location was measured (Trimble GeoXT, expected accuracy 0.15 m). Using standard structure-from-motion photogrammetry software (AgiSoft PhotoScan Pro, v. 1.1.6), orthophotos (5 cm ground sampling distance - GSD) and digital surface models (DSM) (20 cm GSD) were calculated. Volume differences caused by the debris flow (i.e. deposition heights and erosion depths) computed by subtracting post-event from pre-event DSMs. Even though the terrain conditions in the two catchments were comparable, the challenges during the field campaign and the evaluation of the aerial images were very different. The main difference between the two campaigns was the number of flights required to cover the catchment: only four were needed by the fixed-wing UAS, while the multicopter required eleven in the Plojergraben. The fixed-wing UAS is specially designed for missions in hardly accessible regions, requiring only two people to carry the whole equipment, while in this case a car was needed for the

  16. A multisensor system for airborne surveillance of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Ketchal, R.; Catoe, C.

    1973-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is developing a prototype airborne oil surveillance system for use in its Marine Environmental Protection Program. The prototype system utilizes an X-band side-looking radar, a 37-GHz imaging microwave radiometer, a multichannel line scanner, and a multispectral low light level system. The system is geared to detecting and mapping oil spills and potential pollution violators anywhere within a 25 nmi range of the aircraft flight track under all but extreme weather conditions. The system provides for false target discrimination and maximum identification of spilled materials. The system also provides an automated detection alarm, as well as a color display to achieve maximum coupling between the sensor data and the equipment operator.

  17. An airborne remote sensing system for urban air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, L. J.; Friedman, E. J.; Keitz, E. L.; Ward, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several NASA sponsored remote sensors and possible airborne platforms were evaluated. Outputs of dispersion models for SO2 and CO pollution in the Washington, D.C. area were used with ground station data to establish the expected performance and limitations of the remote sensors. Aircraft/sensor support requirements are discussed. A method of optimum flight plan determination was made. Cost trade offs were performed. Conclusions about the implementation of various instrument packages as parts of a comprehensive air quality monitoring system in Washington are presented.

  18. a Modified Projective Transformation Scheme for Mosaicking Multi-Camera Imaging System Equipped on a Large Payload Fixed-Wing Uas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhan, J. P.; Li, Y. T.; Rau, J. Y.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) has been applied to collect aerial images for mapping, disaster investigation, vegetation monitoring and etc. It is a higher mobility and lower risk platform for human operation, but the low payload and short operation time reduce the image collection efficiency. In this study, one nadir and four oblique consumer grade DSLR cameras composed multiple camera system is equipped on a large payload UAS, which is designed to collect large ground coverage images in an effective way. The field of view (FOV) is increased to 127 degree, which is thus suitable to collect disaster images in mountainous area. The synthetic acquired five images are registered and mosaicked as larger format virtual image for reducing the number of images, post processing time, and for easier stereo plotting. Instead of traditional image matching and applying bundle adjustment method to estimate transformation parameters, the IOPs and ROPs of multiple cameras are calibrated and derived the coefficients of modified projective transformation (MPT) model for image mosaicking. However, there are some uncertainty of indoor calibrated IOPs and ROPs since the different environment conditions as well as the vibration of UAS, which will cause misregistration effect of initial MPT results. Remaining residuals are analysed through tie points matching on overlapping area of initial MPT results, in which displacement and scale difference are introduced and corrected to modify the ROPs and IOPs for finer registration results. In this experiment, the internal accuracy of mosaic image is better than 0.5 pixels after correcting the systematic errors. Comparison between separate cameras and mosaic images through rigorous aerial triangulation are conducted, in which the RMSE of 5 control and 9 check points is less than 5 cm and 10 cm in planimetric and vertical directions, respectively, for all cases. It proves that the designed imaging system and the proposed scheme

  19. Some applications of the turbulence amplifier to airborne systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. L.

    1981-06-01

    The turbulence amplifier relies on the disruption of a laminar air stream by a small actuating signal that consists of a transverse jet. The dynamic pressure head, generated by the passage of an aircraft through the atmosphere will provide sufficient supply pressure at 130 mph and sufficient control pressure at 30 mph. This means that, in certain applications, no external power source is required, which is of significant interest to airborne applications. As a result of this feature, three systems were investigated for practicability. A description is presented of the development and performance of laboratory models of these three applications. An ice detection and de-icing control system was designed to sense icing conditions on a wing leading edge, and to use the sensed data to operate a de-icing control system. A demonstration model for a control surface asymmetry detection and rectification system was built, and a stall warning system was studied.

  20. Airborne Systems Technology Application to the Windshear Threat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Lewis, Michael S.; Hinton, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The general approach and products of the NASA/FAA Airborne Windshear Program conducted by NASA Langley Research Center are summarized, with references provided for the major technical contributions. During this period, NASA conducted 2 years of flight testing to characterize forward-looking sensor performance. The NASA/FAA Airborne Windshear Program was divided into three main elements: Hazard Characterization, Sensor Technology, and Flight Management Systems. Simulation models developed under the Hazard Characterization element are correlated with flight test data. Flight test results comparing the performance and characteristics of the various Sensor Technologies (microwave radar, lidar, and infrared) are presented. Most of the activities in the Flight Management Systems element were conducted in simulation. Simulation results from a study evaluating windshear crew procedures and displays for forward-looking sensor-equipped airplanes are discussed. NASA Langley researchers participated heavily in the FAA process of generating certification guidelines for predictive windshear detection systems. NASA participants felt that more valuable technology products were generated by the program because of this interaction. NASA involvement in the process and the resulting impact on products and technology transfer are discussed in this paper.

  1. Expanding the Envelope of UAS Certification: What it Takes to Type Certify a UAS for Precision Agricultural Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, J. M.; Hayhurst, K. J.; Neogi, N. A.; Verstynen, H. A.; Clothier, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key challenges to the development of a commercial Unmanned Air-craft System (UAS) market is the lack of explicit consideration of UAS in the current regulatory framework. Despite recent progress, additional steps are needed to enable broad UAS types and operational models. This paper discusses recent research that examines how a risk-based approach for safety might change the process and substance of airworthiness requirements for UAS. The project proposed risk-centric airworthiness requirements for a midsize un-manned rotorcraft used for agricultural spraying and also identified factors that may contribute to distinguishing safety risk among different UAS types and operational concepts. Lessons learned regarding how a risk-based approach can expand the envelope of UAS certification are discussed.

  2. MARA (Multimode Airborne Radar Altimeter) system documentation. Volume 1: MARA system requirements document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, C. L.

    1989-07-01

    The Multimode Airborne Radar Altimeter (MARA), a flexible airborne radar remote sensing facility developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, is discussed. This volume describes the scientific justification for the development of the instrument and the translation of these scientific requirements into instrument design goals. Values for key instrument parameters are derived to accommodate these goals, and simulations and analytical models are used to estimate the developed system's performance.

  3. MARA (Multimode Airborne Radar Altimeter) system documentation. Volume 1: MARA system requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Multimode Airborne Radar Altimeter (MARA), a flexible airborne radar remote sensing facility developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, is discussed. This volume describes the scientific justification for the development of the instrument and the translation of these scientific requirements into instrument design goals. Values for key instrument parameters are derived to accommodate these goals, and simulations and analytical models are used to estimate the developed system's performance.

  4. Airborne experiment results for spaceborne atmospheric synchronous correction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wenyu; Yi, Weining; Du, Lili; Liu, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    The image quality of optical remote sensing satellite is affected by the atmosphere, thus the image needs to be corrected. Due to the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric conditions, correction by using synchronous atmospheric parameters can effectively improve the remote sensing image quality. For this reason, a small light spaceborne instrument, the atmospheric synchronous correction device (airborne prototype), is developed by AIOFM of CAS(Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics of Chinese Academy of Sciences). With this instrument, of which the detection mode is timing synchronization and spatial coverage, the atmospheric parameters consistent with the images to be corrected in time and space can be obtained, and then the correction is achieved by radiative transfer model. To verify the technical process and treatment effect of spaceborne atmospheric correction system, the first airborne experiment is designed and completed. The experiment is implemented by the "satellite-airborne-ground" synchronous measuring method. A high resolution(0.4 m) camera and the atmospheric correction device are equipped on the aircraft, which photograph the ground with the satellite observation over the top simultaneously. And aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) in the imagery area are also acquired, which are used for the atmospheric correction for satellite and aerial images. Experimental results show that using the AOD and CWV of imagery area retrieved by the data obtained by the device to correct aviation and satellite images, can improve image definition and contrast by more than 30%, and increase MTF by more than 1 time, which means atmospheric correction for satellite images by using the data of spaceborne atmospheric synchronous correction device is accurate and effective.

  5. An airborne meteorological data collection system using satellite relay (ASDAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagwell, J. W.; Lindow, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed an airborne data acquisition and communication system for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This system known as ASDAR, the Aircraft to Satellite Data Relay, consists of a microprocessor based controller, time clock, transmitter and antenna. Together they acquire meteorological and position information from existing aircraft systems on B-747 aircraft, convert and format these, and transmit them to the ground via the GOES meteorological satellite series. The development and application of the ASDAR system is described with emphasis on unique features. Performance to date is exceptional, providing horizon-to-horizon coverage of aircraft flights. The data collected is of high quality and is considered a valuable addition to the data base from which NOAA generates its weather forecasts.

  6. Hyperspatial Thermal Imaging of Surface Hydrothermal Features at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselwimmer, C. E.; Wilson, R.; Upton, C.; Prakash, A.; Holdmann, G.; Walker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal remote sensing provides a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring surface hydrothermal features associated with geothermal activity. The increasing availability of low-cost, small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) with integrated thermal imaging sensors offers a means to undertake very high spatial resolution (hyperspatial), quantitative thermal remote sensing of surface geothermal features in support of exploration and long-term monitoring efforts. Results from the deployment of a quadcopter sUAS equipped with a thermal camera over Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska for detailed mapping and heat flux estimation for hot springs, seeps, and thermal pools are presented. Hyperspatial thermal infrared imagery (4 cm pixels) was acquired over Pilgrim Hot Springs in July 2013 using a FLIR TAU 640 camera operating from an Aeryon Scout sUAS flying at an altitude of 40m. The registered and mosaicked thermal imagery is calibrated to surface temperature values using in-situ measurements of uniform blackbody tarps and the temperatures of geothermal and other surface pools acquired with a series of water temperature loggers. Interpretation of the pre-processed thermal imagery enables the delineation of hot springs, the extents of thermal pools, and the flow and mixing of individual geothermal outflow plumes with an unprecedented level of detail. Using the surface temperatures of thermal waters derived from the FLIR data and measured in-situ meteorological parameters the hot spring heat flux and outflow rate is calculated using a heat budget model for a subset of the thermal drainage. The heat flux/outflow rate estimates derived from the FLIR data are compared against in-situ measurements of the hot spring outflow rate recorded at the time of the thermal survey.

  7. The airborne laser ranging system, its capabilities and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D.; Degnan, J. J.; Englar, T. S., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The airborne laser ranging system is a multibeam short pulse laser ranging system on board an aircraft. It simultaneously measures the distances between the aircraft and six laser retroreflectors (targets) deployed on the Earth's surface. The system can interrogate over 100 targets distributed over an area of 25,000 sq, kilometers in a matter of hours. Potentially, a total of 1.3 million individual range measurements can be made in a six hour flight. The precision of these range measurements is approximately + or - 1 cm. These measurements are used in procedure which is basically an extension of trilateration techniques to derive the intersite vector between the laser ground targets. By repeating the estimation of the intersite vector, strain and strain rate errors can be estimated. These quantities are essential for crustal dynamic studies which include determination and monitoring of regional strain in the vicinity of active fault zones, land subsidence, and edifice building preceding volcanic eruptions.

  8. Calibration of UAS imagery inside and outside of shadows for improved vegetation index computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondi, Elizabeth; Salvaggio, Carl; Montanaro, Matthew; Gerace, Aaron D.

    2016-05-01

    Vegetation health and vigor can be assessed with data from multi- and hyperspectral airborne and satellite- borne sensors using index products such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS) technology have created the opportunity to access these same image data sets in a more cost effective manner with higher temporal and spatial resolution. Another advantage of these systems includes the ability to gather data in almost any weather condition, including complete cloud cover, when data has not been available before from traditional platforms. The ability to collect in these varied conditions, meteorological and temporal, will present researchers and producers with many new challenges. Particularly, cloud shadows and self-shadowing by vegetation must be taken into consideration in imagery collected from UAS platforms to avoid variation in NDVI due to changes in illumination within a single scene, and between collection flights. A workflow is presented to compensate for variations in vegetation indices due to shadows and variation in illumination levels in high resolution imagery collected from UAS platforms. Other calibration methods that producers may currently be utilizing produce NDVI products that still contain shadow boundaries and variations due to illumination, whereas the final NDVI mosaic from this workflow does not.

  9. Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) data management overview

    SciTech Connect

    Wiberg, J.D.; Blough, D.K.; Daugherty, W.R.; Hucks, J.A.; Gerhardstein, L.H.; Meitzler, W.D.; Melton, R.B.; Shoemaker, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    An overview of the Data Management Plan for the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) pro-grain is provided in this document. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been assigned the responsibility of data management for the program, which includes defining procedures for data management and data quality assessment. Data management is defined as the process of planning, acquiring, organizing, qualifying and disseminating data. The AMPS program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Arms Control and Non-Proliferation (DOE/AN) and is integrated into the overall DOE AN-10.1 technology development program. Sensors used for collecting the data were developed under the on-site inspection, effluence analysis, and standoff sensor program, the AMPS program interacts with other technology programs of DOE/NN-20. This research will be conducted by both government and private industry. AMPS is a research and development program, and it is not intended for operational deployment, although the sensors and techniques developed could be used in follow-on operational systems. For a complete description of the AMPS program, see {open_quotes}Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) Program Plan{close_quotes}. The primary purpose of the AMPS is to collect high-quality multisensor data to be used in data fusion research to reduce interpretation problems associated with data overload and to derive better information than can be derived from any single sensor. To collect the data for the program, three wing-mounted pods containing instruments with sensors for collecting data will be flight certified on a U.S. Navy RP-3A aircraft. Secondary objectives of the AMPS program are sensor development and technology demonstration. Pod system integrators and instrument developers will be interested in the performance of their deployed sensors and their supporting data acquisition equipment.

  10. UAS remote sensing for precision agriculture: An independent assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) are recognized as potentially important remote-sensing platforms for precision agriculture. However, research is required to determine which sensors and data processing methods are required to use sUAS in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Oregon State U...

  11. Spectrum for UAS Control and Non-Payload Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing need to fly UAS in the NAS to perform missions of vital importance to National Security and Defense, Emergency Management, and Science as well as commercial applications (e.g. cargo transport). To enable integration of UAS into the National Airspace System, several critical technical barriers must be eliminated, including: Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid - the uncertainty surrounding the ability to interoperate in ATC environments and maintain safe separation from other aircraft in the absence of an on-board pilot. Human Systems Integration - lack of standards and guidelines with respect to UAS display information as well as lack of Ground Control Station (GCS) design requirements to operate in the NAS. Certification - lack of airworthiness requirements and safety-related data specific to the full range of UAS, or for their avionics systems or other components. Communications - lack of standard, certifiable data links and aviation safety spectrum to operate such links for civil UAS control communications.

  12. Clocks for airborne systems. [performance of rubidium oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houlding, N.

    1982-01-01

    The potential performance of compact oscillators, needed for the development of accurate clocks for future airborne systems (such as Identification Friend or Foe schemes), is addressed. In particular, extensive testing of rubidium oscillators manufactured by Efratom is discussed. The results indicate that an accuracy of better than 10 microseconds should be achievable in tactical aircraft provided that appropriate measures are adopted to counter the many environmental factors. In a favorable environment a stability of better than 5 x 10 to the -13th power for one day is achievable with present commercial units, but improvements are required to suit operation in an aircraft. With further development of rubidium controlled clocks the ultimate limitation on time accuracy in aircraft will probably be associated with time dissemination, maintenance difficulties and doctrinal hurdles.

  13. Uas Based Tree Species Identification Using the Novel FPI Based Hyperspectral Cameras in Visible, NIR and SWIR Spectral Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näsi, R.; Honkavaara, E.; Tuominen, S.; Saari, H.; Pölönen, I.; Hakala, T.; Viljanen, N.; Soukkamäki, J.; Näkki, I.; Ojanen, H.; Reinikainen, J.

    2016-06-01

    Unmanned airborne systems (UAS) based remote sensing offers flexible tool for environmental monitoring. Novel lightweight Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) based, frame format, hyperspectral imaging in the spectral range from 400 to 1600 nm was used for identifying different species of trees in a forest area. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this was the first research where stereoscopic, hyperspectral VIS, NIR, SWIR data is collected for tree species identification using UAS. The first results of the analysis based on fusion of two FPI-based hyperspectral imagers and RGB camera showed that the novel FPI hyperspectral technology provided accurate geometric, radiometric and spectral information in a forested scene and is operational for environmental remote sensing applications.

  14. Dual-Frequency Airborne Scanning Rain Radar Antenna System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Ziad A.; Green, Ken

    2004-01-01

    A compact, dual-frequency, dual-polarization, wide-angle-scanning antenna system has been developed as part of an airborne instrument for measuring rainfall. This system is an upgraded version of a prior single-frequency airborne rain radar antenna system and was designed to satisfy stringent requirements. One particularly stringent combination of requirements is to generate two dual-polarization (horizontal and vertical polarizations) beams at both frequencies (13.405 and 35.605 GHz) in such a way that the beams radiated from the antenna point in the same direction, have 3-dB angular widths that match within 25 percent, and have low sidelobe levels over a wide scan angle at each polarization-and-frequency combination. In addition, the system is required to exhibit low voltage standing-wave ratios at both frequencies. The system (see figure) includes a flat elliptical scanning reflector and a stationary offset paraboloidal reflector illuminated by a common-aperture feed system that comprises a corrugated horn with four input ports one port for each of the four frequency-and-polarization combinations. The feed horn is designed to simultaneously (1) under-illuminate the reflectors 35.605 GHz and (2) illuminate the reflectors with a 15-dB edge taper at 13.405 GHz. The scanning mirror is rotated in azimuth to scan the antenna beam over an angular range of 20 in the cross-track direction for wide swath coverage, and in elevation to compensate for the motion of the aircraft. The design of common-aperture feed horn makes it possible to obtain the required absolute gain and low side-lobe levels in wide-angle beam scanning. The combination of the common-aperture feed horn with the small (0.3) focal-length-to-diameter ratio of the paraboloidal reflector makes it possible for the overall system to be compact enough that it can be mounted on a DC-8 airplane.

  15. UAS Integration into the NAS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the UAS Integration in the NAS Project is to contribute capabilities that reduce technical barriers related to the safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS This goal will be accomplished through a two-phased approach of system-level integration of key concepts, technologies and/or procedures, and demonstrations of integrated capabilities in an operationally relevant environment. Technical objectives include: PHASE 1: a) Validating the key technical areas identified by this project. System-level analyses, a State of the Art Analysis (SOAA), and a ConOps will identify the challenges and barriers preventing routine UAS access to the NAS. b) Developing a national roadmap and gap analysis identifying specific deliverables in the area of operations, procedures, and technologies that will impact future policy decisions. PHASE 2: a) Provide regulators with a methodology for developing airworthiness requirements for UAS and data to support development of certifications standards and regulatory guidance. b) Provide systems-level integrated testing of concepts and/or capabilities that address barriers to routine access to the NAS. Through simulation and flight testing, address issues including separation assurance, communications requirements, and Pilot Aircraft Interfaces (PAIs) in operationally relevant environments

  16. Airborne laser systems for atmospheric sounding in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark A.; Jia, Huamin; Zammit-Mangion, David

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents new techniques for atmospheric sounding using Near Infrared (NIR) laser sources, direct detection electro-optics and passive infrared imaging systems. These techniques allow a direct determination of atmospheric extinction and, through the adoption of suitable inversion algorithms, the indirect measurement of some important natural and man-made atmospheric constituents, including Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The proposed techniques are suitable for remote sensing missions performed by using aircraft, satellites, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), parachute/gliding vehicles, Roving Surface Vehicles (RSV), or Permanent Surface Installations (PSI). The various techniques proposed offer relative advantages in different scenarios. All are based on measurements of the laser energy/power incident on target surfaces of known geometric and reflective characteristics, by means of infrared detectors and/or infrared cameras calibrated for radiance. Experimental results are presented relative to ground and flight trials performed with laser systems operating in the near infrared (NIR) at λ = 1064 nm and λ = 1550 nm. This includes ground tests performed with 10 Hz and 20 KHz PRF NIR laser systems in a variety of atmospheric conditions, and flight trials performed with a 10 Hz airborne NIR laser system installed on a TORNADO aircraft, flying up to altitudes of 22,000 ft above ground level. Future activities are planned to validate the atmospheric retrieval algorithms developed for CO2 column density measurements, with emphasis on aircraft related emissions at airports and other high air-traffic density environments.

  17. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system.

  18. UAS Integration in the NAS Project - FY 14 Annual Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindle, Laurie; Randall, Debra; Hackenberg, Davis

    2014-01-01

    This briefing gives insight into the research activities and efforts being executed in order to integrate unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system. This briefing is to inform others of the UAS-NAS Projects progress and future directions.

  19. UAS Integration in the NAS FY15 Annual Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindle, Laurie; Randall, Debra; Hackenburg, Davis

    2015-01-01

    This presentation gives insight into the research activities and efforts being executed in order to integrate unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system. This briefing is to inform others of the UAS-NAS progress and future directions.

  20. Mapping of invasive Acacia species in Brazilian Mussununga ecosystems using high- resolution IR remote sensing data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Jan Rudolf Karl; Zvara, Ondrej; Prinz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The biological invasion of Australian Acacia species in natural ecosystems outside Australia has often a negative impact on native and endemic plant species and the related biodiversity. In Brazil, the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia and Espirito Santo forms an associated type of ecosystem, the Mussununga. In our days this biologically diverse ecosystem is negatively affected by the invasion of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, both introduced to Brazil by the agroforestry to increase the production of pulp and high grade woods. In order to detect the distribution of Acacia species and to monitor the expansion of this invasion the use of high-resolution imagery data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) proved to be a very promising approach. In this study, two types of datasets - CIR and RGB - were collected since both types provide different information. In case of CIR imagery attention was paid on spectral signatures related to plants, whereas in case of RGB imagery the focus was on surface characteristics. Orthophoto-mosaics and DSM/DTM for both dataset were extracted. RGB/IHS transformations of the imagery's colour space were utilized, as well as NDVIblue index in case of CIR imagery to discriminate plant associations. Next, two test areas were defined in order validate OBIA rule sets using eCognition software. In case of RGB dataset, a rule set based on elevation distinction between high vegetation (including Acacia) and low vegetation (including soils) was developed. High vegetation was classified using Nearest Neighbour algorithm while working with the CIR dataset. The IHS information was used to mask shadows, soils and low vegetation. Further Nearest Neighbour classification was used for distinction between Acacia and other high vegetation types. Finally an accuracy assessment was performed using a confusion matrix. One can state that the IHS information appeared to be helpful in Acacia detection while the surface elevation

  1. Medium altitude airborne Geiger-mode mapping LIDAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifton, William E.; Steele, Bradley; Nelson, Graham; Truscott, Antony; Itzler, Mark; Entwistle, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Over the past 15 years the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and private industry have been developing airborne LiDAR systems based on arrays of Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode (GmAPD) detectors capable of detecting a single photon. The extreme sensitivity of GmAPD detectors allows operation of LiDAR sensors at unprecedented altitudes and area collection rates in excess of 1,000 km2/hr. Up until now the primary emphasis of this technology has been limited to defense applications despite the significant benefits of applying this technology to non-military uses such as mapping, monitoring critical infrastructure and disaster relief. This paper briefly describes the operation of GmAPDs, design and operation of a Geiger-mode LiDAR, a comparison of Geiger-mode and traditional linear mode LiDARs, and a description of the first commercial Geiger-mode LiDAR system, the IntelliEarth™ Geospatial Solutions Geiger-mode LiDAR sensor.

  2. Recommendations for UAS Crew Ratings. Pilot Ratings and Authorization Requirements for UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This position paper is intended to recommend the minimum certificate and rating requirements for a pilot to operate an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) in the National Airspace System. The paper will recommend the minimum requirements based on the Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSA) required of a UAS pilot and show how those compare to the KSAs required by regulation for manned-aircraft pilots. The paper will provide substantiation based on studies conducted using analyses, simulation and flight experience. The paper is not yet complete; only initial working material is included. The material provided describes the body of work completed thus far and the plan for remaining tasks to complete the recommendation. The HSI Pilot KSA document provides an analysis of the knowledge, skills, and abilities required for UAS operation in the NAS. It is the source document used for the position paper.

  3. UAS Detection Classification and Neutralization: Market Survey 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark; Erdman, Matthew Kelly

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to briefly frame the challenges of detecting low, slow, and small (LSS) unmanned aerial systems (UAS). The conclusion drawn from internal discussions and external reports is the following; detection of LSS UAS is a challenging problem that can- not be achieved with a single detection modality for all potential targets. Classification of LSS UAS, especially classification in the presence of background clutter (e.g., urban environment) or other non-threating targets (e.g., birds), is under-explored. Though information of avail- able technologies is sparse, many of the existing options for UAS detection appear to be in their infancy (when compared to more established ground-based air defense systems for larger and/or faster threats). Companies currently providing or developing technologies to combat the UAS safety and security problem are certainly worth investigating, however, no company has provided the statistical evidence necessary to support robust detection, identification, and/or neutralization of LSS UAS targets. The results of a market survey are included that highlights potential commercial entities that could contribute some technology that assists in the detection, classification, and neutral- ization of a LSS UAS. This survey found no clear and obvious commercial solution, though recommendations are given for further investigation of several potential systems.

  4. Airborne laser ranging system for monitoring regional crustal deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Alternate approaches for making the atmospheric correction without benefit of a ground-based meteorological network are discussed. These include (1) a two-color channel that determines the atmospheric correction by measuring the time delay induced by dispersion between pulses at two optical frequencies; (2) single-color range measurements supported by an onboard temperature sounder, pressure altimeter readings, and surface measurements by a few existing meteorological facilities; and (3) inclusion of the quadratic polynomial coefficients as variables to be solved for along with target coordinates in the reduction of the single-color range data. It is anticipated that the initial Airborne Laser Ranging System (ALRS) experiments will be carried out in Southern California in a region bounded by Santa Barbara on the norht and the Mexican border on the south. The target area will be bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and will extend eastward for approximately 400 km. The unique ability of the ALRS to provide a geodetic 'snapshot' of such a large area will make it a valuable geophysical tool.

  5. Control Parameters Optimization Based on Co-Simulation of a Mechatronic System for an UA-Based Two-Axis Inertially Stabilized Platform.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhao, Beilei; Gong, Guohao

    2015-08-14

    This paper presents a method based on co-simulation of a mechatronic system to optimize the control parameters of a two-axis inertially stabilized platform system (ISP) applied in an unmanned airship (UA), by which high control performance and reliability of the ISP system are achieved. First, a three-dimensional structural model of the ISP is built by using the three-dimensional parametric CAD software SOLIDWORKS(®); then, to analyze the system's kinematic and dynamic characteristics under operating conditions, dynamics modeling is conducted by using the multi-body dynamics software ADAMS™, thus the main dynamic parameters such as displacement, velocity, acceleration and reaction curve are obtained, respectively, through simulation analysis. Then, those dynamic parameters were input into the established MATLAB(®) SIMULINK(®) controller to simulate and test the performance of the control system. By these means, the ISP control parameters are optimized. To verify the methods, experiments were carried out by applying the optimized parameters to the control system of a two-axis ISP. The results show that the co-simulation by using virtual prototyping (VP) is effective to obtain optimized ISP control parameters, eventually leading to high ISP control performance.

  6. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Garry J; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml(-1)) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  7. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools

    PubMed Central

    Burdett, Garry J.; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml−1) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml−1. Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  8. Optical Communication for Coping the UAS Data Deluge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griethe, Wolfgang; Heine, Frank; Seel, Stefan; Alberty, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Hardly any technology has retained a greater recovery in recent years than that of the Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The rationale for this is manifold. UAS are currently operated by many countries around the world. Upcoming sensors and raised numbers of operated vehicles create an increased bandwidth demand for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UA V) to ground communication bandwidth in the near future, exceeding currently installed RF communication capabilities. A high bandwidth optical link between an above-the-weather UAV and a GEO spacecraft offers a secure, jamming resistant, non-ITU regulated alternative to existing and envisaged Ku- and Ka- band UAV data and TM/TC links.

  9. Rapid System to Quantitatively Characterize the Airborne Microbial Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macnaughton, Sarah J.

    1998-01-01

    Bioaerosols have been linked to a wide range of different allergies and respiratory illnesses. Currently, microorganism culture is the most commonly used method for exposure assessment. Such culture techniques, however, generally fail to detect between 90-99% of the actual viable biomass. Consequently, an unbiased technique for detecting airborne microorganisms is essential. In this Phase II proposal, a portable air sampling device his been developed for the collection of airborne microbial biomass from indoor (and outdoor) environments. Methods were evaluated for extracting and identifying lipids that provide information on indoor air microbial biomass, and automation of these procedures was investigated. Also, techniques to automate the extraction of DNA were explored.

  10. Control Parameters Optimization Based on Co-Simulation of a Mechatronic System for an UA-Based Two-Axis Inertially Stabilized Platform

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhao, Beilei; Gong, Guohao

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method based on co-simulation of a mechatronic system to optimize the control parameters of a two-axis inertially stabilized platform system (ISP) applied in an unmanned airship (UA), by which high control performance and reliability of the ISP system are achieved. First, a three-dimensional structural model of the ISP is built by using the three-dimensional parametric CAD software SOLIDWORKS®; then, to analyze the system’s kinematic and dynamic characteristics under operating conditions, dynamics modeling is conducted by using the multi-body dynamics software ADAMS™, thus the main dynamic parameters such as displacement, velocity, acceleration and reaction curve are obtained, respectively, through simulation analysis. Then, those dynamic parameters were input into the established MATLAB® SIMULINK® controller to simulate and test the performance of the control system. By these means, the ISP control parameters are optimized. To verify the methods, experiments were carried out by applying the optimized parameters to the control system of a two-axis ISP. The results show that the co-simulation by using virtual prototyping (VP) is effective to obtain optimized ISP control parameters, eventually leading to high ISP control performance. PMID:26287210

  11. HALE UAS Concept of Operations. Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This document is a system level Concept of Operations (CONOPS) from the perspective of future High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) service providers and National Airspace System (NAS) users. It describes current systems (existing UAS), describes HALE UAS functions and operations to be performed (via sample missions), and offers insight into the user s environment (i.e., the UAS as a system of systems). It is intended to be a source document for NAS UAS operational requirements, and provides a construct for government agencies to use in guiding their regulatory decisions, architecture requirements, and investment strategies. Although it does not describe the technical capabilities of a specific HALE UAS system (which do, and will vary widely), it is intended to aid in requirements capture and to be used as input to the functional requirements and analysis process. The document provides a basis for development of functional requirements and operational guidelines to achieve unrestricted access into the NAS. This document is an FY06 update to the FY05 Access 5 Project-approved Concept of Operations document previously published in the Public Domain on the Access 5 open website. This version is recommended to be approved for public release also. The updates are a reorganization of materials from the previous version with the addition of an updated set of operational requirements, inclusion of sample mission scenarios, and identification of roles and responsibilities of interfaces within flight phases.

  12. Examination of Airborne FDEM System Attributes for UXO Mapping and Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer , or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation...the semi-airborne configuration. We propose to extend the current SAIC codes to address this need, and to perform additional modeling using codes...transmitter with the existing receivers on the TEM-8 system. Additional airborne measurements will be made with Cases 2 and 4 receiver

  13. An Introduction to Coastal Zone Mapping With Airborne Lidar: The Shoals System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    AN INTRODUCTION TO COASTAL ZONE MAPPING WITH AIRBORNE LIDAR : THE SHOALS SYSTEM Jennifer L. Irish US Army Engineer Research and Development...Center Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise 109 St. Joseph Street, Mobile, AL 36602-3630...USA http://shoals.sam.usace.army.mil ABSTRACT Recent advancements in lidar sensors now allow for near-synoptic, regional-scale mapping of the

  14. A Portable Airborne Scanning Lidar System for Ocean and Coastal Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-26

    has been quantified in many studies with several different airborne lidar systems. Robertson et al. (2007) measured beach erosion caused by Hurricane...Mech., 156, 505–531. Robertson , W., K. Zhang, and D. Whitman, 2007: Hurricane- induced beach change derived from airborne laser mea- surements near...level changes on Southern California beaches. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, San Diego, 155 pp. ——, R. Guza, R. Gutierrez, and R. Seymour

  15. NASA GRC UAS Project: Communications Modeling and Simulation Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubat, Greg

    2013-01-01

    The integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace represents new operational concepts required in civil aviation. These new concepts are evolving as the nation moves toward the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) under the leadership of the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), and through ongoing work by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The desire and ability to fly UAS in the National Air Space (NAS) in the near term has increased dramatically, and this multi-agency effort to develop and implement a national plan to successfully address the challenges of UAS access to the NAS in a safe and timely manner is well underway. As part of the effort to integrate UAS in the National Airspace, NASA Glenn Research Center is currently involved with providing research into Communications systems and Communication system operations in order to assist with developing requirements for this implementation. In order to provide data and information regarding communication systems performance that will be necessary, NASA GRC is tasked with developing and executing plans for simulations of candidate future UAS command and control communications, in line with architectures and communications technologies being developed and/or proposed by NASA and relevant aviation organizations (in particular, RTCA SC-203). The simulations and related analyses will provide insight into the ability of proposed communications technologies and system architectures to enable safe operation of UAS, meeting UAS in the NAS project goals (including performance requirements, scalability, and interoperability), and ultimately leading to a determination of the ability of NextGen communication systems to accommodate UAS. This presentation, compiled by the NASA GRC team, will provide a view of the overall planned simulation effort and objectives, a description of the simulation concept and status of the design and development that has occurred to date.

  16. A Summary of Two Recent UAS Command and Control (C2) Communications Feasibility Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Auld, Elisabeth; Church, Gary; Henriksen, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In Spring of 2015, the NextGen Institute conducted two UAS C2 Communications Feasibility Studies on behalf of the FAA UAS Integration Office to develop two limited UAS C2 operational examples, each involving low-altitude BLOS (Beyond Line of Sight) Line of Communication (LOC) UAS applications, as part of assessing the myriad practical UAS C2 deployment challenges associated with these approaches. The studies investigated the feasibility of "Point-to-Point" (PTP) and "Network" approaches to UAS C2 to better understand potential user needs and to explore evolutionary paths to establishing a nation-wide system for delivering UAS C2 communications. This paper will summarize the solicitation, approach and results of the two studies teams led by Aviation Management Associates, Inc. and Exelis Inc.

  17. Optimization of UA of heat exchangers and BOG compressor exit pressure of LNG boil-off gas reliquefaction system using exergy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochunni, Sarun Kumar; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2015-12-01

    Boil-off gas (BOG) generation and its handling are important issues in Liquefied natural gas (LNG) value chain because of economic, environment and safety reasons. Several variants of reliquefaction systems of BOG have been proposed by researchers. Thermodynamic analyses help to configure them and size their components for improving performance. In this paper, exergy analysis of reliquefaction system based on nitrogen-driven reverse Brayton cycle is carried out through simulation using Aspen Hysys 8.6®, a process simulator and the effects of heat exchanger size with and without related pressure drop and BOG compressor exit pressure are evaluated. Nondimensionalization of parameters with respect to the BOG load allows one to scale up or down the design. The process heat exchanger (PHX) requires much higher surface area than that of BOG condenser and it helps to reduce the quantity of methane vented out to atmosphere. As pressure drop destroys exergy, optimum UA of PHX decreases for highest system performance if pressure drop is taken into account. Again, for fixed sizes of heat exchangers, as there is a range of discharge pressures of BOG compressor at which the loss of methane in vent minimizes, the designer should consider choosing the pressure at lower value.

  18. UAS-NAS Flight Test Series 3: Test Environment Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoang, Ty; Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communications (Comm), and Certification to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Detect and Avoid (DAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project is conducting a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) and flight test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity, and

  19. Design and performance simulations for an airborne DIAL system for long-range remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, James A.; Kelly, Brian T.; Gonglewski, John D.; Fox, Marsha J.; Shilko, Michael L.; Higdon, Noah S.; Highland, Ronald G.; Senft, Daniel C.; Dean, David R.; Blackburn, John P.; Pierrottet, Diego F.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force Phillips Laboratory is evaluating the feasibility of long-standoff-range remote sensing of gaseous species present in trace amounts in the atmosphere. To date, the Phillips Laboratory program has been concerned with the preliminary design and performance analysis of a commercially available CO(subscript 2) laser-based DIAL system operating from mountain-top-observatory and airborne platform and more recently with long-range ground testing using a 21.8 km slant path from 3.05 km ASL to sea level as the initial steps in the design and development of an airborne system capability. Straightforward scaling of the performance of a near-term technology direct-detection LIDAR system with propagation range to a topographic target and with the average atmospheric absorption coefficient along the path has been performed. Results indicate that useful airborne operation of such a system should be possible for slant path ranges between 20 km and 50 km, depending upon atmospheric transmission at the operating wavelengths of the (superscript 13)C(superscript 16)O(subscript 2) source. This paper describes the design of the airborne system which will be deployed on the Phillips Laboratory NC-135 research aircraft for DIAL system performance tests at slant ranges of 20 km to 50 km, scheduled for the near future. Performance simulations for the airborne tests will be presented and related to performance obtained during initial ground-based tests.

  20. Airborne spectrograph for the thermal IR: Broadband Array Spectrograph System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Ray W.; Hackwell, John; Lynch, David; Mazuk, Ann

    Spectroscopic studies in the 'fingerprint' region of the thermal IR from 3 to 14 microns of celestial dust components and the overall energy distribution of the sources are best served by moderate spectral resolution (R = lambda/Delta lambda approximately 30 to 200), high sensitivity observations. Spectral purity and the reproducibility of the spectral shape are critical as well, when using the spectral shape to assign temperatures to dust grains or to gas clouds based on the wavelength and shape of molecular bands. These sensor attributes are also important to the use of wavelengths and ratios of solid state features to derive compositions of dust grains in celestial sources. The advent of high quality linear arrays of blocked impurity band (BIB) detectors of Si:As permitted the development of a state-of-the-art, patented, cooled prism spectrograph. Developed at The Aerospace Corporation largely with in-house funds, the Broadband Array Spectrograph System (BASS) has been used for a variety of remote sensing applications, but especially for IR astronomical studies on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory and at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). The attributes of the spectrograph, specifically having the pupil imaged onto the 2 linear 58 element detector arrays so that the effects of guiding errors are minimized, being able to maximally exploit the limited observing time by acquiring all 116 spectral channels simultaneously, and having all spectral channels imaged through the same aperture so that spectral mapping is readily and reliably accomplished, afford the scientist with a unique opportunity to conduct both surveys of examples of many different types of sources as well as in-depth studies of a given class of object by thoroughly sampling the class members. This duality was demonstrated with the BASS through a combination of KAO flights where spectral maps were obtained as part of in-depth studies of specific source regions (such as Orion and W3) and

  1. Development and testing of a long-range airborne CO2 DIAL chemical detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higdon, N. Scott; Senft, Daniel C.; Fox, Marsha J.; Hamilton, Carla M.; Kelly, Brian T.; Dowling, James A.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Dean, David R.; Richter, Dale A.; Bousek, Ronald R.

    1998-11-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory has developed and tested an airborne CO2 differential absorption lidar system for the remote detection of chemicals. The Laser Airborne Remote Sensing DIAL system uses topographic backscatter to provide a long-range measurement of the column-content absorption of chemical plumes in the path of the laser beam. A high-power CO2 laser, capable of operation on multiple isotopes, and a Mersenne telescope constitute the major transceiver components. In addition to the laser, telescope, and transceiver optics, several onboard diagnostic instruments were mounted on the flight bench to monitor and optimize the system performance during airborne operation. The flight bench, electronics racks, and data acquisition and experiment control stations were designed to be integrated onto the AFRL C-135E research aircraft, and to utilize the existing pointing and tracking system on the aircraft.

  2. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  3. 76 FR 50808 - Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... standard for GPS sensors not augmented by satellite-based or ground- based systems (i.e., TSO-C129a Class B and Class C). The FAA has also published two GPS TSOs augmented by the satellite-based augmentation system (TSO-C145c, Airborne Navigation Sensors Using the Global Positioning System Augmented by...

  4. Cooperative Uas Localization Using Lowcost Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Salil; Kealy, Allison; Lohani, Bharat

    2016-06-01

    Networks of small, low cost Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) have the potential to improve responsiveness and situational awareness across an increasing number of applications including defense, surveillance, mapping, search and rescue, disaster management, mineral exploration, assisted guidance and navigation etc. These ad hoc UAS networks typically have the capability to communicate with each other and can share data between the individual UAS nodes. Thus these networks can operate as robust and efficient information acquisition platforms. For any of the applications involving UASs, a primary requirement is the localization i.e. determining the position and orientation of the UAS. The performance requirements of localization can vary with individual applications, for example: mapping applications need much higher localization accuracy as compared to the applications involving only surveillance. The sharing of appropriate data between UASs can prove to be advantageous when compared to a single UAS, in terms of improving the positioning accuracy and reliability particularly in partially or completely GNSS denied environments. This research aims to integrate low cost positioning sensors and cooperative localization technique for a network of UASs. Our hypothesis is that it is possible to achieve high accurate, real-time localization of each of the nodes in the network even with cheaper sensors if the nodes of the network share information among themselves. This hypothesis is validated using simulations and the results are analyzed both for centralized and distributed estimation architectures. At first, the results are studied for a two node network which is then expanded for a network containing more number of nodes. Having more nodes in the network allows us to study the properties of the network including the effect of size and shape of the network on accuracy of the nodes.

  5. UAS-Based Radar Sounding of Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, R. D.; Keshmiri, S.; Leuschen, C.; Ewing, M.; Yan, J. B.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Gogineni, S.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Kansas Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets developed two Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) to support polar research. We developed a mid-range UAS, called the Meridian, for operating a radar depth sounder/imager at 195 MHz with an eight-element antenna array. The Meridian weighs 1,100 lbs, has a 26-foot wingspan, and a range of 950 nm at its full payload capacity of 120 lbs. Ice-penetrating radar performance drove the configuration design, though additional payloads and sensors were considered to ensure adaptation to multi-mission science payloads. We also developed a short range UAS called the G1X for operating a low-frequency radar sounder that operates at 14 and 35 MHz. The G1X weighs 85 lbs, has a 17-foot wingspan, and a range of about 60 nm per gallon of fuel. The dual-frequency HF/VHF radar depth sounder transmits at 100 W peak power at a pulse repetition frequency of 10 KHz and weighs approximately 4.5 lbs. We conducted flight tests of the G1X integrated with the radar at the Sub-glacial Lake Whillans ice stream and the WISSARD drill site. The tests included pilot-controlled and fully autonomous flights to collect data over closely-spaced lines to synthesize a 2-D aperture. We obtained clear bed echoes with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of more than 50 dB at this location. These are the first-ever successful soundings of glacial ice with a UAS-based radar. Although ice attenuation losses in this location are low in comparison to more challenging targets, in-field performance improvements to the UAS and HF/VHF radar system enabled significant gains in the signal-to-noise ratio, such that the system can now be demonstrated on more challenging outlet glaciers. We are upgrading the G1X UAS and radar system for further tests and data collection in Greenland. We are reducing the weight and volume of the radar, which, when coupled with further reductions in airframe and avionics weight and a larger fuel bladder, will offer extended range. Finally

  6. Airborne sensor systems under development at the NASA/NSTL/Earth Resources Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.; Meeks, Gerald R.

    1988-01-01

    The operational characteristics of the Airborne Bathymetric System (ABS) MSS and the Airborne Multispectral Pushbroom Scanner (AMPS), which are currently being developed at NASA's Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL), are described. The ABS MSS system scans through a swath width of + or - 40 deg from nadir and the sensor incorporates onboard calibration references for the visible and short-wavelength IR channels. The AMPS uses five separate f/1.8 refractive telecentric lens systems, each incorporating nine optical elements, and a replaceable fixed bandwidth filter.

  7. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk-jin; Jung, Jungkyo; Kang, Ki-mook; Kim, Seung Hee; Xu, Zhen; Hensley, Scott; Swan, Aaron; Duersch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:26437413

  8. Development of a Cost-Effective Airborne Remote Sensing System for Coastal Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk-jin; Jung, Jungkyo; Kang, Ki-mook; Kim, Seung Hee; Xu, Zhen; Hensley, Scott; Swan, Aaron; Duersch, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Coastal lands and nearshore marine areas are productive and rapidly changing places. However, these areas face many environmental challenges related to climate change and human-induced impacts. Space-borne remote sensing systems may be restricted in monitoring these areas because of their spatial and temporal resolutions. In situ measurements are also constrained from accessing the area and obtaining wide-coverage data. In these respects, airborne remote sensing sensors could be the most appropriate tools for monitoring these coastal areas. In this study, a cost-effective airborne remote sensing system with synthetic aperture radar and thermal infrared sensors was implemented to survey coastal areas. Calibration techniques and geophysical model algorithms were developed for the airborne system to observe the topography of intertidal flats, coastal sea surface current, sea surface temperature, and submarine groundwater discharge.

  9. Charging system using solar panels and a highly resonant wireless power transfer model for small UAS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Sydney N.; Huck, Robert C.; Sluss, James J.

    2016-05-01

    The use of a wireless charging system for small, unmanned aircraft system applications is useful for both military and commercial consumers. An efficient way to keep the aircraft's batteries charged without interrupting flight would be highly marketable. While the general concepts behind highly resonant wireless power transfer are discussed in a few publications, the details behind the system designs are not available even in academic journals, especially in relation to avionics. Combining a highly resonant charging system with a solar panel charging system can produce enough power to extend the flight time of a small, unmanned aircraft system without interruption. This paper provides an overview of a few of the wireless-charging technologies currently available and outlines a preliminary design for an aircraft-mounted battery charging system.

  10. Validation of Spaceborne Radar Surface Water Mapping with Optical sUAS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Chee-Ming, J.; Murnaghan, K.; Sherman, D.; Poncos, V.; Brisco, B.; Armenakis, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) has over 40 years of experience with airborne and spaceborne sensors and is now starting to use small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) to validate products from large coverage area sensors and create new methodologies for very high resolution products. Wetlands have several functions including water storage and retention which can reduce flooding and provide continuous flow for hydroelectric generation and irrigation for agriculture. Synthetic Aperture Radar is well suited as a tool for monitoring surface water by supplying acquisitions irrespective of cloud cover or time of day. Wetlands can be subdivided into three classes: open water, flooded vegetation and upland which can vary seasonally with time and water level changes. RADARSAT-2 data from the Wide-Ultra Fine, Spotlight and Fine Quad-Pol modes has been used to map the open water in the Peace-Athabasca Delta, Alberta using intensity thresholding. We also use spotlight modes for higher resolution and the fully polarimetric mode (FQ) for polarimetric decomposition. Validation of these products will be done using a low altitude flying sUAS to generate optical georeferenced images. This project provides methodologies which could be used for flood mapping as well as ecological monitoring.

  11. Michigan experimental multispectral mapping system: A description of the M7 airborne sensor and its performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of a multispectral band scanner for an airborne mapping system are discussed. The sensor operates in the ultraviolet, visual, and infrared frequencies. Any twelve of the bands may be selected for simultaneous, optically registered recording on a 14-track analog tape recorder. Multispectral imagery recorded on magnetic tape in the aircraft can be laboratory reproduced on film strips for visual analysis or optionally machine processed in analog and/or digital computers before display. The airborne system performance is analyzed.

  12. DoD Weapon Systems Software Management Study. Appendix C. Airborne Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    s J 2 GOVT ACCESSION NO Subiuiei—I.I..II iPOD WEAPON ffifSTEMS SOFTWARE J^NAGEMENT STÜI« ’APPENDIX C„ AIRBORNE SYSTEMS , 1 ■/]/Special...listings were used as references during the production software development. ( MP3 ) Since system test programs actually comprise three to four times as...program. ( MP3 ) Based on the experience of the P-3C software development, the digital program developers indicate the need for a more structured pro

  13. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on airborne wind shear detection and warning systems are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: terms of reference; case study; flight management; sensor fusion and flight evaluation; Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data link/display; heavy rain aerodynamics; and second generation reactive systems.

  14. A high-resolution airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  15. Monitoring Coastal Processes at Local and Regional Geographic Scales with UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starek, M. J.; Bridges, D.; Prouty, D.; Berryhill, J.; Williams, D.; Jeffress, G.

    2014-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) provide a powerful tool for coastal mapping due to attractive features such as low cost data acquisition, flexibility in data capture and resolution, rapid response, and autonomous flight. We investigate two different scales of UAS platforms for monitoring coastal processes along the central Texas Gulf coast. Firstly, the eBee is a small-scale UAS weighing ~0.7 kg designed for localized mapping. The imaging payload consists of a hand held RGB digital camera and NIR digital camera, both with 16.1 megapixel resolutions. The system can map up to 10 square kilometers on a single flight and is capable of acquiring imagery down to 1.5 cm ground sample distance. The eBee is configured with a GPS receiver, altitude sensor, gyroscope and a radio transmitter enabling autonomous flight. The system has a certificate of authorization (COA) from the FAA to fly over the Ward Island campus of Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (TAMUCC). The campus has an engineered beach, called University Beach, located along Corpus Christi Bay. A set of groins and detached breakwaters were built in an effort to protect the beach from erosive wave action. The eBee is being applied to periodically survey the beach (Figure 1A). Through Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques, eBee-derived image sequences are post-processed to extract 3D topography and measure volumetric change. Additionally, when water clarity suffices, this approach enables the extraction of shallow-water bathymetry. Results on the utilization of the eBee to monitor beach morphodynamics will be presented including a comparison of derived estimates to RTK GPS and airborne lidar. Secondly, the RS-16 UAS has a 4 m wingspan and 11 kg sensor payload. The system is remotely piloted and has a flight endurance of 12 to 16 hours making it suitable for regional scale coastal mapping. The imaging payload consists of a multispectral sensor suite measuring in the visible, thermal IR, and ultraviolet ranges of the

  16. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) airborne gamma spectrometry system for environmental and emergency response surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardarelli, John, II; Thomas, Mark; Curry, Timothy

    2010-08-01

    The EPA Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) Program provides airborne ortho-rectified imagery, video, chemical and now radiological information directly to emergency response personnel via a commercial satellite link onboard the aircraft. EPA initiated the ASPECT Gamma Emergency Mapper GEM Project in 2008 to improve its airborne gamma-screening and mapping capability for monitoring any ground-based gamma contamination. This paper will provide an overview of the system, which can be configured to carry six 2"x4"x16" NaI(Tl) detectors and two 3"x3" LaBr3(Ce) detectors or eight 2"x4"x16" NaI(Tl) detectors. The paper will provide an overview of the analysis of gamma radiation spectra, system limitations, and emergency response applications.

  17. Argument-Based Airworthiness Assurance of Small UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Presently, there are three avenues by which Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations are authorized in the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS): obtaining either (i) a certificate of authorization (COA), or (ii) a special airworthiness certificate (SAC) in either the experimental, or the restricted category, or (iii) an exemption from an airworthiness certificate together with a civil COA. The first is meant primarily for public entities, such as NASA; the remaining two are the only available means for civil UAS operations. Recently, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has also proposed a regulatory framework targeted for certain small UAS, specifically those weighing 55 pounds or less, although final rulemaking remains pending. We have previously shown how an assurance case can aggregate heterogeneous reasoning and safety evidence, with application to UAS safety. In this paper, we describe how assurance cases can serve as a common framework to justify overall system safety, unifying both operational aspects and airworthiness, in particular system design assurance. We also show how this approach can coexist with, and augment, existing safety analysis processes and best-practices, by transforming the artifacts they produce into structured assurance arguments. To illustrate the applicability and utility of our approach, we have been applying it for the design assurance of an unmanned rotorcraft system, intended for precision agriculture operations, as part of the NASA Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project.

  18. A comparison of the performance of two types of inertial systems for strapdown airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deurloo, R. A.; Martin, J.; Bastos, M. L.; Becker, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past two decades so-called strapdown airborne gravimetry systems have proven to have the potential to compete with more traditional measurement systems such as modified spring gravimeters (e.g. LaCoste & Romberg Air-Sea gravimeters). Strapdown gravimetry systems rely on the integration of high-accuracy data from a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receiver and from a strapdown IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit). These GNSS/IMU integrated systems have the advantage of being less expensive and more compact, while being easier to use and install than spring gravimeters, which tend to be bulky and require specialized human resources for its operation. In the scope of a research project developed through the collaboration of the University of Porto and the Portuguese Air Force (PAF), an airborne survey was recently performed over the middle and southern area of Continental Portugal using a CASA C212 aircraft. The goal of this survey was to acquire data to assess the performance of different GNSS/IMU systems and associated processing approaches to determine the gravity field and evaluate their potential and effectiveness for airborne gravimetry using different types of airborne platforms, including UAVs (Unmanned Airborne Vehicles). Among the systems on board were a medium-quality (tactical grade) IMU with fiber-optic gyros (FOG), a Litton LN-200, and a high-quality (navigation grade) IMU with ring-laser gyros (RLG), an iMAR RHQ-1003, which are the focus of the present comparison. The advantage of using a strapdown airborne gravimetry system with high-quality inertial sensor is that it allows the complete gravity vector to be determined from the triads of accelerometers and gyros in the IMU (vector gravimetry). On the other hand a medium-quality inertial system is limited to determining only the magnitude of the gravity vector (scalar gravimetry). The limited quality of the gyros of the medium-quality inertial systems does not allow the horizontal

  19. Study of Command and Control (C&C) Structures on Integrating Unmanned Autonomous Systems (UAS) into Manned Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Systems UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle UNet- PANDA Underwater Networked Pop-Up Ambient Noise Data Acquisition USV Unmanned Surface Vehicle UUV Unmanned...1 Predator and could easily be mistaken for a “ giant - scale” radio controlled model airplane, some of which have wingspreads greater than 20 feet...cooled, two- cycle, two-cylinder power plant, designed for giant -scale model planes, which produces 16.5 horsepower from just over nine cubic inches

  20. Active alignment and vibration control system for a large airborne optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienholz, David A.

    2000-04-01

    Airborne optical or electro-optical systems may be too large for all elements to be mounted on a single integrating structure, other than the aircraft fuselage itself. An active system must then be used to maintain the required alignment between elements. However the various smaller integrating structures (benches) must still be isolated from high- frequency airframe disturbances that could excite resonances outside the bandwidth of the alignment control system. The combined active alignment and vibration isolation functions must be performed by flight-weight components, which may have to operate in vacuum. A testbed system developed for the Air Force Airborne Laser program is described. The payload, a full-scale 1650-lb simulated bench, is mounted in six degrees- of-freedom to a vibrating platform by a set of isolator- actuators. The mounts utilize a combination of pneumatics and magnetics to perform the dual functions of low-frequency alignment and high-frequency isolation. Test results are given and future directions for development are described.

  1. Airborne Warning and Control System Block 40/45 Upgrade (AWACS Blk 40/45 Upgrade)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-277 Airborne Warning and Control System Block 40/45 Upgrade (AWACS Blk 40/45 Upgrade) As of...PEO - Program Executive Officer PM - Program Manager POE - Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected

  2. Evaluation of air-liquid interface exposure systems for in vitro assessment of airborne pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of cells to airborne pollutants at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is a more realistic approach than exposures of submerged cells. The published literature, however, describes irreproducible and/or unrealistic experimental conditions using ALI systems. We have compared fi...

  3. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  4. Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing a system to safely enable low altitude unmanned aerial system (UAS) operations. The system is referred to as UAS Traffic Management (UTM). The UTM will safely enable a variety of business models and multiple operations in the same airspace. The UTM will provide services such as airspace configuration and geo-fencing, weather and wind integration, demand-capacity imbalance management, and separation management, and contingency management. The UTM research and development has been conducted in collaboration with many in industry, academia, and government. The UTM system will evolve through four builds. Each build will be collaboratively tested with partners. The final prototype will be available for persistent daily use of UAS operations beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS).

  5. UAS-NAS Project Demo - Mini HITL Week 2 Stats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.; Fern, Lisa C.; Rorie, Robert C.; Shively, Robert; Jovic, Srboljub

    2016-01-01

    The UAS-NAS Project demo will showcase recent research efforts to ensure the interoperability between proposed UAS detect and avoid (DAA) human machine interface requirements (developed within RTCA SC-228) and existing collision avoidance displays. Attendees will be able to view the current state of the art of the DAA pilot traffic, alerting and guidance displays integrated with Traffic advisory and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) II in the UAS-NAS Project's research UAS ground control station (developed in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory). In addition, attendees will have the opportunity to interact with the research UAS ground control station and "fly" encounters, using the DAA and TCAS II displays to avoid simulated aircraft. The display of the advisories will be hosted on a laptop with an external 30" monitor, running the Vigilant Spirit system. DAA advisories will be generated by the JADEM software tool, connected to the system via the LVC Gateway. A repeater of the primary flight display will be shown on a 55" monitor mounted on a stand at the back of the booth to show the pilot interaction to the passersby.

  6. The development of airborne video system for monitoring of river environments

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Shigeya; Mizutani, Nobuyuki; Mizukami, Masumi; Koyano, Toshirou

    1996-11-01

    Recently, airborne videography is widely used by many monitoring for environmental resources, such as rivers, forests, ocean, and so on. Although airborne videography has a low resolution than aerial photographs, it can effectively reduce the cost of continuous monitoring of wide area. Furthermore video images can easily be processed with personal computer. This paper introduces an airborne video system for monitoring of Class A river environment. This system consists of two sub-systems. One is the data collection system that is composed of a video camera, a Global Positioning System(GPS) and a personal computer. This sub-system records information of rivers by video images and their corresponding location data. A GPS system is used for calculating location data and navigating the airplane to the destination of monitoring site. Other is a simplified digital video editing system. This system runs on a personal computer with Microsoft Windows 3.1. This system can also be used for management and planning of road environment, marine resources, forest resources and for prevention of disasters. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Multi-Agent System for Mission and Situational Awareness Management (MASAM) for Airborne Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    UNCLASSIFIED MULTI - AGENT SYSTEM FOR MISSION AND SITUATIONAL AWARENESS MANAGEMENT (MASAM) FOR AIRBORNE PLATFORMS (U) John C. Sciortino, Jr...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multi - Agent System for Mission and Situational Awareness Management (MASAM...Parameters Platform Figure 3: (U) Multi - Agent System for Mission and Situational Awareness Management (Left Panel). Use of CoABS Grid (Right Panel

  8. Thermal management of closed computer modules utilizing high density circuitry. [in Airborne Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents data on a preliminary analysis of the thermal dynamic characteristics of the Airborne Information Management System (AIMS), which is a continuing design project at NASA Dryden. The analysis established the methods which will be applied to the actual AIMS boards as they become available. The paper also describes the AIMS liquid cooling system design and presents a thermodynamic computer model of the AIMS cooling system, together with an experimental validation of this model.

  9. Accurate 2D/3D electromagnetic modeling for time-domain airborne EM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, C.; Hodges, G.

    2012-12-01

    The existing industry software cannot deliver correct results for 3D time-domain airborne EM responses. In this paper, starting from the Fourier transform and convolution, we compare the stability of different modeling techniques and analyze the reason for instable calculations of the time-domain airborne EM responses. We find that the singularity of the impulse responses of EM systems at very early time that are used in the convolution is responsible for the instability of the modeling (Fig.1). Based on this finding, we put forward an algorithm that uses step response rather than impulse response of the airborne EM system for the convolution and create a stable algorithm that delivers precise results and maintains well the integral/derivative relationship between the magnetic field B and the magnetic induction dB/dt. A three-step transformation procedure for the modeling is proposed: 1) output the frequency-domain EM response data from the existing software; 2) transform into step-response by digital Fourier/Hankel transform; 3) convolve the step response with the transmitting current or its derivatives. The method has proved to be working very well (Fig. 2). The algorithm can be extended to the modeling of other time-domain ground and airborne EM system responses.Fig. 1: Comparison of impulse and step responses for an airborne EM system Fig. 2: Bz and dBz/dt calculated from step (middle panel) and impulse responses (lower panel) for the same 3D model as in Fig.1.

  10. Comparison of immersed liquid and air cooling of NASA's Airborne Information Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1992-07-01

    The Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) is currently under development at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The AIMS is designed as a modular system utilizing surface mounted integrated circuits in a high-density configuration. To maintain the temperature of the integrated circuits within manufacturer's specifications, the modules are to be filled with Fluorinert FC-72. Unlike ground based liquid cooled computers, the extreme range of the ambient pressures experienced by the AIMS requires the FC-72 be contained in a closed system. This forces the latent heat absorbed during the boiling to be released during the condensation that must take within the closed module system. Natural convection and/or pumping carries the heat to the outer surface of the AIMS module where the heat transfers to the ambient air. This paper will present an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of immersed liquid cooling and air cooling of the Airborne Information Management System.

  11. Comparison of immersed liquid and air cooling of NASA's Airborne Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) is currently under development at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. The AIMS is designed as a modular system utilizing surface mounted integrated circuits in a high-density configuration. To maintain the temperature of the integrated circuits within manufacturer's specifications, the modules are to be filled with Fluorinert FC-72. Unlike ground based liquid cooled computers, the extreme range of the ambient pressures experienced by the AIMS requires the FC-72 be contained in a closed system. This forces the latent heat absorbed during the boiling to be released during the condensation that must take within the closed module system. Natural convection and/or pumping carries the heat to the outer surface of the AIMS module where the heat transfers to the ambient air. This paper will present an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of immersed liquid cooling and air cooling of the Airborne Information Management System.

  12. NASA GRC UAS Project - Communications Modeling and Simulation Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apaza, Rafael; Bretmersky, Steven; Dailey, Justin; Satapathy, Goutam; Ditzenberger, David; Ye, Chris; Kubat, Greg; Chevalier, Christine; Nguyen, Thanh

    2014-01-01

    The integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace represents new operational concepts required in civil aviation. These new concepts are evolving as the nation moves toward the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) under the leadership of the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), and through ongoing work by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The desire and ability to fly UAS in the National Air Space (NAS) in the near term has increased dramatically, and this multi-agency effort to develop and implement a national plan to successfully address the challenges of UAS access to the NAS in a safe and timely manner is well underway. As part of the effort to integrate UAS in the National Airspace, NASA Glenn Research Center is currently involved with providing research into Communications systems and Communication system operations in order to assist with developing requirements for this implementation. In order to provide data and information regarding communication systems performance that will be necessary, NASA GRC is tasked with developing and executing plans for simulations of candidate future UAS command and control communications, in line with architectures and communications technologies being developed and or proposed by NASA and relevant aviation organizations (in particular, RTCA SC-203). The simulations and related analyses will provide insight into the ability of proposed communications technologies and system architectures to enable safe operation of UAS, meeting UAS in the NAS project goals (including performance requirements, scalability, and interoperability), and ultimately leading to a determination of the ability of NextGen communication systems to accommodate UAS. This presentation, compiled by the NASA GRC Modeling and Simulation team, will provide an update to this ongoing effort at NASA GRC as follow-up to the overview of the planned simulation effort presented at ICNS in 2013. The objective

  13. Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper) was developed for NSTL (National Space Technology Companies) by Daedalus Company. It offers expanded capabilities for timely, accurate and cost effective identification of areas with prospecting potential. A related system is TIMS, Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Originating from Landsat 4, it is also used for agricultural studies, etc.

  14. Use of a new high-speed digital data acquisition system in airborne ice-sounding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, David L.; Bradley, Jerry A.; Hodge, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    A high-speed digital data acquisition and signal averaging system for borehole, surface, and airborne radio-frequency geophysical measurements was designed and built by the US Geological Survey. The system permits signal averaging at rates high enough to achieve significant signal-to-noise enhancement in profiling, even in airborne applications. The first field use of the system took place in Greenland in 1987 for recording data on a 150 by 150-km grid centered on the summit of the Greenland ice sheet. About 6000-line km were flown and recorded using the new system. The data can be used to aid in siting a proposed scientific corehole through the ice sheet.

  15. NASA/LMSC coherent LIDAR airborne shear sensor: System capabilities and flight test plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA/LMSC Coherent Lidar Airborne Shear Sensor (CLASS) system flight tests is to evaluate the capability of an airborne coherent lidar system to detect, measure, and predict hazardous wind shear ahead of the aircraft with a view to warning flight crew of any impending dangers. On NASA's Boeing 737 Transport Systems Research Vehicle, the CLASS system will be used to measure wind velocity fields and, by incorporating such measurements with real-time aircraft state parameters, identify regions of wind shear that may be detrimental to the aircraft's performance. Assessment is to be made through actual wind shear encounters in flight. Wind shear measurements made by the class system will be compared to those made by the aircraft's in situ wind shear detection system as well as by ground-based Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) and airborne Doppler radar. By examining the aircraft performance loss (or gain) due to wind shear that the lidar predicts with that actually experienced by the aircraft, the performance of the CLASS system as a predictive wind shear detector will be assessed.

  16. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS). Topical report, October 1993--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of the project are to construct a geophysical sensor system based on a remotely operated model helicopter (ROH) and to evaluate the efficacy of the system for characterization of hazardous environmental sites. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is a geophysical survey system that uses a ROH as the survey vehicle. We have selected the ROH because of its advantages over fixed wing and ground based vehicles. Lower air speed and superior maneuverability of the ROH make it better suited for geophysical surveys than a fixed wing model aircraft. The ROH can fly close to the ground, allowing detection of weak or subtle anomalies. Unlike ground based vehicles, the ROH can traverse difficult terrain while providing a stable sensor platform. ROH does not touch the ground during the course of a survey and is capable of functioning over water and surf zones. The ROH has been successfully used in the motion picture industry and by geology companies for payload bearing applications. The only constraint to use of the airborne system is that the ROH must remain visible to the pilot. Obstructed areas within a site can be characterized by relocating the base station to alternate positions. GAUSS consists of a ROH with radio controller, a data acquisition and processing (DAP) system, and lightweight digital sensor systems. The objective of our Phase I research was to develop a DAP and sensors suitable for ROH operation. We have constructed these subsystems and integrated them to produce an automated, hand-held geophysical surveying system, referred to as the ``pre-prototype``. We have performed test surveys with the pre-prototype to determine the functionality of the and DAP and sensor subsystems and their suitability for airborne application. The objective of the Phase II effort will be to modify the existing subsystems and integrate them into an airborne prototype. Efficacy of the prototype for geophysical survey of hazardous sites will then be determined.

  17. Modeling and performance assessment in QinetiQ of EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John W.; Potter, Gary E.

    2002-11-01

    QinetiQ are the technical authority responsible for specifying the performance requirements for the procurement of airborne reconnaissance systems, on behalf of the UK MoD. They are also responsible for acceptance of delivered systems, overseeing and verifying the installed system performance as predicted and then assessed by the contractor. Measures of functional capability are central to these activities. The conduct of these activities utilises the broad technical insight and wide range of analysis tools and models available within QinetiQ. This paper focuses on the tools, methods and models that are applicable to systems based on EO and IR sensors. The tools, methods and models are described, and representative output for systems that QinetiQ has been responsible for is presented. The principle capability applicable to EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems is the STAR (Simulation Tools for Airborne Reconnaissance) suite of models. STAR generates predictions of performance measures such as GRD (Ground Resolved Distance) and GIQE (General Image Quality) NIIRS (National Imagery Interpretation Rating Scales). It also generates images representing sensor output, using the scene generation software CAMEO-SIM and the imaging sensor model EMERALD. The simulated image 'quality' is fully correlated with the predicted non-imaging performance measures. STAR also generates image and table data that is compliant with STANAG 7023, which may be used to test ground station functionality.

  18. Laser airborne remote sensing real-time acquisition, processing, and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Brian T.; Pierson, Robert E.; Dropka, T. J.; Dowling, James A.; Lang, L. M.; Fox, Marsha J.

    1997-10-01

    The US Air Force Phillips Laboratory is evaluating the feasibility of long-standoff-range remote sensing of gaseous species present in trace amounts in the atmosphere. Extensive system integration in the laboratory and an airborne test are leading to remote sensing ground test and airborne missions within the next year. This paper describes the design, external interfaces. and initial performance of the Laser Airborne Remote Sensing acquisition, processing, and control system to be deployed on the Phillips Laboratory NC-135 research aircraft for differential absorption lidar system performance tests. The dual-CPU VME-based real-time computer system synchronizes experiment timing and pulsed CO2 laser operation up to 30 Hz while controlling optical subsystem components such as a laser grating, receiver gain, mirror alignment, and laser shutters. This real-time system acquires high rate detector signals from the outgoing and return laser pulses as well as a low rate health and status signals form the optical bench and the aircraft. Laser pulse and status data are processed and displayed in real time on one of four graphical user interfaces: one devoted to system control, one to remote mirror alignment, and two other interfaces for real-time data analysis and diagnostics. The dual-CPU and multi- layered software decouple time critical and non-critical tasks allowing great flexibility in flight-time display and processing.

  19. High Resolution Airborne Laser Scanning and Hyperspectral Imaging with a Small Uav Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallay, Michal; Eck, Christoph; Zgraggen, Carlo; Kaňuk, Ján; Dvorný, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    The capabilities of unmanned airborne systems (UAS) have become diverse with the recent development of lightweight remote sensing instruments. In this paper, we demonstrate our custom integration of the state-of-the-art technologies within an unmanned aerial platform capable of high-resolution and high-accuracy laser scanning, hyperspectral imaging, and photographic imaging. The technological solution comprises the latest development of a completely autonomous, unmanned helicopter by Aeroscout, the Scout B1-100 UAV helicopter. The helicopter is powered by a gasoline two-stroke engine and it allows for integrating 18 kg of a customized payload unit. The whole system is modular providing flexibility of payload options, which comprises the main advantage of the UAS. The UAS integrates two kinds of payloads which can be altered. Both payloads integrate a GPS/IMU with a dual GPS antenna configuration provided by OXTS for accurate navigation and position measurements during the data acquisition. The first payload comprises a VUX-1 laser scanner by RIEGL and a Sony A6000 E-Mount photo camera. The second payload for hyperspectral scanning integrates a push-broom imager AISA KESTREL 10 by SPECIM. The UAS was designed for research of various aspects of landscape dynamics (landslides, erosion, flooding, or phenology) in high spectral and spatial resolution.

  20. Pioneering a Biobased UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzales-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; Nelakanti, Raman; Ruffner, Lydia; Shumate, Alaina; Sorayya, Aryo; Ugwu, Kyla; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    With the exponential growth of interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their vast array of applications in both space exploration and terrestrial uses such as the delivery of medicine and monitoring the environment, the 2014 Stanford-Brown-Spelman iGEM team is pioneering the development of a fully biological UAV for scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities – for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight – these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material’s systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an “amberless” system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment. So far, we have: successfully transformed Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a cellulose-producing bacterium, with a series of promoters to test transformation efficiency before adding the acetylation genes; isolated protein bands present in the wasp nest material; transformed the cellulose-degrading genes into Escherichia coli; and we have confirmed that the amberless construct prevents protein expression in wild-type cells. In addition, as

  1. Pioneering a Biobased UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzalez-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; Nelakanti, Raman; Ruffner, Lydia; Shumate, Alaina; Sorayya, Aryo; Ugwu, Kyla; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    With the exponential growth of interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their vast array of applications in both space exploration and terrestrial uses such as the delivery of medicine and monitoring the environment, the 2014 Stanford-Brown-Spelman iGEM team is pioneering the development of a fully biological UAV for scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities - for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight - these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material's systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an "amberless" system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment. So far, we have: successfully transformed Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a cellulose-producing bacterium, with a series of promoters to test transformation efficiency before adding the acetylation genes; isolated protein bands present in the wasp nest material; transformed the cellulose-degrading genes into Escherichia coli; and we have confirmed that the amberless construct prevents protein expression in wild-type cells. In addition, as part of our

  2. Airborne Windshear Detection and Warning Systems. Fifth and Final Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Fifth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Airborne Windshear Review Meeting was hosted by the NASA Langley Research Center and the Federal Aviation Administration in Hampton, Virginia, on September 28-30, 1993. The purpose was to report on the highly successful windshear experiments conducted by government, academic institutions, and industry; to transfer the results to regulators, manufacturers, and users; and to set initiatives for future aeronautics technology research. The formal sessions covered recent developments in windshear flight testing, windshear modeling, flight management, and ground-based systems, airborne windshear detection systems, certification and regulatory issues, and development and applications of sensors for wake vortices and for synthetic and enhanced vision systems. This report was compiled to record and make available the technology updates and materials from the conference.

  3. Airborne Windshear Detection and Warning Systems. Fifth and Final Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The Fifth (and Final) Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Airborne Windshear Review Meeting was hosted jointly by the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Hampton, Virginia, on September 28-30, 1993. The purpose of the meeting was to report on the highly successful windshear experiments conducted by government, academic institutions, and industry; to transfer the results to regulators, manufacturers, and users; and to set initiatives for future aeronautics technology research. The formal sessions covered recent developments in windshear flight testing; windshear modeling, flight management, and ground-based systems; airborne windshear detection systems; certification and regulatory issues; development and applications of sensors for wake vortex detection; and synthetic and enhanced vision systems.

  4. Development of an airborne hydrocarbon monitoring system based on FTIR technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogan, Paul A.; Mattson, Carl B.; Schwindt, Chris J.

    1998-10-01

    The capability to monitor airborne hydrocarbon compounds is essential in order to protect sensitive optical payloads from performance degradation caused by the deposition of surface films. Commonly used hydrocarbon monitoring instrumentation such as flame ionization detectors yield no information about the source or identity of compounds they detect. The Fourier Transform IR Spectrometer (FTIR) with its inherent ability to discriminate a large number of compounds offers a tremendous advantage over other types of instrumentation. The contamination monitoring laboratory at John F. Kennedy Space Center has developed an airborne hydrocarbon monitoring system based on FTIR technology to support the AXAF payload. This system consist of a portable cart suitable for use in Class 1 Division 2 environments. This paper describes the system in detail.

  5. 77 FR 32699 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; UAS Subcommittee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; UAS Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY... Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Subcommittee of the Aeronautics Committee of the NASA Advisory Council. The meeting will be held for the purpose of soliciting, from...

  6. SAFEGUARD: An Assured Safety Net Technology for UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Evan T.; Young, Steven D.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    2016-01-01

    As demands increase to use unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for a broad spectrum of commercial applications, regulatory authorities are examining how to safely integrate them without loss of safety or major disruption to existing airspace operations. This work addresses the development of the Safeguard system as an assured safety net technology for UAS. The Safeguard system monitors and enforces conformance to a set of rules defined prior to flight (e.g., geospatial stay-out or stay-in regions, speed limits, altitude limits). Safeguard operates independently of the UAS autopilot and is strategically designed in a way that can be realized by a small set of verifiable functions to simplify compliance with regulatory standards for commercial aircraft. A framework is described that decouples the system from any other devices on the UAS as well as introduces complementary positioning source(s) for applications that require integrity and availability beyond what the Global Positioning System (GPS) can provide. Additionally, the high level logic embedded within the software is presented, as well as the steps being taken toward verification and validation (V&V) of proper functionality. Next, an initial prototype implementation of the described system is disclosed. Lastly, future work including development, testing, and system V&V is summarized.

  7. Design and Development of a Scanning Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    In the fall of 2005 we began developing an airborne scanning direct detection molecular Doppler lidar. The instrument is being built as part of the Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE), a three year project selected by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office under the Instrument Incubator Program. The TWiLiTE project is a collaboration involving scientists and engineers from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab, Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. The TWiLiTE instrument will leverage significant research and development investments made by NASA Goddard and it's partners in the past several years in key lidar technologies and sub-systems (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. These sub-systems will be integrated into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57. The WB57 flies at an altitude of 18 km and from this vantage point the nadir viewing Doppler lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a future spaceborne tropospheric wind system. In addition to being a technology testbed for space based tropospheric wind lidar, when completed the TWiLiTE high altitude airborne lidar will be used for studying mesoscale dynamics and storm research (e.g. winter storms, hurricanes) and could be used for calibration and validation of satellite based wind systems such as ESA's Aeolus Atmospheric Dynamics Mission. The TWiLiTE Doppler lidar will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 km to the surface with 250 m vertical resolution and < 2mls

  8. Research Applications and Capabilities of the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Jacobsen, Robert A.; Hindson, William S.

    1996-01-01

    The Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) is a UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter that is being modified by NASA and the US Army for flight systems research. The principal systems that are being installed in the aircraft are a Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) and associated imaging systems, and a programmable full-authority Research Flight Control System (RFCS). In addition, comprehensive instrumentation of both the rigid body of the helicopter and the rotor system is provided. This paper describes the design features of this modern rotorcraft in-flight simulation facility and their current state of development. A brief description of initial research applications is included.

  9. Flight Testing of an Advanced Airborne Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn Lenz; Raymond T. Lines; Darryl Murdock; Jeffrey Owen; Steven Stearns; Michael Stoogenke

    2005-10-01

    ITT Industries Space Systems Division (Space Systems) has developed an airborne natural gas leak detection system designed to detect, image, quantify, and precisely locate leaks from natural gas transmission pipelines. This system is called the Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ANGEL) system. The ANGEL system uses a highly sensitive differential absorption Lidar technology to remotely detect pipeline leaks. The ANGEL System is operated from a fixed wing aircraft and includes automatic scanning, pointing system, and pilot guidance systems. During a pipeline inspection, the ANGEL system aircraft flies at an elevation of 1000 feet above the ground at speeds of between 100 and 150 mph. Under this contract with DOE/NETL, Space Systems was funded to integrate the ANGEL sensor into a test aircraft and conduct a series of flight tests over a variety of test targets including simulated natural gas pipeline leaks. Following early tests in upstate New York in the summer of 2004, the ANGEL system was deployed to Casper, Wyoming to participate in a set of DOE-sponsored field tests at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). At RMOTC the Space Systems team completed integration of the system and flew an operational system for the first time. The ANGEL system flew 2 missions/day for the duration for the 5-day test. Over the course of the week the ANGEL System detected leaks ranging from 100 to 5,000 scfh.

  10. Cloud detection using disposable airborne sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, K.; Harrison, R. G.

    2012-04-01

    Measurements from airborne platforms are important for studies of clouds' impact on the radiation balance and on precipitation. A range of small, low cost, disposable sensors has been developed for cloud detection from unmanned balloon or UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) platforms (Nicoll and Harrison, 2010). The techniques already deployed include exploiting the associated solar radiation modification, electric charge changes, and optical fluctuations due to cloud droplets. As well as needing to be inexpensive, the sensors are required to be lightweight (mass typically ~ 100g) with low consumption (typical power ~100mW), and have been tested alongside standard meteorological radiosondes, as well as on a small UAS (SUMO - Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (Reuder et al 2009)). Design criteria for these sensors will be discussed, as well as measurements from the test flights, through a variety of different cloud layers. The advantages of using optical and charge methods of cloud detection over the normal thermodynamic method deployed with conventional radiosondes (capacitative sensing of relative humidity combined with temperature measurements), will also be discussed. Nicoll K.A. and R.G. Harrison. Research Radiosondes, Met. Tech. Int. Nov 2010, 140 (2010). Reuder J., P. Brisset, M. Jonassen, M. Muller, S. Mayer. The Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO: A new tool for atmospheric boundary layer research Meteorologische Zeitschrift, Vol. 18, No. 2, 141-147 (2009).

  11. ASPIS, A Flexible Multispectral System for Airborne Remote Sensing Environmental Applications

    PubMed Central

    Papale, Dario; Belli, Claudio; Gioli, Beniamino; Miglietta, Franco; Ronchi, Cesare; Vaccari, Francesco Primo; Valentini, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing is a powerful tool for environmental monitoring applications. In this paper we describe a new system (ASPIS) composed by a 4-CCD spectral sensor, a thermal IR camera and a laser altimeter that is mounted on a flexible Sky-Arrow airplane. A test application of the multispectral sensor to estimate durum wheat quality is also presented. PMID:27879875

  12. Estimation of Separation Buffers for Wind-Prediction Error in an Airborne Separation Assistance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Allen, B. Danette

    2009-01-01

    Wind prediction errors are known to affect the performance of automated air traffic management tools that rely on aircraft trajectory predictions. In particular, automated separation assurance tools, planned as part of the NextGen concept of operations, must be designed to account and compensate for the impact of wind prediction errors and other system uncertainties. In this paper we describe a high fidelity batch simulation study designed to estimate the separation distance required to compensate for the effects of wind-prediction errors throughout increasing traffic density on an airborne separation assistance system. These experimental runs are part of the Safety Performance of Airborne Separation experiment suite that examines the safety implications of prediction errors and system uncertainties on airborne separation assurance systems. In this experiment, wind-prediction errors were varied between zero and forty knots while traffic density was increased several times current traffic levels. In order to accurately measure the full unmitigated impact of wind-prediction errors, no uncertainty buffers were added to the separation minima. The goal of the study was to measure the impact of wind-prediction errors in order to estimate the additional separation buffers necessary to preserve separation and to provide a baseline for future analyses. Buffer estimations from this study will be used and verified in upcoming safety evaluation experiments under similar simulation conditions. Results suggest that the strategic airborne separation functions exercised in this experiment can sustain wind prediction errors up to 40kts at current day air traffic density with no additional separation distance buffer and at eight times the current day with no more than a 60% increase in separation distance buffer.

  13. Charge-coupled device data processor for an airborne imaging radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, W. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Processing of raw analog echo data from synthetic aperture radar receiver into images on board an airborne radar platform is discussed. Processing is made feasible by utilizing charge-coupled devices (CCD). CCD circuits are utilized to perform input sampling, presumming, range correlation and azimuth correlation in the analog domain. These radar data processing functions are implemented for single-look or multiple-look imaging radar systems.

  14. Analysis of UAS DAA Surveillance in Fast-Time Simulations without DAA Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, David P.; Santiago, Confesor; Isaacson, David R.; Lee, Seung Man; Refai, Mohamad Said; Snow, James William

    2015-01-01

    Realization of the expected proliferation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) depends on the development and validation of performance standards for UAS Detect and Avoid (DAA) Systems. The RTCA Special Committee 228 is charged with leading the development of draft Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for UAS DAA Systems. NASA, as a participating member of RTCA SC-228 is committed to supporting the development and validation of draft requirements for DAA surveillance system performance. A recent study conducted using NASA's ACES (Airspace Concept Evaluation System) simulation capability begins to address questions surrounding the development of draft MOPS for DAA surveillance systems. ACES simulations were conducted to study the performance of sensor systems proposed by the SC-228 DAA Surveillance sub-group. Analysis included but was not limited to: 1) number of intruders (both IFR and VFR) detected by all sensors as a function of UAS flight time, 2) number of intruders (both IFR and VFR) detected by radar alone as a function of UAS flight time, and 3) number of VFR intruders detected by all sensors as a function of UAS flight time. The results will be used by SC-228 to inform decisions about the surveillance standards of UAS DAA systems and future requirements development and validation efforts.

  15. Design, calibration, and application of an airborne gamma spectrometer system in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, G.F.; Rybach, L.; Klingele, E.E.

    1997-09-01

    Airborne radiometric surveys are finding increasingly wider application in environmental mapping and monitoring. They are the most efficient tool to delimit surface contamination and to locate lost radioactive sources. To secure radiometric capability in survey and emergency situations, a new sensitive airborne system has been built that includes an airborne spectrometer with 256 channels and a sodium iodide detector with a total volume of 16.8 liters. A rack-mounted PC with memory cards is used for data acquisition, with a GPS satellite navigation system for positioning. The system was calibrated with point sources using a mathematical correction to take into account the effects of gamma-ray scattering in the ground and in the atmosphere. The calibration was complemented by high precision ground gamma spectrometry and laboratory measurements on rock samples. In Switzerland, two major research programs make use of the capabilities of airborne radiometric measurements. The first one concerns nuclear power-plant monitoring. The five Swiss nuclear installations (four power plants and one research facility) and the surrounding regions of each site are surveyed annually. The project goal is to monitor the dose-rate distribution and to provide a documented baseline database. The measurements show that all sites (with the exception of the Goesgen power plant) can be identified clearly on the maps. No artificial radioactivity that could not be explained by the Chernobyl release or earlier nuclear weapons tests was detected outside of the fenced sites of the nuclear installations. The second program aims at a better evaluation of the natural radiation level in Switzerland. The survey focused on the crystalline rocks of the Central Massifs of the Swiss Alps because of their relatively high natural radioactivity and lithological variability.

  16. UAS in the NAS Flight Test Series 3 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting a series of flight tests to acheive the following objectives: 1.) Validate results previously collected during project simulations with live data 2.) Evaluate TCAS IISS interoperability 3.) Test fully integrated system in a relevant live test environment 4.) Inform final DAA and C2 MOPS 5.) Reduce risk for Flight Test Series 4.

  17. A Framework for Safe Integration of Small UAS Into the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Bland, Geoffrey; Murray, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed framework for the safe integration of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). The paper examines the potential uses of sUAS to build an understanding of the location and frequency of potential future flight operations based on the future applications of the sUAS systems. The paper then examines the types of systems that would be required to meet the application-level demand to determine classes of platforms and operations. Finally, a framework is proposed for both airworthiness and operations that attempts to balance safety with utility for these important systems.

  18. The development of an airborne information management system for flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, Glenn A.

    1992-01-01

    An airborne information management system is being developed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. This system will improve the state of the art in management data acquisition on-board research aircraft. The design centers around highly distributable, high-speed microprocessors that allow data compression, digital filtering, and real-time analysis. This paper describes the areas of applicability, approach to developing the system, potential for trouble areas, and reasons for this development activity. System architecture (including the salient points of what makes it unique), design philosophy, and tradeoff issues are also discussed.

  19. Research on the airborne SINS/CNS integrated navigation system assisted by BD navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Mei-lin; Yang, Xiao-xu; Han, Jun-feng; Wei, Yu; Yue, Peng; Deng, Xiao-guo; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    When the star navigation system working during the day, the strong sky background radiation lead to a result that the detect target light is too weak, in the field of view, because of the limitation on the number of the navigation star, usually choose the single star navigation work mode. In order to improve the reliability of the airborne SINS/CNS integrated navigation system, meet the demand of the long-endurance and high precision navigation, use the tight combination way, single star patrol algorithm to get the position and attitude. There exists filtering divergence problem because of the model error and the system measurement noise is uncertain, put forward a new fuzzy adaptive kalman filtering algorithm. Adjust the size of measurement noise to prevent the filter divergence; the positioning accuracy of integrated navigation system can be improved through BeiDou satellite. Without the information of BeiDou satellite, based on the level of the virtual reference, the navigation precision of integrated navigation system can be ensured over a period of time.

  20. Utilization of an Airborne Plant Chlorophyll Imaging System for Detection of Septic System Malfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce A.; Carter, Gregory A.

    2001-01-01

    Malfunctioning, or leaking, sewer systems increase the supply of water and nutrients to surface vegetation. Excess nutrients and harmful bacteria in the effluent pollute ground water and local water bodies and are dangerous to humans and the aquatic ecosystems. An airborne multispectral plant chlorophyll imaging system (PCIS) was used to identify growth patterns in the vegetation covering onsite and public sewer systems. The objective was to evaluate overall performance of the PCIS as well as to determine the best operational configuration for this application. The imaging system was flown in a light aircraft over selected locations Mobile County, Alabama. Calibration panels were used to help characterize instrument performance. Results demonstrated that the PCIS performed well and was capable of detecting septic leakage patterns from altitudes as high as 915 m. From 915 m, 6 of 18 sites were suspected to have sewage leakage. Subsequent ground inspections confirmed leakage on 3 of the 6 sites. From 610 m, 3 of 8 known leakage sites were detected. Tree cover and shadows near residential structures prevented detection of several known malfunctioning systems. Also some leakages known to occur in clear areas were not detected. False detections occurred in areas characterized by surface water drainage problems or recent excavation.

  1. Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ritchie; Kochenderfer, Mykel J.; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Brat, Guillaume P.; Owen, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a scalable method to efficiently search for the most likely state trajectory leading to an event given only a simulator of a system. Our approach uses a reinforcement learning formulation and solves it using Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS). The approach places very few requirements on the underlying system, requiring only that the simulator provide some basic controls, the ability to evaluate certain conditions, and a mechanism to control the stochasticity in the system. Access to the system state is not required, allowing the method to support systems with hidden state. The method is applied to stress test a prototype aircraft collision avoidance system to identify trajectories that are likely to lead to near mid-air collisions. We present results for both single and multi-threat encounters and discuss their relevance. Compared with direct Monte Carlo search, this MCTS method performs significantly better both in finding events and in maximizing their likelihood.

  2. Airborne multisensor pod system (AMPS) data: Multispectral data integration and processing hints

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, T.J.; Lamb, A.

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Non-Proliferation (NN-20) has developed a suite of airborne remote sensing systems that simultaneously collect coincident data from a US Navy P-3 aircraft. The primary objective of the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) Program is {open_quotes}to collect multisensor data that can be used for data research, both to reduce interpretation problems associated with data overload and to develop information products more complete than can be obtained from any single sensor.{close_quotes} The sensors are housed in wing-mounted pods and include: a Ku-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar; a CASI Hyperspectral Imager; a Daedalus 3600 Airborne Multispectral Scanner; a Wild Heerbrugg RC-30 motion compensated large format camera; various high resolution, light intensified and thermal video cameras; and several experimental sensors (e.g. the Portable Hyperspectral Imager of Low-Light Spectroscopy (PHILLS)). Over the past year or so, the Coastal Marine Resource Assessment (CAMRA) group at the Florida Department of Environmental Protection`s Marine Research Institute (FMRI) has been working with the Department of Energy through the Naval Research Laboratory to develop applications and products from existing data. Considerable effort has been spent identifying image formats integration parameters. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Airborne Systems Software Acquisition Engineering Guidebook for Microprocessors and Firmware.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    cycle of your system? The cost to your system of loss of mass production support for your devices may be great . * Field support - Especially important if...specification - source of potential devide type proliferation. 0 Environment - devices must be evaluated and slash sheets published. 0 Economics - itis

  4. The NASA/JPL multifrequency, multipolarisation airborne SAR system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, D. N.; Brown, W. E.; Freeman, A.; Klein, J. D.; Zebker, H. A.; Sato, T.; Miller, T.; Nguyen, Q.; Lou, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Polarimetric synthetic aperture radars, operating at L-, C- and P-band, were designed to replace and upgrade a system destroyed in an aircraft accident. Ground and flight tests were conducted, and the radar was flown over a calibration site in a sequence of experiments designed to calibrate the system. The radar also took part in science campaigns.

  5. Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision making systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Ways in which computers can aid the decision making of an human operator of an aerospace system are investigated. The approach taken is to aid rather than replace the human operator, because operational experience has shown that humans can enhance the effectiveness of systems. As systems become more automated, the role of the operator has shifted to that of a manager and problem solver. This shift has created the research area of how to aid the human in this role. Published research in four areas is described. A discussion is presented of the DC-8 flight simulator at Georgia Tech.

  6. Concept of Operations for Real-time Airborne Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Taira, Randal Y.; Orr, Heather M.

    2013-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to describe the operating concepts, capabilities, and benefits of RAMS including descriptions of how the system implementations can improve emergency response, damage assessment, task prioritization, and situation awareness. This CONOPS provides general information on operational processes and procedures required to utilize RAMS, and expected performance benefits of the system. The primary audiences for this document are the end users of RAMS (including flight operators and incident commanders) and the RAMS management team. Other audiences include interested offices within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and officials from other state and local jurisdictions who want to implement similar systems.

  7. Are Unmanned Aerial Systems in the Future for Polar Ozone Studies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, J. W.; Hurst, D. F.; Moore, F. L.; Dutton, G. S.; Oltmans, S. J.; Vasel, B. A.; Montzka, S. A.; Fahey, D. W.

    2005-12-01

    Ozone loss studies in the polar stratosphere have benefited from the combination of ozone and other trace gas measurements (nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.) to account for transport of ozone from other regions of the atmosphere. Trace gases versus ozone correlations and transport calculations have permitted the calculation of ozone loss on airborne missions during the polar stratospheric winter. NOAA/CMDL has successfully operated a combined ozone analyzer and gas chromatograph during the first phase of the NOAA UAS demonstration using the NASA Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Altair (a civilian version of the military Predator B UAS). UAS, like Altair and Global Hawk, are ideal for polar studies because of their long range (7200+ km), long duration (30+ hours), and high altitude (>14 km) flying capabilities. They offer advantages over manned aircraft, most importantly safety of pilots where few airports exist and flights must be of long duration to reach the polar vortex. There are major obstacles in using UAS over Polar Regions including satellite coverage, and UAS access to civilian air space. A government/industry group, ACCESS-5 (means ACCESS to the national airspace in 5 years), is planning a mission to Hawaii to test procedures for flying in the national airspace which could be as early as May 2006. NOAA and other agencies are investigating the possibility of flying a UAS during the International Polar Year (2007-2008). Observational data will be presented from the NOAA UAS demo.

  8. Application of the Hardman methodology to the Single Channel Ground-Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The HARDMAN methodology was applied to the various configurations of employment for an emerging Army multipurpose communications system. The methodology was used to analyze the manpower, personnel and training (MPT) requirements and associated costs, of the system concepts responsive to the Army's requirement for the Single Channel Ground-Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS). The scope of the application includes the analysis of two conceptual designs Cincinnati Electronics and ITT Aerospace/Optical Division for operating and maintenance support addressed through the general support maintenance echelon.

  9. Flight Tests of the DELICAT Airborne LIDAR System for Remote Clear Air Turbulence Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrancken, Patrick; Wirth, Martin; Ehret, Gerhard; Witschas, Benjamin; Veerman, Henk; Tump, Robert; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Dolfi-Bouteyre, Agnès; Lombard, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    An important aeronautics application of lidar is the airborne remote detection of Clear Air Turbulence which cannot be performed with onboard radar. We report on a DLR-developed lidar system for the remote detection of such turbulent areas in the flight path of an aircraft. The lidar, consisting of a high-power UV laser transmitter and a direct detection system, was installed on a Dutch research aircraft. Flight tests executed in 2013 demonstrated the performance of the lidar system to detect local subtle variations in the molecular backscatter coefficient indicating the turbulence some 10 to 15 km ahead.

  10. Low Gravity Guidance System for Airborne Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, W. J.; Emery, E. F.; Boyer, E. O.; Hegedus, C.; ODonoghue, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    Microgravity research techniques have been established to achieve a greater understanding of the role of gravity in the fundamentals of a variety of physical phenomena and material processing. One technique in use at the NASA Lewis Research Center involves flying Keplarian trajectories with a modified Lear Jet and DC-9 aircraft to achieve a highly accurate Microgravity environment by neutralizing accelerations in all three axis of the aircraft. The Low Gravity Guidance System (LGGS) assists the pilot and copilot in flying the trajectories by displaying the aircraft acceleration data in a graphical display format. The Low Gravity Guidance System is a microprocessor based system that acquires and displays the aircraft acceleration information. This information is presented using an electroluminescent display mounted over the pilot's instrument panel. The pilot can select the Microgravity range that is required for a given research event. This paper describes the characteristics, design, calibration and testing of the Low Gravity Guidance System Phase 3, significant lessons from earlier systems and the developmental work on future systems.

  11. How to Interactively Operate the Global Hawk UAS NOAA/NASA ENSO Payload, from Your Armchair, Five Thousand Kilometers Away

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Don

    2016-01-01

    This paper will describe the information technologies developed by NASA and NOAA for the February 2016 Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT) El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Campaign. The air vehicle is a NASA Global Hawk UAS, with a primary payload of four instruments, two developed by NASA, two developed by NOAA. The aircraft is based at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, Edwards Air Force Base, California. The payload components are remotely operated by scientists at various facilities, and the data collected downloaded over satellite links in real time for analysis and collaboration. NOAA: Advanced Vertical Atmospheric Profiling System (AVAPS), developed by NCAR, which deploys dozens of dropsondes at altitudes up to 65,000 ft to collect high vertical resolution measurements of the temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction. NASA: High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP), a radar designed to examine the factors of storm intensity: formation, structure and intensification. NOAA: O3 Photometer (UAS-O3), designed specifically for autonomous, precise, and accurate O3 measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS). NASA JPL: High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR), an atmospheric microwave temperature and humidity sounder instrument that looks at the microwave spectrum.

  12. Emergency Response Equipment and Related Training: Airborne Radiological Computer System (Model II)

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Colton

    2007-02-28

    The materials included in the Airborne Radiological Computer System, Model-II (ARCS-II) were assembled with several considerations in mind. First, the system was designed to measure and record the airborne gamma radiation levels and the corresponding latitude and longitude coordinates, and to provide a first overview look of the extent and severity of an accident's impact. Second, the portable system had to be light enough and durable enough that it could be mounted in an aircraft, ground vehicle, or watercraft. Third, the system must control the collection and storage of the data, as well as provide a real-time display of the data collection results to the operator. The notebook computer and color graphics printer components of the system would only be used for analyzing and plotting the data. In essence, the provided equipment is composed of an acquisition system and an analysis system. The data can be transferred from the acquisition system to the analysis system at the end of the data collection or at some other agreeable time.

  13. ATLAS: an airborne active linescan system for high-resolution topographic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willetts, David V.; Kightley, Peter J.; Mole, S. G.; Pearson, Guy N.; Pearson, P.; Coffey, Adrian S.; Stokes, Tim J.; Tapster, Paul R.; Westwood, M.

    2004-12-01

    High resolution ground mapping is of interest for survey and management of long linear features such as roads, railways and pipelines, and for georeferencing of areas such as flood plains for hydrological purposes. ATLAS (Airborne Topographic Laser System) is an active linescan system operating at the eyesafe wavelength of 1.5μm. Built for airborne survey, it is currently certified for use on a Twin Squirrel helicopter for operation from low levels to heights above 500 feet allowing commercial survey in built up areas. The system operates at a pulse repetition frequency of 56kHz with a line completed in 15ms, giving 36 points/m2 at the surface at the design flight speed. At each point the range to the ground is measured together with the scan angle of the system. This data is combined with a system attitude measurement from an integrated inertial navigation system and with system position derived from differential GPS data aboard the platform. A recording system captures the data with a synchronised time-stamp to enable post-processed reconstruction of a cloud of data points that will give a three-dimensional representation of the terrain, allowing the points to be located with respect to absolute Earth referenced coordinates to a precision of 5cm in three axes. This paper summarises the design, harmonisation, evaluation and performance of the system, and shows examples of survey data.

  14. Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision making systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.; Chu, Y. Y.; Greenstein, J. S.; Walden, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was made of interaction between a human pilot and automated on-board decision making systems. Research was initiated on the topic of pilot problem solving in automated and semi-automated flight management systems and attempts were made to develop a model of human decision making in a multi-task situation. A study was made of allocation of responsibility between human and computer, and discussed were various pilot performance parameters with varying degrees of automation. Optimal allocation of responsibility between human and computer was considered and some theoretical results found in the literature were presented. The pilot as a problem solver was discussed. Finally the design of displays, controls, procedures, and computer aids for problem solving tasks in automated and semi-automated systems was considered.

  15. Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision making systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, W. B.; Hammer, J. M.; Morris, N. M.; Brown, E. N.; Yoon, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    The use of advanced software engineering methods (e.g., from artificial intelligence) to aid aircraft crews in procedure selection and execution is investigated. Human problem solving in dynamic environments as effected by the human's level of knowledge of system operations is examined. Progress on the development of full scale simulation facilities is also discussed.

  16. A Moored Airborne Video System with Nearshore Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G.; Lippmann, T.

    2004-12-01

    Over the past two decades researchers have developed video-based remote sensing techniques to measure relevant nearshore variables. Measurements made include spatial patterns in sand bar morphology, run-up oscillations, wave breaking distributions, phase speed and wave angle, and most recently, surface currents within the surf zone and swash. In general, vertical (i.e., downward oriented) photography or videography is preferred to high-oblique land-based systems. However, although aircraft-mounted video systems have been under development for several years, the relatively high cost and short dwell time has limited its widespread application. Thus, most video measurements for research applications are obtained through methods whereby arrays of video cameras are fixed on land and oriented obliquely to the surf zone region of interest. The typically high-oblique imagery is limited in spatial ground coverage by rapidly degrading resolution in the far field, as well as lay-over problems associated with a fluctuating sea surface and high incidence look-angle. In order to alleviate these problems, researchers have attempted mounting video (or photographic) sensors on tethered balloons where long time series can be obtained over large regions of the surf zone without limiting resolution in the far field. In our research we have developed a technique for mounting a video system onboard a tethered helikite, a combination kite and helium-filled blimp (Allsopp Helikites, Ltd.). The video system consists of a downward-looking video camera in a custom weather-proof housing mounted on the keel of the helikite. Also included are a differential GPS receiver, tilt and heading sensor for accurate geometrical transformation, micro-processor, onboard power supply, and wireless data link. In this presentation, we will discuss the system in more detail, the image resolution and accuracies, and the expected applications to nearshore processes research. This work is sponsored by the Office

  17. Flight Test Evaluation of Airborne Tire Pressure Indicating Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    reasons they were not selected follows: Aoproaeh/Concent 1. Differential Valve - Discrete (Concept I, Part I Report) Differential valve opens when...system sensors are closed loop servo inclinometers, mounted on the bogie beam for main gear and inside the axle for the nose gear. 5. Go-No-Go Discrete...is an indication of a lack of symmetry between wheels of the same category. The differential level is set at 35 psi. If the particular tire is 35 psi

  18. Development of the Advance Warning Airborne System(AWAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, H. Patrick

    1992-01-01

    The thermal characteristics of microbursts are utilized by the AWAS IR and OAT features to provide predictive warning of hazardous microbursts ahead of the aircraft during landing or take off. The AWAS was evaluated satisfactorily in 1990 on a Cessna Citation that was intentionally flown into a number of wind shear events. The events were detected, and both the IR and OAT thermal features were shown to be effective. In 1991, AWAS units were flown on three American Airline MD-80's and three Northwest Airlines DC-9's to study and to decrease the nuisance alert response of the system. The AWAS was also flown on the NASA B737 during the summer of 1991. The results of these flights were inconclusive and disappointing. The results were not as promising as before because NASA conducted research flights which were outside of the normal operating envelope for which the AWAS is designed to operate. In an attempt to compensate for these differences in airspeed and mounting location, the automatic features of the system were sometimes overridden by NASA personnel during the flight. Each of these critical factors is discussed in detail. The effect of rain on the OAT signals is presented as a function of the air speed. Use of a 4 pole 1/20 Hertz filter is demonstrated by both the IR and thermal data. Participation in the NASA 1992 program was discussed. FAA direction in the continuing Certification program requires the addition of a reactive feature to the AWAS predictive system. This combined system will not require flight guidance on newer aircraft. The features of AWAS-IV, with the NASA algorithm included, were presented. Expected completion of the FAA Certification plan was also described.

  19. Airborne Antenna System for Minimum-Cycle-Slip GPS Reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    A system that includes a Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna and associated apparatus for keeping the antenna aimed upward has been developed for use aboard a remote-sensing-survey airplane. The purpose served by the system is to enable minimum- cycle-slip reception of GPS signals used in precise computation of the trajectory of the airplane, without having to restrict the airplane to maneuvers that increase the flight time needed to perform a survey. Cycle slip signifies loss of continuous track of the phase of a signal. Minimum-cycle-slip reception is desirable because maintaining constant track of the phase of the carrier signal from each available GPS satellite is necessary for surveying to centimeter or subcentimeter precision. Even a loss of signal for as short a time as a nanosecond can cause cycle slip. Cycle slips degrade the quality and precision of survey data acquired during a flight. The two principal causes of cycle slip are weakness of signals and multipath propagation. Heretofore, it has been standard practice to mount a GPS antenna rigidly on top of an airplane, and the radiation pattern of the antenna is typically hemispherical, so that all GPS satellites above the horizon are viewed by the antenna during level flight. When the airplane must be banked for a turn or other maneuver, the reception hemisphere becomes correspondingly tilted; hence, the antenna no longer views satellites that may still be above the Earth horizon but are now below the equatorial plane of the tilted reception hemisphere. Moreover, part of the reception hemisphere (typically, on the inside of a turn) becomes pointed toward ground, with a consequent increase in received noise and, therefore, degradation of GPS measurements. To minimize the likelihood of loss of signal and cycle slip, bank angles of remote-sensing survey airplanes have generally been limited to 10 or less, resulting in skidding or slipping uncoordinated turns. An airplane must be banked in order to make

  20. Demonstration and Validation of an Improved Airborne Electromagnetic System for UXO Detection and Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Jefferson (Ohio) site, six acres in size, is located in an area where a glacial till layer, typically 50–200 feet (ft) thick, overlies Silurian age...lower cost per acre than ground-based systems. Furthermore, the data may be acquired in a shorter period of time. Airborne systems are particularly...Figure 6. 22 Alternating positive and negative "on-time" current pulses with linear on- and off-ramps are separated by "off-time" periods during

  1. Development of an Airborne Sea Ice Thickness Measurement System and Field Test Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Kovacs and J . Scott Holladay PJTIS CRA&I DTIC TAB Unannronced JustiCaton By Distribution I AvaIabilit Cordes AvjII d-dlc, Dist Prepared for U.S...Development of an Airborne Sea Ice Thickness Measurement System and Field Test Results 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kovacs, Austin and Holladay, J . Scott 13a...Thickness Measurement System and Field Test Results AUSTIN KOVACS AND J . SCOTT HOLLADAY INTRODUCTION was determined to be desirable. The goals of the 1986-87

  2. A high gain antenna system for airborne satellite communication applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maritan, M.; Borgford, M.

    1990-01-01

    A high gain antenna for commercial aviation satellites communication is discussed. Electromagnetic and practical design considerations as well as candidate systems implementation are presented. An evaluation of these implementation schemes is given, resulting in the selection of a simple top mounted aerodynamic phased array antenna with a remotely located beam steering unit. This concept has been developed into a popular product known as the Canadian Marconi Company CMA-2100. A description of the technical details is followed by a summary of results from the first production antennas.

  3. Pilot interaction with automated airborne decision making systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, John M.; Wan, C. Yoon; Vasandani, Vijay

    1987-01-01

    The current research is focused on detection of human error and protection from its consequences. A program for monitoring pilot error by comparing pilot actions to a script was described. It dealt primarily with routine errors (slips) that occurred during checklist activity. The model to which operator actions were compared was a script. Current research is an extension along these two dimensions. The ORS fault detection aid uses a sophisticated device model rather than a script. The newer initiative, the model-based and constraint-based warning system, uses an even more sophisticated device model and is to prevent all types of error, not just slips or bad decision.

  4. Portable Airborne Laser System Measures Forest-Canopy Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Ross

    2005-01-01

    (PALS) is a combination of laser ranging, video imaging, positioning, and data-processing subsystems designed for measuring the heights of forest canopies along linear transects from tens to thousands of kilometers long. Unlike prior laser ranging systems designed to serve the same purpose, the PALS is not restricted to use aboard a single aircraft of a specific type: the PALS fits into two large suitcases that can be carried to any convenient location, and the PALS can be installed in almost any local aircraft for hire, thereby making it possible to sample remote forests at relatively low cost. The initial cost and the cost of repairing the PALS are also lower because the PALS hardware consists mostly of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) units that can easily be replaced in the field. The COTS units include a laser ranging transceiver, a charge-coupled-device camera that images the laser-illuminated targets, a differential Global Positioning System (dGPS) receiver capable of operation within the Wide Area Augmentation System, a video titler, a video cassette recorder (VCR), and a laptop computer equipped with two serial ports. The VCR and computer are powered by batteries; the other units are powered at 12 VDC from the 28-VDC aircraft power system via a low-pass filter and a voltage converter. The dGPS receiver feeds location and time data, at an update rate of 0.5 Hz, to the video titler and the computer. The laser ranging transceiver, operating at a sampling rate of 2 kHz, feeds its serial range and amplitude data stream to the computer. The analog video signal from the CCD camera is fed into the video titler wherein the signal is annotated with position and time information. The titler then forwards the annotated signal to the VCR for recording on 8-mm tapes. The dGPS and laser range and amplitude serial data streams are processed by software that displays the laser trace and the dGPS information as they are fed into the computer, subsamples the laser range and

  5. An Improved Platform Levelling System for Airborne Gravity Meters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled Lacoste and Romberg type relative gravity meters to improve in accuracy to the point where other non-sensor related sources of error serve to limit the overall accuracy of the system. One of these sources of error is derived from the inability of the platform, in which the sensor is mounted, to keep the sensor perfectly level during survey flight. Off level errors occur when the aircraft is unable to maintain straight and level flight along a survey line. The levelling platform of a typical Lacoste and Romberg type dynamic gravity meter utilizes a complex feedback loop involving both accelerometers and gyroscopes with an output connected to torque motors mounted to the platform to sense an off level situation and correct for it. The current system is limited by an inability of the platform to distinguish between an acceleration of the platform due to a change in heading, altitude or speed of the aircraft and a true change in the local gravity vertical. Both of these situations cause the platform to tilt in reponse however the aircraft acceleration creates an error in the gravity measurement. These off level errors can be corrected for to a limited degree depending on the algorithm used and the size and duration of the causal acceleration. High precision GPS now provides accurate real time position information which can be used to determine if an accleration is a real level change or due to an anomalous acceleration. The correct implementation of the GPS position can significantly improve the accuracy of the platform levelling including keeping the platform level during course reversals or drape flying during a survey. This can typically improve the quality of the gravity data before any processing corrections. The enhanced platform also reduces the time taken to stabilize the platform at the beginning of a survey line therefore improving the efficiency of the data collection. This paper discusses the method and

  6. Optimization of an air–liquid interface exposure system for assessing toxicity of airborne nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Latvala, Siiri; Hedberg, Jonas; Möller, Lennart; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Karlsson, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of refined toxicological methods is currently needed for characterizing the risks of airborne nanoparticles (NPs) to human health. To mimic pulmonary exposure, we have developed an air–liquid interface (ALI) exposure system for direct deposition of airborne NPs on to lung cell cultures. Compared to traditional submerged systems, this allows more realistic exposure conditions for characterizing toxicological effects induced by airborne NPs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the deposition of silver NPs (AgNPs) is affected by different conditions of the ALI system. Additionally, the viability and metabolic activity of A549 cells was studied following AgNP exposure. Particle deposition increased markedly with increasing aerosol flow rate and electrostatic field strength. The highest amount of deposited particles (2.2 μg cm–2) at cell‐free conditions following 2 h exposure was observed for the highest flow rate (390 ml min–1) and the strongest electrostatic field (±2 kV). This was estimated corresponding to deposition efficiency of 94%. Cell viability was not affected after 2 h exposure to clean air in the ALI system. Cells exposed to AgNPs (0.45 and 0.74 μg cm–2) showed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced metabolic activities (64 and 46%, respectively). Our study shows that the ALI exposure system can be used for generating conditions that were more realistic for in vitro exposures, which enables improved mechanistic and toxicological studies of NPs in contact with human lung cells.Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26935862

  7. Optimization of an air-liquid interface exposure system for assessing toxicity of airborne nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Latvala, Siiri; Hedberg, Jonas; Möller, Lennart; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Karlsson, Hanna L; Elihn, Karine

    2016-10-01

    The use of refined toxicological methods is currently needed for characterizing the risks of airborne nanoparticles (NPs) to human health. To mimic pulmonary exposure, we have developed an air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system for direct deposition of airborne NPs on to lung cell cultures. Compared to traditional submerged systems, this allows more realistic exposure conditions for characterizing toxicological effects induced by airborne NPs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the deposition of silver NPs (AgNPs) is affected by different conditions of the ALI system. Additionally, the viability and metabolic activity of A549 cells was studied following AgNP exposure. Particle deposition increased markedly with increasing aerosol flow rate and electrostatic field strength. The highest amount of deposited particles (2.2 μg cm(-2) ) at cell-free conditions following 2 h exposure was observed for the highest flow rate (390 ml min(-1) ) and the strongest electrostatic field (±2 kV). This was estimated corresponding to deposition efficiency of 94%. Cell viability was not affected after 2 h exposure to clean air in the ALI system. Cells exposed to AgNPs (0.45 and 0.74 μg cm(-2) ) showed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced metabolic activities (64 and 46%, respectively). Our study shows that the ALI exposure system can be used for generating conditions that were more realistic for in vitro exposures, which enables improved mechanistic and toxicological studies of NPs in contact with human lung cells.Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Artificial Immune System Approach for Airborne Vehicle Maneuvering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and system for control of a first aircraft relative to a second aircraft. A desired location and desired orientation are estimated for the first aircraft, relative to the second aircraft, at a subsequent time, t=t2, subsequent to the present time, t=t1, where the second aircraft continues its present velocity during a subsequent time interval, t1.ltoreq.t.ltoreq.t2, or takes evasive action. Action command sequences are examined, and an optimal sequence is chosen to bring the first aircraft to the desired location and desired orientation relative to the second aircraft at time t=t2. The method applies to control of combat aircraft and/or of aircraft in a congested airspace.

  9. Lidar System for Airborne Measurement of Clouds and Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew; Scott, V. Stanley; Izquierdo, Luis Ramos; Marzouk, Joe

    2008-01-01

    A lidar system for measuring optical properties of clouds and aerosols at three wavelengths is depicted. The laser transmitter is based on a Nd:YVO4 laser crystal pumped by light coupled to the crystal via optical fibers from laser diodes that are located away from the crystal to aid in dissipating the heat generated in the diodes and their drive circuits. The output of the Nd:YVO4 crystal has a wavelength of 1064 nm, and is made to pass through frequency-doubling and frequency-tripling crystals. As a result, the net laser output is a collinear superposition of beams at wavelengths of 1064, 532, and 355 nm. The laser operates at a pulse-repetition rate of 5 kHz, emitting per-pulse energies of 50 microJ at 1064 nm, 25 microJ at 532 nm and 50 microJ at 355 nm. An important feature of this system is an integrating sphere located between the laser output and the laser beam expander lenses. The integrating sphere collects light scattered from the lenses. Three energy-monitor detectors are located at ports inside the integrating sphere. Each of these detectors is equipped with filters such that the laser output energy is measured independently for each wavelength. The laser output energy is measured on each pulse to enable the most accurate calibration possible. The 1064-nm and 532-nm photodetectors are, more specifically, single photon-counting modules (SPCMs). When used at 1064 nm, these detectors have approximately 3% quantum efficiency and low thermal noise (fewer than 200 counts per second). When used at 532 nm, the SPCMs have quantum efficiency of about 60%. The photodetector for the 355-nm channel is a photon-counting photomultiplier tube having a quantum efficiency of about 20%. The use of photon-counting detectors is made feasible by the low laser pulse energy. The main advantage of photon-counting is ease of inversion of data without need for complicated calibration schemes like those necessary for analog detectors. The disadvantage of photon-counting detectors

  10. System for rapid detection of antibiotic resistance of airborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, M.; Noiseux, I.; Mouslinkina, L.; Vernon, M. L.; Laflamme, C.; Filion, G.; Duchaine, C.; Ho, J.

    2009-05-01

    This project uses function-based detection via a fundamental understanding of the genetic markers of AR to distinguish harmful organisms from innocuous ones. This approach circumvents complex analyses to unravel the taxonomic details of 1399 pathogen species, enormously simplifying detection requirements. Laval Hospital's fast permeabilization strategy enables AR revelation in <1hr. Packaging the AR protocols in liquid-processing cartridges and coupling these to our in-house miniature fiber optic flow cell (FOFC) provides first responders with timely information on-site. INO's FOFC platform consists of a specialty optical fiber through which a hole is transversally bored by laser micromachining. The analyte solution is injected into the hole of the fiber and the particles are detected and counted. The advantage with respect to classic free space FC is that alignment occurs in the fabrication process only and complex excitation and collection optics are replaced by optical fibers. Moreover, we use a sheathless configuration which has the advantage of increase the portability of the system, to reduce excess biohazard material and the need for weekly maintenance. In this paper we present the principle of our FOFC along with a, demonstration of the basic capability of the platform for detection of bacillus cereus spores using permeabilized staining.

  11. Concentration and characterization of airborne particles in Tehran's subway system.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Hosein; Hoseini, Mohammad; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Mahdavi, Yousef; Jaafari, Jalil; Safari, Gholam Hosein

    2014-06-01

    Particulate matter is an important air pollutant, especially in closed environments like underground subway stations. In this study, a total of 13 elements were determined from PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected at two subway stations (Imam Khomeini and Sadeghiye) in Tehran's subway system. Sampling was conducted in April to August 2011 to measure PM concentrations in platform and adjacent outdoor air of the stations. In the Imam Khomeini station, the average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 94.4 ± 26.3 and 52.3 ± 16.5 μg m(-3) in the platform and 81.8 ± 22.2 and 35 ± 17.6 μg m(-3) in the outdoor air, respectively. In the Sadeghiye station, mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 87.6 ± 23 and 41.3 ± 20.4 μg m(-3) in the platform and 73.9 ± 17.3 and 30 ± 15 μg m(-3), in the outdoor air, respectively. The relative contribution of elemental components in each particle fraction were accounted for 43% (PM10) and 47.7% (PM2.5) in platform of Imam Khomeini station and 15.9% (PM10) and 18.5% (PM2.5) in the outdoor air of this station. Also, at the Sadeghiye station, each fraction accounted for 31.6% (PM10) and 39.8% (PM2.5) in platform and was 11.7% (PM10) and 14.3% (PM2.5) in the outdoor. At the Imam Khomeini station, Fe was the predominant element to represent 32.4 and 36 % of the total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 11.5 and 13.3% in the outdoor, respectively. At the Sadeghiye station, this element represented 22.7 and 29.8% of total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in the platform and 8.7 and 10.5% in the outdoor air, respectively. Other major crustal elements were 5.8% (PM10) and 5.3% (PM2.5) in the Imam Khomeini station platform and 2.3 and 2.4% in the outdoor air, respectively. The proportion of other minor elements was significantly lower, actually less than 7% in total samples, and V was the minor concentration in total mass of PM10 and PM2.5 in both platform stations.

  12. An Integrated Data Acquisition / User Request/ Processing / Delivery System for Airborne Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, B.; Chu, A.; Tung, W.

    2003-12-01

    Airborne science data has historically played an important role in the development of the scientific underpinnings for spaceborne missions. When the science community determines the need for new types of spaceborne measurements, airborne campaigns are often crucial in risk mitigation for these future missions. However, full exploitation of the acquired data may be difficult due to its experimental and transitory nature. Externally to the project, most problematic (in particular, for those not involved in requesting the data acquisitions) may be the difficulty in searching for, requesting, and receiving the data, or even knowing the data exist. This can result in a rather small, insular community of users for these data sets. Internally, the difficulty for the project is in maintaining a robust processing and archival system during periods of changing mission priorities and evolving technologies. The NASA/JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) has acquired data for a large and varied community of scientists and engineers for 15 years. AIRSAR is presently supporting current NASA Earth Science Enterprise experiments, such as the Soil Moisture EXperiment (SMEX) and the Cold Land Processes experiment (CLPX), as well as experiments conducted as many as 10 years ago. During that time, it's processing, data ordering, and data delivery system has undergone evolutionary change as the cost and capability of resources has improved. AIRSAR now has a fully integrated data acquisition/user request/processing/delivery system through which most components of the data fulfillment process communicate via shared information within a database. The integration of these functions has reduced errors and increased throughput of processed data to customers.

  13. Examination of Frameworks for Safe Integration of Intelligent Small UAS into the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed framework for the safe integration of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). The paper briefly examines the potential uses of sUAS to build an understanding of the location and frequency of potential future flight operations based on the future applications of the sUAS systems. The paper then examines the types of systems that would be required to meet the application-level demand to determine "classes" of platforms and operations. A framework for categorization of the "intelligence" level of the UAS is postulated for purposes of NAS integration. Finally, constraints on the intelligent systems are postulated to ensure their ease of integration into the NAS.

  14. Positional Accuracy of Airborne Integrated Global Positioning and Inertial Navigation Systems for Mapping in Glen Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.; Hothem, Larry D.

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution airborne and satellite image sensor systems integrated with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) may offer a quick and cost-effective way to gather accurate topographic map information without ground control or aerial triangulation. The Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing of aerial photography was used in this project to examine the positional accuracy of integrated GPS/INS for terrain mapping in Glen Canyon, Arizona. The research application in this study yielded important information on the usefulness and limits of airborne integrated GPS/INS data-capture systems for mapping.

  15. First results from an airborne GPS radio occultation system for atmospheric profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, J. S.; Murphy, B. J.; Muradyan, P.; Nievinski, F. G.; Larson, K. M.; Garrison, J. L.; Wang, K.-N.

    2014-03-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) from low Earth-orbiting satellites has increased the quantity of high-vertical resolution atmospheric profiles, especially over oceans, and has significantly improved global weather forecasting. A new system, the Global Navigation Satellite Systems Instrument System for Multistatic and Occultation Sensing (GISMOS), has been developed for RO sounding from aircraft. GISMOS also provides high-vertical resolution profiles that are insensitive to clouds and precipitation, and in addition, provides greater control on the sampling location, useful for targeted regional studies. The feasibility of the system is demonstrated with a flight carried out during development of an Atlantic tropical storm. The data have been evaluated through a comparison with dropsonde data. The new airborne RO system will effectively increase by more than 50% the number of profiles available for studying the evolution of tropical storms during this campaign and could potentially be deployed on commercial aircraft in the future.

  16. Recent advances in the applications of pulsed lasers in the hydrosphere. [considering airborne bathymetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    Laboratory and field measurements have been performed on the transmission/scattering characteristics of a pulsed neon laser as a function of water turbidity. These results have been used to establish the criteria for an airborne laser bathymetry system. Extensive measurements have been made of laser induced fluorescence using a pulsed tunable dye laser. Feasibility has been demonstrated for remote detection and possible identification of various types of algae and oils. Similar measurements made on a wide variety of organic dyes have shown this technique to have applications in remote measurements of subsurface currents, temperature and salinity.

  17. A Performance Assessment of a Tactical Airborne Separation Assistance System using Realistic, Complex Traffic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Neitzke, Kurt W.; Bussink, Frank J. L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study that investigates the performance of aspects of an Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) under varying demand levels using realistic traffic patterns. This study only addresses the tactical aspects of an ASAS using aircraft state data (latitude, longitude, altitude, heading and speed) to detect and resolve projected conflicts. The main focus of this paper is to determine the extent to which sole reliance on the proposed tactical ASAS can maintain aircraft separation at demand levels up to three times current traffic. The effect of mixing ASAS equipped aircraft with non-equipped aircraft that do not have the capability to self-separate is also investigated.

  18. High-energy, efficient, 30-Hz ultraviolet laser sources for airborne ozone-lidar systems.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Khaled A; Chen, Songsheng; Petway, Larry B; Meadows, Byron L; Marsh, Waverly D; Edwards, William C; Barnes, James C; DeYoung, Russell J

    2002-05-20

    Two compact, high-pulse-energy, injection-seeded, 30-Hz frequency-doubled Nd:YAG-laser-pumped Ti: sapphire lasers were developed and operated at infrared wavelengths of 867 and 900 nm. Beams with laser pulse energy >30 mJ at ultraviolet wavelengths of 289 and 300 nm were generated through a tripling of the frequencies of these Ti:sapphire lasers. This work is directed at the replacement of dye lasers for use in an airborne ozone differential absorption lidar system. The ultraviolet pulse energy at 289 and 300 nm had 27% and 31% absolute optical energy conversion efficiencies from input pulse energies at 867 and 900 nm, respectively.

  19. [About the improvement of communication system and information transmission in medical service control in airborne division].

    PubMed

    Korniushko, I G; Shelepov, A M; Zhidik, V V; Berezin, A I

    2007-03-01

    Frequent changes in tactical, rear and medical situations cause the medical service officials of airborne division (ABD) to obtain and transmit the data characterizing the medical service forces and means for a lot of times. It decreases the effectiveness of the control process. Equipping of ABD medical service staff with programming-and-technical systems (PTS), development of algorithm of official interaction, creation of report forms and selection of materials necessary for PTS database input will contribute to the effectiveness of ABD medical service control.

  20. Airborne antenna coverage requirements for the TCV B-737 aircraft. [for operation with microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, W. A., Jr.; White, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The airborne antenna line of sight look angle requirement for operation with a Microwave Landing System (MLS) was studied. The required azimuth and elevation line of sight look angles from an antenna located on an aircraft to three ground based antenna sites at the Wallops Flight Center (FPS-16 radar, MLS aximuth, and MLS elevation) as the aircraft follows specific approach paths selected as representative of MLS operations at the Denver, Colorado, terminal area are presented. These required azimuth and elevation look angles may be interpreted as basic design requirements for antenna of the TCV B-737 airplane for MLS operations along these selected approach paths.

  1. An Airborne Scanning LiDAR System for Ocean and Coastal Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reineman, B. D.; Lenain, L.; Castel, D.; Melville, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    We have developed an airborne scanning LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system and demonstrated its functionality for terrestrial and oceanographic measurements. Differential GPS (DGPS) and an Inertial Navigation System (INS) are synchronized with the LiDAR, providing end result vertical rms errors of approximately 6~cm. Flying 170~m above the surface, we achieve a point density of ~ 0.7 m-2 and a swath width of 90 to 120~m over ocean and 200~m over land. Georeferencing algorithms were developed in-house and earth-referenced data are available several hours after acquisition. Surveys from the system are compared with ground DGPS surveys and existing airborne surveys of fixed targets. Twelve research flights in a Piper Twin Comanche from August 2007 to July 2008 have provided topography of the Southern California coastline and sea surface wave fields in the nearshore ocean environment. Two of the flights also documented the results of the October 2007 landslide on Mt.~Soledad in La Jolla, California. Eight research flights aboard a Cessna Caravan surveyed the topography, lagoon, reef, and surrounding seas of Lady Elliot Island (LEI) in Australia's Great Barrier Reef in April 2008. We describe applications for the system, including coastal topographic surveys, wave measurements, reef research, and ship wake studies.

  2. Preliminary results of the LLNL airborne experimental test-bed SAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.G.; Mullenhoff, C.J.; Kiefer, R.D.; Brase, J.M.; Wieting, M.G.; Berry, G.L.; Jones, H.E.

    1996-01-16

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within Laser Programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in cooperation with the Hughes Aircraft Company has developed a versatile, high performance, airborne experimental test-bed (AETB) capability. The test-bed has been developed for a wide range of research and development experimental applications including radar and radiometry plus, with additional aircraft modifications, optical systems. The airborne test-bed capability has been developed within a Douglas EA-3B Skywarrior jet aircraft provided and flown by Hughes Aircraft Company. The current test-bed payload consists of an X-band radar system, a high-speed data acquisition, and a real-time processing capability. The medium power radar system is configured to operate in a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode and is highly configurable in terms of waveforrns, PRF, bandwidth, etc. Antennas are mounted on a 2-axis gimbal in the belly radome of the aircraft which provides pointing and stabilization. Aircraft position and antenna attitude are derived from a dedicated navigational system and provided to the real-time SAR image processor for instant image reconstruction and analysis. This paper presents a further description of the test-bed and payload subsystems plus preliminary results of SAR imagery.

  3. TELAER: a multi-mode/multi-antenna interferometric airborne SAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, Stefano; Amaral, Tiago; Berardino, Paolo; Esposito, Carmen; Jackson, Giuseppe; Pauciullo, Antonio; Vaz Junior, Eurico; Wimmer, Christian; Lanari, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    The present contribution is aimed at showing the capabilities of the TELAER airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system recently upgraded to the interferometric mode [1]. TELAER is an Italian airborne X-Band SAR system, mounted onboard a LearJet 35A aircraft. Originally equipped with a single TX/RX antenna, it now operates in single-pass interferometric mode thanks to a system upgrading [1] funded by the Italian National Research Council (CNR), via the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR), in the framework of a cooperation between CNR and the Italian Agency for Agriculture Subsidy Payments (AGEA). In the frame of such cooperation, CNR has entrusted the Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA) for managing all the activities, included the final flight tests, related to the system upgrading. According to such an upgrading, two additional receiving X-band antennas have been installed in order to allow, simultaneously, single-pass Across-Track and Along-Track interferometry [1]. More specifically, the three antennas are now installed in such a way to produce three different across-track baselines and two different along-track baselines. Moreover, in the frame of the same system upgrading, it has been mounted onboard the Learjet an accurate embedded Global Navigation Satellite System and Inertial Measurement Unit equipment. This allows precise measurement of the tracks described by the SAR antennas during the flight, in order to accurately implement Motion Compensation (MOCO) algorithms [2] during the image formation (focusing) step. It is worth remarking that the TELAER system upgraded to the interferometric mode is very flexible, since the user can set different operational modes characterized by different geometric resolutions and range swaths. In particular, it is possible to reach up to 0.5 m of resolution with a range swath of 2km; conversely, it is possible to enlarge the range swath up to 10 km at expenses of

  4. Initial evaluation of airborne water vapour measurements by the IAGOS-GHG CRDS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filges, Annette; Gerbig, Christoph; Smit, Herman G. J.; Krämer, Martina; Spelten, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    Accurate and reliable airborne measurements of water vapour are still a challenge. Presently, no airborne humidity sensor exists that covers the entire range of water vapour content between the surface and the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region with sufficient accuracy and time resolution. Nevertheless , these data are a pre-requisite to study the underlying processes in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. The DENCHAR project (Development and Evaluation of Novel Compact Hygrometer for Airborne Research) addresses this deficit by developing and characterizing novel or improved compact airborne hygrometers for different airborne applications within EUFAR (European Facility for Airborne Research). As part of the DENCHAR inter-comparison campaign in Hohn (Germany), 23 May - 1 June 2011, a commercial gas analyzer (G2401-m, Picarro Inc.,US), based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), was installed on a Learjet to measure water vapour, CO2, CH4 and CO. The CRDS components are identical to those chosen for integration aboard commercial airliner within IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System). Thus the campaign allowed for the initial assessment validation of the long-term IAGOS H2O measurements by CRDS against reference instruments with a long performance record (FISH, the Fast In-situ Stratospheric Hygrometer, and CR2 frostpoint hygrometer, both research centre Juelich). The inlet system, a one meter long 1/8" FEP-tube connected to a Rosemount TAT housing (model 102BX, deiced) installed on a window plate of the aircraft, was designed to eliminate sampling of larger aerosols, ice particles, and water droplets, and provides about 90% of ram-pressure. In combination with a lowered sample flow of 0.1 slpm (corresponding to a 4 second response time), this ensured a fully controlled sample pressure in the cavity of 140 torr throughout an aircraft altitude operating range up to 12.5 km without the need of an upstream sampling pump

  5. An airborne FLIR detection and warning system for low altitude wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, Peter C.; Kuhn, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown through some preliminary flight measurement research that a forward looking infrared radiometer (FLIR) system can be used to successfully detect the cool downdraft of downbursts (microbusts/macrobursts) and thunderstorm gust front outflows that are responsible for most of the low altitude wind shear (LAWS) events. The FLIR system provides a much greater safety margin for the pilot than that provided by reactive designs such as inertial air speed systems. Preliminary results indicate that an advanced airborne FLIR system could provide the pilot with remote indication of microburst (MB) hazards along the flight path ahead of the aircraft. Results of a flight test of a prototype FLIR system show that a minimum warning time of one to four minutes (5 to 10 km), depending on aircraft speed, is available to the pilot prior to the microburst encounter.

  6. Rotorcraft aircrew systems concepts airborne laboratory (RASCAL) helmet-mounted display flight research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindson, William S.; Njaka, Chima E.; Aiken, Edwin W.; Barnhart, Warren A.

    1994-06-01

    The Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) is a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter that is being modified by the US Army and NASA for flight systems research. One of the objectives of the research is to develop and integrate technologies for Automated Nap-of-the Earth (ANOE) flight. The principal elements of this system include video imaging sensors, advanced real-time image processing capabilities, a graphics supercomputer, a wide field-of-view color helmet mounted display (HMD), and an advanced fly-by-wire flight control system. The development methodology and the current status of the ANOE Flight Program are summarized, a description of the visionics system is provided, and the plans for the initial applications of the color HMD are presented.

  7. Laser-jamming effectiveness analysis of combined-fiber lasers for airborne defense systems.

    PubMed

    Jie, Xu; Shanghong, Zhao; Rui, Hou; Shengbao, Zhan; Lei, Shi; Jili, Wu; Shaoqiang, Fang; Yongjun, Li

    2008-12-20

    The laser-jamming effectiveness of combined fiber lasers for airborne defense systems is analyzed in detail. Our preliminary experimental results are proof of the concept of getting a high-power laser through a beam combination technique. Based on combined fiber lasers, the jamming effectiveness of four-quadrant guidance and imaging guidance systems are evaluated. The simulation results have proved that for a four-quadrant guidance system, the tracking system takes only two seconds to complete tracking, and the new tracking target is the jamming laser; for the imaging guidance system, increasing the power of the jamming laser or the distance between the target and the jamming laser are both efficient ways to achieve a successful laser jamming.

  8. Airborne Digital Sensor System and GPS-aided inertial technology for direct geopositioning in rough terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution airborne digital cameras with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) technology may offer a real-time means to gather accurate topographic map information by reducing ground control and eliminating aerial triangulation. Past evaluations of this integrated system over relatively flat terrain have proven successful. The author uses Emerge Digital Sensor System (DSS) combined with Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing to examine the positional mapping accuracy in rough terrain. The positional accuracy documented in this study did not meet large-scale mapping requirements owing to an apparent system mechanical failure. Nonetheless, the findings yield important information on a new approach for mapping in Antarctica and other remote or inaccessible areas of the world.

  9. An integrated GPS-FID system for airborne gas detection of pipeline right-of-ways

    SciTech Connect

    Gehue, H.L.; Sommer, P.

    1996-12-31

    Pipeline integrity, safety and environmental concerns are of prime importance in the Canadian natural gas industry. Terramatic Technology Inc. (TTI) has developed an integrated GPS/FID gas detection system known as TTI-AirTrac{trademark} for use in airborne gas detection (AGD) along pipeline right-of-ways. The Flame Ionization Detector (FID), which has traditionally been used to monitor air quality for gas plants and refineries, has been integrated with the Global Positioning System (GPS) via a 486 DX2-50 computer and specialized open architecture data acquisition software. The purpose of this technology marriage is to be able to continuously monitor air quality during airborne pipeline inspection. Event tagging from visual surveillance is used to determine an explanation of any delta line deviations (DLD). These deviations are an indication of hydrocarbon gases present in the plume that the aircraft has passed through. The role of the GPS system is to provide mapping information and coordinate data for ground inspections. The ground based inspection using a handheld multi gas detector will confirm whether or not a leak exists.

  10. Assessment of a non-dedicated GPS receiver system for precise airborne attitude determination

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, M.E.; Sun, H.; Owen, T.E.; Meindl, M.A.

    1994-09-01

    The use of a non-dedicated GPS receiver system for attitude determination was assessed in airborne mode through a test conducted at Sandia National Laboratories. Four independent NovAtel GPSCard{trademark} receivers were installed in Sandia`s Twin Engine Otter with two antennas mounted on the fuselage and two on the wing tips at separations of 6 to 18 m. A strapdown INS was also on board the aircraft in order to provide an independent attitude reference at rates between 4 and 10 Hz. During the multi-day test, GPS measurements were recorded between 1 and 10 Hz. Carrier phase measurements were post-processed using a double difference approach developed at The University of Calgary in which integer ambiguities were resolved in seconds using the known antenna separations as constraints. The tracking capability of the system is demonstrated under dynamics consisting of roll and pitch angles up to 45 and 12 degrees, respectively. Comparisons between the GPS and INS attitude angles are presented for two of the test days and show agreement at the several arcminute level. Conclusions are made with respect to system accuracy and performance in an operational airborne environment.

  11. Testing a small UAS for mapping artisanal diamond mining sites in Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malpeli, Katherine C.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing technology is advancing at an unprecedented rate. At the forefront of the new technological developments are unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The advent of small, lightweight, low-cost, and user-friendly UAS is greatly expanding the potential applications of remote sensing technology and improving the set of tools available to researchers seeking to map and monitor terrain from above. In this article, we explore the applications of a small UAS for mapping informal diamond mining sites in Africa. We found that this technology provides aerial imagery of unparalleled resolution in a data-sparse, difficult to access, and remote terrain.

  12. Safety and Certification Considerations for Expanding the Use of UAS in Precision Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Neogi, Natasha A.; Vertstynen, Harry A.

    2016-01-01

    The agricultural community is actively engaged in adopting new technologies such as unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) to help assess the condition of crops and develop appropriate treatment plans. In the United States, agricultural use of UAS has largely been limited to small UAS, generally weighing less than 55 lb and operating within the line of sight of a remote pilot. A variety of small UAS are being used to monitor and map crops, while only a few are being used to apply agricultural inputs based on the results of remote sensing. Larger UAS with substantial payload capacity could provide an option for site-specific application of agricultural inputs in a timely fashion, without substantive damage to the crops or soil. A recent study by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigated certification requirements needed to enable the use of larger UAS to support the precision agriculture industry. This paper provides a brief introduction to aircraft certification relevant to agricultural UAS, an overview of and results from the NASA study, and a discussion of how those results might affect the precision agriculture community. Specific topics of interest include business model considerations for unmanned aerial applicators and a comparison with current means of variable rate application. The intent of the paper is to inform the precision agriculture community of evolving technologies that will enable broader use of unmanned vehicles to reduce costs, reduce environmental impacts, and enhance yield, especially for specialty crops that are grown on small to medium size farms.

  13. Harvard participation in the UA1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rohlf, J.W.

    1985-12-31

    This report is a renewal proposal to continue Harvard`s participation in the UA1 experiment on proton-antiproton collisions. The proposed activity emphasizes events with large missing energy and W and Z neutral decays. (LSP)

  14. Harvard participation in the UA1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rohlf, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This report is a renewal proposal to continue Harvard's participation in the UA1 experiment on proton-antiproton collisions. The proposed activity emphasizes events with large missing energy and W and Z neutral decays. (LSP)

  15. Use of airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect ground displacement hazards to water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, J.P.; Hu, Jiawen; Kayen, R.E.; Lembo, A.J.; Collins, B.D.; Davis, C.A.; O'Rourke, T. D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the use of multiepoch airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect and measure ground displacements of sufficient magnitude to damage buried pipelines and other water system facilities that might result, for example, from earthquake or rainfall-induced landslides. Lidar scans are performed at three sites with coincident measurements by total station surveying. Relative horizontal accuracy is evaluated by measurements of lateral dimensions of well defined objects such as buildings and tanks; we find misfits ranging from approximately 5 to 12 cm, which is consistent with previous work. The bias and dispersion of lidar elevation measurements, relative to total station surveying, is assessed at two sites: (1) a power plant site (PP2) with vegetated steeply sloping terrain; and (2) a relatively flat and unvegetated site before and after trenching operations were performed. At PP2, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and a standard deviation of approximately 70 cm, whereas terrestrial lidar did not produce useful results due to beam divergence issues and inadequate sampling of the study region. At the trench site, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and reduced standard deviation relative to PP2 (6-20 cm), whereas terrestrial lidar was nearly unbiased with very low dispersion (4-6 cm). Pre- and posttrench bias-adjusted normalized residuals showed minimal to negligible correlation, but elevation change was affected by relative bias between epochs. The mean of elevation change bias essentially matches the difference in means of pre- and posttrench elevation bias, whereas elevation change standard deviation is sensitive to the dispersion of individual epoch elevations and their correlation coefficient. The observed lidar bias and standard deviations enable reliable detection of damaging ground displacements for some pipelines types (e.g., welded steel) but not all (e.g., concrete with unwelded, mortared joints). ?? ASCE 2009.

  16. Development and test of video systems for airborne surveillance of oil spills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.; Lewis, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    Five video systems - potentially useful for airborne surveillance of oil spills - were developed, flight tested, and evaluated. The systems are: (1) conventional black and white TV, (2) conventional TV with false color, (3) differential TV, (4) prototype Lunar Surface TV, and (5) field sequential TV. Wavelength and polarization filtering were utilized in all systems. Greatly enhanced detection of oil spills, relative to that possible with the unaided eye, was achieved. The most practical video system is a conventional TV camera with silicon-diode-array image tube, filtered with a Corning 7-54 filter and a polarizer oriented with its principal axis in the horizontal direction. Best contrast between oil and water was achieved when winds and sea states were low. The minimum detectable oil film thickness was about 0.1 micrometer.

  17. The development of an airborne instrumentation computer system for flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Instrumentation interfacing frequently requires the linking of intelligent systems together, as well as requiring the link itself to be intelligent. The airborne instrumentation computer system (AICS) was developed to address this requirement. Its small size, approximately 254 by 133 by 140 mm (10 by 51/4 by 51/2 in), standard bus, and modular board configuration give it the ability to solve instrumentation interfacing and computation problems without forcing a redesign of the entire unit. This system has been used on the F-15 aircraft digital electronic engine control (DEEC) and its follow on engine model derivative (EMD) project and in an OV-1C Mohawk aircraft stall speed warning system. The AICS is presently undergoing configuration for use on an F-104 pace aircraft and on the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-111 aircraft.

  18. Sampling for Airborne Radioactivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    compared to betas, gammas and neutrons. For an airborne radioactivity detection system, it is most important to be able to detect alpha particles and... Airborne radioactive particles may emit alpha, beta, gamma or neutron radiation, depending on which radioisotope is present. From a health perspective...

  19. UAS NAS IHITL Test Readiness Review (TRR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Jim; Brignola, Michael P.; Rorie, Conrad; Santiago, Confesor; Guminsky, Mike; Cross, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Requesting release of IHITL test readiness review (TRR) charts to ensure UAS-NAS project primary stakeholders, the Federal Aviation Administration through the RTCA special committee -228 and the Office of the Secretary of Defense Sense and Avoid Science and Research Panel, are well informed on the IHITL test plan and expected outcomes as they relate to their needs to safely fly UAS in the NAS.

  20. A hardware/software simulation for the video tracking system of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boozer, G. A.; Mckibbin, D. D.; Haas, M. R.; Erickson, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    This simulator was created so that C-141 Kuiper Airborne Observatory investigators could test their Airborne Data Acquisition and Management System software on a system which is generally more accessible than the ADAMS on the plane. An investigator can currently test most of his data acquisition program using the data computer simulator in the Cave. (The Cave refers to the ground-based computer facilities for the KAO and the associated support personnel.) The main Cave computer is interfaced to the data computer simulator in order to simulate the data-Exec computer communications. However until now, there has been no way to test the data computer interface to the tracker. The simulator described here simulates both the KAO Exec and tracker computers with software which runs on the same Hewlett-Packard (HP) computer as the investigator's data acquisition program. A simulator control box is hardwired to the computer to provide monitoring of tracker functions, to provide an operator panel similar to the real tracker, and to simulate the 180 deg phase shifting of the chopper squre-wave reference with beam switching. If run in the Cave, one can use their Exec simulator and this tracker simulator.

  1. Concepts of Integration for UAS Operations in the NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing the integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is the lack of an onboard pilot that can comply with the legal requirement identified in the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) that pilots see and avoid other aircraft. UAS will be expected to demonstrate the means to perform the function of see and avoid while preserving the safety level of the airspace and the efficiency of the air traffic system. This paper introduces a Sense and Avoid (SAA) concept for integration of UAS into the NAS that is currently being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and identifies areas that require additional experimental evaluation to further inform various elements of the concept. The concept design rests on interoperability principles that take into account both the Air Traffic Control (ATC) environment as well as existing systems such as the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). Specifically, the concept addresses the determination of well clear values that are large enough to avoid issuance of TCAS corrective Resolution Advisories, undue concern by pilots of proximate aircraft and issuance of controller traffic alerts. The concept also addresses appropriate declaration times for projected losses of well clear conditions and maneuvers to regain well clear separation.

  2. SITHON: An Airborne Fire Detection System Compliant with Operational Tactical Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kontoes, Charalabos; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Sifakis, Nicolaos; Konstantinidis, Pavlos

    2009-01-01

    In response to the urging need of fire managers for timely information on fire location and extent, the SITHON system was developed. SITHON is a fully digital thermal imaging system, integrating INS/GPS and a digital camera, designed to provide timely positioned and projected thermal images and video data streams rapidly integrated in the GIS operated by Crisis Control Centres. This article presents in detail the hardware and software components of SITHON, and demonstrates the first encouraging results of test flights over the Sithonia Peninsula in Northern Greece. It is envisaged that the SITHON system will be soon operated onboard various airborne platforms including fire brigade airplanes and helicopters as well as on UAV platforms owned and operated by the Greek Air Forces. PMID:22399963

  3. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS). Topical report, October 1993--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This document is a Final Technical Report that describes the results of the Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) research project. The objectives were to construct a geophysical data acquisition system that uses a remotely operated unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and to evaluate its effectiveness for characterization of hazardous environmental sites. The GAUSS is a data acquisition system that mitigates the potential risk to personnel during geophysical characterization of hazardous or radioactive sites. The fundamental basis of the GAUSS is as follows: (1) an unmanned survey vehicle carries geophysical sensors into a hazardous location, (2) the pilot remains outside the hazardous site and operates the vehicle using radio control, (3) geophysical measurements and their spatial locations are processed by an automated data-acquisition system which displays data on an off-site monitor in real-time, and (4) the pilot uses the display to direct the survey vehicle for complete site coverage. The objective of our Phase I research was to develop a data acquisition and processing (DAP) subsystem and geophysical sensors suitable for UAV deployment. We integrated these two subsystems to produce an automated, hand-held geophysical surveying system. The objective of the Phase II effort was to modify the subsystems and integrate them into an airborne prototype. The completed GAUSS DAP system consists of a UAV platform, a laser tracking and ranging subsystem, a telemetry subsystem, light-weight geophysical sensors, a base-station computer (BC), and custom-written survey control software (SCS). We have utilized off-the-shelf commercial products, where possible, to reduce cost and design time.

  4. Performance of the NASA Airborne Radar with the Windshear Database for Forward-Looking Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switzer, George F.; Britt, Charles L.

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the simulation approach used to test the performance of the NASA airborne windshear radar. An explanation of the actual radar hardware and processing algorithms provides an understanding of the parameters used in the simulation program. This report also contains a brief overview of the NASA airborne windshear radar experimental flight test results. A description of the radar simulation program shows the capabilities of the program and the techniques used for certification evaluation. Simulation of the NASA radar is comprised of three steps. First, the choice of the ground clutter data must be made. The ground clutter is the return from objects in or nearby an airport facility. The choice of the ground clutter also dictates the aircraft flight path since ground clutter is gathered while in flight. The second step is the choice of the radar parameters and the running of the simulation program which properly combines the ground clutter data with simulated windshear weather data. The simulated windshear weather data is comprised of a number of Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) model results. The final step is the comparison of the radar simulation results to the known windshear data base. The final evaluation of the radar simulation is based on the ability to detect hazardous windshear with the aircraft at a safe distance while at the same time not displaying false alerts.

  5. Demonstration of a hermetic airborne ozone disinfection system: studies on E. coli.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, W J; Bahnfleth, W P; Striebig, B A; Whittam, T S

    2003-01-01

    An enclosed flow-through system using airborne ozone for disinfection and which removes the ozone with a catalytic converter was tested with a strain of Escherichia coli. Petri dishes containing the microorganisms were inserted in a chamber and exposed for 10-480 min to ozone concentrations between 4 and 20 ppm. Death rates in excess of 99.99% were achieved. Survival data is fitted to a two-stage curve with a shoulder based on the multihit target model. Ozone was removed from the exhaust air to nondetectable levels using a metal oxide based catalyst. The possibility of using ozone as an airborne disinfectant for internal building surfaces and catalytically removing the ozone on exhaust is demonstrated to be feasible. A model for the decay of Bacillus cereus under ozone exposure is proposed as an example for predicting the sterilization of buildings contaminated with anthrax. The potential for disinfecting airstreams and removing ozone to create breathable air is also implied by the results of this experiment.

  6. Long-Term Tracking of a Specific Vehicle Using Airborne Optical Camera Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, F.; Rosenbaum, D.; Runge, H.; Cerra, D.; Mattyus, G.; Reinartz, P.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present two low cost, airborne sensor systems capable of long-term vehicle tracking. Based on the properties of the sensors, a method for automatic real-time, long-term tracking of individual vehicles is presented. This combines the detection and tracking of the vehicle in low frame rate image sequences and applies the lagged Cell Transmission Model (CTM) to handle longer tracking outages occurring in complex traffic situations, e.g. tunnels. The CTM model uses the traffic conditions in the proximities of the target vehicle and estimates its motion to predict the position where it reappears. The method is validated on an airborne image sequence acquired from a helicopter. Several reference vehicles are tracked within a range of 500m in a complex urban traffic situation. An artificial tracking outage of 240m is simulated, which is handled by the CTM. For this, all the vehicles in the close proximity are automatically detected and tracked to estimate the basic density-flow relations of the CTM model. Finally, the real and simulated trajectories of the reference vehicles in the outage are compared showing good correspondence also in congested traffic situations.

  7. Interoperable Data Systems for Satellite, Airborne, and Terrestrial LiDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meertens, C. M.; Baru, C.; Blair, B.; Crosby, C. J.; Haran, T. M.; Harding, D. J.; Hofton, M. A.; Khalsa, S. S.; McWhirter, J.

    2010-12-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) technology is being widely applied to scientific problems on global to local scales using a range of laser technologies mounted on satellite, low- and high-altitude airborne and terrestrial platforms. Modern laser ranging instruments are increasingly capable of providing full waveform data, multiple detectors, higher sample rates and longer ranges. Accompanying these improvements, however, are rapidly growing data volumes and ever more complex data formats and processing algorithms. This presents significant challenges for existing Earth science data systems serving these data and creates barriers to the efficient use of these data by a growing and diverse community of scientific and other users who are studying deformation of the solid Earth, the cryosphere, vegetation structure, and land form evolution. To address these challenges, a group of data centers is collaborating under a project funded by the NASA ROSES ACCESS Program to develop interoperable LiDAR data access systems to provide integrated access to data and derived products in common data formats via simple-to-navigate web interfaces. The web service-based systems created by this project, called NLAS, will enhance access to existing laser data sources hosted at the National Snow and Ice Data Center DAAC, Goddard Space Flight Center LVIS Data Center, UNAVCO, and the OpenTopography Facility at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC). Through the OpenTopography portal, NLAS systems will provide access to satellite laser altimetry data from ICESat and high altitude airborne laser scanning data from LVIS, as well as low altitude airborne LiDAR and terrestrial laser scanning data hosted at OpenTopography and UNAVCO. NLAS will develop new web service interfaces for NASA data archives at GSFC/LVIS and NSIDC in an effort to improve and streamline access to these data archives. The OpenTopography portal will act as a client to the NLAS services and will provide integrated

  8. Development and Evaluation of an Airborne Superconducting Quantum Interference Device-Based Magnetic Gradiometer Tensor System for Detection, Characterization and Mapping of Unexploded Ordnance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    FINAL REPORT Development and Evaluation of an Airborne Superconducting Quantum Interference Device-Based Magnetic Gradiometer Tensor System...Airborne Superconducting Quantum Interference Device-Based Magnetic Gradiometer Tensor System for Detection, Characterization and Mapping of Unexploded...Demonstration of the difference between a single component total field magnetometer and intrinsic gradiometer . (From Clarke, 1994). 4 Figure 3

  9. Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance: Mission Command and Centralized Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-10

    reconnaissance support by World War I artillerymen, whose views on organic control echo current dialogue on UAS employment. This monograph concludes by...Mission Command, Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance, ISR, Helmuth Von Moltke, J.E.B. Stuart, World War I, artillery, centralized...reconnaissance and modern airborne ISR operations. This monograph also highlights the experiences of World War I artillerymen and their pursuit of

  10. Operational Experience with Long Duration Wildfire Mapping: UAS Missions Over the Western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Philip; Cobleigh, Brent; Buoni, Greg; Howell, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, United States Forest Service, and National Interagency Fire Center have developed a partnership to develop and demonstrate technology to improve airborne wildfire imaging and data dissemination. In the summer of 2007, a multi-spectral infrared scanner was integrated into NASA's Ikhana Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) (a General Atomics Predator-B) and launched on four long duration wildfire mapping demonstration missions covering eight western states. Extensive safety analysis, contingency planning, and mission coordination were key to securing an FAA certificate of authorization (COA) to operate in the national airspace. Infrared images were autonomously geo-rectified, transmitted to the ground station by satellite communications, and networked to fire incident commanders within 15 minutes of acquisition. Close coordination with air traffic control ensured a safe operation, and allowed real-time redirection around inclement weather and other minor changes to the flight plan. All objectives of the mission demonstrations were achieved. In late October, wind-driven wildfires erupted in five southern California counties. State and national emergency operations agencies requested Ikhana to help assess and manage the wildfires. Four additional missions were launched over a 5-day period, with near realtime images delivered to multiple emergency operations centers and fire incident commands managing 10 fires.

  11. Assuring Ground-Based Detect and Avoid for UAS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Pai, Ganeshmadhav Jagadeesh; Berthold, Randall; Fladeland, Matthew; Storms, Bruce; Sumich, Mark

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of the Marginal Ice Zones Observations and Processes Experiment (MIZOPEX) NASA Earth science mission was to show the operational capabilities of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) when deployed on challenging missions, in difficult environments. Given the extreme conditions of the Arctic environment where MIZOPEX measurements were required, the mission opted to use a radar to provide a ground-based detect-and-avoid (GBDAA) capability as an alternate means of compliance (AMOC) with the see-and-avoid federal aviation regulation. This paper describes how GBDAA safety assurance was provided by interpreting and applying the guidelines in the national policy for UAS operational approval. In particular, we describe how we formulated the appropriate safety goals, defined the processes and procedures for system safety, identified and assembled the relevant safety verification evidence, and created an operational safety case in compliance with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requirements. To the best of our knowledge, the safety case, which was ultimately approved by the FAA, is the first successful example of non-military UAS operations using GBDAA in the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS), and, therefore, the first nonmilitary application of the safety case concept in this context.

  12. LaserCom in UAS missions: benefits and operational aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griethe, Wolfgang; Heine, Frank; Begg, Lester L.; Du, Detao

    2013-05-01

    Free Space Optical Communications (FSOC) is progressing continuously. With the successful in-orbit verification of a Laser Communication Terminal (LCT), the coherent homodyne BPSK scheme advanced to a standard for Free-Space Optical Communication (FSOC) which now prevails more and more. The LCT is located not only on satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), with spacecrafts like ALPHASAT-TDP and the European Data Relay Satellite (EDRS) the LCT will also exist in Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) in the near future. In other words, the LCT has reached its practical application. With existence of such space assets the time has come for other utilizations beyond that of establishing optical Inter-Satellite Links (ISL). Aeronautical applications, as for instance High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) or Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have to be addressed. Driving factors and advantages of FSOC in HALE/MALE UAS missions are highlighted. Numerous practice-related issues are described concerning the space segment, the aeronautical segment as well as the ground segment. The advantages for UAS missions are described resulting from the utilization of FSOC exclusively for wideband transmission of sensor data whereas vehicle Command and Control can be maintained as before via RF communication. Moreover, the paper discusses FSOC as enabler for the integration of air and space-based wideband Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems into existent military command and control systems.

  13. Improved EM Tactical Applications through UAS-Enhanced High-Resolution Mesoscale Data Assimilation and Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    transition the prototype end-to-end (observation to tactical decision aid ( TDA )) demonstration system. All meteorological inputs to the demonstration...developed NAVDAS (including aircraft data assimilation), COAMPS, adjoint, and EM TDA technologies to produce a UAS-enabled, integrated, and...enhance synergistic development of UAS-based TDAs . Six specific technologies that will be developed, tested, and integrated in this project are i

  14. sUAS and their application in observing geomorphological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallik, Jozef; Bolešová, Lenka

    2016-07-01

    Methodologies and procedures in processing gained data vary based on possibilities and needs of scientific projects. This paper should help to get a general overview in the choice of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS - commonly known as drones) for scientific purposes, namely remote sensing of geomorphologic processes such as soil degradation in high mountainous areas that are hard to access and have unfavourable weather conditions. All high mountain areas in European countries are legislatively protected, and so various permissions and observation of strict procedures are needed in order to not have a negative influence on the environment. Nowadays, several types of UAS exist that could effectively help us in such protection, as well as in full-fledged utilization when answering scientific questions about the alpine lake genesis. We demonstrate it here with selected examples of our photo documentation.

  15. Dynamic replanning on demand of UAS constellations performing ISR missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stouch, Daniel W.; Zeidman, Ernest; Callahan, William; McGraw, Kirk

    2011-05-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have proven themselves to be indispensable in providing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) over the battlefield. Constellations of heterogeneous, multi-purpose UAS are being tasked to provide ISR in an unpredictable environment. This necessitates the dynamic replanning of critical missions as weather conditions change, new observation targets are identified, aircraft are lost or equipment malfunctions, and new airspace restrictions are introduced. We present a method to generate coordinated mission plans for constellations of UAS with multiple flight goals and potentially competing objectives, and update them on demand as the operational situation changes. We use a fast evolutionary algorithm-based, multi-objective optimization technique. The updated flight routes maintain continuity by considering where the ISR assets have already flown and where they still need to go. Both the initial planning and replanning take into account factors such as area of analysis coverage, restricted operating zones, maximum control station range, adverse weather effects, military terrain value, and sensor performance. Our results demonstrate that by constraining the space of potential solutions using an intelligently-formed air maneuver network with a subset of potential airspace corridors and navigational waypoints, we can ensure global optimization for multiple objectives considering the situation both before and after the replanning is initiated. We employ sophisticated visualization techniques using a geographic information system to help the user 'look under the hood" of the algorithms to understand the effectiveness and viability of the generated ISR mission plans and identify potential gaps in coverage.

  16. UAS Integration in the NAS Project: Integrated Test and Evaluation (IT&E) Flight Test 3. Revision E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  17. Optimized Design of the SGA-WZ Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter Temperature Control System

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Juliang; Wang, Minghao; Cai, Shaokun; Zhang, Kaidong; Cong, Danni; Wu, Meiping

    2015-01-01

    The temperature control system is one of the most important subsystems of the strapdown airborne gravimeter. Because the quartz flexible accelerometer based on springy support technology is the core sensor in the strapdown airborne gravimeter and the magnet steel in the electromagnetic force equilibrium circuits of the quartz flexible accelerometer is greatly affected by temperature, in order to guarantee the temperature control precision and minimize the effect of temperature on the gravimeter, the SGA-WZ temperature control system adopts a three-level control method. Based on the design experience of the SGA-WZ-01, the SGA-WZ-02 temperature control system came out with a further optimized design. In 1st level temperature control, thermoelectric cooler is used to conquer temperature change caused by hot weather. The experiments show that the optimized stability of 1st level temperature control is about 0.1 °C and the max cool down capability is about 10 °C. The temperature field is analyzed in the 2nd and 3rd level temperature control using the finite element analysis software ANSYS. The 2nd and 3rd level temperature control optimization scheme is based on the foundation of heat analysis. The experimental results show that static accuracy of SGA-WZ-02 reaches 0.21 mGal/24 h, with internal accuracy being 0.743 mGal/4.8 km and external accuracy being 0.37 mGal/4.8 km compared with the result of the GT-2A, whose internal precision is superior to 1 mGal/4.8 km and all of them are better than those in SGA-WZ-01. PMID:26633407

  18. Optimized Design of the SGA-WZ Strapdown Airborne Gravimeter Temperature Control System.

    PubMed

    Cao, Juliang; Wang, Minghao; Cai, Shaokun; Zhang, Kaidong; Cong, Danni; Wu, Meiping

    2015-12-01

    The temperature control system is one of the most important subsystems of the strapdown airborne gravimeter. Because the quartz flexible accelerometer based on springy support technology is the core sensor in the strapdown airborne gravimeter and the magnet steel in the electromagnetic force equilibrium circuits of the quartz flexible accelerometer is greatly affected by temperature, in order to guarantee the temperature control precision and minimize the effect of temperature on the gravimeter, the SGA-WZ temperature control system adopts a three-level control method. Based on the design experience of the SGA-WZ-01, the SGA-WZ-02 temperature control system came out with a further optimized design. In 1st level temperature control, thermoelectric cooler is used to conquer temperature change caused by hot weather. The experiments show that the optimized stability of 1st level temperature control is about 0.1 °C and the max cool down capability is about 10 °C. The temperature field is analyzed in the 2nd and 3rd level temperature control using the finite element analysis software ANSYS. The 2nd and 3rd level temperature control optimization scheme is based on the foundation of heat analysis. The experimental results show that static accuracy of SGA-WZ-02 reaches 0.21 mGal/24 h, with internal accuracy being 0.743 mGal/4.8 km and external accuracy being 0.37 mGal/4.8 km compared with the result of the GT-2A, whose internal precision is superior to 1 mGal/4.8 km and all of them are better than those in SGA-WZ-01.

  19. Statistical model for atmospheric limb radiance structure: application to airborne infrared surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quang, Carine; Dalaudier, Francis; Roblin, Antoine; Rialland, Valérie; Chervet, Patrick

    2008-10-01

    Infrared (IR) detectors can be used as airborne limb-viewing surveillance systems for missile detection. These systems' performances are impacted by the atmospheric inhomogeneous background. In fact, the probability of target detection can be heavily affected. Consequently, the knowledge of these radiance small-scale fluctuations and their statistical properties is required to assess these systems' detection capability. A model of two-dimensional radiance spatial fluctuations autocorrelation function (ACF) is developed. This model is dedicated to airborne limb-viewing conditions in the thermal IR. In the stratosphere and in clear-sky conditions, the structured background is mainly due to internal-gravity-wave-induced temperature and density spatial fluctuations. Moreover, in the particular case of water vapour absorption bands, the mass fraction fluctuations play a non negligible role on the radiative field. Thereby, considering the temperature field and the water vapour field as stochastic processes, the radiance ACF can be expressed as a function of the temperature ACF and the water vapor mass fraction ACF. A local thermodynamic equilibrium model is sufficient for stratospheric conditions and sunlight scattering is neglected in the thermal IR. In addition, determination of the radiance fluctuations ACF requires the knowledge of the absorption coefficient and its first derivatives with respect to the temperature and water vapour mass fraction. Thus, a line-by-line model specific to water vapor absorption bands has been developed. This model is used to precalculate the absorption coefficients and their derivatives. This look-up table method allows circumventing the computational cost of a line-by-line calculation. A detailed description of the radiance fluctuations ACF model is presented and first results are discussed.

  20. Performance evaluation of a novel personalized ventilation-personalized exhaust system for airborne infection control.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Sekhar, S C; Cheong, K W D; Raphael, B

    2015-04-01

    In the context of airborne infection control, it is critical that the ventilation system is able to extract the contaminated exhaled air within the shortest possible time. To minimize the spread of contaminated air exhaled by occupants efficiently, a novel personalized ventilation (PV)-personalized exhaust (PE) system has been developed, which aims to exhaust the exhaled air as much as possible from around the infected person (IP). The PV-PE system was studied experimentally for a particular healthcare setting based on a typical consultation room geometry and four different medical consultation positions of an IP and a healthy person (HP). Experiments using two types of tracer gases were conducted to evaluate two types of PE: Top-PE and Shoulder-PE under two different background ventilation systems: Mixing Ventilation and Displacement Ventilation. Personalized exposure effectiveness, intake fraction (iF) and exposure reduction (ε) were used as indices to evaluate the PV-PE system. The results show that the combined PV-PE system for the HP achieves the lowest intake fraction; and the use of PE system for the IP alone shows much better performance than using PV system for the HP alone.

  1. Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS): an imaging spectrometer for maritime applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelker, Mark A.; Resmini, Ronald G.; Mooradian, Gregory C.; McCord, Thomas B.; Warren, Christopher P.; Fene, Michael W.; Coyle, Christopher C.; Anderson, Richard

    1995-06-01

    The Advanced Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging System (AAHIS) is a compact, lightweight visible and near IR pushbroom hyperspectral imaging spectrometer flown on a Piper Aztec aircraft. AAHIS is optimized for use in shallow water, littoral, and vegetation remote sensing. Data are collected at up to 55 frames/second and may be displayed and analyzed inflight or recorded for post-flight processing. Swath width is 200 meters at a flight altitude of 1 km. Each image pixel contains hyperspectral data simultaneously recorded in up to 288 contiguous spectral channels covering the 432 to 832 nm spectral region. Pixel binning typically yields pixels 1.0 meter square with a spectral channel width of 5.5 nm. Design and performance of the AAHIS is presented, including processed imagery demonstrating feature detection and materials discrimination on land and underwater at depths up to 27 meters.

  2. Failure detection of liquid cooled electronics in sealed packages. [in airborne information management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoadley, A. W.; Porter, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The theory and experimental verification of a method of detecting fluid-mass loss, expansion-chamber pressure loss, or excessive vapor build-up in NASA's Airborne Information Management System (AIMS) are presented. The primary purpose of this leak-detection method is to detect the fluid-mass loss before the volume of vapor on the liquid side causes a temperature-critical part to be out of the liquid. The method detects the initial leak after the first 2.5 pct of the liquid mass has been lost, and it can be used for detecting subsequent situations including the leaking of air into the liquid chamber and the subsequent vapor build-up.

  3. Airborne Multisensor Pod System, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzo, G M; Sanford, N M

    1995-01-01

    This issue focuses on the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) which is a collaboration of many of the DOE national laboratories to provide a scientific environment to research multiple sensors and the new information that can be derived from them. The bulk of the research has been directed at nonproliferation applications, but it has also proven useful in environmental monitoring and assessment, and land/water management. The contents of this issue are: using AMPS technology to detect proliferation and monitor resources; combining multisensor data to monitor facilities and natural resources; planning a AMPS mission; SAR pod produces images day or night, rain or shine; MSI pod combines data from multiple sensors; ESI pod will analyze emissions and effluents; and accessing AMPS information on the Internet.

  4. Airborne gravity gradiometer surveying of petroleum systems under Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Doug; Chowdhury, Priyanka Roy; Lowe, Sharon Jenny; Christensen, Asbjorn Norlund

    2016-02-01

    The Lake Tanganyika South petroleum exploration block covers the southern portion of the Tanzanian side of Lake Tanganyika and is located within the East African Rift System. The rifting process has formed rotated fault blocks which provide numerous play types in the resulting basins. Interpretation of 2D seismic data from 1984 indicated that sufficient sediment thickness is present for hydrocarbon generation. The prospectivity of the lake sediment sequence is enhanced by large oil discoveries further north along the rift system at Lake Albert in Uganda. Airborne gravity gradiometry (AGG) has been used in the Lake Albert region to delineate the structural framework of sedimentary basins. Based on this analogy, in 2010 Beach Energy commissioned CGG to fly a FALCON AGG and high-resolution airborne magnetic survey over the Lake Tanganyika South block to provide data for mapping the basin architecture and estimating the depth to magnetic basement. A total of nearly 28000 line kilometres of data were acquired. The subsequent interpretation incorporated the AGG and magnetic data with available 2D seismic data, elevation model data, bathymetry, Landsat and regional geology information. The integrated data interpretation revealed that the Lake Tanganyika rifting structures occur as half-grabens that were formed through reactivation of Precambrian fault structures. Two major depocentres were identified in the magnetic depth-to-basement map in the north and in the west-central part of the survey area with sediment thicknesses in excess of 4 km and 3 km, respectively. Smaller, shallower depocentres (with less than 3 km of sediment) occur in the south-western region. This information was used to plan a 2100 km 2D marine seismic survey that was recorded in 2012. An interpretation of the results from the seismic survey confirmed a rifting structure similar to that encountered further north at Lake Albert in Uganda. Several targets were identified from the seismic sections for

  5. Virtualizing Super-Computation On-Board Uas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salami, E.; Soler, J. A.; Cuadrado, R.; Barrado, C.; Pastor, E.

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UAS, also known as UAV, RPAS or drones) have a great potential to support a wide variety of aerial remote sensing applications. Most UAS work by acquiring data using on-board sensors for later post-processing. Some require the data gathered to be downlinked to the ground in real-time. However, depending on the volume of data and the cost of the communications, this later option is not sustainable in the long term. This paper develops the concept of virtualizing super-computation on-board UAS, as a method to ease the operation by facilitating the downlink of high-level information products instead of raw data. Exploiting recent developments in miniaturized multi-core devices is the way to speed-up on-board computation. This hardware shall satisfy size, power and weight constraints. Several technologies are appearing with promising results for high performance computing on unmanned platforms, such as the 36 cores of the TILE-Gx36 by Tilera (now EZchip) or the 64 cores of the Epiphany-IV by Adapteva. The strategy for virtualizing super-computation on-board includes the benchmarking for hardware selection, the software architecture and the communications aware design. A parallelization strategy is given for the 36-core TILE-Gx36 for a UAS in a fire mission or in similar target-detection applications. The results are obtained for payload image processing algorithms and determine in real-time the data snapshot to gather and transfer to ground according to the needs of the mission, the processing time, and consumed watts.

  6. Evaluation of DEM generation accuracy from UAS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santise, M.; Fornari, M.; Forlani, G.; Roncella, R.

    2014-06-01

    The growing use of UAS platform for aerial photogrammetry comes with a new family of Computer Vision highly automated processing software expressly built to manage the peculiar characteristics of these blocks of images. It is of interest to photogrammetrist and professionals, therefore, to find out whether the image orientation and DSM generation methods implemented in such software are reliable and the DSMs and orthophotos are accurate. On a more general basis, it is interesting to figure out whether it is still worth applying the standard rules of aerial photogrammetry to the case of drones, achieving the same inner strength and the same accuracies as well. With such goals in mind, a test area has been set up at the University Campus in Parma. A large number of ground points has been measured on natural as well as signalized points, to provide a comprehensive test field, to check the accuracy performance of different UAS systems. In the test area, points both at ground-level and features on the buildings roofs were measured, in order to obtain a distributed support also altimetrically. Control points were set on different types of surfaces (buildings, asphalt, target, fields of grass and bumps); break lines, were also employed. The paper presents the results of a comparison between two different surveys for DEM (Digital Elevation Model) generation, performed at 70 m and 140 m flying height, using a Falcon 8 UAS.

  7. UAS-NAS Integrated Human in the Loop: Test Environment Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil; Jovic, Srba

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research was broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of the Test Infrastructure theme was to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the execution of integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project developed an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment incorporating live, virtual, and constructive elements capable of validating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project planned to conduct three integrated events: a Human-in-the-Loop simulation and two Flight Test series that integrated key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of

  8. Airborne Wind Profiling With the Data Acquisition and Processing System for a Pulsed 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia flew on the NASA's DC-8 aircraft during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) during the summer of 2010. The participation was part of the project Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) Air. Selected results of airborne wind profiling are presented and compared with the dropsonde data for verification purposes. Panoramic presentations of different wind parameters over a nominal observation time span are also presented for selected GRIP data sets. The realtime data acquisition and analysis software that was employed during the GRIP campaign is introduced with its unique features.

  9. Analysis of UAS DAA Alerting in Fast-Time Simulations without DAA Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, David P.; Santiago, Confesor; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Lee, Seung Man; Park, Chunki; Refai, Mohamad Said; Snow, James

    2015-01-01

    Realization of the expected proliferation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) depends on the development and validation of performance standards for UAS Detect and Avoid (DAA) Systems. The RTCA Special Committee 228 is charged with leading the development of draft Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for UAS DAA Systems. NASA, as a participating member of RTCA SC-228 is committed to supporting the development and validation of draft requirements for DAA alerting system performance. A recent study conducted using NASA's ACES (Airspace Concept Evaluation System) simulation capability begins to address questions surrounding the development of draft MOPS for DAA alerting systems. ACES simulations were conducted to study the performance of alerting systems proposed by the SC-228 DAA Alerting sub-group. Analysis included but was not limited to: 1) correct alert (and timeliness), 2) false alert (and severity and duration), 3) missed alert, and 4) probability of an alert type at the time of loss of well clear. The performance of DAA alerting systems when using intent vs. dead-reckoning for UAS ownship trajectories was also compared. The results will be used by SC-228 to inform decisions about the surveillance standards of UAS DAA systems and future requirements development and validation efforts.

  10. Songbird - AN Innovative Uas Combining the Advantages of Fixed Wing and Multi Rotor Uas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamm, F.-P.; Brieger, N.; Neitzke, K.-P.; Meyer, M.; Jansen, R.; Mönninghof, M.

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes a family of innovative fixed wing UAS with can vertical take off and land - the SONGBIRD family. With nominal payloads starting from 0.5 kg they can take off and land safely like a multi-rotor UAV, removing the need for an airstrip for the critical phases of operation. A specially designed flight controller allows stable flight at every point of the transition phase between VTOL and fixed wing mode. Because of this smooth process with a all time stable flight, very expensive payload like hyperspectral sensors or advanced optical cameras can be used. Due to their design all airplanes of the SONGBIRD family have excellent horizontal flight properties, a maximum speed of over 110 km/h, good gliding properties and long flight times of up to 1 h. Missions were flown in wind speeds up to 18 m/s. At every time of the flight it is possible to interrupt the mission and hover over a point of interest for detail investigations. The complete flight, including take-off and landing can be performed by autopilot. Designed for daily use in professional environments, SONGBIRDs are built out of glass-fibre and carbon composites for a long service life. For safe operations comprehensive security features are implemented, for example redundant flight controllers and sensors, advanced power management system and mature fail safe procedures. The aircraft can be dismantled into small parts for transportation. SONGBIRDS are available for different pay loads, from 500 g to 2 kg. The SONGBIRD family are interesting tools combining the advantages of multi-copter and fixed wing UAS.

  11. Minimizing Intra-Campaign Biases in Airborne Laser Altimetry By Thorough Calibration of Lidar System Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, J. G.; Chibisov, A.; Krabill, K. A.; Linkswiler, M. A.; Swenson, C.; Yungel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Present-day airborne lidar surveys of polar ice, NASA's Operation IceBridge foremost among them, cover large geographical areas. They are often compared with previous surveys over the same flight lines to yield mass balance estimates. Systematic biases in the lidar system, especially those which vary from campaign to campaign, can introduce significant error into these mass balance estimates and must be minimized before the data is released by the instrument team to the larger scientific community. NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) team designed a thorough and novel approach in order to minimize these biases, and here we describe two major aspects of this approach. First, we conduct regular ground vehicle-based surveys of lidar calibration targets, and overfly these targets on a near-daily basis during field campaigns. We discuss our technique for conducting these surveys, in particular the measures we take specifically to minimize systematic height biases in the surveys, since these can in turn bias entire campaigns of lidar data and the mass balance estimates based on them. Second, we calibrate our GPS antennas specifically for each instrument installation in a remote-sensing aircraft. We do this because we recognize that the metallic fuselage of the aircraft can alter the electromagnetic properties of the GPS antenna mounted to it, potentially displacing its phase center by several centimeters and biasing lidar results accordingly. We describe our technique for measuring the phase centers of a GPS antenna installed atop an aircraft, and show results which demonstrate that different installations can indeed alter the phase centers significantly.

  12. The analysis of signal-to-noise ratio of airborne LIDAR system under state of motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Huang; Lan, Tian; Zhang, Yingchao; Ni, Guoqiang

    2010-11-01

    This article gives an overview of airborne LIDAR (laser light detection and ranging) system and its application. By analyzing the transmission and reception process of laser signal, the article constructs a model of echo signal of the LIDAR system, and gives some basic formulas which make up the relationship of signal-to-noise ratio, for example, the received power, the dark noise power and so on. And this article carefully studies and analyzes the impact of some important parameters in the equation on the signal-to-noise ratio, such as the atmospheric transmittance coefficient, the work distance. And the matlab software is used to simulate the detection environment, and obtains a series values of signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio under different circumstances such as sunny day, cloudy day, day, night. And the figures which describe how the SNR of LIDAR system is influenced by the critical factors are shown in the article. Finally according to the series values of signal-to-noise ratio and the figures, the SNR of LIDAR system decreases as the distance increases, and the atmospheric transmittance coefficient caused by bad weather, and also high work temperature drops the SNR. Depending on these conclusions, the LIDAR system will work even better.

  13. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Higdon, N S; Browell, E V; Ponsardin, P; Grossmann, B E; Butler, C F; Chyba, T H; Mayo, M N; Allen, R J; Heuser, A W; Grant, W B; Ismail, S; Mayor, S D; Carter, A F

    1994-09-20

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H(2)O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and > 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H(2)O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H(2)O absorption-line parameters were perfo med to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H(2)O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H(2)O radiosondes. The H(2)O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by ≤ 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  14. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Arlen F.; Allen, Robert J.; Mayo, M. Neale; Butler, Carolyn F.; Grossman, Benoist E.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Higdon, Noah S.; Mayor, Shane D.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Hueser, Alene W.

    1994-01-01

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and greater than 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H2O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H2O absorption-line parameters were performed to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H2O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H2O radiosondes. The H2O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by less than 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  15. Performance metrics for state-of-the-art airborne magnetic and electromagnetic systems for mapping and detection of unexploded ordnance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doll, William E.; Bell, David T.; Gamey, T. Jeffrey; Beard, Les P.; Sheehan, Jacob R.; Norton, Jeannemarie

    2010-04-01

    Over the past decade, notable progress has been made in the performance of airborne geophysical systems for mapping and detection of unexploded ordnance in terrestrial and shallow marine environments. For magnetometer systems, the most significant improvements include development of denser magnetometer arrays and vertical gradiometer configurations. In prototype analyses and recent Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) assessments using new production systems the greatest sensitivity has been achieved with a vertical gradiometer configuration, despite model-based survey design results which suggest that dense total-field arrays would be superior. As effective as magnetometer systems have proven to be at many sites, they are inadequate at sites where basalts and other ferrous geologic formations or soils produce anomalies that approach or exceed those of target ordnance items. Additionally, magnetometer systems are ineffective where detection of non-ferrous ordnance items is of primary concern. Recent completion of the Battelle TEM-8 airborne time-domain electromagnetic system represents the culmination of nearly nine years of assessment and development of airborne electromagnetic systems for UXO mapping and detection. A recent ESTCP demonstration of this system in New Mexico showed that it was able to detect 99% of blind-seeded ordnance items, 81mm and larger, and that it could be used to map in detail a bombing target on a basalt flow where previous airborne magnetometer surveys had failed. The probability of detection for the TEM-8 in the blind-seeded study area was better than that reported for a dense-array total-field magnetometer demonstration of the same blind-seeded site, and the TEM-8 system successfully detected these items with less than half as many anomaly picks as the dense-array total-field magnetometer system.

  16. Development and Evaluation of an Airborne Separation Assurance System for Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) that functions as an Airborne Separation Assurance System for autonomous flight operations. This development effort supports NASA s Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) operational concept, designed to significantly increase capacity of the national airspace system, while maintaining safety. Autonomous aircraft pilots use the AOP to maintain traffic separation from other autonomous aircraft and managed aircraft flying under today's Instrument Flight Rules, while maintaining traffic flow management constraints assigned by Air Traffic Service Providers. AOP is designed to facilitate eventual implementation through careful modeling of its operational environment, interfaces with other aircraft systems and data links, and conformance with established flight deck conventions and human factors guidelines. AOP uses currently available or anticipated data exchanged over modeled Arinc 429 data buses and an Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast 1090 MHz link. It provides pilots with conflict detection, prevention, and resolution functions and works with the Flight Management System to maintain assigned traffic flow management constraints. The AOP design has been enhanced over the course of several experiments conducted at NASA Langley and is being prepared for an upcoming Joint Air/Ground Simulation with NASA Ames Research Center.

  17. Performance characterization and ground testing of an airborne CO2 differential absorption LIDAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senft, Daniel C.; Fox, Marsha J.; Bousek, Ronald R.; Dowling, James A.; Richter, Dale A.; Kelly, Brian T.

    1998-01-01

    The Phillips Laboratory Remote Optical Sensors (ROS) program is developing the Laser Airborne Remote Sensing (LARS) system for chemical detection using the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. The system is based upon a high-power CO(subscript 2) laser which can use either the standard (superscript 12)C(superscript 16)O(subscript 2) or the (superscript 13)C(superscript 16)O(subscript 2) carbon dioxide isotopes as the lasing medium, and has output energies in excess of 4 J on the stronger laser transitions. The laser, transmitter optics, receiver telescope and optics, and monitoring equipment are mounted on a flight-qualified optical breadboard designed to mount in the Argus C-135E optical testbed aircraft operated by Phillips Laboratory. The LARS system is being prepared for initial flight experiments at Kirtland AFB, NM, in August 1997, and for chemical detection flight experiments at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in September 1997. This paper briefly describes the system characterization, and presents some results from the pre- flight ground testing.

  18. UAVSAR: A New NASA Airborne SAR System for Science and Technology Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.; Hensley, Scott; Wheeler, Kevin; Sadowy, Greg; Miller, Tim; Shaffer, Scott; Muellerschoen, Ron; Jones, Cathleen; Zebker, Howard; Madsen, Soren

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently building a reconfigurable, polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track SAR data for differential interferometric measurements. Differentian interferometry can provide key deformation measurements, important for studies of earthquakes, volcanoes and other dynamically changing phenomena. Using precision real-time GPS and a sensor controlled flight management system, the system will be able to fly predefined paths with great precision. The expected performance of the flight control system will constrain the flight path to be within a 10 m diameter tube about the desired flight track. The radar will be designed to be operable on a UAV (Unpiloted Aria1 Vehicle) but will initially be demonstrated on a NASA Gulfstream III. The radar will be fully polarimetric, with a range bandwidth of 80 MHz (2 m range resolution), and will support a 16 km range swath. The antenna will be electronically steered along track to assure that the antenna beam can be directed independently, regardless of the wind direction and speed. Other features supported by the antenna include elevation monopulse and pulse-to-pulse re-steering capabilities that will enable some novel modes of operation. The system will nominally operate at 45,000 ft (13800 m). The program began as an Instrument Incubator Project (IIP) funded by NASA Earth Science and Technology Office (ESTO).

  19. Airborne water vapor DIAL system and measurements of water and aerosol profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Noah S.; Browell, Edward V.

    1991-01-01

    The Lidar Applications Group at NASA Langley Research Center has developed a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system for the remote measurement of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols from an aircraft. The airborne H2O DIAL system is designed for extended flights to perform mesoscale investigations of H2O and aerosol distributions. This DIAL system utilizes a Nd:YAG-laser-pumped dye laser as the off-line transmitter and a narrowband, tunable Alexandrite laser as the on-line transmitter. The dye laser has an oscillator/amplifier configuration which incorporates a grating and prism in the oscillator cavity to narrow the output linewidth to approximately 15 pm. This linewidth can be maintained over the wavelength range of 725 to 730 nm, and it is sufficiently narrow to satisfy the off-line spectral requirements. In the Alexandrite laser, three intracavity tuning elements combine to produce an output linewidth of 1.1 pm. These spectral devices include a five-plate birefringent tuner, a 1-mm thick solid etalon and a 1-cm air-spaced etalon. A wavelength stability of +/- 0.35 pm is achieved by active feedback control of the two Fabry-Perot etalons using a frequency stabilized He-Ne laser as a wavelength reference. The three tuning elements can be synchronously scanned over a 150 pm range with microprocessor-based scanning electronics. Other aspects of the DIAL system are discussed.

  20. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  1. Laboratory testing of airborne brake wear particle emissions using a dynamometer system under urban city driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Motoaki; Sasaki, Sousuke

    2016-04-01

    To measure driving-distance-based mass emission factors for airborne brake wear particulate matter (PM; i.e., brake wear particles) related to the non-asbestos organic friction of brake assembly materials (pads and lining), and to characterize the components of brake wear particles, a brake wear dynamometer with a constant-volume sampling system was developed. Only a limited number of studies have investigated brake emissions under urban city driving cycles that correspond to the tailpipe emission test (i.e., JC08 or JE05 mode of Japanese tailpipe emission test cycles). The tests were performed using two passenger cars and one middle-class truck. The observed airborne brake wear particle emissions ranged from 0.04 to 1.4 mg/km/vehicle for PM10 (particles up to 10 μm (in size), and from 0.04 to 1.2 mg/km/vehicle for PM2.5. The proportion of brake wear debris emitted as airborne brake wear particles was 2-21% of the mass of wear. Oxygenated carbonaceous components were included in the airborne PM but not in the original friction material, which indicates that changes in carbon composition occurred during the abrasion process. Furthermore, this study identified the key tracers of brake wear particles (e.g., Fe, Cu, Ba, and Sb) at emission levels comparable to traffic-related atmospheric environments.

  2. Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, J.E.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Gelbard, F.

    1991-09-01

    This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications.

  3. Changes in airborne fungi from the outdoors to indoor air; large HVAC systems in nonproblem buildings in two different climates.

    PubMed

    Kemp, P C; Neumeister-Kemp, H G; Esposito, B; Lysek, G; Murray, F

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the changes in occurrence and distribution of airborne fungi as they are transported in the airstream from the outdoor air through the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system to the indoor air. To better understand this, airborne fungi were analyzed in the HVAC systems of two large office buildings in different climate zones. Fungal samples were taken in each of the walk-in chambers of the HVAC systems using a six-stage Andersen Sampler with malt extract agar. Results showed that fungal species changed with different locations in the HVAC systems. The outdoor air intake produced the greatest filtration effect for both the counts and species of outdoor air fungi. The colony forming unit (CFU) counts and species diversity was further reduced in the air directly after the filters. The cooling coils also had a substantial filtration effect. However, in room air the CFU counts were double and the mixture of fungal species was different from the air leaving the HVAC system at the supply air outlet in most locations. Diffusion of outdoor air fungi to the indoors did not explain the changes in the mixture of airborne fungi from the outdoor air to the indoor air, and some of the fungi present in the indoor air did not appear to be transported indoors by the HVAC systems.

  4. Volcano Gas Measurements from UAS - Customization of Sensors and Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C. A.; Dahlgren, R. P.; Kern, C.; Kelly, P. J.; Fladeland, M. M.; Norton, K.; Johnson, M. S.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions threaten not only the lives and property of local populations, but also aviation worldwide. Volcanic gas release is a key driving force in eruptive activity, and monitoring gas emissions is critical to assessing volcanic hazards, yet most volcanoes are not monitored for volcanic gas emission. Measuring volcanic gas emissions with manned aircraft has been standard practice for many years during eruptive crises, but such measurements are quite costly. As a result, measurements are typically only made every week or two at most during periods of unrest or eruption, whereas eruption dynamics change much more rapidly. Furthermore, very few measurements are made between eruptions to establish baseline emissions. Unmanned aerial system (UAS) measurements of volcanic plumes hold great promise for both improving temporal resolution of measurements during volcanic unrest, and for reducing the exposure of personnel to potentially hazardous conditions. Here we present the results of a new collaborative effort between the US Geological Survey and NASA Ames Research Center to develop a UAS specific for volcano gas monitoring using miniaturized gas sensing systems and a custom airframe. Two miniaturized sensing systems are being built and tested: a microDOAS system to quantify SO2 emission rates, and a miniature MultiGAS system for measuring in-situ concentrations of CO2, SO2, and H2S. The instruments are being built into pods that will be flown on a custom airframe built from surplus Raven RQ-11. The Raven is one of the smallest UAS (a SUAS), and has the potential to support global rapid response when eruptions occur because they require less crew for operations. A test mission is planned for fall 2015 or spring 2016 at the Crows Landing Airfield in central California. Future measurement locations might include Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii, or Pagan Volcano in the Marianas.

  5. Capturing and modelling high-complex alluvial topography with UAS-borne laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandlburger, Gottfried; Wieser, Martin; Pfennigbauer, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Due to fluvial activity alluvial forests are zones of highest complexity and relief energy. Alluvial forests are dominated by new and pristine channels in consequence of current and historic flood events. Apart from topographic features, the vegetation structure is typically very complex featuring, both, dense under story as well as high trees. Furthermore, deadwood and debris carried from upstream during periods of high discharge within the river channel are deposited in these areas. Therefore, precise modelling of the micro relief of alluvial forests using standard tools like Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is hardly feasible. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), in turn, is very time consuming for capturing larger areas as many scan positions are necessary for obtaining complete coverage due to view occlusions in the forest. In the recent past, the technological development of Unmanned Arial Systems (UAS) has reached a level that light-weight survey-grade laser scanners can be operated from these platforms. For capturing alluvial topography this could bridge the gap between ALS and TLS in terms of providing a very detailed description of the topography and the vegetation structure due to the achievable very high point density of >100 points per m2. In our contribution we demonstrate the feasibility to apply UAS-borne laser scanning for capturing and modelling the complex topography of the study area Neubacher Au, an alluvial forest at the pre-alpine River Pielach (Lower Austria). The area was captured with Riegl's VUX-1 compact time-of-flight laser scanner mounted on a RiCopter (X-8 array octocopter). The scanner features an effective scan rate of 500 kHz and was flown in 50-100 m above ground. At this flying height the laser footprint is 25-50 mm allowing mapping of very small surface details. Furthermore, online waveform processing of the backscattered laser energy enables the retrieval of multiple targets for single laser shots resulting in a dense point cloud of

  6. Effect of heating-ventilation-air conditioning system sanitation on airborne fungal populations in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Garrison, R A; Robertson, L D; Koehn, R D; Wynn, S R

    1993-12-01

    Commercial air duct sanitation services are advertised to the public as being effective in reducing indoor aeroallergen levels despite the absence of published supporting data. Eight residential heat-ventilation-air conditioning (HVAC) systems in six homes and seven HVAC systems in five homes in winter and summer, respectively, were sampled to determine fungal colony forming units (CFUs) prior to and after an HVAC sanitation procedure was performed by a local company. Two houses in which no sanitation procedure was performed served as controls in each study phase. Two sample sets were obtained at each HVAC system prior to cleaning in order to determine baseline CFU levels. The test HVAC systems were then cleaned, and the HVAC systems allowed to operate as desired by the residents. Posttreatment sampling was performed 48 hours and then weekly after cleaning for 8 weeks. The HVAC systems were analyzed by exposing sterile 2% malt extract media plates at a 90-degree angle to the air flow at the air supply and air return vents. The baseline CFUs were similar in the control and study houses. Eight weeks after sanitation, the study houses demonstrated an overall CFU reduction of 92% during winter and 84% during summer. No reduction in CFU values was observed over the 8-week study period for the houses selected as controls. Further, HVAC sanitation appeared to reduce the number of fungal colonies entering and leaving the HVAC system, suggesting that the HVAC contained a significant percentage of the total fungal load in these homes. These data suggest that HVAC sanitation may be an effective tool in reducing airborne fungal populations in residential environments.

  7. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: First Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the first year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-looking technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of FAA certification requirements and the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment.

  8. Airborne Camera System for Real-Time Applications - Support of a National Civil Protection Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gstaiger, V.; Romer, H.; Rosenbaum, D.; Henkel, F.

    2015-04-01

    In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), powerful tools are being developed to aid public authorities and organizations with security responsibilities as well as traffic authorities when dealing with disasters and large public events. One focus lies on the acquisition of high resolution aerial imagery, its fully automatic processing, analysis and near real-time provision to decision makers in emergency situations. For this purpose a camera system was developed to be operated from a helicopter with light-weight processing units and microwave link for fast data transfer. In order to meet end-users' requirements DLR works close together with the German Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance (BBK) within this project. One task of BBK is to establish, maintain and train the German Medical Task Force (MTF), which gets deployed nationwide in case of large-scale disasters. In October 2014, several units of the MTF were deployed for the first time in the framework of a national civil protection exercise in Brandenburg. The VABENE++ team joined the exercise and provided near real-time aerial imagery, videos and derived traffic information to support the direction of the MTF and to identify needs for further improvements and developments. In this contribution the authors introduce the new airborne camera system together with its near real-time processing components and share experiences gained during the national civil protection exercise.

  9. Real-time atmospheric absorption spectra for in-flight tuning of an airborne dial system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dombrowski, M.; Walden, H.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Milrod, J.; Korb, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Real-time measurements of atmospheric absorption spectra are displayed and used to precisely calibrate and fix the frequency of an Alexandrite laser to specific oxygen absorption features for airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric pressure and temperature. The DIAL system used contains two narrowband tunable Alexandrite lasers: one is electronically scanned to tune to oxygen absorption features for on-line signals while the second is used to obtain off-line (nonabsorbed) atmospheric return signals. The lidar operator may select the number of shots to be averaged, the altitude, and altitude interval over which the signals are averaged using single key stroke commands. The operator also determines exactly which oxygen absorption lines are scanned by comparing the line spacings and relative strengths with known line parameters, thus calibrating the laser wavelength readout. The system was used successfully to measure the atmospheric pressure profile on the first flights of this lidar, November 20, and December 9, 1985, aboard the NASA Wallops Electra aircraft.

  10. Airborne pseudolite aiding BeiDou system to improve positioning precision in low latitude areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weihua; Yuan, Jianping; Luo, Jianjun

    2005-11-01

    The BeiDou System (BDS), which has three satellites in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), is a regional satellite navigation system of China and its positioning performance is notorious in low latitude areas. The two mending plans using Airborne Pseudolite (APL) aiding BDS to improve navigation precision in such areas are put forward. Plan I uses three BDS satellites and one APS to supply navigation data and Plan II employs two BDS satellites, one APS and altimeter to work. Both of the plans adopt point positioning with code pseudo-range algorithm. Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP), which is calculated by Positioning Error Transfer Coefficient Matrix (PETCM), is used to evaluate the positioning performance of new plans. PETCM is predigested when user is in low latitude areas. The key elements of predigested PETCM that effect the Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP) are analyzed. The character of GDOP is forecasted easily with the predigested PETCM. The simulations show that the precision of plans are expected to be hundreds of meters except some region where the latitudes of user and APL are close to each other and Plan II is better than plan I. The phenomenal consists with the theoretical analysis.

  11. UAS-Borne Photogrammetry for Surface Topographic Characterization: A Ground-Truth Baseline for Future Change Detection and Refinement of Scaled Remotely-Sensed Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppersmith, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Vigil, S.; Dzur, R.; Norskog, K.; Kelley, R.; Miller, L.

    2015-12-01

    While long-term objectives of monitoring and verification regimes include remote characterization and discrimination of surficial geologic and topographic features at sites of interest, ground truth data is required to advance development of remote sensing techniques. Increasingly, it is desirable for these ground-based or ground-proximal characterization methodologies to be as nimble, efficient, non-invasive, and non-destructive as their higher-altitude airborne counterparts while ideally providing superior resolution. For this study, the area of interest is an alluvial site at the Nevada National Security Site intended for use in the Source Physics Experiment's (Snelson et al., 2013) second phase. Ground-truth surface topographic characterization was performed using a DJI Inspire 1 unmanned aerial system (UAS), at very low altitude (< 5-30m AGL). 2D photographs captured by the standard UAS camera payload were imported into Agisoft Photoscan to create three-dimensional point clouds. Within the area of interest, careful installation of surveyed ground control fiducial markers supplied necessary targets for field collection, and information for model georectification. The resulting model includes a Digital Elevation Model derived from 2D imagery. It is anticipated that this flexible and versatile characterization process will provide point cloud data resolution equivalent to a purely ground-based LiDAR scanning deployment (e.g., 1-2cm horizontal and vertical resolution; e.g., Sussman et al., 2012; Schultz-Fellenz et al., 2013). In addition to drastically increasing time efficiency in the field, the UAS method also allows for more complete coverage of the study area when compared to ground-based LiDAR. Comparison and integration of these data with conventionally-acquired airborne LiDAR data from a higher-altitude (~ 450m) platform will aid significantly in the refinement of technologies and detection capabilities of remote optical systems to identify and detect

  12. DAIDALUS Observations From UAS Integration in the NAS Project Flight Test 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Michael J.; Tsakpinis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    In order to validate the Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) solution proposed by standards body RTCA Inc., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) UAS Integration in the NAS project, alongside industry members General Atomics and Honeywell, conducted the fourth flight test in a series at Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California. Flight Test 4 (FT4) investigated problems of interoperability with the TCAS collision avoidance system with a DAA system as well as problems associated with sensor uncertainty. A series of scripted flight encounters between the NASA Ikhana UAS and various "intruder" aircraft were flown while alerting and guidance from the DAA algorithm were recorded to investigate the timeliness of the alerts and correctness of the guidance triggered by the DAA system. The results found that alerts were triggered in a timely manner in most instances. Cases where the alerting and guidance was incorrect were investigated further.

  13. A Nadir-adjusted Airborne Multi Spectral Imaging System (NAMSIS) for high-resolution remote sensing of carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z.; Scott, S.; Rahman, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing is widely used in vegetation monitoring, water stress detection and carbon cycle modeling. However, image pixels from high temporal resolution satellite sensors (such as MODIS) have coarse spatial resolution, much larger than the canopies they are supposed to characterize. An alternative solution for on-demand high spatial resolution remote sensing is sensors onboard low-flying aircrafts. Airborne remote sensing has been traditionally used in crop management studies. In this presentation we demonstrate the application of a relatively low-cost airborne sensor system with customized spectral band combinations for studying forest carbon fluxes. Our team has developed an Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU) controlled automated system to detach aircraft movements (pitch and roll) and engine vibration from the six-band programmable imager, in order to maintain the sensor at nadir view at all times during the flight. Flight lines are configured by a GPS-controleld system to simulate MODIS pixels. A feature-based algorithm is used to automatically generate a mosaic of individual images along the flight lines. This algorithm eliminates the need to mosiac and georeference images manually. An empirical line method is used to calculate reflectance from the raw data. Images from this airborne system produce reflectance values that are comparable with MODIS reflectance product. These high spatial resolution (~0.5 m) images deliver detailed information about tree species and phenological conditions within each MODIS pixel, and thus permit a high resolution spatio-temporal assessment of forest carbon fluxes.

  14. Joint influences of aerodynamic flow field and aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of airborne optical systems.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Haosu; Zuo, Baojun; Tian, Yi; Zhang, Wang; Hao, Chenglong; Liu, Chaofeng; Li, Qi; Li, Fan; Zhang, Li; Fan, Zhigang

    2012-12-20

    We investigated the joint influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical dome and the aerodynamic heating of the dome on imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT was used for flow computations. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray tracing program was used to simulate optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field and the dome. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the exit pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the aero-optical disturbance of the aerodynamic flow field and the aerodynamic heating of the dome significantly affect the imaging quality of an airborne optical system.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system for aerodynamic flow field around the optical window.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chenglong; Chen, Shouqian; Zhang, Wang; Ren, Jinhan; Li, Chong; Pang, Hongjun; Wang, Honghao; Liu, Qian; Wang, Chao; Zou, Huiying; Fan, Zhigang

    2013-11-20

    We investigated the influences exerted by the nonuniform aerodynamic flow field surrounding the optical window on the imaging quality degradation of an airborne optical system. The density distribution of flow fields around three typical optical windows, including a spherical window, an ellipsoidal window, and a paraboloidal window, were calculated by adopting the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the Spalart-Allmaras model provided by FLUENT. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm based ray-tracing program was used to simulate the optical transmission through the aerodynamic flow field. Four kinds of imaging quality evaluation parameters were presented: wave aberration of the entrance pupil, point spread function, encircled energy, and modulation transfer function. The results show that the imaging quality of the airborne optical system was affected by the shape of the optical window and angle of attack of the aircraft.

  16. Potentials of RF/FSO Communication in UAS Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griethe, Wolfgang; Heine, Frank

    2013-08-01

    Free Space Optical Communications (FSOC) has gained particular attention during the past few years and is progressing continuously. With the successful in-orbit verification of a Laser Communication Terminal (LCT), the coherent homodyne BPSK scheme advanced to a standard for Free-Space Optical Communication (FSOC) which now prevails more and more. The LCT is presently operated on satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). In the near future, the LCT will be operated in Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) onboard the ALPHASAT-TDP and the European Data Relay System (EDRS). In other words, the LCT has reached a point of maturity to realize its practical application. With existence of such space assets the time has come for other utilization beyond that of optical Inter-Satellite Links (ISL). Aeronautical applications, as for instance High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) or Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have to be addressed. This is caused due to an extremely high demand for bandwidth. Driving factors and advantages of FSOC in HALE/MALE UAS missions are highlighted. Numerous practice-related issues are described concerning the space segment, the aeronautical segment as well as the ground segment. The advantages for UAS missions are described resulting from the utilization of FSOC exclusively for wideband transmission of sensor data while vehicle Command & Control (C2) can be maintained, as before, via RF communication. Moreover, the paper discusses FSOC as an enabler for the integration of air and space-based wideband Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR) systems into existent military command and control networks. From the given information it can be concluded that FSOC contributes to the future increase of air-and space power.

  17. Scanning infrared remote sensing system for identification, visualization, and quantification of airborne pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harig, Roland; Matz, Gerhard; Rusch, Peter

    2002-02-01

    Remote sensing by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry allows detection, identification, and quantification of airborne pollutants. In the case of leaks in pipelines or leaks in chemical plants, chemical accidents, terrorism, or war, hazardous compounds are often released into the atmosphere. Various Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers have been developed for the remote detection and identification of hazardous clouds. However, for the localization of a leak and a complete assessment of the situation in the case of the release of a hazardous cloud, information about the position and the size of a cloud is essential. Therefore, an imaging passive remote sensing system comprised of an interferometer (Bruker OPAG 22), a data acquisition, processing, and control system with a digital signal processor (FTIR DSP), an azimuth-elevation-scanning mirror, a video system with a DSP, and a personal computer has been developed. The FTIR DSP system controls the scanning mirror, collects the interferograms, and performs the Fourier transformation. The spectra are transferred to a personal computer and analyzed by a real-time identification algorithm that does not require background spectra for the analysis. The results are visualized by a video image, overlaid by false color images. For each target compound of a spectral library, images of the coefficient of correlation, the signal to noise ratio, the brightness temperature of the background, the difference between the temperature of the ambient air and the brightness temperature of the background, and the noise equivalent column density are produced. The column densities of all directions in which a target compound has been identified may be retrieved by a nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm and an additional false color image is displayed. The system has a high selectivity, low noise equivalent spectral radiance, and it allows identification, visualization, and quantification of pollutant clouds.

  18. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study. 2; Evaluating Detect and Avoid Technology and Communication Delays in Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of communications delays and winds on air traffic controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth (DFW) airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from Detect and Avoid (DAA) self-separation algorithms (Stratway+) displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Control System. This guidance consisted of amber "bands" on the heading scale of the UAS navigation display indicating headings that would result in a loss of well clear between the UAS and nearby traffic. Winds tested were successfully handled by the DAA algorithms and did not affect the controller acceptability ratings of the HMDs. Voice communications delays for the UAS were also tested and included one-way delay times of 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS. Information from this study will also be of value to the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) Special Committee 228 - Minimum Performance Standards for UAS.

  19. Concentrations and properties of airborne particles in the Mexico City subway system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugica-Álvarez, V.; Figueroa-Lara, J.; Romero-Romo, M.; Sepúlveda-Sánchez, J.; López-Moreno, T.

    2012-03-01

    Samples of PM10 and PM2.5 were collected using High Vol and MiniVol devices on the platform of a subway station in Mexico City and in an outdoor location close to it, using such devices. Soluble extractable organic matter (SEOM) and water solubility of metals were determined. Elemental composition and solubility of trace metals were determined and individual aerosol particles were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). The concentration levels in both sizes were similar during all days with the exception of weekends, especially on Sunday when activity decreases due to lower trains' frequency. The largest particles concentrations in the subway were found from 06:00 to 14:00 and the lowest concentrations were registered from 22:00 to 06:00. Concentrations of PM2.5 ranging between 60 μg m-3 and 93 μg m-3 (10% and 90% percentile) in the subway were 6% larger than outside, whereas PM10 were 20% larger than outside ranging from 88 μg m-3 to 145 μg m-3. Greater Fe, Cu, Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations were quantified in the subway samples as compared to the airborne particles by up to 2.5, 9, 1.8, 2.0 and 2.6 times, respectively. Even when the solubility percent of these metals in the subway PM was smaller than in the outdoor airborne particles, metals' concentrations were greater. SEM and EDS exhibit the presence of many individual particles with a large metal content in the subway samples. Correlation analysis showed the influence of outdoor PM in the subway aerosols, but characterization revealed also important differences in the presence of metals and SEOM, due to underground sources such as friction, brake system, and metals from sparking. This means that a large number of commuters are exposed during labor days to large toxic metals concentrations as they transit.

  20. Army PM UAS Spectrum Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Spectrum Requirements 24 System Component Frequencies Used Manufacturer Quantity Location J/F-12 Number Electro-Optical / Infra-red / Laser Range...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED David Milburn Sigmatech Contractor Spectrum Manager Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project Office PACOM...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Sigmatech Inc,U.S. Army Unmanned Aircraft Systems

  1. Rugged, reliable, and secured data storage solutions for airborne ISR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsur, Ofer

    2004-08-01

    Rugged, reliable and secure data storage is of major concern to engineers designing Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) systems. Operation under harsh conditions of shock, vibration and high altitude in extreme temperature ranges is an essential requirement. Due to its rotating mechanism, a mechanical disk cannot provide top-level data reliability in such an environment. Other Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) solutions can replace mechanical disks. This paper describes some of these alternatives and highlights their cost-effectiveness. One alternative is a ruggedized mechanical disk, a mechanical disk sealed in a rigid cartridge. Another alternative is the solid-state flash disk that, like the mechanical disk, retains data when power is off, and is a "drop-in replacement" for the mechanical disk for reliability in harsh environments. Flash disk manufacturers incorporate special methods to enhance endurance and reliability for military designers. This paper also describes the mandatory requirements of the DoD, NSA and the US Air Force for erasing confidential data in storage devices. This issue is vital, especially since the P-3 landed forcibly on China"s soil. Some flash disk vendors meet security requirements with Fast Secure Erase and Sanitize, enabling data declassification in seconds, even without power.

  2. Estimation of foliar and woody biomass using an airborne lidar system

    SciTech Connect

    Maclean, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar was flown over forested terrain at two sites, producing a digital measurement of the canopy profile. The primary site was International Paper Corporation's Southlands Experimental Forest near Bainbridge, Georgia. The secondary site was the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant near Aikens, South Carolina. Both sites are located on the southern coastal plain, and contain areas typical of both managed and unmanaged stands of southern pines. Concurrently acquired aerial photography and aircraft inertial-navigation-system data permitted precise location of the laser's track on the ground. While three laser pulsing rates were used in data collection, no significant effects to forest canopy profile area measurement were detected due to this factor. Resulting equations can be used in predicting forest biomass and timber volume at different sites with similar species composition and site conditions. Any stand level estimation precision can be achieved through the employment of sufficient sampling intensity. Recommendations for future lidar studies of forest canopies are given and potential applications merging lidar data with satellite imagery are discussed.

  3. System for processing of airborne images of forest ecosystems using high spectral and spatial resolution data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozoderov, V. V.; Dmitriev, E. V.; Kamentsev, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    The developed hardware and software system for the recognition of natural and man-made objects based on the airborne hyperspectral sensing implements flight tasks on selected survey routes and computational procedures for solving applied problems that occur in data processing. The basics of object recognition based on obtained images of high spectral and spatial resolution in mathematical terms of sets of sites and labels and the basics of interrelations between separate resolution elements (pixels) for selected object classes are presented. Features of energy minimization of the processed scene are depicted as a target function of the optimization of computation and regularization of the solution of the considered problems as a theoretical basis for distinguishing between classes of objects in the presence of boundaries between them. Examples of the formation of information layers of recorded spectra for selected "pure species" of pine and birch forests are cited, with the separation of illuminated and shaded pixels, which increases the accuracy of object recognition in the processing of the images.

  4. HSI mapping of marine and coastal environments using the advanced airborne hyperspectral imaging system (AAHIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holasek, Rick E.; Portigal, Frederick P.; Mooradian, Gregory C.; Voelker, Mark A.; Even, Detlev M.; Fene, Michael W.; Owensby, Pamela D.; Breitwieser, David S.

    1997-08-01

    The advanced airborne hyperspectral imaging system (AAHIS) is an operational, high signal-to-noise ratio, high resolution, integrated hyperspectral imaging spectrometer. The compact, lightweight and portable AAHIS system is normally flown in Piper Aztec aircraft. AAHIS collect 'push- broom' data with 385 spatial channels and 288 simultaneous spectral channels from 433 nm to 832 nm, recording at 12 bits up to 55 frames/second. Typical operation incorporates on-chip pixel binning of four pixels spectrally and two pixels spatially, increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and reducing data rate. When binned, the spectral resolution is 5.5 nm and the instantaneous field-of-view is 1 mrad, resulting in a ground sample distance of 0.5 m from 500 m altitude. The sensor is optimized for littoral region remote sensing for a variety of civilian and defense applications including ecosystem surveying and inventory, detection and monitoring of environmental pollution, infrastructure mapping, and surveillance. Since August 1994, AAHIS has acquired over 120 GB of hyperspectral image data of littoral, urban, desert and tropical scenes. System upgrades include real-time spectral image processing, integrated flight navigation and 3-axis image stabilization. A description of the sensor system, its performance characteristics, and several processed images demonstrating material discrimination are presented. The remote assessment, characterization, and mapping of coral reef health and species identification and floral species at Nu'upia Ponds, are shown and compared to extensive ground truthing in and around Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. SETS emphasizes providing georegistered, GIS-integrated, value- added data products for customers to help them solve real- world problems.

  5. Capability of air filters to retain airborne bacteria and molds in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    PubMed

    Möritz, M; Peters, H; Nipko, B; Rüden, H

    2001-07-01

    The capability of air filters (filterclass: F6, F7) to retain airborne outdoor microorganisms was examined in field experiments in two heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. At the beginning of the 15-month investigation period, the first filter stages of both HVAC systems were equipped with new unused air filters. The number of airborne bacteria and molds before and behind the filters were determined simultaneously in 14 days-intervals using 6-stage Andersen cascade impactors. Under relatively dry (< 80% R. H.) and warm (> 12 degrees C) outdoor air conditions air filters led to a marked reduction of airborne microorganism concentrations (bacteria by approximately 70% and molds by > 80%). However, during long periods of high relative humidity (> 80% R. H.) a proliferation of bacteria on air filters with subsequent release into the filtered air occurred. These microorganisms were mainly smaller than 1.1 microns therefore being part of the respirable fraction. The results showed furthermore that one possibility to avoid microbial proliferation is to limit the relative humidity in the area of the air filters to 80% R. H. (mean of 3 days), e.g. by using preheaters in front of air filters in HVAC-systems.

  6. SWUIS-A: A Versatile, Low-Cost UV/VIS/IR Imaging System for Airborne Astronomy and Aeronomy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Stern, S. Alan; Tomlinson, William; Slater, David C.; Vilas, Faith

    2001-01-01

    We have developed and successfully flight-tested on 14 different airborne missions the hardware and techniques for routinely conducting valuable astronomical and aeronomical observations from high-performance, two-seater military-type aircraft. The SWUIS-A (Southwest Universal Imaging System - Airborne) system consists of an image-intensified CCD camera with broad band response from the near-UV to the near IR, high-quality foreoptics, a miniaturized video recorder, an aircraft-to-camera power and telemetry interface with associated camera controls, and associated cables, filters, and other minor equipment. SWUIS-A's suite of high-quality foreoptics gives it selectable, variable focal length/variable field-of-view capabilities. The SWUIS-A camera frames at 60 Hz video rates, which is a key requirement for both jitter compensation and high time resolution (useful for occultation, lightning, and auroral studies). Broadband SWUIS-A image coadds can exceed a limiting magnitude of V = 10.5 in <1 sec with dark sky conditions. A valuable attribute of SWUIS-A airborne observations is the fact that the astronomer flies with the instrument, thereby providing Space Shuttle-like "payload specialist" capability to "close-the-loop" in real-time on the research done on each research mission. Key advantages of the small, high-performance aircraft on which we can fly SWUIS-A include significant cost savings over larger, more conventional airborne platforms, worldwide basing obviating the need for expensive, campaign-style movement of specialized large aircraft and their logistics support teams, and ultimately faster reaction times to transient events. Compared to ground-based instruments, airborne research platforms offer superior atmospheric transmission, the mobility to reach remote and often-times otherwise unreachable locations over the Earth, and virtually-guaranteed good weather for observing the sky. Compared to space-based instruments, airborne platforms typically offer

  7. Data Acquisition and Processing System for Airborne Wind Profiling with a Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection, Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, J. Y.; Koch, G. J.; Kavaya, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    A data acquisition and signal processing system is being developed for a 2-micron airborne wind profiling coherent Doppler lidar system. This lidar, called the Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN), is based on a Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser transmitter and 15-cm diameter telescope. It is being packaged for flights onboard the NASA DC-8, with the first flights in the summer of 2010 in support of the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign for the study of hurricanes. The data acquisition and processing system is housed in a compact PCI chassis and consists of four components such as a digitizer, a digital signal processing (DSP) module, a video controller, and a serial port controller. The data acquisition and processing software (DAPS) is also being developed to control the system including real-time data analysis and display. The system detects an external 10 Hz trigger pulse and initiates the data acquisition and processing process, and displays selected wind profile parameters such as Doppler shift, power distribution, wind directions and velocities. Doppler shift created by aircraft motion is measured by an inertial navigation/GPS sensor and fed to the signal processing system for real-time removal of aircraft effects from wind measurements. A general overview of the system and the DAPS as well as the coherent Doppler lidar system is presented in this paper.

  8. AIAA Aviation UAS DAA Demonstration-Mini HITL Week 2 Stats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa Carolynn; Murphy, James R.; Jovic, Srboljub

    2016-01-01

    The UAS-NAS Project demo will showcase recent research efforts to ensure the interoperability between proposed UAS detect and avoid (DAA) human machine interface requirements (developed within RTCA SC-228) and existing collision avoidance displays. Attendees will be able to view the current state of the art of the DAA pilot traffic, alerting and guidance displays integrated with Traffic advisory and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) II in the UAS-NAS Project's research UAS ground control station (developed in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory). In addition, attendees will have the opportunity to interact with the research UAS ground control station and "fly" encounters, using the DAA and TCAS II displays to avoid simulated aircraft. The display of the advisories will be hosted on a laptop with an external 30" monitor, running the Vigilant Spririt system. DAA advisories will be generated by the JADEM software tool, connected to the system via the LVC Gateway. A repeater of the primary flight display will be shown on a 55" tv/monitor mounted on a stand at the back of the booth to show the pilot interaction to the passersby.

  9. UAS Integration into the NAS: Detect and Avoid Display Evaluations in Support of SC-228 MOPS Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa; Rorie, Conrad; Shively, Jay

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the work the Human Systems Integration (HSI) sub-project has done on detect and avoid (DAA) displays while working on the UAS Integration into the NAS project. Much of the work has been used to support the ongoing development of minimum operational performance standards (MOPS) for UAS by RTCA Special Committee 228. The design and results of three different human-in-the-loop simulations are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of the UAS pilot in the Self Separation Timeline.

  10. Business Case Analysis of Cargo Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Capability in Support of Forward Deployed Logistics in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    5. A160T Hummingbird CUAS ............................................................59 C. SOURCE OF SECOND THOUGHTS: VULNERABILITIES FOR CUAS... Hummingbird or the Lockheed Martin K-MAX unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) with the costs of the status quo of cargo replenishment currently used by the...system (JPADS) against both the Lockheed Martin K-MAX and the Boeing A160T Hummingbird in five operational scenarios performing resupply every three

  11. Business Case Analysis of Cargo Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Capability in Support of Forward Deployed Logistics in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-31

    operating, and sustaining either the Boeing A160T Hummingbird or the Lockheed Martin K-MAX unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) with the costs of the status...KC-130J with joint precision airdrop system (JPADS) against both the Lockheed Martin K-MAX and the Boeing A160T Hummingbird in five operational...A160T Hummingbird or the Lockheed Martin K-MAX helicopters in an operational environment. Upon completion of initial deployment, Navy and Marine Corps

  12. Two-UAV Intersection Localization System Based on the Airborne Optoelectronic Platform

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Guanbing; Liu, Jinghong; Song, Yueming; Zuo, Yujia

    2017-01-01

    To address the limitation of the existing UAV (unmanned aerial vehicles) photoelectric localization method used for moving objects, this paper proposes an improved two-UAV intersection localization system based on airborne optoelectronic platforms by using the crossed-angle localization method of photoelectric theodolites for reference. This paper introduces the makeup and operating principle of intersection localization system, creates auxiliary coordinate systems, transforms the LOS (line of sight, from the UAV to the target) vectors into homogeneous coordinates, and establishes a two-UAV intersection localization model. In this paper, the influence of the positional relationship between UAVs and the target on localization accuracy has been studied in detail to obtain an ideal measuring position and the optimal localization position where the optimal intersection angle is 72.6318°. The result shows that, given the optimal position, the localization root mean square error (RMS) will be 25.0235 m when the target is 5 km away from UAV baselines. Finally, the influence of modified adaptive Kalman filtering on localization results is analyzed, and an appropriate filtering model is established to reduce the localization RMS error to 15.7983 m. Finally, An outfield experiment was carried out and obtained the optimal results: σB=1.63×10−4 (°), σL=1.35×10−4 (°), σH=15.8 (m), σsum=27.6 (m), where σB represents the longitude error, σL represents the latitude error, σH represents the altitude error, and σsum represents the error radius. PMID:28067814

  13. Two-UAV Intersection Localization System Based on the Airborne Optoelectronic Platform.

    PubMed

    Bai, Guanbing; Liu, Jinghong; Song, Yueming; Zuo, Yujia

    2017-01-06

    To address the limitation of the existing UAV (unmanned aerial vehicles) photoelectric localization method used for moving objects, this paper proposes an improved two-UAV intersection localization system based on airborne optoelectronic platforms by using the crossed-angle localization method of photoelectric theodolites for reference. This paper introduces the makeup and operating principle of intersection localization system, creates auxiliary coordinate systems, transforms the LOS (line of sight, from the UAV to the target) vectors into homogeneous coordinates, and establishes a two-UAV intersection localization model. In this paper, the influence of the positional relationship between UAVs and the target on localization accuracy has been studied in detail to obtain an ideal measuring position and the optimal localization position where the optimal intersection angle is 72.6318°. The result shows that, given the optimal position, the localization root mean square error (RMS) will be 25.0235 m when the target is 5 km away from UAV baselines. Finally, the influence of modified adaptive Kalman filtering on localization results is analyzed, and an appropriate filtering model is established to reduce the localization RMS error to 15.7983 m. Finally, An outfield experiment was carried out and obtained the optimal results: σ B = 1.63 × 10 - 4 ( ° ) , σ L = 1.35 × 10 - 4 ( ° ) , σ H = 15.8 ( m ) , σ s u m = 27.6 ( m ) , where σ B represents the longitude error, σ L represents the latitude error, σ H represents the altitude error, and σ s u m represents the error radius.

  14. UAS Integration in the NAS Project: Integrated Test and LVC Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Jim; Hoang, Ty

    2015-01-01

    Overview presentation of the Integrated Test and Evaluation sub-project of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). The emphasis of the presentation is the Live, Virtual, and Constructive (LVC) system (a broadly used name for classifying modeling and simulation) infrastructure and use of external assets and connection.

  15. Conceptual design of an airborne laser Doppler velocimeter system for studying wind fields associated with severe local storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, J. A. L.; Davies, A. R.; Sulzmann, K. G. P.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne laser Doppler velocimeter was evaluated for diagnostics of the wind field associated with an isolated severe thunderstorm. Two scanning configurations were identified, one a long-range (out to 10-20 km) roughly horizontal plane mode intended to allow probing of the velocity field around the storm at the higher altitudes (4-10 km). The other is a shorter range (out to 1-3 km) mode in which a vertical or horizontal plane is scanned for velocity (and possibly turbulence), and is intended for diagnostics of the lower altitude region below the storm and in the out-flow region. It was concluded that aircraft flight velocities are high enough and severe storm lifetimes are long enough that a single airborne Doppler system, operating at a range of less than about 20 km, can view the storm area from two or more different aspects before the storm characteristics change appreciably.

  16. High-Rate Data-Capture for an Airborne Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valett, Susan; Hicks, Edward; Dabney, Philip; Harding, David

    2012-01-01

    A high-rate data system was required to capture the data for an airborne lidar system. A data system was developed that achieved up to 22 million (64-bit) events per second sustained data rate (1408 million bits per second), as well as short bursts (less than 4 s) at higher rates. All hardware used for the system was off the shelf, but carefully selected to achieve these rates. The system was used to capture laser fire, single-photon detection, and GPS data for the Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photo-counting Lidar (SIMPL). However, the system has applications for other laser altimeter systems (waveform-recording), mass spectroscopy, xray radiometry imaging, high-background- rate ranging lidar, and other similar areas where very high-speed data capture is needed. The data capture software was used for the SIMPL instrument that employs a micropulse, single-photon ranging measurement approach and has 16 data channels. The detected single photons are from two sources those reflected from the target and solar background photons. The instrument is non-gated, so background photons are acquired for a range window of 13 km and can comprise many times the number of target photons. The highest background rate occurs when the atmosphere is clear, the Sun is high, and the target is a highly reflective surface such as snow. Under these conditions, the total data rate for the 16 channels combined is expected to be approximately 22 million events per second. For each photon detection event, the data capture software reads the relative time of receipt, with respect to a one-per-second absolute time pulse from a GPS receiver, from an event timer card with 0.1-ns precision, and records that information to a RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) storage device. The relative time of laser pulse firings must also be read and recorded with the same precision. Each of the four event timer cards handles the throughput from four of the channels. For each detection event, a flag is

  17. Considerations for Domestic Law Enforcement Implementation of a UAS Program in the Proposed FAA Regulatory Environment of Integration into the National Airspace System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    THE NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Keith Andrew McMinn 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval...Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10...agencies can and should take advantage of the cost savings, technical capabilities, and mission performance offered by this technology

  18. A study to identify and compare airborne systems for in-situ measurements of launch vehicle effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, T. J.; Chace, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    An in-situ system for monitoring the concentration of HCl, CO, CO2, and Al2O3 in the cloud of reaction products that form as a result of a launch of solid propellant launch vehicle is studied. A wide array of instrumentation and platforms are reviewed to yield the recommended system. An airborne system suited to monitoring pollution concentrations over urban areas for the purpose of calibrating remote sensors is then selected using a similar methodology to yield the optimal configuration.

  19. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Passman, Robert H. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant ongoing results of the NASA/FAA joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements. The present document was compiled to record the essence of the technology updates and discussions which follow each.

  20. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference hosted jointly by NASA Langley (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, on October 18 to 20, 1988. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the second year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  1. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was held in Hampton, Va., on October 16-18, 1990. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant on-going results of the NASA/FAA joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  2. Investigation of Atmospheric Chemistry in the Tropical UTLS with NASA's Global Hawk UAS during ATTREX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, J.; Atlas, E. L.; Cheung, R.; Chipperfield, M.; Colosimo, S. F.; Deutschmann, T.; Daube, B. C.; Gao, R. S.; Elkins, J. W.; Fahey, D. W.; Feng, W.; Hossaini, R.; Navarro, M. A.; Pittman, J. V.; Raecke, R.; Scalone, L.; Spolaor, M.; Tricoli, U.; Thornberry, T. D.; Tsai, J. Y.; Werner, B.; Wofsy, S. C.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2015-12-01

    Bromine species play an important role in ozone chemistry in the tropical upper troposphere / lower stratosphere (UTLS). The tropical UTLS also serves as a gate to the stratosphere, and the vertical transport of organic and inorganic bromine species is an important source of halogens that impact stratospheric ozone chemistry. An accurate quantification of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of bromine species is thus crucial to the understanding of the bromine and ozone budget in the UTLS and the stratosphere. However, the investigation of the composition of the tropical UTLS is challenging, as the altitude of this region of 15 - 20 km requires high-altitude aircraft, or balloons. In recent years a new aircraft has become available to penetrate into this region: NASA's Global Hawk (GH) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). The GH has a ceiling altitude of 20 km and a 24h endurance with a full complement of scientific experiments. The GH provides a new and exciting platform that allows unique insights into atmospheric processes in the UTLS. Here we present observations of CH4, BrO, NO2, and ozone made on-board the GH during the 2011, 2013, and 2014 Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) in the pacific tropical UTLS. We will discuss the details of UV-vis remote sensing measurements of BrO and NO2 by the UCLA/HD limb scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument. We also present observations of organic bromine species from the University of Miami's Whole Air Sampler, in-situ ozone measurement by NOAA, and CH4 measurements by the Harvard Picarro instrument and the NOAA UCATS gas chromatograph. Methods to determine vertical trace gas profiles through aircraft maneuvers and by scanning the mini-DOAS telescope in viewing elevation will be discussed. The combination of the observations with calculations using the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT 3-D model allows quantification and interpretation of the bromine and ozone budget in the UTLS.

  3. The Utility and Validity of Kinematic GPS Positioning for the Geosar Airborne Terrain Mapping Radar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Adam; Hensley, Scott; Chapin, Elaine; Kroger, Peter; Hussain, Mushtaq; Allred, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    GeoSAR is an airborne, interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) system for terrain mapping, currently under development by a consortium including NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Calgis, Inc., a California mapping sciences company, and the California Department of Conservation (CaIDOC), with funding provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Topographic Engineering Center (TEC) and the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). IFSAR data processing requires high-accuracy platform position and attitude knowledge. On 9 GeoSAR, these are provided by one or two Honeywell Embedded GPS Inertial Navigation Units (EGI) and an Ashtech Z12 GPS receiver. The EGIs provide real-time high-accuracy attitude and moderate-accuracy position data, while the Ashtech data, post-processed differentially with data from a nearby ground station using Ashtech PNAV software, provide high-accuracy differential GPS positions. These data are optimally combined using a Kalman filter within the GeoSAR motion measurement software, and the resultant position and orientation information are used to process the dual frequency (X-band and P-band) radar data to generate high-accuracy, high -resolution terrain imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs). GeoSAR requirements specify sub-meter level planimetric and vertical accuracies for the resultant DEMS. To achieve this, platform positioning errors well below one meter are needed. The goal of GeoSAR is to obtain 25 cm or better 3-D positions from the GPS systems on board the aircraft. By imaging a set of known point target corner-cube reflectors, the GeoSAR system can be calibrated. This calibration process yields the true position of the aircraft with an uncertainty of 20- 50 cm. This process thus allows an independent assessment of the accuracy of our GPS-based positioning systems. We will present an overview of the GeoSAR motion measurement system, focusing on the use of GPS and the blending of position data from the

  4. Embedding Human Expert Cognition Into Autonomous UAS Trajectory Planning.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Pritesh; Meyer, Patrick; Campbell, Duncan

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the inclusion of human expert cognition into autonomous trajectory planning for unmanned aerial systems (UASs) operating in low-altitude environments. During typical UAS operations, multiple objectives may exist; therefore, the use of multicriteria decision aid techniques can potentially allow for convergence to trajectory solutions which better reflect overall mission requirements. In that context, additive multiattribute value theory has been applied to optimize trajectories with respect to multiple objectives. A graphical user interface was developed to allow for knowledge capture from a human decision maker (HDM) through simulated decision scenarios. The expert decision data gathered are converted into value functions and corresponding criteria weightings using utility additive theory. The inclusion of preferences elicited from HDM data within an automated decision system allows for the generation of trajectories which more closely represent the candidate HDM decision preferences. This approach has been demonstrated in this paper through simulation using a fixed-wing UAS operating in low-altitude environments.

  5. A Performance Assessment of an Airborne Separation Assistance System Using Realistic Complex Traffic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Bussink, Frank J. L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study that investigates the performance of a tactical Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) in en route airspace, under varying demand levels, with realistic traffic flows. The ASAS concept studied here allows flight crews of equipped aircraft to perform separation from other air traffic autonomously. This study addresses the tactical aspects of an ASAS using aircraft state data (i.e. position and velocity) to detect and resolve projected conflicts. In addition, use of a conflict prevention system helps ASAS-equipped aircraft avoid maneuvers that may cause new conflicts. ASAS-capable aircraft are equipped with satellite-based navigation and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) for transmission and receipt of aircraft state data. In addition to tactical conflict detection and resolution (CD&R), a complete, integrated ASAS is likely to incorporate a strategic CD&R component with a longer look-ahead time, using trajectory intent information. A system-wide traffic flow management (TFM) component, located at the FAA command center helps aircraft to avoid regions of excessive traffic density and complexity. A Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS), as used today is the system of last resort. This integrated approach avoids sole reliance on the use of the tactical CD&R studied here, but the tactical component remains a critical element of the complete ASAS. The focus of this paper is to determine to what extent the proposed tactical component of ASAS alone can maintain aircraft separation at demand levels up to three times that of current traffic. The study also investigates the effect of mixing ASAS-equipped aircraft with unequipped aircraft (i.e. current day) that do not have the capability to self-separate. Position and velocity data for unequipped aircraft needs to be available to ASASequipped. Most likely, for this future concept, state data would be available from instrument flight rules (IFR

  6. Biooptical variability in the Greenland Sea observed with the Multispectral Airborne Radiometer System (MARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, James L.; Trees, Charles C.

    1989-01-01

    A site-specific ocean color remote sensing algorithm was developed and used to convert Multispectral Airborne Radiometer System (MARS) spectral radiance measurements to chlorophyll-a concentration profiles along aircraft tracklines in the Greenland Sea. The analysis is described and the results given in graphical or tabular form. Section 2 describes the salient characteristics and history of development of the MARS instrument. Section 3 describes the analyses of MARS flight segments over consolidated sea ice, resulting in a set of altitude dependent ratios used (over water) to estimate radiance reflected by the surface and atmosphere from total radiance measured. Section 4 presents optically weighted pigment concentrations calculated from profile data, and spectral reflectances measured in situ from the top meter of the water column; this data was analyzed to develop an algorithm relating chlorophyll-a concentrations to the ratio of radiance reflectances at 441 and 550 nm (with a selection of coefficients dependent upon whether significant gelvin presence is implied by a low ratio of reflectances at 410 and 550 nm). Section 5 describes the scaling adjustments which were derived to reconcile the MARS upwelled radiance ratios at 410:550 nm and 441:550 nm to in situ reflectance ratios measured simultaneously on the surface. Section 6 graphically presents the locations of MARS data tracklines and positions of the surface monitoring R/V. Section 7 presents stick-plots of MARS tracklines selected to illustrate two-dimensional spatial variability within the box covered by each day's flight. Section 8 presents curves of chlorophyll-a concentration profiles derived from MARS data along survey tracklines. Significant results are summarized in Section 1.

  7. Varying Levels of Automation on UAS Operator Responses to Traffic Resolution Advisories in Civil Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Caitlin; Fern, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Continuing demand for the use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has put increasing pressure on operations in civil airspace. The need to fly UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS) in order to perform missions vital to national security and defense, emergency management, and science is increasing at a rapid pace. In order to ensure safe operations in the NAS, operators of unmanned aircraft, like those of manned aircraft, may be required to maintain separation assurance and avoid loss of separation with other aircraft while performing their mission tasks. This experiment investigated the effects of varying levels of automation on UAS operator performance and workload while responding to conflict resolution instructions provided by the Tactical Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II) during a UAS mission in high-density airspace. The purpose of this study was not to investigate the safety of using TCAS II on UAS, but rather to examine the effect of automation on the ability of operators to respond to traffic collision alerts. Six licensed pilots were recruited to act as UAS operators for this study. Operators were instructed to follow a specified mission flight path, while maintaining radio contact with Air Traffic Control and responding to TCAS II resolution advisories. Operators flew four, 45 minute, experimental missions with four different levels of automation: Manual, Knobs, Management by Exception, and Fully Automated. All missions included TCAS II Resolution Advisories (RAs) that required operator attention and rerouting. Operator compliance and reaction time to RAs was measured, and post-run NASA-TLX ratings were collected to measure workload. Results showed significantly higher compliance rates, faster responses to TCAS II alerts, as well as less preemptive operator actions when higher levels of automation are implemented. Physical and Temporal ratings of workload were significantly higher in the Manual condition than in the Management by Exception and

  8. Observing Supercells with Unmanned Aircraft: Results from the UAS Component of VORTEX-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, A. L.; Argrow, B.; Frew, E.

    2010-12-01

    In the second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX-2) autonomous unmanned aircraft were used for the first time to collect in-situ observations in close proximity to supercells. The use of unmanned aircraft to collect data significant to stormscale research has long been recognized. However, collecting these data requires aircraft operation beyond the visual line of sight of the controller which necessitates aircraft autonomy. An autonomous unmanned aircraft requires a significantly more complex command and control system and elicits more scrutiny by airspace regulatory agencies. Therefore, while the potential utility of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS, the unmanned aircraft along with the communications and logistics infrastructure required for their operation) for stormscale research may be obvious, the engineering and regulatory hurdles that must be overcome for their use are significant. Surmounting these engineering and regulatory hurdles was the principal objective of the UAS component of VORTEX-2. Regulatory hurdles prevented UAS operations in the first year of VORTEX-2. However, the Federal Aviation Administration (tasked with regulating all UAS operations) granted the UAS group certificates of authorization (CoA) to fly for all of year-2 over northeast CO, southwest NE, and northwest KS. The majority of the engineering hurdles involved the communication system necessary to 1) command and control the aircraft through its on-board autopilot and 2) direct ground-based vehicles required to remain compliant with FAA regulations. Testing during both year-1 and -2 yielded a robust communication system. Lessons learned from interactions with the FAA along with an overview of the communication system will be presented at the conference. Scientifically, the UAS in VORTEX-2 was tasked with collecting in-situ observations of the temperature and moisture above the surface across the rear flank gust front (RFGF) and within the rear

  9. Wind Tunnel and Hover Performance Test Results for Multicopter UAS Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Carl R.; Jung, Jaewoo; Willink, Gina; Glasner, Brett

    2016-01-01

    There is currently a lack of published data for the performance of multicopter unmanned aircraft system (UAS) vehicles, such as quadcopters and octocopters, often referred to collectively as drones. With the rapidly increasing popularity of multicopter UAS, there is interest in better characterizing the performance of this type of aircraft. By studying the performance of currently available vehicles, it will be possible to develop models for vehicles at this scale that can accurately predict performance and model trajectories. This paper describes a wind tunnel test that was recently performed in the U.S. Army's 7- by 10-ft Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. During this wind tunnel entry, five multicopter UAS vehicles were tested to determine forces and moments as well as electrical power as a function of wind speed, rotor speed, and vehicle attitude. The test is described here in detail, and a selection of the key results from the test is presented.

  10. HALE UAS Command and Control Communications: Step 1 - Functional Requirements Document. Version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) unmanned aircraft system (UAS) communicates with an off-board pilot-in-command in all flight phases via the C2 data link, making it a critical component for the UA to fly in the NAS safely and routinely. This is a new requirement in current FAA communications planning and monitoring processes. This document provides a set of comprehensive C2 communications functional requirements and performance guidelines to help facilitate the future FAA certification process for civil UAS to operate in the NAS. The objective of the guidelines is to provide the ability to validate the functional requirements and in future be used to develop performance-level requirements.

  11. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study-2: Effects of Communications Delays and Winds in Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Communications Delays and Winds on Air Traffic Controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between UAS and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth East-side airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from self-separation algorithms displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Simulation System. Winds tested did not affect the acceptability ratings. Communications delays tested included 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS.

  12. Imaging Hidden Water in Three Dimensions Using an Active Airborne Electromagnetic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, J.

    2001-05-01

    The San Pedro Basin aquifer in southeastern Arizona and northern Mexico is important not only for local agriculture and residential communities, but also because it is the source of the San Pedro River. Declared a Riparian Conservation Area by Congress in 1988, the San Pedro is a critical element of one of four major migratory bird fly-ways over North America. The basin crosses the international frontier, extending into northern Mexico, where about 12,000 acre-ft of water is withdrawn yearly by the Cananea Mine. An additional 11,000 acre-ft is withdrawn by the US Army base at Fort Huachuca and surrounding towns including Sierra Vista. About 6,000 to 8,000 acre-ft of water is also estimated as lost to evapotranspiration, while recharge (mainly from the Huachuca Mountains) ranges from 12,500 to 15,000 acre-ft per year. This apparent net deficit is considered a serious threat by environmental groups to the integrity of the Riparian Conservation Area. Efforts have been underway to develop catchments and to implement water-conservation measures, but these have been hampered by a lack of detailed knowledge of the three-dimensional geometry and extent of the aquifer beneath the entire basin - at least until recently. In an effort to identify subcomponents and interconnectivities within the San Pedro Basin aquifer, the US Army funded several airborne EM surveys, conducted in 1997 and 1999 under the supervision of the US Geological Survey east of Fort Huachuca. These surveys used the Geoterrex GEOTEM system with 20 gated time-domain windows in three perpendicular orientations. The 60+ channel information was inverted using two different methods into conductivity-depth transforms, i.e., conductivity vs. depth along each flight-line. The resulting inversions have been assembled into a three-dimensional map of the aquifer, which in this arid region is quite conductive (the average is 338 micro-S/cm, around 30 ohm-meters). The coverage is about 1,000 square kilometers down to a

  13. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV.

  14. Photometer dewar system for NASA C141 airborne telescope (Kuiper Flying Observatory). [design analysis/performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ney, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    The design, calibration, and testing of a photometer to be used in an airborne telescope is described. A description of the cryogenics of the photometer is given, and photographs and blueprints of the photometer are included. The photometer is designed with a focal plane beam switching system so that the airplane telescope can be used in a normal optical mode at the bent Cassegrain focus and with the photometer operating in the pressurized cabin of the airplane. The concept was to produce a system which could be used in almost the same manner as ground based infrared photometers and dewars of the O'Brien Observatory at the University of Minnesota.

  15. Effect of Vertical Rate Error on Recovery from Loss of Well Clear Between UAS and Non-Cooperative Intruders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cone, Andrew; Thipphavong, David; Lee, Seung Man; Santiago, Confesor

    2016-01-01

    When an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) encounters an intruder and is unable to maintain required temporal and spatial separation between the two vehicles, it is referred to as a loss of well-clear. In this state, the UAS must make its best attempt to regain separation while maximizing the minimum separation between itself and the intruder. When encountering a non-cooperative intruder (an aircraft operating under visual flight rules without ADS-B or an active transponder) the UAS must rely on the radar system to provide the intruders location, velocity, and heading information. As many UAS have limited climb and descent performance, vertical position andor vertical rate errors make it difficult to determine whether an intruder will pass above or below them. To account for that, there is a proposal by RTCA Special Committee 228 to prohibit guidance systems from providing vertical guidance to regain well-clear to UAS in an encounter with a non-cooperative intruder unless their radar system has vertical position error below 175 feet (95) and vertical velocity errors below 200 fpm (95). Two sets of fast-time parametric studies was conducted, each with 54000 pairwise encounters between a UAS and non-cooperative intruder to determine the suitability of offering vertical guidance to regain well clear to a UAS in the presence of radar sensor noise. The UAS was not allowed to maneuver until it received well-clear recovery guidance. The maximum severity of the loss of well-clear was logged and used as the primary indicator of the separation achieved by the UAS. One set of 54000 encounters allowed the UAS to maneuver either vertically or horizontally, while the second permitted horizontal maneuvers, only. Comparing the two data sets allowed researchers to see the effect of allowing vertical guidance to a UAS for a particular encounter and vertical rate error. Study results show there is a small reduction in the average severity of a loss of well-clear when vertical maneuvers

  16. Determining Stand Parameters from Uas-Based Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, V.; Serifoglu, C.; Gungor, O.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, forest management plans are produced by terrestrial surveying techniques for 10 or 20 year periods, which can be considered quite long to maintain the sustainability of forests. For a successful forest management plan, it is necessary to collect accurate information about the stand parameters and store them in dynamic and robust databases. The position, number, height and closure of trees are among the most important stand parameters required for a forest management plan. Determining the position of each single tree is challenging in such an area consisting of too many interlocking trees. Hence, in this study, an object-based tree detection methodology has been developed in MATLAB programming language to determine the position of each tree top in a highly closed area. The developed algorithm uses the Canopy Height Model (CHM), which is computed from the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and Digital Surface Model (DSM) generated by using the point cloud extracted from the images taken from a UAS (Unmanned Aerial System). The heights of trees have been determined by using the CHM. The closure of the trees has been determined with the written MATLAB script. The results show that the developed tree detection methodology detected more than 70% of the trees successfully. It can also be concluded that the stand parameters may be determined by using the UAS-based point clouds depending on the characteristics of the study area. In addition, determination of the stand parameters by using point clouds reduces the time needed to produce forest management plans.

  17. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  18. An application of space-time adaptive processing to airborne and spaceborne monostatic and bistatic radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czernik, Richard James

    A challenging problem faced by Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radars on both airborne and spaceborne platforms is the ability to detect slow moving targets due the presence of non-stationary and heterogeneous ground clutter returns. Space-Time Adaptive Processing techniques process both the spatial signals from an antenna array as well as radar pulses simultaneously to aid in mitigating this clutter which has an inherent Doppler shift due to radar platform motion, as well as spreading across Angle-Doppler space attributable to a variety of factors. Additional problems such as clutter aliasing, widening of the clutter notch, and range dependency add additional complexity when the radar is bistatic in nature, and vary significantly as the bistatic radar geometry changes with respect to the targeted location. The most difficult situation is that of a spaceborne radar system due to its high velocity and altitude with respect to the earth. A spaceborne system does however offer several advantages over an airborne system, such as the ability to cover wide areas and to provide access to areas denied to airborne platforms. This dissertation examines both monostatic and bistatic radar performance based upon a computer simulation developed by the author, and explores the use of both optimal STAP and reduced dimension STAP architectures to mitigate the modeled clutter returns. Factors such as broadband jamming, wind, and earth rotation are considered, along with their impact on the interference covariance matrix, constructed from sample training data. Calculation of the covariance matrix in near real time based upon extracted training data is computer processor intensive and reduced dimension STAP architectures relieve some of the computation burden. The problems resulting from extending both monostatic and bistatic radar systems to space are also simulated and studied.

  19. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Sensor and Targeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-27

    crown configuration. 5.5 Detect large game (e.g., deer, antelope, elk, and moose ) in a meadow. 5.6 6 Detect natural objects (e.g., tree stumps...5.5) Identify tree species on the basis of crown configuration. (NIIRS 5.5) Detect large game (e.g., deer, antelope, elk, and moose ) in a meadow

  20. Passive Collision Avoidance System for UAS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    85 Figure 77: Schematic of a GMR membrane (purple) above a pixel (light blue). ........................85 Figure 78: SEM of a wire grid...be for the alpha-silicon and the vanadium oxide detectors. 1/f noise may be the limiting noise source for both detectors, especially at the higher...alpha-silicon. We have not seen any data on vanadium oxide at lower temperatures for comparison. 22 SNR vs. range case #1 320x240-28um, FOV40

  1. Airborne forward-pointing UV Rayleigh lidar for remote clear air turbulence detection: system design and performance.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, Patrick; Wirth, Martin; Ehret, Gerhard; Barny, Hervé; Rondeau, Philippe; Veerman, Henk

    2016-11-10

    A high-performance airborne UV Rayleigh lidar system was developed within the European project DELICAT. With its forward-pointing architecture, it aims at demonstrating a novel detection scheme for clear air turbulence (CAT) for an aeronautics safety application. Due to its occurrence in clear and clean air at high altitudes (aviation cruise flight level), this type of turbulence evades microwave radar techniques and in most cases coherent Doppler lidar techniques. The present lidar detection technique relies on air density fluctuation measurement and is thus independent of backscatter from hydrometeors and aerosol particles. The subtle air density fluctuations caused by the turbulent air flow demand exceptionally high stability of the setup and in particular of the detection system. This paper describes an airborne test system for the purpose of demonstrating this technology and turbulence detection method: a high-power UV Rayleigh lidar system is installed on a research aircraft in a forward-looking configuration for use in cruise flight altitudes. Flight test measurements demonstrate this unique lidar system being able to resolve air density fluctuations occurring in light-to-moderate CAT at 5 km or moderate CAT at 10 km distance. A scaling of the determined stability and noise characteristics shows that such performance is adequate for an application in commercial air transport.

  2. UAS in the NAS Flight Test Series 4 Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Flight Test Series 4 (FT4) provides the researchers with an opportunity to expand on the data collected during the first flight tests. Following Flight Test Series 3, additional scripted encounters with different aircraft performance and sensors will be conducted. FT4 is presently planned for Spring of 2016 to ensure collection of data to support the validation of the final RTCA Phase 1 DAA (Detect and Avoid) Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS). There are three research objectives associated with this goal: Evaluate the performance of the DAA system against cooperative and non-cooperative aircraft encounters Evaluate UAS (Unmanned Aircraft Systems) pilot performance in response to DAA maneuver guidance and alerting with live intruder encounters Evaluate TCAS/DAA (Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System/Detect and Avoid) interoperability. This flight test series will focus on only the Scripted Encounters configuration, supporting the collection of data to validate the interoperability of DAA and collision avoidance algorithms.

  3. Establishment of Airborne Nanoparticle Exposure Chamber System to Assess Nano TiO2 Induced Mice Lung Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Hua; Li, Jui-Ping; Huang, Nai-Chun; Yang, Chung-Shi; Chen, Jen-Kun

    2011-12-01

    A great many governments have schemed their top priority to support the research and development of emerging nanotechnology, which lead to increasing products containing nanomaterials. However, platforms and protocols to evaluate the safety of nanomaterials are not yet established. We therefore design and fabricate a nanoparticle exposure chamber system (NECS) and try to standardize protocols to assess potential health risk of inhalable nanoparticles. This platform comprises: (1) nano-aerosol generators to produce homogeneous airborne nanoparticles, (2) double isolated container to prevent from unexpected exposure to humans, (3) gas supply system for housing animals or incubating cultured cells, and (4) system for automatic control and airborne nanoparticle analysis. The NECS providing multiple functions includes: (1) a secure environment to handle nanomaterials, (2) real-time measurement for the size and distribution of airborne nanoparticles, (3) SOP of safety evaluation for nanomaterials, and (4) key technology for the development of inhalable pharmaceuticals. We used NECS to mimic occupational environment for exploring potential adverse effects of TiO2 nanoparticles. The adult male ICR mice were exposed to 25nm, well-characterized TiO2 particles for 1 and 4 weeks. More than 90% of the inhaled TiO2 nanoparticles deposit in lung tissue, which tends to be captured by alveolar macrophages. Pulmonary function test does not show significant physiological changes between one and 4 weeks exposure. For plasma biochemistry analysis, there are no obvious inflammation responses after exposure for one and 4 weeks; however, disruption of alveolar septa and increased thickness of alveolar epithelial cells were observed. According to our results, the NECS together with our protocols show comprehensive integration and ideally fit the standard of OECD guildelines-TG403, TG412, TG413; it can be further customized to fulfill diverse demands of industry, government, and third party

  4. The NASA Langley Research Center's Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Charles T., III; Jessup, Artie; Jones, Frank; Joyce, Claude; Sugden, Paul; Verstynen, Harry; Mielnik, John

    2010-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). The NASA Langley Research Center has transformed a Cirrus Design SR22 general aviation (GA) aircraft into a UAS Surrogate research aircraft to serve as a platform for UAS systems research, development, flight testing and evaluation. The aircraft is manned with a Safety Pilot and systems operator that allows for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). The UAS Surrogate can be controlled from a modular, transportable ground station like a true UAS. The UAS Surrogate is able to file and fly in the NAS with normal traffic and is a better platform for real world UAS research and development than existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. The Cirrus Design SR22 aircraft is a small, singleengine, four-place, composite-construction aircraft that NASA Langley acquired to support NASA flight-research programs like the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project. Systems were installed to support flight test research and data gathering. These systems include: separate research power; multi-function flat-panel displays; research computers; research air data and inertial state sensors; video recording; data acquisition; data-link; S-band video and data telemetry; Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS); Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B); instrumented surfaces and controls; and a systems operator work station. The transformation of the SR22 to a UAS Surrogate was accomplished in phases. The first phase was to modify the existing autopilot to accept external commands from a research computer that was connected by redundant data-link radios to a ground control station. An electro-mechanical auto

  5. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was hosted jointly by NASA Langley (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Williamsburg, Virginia, on October 18 to 20, 1988. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr. Roland Bowles of LaRC and Herbrt Schlickenmaier of the FAA. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the second year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  6. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Passman, Robert H. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was hosted jointly by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 14-16, 1992. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr. Roland Bowles of LaRC and Bob Passman of the FAA. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant ongoing results of the NASA/FAA Joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements. The present document has been compiled to record the essence of the technology updates and discussions which follow each.

  7. Cotton growth modeling and assessment using UAS visual-band imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper explores the potential of using unmanned aircraft system (UAS)-based visible-band images to assess cotton growth. By applying the structure-from-motion algorithm, cotton plant height (ph) and canopy cover (cc) were retrieved from the point cloud-based digital surface models (DSMs) and ort...

  8. UAS-based thermal remote sensing for crop water stress detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The remote detection of water stress in a biofuel crop field was investigated using canopy temperature measurements. An experimental trial was set up in the central valley of Maui, Hawaii, comprising different sugarcane varieties and irrigation regimes. An unmanned aerial system (UAS) was equipped w...

  9. Interface of a particle collector with on-line electrochemically-modulated separation system for analysis of airborne radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, Douglas {Doug} C

    2005-01-01

    The International Monitoring System is part of the global verification system of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and comprises an atmospheric radioactivity monitoring network of 80 particulate stations, 40 of which are to be equipped with noble-gas-detection capability. The network is supported by 16 radionuclide laboratories. The equipment has to be tailored to different environments and its reliability is proving to be an operational challenge. A novel device for collecting, concentrating and separating airborne particles in situ is under development through a collaborative effort between Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This work entails coupling an Aerosol-to-Liquid Particle Extraction System (ALPES) to an electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) cell. The ALPES collects and concentrates airborne particles into a liquid, and the EMS cell separates species based on their affinity for a charged target surface. Preliminary data indicates substantial sensitivity enhancement may be realized by interfacing these devices. The system will allow for rapid field analysis of radionuclides while providing reductions in labor, cost, and turnaround time compared to standard radiometric techniques.

  10. Airborne and Maritime/Fixed Station Joint Tactical Radio System (AMF JTRS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    multi- band, multi-mode, mobile ad hoc networking radios, providing simultaneous voice and data communications for Army aviation platforms. The radios...services to the platform, and connecting Army aviation platforms to Army ground and Joint air network domains. AMF will procure the Small Airborne...requirements as validated by the Army aviation community. SANR will provide increased data throughput to Army aviation platforms via the Soldier Radio Waveform

  11. New optical sensor systems for high-resolution satellite, airborne and terrestrial imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, Andreas; Börner, Anko; Lehmann, Frank

    2007-10-01

    The department of Optical Information Systems (OS) at the Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 25 years experience with high-resolution imaging technology. The technology changes in the development of detectors, as well as the significant change of the manufacturing accuracy in combination with the engineering research define the next generation of spaceborne sensor systems focusing on Earth observation and remote sensing. The combination of large TDI lines, intelligent synchronization control, fast-readable sensors and new focal-plane concepts open the door to new remote-sensing instruments. This class of instruments is feasible for high-resolution sensor systems regarding geometry and radiometry and their data products like 3D virtual reality. Systemic approaches are essential for such designs of complex sensor systems for dedicated tasks. The system theory of the instrument inside a simulated environment is the beginning of the optimization process for the optical, mechanical and electrical designs. Single modules and the entire system have to be calibrated and verified. Suitable procedures must be defined on component, module and system level for the assembly test and verification process. This kind of development strategy allows the hardware-in-the-loop design. The paper gives an overview about the current activities at DLR in the field of innovative sensor systems for photogrammetric and remote sensing purposes.

  12. J-FLiC UAS Flights for Acoustic Testing Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.; High, James W.

    2016-01-01

    The jet-powered flying testbed (J-FLiC) unmanned aircraft system (UAS) successfully completed twenty-six flights at Fort AP Hill, VA, from 27 August until September 3 2015, supporting tests of a microphone array system for aircraft noise measurement. The test vehicles, J-FLiC NAVY2 (N508NU), and J-FLiC 4 (N509NU), were flown under manual and autopiloted control in a variety of test conditions: clean at speeds ranging from 80 to 150 knots; and full landing configuration at speeds ranging from 50 to 95 knots. During the test campaign, autopilot capability was incrementally improved to ultimately provide a high degree of accuracy and repeatability of the critical test requirements for airspeed, altitude, runway alignment and position over the microphone array. Manual flights were performed for test conditions at the both ends of the speed envelope where autopiloted flight would have required flight beyond visual range and more extensive developmental work. The research objectives of the campaign were fully achieved. The ARMD Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project aims to develop the enabling capabilities/technologies that will allow prediction/reduction of aircraft noise. A primary measurement tool for ascertaining and characterizing empirically the effectiveness of various noise reduction technologies is a microphone phased array system. Such array systems need to be vetted and certified for operational use via field deployments and overflights of the array with test aircraft, in this case with sUAS aircraft such as J-FLiC.

  13. Airborne Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Carl F.; Ojala, Eric J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students collect airborne particles using a common vacuum cleaner. Suggests ways for the students to convert their data into information related to air pollution and human health. Urges consideration of weather patterns when analyzing the results of the investigation. (TW)

  14. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  15. Airborne Sensor Potential for Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    guidelines for the d, vol-Ipitnet (A airborne sensor 3ppi ic~tions to the US Fish and Wililtifc...fr.iq J.Iqjsn *uld q~jq pooCg - A0,I- P.9A -41100fi uPall- -iied qus. o .;A (W.3 P.S’-.9. .1JI1OP. ua.l.t:4 𔃻𔃾lti P.,SC)Pts r.- aaop s0ul-~r9Iw

  16. The Airborne Cloud-Aerosol Transport System. Part I; Overview and Description of the Instrument and Retrival Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorks, John E.; Mcgill, Matthew J.; Scott, V. Stanley; Kupchock, Andrew; Wake, Shane; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Selmer, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The Airborne Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (ACATS) is a multi-channel Doppler lidar system recently developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). A unique aspect of the multi-channel Doppler lidar concept such as ACATS is that it is also, by its very nature, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL). Both the particulate and molecular scattered signal can be directly and unambiguously measured, allowing for direct retrievals of particulate extinction. ACATS is therefore capable of simultaneously resolving the backscatterextinction properties and motion of a particle from a high altitude aircraft. ACATS has flown on the NASA ER-2 during test flights over California in June 2012 and science flights during the Wallops Airborne Vegetation Experiment (WAVE) in September 2012. This paper provides an overview of the ACATS method and instrument design, describes the ACATS retrieval algorithms for cloud and aerosol properties, and demonstrates the data products that will be derived from the ACATS data using initial results from the WAVE project. The HSRL retrieval algorithms developed for ACATS have direct application to future spaceborne missions such as the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS). Furthermore, the direct extinction and particle wind velocity retrieved from the ACATS data can be used for science applications such 27 as dust or smoke transport and convective outflow in anvil cirrus clouds.

  17. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  18. NASA Activity Update for the 2013 Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (UVSI) Yearbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    This year s report offers a high level perspective on some of the UAS related activities in which NASA is involved, both internal and external to the agency. Internally, NASA issued UAS operational policy on certification of NASA UAS and aircrew. A team of NASA UAS experts and operators analyzed all current procedures and best practices to design the policy. An update to the agencies Aircraft Operations Management Manual incorporated a new chapter to address UAS planning, preflight operations, flight operations, flight crew requirements, airworthiness and flight safety reviews. NASA UAS are classified into three categories based on weight and airspeed. Aircrews, including observers, are classified by how they interface with the UAS, and the policy defines qualifications, training, and currency. The NASA flight readiness approval process identifies risks and mitigations in order to reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of the risk to an acceptable level. The UAS operations process incorporates all aspects of airworthiness, flight standards and range safety exactly the same processes used for NASA manned aircraft operations. NASA has two internal organizations that routinely operate UAS. The Science Mission Directorate utilizes UAS as part of its Airborne Science Program and is the most frequent operator of NASA UAS in both national and international airspace. The Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate conducts UAS flight operations in addition to conducting research important to the UAS community. This past year the Science Mission Directorate supported the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentimental (HS3) Mission with two NASA Global Hawk platforms. HS3 is a five-year mission specifically targeted to investigate the processes that underlie hurricane formation. During the 2012 portion of this mission the Global Hawk overflew hurricanes Leslie and Nadine in the Atlantic Ocean completing 6 flights and accumulating more than 148 flight hours. Another multi-year mission

  19. Sensor System Performance Evaluation and Benefits from the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larar, A.; Zhou, D.; Smith, W.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced satellite sensors are tasked with improving global-scale measurements of the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface to enable enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring, and environmental change detection. Validation of the entire measurement system is crucial to achieving this goal and thus maximizing research and operational utility of resultant data. Field campaigns employing satellite under-flights with well-calibrated FTS sensors aboard high-altitude aircraft are an essential part of this validation task. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I) has been a fundamental contributor in this area by providing coincident high spectral/spatial resolution observations of infrared spectral radiances along with independently-retrieved geophysical products for comparison with like products from satellite sensors being validated. This paper focuses on some of the challenges associated with validating advanced atmospheric sounders and the benefits obtained from employing airborne interferometers such as the NAST-I. Select results from underflights of the Aqua Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) obtained during recent field campaigns will be presented.

  20. Formal methods and their role in digital systems validation for airborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushby, John

    1995-01-01

    This report is based on one prepared as a chapter for the FAA Digital Systems Validation Handbook (a guide to assist FAA certification specialists with advanced technology issues). Its purpose is to explain the use of formal methods in the specification and verification of software and hardware requirements, designs, and implementations; to identify the benefits, weaknesses, and difficulties in applying these methods to digital systems used in critical applications; and to suggest factors for consideration when formal methods are offered in support of certification. The presentation concentrates on the rationale for formal methods and on their contribution to assurance for critical applications within a context such as that provided by DO-178B (the guidelines for software used on board civil aircraft); it is intended as an introduction for those to whom these topics are new.

  1. Life-Cycle-Cost Analysis of the Microwave Landing System Ground and Airborne Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    relative costs and reliability of the system have been programmed into the cost model. 5.3 RESULTS OF APPLYING THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS MODEL The ARINC ...Young, K. Peter 1326-01-16-2547 9. Porferintg Ogeni etiet Noise and Address 10. WoA Unit No. (TRAIS) ARINC Reseaarch Corporation 2551 Riva Road 11...Throughout this study, ARINC Research Corporation received enthusiastic and invaluable support from the engineering and management staffs of the Federal

  2. Airborne Systems Software Acquisition Engineering Guidebook for Requirements Analysis and Specification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    analysis should be included for each C PCI, e.g., the F-X RDPS. If CPCI’s have not been identified, the airborne software qystem can be treated as a...Fre y Destination mFunction Paragraph SR Symbol NA 0 1 (a5 5 Air-to-Air 3.2. 1Reject O Depresion deg 0 360 0.01 5 Air-to-Air 3.2. 1 Angle Table 4-5. F...making logic. The human engineering requirements should pro- vide enough information about the crew performance so that the crew members can be treated

  3. A study on airborne integrated display system and human information processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizumoto, K.; Iwamoto, H.; Shimizu, S.; Kuroda, I.

    1983-01-01

    The cognitive behavior of pilots was examined in an experiment involving mock ups of an eight display electronic attitude direction indicator for an airborne integrated display. Displays were presented in digital, analog digital, and analog format to experienced pilots. Two tests were run, one involving the speed of memorization in a single exposure and the other comprising two five second exposures spaced 30 sec apart. Errors increased with the speed of memorization. Generally, the analog information was assimilated faster than the digital data, with regard to the response speed. Information processing was quantified as 25 bits for the first five second exposure and 15 bits during the second.

  4. A Multispectral Image Creating Method for a New Airborne Four-Camera System with Different Bandpass Filters.

    PubMed

    Li, Hanlun; Zhang, Aiwu; Hu, Shaoxing

    2015-07-20

    This paper describes an airborne high resolution four-camera multispectral system which mainly consists of four identical monochrome cameras equipped with four interchangeable bandpass filters. For this multispectral system, an automatic multispectral data composing method was proposed. The homography registration model was chosen, and the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) and random sample consensus (RANSAC) were used to generate matching points. For the difficult registration problem between visible band images and near-infrared band images in cases lacking manmade objects, we presented an effective method based on the structural characteristics of the system. Experiments show that our method can acquire high quality multispectral images and the band-to-band alignment error of the composed multiple spectral images is less than 2.5 pixels.

  5. A Multispectral Image Creating Method for a New Airborne Four-Camera System with Different Bandpass Filters

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanlun; Zhang, Aiwu; Hu, Shaoxing

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an airborne high resolution four-camera multispectral system which mainly consists of four identical monochrome cameras equipped with four interchangeable bandpass filters. For this multispectral system, an automatic multispectral data composing method was proposed. The homography registration model was chosen, and the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) and random sample consensus (RANSAC) were used to generate matching points. For the difficult registration problem between visible band images and near-infrared band images in cases lacking manmade objects, we presented an effective method based on the structural characteristics of the system. Experiments show that our method can acquire high quality multispectral images and the band-to-band alignment error of the composed multiple spectral images is less than 2.5 pixels. PMID:26205264

  6. A system to geometrically rectify and map airborne scanner imagery and to estimate ground area. [by computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, M. M.; Wolf, J. M.; Schall, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    A system of computer programs were developed which performs geometric rectification and line-by-line mapping of airborne multispectral scanner data to ground coordinates and estimates ground area. The system requires aircraft attitude and positional information furnished by ancillary aircraft equipment, as well as ground control points. The geometric correction and mapping procedure locates the scan lines, or the pixels on each line, in terms of map grid coordinates. The area estimation procedure gives ground area for each pixel or for a predesignated parcel specified in map grid coordinates. The results of exercising the system with simulated data showed the uncorrected video and corrected imagery and produced area estimates accurate to better than 99.7%.

  7. Airborne ultraviolet imaging system for oil slick surveillance: oil-seawater contrast, imaging concept, signal-to-noise ratio, optical design, and optomechanical model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenhua; Yu, Lei; Cao, Diansheng; Wu, Qingwen; Yu, Xiangyang; Lin, Guanyu

    2015-09-01

    The airborne ultraviolet imaging system, which assesses oil slick areas better than visible and infrared optical systems, was designed to monitor and track oil slicks in coastal regions. A model was built to achieve the upwelling radiance distribution of oil-covered sea and clean seawater, based on the radiance transfer software. With this model, the oil-seawater contrast, which affects the detection of oil-covered coastal areas, was obtained. The oil-seawater contrast, fundamental imaging concept, analog calculation of SNR, optical design, and optomechanical configuration of the airborne ultraviolet imaging system are illustrated in this paper. The study of an airborne ultraviolet imaging system with F-number 3.4 and a 40° field of view (FOV) in near ultraviolet channel (0.32-0.38 μm) was illustrated and better imaging quality was achieved. The ground sample distance (GSD) is from 0.35 to 0.7 m with flight height ranges from 0.5 to 1 km. Comparisons of detailed characteristics of the airborne ultraviolet imaging system with the corresponding characteristics of previous ultraviolet systems were tabulated, and these comparisons showed that this system can achieve a wide FOV and a relative high SNR. A virtual mechanical prototype and tolerances analysis are illustrated in this paper to verify the performance of fabrication and assembly of the ultraviolet system.

  8. Low-altitude aerial imagery and related field observations associated with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) flights over Coast Guard Beach, Nauset Spit, Nauset Inlet, and Nauset Marsh, Cape Cod National Seashore, Eastham, Massachusetts on 1 March 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Low-altitude (approximately 120 meters above ground level) digital images were obtained from cameras mounted in a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flown from the lawn adjacent to the Coast Guard Beach parking lot on 1 March, 2016. The UAV was a Skywalker X8 operated by Raptor Maps, Inc., contractors to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Two consecutive unmanned aerial systems (UAS) missions were flown, each with two cameras, autopilot computer, radios, and a global satellite navigation system as payload. The first flight (f1) was launched at approximately 1112 Eastern Standard Time (EST), and followed north-south flight lines, landing at about 1226 EST. Two Canon Powershot SX280 12-mexapixel digital cameras, designated rgb1 and rgb2, recorded images during this flight. The second flight (f2) was launched at 1320 EST and followed east-west flight lines, landing at 1450 EST. Prior to f2, rgb2 was replaced with a Canon SX280 modified with a Schott BG 3 filter to emphasize light at near-infrared wavelengths, designated nir1. Rgb1 and nir1 made images during this second flight. Thus four series of images were collected, designated f1_rgb1, f1_rgb2, f2_rgb1, and f2_nir1.Low tide on the ocean beaches was forecast for approximately 1130 EST, and estimated low tide on the marsh was at least an hour later. Weather conditions were clear and sunny during the first flight. During the second flight, there were periods with high clouds. Winds (estimated by experienced observers) during the first flight were from the north-northeast at ~15 mph, with gusts to ~20 mph. Winds decreased beginning in early afternoon, and at the end of the second flight, estimated winds were 5 – 10 mph with gusts to 15 mph.USGS field technicians mapped the location of 32 ground control points and 144 independent points along cross-shore transects. These points were measured with a global positioning system (GPS) using real-time differential corrections from a base station set up near the

  9. An Analysis of the Risk from UAS Missions in the National Airspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Armand

    As Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are integrated into the national airspace, we must be careful to ensure that the hazard rate to human bystanders is sufficiently small. The first source of risk to bystanders involves midair collisions between UAS and other aircraft. The second source of risk concerns risks due to ground impact, both the bystander hazard rate due to aircraft impacting the ground as well as the dependence of crash rate on location. Here, we present first-order models adapted from the literature which estimate the risk due to these various scenarios. Model verification is then achieved through extensive analysis of historic civil aviation accidents. From this, we gain two major insights. First of all, we show that UAS already achieve manned levels of safety with respect to midair collisions. This is because general aviation aircraft routinely operate in conditions where see-and-avoid is used but is not effective. Secondly, we find that the risk due to ground collision of UAS is sufficiently small to allow operations over the majority of the United States. The models presented here are powerful tools that can be used by a general audience to objectively assess the risks associated with various missions in the national airspace.

  10. Use of High Resolution UAS Imagery to Classify Sub-Arctic Vegetation Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, C.; Palace, M. W.; Finnell, D. R.; Garnello, A.; Sullivan, F.; Anderson, S. M.; Varner, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sub-arctic permafrost regions are now experiencing annual warming with a resulting thaw that induces changes to the vegetative landscape. This warming trend is directly correlated to increases in annual greenhouse gas emissions including methane (CH4). Vegetation species and composition are indirect indicators of CH4 flux, and may serve as a proxy for estimating changes in CH4emission over time. Three WorldView-2 images (2m2 spatial resolution, 8 multispectral bands) were acquired in Jul/Aug of 2012-2014 over the Abisko region in northern Sweden. Color infrared (CIR) sub-meter imagery was also collected over a 4km2 area in 2014 using both a multi-rotor helicopter and a fixed wing unmanned aircraft system (UAS). Fifty 1m2 ground sample plots were established; these plots cover 5 major ground cover vegetation classes and were used in classification efforts. Texture analysis was conducted on both UAS and WV-2 imagery. Both an unsupervised k-means clustering algorithm to predict vegetation classes and a supervised classification using both random forests and neural networks were conducted; similar texture analysis and clustering were also performed on the UAS imagery. Classifications of the two imagery types were compared with promising results, thus supporting the use of UAS and high resolution satellite image collection to provide landscape level characterization of vegetation.

  11. Determination of airborne cadmium in environmental tobacco smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis with a compton suppression system.

    PubMed

    Landsberger, S; Larson, S; Wu, D

    1993-06-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, a toxic trace element, were measured in the indoor air of several public places where environmental tobacco smoke was present. Particulate-phase cadmium concentrations were determined by analyzing air filter samples using epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis in conjunction with a Compton suppression gamma-ray detection system, in which the detection limit for cadmium was reduced to a few nanograms per filter. A cascade impactor and a personal filter sampler were used to collect the indoor suspended particulate matter for size-fractionated mass as well as total mass, respectively. Results show that where environmental tobacco smoke is present, cadmium concentrations are significantly higher than background and that about 80% of the cadmium found in indoor airborne particulate matter is associated with particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 1.8 microns. In one instance, airborne cadmium concentrations in a music club were found to be 38 ng/m, which is at least 30 times higher than background.

  12. UAVSAR - A New Airborne L-Band Radar for Repeat Pass Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.; Lou, Yunling

    2009-01-01

    NASA/JPL has developed a new airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) which has become available for use by the scientific community in January, 2009. Pod mounted, the UAVSAR was designed to be portable among a variety of aircraft, including unmanned aerial systems (UAS). The instrument operates in the L-Band, has a resolution under 2m from a GPS altitude of 12Km and a swath width of approximately 20Km. UAVSAR currently flies on a modified Gulfstream-III aircraft, operated by NASA s Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California. The G-III platform enables repeat-pass interferometric measurements, by using a modified autopilot and precise kinematic differential GPS to repeatedly fly the aircraft within a specified 10m tube. The antenna is electronically steered along track to assure that the antenna beam can be directed independently, regardless of speed and wind direction. The instrument can be controlled remotely, AS AN OPTION, using the Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL). This allows simulation of the telepresence environment necessary for flight on UAS. Potential earth science research and applications include surface deformation, volcano studies, ice sheet dynamics, and vegetation structure.

  13. Atmospheric composition and thermodynamic retrievals from the ARIES airborne FTS system - Part 1: Technical aspects and simulated capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, S. M.; Allen, G.; Newman, S.; Vance, A.; Marenco, F.; Harlow, R. C.; Taylor, J.; Moore, D. P.; Remedios, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the retrieval capability of the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES); an airborne remote sensing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operated on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) aircraft. Simulated optimally-estimated-retrievals of partial column trace gas concentrations, and thermodynamic vertical profiles throughout the troposphere and planetary boundary layer have been performed here for simulated infrared spectra representative of the ARIES system. We also describe the operational and technical aspects of the pre-processing necessary for routine retrieval from the FAAM platform and the selection and construction of a priori information. As exemplars of the capability of the ARIES retrieval system, simulated retrievals of temperature, water vapour (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and methane (CH4), and their corresponding sources of error and potential vertical sensitivity, are discussed for ARIES scenes across typical global environments. The maximum Degrees of Freedom for Signal (DOFS) for the retrievals, assuming a flight altitude of 7 km, were: 3.99, 2.97, 0.85, 0.96, and 1.45 for temperature, H2O, CO, O3, and CH4, respectively for the a priori constraints specified. Retrievals of temperature display significant vertical sensitivity (DOFS in the range 2.6 to 4.0 across the altitude range) as well as excellent simulated accuracy, with the vertical sensitivity for H2O also extending to lower altitudes (DOFS ranging from 1.6 to 3.0). It was found that the maximum sensitivity for CO, O3, and CH4 was approximately 1-2 km below the simulated altitudes in all scenarios. Comparisons of retrieved and simulated-truth partial atmospheric columns are used to assess the capability of the ARIES measurement system. Maximum mean biases (and bias standard deviations) in partial columns (i.e. below aircraft total columns) were found to be: +0.06 (±0.02 at 1σ) %, +3.95 (±3

  14. Atmospheric composition and thermodynamic retrievals from the ARIES airborne FTS system - Part 1: Technical aspects and simulated capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, S. M.; Allen, G.; Newman, S.; Vance, A.; Marenco, F.; Harlow, R. C.; Taylor, J.; Moore, D. P.; Remedios, J. J.

    2014-04-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the retrieval capability of the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES): an airborne remote-sensing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) operated on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) aircraft. Simulated maximum a posteriori retrievals of partial column trace gas concentrations, and thermodynamic vertical profiles throughout the troposphere and planetary boundary layer have been performed here for simulated infrared spectra representative of the ARIES system operating in the nadir-viewing geometry. We also describe the operational and technical aspects of the pre-processing necessary for routine retrieval from the FAAM platform and the selection and construction of a priori information. As exemplars of the capability of the ARIES retrieval system, simulated retrievals of temperature, water vapour (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and methane (CH4), and their corresponding sources of error and potential vertical sensitivity, are discussed for ARIES scenes across typical global environments. The maximum Degrees of Freedom for Signal (DOFS) for the retrievals, assuming a flight altitude of 7 km, were 3.99, 2.97, 0.85, 0.96, and 1.45 for temperature, H2O, CO, O3, and CH4, respectively, for the a priori constraints specified. Retrievals of temperature display significant vertical sensitivity (DOFS in the range 2.6 to 4.0 across the altitude range) as well as excellent simulated accuracy, with the vertical sensitivity for H2O also extending to lower altitudes (DOFS ranging from 1.6 to 3.0). It was found that the maximum sensitivity for CO, O3, and CH4 was approximately 1-2 km below the simulated altitudes in all scenarios. Comparisons of retrieved and simulated-truth partial atmospheric columns are used to assess the capability of the ARIES measurement system. Maximum mean biases (and bias standard deviations) in partial columns (i.e. below aircraft total columns) were found to

  15. Large and small UAS for trace gas measurements in climate change studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, J. W.; Moore, F. L.; Hintsa, E. J.; D'Amore, P.; Dutton, G. S.; Nance, J. D.; Hall, B. D.; Gao, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA and CIRES scientists have used Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for the measurement of trace gases involved in climate change since 2005, including both high altitude-long endurance (HALE UAS: NASA Altair & Global Hawk) and 1-m wingspan, small UAS (sUAS: SkyWisp, Aero). These gases include nitrous oxide (N2O), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), methane (CH4), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), and water vapor (H2O). In particular, atmospheric N2O is the third strongest greenhouse gas (326 parts-per-billion, ppb) and is the largest increasing stratospheric ozone depleting gas in terms of future emissions (~4 Tg N2O-N yr-1), primarily from fertilizer use. Atmospheric SF6, another potent greenhouse gas, is present globally at 8.2 parts-per-trillion (ppt) and growing at a rate of 0.25 ppt yr-1, and is used primarily in electrical power distribution. It is an excellent indicator of transport timescales (e.g., mean age) in the troposphere and stratosphere, because of its source distribution (~95% emitted in NH), long atmospheric lifetime (~600-3200 yr), and large relative atmospheric growth rate (~3%). We have developed atmospheric instrumentation for HALE platforms using a two-channel gas chromatograph with an ozone photometer and a water vapor tunable diode laser spectrometer. We are currently investigating a sUAS glider (SkyWisp) for balloon-assisted high altitude flights (30 km) and propeller driven sUAS (Aero) as a test bed for a new autopilot (Pixhawk, 3DRobotics). Our motivation for utilizing this autopilot is a low cost, open source autopilot alternative that can be used to return AirCore samples from high altitude balloons for quick laboratory analysis. The goal is a monitoring program to understand transport changes as a result of climate change during different seasons at many locations from a balloon-borne package (Moore et al., BAMS, pp. 147-155, Jan. 2014). The glider version of our open source autopilot system is also being considered for a

  16. Concept for an airborne real-time ISR system with multi-sensor 3D data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraké, Laura; Schilling, Hendrik; Blohm, Christian; Hillemann, Markus; Lenz, Andreas; Becker, Merlin; Keskin, Göksu; Middelmann, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    In modern aerial Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance operations, precise 3D information becomes inevitable for increased situation awareness. In particular, object geometries represented by texturized digital surface models constitute an alternative to a pure evaluation of radiometric measurements. Besides the 3D data's level of detail aspect, its availability is time-relevant in order to make quick decisions. Expanding the concept of our preceding remote sensing platform developed together with OHB System AG and Geosystems GmbH, in this paper we present an airborne multi-sensor system based on a motor glider equipped with two wing pods; one carries the sensors, whereas the second pod downlinks sensor data to a connected ground control station by using the Aerial Reconnaissance Data System of OHB. An uplink is created to receive remote commands from the manned mobile ground control station, which on its part processes and evaluates incoming sensor data. The system allows the integration of efficient image processing and machine learning algorithms. In this work, we introduce a near real-time approach for the acquisition of a texturized 3D data model with the help of an airborne laser scanner and four high-resolution multi-spectral (RGB, near-infrared) cameras. Image sequences from nadir and off-nadir cameras permit to generate dense point clouds and to texturize also facades of buildings. The ground control station distributes processed 3D data over a linked geoinformation system with web capabilities to off-site decision-makers. As the accurate acquisition of sensor data requires boresight calibrated sensors, we additionally examine the first steps of a camera calibration workflow.

  17. An analysis of the materiel fielding plan for the SINCGARS (Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System) radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegen, C. M.

    1984-12-01

    This thesis is an analysis of the materiel fielding plan (MFP) for the Army's Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS). Objectives of the study are to identify major potential problem areas in the MFP, and to generate recommendations for resolving these problems. The study involves a specific analysis of the maintenance and supply support aspects of the MFP within the context of the Major System acquisition framework. Research included extensive field interviews with personnel in the functional management areas of the Communications and Electronics Command (CECOM), the Project Office, and the Department of Army Staff. Potential problems identified concern the redistribution of VRC-12 series and PRC-77 radios, the imbedded COMSEC modification, and the issue of warranties. Recommendations include purchasing a warranty for the original production contract, improving the planning for redistribution of old radios, and providing strict control over the design of the imbedded COMSEC modification.

  18. Use of a Prototype Airborne Separation Assurance System for Resolving Near-Term Conflicts During Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Eischeid, Todd M.; Palmer, Michael T.; Wing, David J.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating a new concept of operations for the National Airspace System, designed to improve capacity while maintaining or improving current levels of safety. This concept, known as Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAGTM), allows appropriately equipped autonomous aircraft to maneuver freely for flight optimization while resolving conflicts with other traffic and staying out of special use airspace and hazardous weather. In order to perform these tasks, pilots use prototype conflict detection, prevention, and resolution tools, collectively known as an Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS). While ASAS would normally allow pilots to resolve conflicts before they become hazardous, evaluation of system performance in sudden, near-term conflicts is needed in order to determine concept feasibility. An experiment was conducted in NASA Langley's Air Traffic Operations Lab to evaluate the prototype ASAS for enabling pilots to resolve near-term conflicts and examine possible operational effects associated with the use of lower separation minimums. Sixteen commercial airline pilots flew a total of 32 traffic scenarios that required them to use prototype ASAS tools to resolve close range pop-up conflicts. Required separation standards were set at either 3 or 5 NM lateral spacing, with 1000 ft vertical separation being used for both cases. Reducing the lateral separation from 5 to 3 NM did not appear to increase operational risk, as indicated by the proximity to the intruder aircraft. Pilots performed better when they followed tactical guidance cues provided by ASAS than when they didn't follow the guidance. In an effort to improve compliance rate, ASAS design changes are currently under consideration. Further studies will of evaluate these design changes and consider integration issues between ASAS and existing Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS).

  19. Evolving subglacial water systems in East Antarctica from airborne radar sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Sasha Peter

    The cold, lightless, and high pressure aquatic environment at the base of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is of interest to a wide range of disciplines. Stable subglacial lakes and their connecting channels remain perennially liquid three kilometers below some of the coldest places on Earth. The presence of subglacial water impacts flow of the overlying ice and provides clues to the geologic properties of the bedrock below, and may harbor unique life forms which have evolved out of contact with the atmosphere for millions of years. Periodic release of water from this system may impact ocean circulation at the margins of the ice sheet. This research uses airborne radar sounding, with its unique ability to infer properties within and at the base of the ice sheet over large spatial scales, to locate and characterize this unique environment. Subglacial lakes, the primary storage mechanism for subglacial water, have been located and classified into four categories on the basis of the radar reflection properties from the sub-ice interface: Definite lakes are brighter than their surroundings by at least two decibels (relatively bright), and are both consistently reflective (specular) and have a reflection coefficient greater than -10 decibels (absolutely bright). Dim lakes are relatively bright and specular but not absolutely bright, possibly indicating non-steady dynamics in the overlying ice. Fuzzy lakes are both relatively and absolutely bright, but not specular, and may indicate saturated sediments or high frequency spatially heterogeneous distributions of sediment and liquid water (i.e. a braided steam). Indistinct lakes are absolutely bright and specular but no brighter than their surroundings. Lakes themselves and the different classes of lakes are not arranged randomly throughout Antarctica but are clustered around ice divides, ice stream onsets and prominent bedrock troughs, with each cluster demonstrating a different characteristic lake classification distribution

  20. Kīlauea June 27th Lava Flow Hazard Mapping and Disaster Response with UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, N.; Perroy, R. L.; Hon, K. A.; Rasgado, V.

    2015-12-01

    In June of 2014, pāhoehoe lava flows from the Púu ´Ō´ō eruption began threatening communities and infrastructure on eastern Hawaii Island. During the subsequent declared state of emergency by Hawaii Civil Defense and temporary flight restriction by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), we used a small fixed-wing Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) to collect high spatial and temporal resolution imagery over the active flow in support of natural hazard assessment by emergency managers. Integration of our UAS into busy airspace, populated by emergency aircraft and tour helicopters, required close operational coordination with the FAA and local operators. We logged >80 hours of UAS flight operations between October 2014 and March 2015, generating a dense time-series of 4-5 cm resolution imagery and derived topographic datasets using structure from motion. These data were used to monitor flow activity, document pre- and post- lava flow damage, identify hazardous areas for first responders, and model lava flow paths in complex topography ahead of the active flow front. Turnaround times for delivered spatial data products improved from 24-48 hours at the beginning of the study to ~2-4 hours by the end. Data from this project are being incorporated into cloud computing applications to shorten delivery time and extract useful analytics regarding lava flow hazards in near real-time. The lessons learned from this event have advanced UAS integration in disaster operations in U.S. airspace and show the high potential UAS hold for natural hazards assessment and real-time emergency management.

  1. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  2. Spatial Modeling and Variability Analysis for Modeling and Prediction of Soil and Crop Canopy Coverage Using Multispectral Imagery from an Airborne Remote Sensing System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on a previous study on an airborne remote sensing system with automatic camera stabilization for crop management, multispectral imagery was acquired using the MS-4100 multispectral camera at different flight altitudes over a 115 ha cotton field. After the acquired images were geo-registered an...

  3. Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Observations of Glaciers, Ice Sheets, Sea Ice and Snow Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzfeld Mayer, M. U.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are being used increasingly in observations of the Earth, especially as such UAS become smaller, lighter and hence less expensive. In this paper, we present examples of observations of snow fields, glaciers and ice sheets and of sea ice in the Arctic that have been collected from UAS. We further examine possibilities for instrument miniaturization, using smaller UAS and smaller sensors for collecting data. The quality and type of data is compared to that of satellite observations, observations from manned aircraft and to measurements made during field experiments on the ground. For example, a small UAS can be sent out to observe a sudden event, such as a natural catastrophe, and provide high-resolution imagery, but a satellite has the advantage of providing the same type of data over much of the Earth's surface and for several years, but the data is generally of lower resolution. Data collected on the ground typically have the best control and quality, but the survey area is usually small. Here we compare micro-topographic measurements made on snow fields the Colorado Rocky Mountains with airborne and satellite data.

  4. UAS in the NAS Project: Large-Scale Communication Architecture Simulations with NASA GRC Gen5 Radio Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubat, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a description and performance characterization of the large-scale, Relay architecture, UAS communications simulation capability developed for the NASA GRC, UAS in the NAS Project. The system uses a validated model of the GRC Gen5 CNPC, Flight-Test Radio model. Contained in the report is a description of the simulation system and its model components, recent changes made to the system to improve performance, descriptions and objectives of sample simulations used for test and verification, and a sampling and observations of results and performance data.

  5. The development of a power spectral density processor for C and L band airborne radar scatterometer sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. A., III; Chladek, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    A real-time signal processor was developed for the NASA/JSC L-and C-band airborne radar scatterometer sensor systems. The purpose of the effort was to reduce ground data processing costs. Conversion of two quadrature channels of data (like and cross polarized) was made to obtain Power Spectral Density (PSD) values. A chirp-z transform (CZT) approach was used to filter the Doppler return signal and improved high frequency and angular resolution was realized. The processors have been tested with record signals and excellent results were obtained. CZT filtering can be readily applied to scatterometers operating at other wavelengths by altering the sample frequency. The design of the hardware and software and the results of the performance tests are described in detail.

  6. Detection of coastal and submarine discharge on the Florida Gulf Coast with an airborne thermal-infrared mapping system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen; Stonehouse, David; Ebersol, Kristin; Holland, Kathryn; Robbins, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Florida north of Tampa Bay lies a region characterized by an open marsh coast, low topographic gradient, water-bearing limestone, and scattered springs. The Floridan aquifer system is at or near land surface in this region, discharging water at a consistent 70-72°F. The thermal contrast between ambient water and aquifer discharge during winter months can be distinguished using airborne thermal-infrared imagery. An airborne thermal-infrared mapping system was used to collect imagery along 126 miles of the Gulf Coast from Jefferson to Levy County, FL, in March 2009. The imagery depicts a large number of discharge locations and associated warm-water plumes in ponds, creeks, rivers, and nearshore waters. A thermal contrast of 6°F or more was set as a conservative threshold for identifying sites, statistically significant at the 99% confidence interval. Almost 900 such coastal and submarine-discharge locations were detected, averaging seven to nine per mile along this section of coast. This represents approximately one hundred times the number of previously known discharge sites in the same area. Several known coastal springs in Taylor and Levy Counties were positively identified with the imagery and were used to estimate regional discharge equivalent to one 1st-order spring, discharging 100 cubic feet per second or more, for every two miles of coastline. The number of identified discharge sites is a conservative estimate and may represent two-thirds of existing features due to low groundwater levels at time of overflight. The role of aquifer discharge in coastal and estuarine health is indisputable; however, mapping and quantifying discharge in a complex karst environment can be an elusive goal. The results of this effort illustrate the effectiveness of the instrument and underscore the influence of coastal springs along this stretch of the Florida coast.

  7. UAS Pilot Evaluations of Suggestive Guidance on Detect-and-Avoid Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Kevin J.; Roberts, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Minimum display requirements for Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) systems are being developed in order to support the expansion of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). The present study examines UAS pilots subjective assessments of four DAA display configurations with varying forms of maneuver guidance. For each configuration, pilots rated the intuitiveness of the display and how well it supported their ability to perform the DAA task. Responses revealed a clear preference for the DAA displays that presented suggestive maneuver guidance in the form of banding compared to an Information Only display, which lacked any maneuver guidance. Implications on DAA display requirements, as well as the relation between the subjective evaluations and the objective performance data from previous studies are discussed.

  8. UAS Pilot Evaluations of Suggestive Guidance on Detect-and-Avoid Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Kevin; Roberts, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Minimum display requirements for Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) systems are being developed in order to support the expansion of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). The present study examines UAS pilots' subjective assessments of four DAA display configurations with varying forms of maneuver guidance. For each configuration, pilots rated the intuitiveness of the display and how well it supported their ability to perform the DAA task. Responses revealed a clear preference for the DAA displays that presented suggestive maneuver guidance in the form of "banding" compared to an Information Only display, which lacked any maneuver guidance. Implications on DAA display requirements, as well as the relation between the subjective evaluations and the objective performance data from previous studies are discussed.

  9. Aerosol/Radiation, VNIR/NIR/TIR Imaging, Net Solar and Longwave Radiation, Meteorological Fluxes, Atmospheric Dropsonde, and Ocean Temperature/Salinity Microbuoy Payloads for Earth Observations Using a Manta Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Gao, R. S.; Murphy, D. M.; Telg, H.; Brown, S.; Dhakai, T.; Zappa, C. J.; Stalin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Several new payloads have been developed for use in the Manta UAS. The NOAA/PMEL aerosol payload (Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2115-2120, 2013) has been expanded to include a printed optical particle spectrometer to obtain aerosol size distributions and an upward looking radiometer to measure radiant flux densities through aerosol layers. Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) has improved its visible and infrared imaging payload to provide precise measurements of ice/snow/ocean surface temperatures accurate to 0.1°C. LDEO has also developed a number of new payloads that include: i) hyperspectral aberration-corrected imaging spectrometers to measure VNIR (400-1000 nm) and NIR (900-1700 nm) spectral radiance of the upper-ocean and sea ice to determine ocean color, ice-age distributions and ice-surface type; ii) up- and downward-looking hemispheric pyrgeometers and pyranometers to measure the net longwave and net shortwave radiation for ice-ocean albedo studies with an onboard visible camera to determine the sea ice fraction and whitecapping; iii) meteorological measurements of turbulent momentum, sensible, and latent fluxes as well as wave height, ice freeboard, and surface roughness with a LIDAR; iv) four dropsonde-microbuoys (DMB) that can be deployed from the Manta. The four DMB measure temperature, pressure, and relative humidity as they descend through the atmosphere. Once they land on the ocean's surface, they deploy a string of sensors that measures temperature and salinity of the upper three meters of the ocean. The ocean sensors telemeter data back to the UAS on subsequent flights. The DMB can also be dropped on an ice flow to measure the rate of the ice movement. Details of these payloads and example data will be reported.

  10. Benefits of Sharing Information from Commercial Airborne Forward-Looking Sensors in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Philip R.; Harrah, Steven; Neece, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    The air transportation system of the future will need to support much greater traffic densities than are currently possible, while preserving or improving upon current levels of safety. Concepts are under development to support a Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) that by some estimates will need to support up to three times current capacity by the year 2025. Weather and other atmospheric phenomena, such as wake vortices and volcanic ash, constitute major constraints on airspace system capacity and can present hazards to aircraft if encountered. To support safe operations in the NextGen environment advanced systems for collection and dissemination of aviation weather and environmental information will be required. The envisioned NextGen Network Enabled Weather (NNEW) infrastructure will be a critical component of the aviation weather support services, providing access to a common weather picture for all system users. By taking advantage of Network Enabled Operations (NEO) capabilities, a virtual 4-D Weather Data Cube with aviation weather information from many sources will be developed. One new source of weather observations may be airborne forward-looking sensors, such as the X-band weather radar. Future sensor systems that are the subject of current research include advanced multi-frequency and polarimetric radar, a variety of Lidar technologies, and infrared imaging spectrometers.

  11. Airborne Intercept Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Primary mirror of Zerodur with Pilkington 747 coating • FOV = 0.104 degrees Airborne Intercept Monitoring RTO-MP-SET-105 16 - 3 UNCLASSIFIED...Pointing System (SPS). The STS is a 0.75 meter aperture Mersenne Cassegrain telescope and the SAT is a 0.34 meter aperture 3- mirror anastigmat telescope...UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED • Air Flow to Mitigate Thermal “Seeing” Effects • Light weighted primary mirror to reduce mass The SAT

  12. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  13. Intelligent Hardware-Enabled Sensor and Software Safety and Health Management for Autonomous UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozier, Kristin Y.; Schumann, Johann; Ippolito, Corey

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can only be deployed if they can effectively complete their mission and respond to failures and uncertain environmental conditions while maintaining safety with respect to other aircraft as well as humans and property on the ground. We propose to design a real-time, onboard system health management (SHM) capability to continuously monitor essential system components such as sensors, software, and hardware systems for detection and diagnosis of failures and violations of safety or performance rules during the ight of a UAS. Our approach to SHM is three-pronged, providing: (1) real-time monitoring of sensor and software signals; (2) signal analysis, preprocessing, and advanced on-the- y temporal and Bayesian probabilistic fault diagnosis; (3) an unobtrusive, lightweight, read-only, low-power hardware realization using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) in order to avoid overburdening limited computing resources or costly re-certi cation of ight software due to instrumentation. No currently available SHM capabilities (or combinations of currently existing SHM capabilities) come anywhere close to satisfying these three criteria yet NASA will require such intelligent, hardwareenabled sensor and software safety and health management for introducing autonomous UAS into the National Airspace System (NAS). We propose a novel approach of creating modular building blocks for combining responsive runtime monitoring of temporal logic system safety requirements with model-based diagnosis and Bayesian network-based probabilistic analysis. Our proposed research program includes both developing this novel approach and demonstrating its capabilities using the NASA Swift UAS as a demonstration platform.

  14. Using the MicroASAR on the NASA SIERRA UAS in the Characterization of Arctic Sea Ice Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaugg, Evan; Long, David; Edwards, Matthew; Fladeland, Matthew; Kolyer, Richard; Crocker, Ian; Maslanik, James; Herzfeld, Ute; Wallin, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The MicroASAR is a flexible, robust SAR system built on the successful legacy of the BYU microSAR. It is a compact LFM-CW SAR system designed for low-power operation on small, manned aircraft or UAS. The NASA SIERRA UAS was designed to test new instruments and support flight experiments. NASA used the MicroASAR on the SIERRA during a science field campaign in 2009 to study sea ice roughness and break-up in the Arctic and high northern latitudes. This mission is known as CASIE-09 (Characterization of Arctic Sea Ice Experiment 2009). This paper describes the MicroASAR and its role flying on the SIERRA UAS platform as part of CASIE-09.

  15. Development of a Next Generation Polar Multidisciplinary Airborne Imaging System for the International Polar Year 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Studinger, M.; Frearson, N.; Gogineni, P.; Braaten, D.

    2007-12-01

    Key elements in Earth's geodynamic and climatic systems, the polar regions are very sensitive to changing global environmental conditions such as increasing sea surface temperatures and have the potential to trigger significant global sea level rise as large volumes of ice melt. Locked within these icy regions are the records of past global climate shifts and novel ecosystems sealed from open interactions with the atmosphere for millions of years. While satellite missions can image the surface of the polar ice sheet, many of the key processes occur beneath the surface beyond the reach of space based observations. These crucial processes can only be efficiently examined through airborne instrumentation designed to study the vast expanses of snow and ice of the Antarctic continent, the sub-continent of Greenland and the surrounding oceans. The expanding logistical infrastructure associated with the International Polar Year (2007-2009) will enable the scientific community access major new portions of the polar regions. We are developing a state-of-the-art integrated multidisciplinary aerogeophysical instrumentation package for deployment during multi-national expeditions as part of the International Polar Year. This development project brings together the recent developments in radar sounding by the University of Kansas CReSIS (Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets), that now permit the full characterization of the entire ice sheet and the major advances in the accuracy, resolution and efficiency of airborne gravity technology emerging from the private sector. Integrating the full spectrum of ice sheet imaging with high-resolution gravity and magnetics will enable the imaging of the previously invisible world of subglacial hydrodynamics.

  16. UAS Modeling of the Communication Links Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birr, Richard; Murray, Jennifer; Girgis, nancy

    2011-01-01

    There were many links calculated for this and the other scenarios. The rain was analyzed for 99.9% availability with rain rated of none, 20 mm/hr and 90 mm/hr at a height of 5 km out to 25 NM. This was done for each scenario for LOS and for BLOS links for Scenario 5 and 6. Scenario 1 was a LOS-only scenario. Use of two 3 dB Antennas on both ends. The CS2 was unable to maintain a control RF Link during the flight. The largest access gap periods between object top and bottom UA antennae were caused by terrain (ridges and hills). The CS Antenna was changed to High Gain Directional Antenna, all three CS maintained lock on vehicle. There were RF dropouts between the top and bottom UA antennae caused by aircraft obstructions (fuselage, wings, wheel assembles, etc.). Note that for this study antenna locations were placed on top and bottom center of the UA body. Future study should include actual UA antenna locations on the aircraft providing manufactures are willing to provide information. The importance of CS location(s) was demonstrated for primary or backup CS. With a second backup CS placed in a suitable location the UA was able to maintain an overall RF link. The actual location of both backup CSs required the antenna location to be place 150 ft above ground in order to establish a RF link between the UA and CS.

  17. Man-Machine Interaction Design and Analysis System (MIDAS): Memory Representation and Procedural Implications for Airborne Communication Modalities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Pisanich, Gregory M.; Lebacqz, Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The Man-Machine Interaction Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) has been under development for the past ten years through a joint US Army and NASA cooperative agreement. MIDAS represents multiple human operators and selected perceptual, cognitive, and physical functions of those operators as they interact with simulated systems. MIDAS has been used as an integrated predictive framework for the investigation of human/machine systems, particularly in situations with high demands on the operators. Specific examples include: nuclear power plant crew simulation, military helicopter flight crew response, and police force emergency dispatch. In recent applications to airborne systems development, MIDAS has demonstrated an ability to predict flight crew decision-making and procedural behavior when interacting with automated flight management systems and Air Traffic Control. In this paper we describe two enhancements to MIDAS. The first involves the addition of working memory in the form of an articulatory buffer for verbal communication protocols and a visuo-spatial buffer for communications via digital datalink. The second enhancement is a representation of multiple operators working as a team. This enhanced model was used to predict the performance of human flight crews and their level of compliance with commercial aviation communication procedures. We show how the data produced by MIDAS compares with flight crew performance data from full mission simulations. Finally, we discuss the use of these features to study communications issues connected with aircraft-based separation assurance.

  18. Airborne Fraunhofer line discriminator (FLD) luminescence imaging systems and its application to exploration problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Robert D.; Theisen, Arnold F.; Hemphill, William R.; Barringer, Anthony R.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments with an imaging airborne Fraunhofer line discriminator (FLD) are being conducted to establish the feasibility of delineating the areal extent of luminescent materials on the earth's surface from aircraft and spacecraft. All luminescence measurements are related to a standard set of conditions with rhodamine wt dye used as a reference standard. The FLD has a minimum detectable rhodamine wt concentration of 0.1 parts per billion (ppb) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5.0. Luminescence, when expressed in a signal-to-noise ratio (R) is related to equivalent ppb rhodamine wt through the relationship ppb=(0.1R-0.4). Luminescent materials imaged from an aircraft altitude of approximately 2400 m above terrain include fluorite in association with molybdenum, Pinenut Mountains, Nevada (R=62.0); mineralized playas, Claunch, New Mexico (R=960.0); uranium and vanadium-bearing outcrops, Big Indian Valley, Utah (R=105.0); uranophane sandstones, Sandia Mountains, New Mexico (R=60.0); phosphate outcrops, Pine Mountain, California (R=76.0); and marine oil slicks, Santa Barbara Channel, California (R=24.0). Correlation between the amount of fluorite in the rocks and soils of the Pinenut Mountains and luminescence, measured by the FLD, is as high as 0.88 at the 95 percent confidence level.

  19. Final Report DE-EE0005380: Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Hao; Hamilton, Mark F.; Bhalla, Rajan; Brown, Walter E.; Hay, Todd A.; Whitelonis, Nicholas J.; Yang, Shang-Te; Naqvi, Aale R.

    2013-09-30

    Offshore wind energy is a valuable resource that can provide a significant boost to the US renewable energy portfolio. A current constraint to the development of offshore wind farms is the potential for interference to be caused by large wind farms on existing electronic and acoustical equipment such as radar and sonar systems for surveillance, navigation and communications. The US Department of Energy funded this study as an objective assessment of possible interference to various types of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed. The objective of this project was to conduct a baseline evaluation of electromagnetic and acoustical challenges to sea surface, subsurface and airborne electronic systems presented by offshore wind farms. To accomplish this goal, the following tasks were carried out: (1) survey electronic systems that can potentially be impacted by large offshore wind farms, and identify impact assessment studies and research and development activities both within and outside the US, (2) engage key stakeholders to identify their possible concerns and operating requirements, (3) conduct first-principle modeling on the interactions of electromagnetic signals with, and the radiation of underwater acoustic signals from, offshore wind farms to evaluate the effect of such interactions on electronic systems, and (4) provide impact assessments, recommend mitigation methods, prioritize future research directions, and disseminate project findings. This report provides a detailed description of the methodologies used to carry out the study, key findings of the study, and a list of recommendations derived based the findings.

  20. Deployable reconnaissance from a VTOL UAS in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Shane; Bird, John; Culhane, Andrew; Sharkasi, Adam; Reinholtz, Charles

    2007-04-01

    Reconnaissance collection in unknown or hostile environments can be a dangerous and life threatening task. To reduce this risk, the Unmanned Systems Group at Virginia Tech has produced a fully autonomous reconnaissance system able to provide live video reconnaissance from outside and inside unknown structures. This system consists of an autonomous helicopter which launches a small reconnaissance pod inside a building and an operator control unit (OCU) on a ground station. The helicopter is a modified Bergen Industrial Twin using a Rotomotion flight controller and can fly missions of up to one half hour. The mission planning OCU can control the helicopter remotely through teleoperation or fully autonomously by GPS waypoints. A forward facing camera and template matching aid in navigation by identifying the target building. Once the target structure is identified, vision algorithms will center the UAS adjacent to open windows or doorways. Tunable parameters in the vision algorithm account for varying launch distances and opening sizes. Launch of the reconnaissance pod may be initiated remotely through a human in the loop or autonomously. Compressed air propels the half pound stationary pod or the larger mobile pod into the open portals. Once inside the building, the reconnaissance pod will then transmit live video back to the helicopter. The helicopter acts as a repeater node for increased video range and simplification of communication back to the ground station.