Science.gov

Sample records for airborne trace elements

  1. AIRBORNE TRACE ELEMENTS IN GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS, OLYMPIC, AND GLACIER NATIONAL PARKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne trace elements were studied at remote sites in three U.S. National Parks where crustal weathering, sea spray, and long-range transport of anthropogenic emissions were likely to influence concentrations. Levels of all elements studied except Pb were smaller in Great Smoky...

  2. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Breuer, Jörn; Vergne, Philippe; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas Artola, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions. Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some heavily-trafficked sites, legal thresholds for Cu, Pb, and V contents in foodstuff and animal feed were reached or even surpassed. The study confirmed that the standardised grass exposure is a useful and reliable tool to monitor and to assess environmental levels of potentially toxic compounds of particulate matter.

  3. Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic composition and trace element characteristics of coarse airborne particles collected with passive samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoàng-Hòa, Thi Bich; Stille, Peter; Dietze, Volker; Guéguen, Florence; Perrone, Thierry; Gieré, Reto

    2015-09-01

    Passive samplers for collection of coarse airborne particulate matter have been installed in and around the coal-mining town of Cam Pha, Quang Ninh Province (Vietnam). Analysis of Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope ratios and of major and trace element distribution patterns in atmospheric particulates collected at three stations allowed for the identification of four important dust components: (1) coal dust from an open-pit mine and fly ash particles from a coal-fired power station, (2) diesel soot, (3) traffic dust from metal, tire and pavement abrasion, and (4) limestone-derived dust. Outside of the coal-mining area, traffic-derived dust defines the atmospheric baseline composition of the studied environment.

  4. Extensive 1-year survey of trace elements and compounds in the airborne suspended particulate matter in Cleveland, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.; Antoine, A. C.; Leibecki, H. F.; Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Concentrations of 75 chemical constituents in the airborne particulate matter were measured in Cleveland, Ohio, during 1971 and 1972. Values covering a 1-year period (45 to 50 sampling days) at each of 16 sites are presented for 60 elements. A lesser number of values is given for sulfate, nitrate, fluoride, acidity, 10 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, and the aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds as a group. Methods used included instrumental neutron activation, emission spectroscopy, gas chromatography, combustion techniques, and colorimetry. Uncertainties in the concentrations associated with the sampling procedures, the analysis methods, the use of several analytical facilities, and samples with concentrations below the detection limits are evaluated in detail. The data is discussed in relation to other studies and source origins. The trace constituent concentrations as a function of wind direction are used to suggest a practical method for air pollution source identification.

  5. Active moss biomonitoring of small-scale spatial distribution of airborne major and trace elements in the Belgrade urban area.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Razumenić, Ivana; Goryainova, Zoya; Frontasyeva, Marina; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2013-08-01

    In urban environments, human exposure to air pollutants is expected to be significantly increased, especially near busy traffic streets, street canyons, tunnels, etc. where urban topography and microclimate may additionally cause poor air conditions giving rise to pollution hotspots. As a practical and cost-effective approach, active moss biomonitoring survey of some major and trace element air pollution was performed in the Belgrade street canyons and city tunnel in 2011 with the aim to evaluate possibility of using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bags for investigation of the small-scale vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of the elements. In five street canyons, the moss bags were hung at heights of about 4, 8 and 16 m, during 10 weeks, and also, for the same time, the moss bags were exposed in the tunnel, in front of and out of it. After the exposure period, the concentrations of Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in the moss were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. According to the results, in all street canyons, the vertical distribution patterns of the moss elements concentration (Al, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn) showed statistically significant decrease from the first to the third heights of bags exposure. In the tunnel experiment, from inner to out of the tunnel, for Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K and Zn, decreasing trend of concentrations was obtained. Significantly higher concentration of the elements was pronounced for the tunnel in comparison with the street canyons. The results indicate that the use of S. girgensohnii moss bags is a simple, sensitive and inexpensive way to monitor the small-scale inner city spatial distribution of airborne major and trace element content. PMID:23430735

  6. Trace Elements and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  7. Trace element emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  8. Characterization and source identification of trace elements in airborne particulates at urban and suburban atmospheres of Tabriz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Gholampour, Akbar; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Taghipour, Hasan; Rafee, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Zahra; Faridi, Sasan; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of particulate matter (PM10 and total suspended particulate (TSP)) and their elemental constituents were measured to identify the major sources of elements in urban and industrial suburban sites in Tabriz, Iran, from September 2012 to June 2013. TSP and PM10 samples were collected using high-volume samplers. Concentrations of 31 elements in aerosols and crustal soil were determined by ICPMS. The most abundant detected metals in the urban sampling sites were Al (217.5-4019.9 ng m(-3)), Fe (272.5-7658.0 ng m(-3)), Pt (4.7-1994.4 ng m(-3)), and P (13.6-2054.8 ng m(-3) (for TSP and Al (217.6-3687.3 ng m(-3)), Fe (197.1-3724.9 ng m(-3)), Pt (65.9-2054.5 ng m(-3)), and P (11.0-756.6 ng m(-3)( for PM10. In the suburban sampling site, the most abundant detected metals were Al (2083.0-9664.0 ng m(-3)), Fe (360.0-7221.5 ng m(-3)), P (229.4-870.5 ng m(-3)), and Ti (137.3-849.7 ng m(-3)) for TSP and Al (218.5-4179.6 ng m(-3)), Fe (106.3-2005.1 ng m(-3)), P (251.9-908.4 ng m(-3)), and Ba (10.6-584.9 ng m(-3)) for PM10. For the crustal soil, the most abundant detected elements included Al (60,088-60,694 ppm), Fe (19,886-20,474 ppm), Ti (894-3481 ppm), and Si (365-4246 ppm). Key emission sources were identified, and the concentrations contributed from individual sources were estimated. Enrichment factor (EF) explaining a preponderance of the variance in the data was applied to the datasets. EF calculations revealed that non-crustal trace elements were more enriched in the urban than suburban sampling sites. Results of the factor analysis on the elements showed that emissions from road traffic (involving oil and fuel combustions by vehicles, platinum group elements from vehicle exhaust, and resuspension of particulate matter from polluted soil) and construction dust from nearby construction sites and electricity generation plant were the major contributors of anthropogenic metals at ambient atmosphere in Tabriz. Results of this study elucidated the need for

  9. Toxic airborne S, PAH, and trace element legacy of the superhigh-organic-sulphur Raša coal combustion: Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of soil and ash.

    PubMed

    Medunić, Gordana; Ahel, Marijan; Mihalić, Iva Božičević; Srček, Višnja Gaurina; Kopjar, Nevenka; Fiket, Željka; Bituh, Tomislav; Mikac, Iva

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the levels of sulphur, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and potentially toxic trace elements in soils surrounding the Plomin coal-fired power plant (Croatia). It used domestic superhigh-organic-sulphur Raša coal from 1970 until 2000. Raša coal was characterised by exceptionally high values of S, up to 14%, making the downwind southwest (SW) area surrounding the power plant a significant hotspot. The analytical results show that the SW soil locations are severely polluted with S (up to 4%), and PAHs (up to 13,535ng/g), while moderately with Se (up to 6.8mg/kg), and Cd (up to 4.7mg/kg). The composition and distribution pattern of PAHs in the polluted soils indicate that their main source could be airborne unburnt coal particles. The atmospheric dispersion processes of SO2 and ash particles have influenced the composition and distribution patterns of sulphur and potentially toxic trace elements in studied soils, respectively. A possible adverse impact of analysed soil on the local karstic environment was evaluated by cytotoxic and genotoxic methods. The cytotoxicity effects of soil and ash water extracts on the channel catfish ovary (CCO) cell line were found to be statistically significant in the case of the most polluted soil and ash samples. However, the primary DNA-damaging potential of the most polluted soil samples on the CCO cells was found to be within acceptable boundaries. PMID:27232961

  10. Trace element emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The predicting of inorganic transformations (major and minor components) during coal combustion has long been the focus of many research programs (Zygarlicke et al., 1992; Wilemski et al., 1992; Baxter, 1992). In the program described in this paper, the predictive techniques that have been applied to combustion are being modified to predict inorganic transformations under gasification conditions. Many of the current trace element predictive techniques are based on the assumption of equilibrium conditions and not on actual kinetically constrained transformations that occur during coal utilization. The approach used in this program is to combine inorganic transformation algorithms and the thermochemical equilibrium calculations (Ramanathan et al., 1989, 1991). These techniques will be developed to predict the particle-size and composition distribution of the resulting coal ash particulate, along with the state of the vapor species at selected conditions for major, minor, and trace constituents. Many of the computer models recently to predict the evolution of major developed and minor elements during coal gasification were made possible by the development on a highly quantitative analytical technique for coal analysis, CCSEM (Steadman et al., 1990). CCSEM provides a particle-size and composition distribution for the mineral contents of a particular coal for twelve major and minor elements. These raw CCSEM data are the primary input to the newest computer models of ash formation.

  11. Trace element indiscrimination diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chusi; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Tang, Qingyan; Ripley, Edward M.

    2015-09-01

    We tested the accuracy of trace element discrimination diagrams for basalts using new datasets from two petrological databases, PetDB and GEOROC. Both binary and ternary diagrams using Zr, Ti, V, Y, Th, Hf, Nb, Ta, Sm, and Sc do a poor job of discriminating between basalts generated in various tectonic environments (continental flood basalt, mid-ocean ridge basalt, ocean island basalt, oceanic plateau basalt, back-arc basin basalt, and various types of arc basalt). The overlaps between the different types of basalt are too large for the confident application of such diagrams when used in the absence of geological and petrological constraints. None of the diagrams we tested can clearly discriminate between back-arc basin basalt and mid-ocean ridge basalt, between continental flood basalt and oceanic plateau basalt, and between different types of arc basalt (intra-oceanic, island and continental arcs). Only ocean island basalt and some mid-ocean ridge basalt are generally distinguishable in the diagrams, and even in this case, mantle-normalized trace element patterns offer a better solution for discriminating between the two types of basalt.

  12. Seasonal and spatial variation of trace elements in multi-size airborne particulate matters of Beijing, China: Mass concentration, enrichment characteristics, source apportionment, chemical speciation and bioavailability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jiajia; Tian, Hezhong; Cheng, Ke; Lu, Long; Wang, Yuxuan; Wu, Ye; Zhu, Chuanyong; Liu, Kaiyun; Zhou, Junrui; Liu, Xingang; Chen, Jing; Hao, Jiming

    2014-12-01

    The seasonal and spatial variation characteristics of 19 elements (Al, As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Zn) in TSP/PM10/PM2.5 samples were investigated, which were collected from April 2011 to January 2012 simultaneously at an urban downtown site, a traffic roadside site, a suburban site, and a rural site in Beijing. The elevated concentrations of several toxic trace elements (As, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, etc.) in particles revealed that the contamination of toxic elements in Beijing could not be neglected. Positive matrix factorization method (PMF) was applied for source apportionment of trace elements in PM, and three factors (crust related sources, combustion sources, and traffic and steel industrial related sources) were identified. Furthermore, the chemical speciation and bioavailability of various elements were identified by applying European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedure. Our results showed that eight toxic elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn) exhibited higher mobility in PM2.5 than in PM10. Notably, elements of As, Cd, Pb and Zn were presented with higher mobility than the other elements, and these elements were lightly to release into the environment and easily available to human body. Additionally, As, Cd, Pb and Zn also accounted for higher percentages in the bound to mobile fractions at the central urban areas of Beijing. Therefore, special concerns should be paid to these toxic trace elements which had relatively high mobility in fine particles, when planning and implementing the comprehensive air pollution mitigation policies in Beijing.

  13. Traceds: An Experimental Trace Element Partitioning Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, R. L.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this project, which is part of the EARTHCHEM initiative, is to compile the existing experimental trace element partitioning data, and to develop a transparent, accessible resource for the community. The primary goal of experimental trace element partitioning studies is to create a database that can be used to develop models of how trace elements behave in natural geochemical systems. The range of approaches as to how this is accomplished and how the data are reported differs dramatically from one system to another and one investigator to another. This provides serious challenges to the creation of a coherent database - and suggests the need for a standard format for data presentation and reporting. The driving force for this compilation is to provide community access to the complete database for trace element experiments. Our new effort includes all the published analytical results from experimental determinations. In compiling the data, we have set a minimum standard for the data to be included. The threshold criteria include: Experimental conditions (temperature, pressure, device, container, time, etc.) Major element composition of the phases Trace element analyses of the phases Data sources that did not report these minimum components were not included. The rationale for not including such data is that the degree of equilibration is unknown, and more important, no rigorous approach to modeling the behavior of trace elements is possible without a knowledge of the actual concentrations or the temperature and pressure of formation. The data are stored using a schema derived from that of the Library of Experimental Phase Relations (LEPR), modified to account for additional metadata, and restructured to permit multiple analytical entries for various element/technique/standard combinations. Our ultimate goal is to produce a database together with a flexible user interface that will be useful for experimentalists to set up their work and to build

  14. Trace Elements in River Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.

    2003-12-01

    Trace elements are characterized by concentrations lower than 1 mg L-1 in natural waters. This means that trace elements are not considered when "total dissolved solids" are calculated in rivers, lakes, or groundwaters, because their combined mass is not significant compared to the sum of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H4SiO4, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3-. Therefore, most of the elements, except about ten of them, occur at trace levels in natural waters. Being trace elements in natural waters does not necessarily qualify them as trace elements in rocks. For example, aluminum, iron, and titanium are major elements in rocks, but they occur as trace elements in waters, due to their low mobility at the Earth's surface. Conversely, trace elements in rocks such as chlorine and carbon are major elements in waters.The geochemistry of trace elements in river waters, like that of groundwater and seawater, is receiving increasing attention. This growing interest is clearly triggered by the technical advances made in the determination of concentrations at lower levels in water. In particular, the development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has considerably improved our knowledge of trace-element levels in waters since the early 1990s. ICP-MS provides the capability of determining trace elements having isotopes of interest for geochemical dating or tracing, even where their dissolved concentrations are extremely low.The determination of trace elements in natural waters is motivated by a number of issues. Although rare, trace elements in natural systems can play a major role in hydrosystems. This is particularly evident for toxic elements such as aluminum, whose concentrations are related to the abundance of fish in rivers. Many trace elements have been exploited from natural accumulation sites and used over thousands of years by human activities. Trace elements are therefore highly sensitive indexes of human impact from local to global scale. Pollution

  15. How Certain Trace Elements Behave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Ralph A.

    1979-01-01

    Fluorine, selenium, tin, and arsenic are among the trace elements occurring in the environment which are considered. Emphasis is given to developing a qualitative survey of the extent and kinds of metal transformations and their resultant effects. (CS)

  16. Trace elements in coal ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    In this fact sheet, the form, distribution, and behavior of trace elements of environmental interest in samples of coal fly ash were investigated in response to concerns about element mobility in the event of an ash spill. The study includes laboratory-based leaching experiments to examine the behavior of trace elements, such as arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr), in response to key environmental factors including redox conditions (degree of oxygenation), which are known to vary with depth within coal ash impoundments and in natural ecosystems. The experiments show that As dissolves from samples of coal fly ash into simulated freshwater under both oxic (highly oxygenated) and anoxic (poorly oxygenated) conditions, whereas dissolved Cr concentrations are very redox dependent. This U.S. Geological Survey research helps define the distribution of elements such as As in coal ash and shows that element mobility can vary considerably under different conditions expected in the environment.

  17. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Matthew, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared trace element detection system including an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined.

  18. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  19. Phytoremediation of Soil Trace Elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes research progress in development of phytoremediation technologies. Some soils have become contaminated by trace elements enough to kill plants, inhibit soil organisms, and/or threaten wildlife, humans or the environment. Traditional remediation by dig and haul methods are v...

  20. Brain trace elements and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbrecht, Geert; Maenhaut, Willy; Reuck, Jacques De

    1999-04-01

    Degenerative mechanisms involved in the aging process of the brain are to a certain extent counteracted by repair mechanisms. In both degenerative and recovery processes, trace elements are involved. The present study focused on the role of two minor (i.e., K and Ca) and six trace elements (i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb) in the aging process. The elements were determined by PIXE in cerebral cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar cortex of 18 postmortem human brains, from persons without a history of neurologic or psychiatric disease who deceased between the age of 7 and 79. This age range allowed us to study the relationship between elemental concentrations and age. The most prominent findings were a concentration decrease for K and Rb and a concentration increase for the elements Ca, Fe, Zn and Se. The study supports recent findings that Ca and Fe are involved in brain degenerative processes initiated by oxygen free radicals, whereas Zn and Se are involved in immunological reactions counteracting the aging process.

  1. In situ trace element microanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    The use of particle-track-radiography and X-ray- fluorescence techniques in the in situ measurement of trace (less than 1000 ppm) elements in single mineral phases of polished sections is surveyed, and examples of their application to ordinary, carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites are provided. Radiographic methods surveyed include fission-track radiography (for U, Th, and Pu-244), alpha radiography using nuclear reactions (for Li and B), alpha autoradiography (for Bi and Pb), and beta autoradiography (for several elements in synthetic or biological samples). Two X-ray-fluorescence methods are compared: (1) photon-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and (2) the potential use of synchrotron radiation. The latter is shown to allow much greater sensitivity than current PIXE technology and a much broader range of elements than particle-track radiography: the ppm analysis of 10-micron grains for all elements heavier than Na. These advantages are seen as balancing the high cost of accelerator use.

  2. New Perspectives on the Essential Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieden, Earl

    1985-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive overview of the 19 essential trace elements, examining: the concept of essentiality; evolution of these elements; possible future essential elements; the lanthanides and actinides; how essential trace elements work; the metalloenzymes; the nonmetals; iodine and the thyroid hormones; and antagonism among these elements. (JN)

  3. Trace Elements and Chemotherapy Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihui; Yang, Weiping; Long, Gang; Wei, Changyuan

    2016-10-01

    Trace elements might be associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the efficacy of chemotherapy against HCC. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the association between trace elements and efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with HCC. Cancer, cancer-adjacent, and cancer-free tissues were collected intraoperatively from 55 patients with HCC between January 2001 and April 2004 at the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University in Guangxi (China), a high HCC incidence area in the world. Trace element levels were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In vitro sensitivity of cancer cells to five chemotherapeutic drugs (5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cisplatin, carboplatin, and mitomycin) was tested using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in cancer cells from 32 patients. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium levels had the same gradient distribution in different liver tissues: cancer < cancer-adjacent < cancer-free tissues. Copper levels of cancer tissues were negatively correlated with body weight (r = -0.278, P = 0.027), while manganese and selenium levels were negatively correlated with age (r = -0.297, P = 0.015; r = -0.285, P = 0.018, respectively). Simple correlation analyses revealed that the carboplatin sensitivity was negatively correlated with selenium levels of cancer tissues, while doxorubicin sensitivity was negatively correlated with manganese levels (r = -0.497, P = 0.004). Partial correlation analyses showed that doxorubicin sensitivity only was negatively correlated with manganese levels (r = -0.450, P = 0.014). These results suggest that the selenium and manganese content in primary HCC tissues could influence the response of the HCC cells to carboplatin and doxorubicin. These preliminary results provide a basis for future studies. PMID:26961293

  4. Airborne Trace Gas Mapping During the GOSAT-COMEX Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tratt, D. M.; Leifer, I.; Buckland, K. N.; Johnson, P. D.; Van Damme, M.; Pierre-Francois, C.; Clarisse, L.

    2015-12-01

    The GOSAT-COMEX-IASI (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite - CO2 and Methane EXperiment - Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) experiment acquired data on 24-27 April 2015 with two aircraft, a mobile ground-based sampling suite, and the GOSAT and IASI platforms. Collections comprised the Kern Front and Kern River oil fields north of Bakersfield, Calif. and the Chino stockyard complex in the eastern Los Angeles Basin. The nested-grid experiment examined the convergence of multiple approaches to total trace gas flux estimation from the experimental area on multiple length-scales, which entailed the integrated analysis of ground-based, airborne, and space-based measurements. Airborne remote sensing was employed to map the spatial distribution of discrete emission sites - crucial information to understanding their relative aggregate contribution to the overall flux estimation. This contribution discusses the methodology in the context of the airborne GHG source mapping component of the GOSAT-COMEX experiment and its application to satellite validation.

  5. Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Harry V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

  6. PRECONCENTRATION METHODS FOR TRACE ELEMENT DETERMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research had several objectives. One was to review the literature to determine methods of trace element preconcentration that could be used realistically for sample preparation for trace element determinations in drinking, natural and/or effluent waters. Elements included in...

  7. Concentrations of trace elements and compounds in the airborne suspended particulate matter in Cleveland, Ohio, from August 1971 to August 1972 and their dependence on wind direction: Complete data listing and concentration roses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Neustadter, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Concentrations of 75 chemical constituents in the airborne particulate matter were measured in Cleveland, Ohio during 1971 and 1972. Daily values, maxima, geometric means and their standard deviations covering a 1-year period (45 to 50 sampling days) at each of 16 sites are presented on microfiche for 60 elements, and for a lesser number of days for 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAH), the aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds (AH) as a group and carbon. In addition, concentration roses showing directional properties are presented for 39 elements, 10 PAH and the AH as a group. The elements (except carbon) are shown both in terms of concentration and percentage of the suspended particulate matter.

  8. Trace element patterns in lichens following uranium mine closures

    SciTech Connect

    Fahselt, D.; Wu, T.W.; Mott, B.

    1995-09-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine trace elements in Cladina mitis (Sandst). Hale & Culb. along transects extending from uranium mines at Elliot Lake and Agnew Lake in central Ontario, Canada. Levels of 11 elements were reported and the presence of uranium (U) was confirmed, although U concentrations were much less than in Cladina rangiferina 10 years earlier. Among the elements identified in lichen thalli was Th, which occurred in higher concentrations than U. All trace elements, including the two radionuclides, were found in deteriorating thallus parts as well as living podetia, and five of these seem to have originated as airborne particulates from minesites. In spite of mine closures, levels of Th and U remained higher near sources of ore dust and there was little relationship between radionuclide concentrations in thallus and substrate. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Airborne trace contaminants of possible interest in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garavelli, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    One design goal of Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) for long duration space missions is to maintain an atmosphere which is healthy for all the desirable biological species and not deleterious to any of the mechanical components in that atmosphere. CELESS design must take into account the interactions of at least six major components; (1) humans and animals, (2) higher plants, (3) microalgae, (4) bacteria and fungi, (5) the waste processing system, and (6) other mechanical systems. Each of these major components can be both a source and a target of airborne trace contaminants in a CELSS. A range of possible airborne trace contaminants is discussed within a chemical classification scheme. These contaminants are analyzed with respect to their probable sources among the six major components and their potential effects on those components. Data on airborne chemical contaminants detected in shuttle missions is presented along with this analysis. The observed concentrations of several classes of compounds, including hydrocarbons, halocarbons, halosilanes, amines and nitrogen oxides, are considered with respect to the problems which they present to CELSS.

  10. Trace Elements in Ovaries: Measurement and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Ceko, Melanie J; O'Leary, Sean; Harris, Hugh H; Hummitzsch, Katja; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, research in the field of trace element biology and human and animal health has largely depended on epidemiological methods to demonstrate involvement in biological processes. These studies were typically followed by trace element supplementation trials or attempts at identification of the biochemical pathways involved. With the discovery of biological molecules that contain the trace elements, such as matrix metalloproteinases containing zinc (Zn), cytochrome P450 enzymes containing iron (Fe), and selenoproteins containing selenium (Se), much of the current research focuses on these molecules, and, hence, only indirectly on trace elements themselves. This review focuses largely on two synchrotron-based x-ray techniques: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence imaging that can be used to identify the in situ speciation and distribution of trace elements in tissues, using our recent studies of bovine ovaries, where the distribution of Fe, Se, Zn, and bromine were determined. It also discusses the value of other techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, used to garner information about the concentrations and elemental state of the trace elements. These applications to measure trace elemental distributions in bovine ovaries at high resolutions provide new insights into possible roles for trace elements in the ovary. PMID:26864198

  11. COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: TRACE ELEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes trace element measurements made at several coal gasification facilities. Most of the measurements were made as part of EPA's source testing and evaluation program on low- and medium-Btu gasification. The behavior of trace elements is discussed in light of th...

  12. TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSES OF URANIUM MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Beals, D; Charles Shick, C

    2008-06-09

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed an analytical method to measure many trace elements in a variety of uranium materials at the high part-per-billion (ppb) to low part-per-million (ppm) levels using matrix removal and analysis by quadrapole ICP-MS. Over 35 elements were measured in uranium oxides, acetate, ore and metal. Replicate analyses of samples did provide precise results however none of the materials was certified for trace element content thus no measure of the accuracy could be made. The DOE New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) does provide a Certified Reference Material (CRM) that has provisional values for a series of trace elements. The NBL CRM were purchased and analyzed to determine the accuracy of the method for the analysis of trace elements in uranium oxide. These results are presented and discussed in the following paper.

  13. TRACE ELEMENTS - METHODOLOGY, AND LEGISLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article has been requested by ASTM to be included in a special issue of Standardization News, dealing with analytical chemistry. The article traces federal water legislation as it pertains to drinking water and wastewater and how it applies to the approved methodology for me...

  14. AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

    1999-07-01

    This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

  15. Trace Element Analysis of Biological Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veillon, Claude

    1986-01-01

    Reviews background of atomic absorption spectrometry techniques. Discusses problems encountered and precautions to be taken in determining trace elements in the parts-per-billion concentration range and below. Concentrates on determining chromium in biological samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption. Considers other elements, matrices, and…

  16. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements.

  17. Trace elements in hazardous mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Bloise, Andrea; Barca, Donatella; Gualtieri, Alessandro Francesco; Pollastri, Simone; Belluso, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Both occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos-mineral fibres can be associated with lung diseases. The pathogenic effects are related to the dimension, biopersistence and chemical composition of the fibres. In addition to the major mineral elements, mineral fibres contain trace elements and their content may play a role in fibre toxicity. To shed light on the role of trace elements in asbestos carcinogenesis, knowledge on their concentration in asbestos-mineral fibres is mandatory. It is possible that trace elements play a synergetic factor in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by the inhalation of mineral fibres. In this paper, the concentration levels of trace elements from three chrysotile samples, four amphibole asbestos samples (UICC amosite, UICC anthophyllite, UICC crocidolite and tremolite) and fibrous erionite from Jersey, Nevada (USA) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For all samples, the following trace elements were measured: Li, Be, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Pb, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Th, U. Their distribution in the various mineral species is thoroughly discussed. The obtained results indicate that the amount of trace metals such as Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn is higher in anthophyllite and chrysotile samples, whereas the amount of rare earth elements (REE) is higher in erionite and tremolite samples. The results of this work can be useful to the pathologists and biochemists who use asbestos minerals and fibrous erionite in-vitro studies as positive cyto- and geno-toxic standard references. PMID:27289526

  18. Major and trace elements in lithogenesis.

    PubMed

    Słojewski, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The process of crystallization in the urinary tract occurs when the equilibrium between promoting and inhibiting factors is broken. Many theories have been published to explain the mechanism of urinary stones formation; however, none of these theories has paid attention to trace elements. Their role in lithogenesis is still unclear and under debate. The findings of some studies may support the thesis that some major and trace elements may take part in the initiation of stone crystallization for instance as a nucleus or nidus for the formation of the stone, or simply contaminate the stone structure. This review presents a comprehensive account of the basic principles of the basic data and the role of major and trace elements in lithogenesis. PMID:24578864

  19. Trace elements in magnetite as petrogenetic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, Sarah A. S.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Beaudoin, Georges; Méric, Julien; Boutroy, Emilie; Potvin-Doucet, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    We have characterized the distribution of 25 trace elements in magnetite (Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Sn, Hf, Ta, W, and Pb), using laser ablation ICP-MS and electron microprobe, from a variety of magmatic and hydrothermal ore-forming environments and compared them with data from the literature. We propose a new multielement diagram, normalized to bulk continental crust, designed to emphasize the partitioning behavior of trace elements between magnetite, the melt/fluid, and co-crystallizing phases. The normalized pattern of magnetite reflects the composition of the melt/fluid, which in both magmatic and hydrothermal systems varies with temperature. Thus, it is possible to distinguish magnetite formed at different degrees of crystal fractionation in both silicate and sulfide melts. The crystallization of ilmenite or sulfide before magnetite is recorded as a marked depletion in Ti or Cu, respectively. The chemical signature of hydrothermal magnetite is distinct being depleted in elements that are relatively immobile during alteration and commonly enriched in elements that are highly incompatible into magnetite (e.g., Si and Ca). Magnetite formed from low-temperature fluids has the lowest overall abundance of trace elements due to their lower solubility. Chemical zonation of magnetite is rare but occurs in some hydrothermal deposits where laser mapping reveals oscillatory zoning, which records the changing conditions and composition of the fluid during magnetite growth. This new way of plotting all 25 trace elements on 1 diagram, normalized to bulk continental crust and elements in order of compatibility into magnetite, provides a tool to help understand the processes that control partitioning of a full suit of trace elements in magnetite and aid discrimination of magnetite formed in different environments. It has applications in both petrogenetic and provenance studies, such as in the exploration of ore deposits and in

  20. Trace elements record complex histories in diogenites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balta, J. B.; Beck, A. W.; McSween, H. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Diogenite meteorites are cumulate rocks composed mostly of orthopyroxene and chemically linked to eucrites (basaltic) and howardites (brecciated mixtures of diogenites and eucrites). Together, they represent the largest single family of achondrite meteorites delivered to Earth, and have been spectrally linked to the asteroid 4 Vesta, the largest remaining basaltic protoplanet. However, this spectral link is non-unique as many basaltic asteroids likely formed and were destroyed in the early solar system. Recent work suggested that Vesta may be an unlikely parent body for the diogenites based on correlations between trace elements and short-lived isotope decay products, which would be unlikely to survive on a body as large as Vesta due to its long cooling history [1]. Recent analyses of terrestrial and martian olivines have demonstrated that trace element spatial distributions can preserve evidence of their crystallization history even when major elements have been homogenized [2]. We have mapped minor elements including Cr, Al, and Ti in seemingly homogeneous diogenite orthopyroxenes and found a variety of previously unobserved textures. The pyroxenes in one sample (GRA 98108) are seemingly large grains of variable shapes and sizes, but the trace elements reveal internal grain boundaries between roughly-equal sized original subgrains, with equilibrated metamorphic triple junctions between them and trace element depletions at the boundaries. These trends suggest extraction of trace elements by a magma along those relict grain boundaries during a reheating event. Two other samples show evidence of fracturing and annealing, with trace element mobility within grains. One sample appears to have remained a closed system during annealing (MET 01084), while the other has interacted with a fluid or magma to move elements along annealed cracks (LEW 88679). These relict features establish that the history of diogenite pyroxenes is more complex than their homogeneous major

  1. Natural wetland emissions of methylated trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vriens, Bas; Lenz, Markus; Charlet, Laurent; Berg, Michael; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2014-01-01

    Natural wetlands are well known for their significant methane emissions. However, trace element emissions via biomethylation and subsequent volatilization from pristine wetlands are virtually unstudied, even though wetlands constitute large reservoirs for trace elements. Here we show that the average volatile fluxes of selenium (<0.12 μg m-2 day-1), sulphur (<37 μg m-2 day-1) and arsenic (<0.54 μg m-2 day-1) from a pristine peatland are considerable and consistent over two summers. We compare these fluxes with the total concentrations in the peat and show that selenium is up to 40 times more efficiently volatilized than arsenic, and over 100 times more efficiently volatilized than sulphur. We further show that the volatilization of selenium and arsenic increases with temperature, implying that emissions of these health-relevant trace elements will increase with global warming. We suggest that biomethylation and volatilization in wetlands play a crucial role in the mobilization and global biogeochemical cycling of trace elements.

  2. Phytomanagement of trace elements in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological trace elements (TEs) occur at minor concentrations (< 1000 mg/kg) in organisms, yet they may have a major effect on life, both as essential nutrients and environmental contaminants. Excess consumption of and exposure to TEs has a detrimental effect on humans. Human activities such as mini...

  3. Trace Elements: The Little Things that Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Gary W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines recent findings regarding the importance of trace elements to good health. Copper, chromium, and zinc are discussed. Described also are multi-disciplinary experiments in progress at the Human Nutrition Laboratory, a federal facility in Grand Forks, North Dakota. (CS)

  4. The lithophile trace elements in enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, J. A.; Zanda, B.; Jambon, A.; Bollinger, C.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the abundances of a selected set of lithophile trace elements (namely REEs, Y, Rb, Ba, Sr, Zr, Hf, Nb, Th, U) in a comprehensive suite of enstatite chondrites (EC-13 EH and 11 EL). EH3 and EL3 display only minor deviations from chondritic distributions for these elements. In most metamorphosed EC, a wide range of compositions is observed and suggests a mobility of many of the elements studied during the history of these rocks. For example, EL6 chondrites exhibit light-REE and Nb depletions, negative Eu anomalies, and positive Y anomalies. More important trace element fractionations are observed in metamorphosed EH like St Marks (Rb depletion), LAP 02225 (Rb, Nb, Zr, Eu, light REE depletions) and Galim (b), which displays large Ba, Sr, Eu, Nb and light REE depletions. Leaching experiments were undertaken to investigate the contributions of sulfides in the whole rock budgets. These phases control not only the REE budget, but also important fractions of the other elements we studied. These fractions strongly depend on the type of the rock (EH or EL, and metamorphic grade). For many elements, the sulfide contributions increase with the metamorphic grades. The trace element abundances of silicate residues are extremely variable. Negative Sm and Yb anomalies are observed in EL3 and EH3 residues, and are certainly the results of early nebular processes. Such anomalies are lacking in residues obtained with most metamorphosed EC, underlining the importance of trace element redistributions during metamorphism. In addition, EL6 residues display distinctive positive Y anomalies that could be potentially ascribed to a less chalcophile behavior than Ho in the conditions that prevailed during EL metamorphism. EH3 and EL3 display only minor deviations from chondritic distributions for these elements. In most metamorphosed EC, a wide range of compositions is obtained and indicates undeniably a mobility of many of the elements studied during the complex thermal history

  5. Osteoporosis and trace elements--an overview.

    PubMed

    Aaseth, Jan; Boivin, Georges; Andersen, Ole

    2012-06-01

    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine functional, exercise related and nutritional factors. Of particular considerations are calcium (Ca) status, vitamin D, fluoride, magnesium and other trace elements. Several trace elements such as zinc and copper are essential for normal development of the skeleton in humans and animals. Fluoride accumulates in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified. Numerous investigators have evaluated the role of medications and supplementations with minerals and trace substances to reverse the progression of this disease. Although bisphosphonates are still the drugs of choice, low-dosed fluoride and strontium salts have shown promise for the future. PMID:22575536

  6. Trace elements in end-stage renal disease. 2. Clinical implication of trace elements.

    PubMed

    Zima, T; Tesar, V; Mestek, O; Nemecek, K

    1999-01-01

    For human beings trace elements are essential nutrients with a gamut of functions. They are for instance indispensable components of many enzymes, so they have some regulatory functions and they may affect immune reactions and free radical generation. Abnormalities of trace elements are primarily the result of uremia, and they may be further modified and sometimes greatly exacerbated by the dialysis procedure. The role of trace elements in hemodialysis (HD) patients has not yet been fully characterized. To prevent some complications in chronic HD patients, it is very important to regulate the levels of trace elements by adequate water treatment. Reverse osmosis is able to prevent the accumulation of the majority of trace elements in the patients. Zinc supplementation may be recommended for patients with proven zinc deficiency, but for all chronic renal failure patients it is questionable. Selenium deficiency is to be suspected in dialyzed patients and selenium supplementation may be beneficial (increasing glutathione peroxidase activity, cardioprotective effect, immunostimulatory properties) for chronic renal failure patients. Supplementation with a trace element may be indicated when its depletion was unequivocally documented and when there is evidence of the positive effects of this element on the quality of life of the dialyzed patients. PMID:10494021

  7. Toxic trace elements at gastrointestinal level.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M; Calatayud, M; Jadán Piedra, C; Chiocchetti, G M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2015-12-01

    Many trace elements are considered essential [iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu)], whereas others may be harmful [lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As)], depending on their concentration and chemical form. In most cases, the diet is the main pathway by which they enter our organism. The presence of toxic trace elements in food has been known for a long time, and many of the food matrices that carry them have been identified. This has led to the appearance of legislation and recommendations concerning consumption. Given that the main route of exposure is oral, passage through the gastrointestinal tract plays a fundamental role in their entry into the organism, where they exert their toxic effect. Although the digestive system can be considered to be of crucial importance in their toxicity, in most cases we do not know the events that occur during the passage of these elements through the gastrointestinal tract and of ascertaining whether they may have some kind of toxic effect on it. The aim of this review is to summarize available information on this subject, concentrating on the toxic trace elements that are of greatest interest for organizations concerned with food safety and health: Pb, Cd, Hg and As. PMID:26482641

  8. Trace element concentrations in melanotic swine

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, R.M.; Parkinson, T.F.; Veit, H.P.

    1983-10-01

    A number of investigations have been made on the role of certain trace elements in oncogenesis. In prior work, it was found that manganese and zinc concentrations in human skin cancers differed markedly from the values in normal tissue./sub 1/ The purpose of the present research was to determine trace element concentrations in skin and other tissues of normal and melanotic miniature swine. In-vivo determinations of skin tissue were carried out using x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) while tissue biopsies were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). If significant differences between normal and cancerous skin tissues can be established, the former method should prove valuable as a rapid noninvasive diagnostic method.

  9. Trace Element Diffusion in Basaltic Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holycross, M.; Watson, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted high pressure, high temperature experiments to determine simultaneously the diffusivities of 24 trace elements (Sc, V, Rb, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th, U) in liquids of basaltic composition. Pre-synthesis runs were conducted in graphite capsules in a piston-cylinder apparatus to create two glasses having relatively high and low trace element contents. These glasses were then powdered and paired in diffusion couples by repacking in graphite capsules. All diffusion experiments were executed in a piston cylinder apparatus at 1 GPa pressure and temperatures ranging from 1250-1500º C. Concentration gradients that developed in the glasses were characterized using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). Diffusion coefficients were determined from concentration profiles and show Arrhenian behavior within experimental error. Errors were assigned based on the linear fit of five time series experiments conducted over 500-9000 s to accurately represent the total experimental reproducibility of our results. Data show the highest activation energies are obtained for high field strength elements. Values for the pre-exponential factor, D0, also peak for the high field strength elements. We suggest that trace element diffusion in basaltic melts follows the compensation law (Winchell, 1969), with log D0 exhibiting linear dependence on activation energy. Calculated diffusivities indicate that transport through basaltic melt could be an effective mechanism for fractionating high field strength elements over geologically relevant time scales. Winchell (1969) High Temp. Sci. 1: 200-215

  10. Trace elements levels in centenarian 'dodgers'.

    PubMed

    Alis, Rafael; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2016-05-01

    Trace element bioavailability can play a role in several metabolic and physiological pathways known to be altered during the aging process. We aimed to explore the association of trace elements with increased lifespan by analyzing the circulating levels of seven trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn) in a cohort of healthy centenarians or 'dodgers' (≥100 years, free of major age-related diseases) in comparison with sex-matched younger elderly controls. Centenarians showed significant lower Cu (783.7 (76.7, 1608.9) vs 962.5 (676.3, 2064.4)μg/mL, P<0.001), but higher Fe (1.3 (0.4, 4.7) vs 1.1 (0.5, 8.4)μg/mL, P=0.003) and Se (85.7 (43.0, 256.7) vs 77.8 (24.3, 143.8)ng/mL, P=0.002) values compared with elderly controls. The logistic regression analysis identified the combination of Cu and Se as significant predictor variables associated with successful aging (P=0.001), while receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis confirmed that Cu and Se (either alone or in combination) were independent variables associated with healthy aging. An 'improved' trace element profile (reduced Cu and elevated Se, which are involved in key physiological processes) could play a role in the resistance to disease showed by centenarian 'dodgers', and, therefore, at least partly, be involved in the healthy aging phenotype shown by these subjects. These results should be confirmed in larger cohorts of other geographic/ethnic origin and the potential cause-effect association tested in mechanistic experimental settings. PMID:27049133

  11. Serum Trace Element Concentrations in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sahebari, Maryam; Ayati, Razie; Mirzaei, Hamed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Hejazi, Sepideh; Saghafi, Massoud; Saadati, Nayyereh; Ferns, Gordon A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a condition that is associated with oxidative stress. Serum trace elements and their related transport proteins, e.g., albumin and ceruloplasmin, play an important role in the antioxidant defense. Trace element status may therefore be involved in the pathogenesis of RA or be affected by the disease activity of this chronic inflammatory condition. The study participants were 110 patients with RA and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Serum concentrations of albumin, ceruloplasmin, selenium, zinc, copper, and zinc/copper ratio were measured in all subjects. The relationship between these parameters and disease activity score was also assessed. Lower concentrations of serum Alb, Zn, and Se were independently related to disease activity index. High concentrations of serum copper were associated with the presence of RA. Serum Cu concentrations were positively related to disease activity as assessed by the disease activity score. Low serum concentrations of Zn and Se, and high serum Cu concentrations may be associated with the presence of RA or be a consequence of this condition. Of the trace elements that were investigated in the present study, only serum Cu was positively correlated with disease activity. PMID:26450515

  12. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, T.; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 μg/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 μg/g). A block of wood ( Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 μg/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 μg/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  13. Trace Elements in Nails as Biomarkers in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    He, Ka

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of trace elements in relation to human health has been increasingly recognized. Accurate and adequate quantification of trace elements are crucial in clinical research. Design This review was to discuss the rationale of using nail trace elements as biomarkers in clinical studies. Results For most trace elements, dietary instruments can not appropriately capture the intakes because of the minimal amounts and wide variations in the same foods grown in different area as well as the non-dietary exposures. Therefore, biomarkers may be essential in studying trace elements. Although there are notable differences among trace elements in the availability of biomarkers, increasing evidence supports that nail particularly toenail concentrations of most trace elements are useful biomarkers of exposure in which a single sample is assumed to represent long-term exposure. Conclusions As compared to other potential biomarkers of trace elements, nail measurement has certain advantages in clinical research. PMID:20813017

  14. [Trace elements deficiency in children receiving nutritional management].

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Kouji

    2016-07-01

    The trace elements is very important in growth of children, especially receiving nutritional management, including parenteral or enteral nutrition. Therefore, clinicians treating children should recognize regarding both the function and deficiency of trace elements. In this article, in nutritional management of children, the basic and recent knowledge was described regarding the function of some important trace elements, including zinc, copper, selenium, and iodine. In addition, the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments in each trace element deficiency were also described. PMID:27455814

  15. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status. PMID:21468408

  16. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas.

  17. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  18. Effect of trace elements on growth of marine eukaryotes, tharaustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Naoki; Taoka, Yousuke; Honda, Daiske; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    We determined the effect of trace elements on the growth of thraustochytrids. The growth of the strains cultured with the trace elements was much higher than that of the strains cultured without any trace element. Iron and zinc were particularly important to obtaining the optimum growth of thraustochytrids. PMID:23639421

  19. Trace element content of northern Ontario peat

    SciTech Connect

    Glooschenko, W.A.; Capoblanco, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Peat samples were collected at 0-20- and 20-40-cm depths from several peatland ecosystems located in northern Ontario, Canada. Analysis was made for the trace metals Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Hg. Concentration values in general were in the low ppm range and did not significantly differ in terms of peatland type or depth except for Pb. This element was signficantly higher in surface peats in bogs and fens. Concentration of metals in peats found in the study were equivalent to those in US coals, suggesting caution during combustion in terms of potential atmospheric input of metals.

  20. Recycling of trace elements required for humans in CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashida, A.

    1994-11-01

    Recycle of complete nourishment necessary for human should be constructed in CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems). Essential elements necessary for human support are categorized as major elements, semi-major elements and trace elements. Recently, trace elements have been identified from considerations of local diseases, food additive problems, pollution problems and adult diseases, consisting of Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, Co, F, Si, Mn, Cr, I, As, Mo, Ni, V, Sn, Li, Br, Cd, Pb, B. A review of the biogeochemical history of the earth's biosphere and the physiological nature of humans and plants explains some of the requirements. A possible route for intake of trace elements is considered that trace elements are dissolved in some chemical form in water, absorbed by plants through their roots and then transfered to human as foods. There may be a posibility that living things absorb some trace elements from atmosphere. Management and recycling of trace elements in CELSS is discussed.

  1. Elemental composition of airborne particulates and source identification - An extensive one year survey. [in Cleveland, OH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Fordyce, J. S.; Antoine, A. C.; Leibecki, H. F.; Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Concentrations of 60 chemical elements in the airborne particulate matter were measured at 16 sites in Cleveland, OH over a 1 year period during 1971 and 1972 (45 to 50 sampling days). Analytical methods used included instrumental neutron activation, emission spectroscopy, and combustion techniques. Uncertainties in the concentrations associated with the sampling procedures, the analytical methods, the use of several analytical facilities, and samples with concentrations below the detection limits are evaluated in detail. The data are discussed in relation to other studies and source origins. The trace constituent concentrations as a function of wind direction are used to suggest a practical method for air pollution source identification.

  2. Trace element accumulation in aquatic plants: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Ganje, T.J.; Elseewi, A.A.; Page, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Trace elements in sediments and its overlying waters are important constituents of an aquatic plant ecosystem. This review was undertaken to evaluate trace element accumulation in aquatic plants and ascertain to what extent sediment and its overlying waters play in trace element accumulation by aquatic plant species. Aquatic vascular plants tend to accumulate trace elements in relation to the trace element concentration of the water body and sediment in which they are grown and the extent of exposure to the water body. Trace element composition of bryophytes and algae is also closely related to composition of their aquatic environment. It is increasingly apparent that sediments and overlying waters alter the bioavailability of trace elements to aquatic plants in both natural and artificial water bodies, particularly where industrial and agricultural waters are discharged into waterways.

  3. Trace element distribution in the rat cerebellum

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Pounds, J.G.; Reuhl, K.R.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1989-10-01

    Spatial distributions and concentrations of trace elements (TE) in the brain are important because TE perform catalytic structural functions in enzymes which regulate brain function and development. We have investigated the distributions of TE in rat cerebellum. Structures were sectioned and analyzed by the Synchrotron Radiation Induced X-ray Emission (SRIXE) method using the NSLS X-26 white-light microprobe facility. Advantages important for TE analysis of biological specimens with x-ray microscopy include short time of measurement, high brightness and flux, good spatial resolution, multielemental detection, good sensitivity, and non-destructive irradiation. Trace elements were measured in thin rat brain sections of 20-micrometers thickness. The analyses were performed on sample volumes as small as 0.2 nl with Minimum Detectable Limits (MDL) of 50 ppb wet weight for Fe, 100 ppb wet weight for Cu, and Zn, and 1 ppM wet weight for Pb. The distribution of TE in the molecular cell layer, granule cell layer and fiber tract of rat cerebella was investigated. Both point analyses and two-dimensional semi-quantitative mapping of the TE distribution in a section were used.

  4. Trace Element Chemistry in Urban Atmospheric Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhana, B.; Husain, L.

    2006-12-01

    Unlike in the United States, the concentration of trace elements in urban air is still high enough in South Asian cities to study the impact of trace elements on climate and human health. Hence, continuous sampling of PM2.5 (particulate matter of <2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter)was carried out using low volume sampler in winter (2005-2006) in Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan, which is highly impacted by urban and agricultural emissions and has remained unexplored in terms of atmospheric chemistry. Aerosols collected on this campaign are likely to carry the signatures of emissions from Afghanistan, North and Central Pakistan, North India in addition to the local pollution sources. During sampling from December 2005 to January 2006, it was possible to collect several samples during brief fog episodes. Samples were analyzed for 25 elements (Be, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl and Pb) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. High pollutant concentrations were observed throughout the study, for instance, Cr concentrations up to 1.4 μgm-3, As, 135 ngm-3, Cd, 93 ngm-3, Sn, 988 ngm-3 and Sb, 157 ngm-3. Pb and Zn concentrations respectively up to 12 and 48 μgm-3 were observed. Calculation of enrichment factor and crustal correction illustrate the attribution of Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag Cd, Sn, Sb, Tl and Pb to non-crustal sources. Air parcel back trajectories, interelemental relationships and meteorological observations have been used to explain the sources and the impacts of fog chemistry and mixing heights on atmospheric processing of trace elements in PM2.5. Atmospheric stagnation appeared to be one of factors causing episodic high concentrations. Crustal correction and interelemental relationships apparently suggest the emissions from coal and oil combustion, industrial processes, building construction sites and biomass burning as the prime role players in the atmospheric pollution in

  5. Incompatible Trace Element Abundances in Hawaiian Olivines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, G.; Huang, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    2009-12-01

    Our understanding of trace elements partitioning between olivine and silicate melt is clouded by large variations in values of partition coefficients presented in the literature. In general, partition coefficients from phenocryst-matrix results are higher than those from experimental equilibration and in-situ measurements (such as LA-ICP-MS and Ion-probe) (Blard and Farley, 2008; Lee et al., 2007). This discrepancy is possibly caused by the presence of melt or micromineral inclusions in the analyzed phenocrysts, or contamination of grain boundaries by enriched glasses or accessory phases or uranium pick up from alteration of olivines. To further investigate why analysis of natural phenocrysts usually results in relative high apparent D’s for incompatible trace elements, six aliquots of olivine grains from a single sediment sample of Waimea river watershed, on the western side of the island of Kauai, Hawaii, were analyzed by solution ICP-MS at Harvard University for trace element concentrations. Two aliquots of olivines were leached in 1% oxalic acid for 45-60 min at 90 OC before dissolution. Leached and unleached olivines mostly show positive linear correlations in plots of incompatible trace elements versus La, which possibly indicates mixing lines between olivine and one end-member with higher incompatible element concentration (possibly melt inclusion). Assuming La concentration in olivine is zero, we estimate concentration of other incompatible elements in olivines using intercepts of these mixing lines. We obtain that U and Th concentration in the olivines to be about 1 ppb and 0.1 ppb respectively, corresponding to apparent DUol/melt and DThol/melt of 0.003 and 0.0001 if host lave has U of 0.3 ppm and Th of 1ppm (Gayer et al.,2008). Recently, helium isotopic measurements were made in these olivines (Gayer et al., 2008) and the results yield a basin-wide average erosion rate of 0.056 mma-1 for Waimea river watershed. Gayer et al. (2008) argued that

  6. Vibration disease: plasma electrolytes and trace elements.

    PubMed

    Tzvetkov, D; Kostova, V; Razboynikova, F; Dimitrov, D; Petrov, I

    1994-01-01

    102 patients with vibration disease (mean age 46 +/- 7, length of service in different jobs using vibration tools 17 +/- 7 years) were studied. Plasma electrolytes and trace elements (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, chloride, iron, copper, zinc, cobalt and manganese) and plasma osmolality were investigated, as well as some specific tests indicative of vibration exposure--cold provocation test, vibration sense, thermoasymmetry (left/right hand), skin electric resistance and hand and finger blood flow (Doppler-ultrasound sonometry). In a large number of patients increased values for the following variables were found--magnesium in 43%, zinc in 45%, cobalt in 57%, manganese in 70% and plasma osmolality in 66%. It is suggested that vibration affects mineral metabolism. However, these disturbances in mineral metabolism are secondary to other pathological changes in the body. PMID:8029523

  7. Meteoritic trace element toxification and the terminal Mesozoic mass extinction

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, S.M.; Erickson, D.J. III

    1985-01-01

    Calculations of trace element fluxes to the earth associated with 5 and 10 kilometer diameter Cl chondrites and iron meteorites are presented. The data indicate that the masses of certain trace elements contained in the bolide, such as Fe, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Cu, are as large as or larger than the world ocean burden. The authors believe that this pulse of trace elements was of sufficient magnitude to perturb the biogeochemical cycles operative 65 million years ago, a probably time of meteorite impact. Geochemical anomalies in Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments suggest that elevated concentrations of trace elements may have persisted for thousands of years in the ocean. Through direct exposure and bioaccumulation, many trophic levels of the global food chain, including that of the dinosaurs, would have been adversely affected by these meteoritic trace elements. The trace element toxification hypothesis may account for the selective extinction of both marine and terrestrial species in the enigmatic terminal Mesozoic event.

  8. Parenteral trace element provision: recent clinical research and practical conclusions.

    PubMed

    Stehle, P; Stoffel-Wagner, B; Kuhn, K S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review (PubMed, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed and Cochrane, www.cochrane.org; last entry 31 December 2014) was to present data from recent clinical studies investigating parenteral trace element provision in adult patients and to draw conclusions for clinical practice. Important physiological functions in human metabolism are known for nine trace elements: selenium, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, iron, molybdenum, iodine and fluoride. Lack of, or an insufficient supply of, these trace elements in nutrition therapy over a prolonged period is associated with trace element deprivation, which may lead to a deterioration of existing clinical symptoms and/or the development of characteristic malnutrition syndromes. Therefore, all parenteral nutrition prescriptions should include a daily dose of trace elements. To avoid trace element deprivation or imbalances, physiological doses are recommended. PMID:27049031

  9. Airborne elements, cell membranes, and chlorophyll in transplanted lichens

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, J.; Cohen, Y.; Kloog, N.

    1998-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the concentration of airborne mineral elements in the lichen Ramalina lacera (with.) J.R. Laund. in comparison with its physiological status. Thalli of Ramalina lacera were collected in a remote unpolluted site and transplanted in a polluted region for 10 mo. An analysis of 20 elements in addition to an analysis of the status of cell membranes and the integrity of chlorophyll was performed after this period of transplantation. The lichen manifested a great potential for the accumulation of Pb, V, Ni, Zn, and Cu. Potassium and P were found to leach out. High concentrations of Ni, Mg, and B coincided with damage caused to cell membranes. The integrity of chlorophyll correlated with the concentration of K and correlated inversely with the concentration of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and B.

  10. Trace element distributions in primitive achondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Andrew M.; Prinz, Martin; Weisberg, Michael K.

    1993-01-01

    The primitive achondrites have approximately chondritic bulk chemical composition but achondritic textures. Clayton et al. show that nine of these meteorites, the acapulcoites and the lodranites, have similar oxygen isotopic compositions. The acapulcoites appear to be highly metamorphosed, but undifferentiated meteorites of chondritic composition; whereas, the lodranites appear to have lost a feldspathic partial melt. In order to learn more about metamorphic processes and partial melt removal, we have measured the trace element compositions of constituent phases of a number of primitive achondrites by ion microprobe. We have analyzed two acapulcoites, Acapulco and ALH81261 (paired with ALH77081), and three londranites, Lodran, LEW88280, and MAC88177. In addition, we analyzed LEW88663, which has the bulk composition, mineral chemistry, and oxygen isotopic composition of L-chondrites, but is metal-free and has an achondrite texture; and Divnoe, a plagioclase-poor, olivine-rich primitive achondrite with an oxygen isotopic composition similar to that of the group IAB iron meteorites. These meteorites show a variety of REE patterns in their constituent phases, and there are consistent differences between acapulcoites and lodranites that are consistent with removal of a LREE- and Eu-enriched melt that is apparently responsible for the low plagioclase content of lodranites.

  11. Serum trace element levels in febrile convulsion.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mojtaba; Farzin, Leila; Moassesi, Mohammad Esmail; Sajadi, Fattaneh

    2010-06-01

    Febrile convulsion is the most common disorder in childhood with good prognosis. There are different hypotheses about neurotransmitters and trace element changes in biological fluids which can have a role in pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. In this study, serum selenium, zinc, and copper were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in the children with febrile convulsion (n = 30) and in the control group (n = 30). The age and sex of the subjects were registered. Selenium and zinc were found to be significantly lower in febrile convulsion cases than in the control group (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the value of copper between the two groups (p = 0.16). While selenium and zinc levels were 44.92 +/- 10.93 microg/l and 66.13 +/- 18.97 microg/dl in febrile convulsion, they were found to be 62.98 +/- 9.80 microg/l and 107.87 +/- 28.79 microg/dl in healthy children. Meanwhile, copper levels were 146.40 +/- 23.51 microg/dl in the patients and 137.63 +/- 24.19 microg/dl in the control group, respectively. This study shows that selenium and zinc play an important role in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsion. PMID:19669113

  12. Cognitive impairment, genomic instability and trace elements.

    PubMed

    Meramat, A; Rajab, N F; Shahar, S; Sharif, R

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are often related to aging and micronutrient deficiencies. Various essential micronutrients in the diet are involved in age-altered biological functions such as, zinc, copper, iron, and selenium that play pivotal roles either in maintaining and reinforcing the antioxidant performances or in affecting the complex network of genes (nutrigenomic approach) involved in encoding proteins for biological functions. Genomic stability is one of the leading causes of cognitive decline and deficiencies or excess in trace elements are two of the factors relating to it. In this review, we report and discuss the role of micronutrients in cognitive impairment in relation to genomic stability in an aging population. Telomere integrity will also be discussed in relation to aging and cognitive impairment, as well as, the micronutrients related to these events. This review will provide an understanding on how these three aspects can relate with each other and why it is important to keep a homeostasis of micronutrients in relation to healthy aging. Micronutrient deficiencies and aging process can lead to genomic instability. PMID:25560816

  13. Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of trace atmospheric gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Alan; Wert, Bryan P.; Henry, Bruce E.; Drummond, James R.

    1998-05-01

    Highly sensitive and accurate measurements of numerous trace gases are required to further our understanding of atmospheric processes. Tunable diode laser systems, which offer many advantages in this regard, can be designed for reliable field measurements on both ground-based and aircraft platforms. The present paper describes the long term effort at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to develop, employ, and validate a highly sensitive tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for the measurement of various trace gases, including formaldehyde and carbon monoxide. This system was successfully employed on three recent aircraft campaigns. The present paper describes the aircraft instrument along with hardware and software features incorporated for high sensitivity, with particular emphasis on major modifications to the NCAR aircraft system over the past year.

  14. Minor and trace elements in some meteoritic minerals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. O., Jr.; Mason, B.

    1973-01-01

    Despite the information available (Mason, 1971) on trace elements in different types of meteorites, relatively little is known about the distribution of these elements among the individual mineral phases. The mineral phases including olivine, orthopyroxene, clinipyroxene, troilite, nickel-iron, plagioclase, chromite, and the phosphates were separated from several meteorites. The purified minerals were analyzed for trace and minor elements by spark source mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elements are classified as siderophile, lithophile, and chalcophile.

  15. Trace element fingerprinting of emeralds by PIXE/PIGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin-Pei, Ma; MacArthur, J. D.; Roeder, P. L.; Mariano, A. N.

    1993-04-01

    Gemologists consider the mineral beryl, beryllium aluminium silicate, to be the gem, emerald, when it contains sufficient chromium, > 0.1%, to colour it a strong green. Emeralds usually contain other trace elements. To investigate the feasibility of distinguishing an emerald's country of origin through its trace content, the trace elements in emeralds and a few beryls from sixteen locations have been determined with a single nondestructive measurement using PIXE and PIGE. From the database established with this limited number of samples, distinguishing trace element patterns were found.

  16. EVALUATION OF TRACE-ELEMENT INTERACTIONS USING CULTURED ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is important to consider the interactions of toxic trace elements in an evaluation of the toxicity of environmental pollutants. The in vitro toxicity screening system, using the rabbit alveolar macrophage, provides a particularly useful system for evaluating trace-element inte...

  17. Trace elements distribution in Cu-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrašinović, Aleksandar M.; Utigard, Torstein A.

    2011-10-01

    The trace elements distribution in Cu-Si alloys is analyzed after mixing Si with Cu. The mass balance and atomic distribution showed that the highest concentration of trace elements was at the phase boundaries between Si and Cu-Si intermetallic. The concentrations of 21 trace elements in the refined Si were below detection limit of the ICP technique where 11 elements were below 1ppm at and another 7 elements were below 2ppm at. The amount of other elements decreased several times in the refined Si, compared to that in initial metallurgical grade silicon. The level of trace elements in refined Si allows utilization of the Si photo-catalytic characteristics for solar energy generation.

  18. [Trace elements in artificial nutrition. Art and practice].

    PubMed

    Saudin, F; Gelas, P; Boulétreau, P

    1988-01-01

    The trace elements known to be necessary for man are iron, zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, cobalt and iodine. This review article, which excludes iron, deals with the need for supplemental trace elements during artificial feeding, and the way they should be administered. The biological importance of these trace elements is argued on the basis of their biochemical involvement and the clinical pictures seen in accidental or experimental deficiency states. Assessing a patient's trace element status is rather difficult. The relative merits of different laboratory investigations is discussed: plasma, erythrocyte, capillary and urinary levels, specific enzyme activities, loading tests. The different situations when trace elements are required, assessing the amount needed and the possible toxic risks, are presented from a literature survey. PMID:3144195

  19. Trace element partitioning between ionic crystal and liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Philpotts, J. A.; Yin, L.

    1978-01-01

    The partitioning of trace elements between ionic crystals and the melt has been correlated with lattice energy of the host. The solid-liquid partition coefficient has been expressed in terms of the difference in relative ionic radius of the trace element and the homogeneous and heterogeneous strain of the host lattice. Predictions based on this model appear to be in general agreement with data for alkali nitrates and for rare-earth elements in natural garnet phenocrysts.

  20. Trace elements in agroecosystems and impacts on the environment.

    PubMed

    He, Zhenli L; Yang, Xiaoe E; Stoffella, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Trace elements mean elements present at low concentrations (mg kg-1 or less) in agroecosystems. Some trace elements, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and boron (B) are essential to plant growth and are called micronutrients. Except for B, these elements are also heavy metals, and are toxic to plants at high concentrations. Some trace elements, such as cobalt (Co) and selenium (Se), are not essential to plant growth but are required by animals and human beings. Other trace elements such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) have toxic effects on living organisms and are often considered as contaminants. Trace elements in an agroecosystem are either inherited from soil parent materials or inputs through human activities. Soil contamination with heavy metals and toxic elements due to parent materials or point sources often occurs in a limited area and is easy to identify. Repeated use of metal-enriched chemicals, fertilizers, and organic amendments such as sewage sludge as well as wastewater may cause contamination at a large scale. A good example is the increased concentration of Cu and Zn in soils under long-term production of citrus and other fruit crops. Many chemical processes are involved in the transformation of trace elements in soils, but precipitation-dissolution, adsorption-desorption, and complexation are the most important processes controlling bioavailability and mobility of trace elements in soils. Both deficiency and toxicity of trace elements occur in agroecosystems. Application of trace elements in fertilizers is effective in correcting micronutrient deficiencies for crop production, whereas remediation of soils contaminated with metals is still costly and difficult although phytoremediation appears promising as a cost-effective approach. Soil microorganisms are the first living organisms subjected to the impacts of metal contamination. Being responsive and

  1. Collection requirements for trace-element analyses of extraterrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Trace-element abundances have proven important in understanding the evolution of and interrelationships between different meteorites. Preliminary investigations of the trace-element contents of interplanetary dust particles indicate that trace-element abundances will prove equally important in distinguishing between micrometeorites of different types, comparing the interplanetary dust to the meteorites, and assessing the degree of thermal alteration experienced either on the parent body or during the collection process. Sample collection, delivery, and curation must be accomplished in a manner to avoid contamination with even trace amounts of the elements to be analyzed. The present SXRF sensitivity for micrometeorite analysis is of order 1 femtogram, but anticipated improvements in sensitivity will require sample contamination substantially below this level. Sample collection and handling equipment should be constructed from materials selected for ultrahigh purity, and serious consideration should be given in selecting the particular set of elements from which the collection apparatus is composed so as not to compromise useful information.

  2. Bioavailability of trace elements in surface sediments from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Grotti, Marco; Soggia, Francesco; Ianni, Carmela; Magi, Emanuele; Udisti, Roberto

    2013-12-15

    The bioavailability of trace elements in marine sediments from Kongsfjorden (Svalbard Islands, Norwegian Arctic) was assessed and discussed. Total concentrations of several elements were determined in two granulometric fractions and their bioavailability evaluated by both applying a sequential-selective extraction procedure and using a biomimetic approach based on proteolytic enzymes. Total concentration values and solid speciation patterns indicated overall that the anthropogenic impact of trace elements in the investigated area is negligible, although a minor enrichment with respect to crustal values was found for As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and V. Enrichment of trace elements in the <63-μm fraction compared to the coarser one was evident for As, Cd, Cr, and Ni. The evaluation of the bioavailable fractions showed that a large part of the total content of trace elements cannot enter the aquatic food chain and emphasised the risk of overestimating the environmental impact of heavy metals if the assessment is only based on total concentrations. PMID:24210011

  3. Mare basalt genesis - Modeling trace elements and isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, A. B.

    1985-11-01

    Various types of mare basalt data have been synthesized, leading to the production of an internally consistent model of the mare basalt source region and mare basalt genesis. The model accounts for the mineralogical, major oxide, compatible siderophile trace element, incompatible trace element, and isotopic characteristics of most of the mare basalt units and of all the pyroclastic glass units for which reliable data are available. Initial tests of the model show that it also reproduces the mineralogy and incompatible trace element characteristics of the complementary highland anorthosite suite of rocks and, in a general way, those of the lunar granite suite of rocks.

  4. Factors influencing trace element composition in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, L.; Iyengar, G.V.

    1997-12-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature published in or after 1978 for 45 major, minor, and trace elements in human teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various factors that influence the concentration levels of certain trace elements in human teeth. The sampling practices and analytical techniques that are applicable for trace element analysis are also discussed. It is also our intention to identify reference range of values, where data permit such conclusions. The scrutiny was designed to identify only the healthy permanent teeth, and values from teeth with fillings, caries, or periodontal diseases were eliminated.

  5. Major and trace elements of selected pedons in the USA.

    PubMed

    Burt, R; Wilson, M A; Mays, M D; Lee, C W

    2003-01-01

    Few studies of soil geochemistry over large geographic areas exist, especially studies encompassing data from major pedogenic horizons that evaluate both native concentrations of elements and anthropogenically contaminated soils. In this study, pedons (n = 486) were analyzed for trace (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and major (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Si, Ti, Zr) elements, as well as other soil properties. The objectives were to (i) determine the concentration range of selected elements in a variety of U.S. soils with and without known anthropogenic additions, (ii) illustrate the association of elemental source and content by assessing trace elemental content for several selected pedons, and (iii) evaluate relationships among and between elements and other soil properties. Trace element concentrations in the non-anthropogenic dataset (NAD) were in the order Mn > (Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu) > (Pb, Co) > (Cd, Hg), with greatest mean total concentrations for the Andisol order. Geometric means by horizon indicate that trace elements are concentrated in surface and/or B horizons over C horizons. Median values for trace elements are significantly higher in surface horizons of the anthropogenic dataset (AD) over the NAD. Total Al, Fe, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic C, pH, and clay exhibit significant correlations (0.56, 0.74, 0.50, 0.31, 0.16, and 0.30, respectively) with total trace element concentrations of all horizons of the NAD. Manganese shows the best inter-element correlation (0.33) with these associated total concentrations. Total Fe has one of the strongest relationships, explaining 55 and 30% of the variation in total trace element concentrations for all horizons in the NAD and AD, respectively. PMID:14674533

  6. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  7. Chemistry of trace elements in soils and groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present information about sources of processes that affect trace elements in soils and groundwater; precipitation and dissolution, surface interactions and absorption and oxidation-reduction reactions. For each element or group of elements, we provide a review of mode of occurrence, sources and ...

  8. TRACE ELEMENT STUDY AT A PRIMARY COPPER SMELTER. VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results of a project undertaken to explore the distribution of trace elements in environmental emissions from a primary copper smelter. The efforts were concentrated on the reverberatory furnace and the electrostatic precipitator controlling emissions from...

  9. [Comparative study on eight trace elements in twelve flower medicines].

    PubMed

    Niu, Ying-Feng; Han, Chun-Mei; Shao, Yun; Tao, Yan-Duo

    2009-07-01

    Eight trace elements such as Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, K, Mg and Na in twelve kinds of flower medicines were determined by flame-atomic absorption spectrometry with air-acetylene flame. The flower medicines include Pueraria lobata Ohwi., Gomphrena globosa L., Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., Canna indica L., Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd P. spp, Rosa chinensis Jacq., Celosia cristata L., Sophora japonica L., Saussurea medusa Maxim. , Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. All of the flowers were commonly used in Tibetan medicines. Three kinds of the flowers were bought in the market and the others were picked in Qinghai province. These flower medicines were selected, dried and powdered, 4.000 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and five portions were used for each kind of sample. The content of eight trace elements in these flower medicines was determined and the difference in the content was observed. The recovery rate obtained by the standard addition method was between 96.76% and 102.93%, and the RSD was between 1.13% and 3.46%, so the accuracy of the method was better and the precision of the method was good. The results of the experiment indicated that the contents of the eight trace elements were rich in the twelve kinds of flower medicines, and the content of three trace elements including K, Mg, Na were more than other trace elements in the twelve flower medicines. There were considerable differences in the content of the eight trace elements in different flower medicines and there were more trace elements in Saussure medusa Maxim., Iris lactea var. chinensis (Fisch.) koidz. Canna indica L. and Celosia cristata L. and less trace elements in Sophora japonica L. and Gentiana straminea Maxim.. The data of the experiment could provide an accurate and credible evidence for the reasonable medicinal use and deeper exploitation of these flower medicines. PMID:19798991

  10. Trace elements and lead isotopic composition of PM 10 in Lhasa, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kang, Shichang; Luo, Chunling; Li, Qing; Huang, Jie; Gao, Shaopeng; Li, Xiangdong

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents the first detailed investigation on airborne trace metals and their potential major sources at Lhasa, the largest city in Tibetan Plateau (TP). The whole year PM 10 samples were collected during September 2007 and August 2008. The annual average concentration of PM 10 in Lhasa was 51.8 ± 42.5 μg m -3, lower than those of major Asian cities. Distinct seasonal patterns were observed in PM 10 concentration, with higher concentrations in winter, and lower in summer. The mean elemental concentrations were generally comparable with other urban areas, but significantly higher than those from a remote site in TP (i.e., Nam Co). Crustal elements, including Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, As and Ba, had similar seasonal patterns in PM 10, while other elements, such as Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd, had less distinct seasonal variations, suggesting more anthropogenic inputs of the latter group. The result of principle component analysis (PCA) on trace elements demonstrated that fugitive dusts, traffic emissions and waste incineration activities were probably the major sources of anthropogenic metals in the atmosphere at Lhasa. The Pb isotopic compositions revealed that the metal was mainly originated from nature background with a minor contribution from the cement factory. The data obtained in this study can be useful for making pollution control strategies in the city, and also valuable for trace element studies in other environmental medium, such as snow, ice core, and lake sediments in the TP region.

  11. The influence of trace elements of fluoride uptake by teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar Chaudhri, M.; Crawford, A.

    1981-03-01

    To investigate the effect of various trace elements on fluoride uptake by teeth, the concentrations F and other trace elemenys have been simultaneously determined in different regions of the teeth from children of South Australia. Teeth cross sectioned along the median plane have been used in these investigations, and their inside enamel, dentine and amelodentinal junctions investigated separately for the trace elemental composition. Fluoride has been determined by observing the 6-7 MeV gammas for the 19F(p, αγ) 16O reaction, C by activation through the 12C( 3He, n) 14O reaction, while other trace elements have been measured by the thick target PIXE technique. Linear correlation coefficients have been calculated between the F concentrations in teeth, and those of other trace elements observed. Fluoride is found to correlate best with C, Cu and Pb, poorly with Fe, Sr, Ni and Ag, while with Br and Zn it has -ve coefficients. Student's t-test has been applied to the data to examine the significance of the variation of Fand other trace elements amongst different dental tissues from healthy and diseased teeth.

  12. Preparation of fingernails for trace element analysis.

    PubMed

    Bank, H L; Robson, J; Bigelow, J B; Morrison, J; Spell, L H; Kantor, R

    1981-10-26

    There are substantial differences in the reported elemental composition of human nails. Most investigators have used extensive washing procedures to minimize environmental contamination, however, such washing poses the risk of extraction of elements bound to the nail matrix. To determine if a portion of this variability could be accounted for by the "washing solutions" used by different investigators, nails were washed in nine solvents previously used for cleaning nails and their residual elemental composition measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy or energy dispersion analysis. In general, treatment with organic solvents resulted in less elemental loss than did treatment with aqueous detergents, while aqueous acids caused the greatest loss. Organic solvents more readily extracted iron and magnesium than calcium, copper and zinc. Virtually all of the magnesium was extracted by distilled water or aqueous detergents. PMID:7296886

  13. Trace Element Loss in Urine and Effluent Following Traumatic Injury

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Purpose: Few data are available to establish recommendations for trace element intake during critical illness. This study quantified loss of several elements and assessed the adequacy of manganese and selenium in total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods: Men receiving TPN after trau...

  14. The distribution of trace elements in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knab, H.-J.

    1981-09-01

    Twelve carbonaceous chondrites, among them representatives of nearly all known petrologic types, were analyzed for twenty trace elements by spark source mass spectrography combined with the isotope dilution method. Data on different element groups (refractory, moderately volatile and volatile) show that the distribution of the trace elements in the carbonaceous chondrites, with the exception of Renazzo, can be well explained by Anders' two-component model. This is also valid for the highly metamorphosed CV5 chondrite Karoonda. Furthermore, it is observed that the Zr/Hf-ratios in the carbonaceous chondrites increase with increasing petrologic type, which is interpreted as the result of mixing two components with different Zr/Hf-ratios.

  15. Environmental influence on trace element levels in human hair

    SciTech Connect

    Limic, N.; Valkovic, V.

    1986-12-01

    Trace element content of human hair depends on many factors. It has been shown by a large number of investigators that environmental factors play an important role. Elements from air particulates, water, shampoo or other media get incorporated into the hair structure. Here a model is proposed in which different contributions to trace element levels in human hair are factorized and the environmental contribution to the radial and longitudinal concentration profiles can be calculated. With the proper understanding of environmental contamination, hair analysis has better chances of being used as a diagnostic tool.

  16. Analysis of trace elements in opal using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, Ruth; Bertol, A. P. L.; Vasconcellos, M. A. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is particularly important for the analysis of trace elements of precious samples, being one of the few methods to determine elements with ppm concentration that does not affect sample integrity. A PIXE methodology for trace element analysis in opal was developed. To avoid detector count saturation due to the high number of Si-Kα X-rays generated in the sample, several filters were employed to optimize the reduction of the Si-Kα signal, while maintaining acceptable intensities of the other relevant X-ray lines. Two proton beam energies were tested, to establish the signal to noise ratio in different X-ray energies. Spectra were fitted with the software GUPIX, using a matrix composition determined with electron beam excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Above the energy of the silicon X-ray, several trace elements were quantified.

  17. Major and trace elements in igneous rocks from Apollo 15.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Blanchard, D. P.; Haskin, L. A.; Telander, K.; Weiss, C.; Jacobs, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The concentrations of major and trace elements have been determined in igneous rocks from Apollo 15. All materials analyzed have typical depletions of Eu except for minerals separated from sample 15085. Four samples have concentrations of trace elements that are similar to those of KREEP. The samples of mare basalt from Apollo 15 have higher concentrations of FeO, MgO, Mn, and Cr and lower concentrations of CaO, Na2O, K2O, and rare-earth elements (REE) as compared to the samples of mare basalt from Apollos 11, 12, and 14. The samples can be divided into two groups on the basis of their normative compositions. One group is quartz normative and has low concentrations of FeO while the other is olivine normative and has high concentrations of FeO. The trace element data indicate that the samples of olivine normative basalt could be from different portions of a single lava flow.

  18. Trace elements in human hair: an international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Imai, S.; Ohmori, Y.; Masuda, T.; Vinson, J.A.; Mehra, M.C.; Puri, B.K.; Kaniewski, A.

    1986-06-01

    Hair as a biological tissue is unique in the sense that it serves as an accumulator for trace elements, and in addition, it is formed in relatively short period of time and remains isolated from the metabolic events in the human body. In view of the interest in the distribution of trace elements in human hair an international survey was conducted to study their distribution in populations of different origin. Hair samples drawn from North America (USA, Canada), Europe (Poland) and Asia (Japan and India) were analyzed for 21 trace elements. An attempt was also made to observe a correlation, if any, between elemental concentration, age, sex and living habits of the individuals in a particular country.

  19. Trace element-sulfide mineral association in eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, G.M.

    1989-03-01

    Eastern oil shales including the Chattanooga Shale in Tennessee and the various other time-equivalent black shales in the central portion of the United States represent a major source of hydrocarbons. A primary concern for the development of eastern oil shale and all fossil fuels is the high concentration of sulfide minerals and associated with these materials. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate trace elements in sulfide minerals from a Chattanooga Shale core from central Tennessee and (2) establish mineral residence and stratigraphic distribution of selected trace elements. Previous researchers have suggested the residency of the trace elements As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Mo, Ni, and Zn as being sulfide minerals, either as separate distinct phases, inclusions, or isomorphous substitution. The most significant contribution derived from the present study is the direct observation and association of selected trace and minor elements with sulfide minerals. Rather than an indirect or inferred trace element- sulfide mineral association, sulfide mineral phases were isolated allowing the morphology and composition to be directly evaluated. 9 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Apollo 16: a trace element perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A brief summary of some inferences regarding the Apollo 16 site that can be arrived at from incompatible element-geochemical data is presented. We use a set of elements not exploited to address some of the questions about the geology of the Apollo 16 site and the evolution of the highlands crust. Others have recognized the great difficulty in disentangling the complex history of the highlands on the basis of petrographic and compositional data. We have previously attempted to reconcile a relatively few interelement relationships with information from many other sources. The Apollo 16 site and the significance of Apollo 16 samples have been examined from the perspectives of data on Cl, P, Ru and Os for the most part and also, in a few cases, data on the heavy metals Pb, Tl and Bi.

  1. Plutonium oxalate precipitation for trace elemental determination in plutonium materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Ning; Gallimore, David; Lujan, Elmer; Garduno, Katherine; Walker, Laurie; Taylor, Fiona; Thompson, Pam; Tandon, Lav

    2015-05-26

    In this study, an analytical chemistry method has been developed that removes the plutonium (Pu) matrix from the dissolved Pu metal or oxide solution prior to the determination of trace impurities that are present in the metal or oxide. In this study, a Pu oxalate approach was employed to separate Pu from trace impurities. After Pu(III) was precipitated with oxalic acid and separated by centrifugation, trace elemental constituents in the supernatant were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy with minimized spectral interferences from the sample matrix.

  2. Off-axis measurements of atmospheric trace gases by use of an airborne ultraviolet-visible spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Petritoli, Andrea; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Bortoli, Daniele; Bonafè, Ubaldo; Kostadinov, Ivan; Oulanovsky, Alexey

    2002-09-20

    An airborne UV-visible spectrometer, the Gas Analyzer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences, airborne version (GASCOD/A4pi) was successfully operated during the Airborne Polar Experiment, Geophysica Aircraft in Antarctica airborne campaign from Ushuaia (54 degrees 49' S, 68 degrees 18' W), Argentina in southern spring 1999. The instrument measured scattered solar radiation through three optical windows with a narrow field of view (FOV), one from the zenith, two from the horizontal, as well as actinic fluxes through 2pi FOV radiometric heads. Only a few airborne measurements of scattered solar radiation at different angles from the zenith are available in the literature. With our configuration we attempted to obtain the average line-of-sight concentrations of detectable trace gases. The retrieval method, based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy, is described and results for ozone are shown and compared with measurements from an in situ instrument as the first method of validation. PMID:12269557

  3. Off-axis measurements of atmospheric trace gases by use of an airborne ultraviolet-visible spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petritoli, Andrea; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Giovanelli, Giorgio; Bortoli, Daniele; Bonafè, Ubaldo; Kostadinov, Ivan; Oulanovsky, Alexey

    2002-09-01

    An airborne UV-visible spectrometer, the Gas Analyzer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences, airborne version (GASCOD/A4π) was successfully operated during the Airborne Polar Experiment, Geophysica Aircraft in Antarctica airborne campaign from Ushuaia (54°49'S, 68°18'W), Argentina in southern spring 1999. The instrument measured scattered solar radiation through three optical windows with a narrow field of view (FOV), one from the zenith, two from the horizontal, as well as actinic fluxes through 2π FOV radiometric heads. Only a few airborne measurements of scattered solar radiation at different angles from the zenith are available in the literature. With our configuration we attempted to obtain the average line-of-sight concentrations of detectable trace gases. The retrieval method, based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy, is described and results for ozone are shown and compared with measurements from an in situ instrument as the first method of validation.

  4. Ureilites - Trace element clues to their origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssens, Marie-Josee; Hertogen, Jan; Wolf, Rainer; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Anders, Edward

    1987-01-01

    The question of the origin of ureilites was reexamined using new data obtained by radiochemical NAA for Ag, Au, Bi, Br, Cd, Cs, Ge, In, Ir, Ni, Pd, Os, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn in two vein separates from Haveroe and Kenna and a bulk sample of Kenna. Vein material was found to be enriched in all elements analyzed, except Zn, and to account for most of the carbon, noble gases, and, presumably, siderophiles in the meteorite. The results support the earlier interpretation of Higuchi et al. (1976) on the composition of ureilite parent body (similar to C3V or H3, but not C3O chondrites).

  5. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO).

  6. Quality reference values of trace elements in Brazilian organosols.

    PubMed

    Lima, Erica Souto Abreu; do Amaral Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil; de Paiva, Filipe Soares Diniz; Coutinho, Izabella Bezerra; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio; Zonta, Everaldo

    2016-07-01

    Determination of the natural background levels of trace elements in organosols and the proposal of quality reference values (QRVs) for these elements are essential for monitoring these soils because they are fragile and subject to change more intensely and rapidly than other soil classes. Given the above information, the objectives of this study were to determine the QRVs of trace elements for organosols and to correlate some soil properties with the occurrence of these elements. Forty organic soil horizon samples from different regions of Brazil were selected to determine the pseudo-total content of trace elements. The samples were separated into three groups according to a cluster analysis. The soil variable Fe and C contents had the strongest influence on the trace element contents in the organosols and were therefore used in the group classification functions. QRVs were proposed according to the 75th percentiles of the groups. The classification functions are a suitable tool for the allocation of new samples into previously established groups and may potentially be used to estimate the degree of organosol degradation. PMID:27317053

  7. Trace element concentration of central Appalachian coal beds

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, M.; Miller, M.S.

    1996-09-01

    As a result of more stringent environmental regulations, there is increasing demand for coal beds with lower sulfur and trace element concentrations. Unfortunately, due to technical difficulties associated with the detection of elemental composition in parts-per-million, reliable trace element is scarce. Examination of the U.S.G.S. COALQUAL database of Appalachian coals was conducted for the following metals: antimony, arsenic, chromium, lead, and mercury. Within an area of approximately 14,000 square miles, 1,500 raw (core, underground and surface mine) coal samples with geographic coordinates were examined, and more than 100 named coal seams from Tennessee, southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia were investigated. Some samples were obtained from formerly active mines which have since been depleted. Researchers have identified approximately 80 coal-related minerals including clays, carbonates, phosphates, chlorides, silicates, sulfates, and sulfides and, of these, sulfides have been found in chemical association with some trace elements. Quality trends over a broad region provide insights into geochemical and depositional processes which may have influenced trace element content. Furthermore, recently published E.P.R.I. data from {open_quotes}as-shipped{close_quotes} coal samples (located by state only) demonstrate similar patterns at the state level. Analysis of these data generally indicates a geographic and stratigraphic preference for coal beds with lower levels of trace elements along the southern edge of the Appalachian coal fields. While these quality trends may be a reasonably good first approximation, additional sampling is needed in minable reserve areas to further identify coal seams which possess favorable trace metal concentrations.

  8. Vitamins and trace elements: practical aspects of supplementation.

    PubMed

    Berger, Mette M; Shenkin, Alan

    2006-09-01

    The role of micronutrients in parenteral nutrition include the following: (1) Whenever artificial nutrition is indicated, micronutrients, i.e., vitamins and trace elements, should be given from the first day of artificial nutritional support. (2) Testing blood levels of vitamins and trace elements in acutely ill patients is of very limited value. By using sensible clinical judgment, it is possible to manage patients with only a small amount of laboratory testing. (3) Patients with major burns or major trauma and those with acute renal failure who are on continuous renal replacement therapy or dialysis quickly develop acute deficits in some micronutrients, and immediate supplementation is essential. (4) Other groups at risk are cancer patients, but also pregnant women with hyperemesis and people with anorexia nervosa or other malnutrition or malabsorption states. (5) Clinicians need to treat severe deficits before they become clinical deficiencies. If a patient develops a micronutrient deficiency state while in care, then there has been a severe failure of care. (6) In the early acute phase of recovery from critical illness, where artificial nutrition is generally not indicated, there may still be a need to deliver micronutrients to specific categories of very sick patients. (7) Ideally, trace element preparations should provide a low-manganese product for all and a manganese-free product for certain patients with liver disease. (8) High losses through excretion should be minimized by infusing micronutrients slowly, over as long a period as possible. To avoid interactions, it would be ideal to infuse trace elements and vitamins separately: the trace elements over an initial 12-h period and the vitamins over the next 12-h period. (9) Multivitamin and trace element preparations suitable for most patients requiring parenteral nutrition are widely available, but individual patients may require additional supplements or smaller amounts of certain micronutrients

  9. Mercury and trace elements in crayfish from northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, R.L.; Bergen, D.R.; Bauer, M.L.; Crayon, J.J.; Meckstroth, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    We collected two species of crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus and Procambarus clarkii, from Cache and Putah Creeks, California, and analyzed them for mercury and trace elements. Trace elements were higher in carcasses in 40 cases, higher in tails in 5 cases, and not different in 35 cases; no concentration exceeded levels considered harmful. Mercury concentrations were similar among sites, with no overall sex or species effect in tails. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations were higher in tails at all sites. Methylmercury concentrations in crayfish tails (0.156-0.256 ??g/g) exceeded concentrations reported in health advisories for consumption of fish and crayfish from these watersheds. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  10. Trace elements in rims and interiors of Chainpur chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkening, L. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Hill, D. H.

    1984-05-01

    Trace elements were measured in the rims and interiors of nine chondrules separated from the Chainpur LL-3 chondrite. Whole rock samples of Chainpur and samples of separated rims were also measured. Chondrule rims are moderately enriched in siderophile and volatile elements relative to the chondrule interiors. The enriched volatile elements include the lithophilic volatile element Zn. The moderate enrichment of volatiles in chondrule rims and the lack of severe depletion in chondrules can account for the complete volatile inventory in Chainpur. These results support a three-component model of chondrite formation in which metal plus sulfide, chondrules plus rims and matrix silicates are mixed to form chondrites.

  11. Cryptic trace-element alteration of Anorthosite, Stillwater complex, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, G.K.; Loferski, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Evidence of cryptic alteration and correlations among K, Ba, and LREE concentrations indicate that a post-cumulus, low-density aqueous fluid phase significantly modified the trace-element contents of samples from Anorthosite zones I and II of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Concentrations of Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sc, Sr, Th, Zn, and the rare-earth elements (REE) were measured in whole rocks and plagioclase separates from five traverses across the two main plagioclase cumulate (anorthosite) zones and the contiguous cumulates of the Stillwater Complex in an attempt to better understand the origin and solidification of the anorthosites. However, nearly the entire observed compositional range for many trace elements can be duplicated at a single locality by discriminating between samples rich in oikocrystic pyroxene and those which are composed almost entirely of plagioclase and show anhedral-granular texture. Plagioclase separates with high trace-element contents were obtained from the pyroxene-poor samples, for which maps of K concentration show plagioclase grains to contain numerous fractures hosting a fine-grained, K-rich phase, presumed to be sericite. Secondary processes in layered intrusions have the potential to cause cryptic disturbance, and the utmost care must be taken to ensure that samples provide information about primary processes. Although plagioclase from Anorthosite zones I and II shows significant compositional variation, there are no systematic changes in the major- or trace-element compositions of plagioclase over as much as 630 m of anorthosite thickness or 18 km of strike length. Plagioclase in the two major anorthosite zones shows little distinction in trace-element concentrations from plagioclase in the cumulates immediately below, between, and above these zones.

  12. Emission spectrographic determination of trace elements in lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Annell, C.; Helz, A.

    1970-01-01

    Eighteen minor or trace elements were detected and determined by emission spectroscopy. Direct d-c arc excitation of powdered samples was used with three variations in the procedure. Thirteen lunar samples consisting of four fine-grained igneous rocks, one medium-grained igneous rock, seven breccias, and one sample of fines were analyzed. The zinc and nickel concentrations in the breccias were approximately one order of magnitude greater than the concentrations of these elements in igneous rocks.

  13. Effect of sewage sludge on trace element mobility in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritse, R.G.; Vriesema, R.; Dalenberg, J.W.; de Roos, H.P.

    1982-07-01

    Adsorption of Be, F, B, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Tc, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi, and P was measured in a sandy soil and a sandy loam soil at concentration levels closely corresponding to those to be expected for field conditions. Mobilities of the elements in the soils were calculated from the adsorption data. Of the trace elements studied, F, B, and Tc were found to be very mobile in both the sandy and sandy loam sils. Manganese, Sr, and Sb were highly mobile only in the sandy soil, and Mo in the sandy loam soil. In general, sludge solutions appeared to increase the mobility of elements in a soil. This is due to a combination of complexation by dissolved organic compounds, high background concentrations, and high ionic strengths of the soil solutions. The relative effects of these factors vary strongly among elements. Equations were derived predicting the rates of accumulation in soils and accompanying increases in the soil solutions of trace elements added with sewage sludge. When adsorption was related to soil organic matter content, for many trace elements the strength of adsorption was found to depend only on pH, increasing with increasing pH.

  14. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF SELECTED TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a theoretical investigation of the disposition of five volatile trace elements (arsenic, boron, lead, selenium, and mercury) in SNG-producing coal gasification plants. Three coal gasification processes (dry-bottom Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, and HYGAS) were...

  15. Trace-Element Concentrations in Northwest Africa 032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Wang, A.; Gillis, J. J.; Haskin, L. A.; Fagan, T. J.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    2001-01-01

    Trace-element concentrations (INAA) are presented for four samples of the NWA 032 lunar meteorite. The mare basalt has a moderately high Th concentration (1.9 ppm) and a higher Th/REE ratio than any other known mare basalt. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. REMOVAL OF TRACE ELEMENTS FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lime neutralization, reverse osmosis, and ion exchange were studied for their effectiveness in removing mg/l levels of ten specific trace elements from spiked acid mine drainage under typical operating conditions. The specified toxic materials were arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromi...

  17. Toxic Trace Elements in the Hair of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fido, Abdullahi; Al-Saad, Samira

    2005-01-01

    Excess or deficiency of natural trace elements has been implicated in the etiology of autism. This study explores whether concentration levels of toxic metals in the hair of children with autism significantly differ from those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In-hair concentration levels of antimony, uranium, arsenic, beryllium, mercury,…

  18. Trace Elements concentration and distribution across the Lake Chad Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndunguru, G. G.; Goni, I. B.; Mulugeta, V.; Grindley, J.; Banks, M. L.; Lee, J.; Adegoke, J. O.

    2009-12-01

    The Lake Chad, which is the largest Lake in West Africa, is situated between the latitude 12 ½ and 14 ½ north and longitude 130 east of the Southern fringe of the Sahara Desert. About 25 % of the Lake Chad lies within Nigeria, while the Republic of Cameroon, Chad and Niger share the rest of it. Lake Chad is completely landlocked and has no outlets; therefore loss of water is mainly through high rates of evaporation unlike similar Lakes in other parts of the World. The Lake Chad waters are fresh and of good quality with very low salt content which makes it suitable for irrigated agriculture. This study was carried out from upper stream to lower stream leading from Kano to the Damaturu region which is one of several water bodies that supply Lake Chad. Soil samples were collected from over seventy five sites and analyzed for ten Trace Elements(Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn,Fe, Mo, Pb, Zn, and Cr) using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)-OES. Assessment and Monitoring of Trace Elements concentrations are vital because they impact environment and can affect the human healthy. Since little is known about the Trace Elements status in Lake Chad Basin. The result in this study provides baseline information on the distribution and concentration of Trace Elements along the Lake Chad Basin.

  19. Accumulation of trace elements by Pistia stratiotes: implications for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Odjegba, V J; Fasidi, I O

    2004-10-01

    The toxicity of eight potentially toxic trace elements (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) to Pistia stratiotes was examined to determine if this plant showed sufficient tolerance and metal accumulation to be used to phytoremediate waste water and/or natural water bodies polluted with these heavy metals. Young plants of equal size were grown hydroponically and amended with 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mM of each heavy metal individually for 21 days. Root elongation as well as emergence of new roots decreased significantly with increase in metal concentrations. The plant had the lowest and the highest tolerance indices for Hg and Zn respectively. The study indicated reduction in the rate of leaf expansion relative to metal type, their concentrations and the duration of exposure. A significant reduction in biomass production was observed in metal treated plants compared with the control plants. The relative growth rate of P. stratiotes was retarded by heavy metals under study. All trace elements accumulated to higher concentrations in root tissue rather than in shoot. Trace element accumulation in tissues and the bioconcentration factors were proportional to the initial concentration of individual metals in the growth medium and the duration of exposure. In terms of trace element removal, P. stratiotes presented differential accumulation and tolerance levels for different metals at similar treatment conditions. The implications of these results for phytoremediation are discussed. PMID:15673213

  20. Trace elements removal from water using modified activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Campos, V; Buchler, P M

    2008-02-01

    This paper present the possible alternative options for the remove of trace elements from drinking water supplies in the trace. Arsenic and chromium are two of the most toxic pollutants, introduced into natural waters from a variety of sources and causing various adverse effects on living bodies. The performance of three filter bed methods was evaluated in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted to investigate the sorption of arsenic and chromium on carbon steel and removal of trace elements from drinking water with a household filtration process. The affinity of the arsenic and chromium species for Fe/Fe3C (iron/iron carbide) sites is the key factor controlling the removal of the elements. The method is based on the use of powdered block carbon, powder carbon steel and ceramic spheres in the ion-sorption columns as a cleaning process. The modified powdered block carbon is a satisfactory and economical sorbent for trace elements (arsenite and chromate) dissolved in water due to its low unit cost of about $23 and compatibility with the traditional household filtration system. PMID:18613611

  1. Improved electron probe microanalysis of trace elements in quartz

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather; Rusk, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Quartz occurs in a wide range of geologic environments throughout the Earth's crust. The concentration and distribution of trace elements in quartz provide information such as temperature and other physical conditions of formation. Trace element analyses with modern electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) instruments can achieve 99% confidence detection of ~100 ppm with fairly minimal effort for many elements in samples of low to moderate average atomic number such as many common oxides and silicates. However, trace element measurements below 100 ppm in many materials are limited, not only by the precision of the background measurement, but also by the accuracy with which background levels are determined. A new "blank" correction algorithm has been developed and tested on both Cameca and JEOL instruments, which applies a quantitative correction to the emitted X-ray intensities during the iteration of the sample matrix correction based on a zero level (or known trace) abundance calibration standard. This iterated blank correction, when combined with improved background fit models, and an "aggregate" intensity calculation utilizing multiple spectrometer intensities in software for greater geometric efficiency, yields a detection limit of 2 to 3 ppm for Ti and 6 to 7 ppm for Al in quartz at 99% t-test confidence with similar levels for absolute accuracy.

  2. Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: 3. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, J.H.; Zayed, A.; Zhu, Y.L.; Yu, M.; Terry, N.

    1999-10-01

    Interest is increasing in using wetland plants in constructed wetlands to remove toxic elements from polluted wastewater. To identify those wetland plants that hyperaccumulate trace elements, 12 plant species were tested for their efficiency to bioconcentrate 10 potentially toxic trace elements including As, b, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Se. Individual plants were grown under carefully controlled conditions and supplied with 1 mg L{sup {minus}1} of each trace element individually for 10 d. Except B, all elements accumulated to much higher concentrations in roots than in shoots. Highest shoot tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW) of the various trace elements were attained by the following species: umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius L.) for Mn (198) and Cr (44); water zinnia (Wedelia trilobata Hitchc.) for Cd (148) and Ni (80); smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) for Cu (95) and Pb (64); water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for Hg (92), As (34), and Se (39); and mare's tail (hippuris vulgaris L.) for B (1132). Whereas, the following species attained the highest root tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW); stripped rush (Baumia rubiginosa) for Mn (1683); parrot's feather (Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb.) for Cd (1426) and Ni (1077); water lettuce for Cu (1038), Hg (1217), and As (177); smartweed for Cr (2980) and Pb (1882); mare's tail for B (1277); and monkey flower (Mimulus guttatus Fisch.) for Se (384). From a phytoremediation perspective, smartweed was probably the best plant species for trace element removal from wastewater due to its faster growth and higher plant density.

  3. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  4. Association of trace elements with iron oxides during rock weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Koons, R.D.; Helmke, P.A.; Jackson, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    The association of trace elements with Fe oxides during the early stages of rock weathering was determined by analysis of fresh diabase and granite rocks, their associated whole and size-separated saprolites, and goethite by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence. The same elements are found to be associated with Fe oxides when the results are interpreted by analysis of correlation, by the distribution of elements in the various size fractions by the effects of removing free Fe oxides, and by direct analysis of geothite from the saprolite. The elements Co, Cr, Mn, Sc, Th, U, Zn, and the heavy rare-earth elements during the weathering of diabase, and As, Co, Cr, Sc, Th, U, Zn, and the heavy rare-earth elements during the weathering of granite are associated with Fe oxides. The concentrations of Mn are too low in this system to separate the effects of Mn oxides from those of Fe oxides.

  5. Toxic and trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, M.; Masironi, R.

    1992-01-01

    While the harmful health effects of carbon monoxide, nicotine, tar, irritants and other noxious gases that are present in tobacco smoke are well known, those due to heavy metals and other toxic mineral elements in tobacco smoke are not sufficiently emphasized. Tobacco smoking influences the concentrations of several elements in some organs. This review summarizes the known effects of some trace elements and other biochemically important elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Po-210, Se, and Zn) which are linked with smoking. Cigarette smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements not only to the smoker but also, through passive smoking, to nonsmokers. The adverse health effects of these toxic elements on the fetus through maternal smoking, and on infants through parental smoking, are of special concern. PMID:1600587

  6. Trace and minor elements in sphalerite from metamorphosed sulphide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockington, Julian A.; Cook, Nigel J.; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.

    2014-12-01

    Sphalerite is a common sulphide and is the dominant ore mineral in Zn-Pb sulphide deposits. Precise determination of minor and trace element concentrations in sulphides, including sphalerite, by Laser-Ablation Inductively-Coupled-Plasma Mass-Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a potentially valuable petrogenetic tool. In this study, LA-ICP-MS is used to analyse 19 sphalerite samples from metamorphosed, sphalerite-bearing volcanic-associated and sedimentary exhalative massive sulphide deposits in Norway and Australia. The distributions of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ga, Se, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi are addressed with emphasis on how concentrations of these elements vary with metamorphic grade of the deposit and the extent of sulphide recrystallization. Results show that the concentrations of a group of trace elements which are believed to be present in sphalerite as micro- to nano-scale inclusions (Pb, Bi, and to some degree Cu and Ag) diminish with increasing metamorphic grade. This is interpreted as due to release of these elements during sphalerite recrystallization and subsequent remobilization to form discrete minerals elsewhere. The concentrations of lattice-bound elements (Mn, Fe, Cd, In and Hg) show no correlation with metamorphic grade. Primary metal sources, physico-chemical conditions during initial deposition, and element partitioning between sphalerite and co-existing sulphides are dominant in defining the concentrations of these elements and they appear to be readily re-incorporated into recrystallized sphalerite, offering potential insights into ore genesis. Given that sphalerite accommodates a variety of trace elements that can be precisely determined by contemporary microanalytical techniques, the mineral has considerable potential as a geothermometer, providing that element partitioning between sphalerite and coexisting minerals (galena, chalcopyrite etc.) can be quantified in samples for which the crystallization temperature can be independently

  7. Survey of chemical speciation of trace elements using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Information concerning the chemical state of trace elements in biological systems generally has not been available. Such information for toxic elements and metals in metalloproteins could prove extremely valuable in the elucidation of their metabolism and other biological processes. The shielding of core electrons by binding electrons affect the energy required for creating inner-shell holes. Furthermore, the molecular binding and the symmetry of the local environment of an atom affect the absorption spectrum in the neighborhood of the absorption edge. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) using synchrotron radiation excitation can be used to provide chemical speciation information for trace elements at concentrations as low as 10 ppM. The structure and position of the absorption curve in the region of an edge can yield vital data about the local structure and oxidation state of the trace element in question. Data are most easily interpreted by comparing the observed edge structure and position with those of model compounds of the element covering the entire range of possible oxidation states. Examples of such analyses are reviewed. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Correlation of trace elements in hair with colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Cholewa, M.; Kajfosz, J.; Jones, K.W.; Shore, R.E.; Redrick, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The trace element content of 116 hair samples from patients with colon cancer and from referent series of patients who had a variety of other diseases were measured using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE). The patients had been on largely uncontrolled diets, and the interest was whether there were differences in trace element concentrations attributable to the effects of colon cancer. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, and Rb were determined using a beam of 2.5-MeV protons. Minimum detectable limits (MDL) of 0.3 ppM were obtained for Zn and Se. Cluster analysis of the data set did not reveal any significant differences between the cancer and control groups. Mean values and ranges obtained for the elemental concentrations show good agreement with other published determinations. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Role of trace elements in somatic embryogenesis A PIXE study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, P.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Mishra, D.; Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.

    2008-03-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission was used to study the trace elemental profiles of embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus of an important cash crop of India - Plantago ovata. Somatic embryogenesis, a well-known process for plant regeneration and crop improvement is modulated by various factors such as ionizing radiation and micro nutrients in the growth media. The present work reports the trace element variation in normal and irradiated callus tissue of P. ovata. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus tissues were exposed to gamma rays from a 60Co gamma source. The absorbed dose ranged from 10 to 100 Gy. Subsequent experiments showed significant dose dependent alterations in K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr in both the embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. The precise involvement of these elements has been discussed in light of somatic embryogenesis of the selected medicinal plant.

  10. Trace element analysis by PIXE in several biomedical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, G.; Robaye, G.; Bartsch, P.; Collignon, A.; Beguin, Y.; Roelandts, I.; Delbrouck, J. M.

    1984-04-01

    Since 1980 in the University of Liége trace element analysis by PIXE has been developed in several directions, among these: the elemental composition of lung parenchyma, hilar lymph nodes, blood content in hematological disorders and renal insufficiency. The content in trace elements of lung tumor and surrounding tissue is measured and compared to similar content previously obtained on unselected patients of comparable ages. The normalization of the bromine deficiency observed in hemodialized patients is achieved by using a dialyzing bath doped with NaBr in order to obtain a normal bromine level of 5.7 μg/ml. The content of Cu, Zn, Br and Se in blood serum from more than 100 patients suffering from malignant hemopathy has been measured. The results are compared with a reference group. These oligoelements have also been measured sequentially for patients under intensive chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia.

  11. [Comparative study on trace elements in benefit traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Fan, Wen-Xiu

    2007-07-01

    The contents of trace elements Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe in 20 kinds of benefit traditional Chinese medicines were determined by FAAS. The recovery rates obtained by standard addition method is between 96.8% and 104.3%, and the RSD is lower than 2.0%. The results of the determination show that benefit traditional Chinese medicines are rich in trace elements such as Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe. Hematonic has the highest content of Fe. The content of Zn, Mn and Fe is relatively high in Qi-invigorating drugs. The content of Zn and Mn is relatively high in maletonic, while Yin-nourishing drugs have lower content of Fe. The results will provide scientific data for the study on the elements in benefit traditional Chinese medicines and on their relativity of efficacy of medicine. PMID:17944431

  12. Trace element analysis of coal by neutron activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The irradiation, counting, and data reduction scheme is described for an analysis capability of 1000 samples per year. Up to 56 elements are reported on each sample. The precision and accuracy of the method are shown for 25 elements designated as hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The interference corrections for selenium and ytterbium on mercury and ytterbium on selenium are described. The effect of bromine and antimony on the determination of arsenic is also mentioned. The use of factorial design techniques to evaluate interferences in the determination of mercury, selenium, and arsenic is shown. Some typical trace element results for coal, fly ash, and bottom ash are given.

  13. Trace-element abundances in several new ureilites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, William V.; Hill, Dolores H.

    1993-01-01

    Four new ureilites are analyzed for trace-element abundances. Frontier Mountain (FRO) 90054 is an augite-rich ureilite and has high rare earth element (REE) abundances with a pattern expected of augite. FRO 90036 and Acfer 277 have REE patterns similar to the V-shape pattern of other ureilites. Nuevo Mercurio (b) has very high REE abundances, but they look like they are due to terrestrial alteration. The siderophile-element pattern of these ureilites are similar to those of known ureilites.

  14. Trace element analysis of coal by neutron activation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The irradiation, counting, and data reduction scheme is described for an analysis capability of 1000 samples per year. Up to 56 elements are reported on each sample. The precision and accuracy of the method are shown for 25 elements designated as hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The interference corrections for selenium and ytterbium on mercury and ytterbium on selenium are described. The effect of bromine and antimony on the determination of arsenic is also mentioned. The use of factorial design techniques to evaluate interferences in the determination of mercury, selenium, and arsenic is shown. Some typical trace element results for coal, fly ash, and bottom ash are given.

  15. Airborne Measurements of Formaldehyde Employing a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer During TRACE-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fried, Alan; Drummond, James

    2003-01-01

    This final report summarizes the progress achieved over the entire 3-year proposal period including two extensions spanning 1 year. These activities include: 1) Preparation for and participation in the NASA 2001 TRACE-P campaign using our airborne tunable diode laser system to acquire measurements of formaldehyde (CH2O); 2) Comprehensive data analysis and data submittal to the NASA archive; 3) Follow up data interpretation working with NASA modelers to place our ambient CH2O measurements into a broader photochemical context; 4) Publication of numerous JGR papers using this data; 5) Extensive follow up laboratory tests on the selectivity and efficiency of our CH20 scrubbing system; and 6) An extensive follow up effort to assess and study the mechanical stability of our entire optical system, particularly the multipass absorption cell, with aircraft changes in cabin pressure.

  16. The airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer - A new instrument of remote measurement of atmospheric trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S.; Menzies, R. T.

    1978-01-01

    The Laser Absorption Spectrometer is a portable instrument developed by JPL for remote measurement of trace gases from an aircraft platform. It contains two carbon dioxide lasers, two optical heterodyne receivers, appropriate optics to aim the lasers at the ground and detect the backscattered energy, and signal processing and recording electronics. Operating in the differential-absorption mode, it is possible to monitor one atmospheric gas at a time and record the data in real time. The system can presently measure ozone, ethylene, water vapor, and chlorofluoromethanes with high sensitivity. Airborne measurements were made in early 1977 from the NASA/JPL twin-engine Beechcraft and in May 1977 from the NASA Convair 990 during the ASSESS-II Shuttle Simulation Study. These flights resulted in measurements of ozone concentrations in the lower troposphere which were compared with ground-based values provided by the Air Pollution Control District. This paper describes the details of the instrument and results of the airborne measurements.

  17. HUMAN SCALP HAIR: AN ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE INDEX FOR TRACE ELEMENTS. II. SEVENTEEN TRACE ELEMENTS IN FOUR NEW JERSEY COMMUNITIES (1972)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seventeen trace elements - arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickle (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), tin (Sn), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn) - were measured in human sca...

  18. Preconcentration and Speciation of Trace Elements and Trace-Element Analogues of Radionuclides by Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chatt, A.

    1999-11-14

    We have developed a number of preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) methods in our laboratory for the determination of trace elements in a variety of complex sample matrices. We developed a number of cocrystallization and coprecipitation methods for the determination of trace elements in water samples. We developed several methods for the determination of I in foods and diets. We have developed a number of PNAA methods in our laboratory We determined As and Sb in geological materials and natural waters by coprecipitation with Se and Au in silicate rocks and ores by coprecipitation with Te followed by NAA. We developed an indirect NAA method for the determination of B in leachates of borosilicate glass. We have been interested in studying the speciation of Am, Tc, and Np in simulated vitrified groundwater leachates of high-level wastes under oxid and anoxic conditions using a number of techniques. We then used PNAA methods to study speciation of trace-element analogues of radionuclides. We have been able to apply biochemical techniques and NAA for the separation, preconcentration, and characterization of metalloprotein and protein-bound trace-element species in subcellular fractions of bovine kidneys. Lately, we have concentrated our efforts to develop chemical and biochemical methods in conjunction with NAA, NMR, and MS for the separation and identification of extractable organohalogens (EOX) in tissues of beluga whales, cod, and northern pink shrimp

  19. Trace element nutrition of infants--molecular approaches.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Newborn infants are exposed to widely varying intakes of trace elements, but little is known about their ability to homeostatically adjust to these intakes. Recent discoveries of several metal ion transporters in the small intestine are likely to enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms regulating trace element absorption. Iron absorption is regulated by divalent metal ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1). Studies on human infants have shown that young infants cannot regulate iron absorption, whereas older infants can. Our studies on infant rat pups show that there is no regulation of DMT1 and FPN1 at young age, but that this develops at older age. These findings may explain adverse effects of iron supplementation on growth in young human infants. Zinc absorption in the small intestine is regulated by the transporters ZnT1, ZnT2, ZnT4 and Zip-4 and zinc status affects the expression of these transporters in an attempt to achieve zinc homeostasis. Copper absorption is regulated by the transporters Ctrl, Atp7A and Atp7B, and exposure to copper at early age affects the expression and cellular localization of these proteins, affecting copper uptake and transport. To date, most studies on homeostatic regulation of trace mineral absorption have been done in cell systems and animal models; further studies on human infants are needed. The consequences of trace element interactions during infancy also need to be investigated in more detail. PMID:16240664

  20. Vaporization, condensation, and emission of trace elements from coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Senior, C.L.; Morency, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    The emissions of many trace elements found in coal are regulated under the provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Because the emission of an element is related to its volatility, minimization of trace element emissions from coal gasification systems requires a thorough understanding of the volatilization and condensation processes. Choosing Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal as a standard, entrained flow gasification experiments were conducted in a laboratory flow reactor under different oxidant-to-fuel ratios. Fly ash particles generated during gasification were sampled, nitrogen-quenched at approximately 10{sup 4} K/s, and size-segregated on-line using a cascade impactor and polycarbonate filter. A carbon trap was used to retain any residual vapors. Examination of the concentration of trace elements in the ash as a function of fly ash particle size revealed the differing extent of volatilization for different elements. For example, greater than 20% of the Se, Zn, and As vaporized under these conditions. In contrast, less than 1% of the U and Cr vaporized. Using these experimental data to define initial conditions, equilibrium calculations were conducted to identify the most probable gas-phase species for the elements Zn, As, and Se. These results were, in turn, sued to set input conditions for experiments designed to assess the feasibility of capturing these three elements with a sorbent at 550--650 C, temperatures associated with high-temperature sulfur removal. These experiments indicated that all three elements could be removed from the gas stream with silicate sorbents, suggesting that coal ash might be an effective sorbent material.

  1. Trace elements in 59 mostly highland moon rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, Mitsuru; Wolf, Rainer; Warren, Paul H.; Anders, Edward

    1992-01-01

    New chemical analyses for up to 26 trace elements, including seldom-determined highly siderophile elements Ir, Os, Re, Au, Pd, and Ge, for 59 lunar samples are reported. Most of these samples are polymict breccias from Apollo 16. Remarkably few have Group 7 (extremely low Au/Ir) meteoritic components. Several samples have uncommonly high Au/(Ir + Re) ratios, even higher than group 1L. Volatile-element enrichments are found in several fragments from rusty rock 66095. A matrix sample from fragmental breccia 60639 shows Cd and In enrichments, also observed previously in samples of anorthosite and mare basalt from the same breccia. Evidently, for these highly labile elements, chemical exchange has affected clasts that for most other elements are pristine.

  2. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    PubMed Central

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro- and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. It could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies. PMID:26911251

  3. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-02-01

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro- and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. It could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies.

  4. Trace elements in diabetic cardiomyopathy: An electrophysiological overview

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Nihal; Olgar, Yusuf; Ozdemir, Semir

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that Diabetes Mellitus leads to a specific cardiomyopathy apart from vascular disease and bring about high morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Recent clinical and experimental studies have extensively demonstrated that this cardiomyopathy causes impaired cardiac performance manifested by early diastolic and late systolic dysfunction. This impaired cardiac performance most probably have emerged upon the expression and activity of regulatory proteins such as Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, ryanodine receptor and phospholamban. Over years many therapeutic strategies have been recommended for treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Lately, inorganic elements have been suggested to have anti-diabetic effects due to their suggested ability to regulate glucose homeostasis, reduce oxidative stress or suppress phosphatases. Recent findings have shown that trace elements exert many biological effects including insulin-mimetic or antioxidant activity and in this manner they have been recommended as potential candidates for treatment of diabetes-induced cardiac complications, an effect based on their modes of action. Some of these trace elements are known to play an essential role as component of enzymes and thus modulate the organ function in physiological and pathological conditions. Besides, they can also manipulate redox state of the channels via antioxidant properties and thus contribute to the regulation of [Ca2+]i homeostasis and cardiac ion channels. On account of little information about some trace elements, we discussed the effect of vanadium, selenium, zinc and tungstate on diabetic heart complications. PMID:23961319

  5. Elemental characterization of the airborne pollen surface using Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, Laura; Guimarães, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Helena; Sousa, Raquel; Abreu, Ilda

    2013-08-01

    Recent worldwide increase in pollinoses has been attributed to the synergy between pollen and pollutants. We used EPMA for the elemental characterization of the airborne pollen surface in order to find out what occurs to the wall of pollen grains when they are together with other atmospheric pollutants. Analyses were performed both to airborne pollen and to pollen that was collected from Acer spp., Platanus spp. and Pinus spp. trees. Airborne samples were assembled using a Hirst-type volumetric spore sampler set in the coastal city of Porto, Portugal. Airborne pollen samples showed major elemental differences when compared to the control pollen sample of the same species, namely in the amounts of Cl, Na and Mg, which very significantly increased on airborne samples, revealing an important influence of the ocean. Mineral dust also contributed to modify the pollen surface, by increasing Si contents on Acer spp. and Platanus spp. airborne pollen. Our results revealed consistent positive effects of the relative humidity and the precipitation in the increase of Cl, Na and Mg relative amounts on the pollen surface. This study shows that pollen grains have the ability to adsorb and/or absorb other materials, which may contribute to enhance pollen's harmful effects on people's health.

  6. Airborne Measurements of Trace Gases and Aerosols in Northern China: EAST-AIRE IOP 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Dickerson, R. R.; Li, Z.; Stehr, J. W.; Chen, H.; Marufu, L. T.

    2005-12-01

    To characterize the emission, transport and removal of pollutants and aerosols emitted from East Asia, a US-China joint field campaign was conducted from February to April in China under the EAST-AIRE project. Surface and airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols were made at different locations in northern China. In early April, eight research flights were conducted around Shenyang, an industrialized city with a population of about 6 million, 600 km northeast of Beijing. Parameters measured include SO2, CO, O3, aerosol size distribution, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients. During 4 of the 8 flights, the research aircraft made spirals over two suburban locations (~50 km south and north of the downtown area of Shenyang) to determine the detailed vertical distribution of trace gases and aerosols. Various weather patterns were encountered, allowing an examination of the roles of atmospheric circulation in transporting local pollutants to much larger areas. For example, the flights made ahead of the cold front showed fairly high concentrations of pollutants above the planetary boundary layer, probably lifted by the upward motion associated with the approaching cold fronts. On the other hand, much lower pollutant levels were found for the flights made behind the cold front. Also observed in one cold-sector flight is a level (~3000 m) with enhanced aerosol scattering but almost undetectable SO2. Back trajectory analysis using NOAA-HYSPLIT model suggests possible dust transport from source regions.

  7. Laser ablation and selective excitation directed to trace element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, V. H. S.

    1980-08-01

    A trace (element) analyser based on laser ablation and selectively excited radiation is proposed as an ultramicro-ultratrace technique for quantitative element analysis. Measurements of trace quantities of chromium in samples of NBS standard reference material (steel), doped skim milk powder and doped flour were undertaken. There is a linear 45 deg slope for Log/Log plot dependence of signal versus concentration that extends at least up to 1.3% (concentration by weight) in the case of chromium. The detection limit for the current unoptimized system is in the ppm range which corresponds to the absolute detection limit of 10 to the 13th power g. Although no chemical interference effects were observed, two physical interference effects were evident: differential mass vaporization and inhomogeneous spatial and temporal distribution of fast expanding analyte. The differential Doppler shift between the atoms along the line of observation reduces self-absorption even at high analyte concentrations.

  8. Vitamins, trace elements, and antioxidant status in dementia disorders.

    PubMed

    Tabet, N; Mantle, D; Walker, Z; Orrell, M

    2001-09-01

    Antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, have been proposed for the treatment of dementia disorders. Although other vitamins and trace elements may also have antioxidant-enhancing activities, it is not known whether the overall antioxidant status in dementia patients is associated with the intake level of these vitamins and trace elements. In this study, we assessed the levels of vitamins and trace elements in the diet of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and a group of carers, along with blood levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Results show that the dietary intake was decreased for most measured vitamins and trace elements in severe AD, but not in other dementia groups. In addition, we found no significant difference in the levels of TAC between any of the dementia groups. There was, however, a significant correlationbetween intake of vitamin B1, vitamin B12, zinc, and selenium and blood levels of TAC in the VaD group, but not in the AD and DLB groups. Furthermore, no association was observed in any of the dementia groups between zinc and copper intake and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activity, or between dietary selenium intake and glutathione peroxidase activity. The activities of these two endogenous antioxidant enzymes do not seem to be influenced by intake levels of relevant substances. The data indicate that the influence of dietary vitamins and metal ions on the overall antioxidant status is limited to VaD patients only. Clinical trials are needed to ascertain the value of antioxidant supplementation in VaD patients. PMID:11768374

  9. Sources and distribution of trace elements in Estonian peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orru, Hans; Orru, Mall

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the distribution of trace elements in Estonian mires. Sixty four mires, representative of the different landscape units, were analyzed for the content of 16 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb using AAS; Cd by GF-AAS; Hg by the cold vapour method; and V, Co, As, Sr, Mo, Th, and U by XRF) as well as other peat characteristics (peat type, degree of humification, pH and ash content). The results of the research show that concentrations of trace elements in peat are generally low: V 3.8 ± 0.6, Cr 3.1 ± 0.2, Mn 35.1 ± 2.7, Co 0.50 ± 0.05, Ni 3.7 ± 0.2, Cu 4.4 ± 0.3, Zn 10.0 ± 0.7, As 2.4 ± 0.3, Sr 21.9 ± 0.9, Mo 1.2 ± 0.2, Cd 0.12 ± 0.01, Hg 0.05 ± 0.01, Pb 3.3 ± 0.2, Th 0.47 ± 0.05, U 1.3 ± 0.2 μg g - 1 and S 0.25 ± 0.02%. Statistical analyses on these large database showed that Co has the highest positive correlations with many elements and ash content. As, Ni, Mo, ash content and pH are also significantly correlated. The lowest abundance of most trace elements was recorded in mires fed only by precipitation (ombrotrophic), and the highest in mires fed by groundwater and springs (minerotrophic), which are situated in the flood plains of river valleys. Concentrations usually differ between the superficial, middle and bottom peat layers, but the significance decreases depending on the type of mire in the following order: transitional mires - raised bogs - fens. Differences among mire types are highest for the superficial but not significant for the basal peat layers. The use of peat with high concentrations of trace elements in agriculture, horticulture, as fuel, for water purification etc., may pose a risk for humans: via the food chain, through inhalation, drinking water etc.

  10. Labile trace elements in carbonaceous chondrites - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiao, Xiaoyue; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    Data are presented on 14 trace elements, including Co, Au, Ga, Rb, Sb, Ag, Se, Cs, Te, Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl, and In (nearly all of which are moderately or highly labile in meteorites), obtained by radiochemical neutron activation analyses of 42 C2-C6 chondrites, all but three from Antarctica. The data indicate that carbonaceous chondrites of petrographic types 2-6 define compositional continua. It is suggested that carbonaceous C2-C6 chondrites may reflect a mixture of material that formed at low temperatures and that contained cosmic levels of highly labile elements, with material that was devoid of them.

  11. Serum Levels of Trace Elements in Patients with Testicular Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Mehmet; Pirinççi, Necip; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Demir, Murat; Akkoyun, HurremTuran; Demir, Halit

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Trace elements are primary components of biological structures; however, they can be toxic when their concentrations are higher than those needed for biological functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study serum levels of trace elements were measured in 30 patients (mean age was 26.9±11.2 years) newly diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and 32 healthy volunteers (mean age: 27.4±10.8) by using furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum samples were stored at-20°C until assays. Results: In patients with germ cell testicular cancer, the diagnosis was seminoma in 15, mix germ cell tumor in 7, embryonal carcinoma in 4, yolk sac tumor in 2 and teratoma in 2 patients. There was stage I testicular tumor in 19 patients (63.3%) while stage II in 6 patients (20.0%), stage IIIA in 4 patients (13.3%) and stage IIIC in one patient (3.4%). It was found that serum Co, Cu, Mg and Pb levels were increased (p<0.05), whereas Fe, Mn, and Zn levels were decreased in patients with testicular cancer (p<0.05). Conclusions: These alterations may be important in the pathogenesis of testicular cancers; however, further prospective studies are needed to identify the relationship between testicular cancer and trace elements. PMID:26742967

  12. Adsorption of trace elements from poultry litter by montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Bhaskaran; Gupta, Gian

    2006-01-16

    Poultry litter (PL) is used as fertilizer on agricultural lands because of its high nutrient content. However, the litter also contains trace elements such as As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. On land application of PL, these trace elements may be absorbed by crops, leach into groundwater, or enter the aquatic system as run-off. The objective of this research was to study the effect of the addition of montmorillonite clay-mineral (CM) in reducing the release of trace elements from PL. Cd, Cu, and Zn showed significant decreases of 29, 34, and 22%, respectively, in PL aqueous leachate (compared with the control-PL without CM) on mixing with 0.05 g CM but no change in As, Co, and Cr concentrations was observed. Lead showed a significant increase in PL aqueous leachate on mixing with 0.2 g CM but Pb concentration was two orders of magnitude less than in CM aqueous leachate alone. On washing, the settled precipitate (PL+CM) in the centrifuge tubes with water (desorption study) most of the adsorbed metals (Cd 85%, Cu 61%, and Zn 100%) were released. The results of this study show that the addition of CM resulted in significant adsorption of Cd and Cu from PL. PMID:16298051

  13. Concentrations of trace elements in Great Lakes fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, Henry F., Jr.; Edgington, David N.; Colby, Peter J.

    1970-01-01

    The concentration of 15 trace elements was determined by activation analysis of samples of whole fish and fish livers from three of the Great Lakes: Michigan, Superior, and Erie. The average concentrations of 7 elements in 19 whole fish from 3 species were as follows: uranium, 3 ppb (parts per billion); thorium, 6 ppb; cobalt, 28 ppb; cadmium, 94 ppb; arsenic, 16 ppb; chromium, 1 ppm; and copper, 1.3 ppm. The average concentrations of 8 elements in 40 liver samples from 10 species of fish were as follows: uranium, ~ 2 ppb; thorium, a?? 2 ppb; cobalt, 40 ppb; copper, 9 ppm; zinc, 30 ppm; bromine, 0.4 ppm; arsenic, 30 ppb; and cadmium, 0.4 ppm. Other elements observed in most of the samples were: antimony, 5-100 ppb; gold, 2-5 ppb; lanthanum, 1-20 ppb; rhenium, 0.5-5 ppb; rubidium, 0.06-4 ppm; and selenium, 0.1-2 ppb. Trace element concentrations varied with species and lake. Uranium and thorium varied with species, but not for the same species from different lakes. The levels of copper, cobalt, zinc, and bromine varied little between species and lakes. The concentration of cadmium, arsenic, and chromium varied between species and with species between lakes.

  14. Concentrations and bioaccessibilities of trace elements in barbecue charcoals.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Annabel; Turner, Andrew

    2013-11-15

    Total and bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) have been measured in charcoals from 15 barbecue products available from UK retailers. Total concentrations (available to boiling aqua regia) were greater in briquetted products (with mean concentrations ranging from 0.16 μg g(-1) for Cd to 3240 μg g(-1) for Al) than in lumpwoods (0.007 μg g(-1) for Cd to 28 μg g(-1) for Fe), presumably because of the use of additives and secondary constituents (e.g. coal) in the former. On ashing, and with the exception of Hg, elemental concentrations increased by factors ranging from about 1.5 to 50, an effect attributed to the combustion of organic components and offset to varying extents by the different volatilities of the elements. Concentrations in the ashed products that were bioaccessible, or available to a physiologically based extraction test (PBET) that simulates, successively, the chemical conditions in the human stomach and intestine, exhibited considerable variation among the elements studied. Overall, however, bioaccessible concentrations relative to corresponding total concentrations were greatest for As, Cu and Ni (attaining 100% in either or both simulated PBET phases in some cases) and lowest for Pb (generally <1% in both phases). A comparison of bioaccessible concentrations in ashed charcoals with estimates of daily dietary intake suggest that Al and As are the trace elements of greatest concern to human health from barbecuing. PMID:24140519

  15. Uranium and trace elements in phosphate fertilizers--Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khater, Ashraf E M

    2012-01-01

    Manufactured phosphate fertilizers and their agricultural applications are considerable sources of environmental pollution. In this study, composite samples of phosphate fertilizer (PF) of different physical forms (granular, G, and water soluble powder, L) were collected. The activity concentration of 238U in Bq kg(-1) was measured using gamma ray spectrometers, and the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and selenium in mg kg(-1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). The main aims of this study were to evaluate PF quality according to its physical form, determine manufacturers (local, L, or imported, I), and estimate the hazardous impacts of long-term phosphate fertilization. There was significant variation in the concentration of uranium and other elements in PF samples. In order to have globally normalized data, it is highly recommended to express the concentration of trace elements as per phosphorus mass instead of fertilizer mass. The annual addition of these elements to soil due to phosphate fertilization was calculated. The possible accumulation of added uranium and other trace elements due to fertilization in the subsurface soil layer and/or shallow underground water should be studied in the soil environment of Saudi Arabia. PMID:22134079

  16. Trace element distribution coefficients in alkaline series. [Titanites; bitite

    SciTech Connect

    Lemarchand, F.; Villemant, B.; Calas, G.

    1987-05-01

    Mineral/groundmass partition coefficients for U, Th, Zr, Hf, Ta, Rb, REE, Co and Sc have been systematically measured in olivine, clinopyroxene, amphibole, biotite, Ti-magnetites, titanite, zircon and feldspars, in basaltic to trachytic lavas from alkaline series (Velay, Chaine des Puys: Massif Central, France and Fayal: Azores). Average partition coefficients are defined within the experimental uncertainty for limited compositional ranges (basalt-hawaiite, mugearites, benmoreite-trachyte), and are useful for trace element modelling. The new results for U, Th, Ta, Zr and Hf partition coefficients show contrasting behaviour. They can thus be used as ''key elements'' for identifying fractionating mineral phases in differentiation processes (e.g. Ta and Th for amphibole and mica). Partition coefficient may be calculated using the two-lattice model suggested by NIELSEN (1985). Such values show a considerably reduced chemical dependence in natural systems, relative to weight per cent D values. The residual variations may be accounted for by temperature or volatile influence. This calculation greatly enhances modelling possibilities using trace elements for comparing differentiation series as well as for predicting the behaviour of elements during magmatic differentiation.

  17. Trace Element Cycling in Lithogenic Particles at Station ALOHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, P. L.; Weisend, R.; Landing, W. M.; Fitzsimmons, J. N.; Hayes, C. T.; Boyle, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Trace element cycling in marine particles is influenced by atmospheric deposition, vertical export, biological uptake and remineralization, scavenging, and lateral transport processes. To investigate the cycling of lithogenic particles in the central North Pacific Ocean, surface and vertical profile samples of marine suspended particulate matter (SPM) were collected July-August 2012 during the HOE-DYLAN cruises at Station ALOHA. In the late summer, atmospheric dust inputs from the Gobi desert (which peak during the spring, April-May) were sparse, as indicated by low surface particulate Ti (pTi) concentrations. In contrast, surface pAl concentrations did not follow pTi trends as expected, but appear to be dominated by scavenging/uptake of dissolved Al during diatom blooms. Surface pMn concentrations were low, but vertical profiles of pMn and pMn/pTi reveal a strong sedimentary source at 200 m, originating from the Hawaiian continental shelf through a combination of redox mobilization and resuspension processes. The redox active elements Ce and Co can have chemistries similar to that of Mn, but in these samples the pCe and pCo distributions were distinct from Mn and each other in both surface trends and vertical profiles. Surface pREE (e.g., La, Ce, Pr) were highest during the earliest sampling events and quickly decreased to consistently low concentrations, while vertical distributions were characterized by scavenging onto biotic particles and mid-depth inputs. The surface particulate Co trend is similar to those of pAl and pP, while the pCo vertical profiles reflect surface enrichment but low concentrations and little variability at depth. A second, complementary poster is also being presented which examines the biological influence over particulate trace element cycling (Weisend et al., "Particulate Trace Element Cycling in a Diatom Bloom at Station ALOHA").

  18. Geochemical Peculiarities of the Distribution of Trace Elements in Caustobioliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punanova, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    This research covers the latest data on the quantitative and qualitative contents of trace elements (TE) in naphtides. This work is based on the analysis and generalization of the large volume of scientific literature as well as on the author's analytical research covering oils and organic matter of rocks of different fascial composition and thermal maturity, collected from the wide range of depths in the fields of Volgo-Ural, Western Siberia, Timan-Pechiora, South Caspian, North Caucasian-Mangyshlak, and other oil and gas-bearing basins (OGB). Analysis of TE contents of oils, coals, oil-and-black shales - caustobioliths of the single genetic series - has been undertaken. The scientific and practical interest in the information on shale formations is connected with the prospects that they offer for extraction and industrial utilization of the trace elements. It is shown that the ontogenesis of naphtides is accompanied by the functional transformation of both the organic components (hydrocarbons) and non-organic components (various metal and non-metal compositions). Possible origins of accumulation of trace elements in oils were evaluated. Classification of oils of oil-and-gas bearing basins of different tectonic structure based on their physical and chemical properties as well as the contents and ratios of their "biogenesis" elements (V, Ni, Fe) were performed. It was shown that the differentiation of naphtides is due to lithophascial conditions of deposition of the original organic matter and also due to diagenic, cathagenic and hypergenic processes of the evolution of the hydrocarbons. The most significant redistribution in the concentrations of some of the metals occur during the hypergenic transformations of oils. Existence of oils with different metallogeny is related to the contents of the original organic matter and the processes of the transformation of hydrocarbon fluids during the course of geological development of the OGB.

  19. Trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis for pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Methods and technology were developed to analyze 1000 samples/yr of coal and other pollution-related samples. The complete trace element analysis of 20-24 samples/wk averaged 3-3.5 man-hours/sample. The computerized data reduction scheme could identify and report data on as many as 56 elements. In addition to coal, samples of fly ash, bottom ash, crude oil, fuel oil, residual oil, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, filtered air particulates, ore, stack scrubber water, clam tissue, crab shells, river sediment and water, and corn were analyzed. Precision of the method was plus or minus 25% based on all elements reported in coal and other sample matrices. Overall accuracy was estimated at 50%.

  20. What We Have Learned About the Existing Trace Element Partitioning data During the Population Phase of traceDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, R. L.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Trischman, T.

    2015-12-01

    The database traceDs is designed to provide a transparent and accessible resource of experimental partitioning data. It now includes ~ 90% of all the experimental trace element partitioning data (~4000 experiments) produced over the past 45 years, and is accessible through a web based interface (using the portal lepr.ofm-research.org). We set a minimum standard for inclusion, with the threshold criteria being the inclusion of: Experimental conditions (temperature, pressure, device, container, time, etc.) Major element composition of the phases Trace element analyses of the phases Data sources that did not report these minimum components were not included. The rationale for not including such data is that the degree of equilibration is unknown, and more important, no rigorous approach to modeling the behavior of trace elements is possible without knowledge of composition of the phases, and the temperature and pressure of formation/equilibration. The data are stored using a schema derived from that of the Library of Experimental Phase Relations (LEPR), modified to account for additional metadata, and restructured to permit multiple analytical entries for various element/technique/standard combinations. In the process of populating the database, we have learned a number of things about the existing published experimental partitioning data. Most important are: ~ 20% of the papers do not satisfy one or more of the threshold criteria. The standard format for presenting data is the average. This was developed as the standard during the time where there were space constraints for publication in spite of fact that all the information can now be published as electronic supplements. The uncertainties that are published with the compositional data are often not adequately explained (e.g. 1 or 2 sigma, standard deviation of the average, etc.). We propose a new set of publication standards for experimental data that include the minimum criteria described above, the publication

  1. Trace element characteristics of lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle in the Rio Grande rift region

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, F.V.

    1994-06-01

    Trace element analyses of 10 mafic volcanic rocks from the Colorado Plateau transition zone, Colorado Plateau, Rio Grande rift, and Great Plains were obtained to characterize the trace element characteristics of asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle beneath these regions. Characterization of these mantle reservoirs using the trace element contents of basalts allows one to track the response of the lithosphere to continental rifting and extension.

  2. Airborne Particulate Transport into the Amazon Basin - The Effect of Atmospheric Processing on Trace Metal Solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Dominik; Ochoa-Gonzalez, Raquel; Dong, Shuofei

    2014-05-01

    Dissolution of airborne particulate matter during atmospheric transport is an important process mobilizing nutrient trace metals from the solid phase and making nutrients readily available to remote marine and terrestrial ecosystems after atmospheric deposition. Recent work suggests that this process is accelerated through the effect of air pollution and the acidification of cloud droplets. Large urban areas surrounding the Amazon Basin have introduced vast amounts of anthropogenic air pollutants from industrial emissions and biomass burning, hence this mechanism is potentially important for the nutrient cycling in this area, affecting climate and environmental health alike. To this end in the context of the CLIM AMAZON project, we conducted studies to test the dissolution of mineral and road dust under atmospheric pollution conditions relevant to the region and we set up passive samplers to test particle matter reaching the Amazon Basin for evidence of atmospheric processing. Different mineral acids and deionized water at different pH were used. Batch leaching experiments with dust sourced from the Sahara/Sahel region were setup for 144 hours to simulate the transport time of particulate matter in the atmosphere. Trace metal solubility in mineral acids at low pH was up to five times higher than in deionized water, and approximately twice as high in hydrochloric acid compared to nitric acid. A kinetic model for the solubility in the leaching solutions was developed and it was in good agreement with the experimental data. Further work will test the effect of variable cloud compositions, determine key kinetic and thermodynamic parameters to improve atmospheric reaction models, and characterize the particulate matter collected with the passive samplers.

  3. Assimilation and regeneration of trace elements by marine copepods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Reinfelder, J.R.; Lee, B.-G.; Fisher, N.S.

    1996-01-01

    Assimilation efficiencies (AE) of five trace elements (Am, Cd, Co, Se, and Zn) and carbon by neritic copepods (Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis) feeding at different food concentrations and on different food types (diatoms, green algae, flagellates, dinoflagellates, and Fe oxides) were measured with radiotracer techniques. Food concentration had little influence on AEs of C, Cd, Co, and Se within a range of 16-800 ?? C liter-1. AEs of Am and Zn were highest at low food concentrations (16-56 ??g C liter-1) but remained relatively constant when food levels exceeded 160 ??g C liter-1. Different algal diets had no major influence on AEs, which generally were in the order Cd > Se > Zn > Co > Am. Metals (Cd, Co, and Zn) were assimilated from Fe oxides with 50% less efficiency than from algal cells. Element regeneration into the dissolved phase was a significant route for the release of ingested elements by copepods and increased with increased food concentration. Element regeneration rates for Cd, Se, and Zn were comparable to the regeneration rates of major nutrients such as P (30-70% daily). Retention half-times of elements in decomposing fecal pellets ranged from 10 d (Am). The efficient assimilation and regeneration of Cd, Se, and Zn can significantly lengthen the residence time of these elements in ocean surface waters.

  4. Prospecting for hyperaccumulators of trace elements: a review.

    PubMed

    Krzciuk, Karina; Gałuszka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Specific plant species that can take up and accumulate abnormally high concentrations of elements in their aboveground tissues are referred to as "hyperaccumulators". The use of this term is justified in the case of enormous element-binding capacity of plants growing in their natural habitats and showing no toxicity symptoms. An increasing interest in the study of hyperaccumulators results from their potential applications in environmental biotechnology (phytoremediation, phytomining) and their emerging role in nanotechnology. The highest number of plant species with confirmed hyperaccumulative properties has been reported for hyperaccumulators of nickel, cadmium, zinc, manganese, arsenic and selenium. More limited data exist for plants accumulating other elements, including common pollutants (chromium, lead and boron) or elements of commercial value, such as copper, gold and rare earth elements. Different approaches have been used for the study of hyperaccumulators - geobotanical, chemical, biochemical and genetic. The chemical approach is the most important in screening for new hyperaccumulators. This article presents and critically reviews current trends in new hyperaccumulator research, emphasizing analytical methodology that is applied in identification of new hyperaccumulators of trace elements and its future perspectives. PMID:24938121

  5. Orthopyroxenes as recorders of diogenite petrogenesis: Trace element systematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.; Layne, G. D.

    1993-01-01

    Eucrite, howardite, and diogenite members of the achondrites are considered, by many, to be genetically related. Therefore, each provide a piece of the puzzle for reconstructing magmatic processes on the eucrite parent body (EPB). The relationship between eucrites and diogenites can be viewed within the context of two distinctly different models: (1) fractional crystallization; and (2) partial melting. In fractional crystallization models, eucrites and diogenites represent a complementary continuum of planetary fractional crystallization products in which the diogenites represent crystal accumulations during the crystallization of eucritic magmas at shallow to deep levels in the EPB. Alternatively, experimental studies may be interpreted as indicating eucrites represent peritectic partial melts of a primitive, chondritic EPB mantle. Within this type of model, the diogenites are also generally considered to be cumulates; however, their petrogenetic relationship to the eucrites is less clear. Sack et al. proposed that the olivine diogenites represent residua from the partial melting events that produced eucritic liquids. Initial trace element studies of orthopyroxene (OPX) are consistent with this model. However, this trace element modeling of the olivine diogenites is nonunique. As a further test of these models, we did the following three things: (1) analyzed OPX from cumulate diogenites to compare with the olibine diogenite data; (2) improved ion microprobe analytical techniques for the analysis of elements critical to our interpretations; and (3) selected more relevant Kd's for OPX-eucritic melt.

  6. Trace element depth profiles in presolar silicon carbide grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ashley J.; Henkel, Torsten; Rost, Detlef; Lyon, Ian C.

    2012-10-01

    We have analyzed eleven presolar SiC grains from the Murchison meteorite using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The Si isotopic compositions of the grains indicate that they are probably of an AGB star origin. The average abundances of Mg, Fe, Ca, Al, Ti, and V are strongly influenced by their condensation behavior into SiC in circumstellar environments. Depth profiles of Li, B, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, and Fe in the SiC grains show that trace elements are not always homogenously distributed. In approximately half of the SiC grains studied here, the trace element distributions can be explained by condensation processes around the grains' parent stars. These grains appear to have experienced only minimal processing before their arrival in the presolar molecular cloud, possibly due to short residence times in the interstellar medium. The remaining SiC grains contained elevated abundances of several elements within their outer 200 nm, which is attributed to the implantation of energetic ions accelerated by shockwaves in the interstellar medium. These grains may have spent a longer period of time in this region, hence increasing the probability of them passing through a shockfront. Distinct groups of presolar SiC grains whose residence times in the interstellar medium differ are consistent with previous findings based on noble gas studies, although some grains may also have been shielded from secondary alteration by protective outer mantles.

  7. Airborne lead and other elements derived from local fires in the himalayas.

    PubMed

    Davidson, C I; Grimm, T C; Nasta, M A

    1981-12-18

    The combustion of wood and yak dung for heating and cooking in a populated Nepal Himalayan valley contributes significantly to the ambient airborne concentrations of lead, copper, aluminum, magnesium, and elemental and organic carbon. A comparison of the concentrations of these elements in fresh snow with corresponding values in air suggests that the pollution aerosol is confined to the valley, with pristine air aloft. PMID:17812260

  8. Airborne sulfur trace species intercomparison campaign: Sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.

    1991-01-01

    Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of sulfur trace gases are presented. The intercomparison was part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) and was conducted during the summer of 1989. The intercomparisons were conducted on the Wallops Electra aircraft during flights from Wallops Island, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil. Sulfur measurements intercompared included sulfur dioxide (SO2), dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon disulfide (CS2), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Measurement techniques ranged from filter collection systems with post-flight analyses to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph systems employing various methods for measuring and identifying the sulfur gases during flight. Sampling schedules for the techniques ranged from integrated collections over periods as long as 50 minutes to one- to three-minute samples every ten or fifteen minutes. Several of the techniques provided measurements of more than one sulfur gas. Instruments employing different detection principles were involved in each of the sulfur intercomparisons. Also included in the intercomparison measurement scenario were a host of supporting measurements (i.e., ozone, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, total sulfur, aerosols, etc.) for purposes of: (1) interpreting results (i.e., correlation of any noted instrument disagreement with the chemical composition of the measurement environment); and (2) providing supporting chemical data to meet CITE-3 science objectives of studying ozone/sulfur photochemistry, diurnal cycles, etc. The results of the intercomparison study are briefly discussed.

  9. Tracking Iceland Plume Motion Using Trace Element Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitton, J. G.; Walters, R. L.; Jones, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is a hotspot track built by interaction between the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the Iceland mantle plume. Unlike most other hotspot tracks built by ridge-plume interaction, the GSR is 2 to 3 times wider than the plume conduit in the upper mantle. (This unusual wide morphology arises because Icelandic crust changes significantly in thickness within a few million years of accretion, probably mainly by viscous flow in the hot lower crust). The upshot is that the GSR cannot be compared directly with theoretical plume tracks from hotspot reference frame models. However, it is possible to track the position of the Iceland plume conduit using the trace element geochemistry of basaltic lavas. Away from the plume conduit, plate spreading drives upwelling of mantle through the melting region. Above the plume conduit, plume-driven flow forces mantle through the lower part of the melting region faster than the plate-driven upwelling rate. The average depth of melting is therefore greater directly above the plume conduit than away from the plume conduit, and this difference in average melting depth means that melts generated directly above the plume conduit are relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Joint modelling of trace element compositions and crustal thickness can also be used to establish location of melting relative to the plume conduit. To date, these concepts have been used only to explain compositional variations in modern (post-glacial) Icelandic lavas; in this study we show that the same concepts can be applied to map the location of the plume conduit throughout the onshore Icelandic geological record (since the middle Miocene, c. 16 Ma). The plume track thus determined is in reasonable agreement with theoretical tracks calculated under the assumption that the Iceland Plume has remained fixed relative to other Indo-Atlantic hotspots. This result also supports the idea that episodic relocations of the onshore part of

  10. Quantitative Modelling of Trace Elements in Hard Coal.

    PubMed

    Smoliński, Adam; Howaniec, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The significance of coal in the world economy remains unquestionable for decades. It is also expected to be the dominant fossil fuel in the foreseeable future. The increased awareness of sustainable development reflected in the relevant regulations implies, however, the need for the development and implementation of clean coal technologies on the one hand, and adequate analytical tools on the other. The paper presents the application of the quantitative Partial Least Squares method in modeling the concentrations of trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn) in hard coal based on the physical and chemical parameters of coal, and coal ash components. The study was focused on trace elements potentially hazardous to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. The studied data included 24 parameters determined for 132 coal samples provided by 17 coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Since the data set contained outliers, the construction of robust Partial Least Squares models for contaminated data set and the correct identification of outlying objects based on the robust scales were required. These enabled the development of the correct Partial Least Squares models, characterized by good fit and prediction abilities. The root mean square error was below 10% for all except for one the final Partial Least Squares models constructed, and the prediction error (root mean square error of cross-validation) exceeded 10% only for three models constructed. The study is of both cognitive and applicative importance. It presents the unique application of the chemometric methods of data exploration in modeling the content of trace elements in coal. In this way it contributes to the development of useful tools of coal quality assessment. PMID:27438794

  11. Quantitative Modelling of Trace Elements in Hard Coal

    PubMed Central

    Smoliński, Adam; Howaniec, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The significance of coal in the world economy remains unquestionable for decades. It is also expected to be the dominant fossil fuel in the foreseeable future. The increased awareness of sustainable development reflected in the relevant regulations implies, however, the need for the development and implementation of clean coal technologies on the one hand, and adequate analytical tools on the other. The paper presents the application of the quantitative Partial Least Squares method in modeling the concentrations of trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn) in hard coal based on the physical and chemical parameters of coal, and coal ash components. The study was focused on trace elements potentially hazardous to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. The studied data included 24 parameters determined for 132 coal samples provided by 17 coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Since the data set contained outliers, the construction of robust Partial Least Squares models for contaminated data set and the correct identification of outlying objects based on the robust scales were required. These enabled the development of the correct Partial Least Squares models, characterized by good fit and prediction abilities. The root mean square error was below 10% for all except for one the final Partial Least Squares models constructed, and the prediction error (root mean square error of cross–validation) exceeded 10% only for three models constructed. The study is of both cognitive and applicative importance. It presents the unique application of the chemometric methods of data exploration in modeling the content of trace elements in coal. In this way it contributes to the development of useful tools of coal quality assessment. PMID:27438794

  12. An Airborne Sensor and Retrieval Project for Geostationary Trace Gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization for the GEO-CAPE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitch, J. W.; Delker, T.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Janz, S. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (Geo-TASO) Instrument Incubator project involves spectrometer development, airborne data campaigns, and algorithm testing - all in support of mission risk reduction for the UV-Vis trace air quality measurements for the GEO-CAPE mission. A compact, two-channel spectrometer for spectral radiance measurements is being built and readied for use on NASA's DC-8. The goals of the project are to demonstrate the compact spectrometer concept, provide "satellite analog" measurements in support of air quality measurements and data campaigns, and to advance the retrieval algorithm readiness for the GEO-CAPE mission.

  13. Volatiles and trace elements in melt inclusions from Siberian Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, S.; Edmonds, M.; Maclennan, J.; Svensen, H.

    2014-12-01

    The eruption of the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province (LIP) was synchronous with the largest known mass extinction, at the Permo-Triassic boundary. Understanding the volatile budget of the eruptions and hence their potential effects on climate is of critical importance. The volcanism spanned an enormous territory (5 million km2) over 0.8 Ma and the magmas feeding the eruptions were heterogeneous in their chemistry in space and time. In terms of volatiles in pre-eruptive magmas, there are multiple possible sources: the mantle (including metasomatized lithosphere) and crustal rocks and sediments. Discriminating between these sources requires not only microanalysis of volatiles in melt inclusions, but also analysis of trace elements. Crucially, the magmas sampled for this study did not intersect and assimilate evaporite deposits or brines prior to emplacement as sills or eruption as lavas, in contrast to previous studies, which might allow mantle-derived volatile heterogeneity to be preserved in the melts. We present a new dataset of clinopyroxene-hosted melt inclusion geochemistry. Crystalline inclusions in clinopyroxene with Mg# from 69.2 to 82.6 were homogenized at temperatures of 1190°C and fO2 of FMQ-1 in a high temperature gas mixing furnace. We show that, for this particular suite of lavas, considerable variability exists in trace and volatile element ratios (e.g. La/Yb, Nb/Y, Ba/La, F/Nd, Cl/K) that may be explained entirely by mantle heterogeneity. The most depleted melts (e.g. low La/Yb) have the highest range and values of S/Dy, Cl/K and F/Nd ratios; and the most "enriched" melts (highest La/Yb) exhibit low volatile/trace element ratios. These trends are consistent with mixing between end member sources: low degrees of melting of a volatile-poor source and high degrees of melting of a volatile-rich component with a depleted trace element signature (which might be consistent with minimally devolatilised recycled oceanic crust). There is no clear

  14. Volatile/mobile trace elements in Karoonda /C4/ chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matza, S. D.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of ten volatile/mobile trace elements and of nonvolatile Co in the Karoonda (C4) meteorite were determined, and the atomic abundances relative to C1 are compared with values for the Murchison (C2) and Allende (C3) meteorites. Empirical Bi, In, and Tl data for Karoonda and heated Allende and Murchison are compared with theoretical curves for condensation from a gas of cosmic composition at low pressures. It is suggested that Karoonda might derive from low-temperature open-system metamorphism of pristine C3-like material.

  15. Common trace elements alleviate pain in an experimental mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tamba, Bogdan I; Leon, Maria-Magdalena; Petreus, Tudor

    2013-04-01

    Trace elements represent a group of essential metals or metaloids necessary for life, present in minute amounts. Analgesic adjuvants can enhance the effect of other pain drugs or be used for pain control themselves. Previous studies on the effects of trace elements on nociception and their potential use as analgesic adjuvants have yielded conflicting results. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that three vital trace elements (Zn²⁺, Mg²⁺, Cu²⁺) have direct antinociceptive effects. Groups of eight Swiss mice were intraperitoneally (i.p) injected with incremental concentrations of Zn²⁺ sulfate (0.5, 2.0 mg/kg), Zn²⁺ citrate (0.125, 0.5 mg/kg), Mg²⁺ chloride (37.5, 75, 150 mg/kg), Cu²⁺ chloride (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/kg), and Cu²⁺ sulfate (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg) or saline (control). Evaluations were made by hot plate (HP) and tail flick (TF) tests for central antinociceptive effect, writhing test (WT) for visceral antinociceptive effect, and activity cage (AC) test for spontaneous behavior. Zn²⁺ induced pain inhibition in HP/TF tests (up to 17%) and WT (up to 25%), with no significant differences among the salts used. Mg²⁺ salts induced pain inhibition for all performed tests (up to 85% in WT). Cu²⁺ salts showed antinociceptive effects for HP/TF (up to 28.6%) and WT (57.28%). Only Mg²⁺ and Cu²⁺ salts have displayed significant effects in AC (Mg²⁺ anxiolytic/depressant effect; Cu²⁺ anxiolytic effect). We interpret these data to mean that all tested trace elements induced antinociceptive effects in central and visceral pain tests. Our data indicate the potential use of these cheap adjuvants in pain therapy. PMID:23362003

  16. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1999-04-01

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies : one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional gemological observations.

  17. Trace Element Geochemistry of Martian Iddingsite in the Lafayette Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The Lafayette meteorite contains abundant iddingsite, a fine-grained intergrowth of smectite clay, ferrihydrite, and ionic salt minerals. Both the meteorite and iddingsite formed on Mars. Samples of iddingsite, olivine, and augite pyroxene were extracted from Lafayette and analyzed for trace elements by instrumental neutron activation. Our results are comparable to independent analyses by electron and ion microbeam methods. Abundances of most elements in the iddingsite do not covary significantly. The iddingsite is extremely rich in Hg, which is probably terrestrial contamination. For the elements Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, and Zn, the composition of the iddingsite is close to a mixture of approximately 50% Lafayette olivine + approximately 40% Lafayette siliceous glass + approximately 1O% water. Concordant behavior among these elements is not compatible with element fractionations between smectite and water, but the hydrous nature and petrographic setting of the iddingsite clearly suggest an aqueous origin. These inferences are both consistent, however, with deposition of the iddingsite originally as a silicate gel, which then crystallized (neoformed) nearly isochemically. The iddingsite contains significantly more magnesium than implied by the model, which may suggest that the altering solutions were rich in Mg(2+).

  18. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-02-25

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro- and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cdmore » (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators.We find it could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies.« less

  19. Physiology and metabolism of essential trace elements: an outline.

    PubMed

    Aggett, P J

    1985-08-01

    Man depends on at least nine trace elements--iron, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine, chromium, selenium, molybdenum and cobalt--for optimum metabolic function. These elements serve a variety of functions including catalytic, structural and regulatory activities in which they interact with macromolecules such as enzymes, pro-hormones, pre-secretory granules and biological membranes. These micronutrients are involved, therefore, in all major metabolic pathways at levels which are so fundamental that the features of deficiency of many of them are protean and non-specific. In considering the metabolism of the elements themselves, they fall into two groups: those which exist normally as cations and those present as anions. The latter group are absorbed relatively easily and whole-body homeostasis is mediated mainly by renal excretion. The cations need specific pathways for absorption and their homeostasis is effected by gastrointestinal and biliary secretion. Some elements are absorbed more efficiently as organic complexes. The net achievement of the metabolic pathways for each element is to deliver it to its functional site(s) by exploiting its physicochemical characteristics to avoid interactions with other inorganic nutrients. PMID:3905079

  20. Trace elements in seminal plasma of men from infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Szynkowska, Małgorzata I.; Motak-Pochrzęst, Hanna; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Sypniewski, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An analysis of lead, zinc, cadmium and other trace elements in semen of men from infertile couples was performed to determine the association between abnormal semen parameters and enviromental or occupational exposure to some trace metals. Material and methods Presence of manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and lead was measured in seminal plasma of 34 men from infertile couples using spectrometry with time-of-flight analysis. Correlations among sperm parameters and trace metals were determined using cluster analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Abnormally high concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc and cobalt were found in 23 seminal plasma of men from infertile couples. The most consistent evidence was determined for an association between high cadmium concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count, motility and morphology below reference limits (p < 0.01). A correlation of significantly increased tin level and reduced sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential was observed (p = 0.04). Conclusions In our study we observed a correlation of tin level with sperm count in semen of men with limited fertility potential. PMID:26170853

  1. Trace element evidence for a laterally inhomogeneous moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A number of trace element interrelationships support the concept of a laterally inhomogeneous moon based originally on Clr/P2O5 ratios. The correspondence between Clr/P2O3 and Rb/Sr ratios in basalts are of special interest since the isotropic evolution of the latter pair of elements relates to the earliest history of the moon. This implies the times when the Clr/P2O5 relationships were established. The early magma ocean is conjectured to have been made up of non-intermixing seas resulting either from large convection cells or large body accretion. These mutually exclusive regions could be lunar geological provinces. It is proposed that the diversity of basalts from the Apollo 17 site is related to the lateral inhomogeneity of the moon. Ca/Na ratios in basalts show a trend which parallels that of Ru/Os and in a corresponding fashion may serve as a depth indicator.

  2. The effect of membrane filtration on dissolved trace element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Lum, K.R.; Garbarino, J.R.; Hall, G.E.M.; Lemieux, C.; Demas, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The almost universally accepted operational definition for dissolved constituents is based on processing whole-water samples through a 0.45-??m membrane filter. Results from field and laboratory experiments indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size (e.g., diameter, manufacturer, volume of sample processed, amount of suspended sediment in the sample), can produce substantial variations in the 'dissolved' concentrations of such elements as Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni. These variations result from the inclusion/exclusion of colloidally- associated trace elements. Thus, 'dissolved' concentrations quantitated by analyzing filtrates generated by processing whole-water through similar pore- sized membrane filters may not be equal/comparable. As such, simple filtration through a 0.45-??m membrane filter may no longer represent an acceptable operational definition for dissolved chemical constituents. This conclusion may have important implications for environmental studies and regulatory agencies.

  3. Thermodynamics of selected trace elements in the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegley, B., Jr.; Lewis, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    The thermochemistry of several hundred compounds of twelve selected trace elements (Ge, Se, Ga, As, Te, Pb, Sn, Cd, Sb, Tl, In, and Bi) has been investigated for solar composition material along a Jupiter adiabat. The results indicate that AsF3, InBr, TlI, and SbS, in addition to CO, PH3, GeH4, AsH3, H2Se, HCl, HF, and H3BO3 proposed by Barshay and Lewis (1978), may be potential chemical tracers of atmospheric dynamics. The reported observation of GeH4 is interpreted on the basis of new calculations as implying rapid vertical transport from levels where the temperature is greater than or equal to 800 K. Upper limits are also set on the abundances of many gaseous compounds of the elements investigated.

  4. Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Li, Xingru; Sun, Ying; Li, Yi; Wentworth, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-12-15

    Public concerns over airborne trace elements (TEs) in metropolitan areas are increasing, but long-term and multi-site observations of size-resolved aerosol TEs in China are still lacking. Here, we identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric TEs in megacities and industrial sites in a Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration relative to background areas, with the annual mean values of As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Mn exceeding the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization. Despite the spatial variability in concentrations, the size distribution pattern of each trace element was quite similar across the region. Crustal elements of Al and Fe were mainly found in coarse particles (2.1-9 μm), whereas the main fraction of toxic metals, such as Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, was found in submicron particles (<1.1 μm). These toxic metals were enriched by over 100-fold relative to the Earth's crust. The size distributions of Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Mo and Ba were bimodal, with two peaks at 0.43-0.65 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm. The combination of the size distribution information, principal component analysis and air mass back trajectory model offered a robust technique for distinguishing the main sources for airborne TEs, e.g., soil dust, fossil fuel combustion and industrial emissions, at different sites. In addition, higher elemental concentrations coincided with westerly flow, indicating that polluted soil and fugitive dust were major sources of TEs on the regional scale. However, the contribution of coal burning, iron industry/oil combustion and non-ferrous smelters to atmospheric metal pollution in Northern China should be given more attention. Considering that the concentrations of heavy metals associated with fine particles in the target region were significantly higher than those in other Asian sites, the implementations of strict environmental standards in China are required to reduce the amounts of these hazardous pollutants released into the atmosphere. PMID

  5. Microstructural evolution and trace element mobility in Witwatersrand pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Steven M.; Hough, Robert M.

    2013-11-01

    Microstructural analysis of pyrite from a single sample of Witwatersrand conglomerate indicates a complex deformation history involving components of both plastic and brittle deformation. Internal deformation associated with dislocation creep is heterogeneously developed within grains, shows no systematic relationship to bulk rock strain or the location of grain boundaries and is interpreted to represent an episode of pyrite deformation that predates the incorporation of detrital pyrite grains into the Central Rand conglomerates. In contrast, brittle deformation, manifest by grain fragmentation that transects dislocation-related microstructures, is spatially related to grain contacts and is interpreted to represent post-depositional deformation of the Central Rand conglomerates. Analysis of the low-angle boundaries associated with the early dislocation creep phase of deformation indicates the operation of <010>{100} slip systems. However, some orientation boundaries have geometrical characteristics that are not consistent with simple <010>{100} deformation. These boundaries may represent the combination of multiple slip systems or the operation of the previously unrecognized <001>{120} slip system. These boundaries are associated with order of magnitude enrichments in As, Ni and Co that indicate a deformation control on the remobilization of trace elements within pyrite and a potential slip system control on the effectiveness of fast-diffusion pathways. The results confirm the importance of grain-scale elemental remobilization within pyrite prior to their incorporation into the Witwatersrand gold-bearing conglomerates. Since the relationship between gold and pyrite is intimately related to the trace element geochemistry of pyrite, the results have implications for the application of minor element geochemistry to ore deposit formation, suggest a reason for heterogeneous conductivity and localized gold precipitation in natural pyrite and provide a framework for

  6. Trace element analysis on speleothems using micro-XRF scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plessen, Birgit; Tjallingii, Rik; Dudashvilli, Alexey; Cheng, Hai; Wolff, Christian; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.

    2015-04-01

    Non-destructive micro-XRF scanning is a well-established, accurate and efficient method for high-resolution geochemical analyses on finely laminated sediments, e.g. for distinguishing detrital and authigenic layers in lake sediments. To test this method's applicability on speleothems, micro-XRF scanning analyses were performed on finely polished speleothems using the EAGLE-III-XL micro-XRF scanner at GFZ Potsdam. This scanner can perform multi-element analyses over a predefined sampling profile at sampling rates between 20 and 250 micro m trace of samples no larger than 30 x 30 cm. We measured profiles on two late to mid Holocene stalagmites from caves of the Keklik and Uluu Too mountains near Osh (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia) with a spot size of 53 micro m. We ran each profile at least twice to obtain replicate measurements of the elements Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, and Sr. The caves are situated in Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous limestone formations at the SE rim of the Fergana Basin. Both speleothems are characterized by distinct alternating light and darker colored laminae that also reveal strong variations of trace elements and potentially provide information concerning variations in dust load, soil development, vegetation, precipitation and infiltration. One speleothem shows elevated Cl and S contents during relatively dry periods associated with salt dust input, probably derived from the Aral Sea region. Identification of the dry periods is further supported by stable oxygen and carbon isotope data. The multi-proxy chemical analyses suggest that Holocene humidity variations in this region are linked to variable strength of the North Atlantic westerlies regime. However, further validation of element variations in speleothems based on host rock and soil chemistry, monitored drip water composition and local climatic variations are needed to improve climatic and of environmental interpretations.

  7. Determination of Trace Elements in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devrim, Saribal; Can, Akyolcu Mehmet; Birsen, Aydemir

    2007-04-01

    Many trace elements have activatory or inhibitory roles in enzyme activities and changes in hemorehology and relation of them with defense system molecules in diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Methods: While, 25 male COPD patients (during acute attack) were taken as a Patient Group, another healthy 25 male taken as Control Group. Serum concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-680 Shimadzu). Results: While decreased Fe (100.00 +/- 36.98; 123.26 +/- 37.58 μg/dL) (M+/-SD) and Zn (96.31+/-31.92 116.12+/-28.17 μg/dL) (M+/-SD), while increased Cu (117.92+/- 25.02; 101.27+/-8.29 μg/dL) (M+/-SD) concentrations were determined in patient samples than that of control group values (p<0.05), (p<0.01). Conclusion: According to findings of present study it may be said that: In organism while trace elements perform their activities on biomaterials they also possible carry out competition against others.

  8. Dynamic coupling of bulk chemistry, trace elements and mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. H.; Heck, H. V.; Nowacki, A.; Wookey, J. M.; Elliott, T.; Porcelli, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fully dynamical models that not only track the evolution of chemical heterogeneities through the mantle, but also incorporate the effect of chemical heterogeneities on the dynamics of mantle convection are now emerging. Since in general analytical solutions to these complex problems are lacking, careful testing and investigations of the effect and usefulness of these models is needed. We extend our existing numerical mantle convection code that can track fluid flow in 3D spherical geometry and tracks both bulk chemical components (basal fraction) and different trace elements. The chemical components fractionate upon melting when and where the solidus is crossed. Now, the chemical information will effect the flow of the fluid in the following ways: The bulk composition will link to density and the (radioactive) trace element abundance to heat production. Results will be reported of the effect of different density structures; either starting with a primordial dense layer at the base of the mantle, having all density variation originate from melting (basalt production), or a combination between these two end-member scenarios. In particular we will focus on the connection between large scale bulk chemical structures in the (deep) mantle and the evolution of the distribution of noble gasses (He and Ar). The distribution of noble gasses depend upon 1) assumptions on the initial distributions in the mantle, 2) the mantle flow, 3) radioactive production and, 4) outgassing to the atmosphere upon melting close to the surface.

  9. Effect of membrane filtration artifacts on dissolved trace element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Elrick, Kent A.; Colberg, Mark R.

    1992-01-01

    Among environment scientists, the current and almost universally accepted definition of dissolved constituents is an operational one; only those materials which pass through a 0.45-??m membrane filter are considered to be dissolved. Detailed laboratory and field studies on Fe and Al indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size, can substantially alter 'dissolved' trace element concentrations; these include: filter type, filter diameter, filtration method, volume of sample processed, suspended sediment concentration, suspended sediment grain-size distribution, concentration of colloids and colloidally associated trace elements and concentration of organic matter. As such, reported filtered-water concentrations employing the same pore size filter may not be equal. Filtration artifacts may lead to the production of chemical data that indicate seasonal or annual 'dissolved' chemical trends which do not reflect actual environmental conditions. Further, the development of worldwide averages for various dissolved chemical constituents, the quantification of geochemical cycles, and the determination of short- or long-term environmental chemical trends may be subject to substantial errors, due to filtration artifacts, when data from the same or multiple sources are combined. Finally, filtration effects could have a substantial impact on various regulatory requirements.

  10. Apollo 16 returned lunar samples - Lithophile trace-element abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpotts, J. A.; Schuhmann, S.; Kouns, C. W.; Lum, R. K. L.; Bickel, A. L.; Schnetzler, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Lithium, K, Rb, Sr, Ba, rare-earth, Zr, and Hf abundances have been determined by mass-spectrometric isotope-dilution for Apollo 16 soils, anorthosite 61016, and 'basalt' 68415 whole-rock and separated pyroxene and plagioclase. Our sample of 61016 is similar to some other lunar anorthosites in lithophile trace-element concentrations but at a slightly lower level. It was probably accumulated from a little differentiated basalt. Basalt 68415 might be a homogeneous mixture of KREEP and anorthosite material; it appears to have crystallized under conditions as reducing as those holding for mare-basalts. The soil fines cover only a limited compositional range. No obvious chemical differences were noted between the Descartes and Cayley formations. Most of the compositional variation of the soils can be accounted for in terms of the addition of plagioclase. The existence of very high alumina basalt as an independent magma-type appears debatable in view of its KREEP-like lithophile trace-element relative concentrations and the observed lunar radioactivity distribution.

  11. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dalsem, D.J.; Ehmann, W.D.; Robinson, L.

    1996-12-31

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) afflicts 2 of every 100,000 people in the United States each year. A well-known example of ALS today is Stephen Hawking. He is a theoretical physicist, the author of A Brief History of Time, and is virtually immobilized by ALS. Diseases that cause progressive paralysis because of motor neuron degeneration in the central nervous system are termed motor neuron disorders (MND). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a common form of MND. Pain-free, progressive muscular weakness is the most common clinical symptom. There is chronic weakness with atrophy of the affected muscles by the time the disease is diagnosed. Atrophy eventually results in wheelchair confinement and then only bed without the ability to speak or swallow. Death often occurs as a result of respiratory problems. Unlike other neurodegenerative diseases, in ALS the patient`s bladder and bowel control, eye movement, and mental faculties are preserved. The question today is whether or not certain trace elements are involved in the etiology or pathogenesis of ALS. A collaborative study was undertaken by the University of Kentucky and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to study trace element concentrations in ALS patients fingernails to determine if there existed statistically significant imbalances.

  12. Forensic discrimination of copper wire using trace element concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dettman, Joshua R; Cassabaum, Alyssa A; Saunders, Christopher P; Snyder, Deanna L; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-08-19

    Copper may be recovered as evidence in high-profile cases such as thefts and improvised explosive device incidents; comparison of copper samples from the crime scene and those associated with the subject of an investigation can provide probative associative evidence and investigative support. A solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for measuring trace element concentrations in high-purity copper was developed using standard reference materials. The method was evaluated for its ability to use trace element profiles to statistically discriminate between copper samples considering the precision of the measurement and manufacturing processes. The discriminating power was estimated by comparing samples chosen on the basis of the copper refining and production process to represent the within-source (samples expected to be similar) and between-source (samples expected to be different) variability using multivariate parametric- and empirical-based data simulation models with bootstrap resampling. If the false exclusion rate is set to 5%, >90% of the copper samples can be correctly determined to originate from different sources using a parametric-based model and >87% with an empirical-based approach. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the developed method for the comparison of copper samples encountered as forensic evidence. PMID:25007219

  13. Trace element and oxygen isotope composition of Hawaiian hotspot zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.; Bindeman, I. N.; Shamberger, P. J.; Hammer, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    The trace element and isotopic compositions of zircon are increasingly used to delimit the provenance of detrital minerals in sedimentary rocks, as well as the dynamics and timescales of magmagenesis and metamorphism. Numerous studies document the characteristics of zircon hosted by continental and MORB-related rocks, but the characteristics of zircon generated in magmas from oceanic hotspots are relatively unknown. We present the trace element and O-isotope compositions of Hawaiian zircon from gabbroic and dioritic xenoliths sampled by Holocene basalts at Hualalai volcano. The plutonic zircon yield U-Pb and 238U-230Th ages of ca. 250 ka and 40 ka and grew from intrusions of highly fractionated alkalic magma lodged at >10 km depths (Shamberger & Hammer, 2006; Vazquez et al., 2007). Individual Hualalai zircon are euhedral to anhedral with inclusions of feldspars, pyroxenes, and trachytic glass. Zoning apparent in cathodoluminescence images is generally indistinct, but a significant minority of crystals has rims with relatively high luminescence. Ion microprobe analyses of individual zircon crystals reveal trace element zoning that generally correlates with luminescence. Up to 20-fold variation in HREE concentrations, with overall positive correlation between Eu/Eu* and Ti and inverse correlation between Hf and Ti, characterize Hualalai zircon. These relations are similar to those reported for zircon from some felsic suites related by cooling-induced fractionation. Luminescent rims have relatively low REE, Hf, and Y, but have Ti concentrations like their corresponding interiors. Ti-in-zircon thermometry yields temperatures between 800-1000°C after adjustments for sub-unity TiO2 and SiO2 activities using silicate-oxide equilibria. These temperatures are generally consistent with temperatures derived from two-feldspar and glass-pyroxene pairs included by single zircon crystals. Despite compositional differences, zircon interiors and luminescent rims yield 238U-230Th

  14. Biomonitoring of trace elements in Vietnamese freshwater mussels*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Annemarie; Boman, Johan

    2004-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of the pollution situation in the northern part of Vietnam with focus on trace elements including heavy metals. A freshwater bivalve species of the Unionidae family ( Pletholophus swinhoei), abundant in this part of the country and frequently used for human consumption, was chosen as biomonitor. Ten specimens each were collected at two rural sites, Duy Minh, approximately 40 km south of the capital Hanoi, and An Thin, situated approximately 11 km south of the Pha Lai power plant. The concentrations of 20 elements were measured using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Significant site-specific differences were found for the elements As, Ba, Be, Br, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, P and Sr. A comparison with other in situ biomonitoring studies using Unionidae bivalves showed that the concentrations of most elements were within the same order of magnitude, whereas heavy metal concentrations were distinctively low, suggesting the absence of major anthropogenic pollution sources in this area. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Se and Zn were below the levels regarded as harmful according to the international standards for metals in mollusks compiled by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

  15. Investigation of trace inorganic elements in street doses of heroin.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kar-Weng; Tan, Guan-Huat; Wong, Richard C S

    2013-03-01

    Sixteen trace elements found in 309 street heroin samples, piped water and contaminated water were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. All the street heroin samples were found to contain high levels of sodium, a reflection of the use of sodium bicarbonate during heroin synthesis. Additionally, this element was also found to be one of the potential contaminants acquired from the piped water. Calcium could be derived from lime while iron, aluminum and zinc could have come from the metallic container used in the processing/cutting stage. The levels of these elements remained low in the heroin and it could be due to the dilution effects from the addition of adulterants. Statistical validation was performed with six links of related heroin samples using principal component analysis to find the best pretreatment for sample classification. It was obtained that normalization followed by fourth root showed promising results with 8% errors in the sample clustering. The technique was then applied to the case samples. Finally, the result suggested that the case samples could have originated from at least two major groups respectively showing unique elemental profiles at the street level. PMID:23380066

  16. Airborne mineral components and trace metals in Paris region: spatial and temporal variability.

    PubMed

    Poulakis, E; Theodosi, C; Bressi, M; Sciare, J; Ghersi, V; Mihalopoulos, N

    2015-10-01

    A variety of mineral components (Al, Fe) and trace metals (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were simultaneously measured in PM2.5 and PM10 fractions at three different locations (traffic, urban, and suburban) in the Greater Paris Area (GPA) on a daily basis throughout a year. Mineral species and trace metal levels measured in both fractions are in agreement with those reported in the literature and below the thresholds defined by the European guidelines for toxic metals (Cd, Ni, Pb). Size distribution between PM2.5 and PM10 fractions revealed that mineral components prevail in the coarse mode, while trace metals are mainly confined in the fine one. Enrichment factor analysis, statistical analysis, and seasonal variability suggest that elements such as Mn, Cr, Zn, Fe, and Cu are attributed to traffic, V and Ni to oil combustion while Cd and Pb to industrial activities with regional origin. Meteorological parameters such as rain, boundary layer height (BLH), and air mass origin were found to significantly influence element concentrations. Periods with high frequency of northern and eastern air masses (from high populated and industrialized areas) are characterized by high metal concentrations. Finally, inner city and traffic emissions were also evaluated in PM2.5 fraction. Significant contributions (>50 %) were measured in the traffic site for Mn, Fe, Cr, Zn, and Cu, confirming that vehicle emissions contribute significantly to their levels, while in the urban site, the lower contributions (18 to 33 %) for all measured metals highlight the influence of regional sources on their levels. PMID:25982986

  17. Biogeochemistry of Hot Spring Biofilms: Major and Trace Element Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, J. R.; Prapaipong, P.; Zolotova, N.; Moore, G.; Shock, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    Hot spring biofilms are of obvious biological origin, but of surprising composition. Organic carbon makes up a minor percentage of the total mass of chemotrophic and phototrophic biofilms. We have found that the majority of biofilm mass is inorganic material, largely silica, with measurable quantities of dozens of other elements, and that the distribution of major elements mimics that of surrounding rock and soil far more closely than the hot spring fluids. Comparisons of biofilms with the compositions of their geochemical surroundings help identify trace elements that are anomalously enriched or depleted. These anomalies provide insight into the processes of active or passive elemental accumulation by biofilms, which could be used to understand microbial processes of element uptake or to identify evidence for life in hydrothermal deposits in the rock record. Five separate hydrothermal systems in Yellowstone National Park were incorporated into this study: 'Bison Pool' and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 93.2 to 56.2 C, pH = 7.4 to 8.3), Flatcone Geyser and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 94.3 to 44.3 C, pH = 7.9 to 8.8, Boulder Spring and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 92.1 to 64.9 C, pH = 8.2 to 8.7), Octopus Spring and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 91.4 to 62.8 C, pH = 7.7 to 8.2), and two unnamed locations in the Obsidian Pool area we have dubbed 'Green Cheese' (temp. = 64.5 to 54.9 C, pH = 5.9 to 6.2) and 'Happy Harfer Pool' (temp. = 59.9 to 48.3 C, pH = 5.5 to 6.3). Analysis of water, biofilm, and contextual samples collected from and around these hot springs offer intriguing patterns of elemental behavior, both similar and dissimilar, among the varying systems. Examples of these patterns include elements that behave the same across all hot spring systems (B, C, Ni, Cu, Ge, Sb, and W), elements with behavior that was consistent throughout most (four of five) of the hot spring systems

  18. Airborne Measurements of Important Ozone-depleting and Climate-forcing Trace Gases from 1991 to HIPPO and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, J. W.; Nance, J. D.; Moore, F. L.; Hintsa, E. J.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Mondeel, D. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Hurst, D. F.; Oltmans, S. J.; Gao, R.; Fahey, D. W.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Through collaborations with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division (NOAA/ESRL/GMD) has measured a number of trace gases from manned and unmanned aircraft up to 21 km, and balloon platforms up to 32 km since 1991 at locations spanning the globe. Over 40 trace gases, including nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), methyl halides, numerous other halocarbons, sulfur gases (COS, SF6, CS2), and selected hydrocarbons, have been measured at Earth's surface and at altitude. This presentation will highlight our recent observations of halocarbons and other trace gases during the NSF and NOAA sponsored HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) campaigns (2009-2011) that included flyovers of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment), and NOAA stations. Other observations from the recent NASA and NOAA sponsored Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) GloPac and ATTREX campaigns (2010 - present) will also be highlighted, along with comparisons to proximate NDACC and satellite observations (ACE-FTS, Aura MLS and TES instruments). Our goal is to assemble a complete data set of geolocated airborne observations of halocarbons and other important trace gases measured by NOAA/ESRL airborne gas chromatographs for the purpose of facilitating model development and studies of atmospheric chemistry and transport processes in the troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  19. [Supplementation of trace elements in the general medicine].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    Trace elements are the essential nutrients. Now, 9 elements, Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, I, Go, Cr, Mn, Mo, are recognized as essential trace elements. Serum concentration of Fe, Zn and Cu are about 100 μg/dL, and have important physiological roles. Zinc needs special care because over 300 enzymes contain Zn, and zin deficiency cause various disorders. In advancing age serum Zn concentration decrease. Although the daily requirement of zinc is 10-15 mg in adults, it is necessary to supply much more zinc than adult, by the reason of low intake and low absorption in the elderly. In the geriatric ward of the hospital, many zinc deficient patients suffered from decubitus ulcers, dermatitis, alopecia, taste disorders etc. A 86 y.o. female with deep sacral decubitus ulcer was shown in this report. Her decubitus ulcer was completely recovered after daily administration of polaprezinc containing 34 mg Zn for 18 months, A 76 y.o. female brought about severe hypocupuremia. Serum Cu concentration decreased from 112 μg/dL to 7 μg/dL after 5 months daily administration of 34 mg Zn. Serum Zn concentration elevated from 47 μg/dL to 117 μg/dL, and Cu/Zn ratio decreased 2.38 to 0.06. After stopped zinc supplementation, serum Cu rapidly increased in a 2 month period. At the same time, serum Zn decreased quickly. It was the interesting fact that anemia improved associated with the increase of serum Cu. In the geriatric ward of the hospital, it is necessary to supply zinc in order to prevent respiratory infections such as pneumonia. PMID:27455795

  20. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Koekkoek, W A C Kristine; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive narrative review summarizes relevant antioxidant mechanisms, the antioxidant status, and effects of supplementation in critically ill patients for the most studied antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and the enzyme cofactor trace elements selenium and zinc. Over the past 15 years, oxidative stress-mediated cell damage has been recognized to be fundamental to the pathophysiology of various critical illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and multiorgan dysfunction in sepsis. Related to these conditions, low plasma levels of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, and trace elements have been frequently reported, and thus supplementation seems logical. However, low antioxidant plasma levels per se may not indicate low total body stores as critical illness may induce redistribution of antioxidants. Furthermore, low antioxidant levels may even be beneficial as pro-oxidants are essential in bacterial killing. The reviewed studies in critically ill patients show conflicting results. This may be due to different patient populations, study designs, timing, dosing regimens, and duration of the intervention and outcome measures evaluated. Therefore, at present, it remains unclear whether supplementation of antioxidant micronutrients has any clinical benefit in critically ill patients as some studies show clear benefits, whereas others demonstrate neutral outcomes and even harm. Combination therapy of antioxidants seems logical as they work in synergy and function as elements of the human antioxidant network. Further research should focus on defining the normal antioxidant status for critically ill patients and to study optimal supplement combinations either by nutrition enrichment or by enteral or parenteral pharmacological interventions. PMID:27312081

  1. Sources and Contents of Heavy Metals and Other Trace Elements in Animal Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trace elements are natural and added components of livestock and poultry feeds. Appropriate amounts of these trace elements in the diet of livestock and poultry ensures both health and reproduction. Unfortunately, many times trace metals that are added to livestock diets by producers or feed compani...

  2. Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde during TRACE-P: Distributions and box model comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Alan; Crawford, James; Olson, Jennifer; Walega, Jim; Potter, William; Wert, Bryan; Jordan, Carolyn; Anderson, Bruce; Shetter, Rick; Lefer, Barry; Blake, Donald; Blake, Nicola; Meinardi, Simone; Heikes, Brian; O'Sullivan, Daniel; Snow, Julie; Fuelberg, Henry; Kiley, Christopher M.; Sandholm, Scott; Tan, David; Sachse, Glen; Singh, Hanwant; Faloona, Ian; Harward, Charles N.; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2003-10-01

    Airborne measurements of CH2O were acquired employing tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy during the 2001 Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific (TRACE-P) study onboard NASA's DC-8 aircraft. Above ˜2.5 km, away from the most extreme pollution influences and heavy aerosol loadings, comprehensive comparisons with a steady state box model revealed agreement to within ±37 pptv in the measurement and model medians binned according to altitude and longitude. Likewise, a near unity slope (0.98 ± 0.03) was obtained from a bivariate fit of the measurements, averaged into 25 pptv model bins, versus the modeled concentrations for values up to ˜450 pptv. Both observations suggest that there are no systematic biases on average between CH2O measurements and box model results out to model values ˜450 pptv. However, the model results progressively underpredict the observations at higher concentrations, possibly due to transport effects unaccounted for in the steady state model approach. The assumption of steady state also appears to contribute to the scatter observed in the point-by-point comparisons. The measurement-model variance was further studied employing horizontal flight legs. For background legs screened using a variety of nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) tracers, measurement and model variance agreed to within 15%. By contrast, measurement variance was ˜60% to 80% higher than the model variance, even with small to modest elevations in the NMHC tracers. Measurement-model comparisons of CH2O in clouds and in the lower marine troposphere in the presence of marine aerosols suggest rather significant CH2O uptake by as much as 85% in one extreme case compared to expectations based on modeled gas phase processes.

  3. An airborne spectrometer with three infrared lasers for trace gas measurements applied to convection case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catoire, V.; Krysztofiak, G.; Robert, C.; Chartier, M.

    2012-12-01

    An infrared absorption spectrometer named SPIRIT (SPectromètre InfraRouge In situ Toute altitude) has been built for airborne simultaneous online measurements of trace gases. SPIRIT is based on two recent technological advances, leading to optimal performances and miniaturization: continuous wave quantum cascade lasers (CW-QCL) operating near room temperature coupled to a new, patented, multipass optical cell (Robert, Appl. Optics, 2007). An essential electronic development allows the sequential use of three QCLs with the same single cell. With judicious selected spectral micro-windows, this potentially leads to the measurements of at least four species at 0.7 Hz frequency. The first deployment of SPIRIT was made onboard the DLR Falcon-20 aircraft during the campaign associated to the EU SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project in Nov.-Dec. 2011 over Malaysia. In the present paper, the flight of 19 Nov. is presented in detail as an example of the SPIRIT performances, with CO, CO2, CH4 and N2O as measured species. The aircraft crossed four times the anvil of a severe thunderstorm from 11.3 km to 12.8 km altitude corresponding to a large convective system near Borneo island (6.0°N-115.5°E). During the crossing, carbon monoxide mixing ratios increase by 5 to 10 ppbv from the ambient cloud free environment to the anvil cloud correlated with an increase of CH4 mixing ratio. Using these observations, the fraction of boundary layer air contained in fresh convective outflow has been calculated. Other convection cases were detected, allowing for other fractions to be calculated, with results ranging between 0.15 and 0.55 and showing the variability of the mixing taking place during convective transport.

  4. Airborne measurements of different trace gases during the AROMAT-2 campaign with an Avantes spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bösch, Tim; Meier, Andreas; Schönhardt, Anja; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Burrows, John

    2016-04-01

    Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) is a well-known, versatile, and frequently used technique for the analysis of trace gases within the atmosphere. Although DOAS has been used for several decades, airborne DOAS has become more popular during the last years because of the possibility of measuring in high lateral resolutions with the help of imaging instruments. Here, we present results of the AROMAT-2 campaign in Romania in summer 2015. The introduced measurements were taken using a nadir viewing Avantes spectrometer on board of a Cessna aircraft which flew over Bucharest and the Turceni power plant in Romania. The instrument covers the wavelength region of 287 - 551nm at a spectral resolution of 0.13nm and has a temporal resolution of 0.5s, translating to about 450m in flight direction at 3000m flight attitude. The field of view of the instrument was set to 8.1 degrees, resulting in a pixel size across track of about 420m. Compared to the imaging DOAS instrument AirMAP which was also operated from the aircraft, the signal to noise ratio of the simple nadir viewing spectrometer is slightly better, which allows an analysis of less abundant species and interesting spectral features. The results show a day-to-day variation of NO2 over the city of Bucharest as well as spectral features over lakes in the city, which can be attributed to algae. Furthermore, we were able to measure large emission plumes of NO2 and SO2 over the Turceni power plant, which could be observed over long spatial distances. In addition, the results from the Avantes instrument were used for comparison with measurements of the imaging spectrometer AirMAP and good agreement was found, providing independent verification of the imager data.

  5. Anatomy of a cluster IDP. Part 2: Noble gas abundances, trace element geochemistry, isotopic abundances, and trace organic chemistry of several fragments from L2008#5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, David S.; Messenger, S.; Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: noble gas content and release temperatures; trace element abundances; heating summary of cluster fragments; isotopic measurements; and trace organic chemistry.

  6. Changes in trace elements of cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and effects of trace elements on vasospasm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, N.; Kuroda, K.; Suzuki, M.; Ogawa, A.; Sera, K.

    1999-04-01

    Various causal factors have been proposed for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), such as serotonin, acetylcholine, angiotensin, thrombin and thromboxane A2. However, none of them explain the whole pathomechanism of vasospasm. To evaluate the role of trace elements on vasospasm, we have examined these sequential changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after SAH by PIXE, and have investigated the relation between trace elements and vasospasm. We obtained the CSF samples from cisternal drainage in patients with SAH who underwent radical surgery within 48 h from the onset. The drainage was placed into basal cisterns at the end of the operation. Three sampling times (3-5, 7-9 and 12-14 days from the onset) has been scheduled because vasospasm is likely to occur from day 4 to day 14 after the onset. In this study, we focused on the levels of Mg, Ca, Mn, Al, Zn, P, Pb, Sr, Br, Co, Cu, Si, Ti, Mn,Co, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Mo and Pb, and we found a significantly lower level of Mg in the CSF of patients with vasospasm on days 7-9 after the onset. These results suggest that Mg in the CSF may ameliorate vasoconstriction due to Ca in the pathomechanism of vasospasm.

  7. Trace elements in disseminated sulfides, magnetite, and massive sulfides, West Shasta district, California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Botinelly, T.; Siems, D.F.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of pyrite separates from massive sulphide layers vary stratigraphically in trace-element content, and show an enrichment of many of the elements in the centre of the layers. Trace-element contents of pyrite of massive sulphide deposits, of magnetite from a magnetite deposit, and of disseminated sulphides differ, presumably reflecting different origins. Trace-element contents of pyrite separates also differ among the sampled massive sulphide deposits. -G.J.N.

  8. An evaluation of trace element release associated with acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Patrick J.; Yelton, Jennifer L.

    1988-12-01

    The determination of trace element release from geologic materials, such as oil shale and coal overburden, is important for proper solid waste management planning. The objective of this study was to determine a correlation between trace element residency and concentration to trace element release using the following methods: (1) sequential selective dissolution for determining trace element residencies, (2) toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and (3) humidity cell weathering study simulating maximum trace element release. Two eastern oil shales were used, a New albany shale that contains 4.6 percent pyrite, and a Chattanooga shale that contains 1.5 percent pyrite. Each shale was analyzed for elemental concentrations by soluble, adsorbed, organic, carbonate, and sulfide phases. All leachates were analyzed to determine total trace element concentrations. The results of the selective dissolution studies show that each trace element has a unique distribution between the various phases. Thus, it is possible to predict trace element release based on trace element residency. The TCLP results show that this method is suitable for assessing soluble trace element release but does not realistically assess potential hazards. The results of the humidity cell studies do demonstrate a more reasonable method for predicting trace element release and potential water quality hazards. The humidity cell methods, however, require months to obtain the required data with a large number of analytical measurements. When the selective dissolution data are compared to the trace element concentrations in the TCLP and humidity cell leachates, it is shown that leachate concentrations are predicted by the selective dissolution data. Therefore, selective dissolution may represent a rapid method to assess trace element release associated with acid mine drainage.

  9. Chemistry of trace elements in coalbed methane product water.

    PubMed

    McBeth, Ian; Reddy, Katta J; Skinner, Quentin D

    2003-02-01

    Extraction of methane (natural gas) from coal deposits is facilitated by pumping of aquifer water. Coalbed methane (CBM) product water, produced from pumping ground water, is discharged into associated unlined holding ponds. The objective of this study was to examine the chemistry of trace elements in CBM product water at discharge points and in associated holding ponds across the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Product water samples from discharge points and associated holding ponds were collected from the Cheyenne River (CHR), Belle Fourche River (BFR), and Little Powder River (LPR) watersheds during the summers of 1999 and 2000. Samples were analyzed for pH, Al (aluminum), As (arsenic), B (boron), Ba (barium), Cr (chromium), Cu (copper), F (fluoride), Fe (iron), Mn (manganese), Mo (molybdenum), Se (selenium), and Zn (zinc). Chemistry of trace element concentrations were modeled with the MINTEQA2 geochemical equilibrium model. Results of this study show that pH of product water for three watersheds increased in holding ponds. For example the pH of CBM product water increased from 7.21 to 8.26 for LPR watershed. Among three watersheds, the CBM product water exhibited relatively less change in trace element concentrations in CHR watershed holding ponds. Concentration of dissolved Al, Fe, As, Se, and F in product water increased in BFR watershed holding ponds. For example, concentration of dissolved Fe increased from 113 to 135 microg/L. Boron, Cu, and Zn concentrations of product water did not change in BFR watershed holding ponds. However, concentration of dissolved Ba, Mn, and Cr in product water decreased in BFR watershed holding ponds. For instance, Ba and Cr concentrations decreased from 445 to 386 microg/L and from 43.6 to 25.1 microg/L, respectively. In the LPR watershed, Al, Fe, As, Se, and F concentrations of product water increased substantially in holding ponds. For example, Fe concentration increased from 192 to 312 microg/L. However, concentration of

  10. Trace element measurement in Saliva by NAA and PIXE techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hamidian, M.R.; Vahid Golpayegani, M.; Shojai, S. )

    1993-01-01

    The activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties of saliva, especially in some illnesses in which the activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties alter, sometimes have severe effects on sedimentation and tooth decay. Long-standing investigations have shown the relationship between salivary gland activity and saliva composition in dental carries. Many modern techniques have been employed to measure important elements in saliva. The major elements in saliva include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, and fluorine. It should be pointed out that the amount of minerals changes when the diet changes. The major constituent of saliva is water with a density of 1.007 g/cm[sup 3] in which 0.6% is solid, 0.3% organic material and 0.3% inorganic material. In addition to other effects, the acidity (pH) of saliva has a strong effect on tooth sedimentation. Type of work, degree of stress, and mental condition affect salivary gland activity. When the acidity of salivary fluid in the mouth and consequently over the teeth drops, sedimentation increases. In this paper, the results of trace element measurement in saliva are presented.

  11. Micro-PIXE Analysis of Trace Elements in Sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Wetteland, C.; Stimac, J.; Larocque, A.C.L.; Brearley, A.

    2003-08-26

    Micro-scale Proton-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) of trace elements (TE) in sulfides provides insights into geologic processes including magmatic system evolution, ore forming events, and fluid-flow processes. The Los Alamos nuclear microprobe was used to determine TE concentrations and ratios in sulfides from diverse geologic environments including hydrothermal ore deposits, coal seams, and metamorphic rocks. Pyrrhotite (Po) from silicic volcanics contains high Cu and Ni; Po from the Clear Lake volcanic field has higher Mo than does Po from other volcanic fields. Coal pyrites contain high Cu, As, Se, Mo and Pb, and show high As/Se and Mo/Se in marine influenced sulfides from the Lower Kittanning coal, but not in other marine-influenced coals. Sulfides are amenable to micro-PIXE studies because of the difficulties in obtaining the homogeneous standards required for many other TE microanalytical techniques.

  12. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Trace element removal study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Southern Company Services, Inc., (SCS) was contracted in 1989 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a commercially acceptable selective agglomeration technology to enhance the use of high-sulfur coals by 1993. The project scope involved development of a bench-scale process and components, as well as the design, testing, and evaluation of a proof-of-concept (POC) facility. To that end, a two-ton-per-hour facility was constructed and tested near Wilsonville, Alabama. Although it was not the primary focus of the test program, SCS also measured the ability of selective agglomeration to remove trace elements from coal. This document describes the results of that program.

  13. Volatile/mobile trace elements in Bholghati howardite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ming-Sheng; Paul, Rick L.; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1990-01-01

    Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, and Zn by RNAA are determined in two kinds of material from the Bholghati howardite: a carbonaceous chondrite clast (BH-4) that originated by primary nebular condensation/accretion processes; whole-rock samples and clasts resulting from parent-body processes, especially igneous differentiation. Trace element contents in Bholghati whole-rock (matrix) samples and/or white eucritic clasts in it are high for an achondrite, and variable. These characteristics are indicative of random condensation of volcanic emanations admixed with preexisting eucrite, diogenite, and howardite layers in the HED parent body. Other HED samples show similar patterns, and the conclusion that these reflect extensive volcanism in an asteroidal-sized object is supported by other Consortium noble gas and cosmochronologic measurements.

  14. Ordinary chondrites - Multivariate statistical analysis of trace element contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, Michael E.; Samuels, Stephen M.

    1991-01-01

    The contents of mobile trace elements (Co, Au, Sb, Ga, Se, Rb, Cs, Te, Bi, Ag, In, Tl, Zn, and Cd) in Antarctic and non-Antarctic populations of H4-6 and L4-6 chondrites, were compared using standard multivariate discriminant functions borrowed from linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression. A nonstandard randomization-simulation method was developed, making it possible to carry out probability assignments on a distribution-free basis. Compositional differences were found both between the Antarctic and non-Antarctic H4-6 chondrite populations and between two L4-6 chondrite populations. It is shown that, for various types of meteorites (in particular, for the H4-6 chondrites), the Antarctic/non-Antarctic compositional difference is due to preterrestrial differences in the genesis of their parent materials.

  15. Composition and trace element content of coal in Taiwan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsai, L.-Y.; Chen, C.-F.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the trace element contents of local coal, four coal samples were collected from operating mines in NW Taiwan. Detailed petrographic and chemical characterization analyses were then conducted. Analytical results indicate that (1) the samples were high volatile bituminous coal in rank with ash content ranging from 4.2 to 14.4% and with moisture content ranging from 2.7 to 4.6%; (2) the macerals were mostly composed of vitrinite with vitrinite reflectance less than 0.8%; (3) the sample of Wukeng mine has the highest Fe2O3 (29.5%), TI (54.8 ppm), Zn (140 ppm), and As (697 ppm) contents in ash and Hg (2.3 ppm) in the coal. If used properly, these coals should not present health hazards.

  16. The trace elements: A new chapter in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fox, F W

    1975-09-20

    Formerly reported by analysts as being present as "traces", the minute amounts of many elements present in plant and animal materials can now be detected and estimated with a remarkable degree of sensitivity and accuracy. Some of this heterogenous group of metals and nonmetals have been shown to be essential for life or for the well-being of animals, including man; others possess toxic properties, while yet others are probably there as contaminants. Although present in such extremely small quantities, those known to be essential play highly individualistic as well as astonishingly varied roles in our metabolic processes; they must, therefore, take their place with the other nutrients needed in our diet. PMID:1166364

  17. Leachability of trace elements in coal and coal combustion wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C.A.; Breit, G.N.; Fishman, N.S.; Bullock, J.H. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Leaching of trace elements from coal and coal combustion waste (CCW) products from a coal-fired power plant, burning coal from the Appalachian and Illinois basins, was studied using deionized (DI) water as a lixiviant to resemble natural conditions in waste disposal sites exposed to dilute meteoric water infiltration. Samples of bottom ash, fly ash, and feed coal were collected from two combustion units at monthly intervals, along with a bulk sample of wastes deposited in an on-site disposal pond. The units burn different coals, one a high-sulfur coal (2.65 to 3.5 weight percent S) and the other, a low-sulfur coal (0.6--0.9 eight percent S). Short-term batch leaches with DI water were performed for times varying from a few minutes to 18 hours. Select fly ash samples were also placed in long-term (> 1 year) flow-through columns.

  18. Zircon trace element evidence for Hadean infracrustal differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, D.; Scherstén, A.

    2009-12-01

    We have analysed zircon from Itsaku, West Greenland, where a major hiatus separates an Upper Albian to Lower Cenomanian deltaic sandstone succession from an Upper Campanian to Paleocene marine turbidite succession. The lower deltaic succession contains zircon that display an age range that is typical for the southern West Greenland. Tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneisses dominate the Archaean rocks in this region, and we assume that the zircon were dominantly drawn from these gneisses. Above the hiatus, the zircon form a simple distribution with a 1.87 Ga mean, which is in perfect agreement with the A-type granite at the nearby Prøven Igneous Complex (Thrane et al., 2005, Contrib. Min. Petrol. 149, 541-555). Furthermore, Ti in zircon thermometry has a mean of 845 degrees C, which is similar to zircon saturation temperatures of 790- 880 degrees C (n = 4) calculated from bulk rock data and the independently estimated ~850 degrees C for the intrusion. We conclude that the Prøven Igneous Complex is the source of the zircon in the turbidite succession. We determined trace element abundances in these zircon grains, to assess the usefulness of zircon trace element abundances for determining the provenance of zircon of different origin. Each group display a wide range of trace element abundances, which reflect source rock heterogeneities and magma chamber dynamics. Trace element ratios and patterns are overlapping to a large extent, but there are some distinctive features that might be petrogenetically significant. Both groups have high U/Yb compared to oceanic crust zircon, which seems to be afeature of zircon of continental crust origin (c.f. Grimes et al., 2006; Geology 35, 643-646). There are, however, differences between the TTG and Prøven zircon groups. For example, the TTG zircon generally have higher Sr/Nd and Eu/Eu*. These contrasts are in keeping with those of their source rocks, and reflect magmatic and crustal differentiation. Furthermore, each

  19. Collection and analysis of marine particles for trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefry, John H.; Trocine, Robert P.

    Field and laboratory practices for the collection and analysis of suspended particles from the marine environment have evolved considerably during the past two decades. However, many of these practices have not been discussed or disseminated in great detail throughout the literature. The timely organization of a workshop on "The Analysis and Characterization of Marine Particles" encourages reevaluation and sharing of collective experiences. We have been fortunate to collect particles from a wide variety of environments including the Mississippi River and Delta [Trefry and Presley, 1976; Trefry et al., 1985, 1986], the hypersaline Orca Basin [Trefry et al., 1984] , and hydrothermal vent plumes in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans [Trefry et al., 1985; Nelsen et al., 1986/1987; Trocine and Trefry, 1988]. Some of our practices and thoughts follow, focusing primarily on sampling and analysis for trace elements. Some additional details for Sampling hydrothermal plumes are also provided.

  20. Occurrence and volatility of several trace elements in pulverized coal boiler.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-ji; Jin, Bao-sheng; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Xiao, Rui; Tang, Zhi-yong; Ren, Hui-feng

    2004-01-01

    The contents of eight trace elements(Mn, Cr, Pb, As, Se, Zn, Cd, Hg) in raw coal, bottom ash and fly ash were measured in a 220 t/h pulverized coal boiler. Factors affecting distribution of trace elements were investigated, including fly ash diameter, furnace temperature, oxygen content and trace elements' characters. One coefficient of Meij was also improved to more directly show element enrichment in combustion products. These elements may be classified into three groups according to their distribution: Group 1: Hg, which is very volatile. Group 2: Pb, Zn, Cd, which are partially volatile. Group 3: Mn, which is hardly volatile. Se may be located between groups 1 and 2. Cr has properties of both group 1 and 3. In addition, the smaller diameter of fly ash, the more relative enrichment of trace elements (except Mn). The fly ash showed different adsorption mechanisms of trace elements and the volatilization of trace elements rises with furnace temperature. Relative enrichments of trace elements(except Mn and Cr) in fly ash are larger than that in bottom ash. Low oxygen content can not always improve the volatilization of trace elements. Pb is easier to form chloride than Cd during coal combustion. Trace elements should be classified in accordance with factors. PMID:15137647

  1. The CU Airborne MAX-DOAS instrument: vertical profiling of aerosol extinction and trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, S.; Oetjen, H.; Coburn, S.; Dix, B.; Ortega, I.; Sinreich, R.; Volkamer, R.

    2013-03-01

    The University of Colorado Airborne Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS) instrument uses solar stray light to detect and quantify multiple trace gases, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), formaldehyde (HCHO), water vapor (H2O), nitrous acid (HONO), iodine monoxide (IO), bromine monoxide (BrO), and oxygen dimers (O4) at multiple wavelengths (absorption bands at 360, 477, 577, 632 nm) simultaneously in the open atmosphere. The instrument is unique as it (1) features a motion compensation system that decouples the telescope field of view from aircraft movements in real time (<0.35° accuracy), and (2) includes measurements of solar stray light photons from nadir, zenith, and multiple elevation angles forward and below the plane by the same spectrometer/detector system. Sets of solar stray light spectra collected from nadir to zenith scans provide some vertical profile information within 2 km above and below the aircraft altitude, and the vertical column density (VCD) below the aircraft is measured in nadir view. Maximum information about vertical profiles is derived simultaneously for trace gas concentrations and aerosol extinction coefficients over similar spatial scales and with a vertical resolution of typically 250 m during aircraft ascent/descent. The instrument is described, and data from flights over California during the CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) and CARES (Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study) air quality field campaigns is presented. Horizontal distributions of NO2 VCD (below the aircraft) maps are sampled with typically 1 km resolution, and show good agreement with two ground-based MAX-DOAS instruments (slope = 0.95 ± 0.09, R2 = 0.86). As a case study vertical profiles of NO2, CHOCHO, HCHO, and H2O concentrations and aerosol extinction coefficients, ɛ, at 477 nm calculated from O4 measurements from a low approach at Brackett airfield inside the

  2. Major element, trace element, nutrient, and radionuclide mobility in a mining by-product-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Douglas, G; Adeney, J; Johnston, K; Wendling, L; Coleman, S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of a mineral processing by-product, neutralized used acid (NUA), primarily composed of gypsum and Fe-oxyhydroxide, as a soil amendment. A 1489-d turf farm field trial assessed nutrient, trace element, and radionuclide mobility of a soil amended with ∼5% by mass to a depth of 15 cm of NUA. Average PO-P fluxes collected as subsoil leachates were 0.7 and 26.6 kg ha yr for NUA-amended and control sites, respectively, equating to a 97% reduction in PO-P loss after 434 kg P ha was applied. Total nitrogen fluxes in NUA-amended soil leachates were similarly reduced by 82%. Incorporation of NUA conferred major changes in leachate geochemistry with a diverse suite of trace elements depleted within NUA-amended leachates. Gypsum dissolution from NUA resulted in an increase from under- to oversaturation of the soil leachates for a range of Fe- and Ca-minerals including calcite and ferrihydrite, many of which have a well-documented ability to assimilate PO-P and trace elements. Isotopic analysis indicated little Pb addition from NUA. Both Sr and Nd isotope results revealed that NUA and added fertilizer became an important source of Ca to leachate and turf biomass. The NUA-amended soils retained a range of U-Th series radionuclides, with little evidence of transfer to soil leachate or turf biomass. Calculated radioactivity dose rates indicate only a small increment due to NUA amendment. With increased nutrient, trace element, and solute retention, and increased productivity, a range of potential agronomic benefits may be conferred by NUA amendment of soils, in addition to the potential to limit offsite nutrient loss and eutrophication. PMID:23128739

  3. Total element concentration and chemical fractionation in airborne particulate matter from Santiago, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Pablo; Griño, Paulina; Ahumada, Inés; Giordano, Ady

    Total element determination and chemical fractionation were carried out in airborne particulate matter (PM 10) from the Cerrillos monitoring station in Santiago, Chile, sampled in July (winter), 1997-2003. Element concentration in the period under study (1997-2003) was statistically analyzed through cluster analysis in order to identify groups of elements having similar behavior along time. Elements such as Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, As and Mg show a clear decrease in concentration with time. On the contrary, chromium increases its concentration almost linearly during the period. In order to estimate whether the presence of a certain element in PM 10 matrix is mainly due to anthropogenic or natural processes, the enrichment factor of each element was determined. According to their behavior in the sequential extraction procedure, the elements were grouped by multivariate analysis in three clusters: (a) those mobile elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, Cu and As) which are weakly bound to the matrix (fractions 1 and 2) (b) those elements (V, Ti, and Cr) mainly bound to carbonates and oxides (fraction 3) and (c) the most immobile elements (Ni, Mo, Ca, Mg, Ba and Al), mainly bound to silicates and organic matter (fraction 4). A source of great concern is the fact that elements of such high toxicity as Pb, Cd and As are highly concentrated in both mobile fractions, indicating that these elements have a direct impact on the environment and on the health of the exposed population.

  4. Size distributions and health risks of particulate trace elements in rural areas in northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Chen, Xin; Wang, Lu; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-02-01

    To characterize the airborne trace elements (Be, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb, Th and U) in rural areas in northeastern China, size-resolved aerosols were collected bi-weekly from March 2013 to February 2014 at two farmland sites in Shenyang (SHY) and Hailun (HLZ), a grassland site in Tongyu (TYU) and a forest site in the Changbai Mountain (CBS). The results showed that most trace elements (TEs) exhibited significantly higher concentrations at SHY than those at HLZ, TYU and CBS. All of the sites exhibited higher values in spring/winter than those in summer/autumn. Industrial imprints on the concentrations and size distributions of Pb and Cd were found at SHY, as supported by an air-mass backward-trajectory analysis and the abundance of sulfate and heavy metals. Due to the frequent influence of sand dust, the size distributions of Ca and Ba at the grassland site near Inner Mongolia had dominant peaks at 5.8-9 μm, in contrast to the other agricultural and forest sites, which peaked at 4.7-5.8 μm. In addition, the concentrations and the enrichment factors (EFs) of the TEs in this study increased as the size range decreased from coarse to fine particles, resulting in the highest carcinogenic (e.g., Pb) and non-carcinogenic (e.g., Mn) risks at 1.1-2.1 μm. Overall, the results highlight the severe pollution of heavy metals in northeastern China, particularly in agricultural regions that are subject to anthropogenic influences. Mitigating atmospheric TEs in the studied region, an important commodity grain base in China, is urgently needed to protect the environment and human health from toxic metals.

  5. Impacts of trace element supplementation on the performance of anaerobic digestion process: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Choong, Yee Yaw; Norli, Ismail; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Yhaya, Mohd Firdaus

    2016-06-01

    This paper critically reviews the impacts of supplementing trace elements on the anaerobic digestion performance. The in-depth knowledge of trace elements as micronutrients and metalloenzyme components justifies trace element supplementation into the anaerobic digestion system. Most of the earlier studies reported that trace elements addition at (sub)optimum dosages had positive impacts mainly longer term on digester stability with greater organic matter degradation, low volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and higher biogas production. However, these positive impacts and element requirements are not fully understood, they are explained on a case to case basis because of the great variance of the anaerobic digestion operation. Iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) are the most studied and desirable elements. The right combination of multi-elements supplementation can have greater positive impact. This measure is highly recommended, especially for the mono-digestion of micronutrient-deficient substrates. The future research should consider the aspect of trace element bioavailability. PMID:27005788

  6. EVALUATION OF TRACE ELEMENT RELEASE FROM FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of four trace elements: lead, beryllium, mercury, and fluorine. The chemical fate of minor and trace elements is important in assessing the environmental impact of the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) process and, for certain elements, i...

  7. Methods for detecting the mobility of trace elements during medium-temperature pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shiley, R.H.; Konopka, K.L.; Cahill, R.A.; Hinckley, C.C.; Smith, Gerard V.; Twardowska, H.; Saporoschenko, Mykola

    1983-01-01

    The mobility (volatility) of trace elements in coal during pyrolysis has been studied for distances of up to 40 cm between the coal and the trace element collector, which was graphite or a baffled solvent trap. Nineteen elements not previously recorded as mobile were detected. ?? 1983.

  8. Concentrations and Distribution of Slag-Related Trace Elements and Mercury in Fine-Grained Beach and Bed Sediments of Lake Roosevelt, Washington, April-May 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael S.; Kahle, Sue C.; Ebbert, James C.; Josberger, Edward G.

    2003-01-01

    A series of studies have documented elevated concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc in the water, bed sediment, or fish of Lake Roosevelt and the upstream reach of the Columbia River. Elevated concentrations of some trace elements in this region are largely attributable to the transport of slag and metallurgical waste discharged into the Columbia River from a smelter in Canada. Although most recent studies have focused on contamination levels in water, bed sediment, and fish, there is growing concern in the region over the potential threat of airborne contaminants to human health. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of trace-element concentrations in the relatively shallow fine-grained sediment along the shore of Lake Roosevelt that is exposed annually during periods of reservoir drawdown. During each winter and spring, the water level of Lake Roosevelt is lowered as much as about 80 feet to provide space to capture high river flows from spring runoff, exposing vast expanses of lake-bottom sediment for a period of several months. Upon drying, these exposed areas provide an extremely large source for wind-blown dust. This study concluded that trace elements associated with slag and metallurgical waste are present in the fine-grained fraction (less than 63 micrometers) of bed sediments along the length of Lake Roosevelt, and as such, could be components of the airborne dust resulting from exposure, drying, and wind mobilization of the sediments exposed during the annual drawdowns of the reservoir. Trace-element concentrations in the surficial bed sediment varied, but the major components in slag?arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc?showed generally pronounced gradients of decreasing concentrations from near the International Border to the Grand Coulee Dam. The results of this study provide base-line information needed to plan and conduct air monitoring of trace

  9. Fate of trace elements during the combustion of phytoremediation wood.

    PubMed

    Chalot, Michel; Blaudez, Damien; Rogaume, Yann; Provent, Anne-Sonia; Pascual, Christophe

    2012-12-18

    We investigated the fate of trace elements (TE) in poplar wood on the conversion of biomass to heat in a 0.2 MW combustion unit equipped with a fabric filter. The phytoremediation wood was harvested from a TE-contaminated agricultural site planted with a high-density poplar stand. The combustion technology used in the present experiment allows for an efficient separation of the various ash fractions. The combustion process concentrates Cu, Cr, and Ni in the bottom ash, heat exchanger ash, and cyclone ash fractions. Therefore, the impact of the fabric filter is negligible for these elements. Conversely, Cd, Pb, and Zn are significantly recovered in the emission fraction in the absence of the fabric filter above the emission limits. The use of a fabric filter will allow the concentration of these three TEs in the ashes collected below the filter, thus complying with all regulatory thresholds, i.e., those from the large combustion plant EU directive. Because the TE concentrations in the different fractions differed significantly, it is recommended that these fractions be treated separately, especially when recycling of ashes from phytoremediation wood through application in agriculture is envisaged. PMID:23153074

  10. Breccias 73215 and 73255 - Siderophile and volatile trace elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Petrie, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    Fifteen siderophile and volatile trace elements (Os, Re, Ir, Pd, Ni, Au, Sb, Ge, Se, Ag, In, Zn, Cd, Bi, Tl) and U were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in a spheroidal aphanitic clast and a clast of coarse-grained anorthositic gabbro from breccia 73215 and in three types of aphanite and two clasts of fine-grained anorthositic gabbro from breccia 73255. In common with most Apollo 17 fragment-laden melt rocks, the aphanites from 73215 and 73255 predominantly contain a Group 2 meteoritic component, which is apparently derived from the Serenitatis impact. All aphanitic lithologies contain the same meteoritic component, and are probably cogenetic. The clasts of fine-grained anorthositic gabbro contain substantial amounts (2% to 6% Cl equivalent based on Au) of a pre-Serenitatis Group 3 component. The clast of coarse-grained anorthositic gabbro is low in siderophile elements (0.4% Cl equivalent), and the meteoritic component (Group 5) is not well-defined. A strong correlation exists between Ir and Au in both the aphanites and the anorthositic gabbro clasts, which argues against the breccias 73215 and 73255 being open systems for Au

  11. Zinc: A precious trace element for oral health care?

    PubMed

    Fatima, Tayyaba; Haji Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Binti; Lin, Chai Wen; Qamar, Zeeshan

    2016-08-01

    This review will discuss the importance of Zinc in the maintenance of oral health. Zinc (Zn) is a trace element of valuable importance. In the oral cavity, it is naturally present at various sites such as dental plaque, dental hard tissues and saliva. It is proven to be effective against common prevalent oral health problems such as dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis and malodour. It is being used in various oral health care products to control the formation of dental plaque and inhibiting the formation of dental calculus. It has the potential to sustain and maintain its elevated concentrations for a longer time particularly in the dental plaque and saliva on delivery from the mouth rinses and toothpastes. It has been reported that low concentrations of zinc have the capability to reduce dissolution and promote remineralization under caries simulating conditions. Most importantly low Zn2+ levels in the serum are useful as a tumour marker. Thus taking a note of its potentials, it can be concluded that zinc is a precious element for the maintenance of oral health. PMID:27524540

  12. Quantitative real-time monitoring of multi-elements in airborne particulates by direct introduction into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Sato, Hikaru; Hiyoshi, Katsuhiro; Furuta, Naoki

    2012-10-01

    A new calibration system for real-time determination of trace elements in airborne particulates was developed. Airborne particulates were directly introduced into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, and the concentrations of 15 trace elements were determined by means of an external calibration method. External standard solutions were nebulized by an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) coupled with a desolvation system, and the resulting aerosol was introduced into the plasma. The efficiency of sample introduction via the USN was calculated by two methods: (1) the introduction of a Cr standard solution via the USN was compared with introduction of a Cr(CO)6 standard gas via a standard gas generator and (2) the aerosol generated by the USN was trapped on filters and then analyzed. The Cr introduction efficiencies obtained by the two methods were the same, and the introduction efficiencies of the other elements were equal to the introduction efficiency of Cr. Our results indicated that our calibration method for introduction efficiency worked well for the 15 elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl and Pb). The real-time data and the filter-collection data agreed well for elements with low-melting oxides (V, Co, As, Mo, Sb, Tl, and Pb). In contrast, the real-time data were smaller than the filter-collection data for elements with high-melting oxides (Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Ba). This result implies that the oxides of these 8 elements were not completely fused, vaporized, atomized, and ionized in the initial radiation zone of the inductively coupled plasma. However, quantitative real-time monitoring can be realized after correction for the element recoveries which can be calculated from the ratio of real-time data/filter-collection data.

  13. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk.

    PubMed

    Saha, Priyanka; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal

    2010-03-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations. PMID:20047839

  14. Water sources in a small Mediterranean watershed traced back with Sr isotopes, major and trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Luck, Jean-Marc; Ben Othman, Dalila; Joseph, Christian; Negrel, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    In the context of climate change, this study presents the ability of major/trace elements together with strontium isotopes to trace back water paths at small scale and to deconvolve the geochemical signal of a small watershed subject to intense flash floods episodes (Peyne, Hérault, France). Two small sub-basins draining distinct lithologies in their heads (Plio-Villafranchian conglomerate versus Triassic gypsum-rich marls and dolomites) and the same Miocene lithology downstream are investigated. Major elements and Ca/Na vs. Mg/Na ratios classically applied at large scale to distinguish carbonate from silicate weathering, allow here discriminating the three main lithologies from the two sub-basins. Trace elements Rb and Sr coupled to calcium, also allow this lithological discrimination but in addition the Ca/Rb vs. Sr/Rb tracers appear to be much more discriminant for the various hydrological conditions. Thus, in combination with detailed lithological descriptions, they allow identifying the different facies that imprint the water signature through water-rock interaction according to the hydrological conditions. Strontium isotopes and Rb/Sr ratio, discriminate more precisely the drained lithologies of the 2 sub-basins. Firstly, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios allow identifying the nature of the lithologies and their main component(s) contributing to the Sr budget in water and thus imprint the isotopic signature. Secondly, Sr isotopes evidenced two distinct Miocene facies: the detritric faction (sandy marls), and the marine carbonates. The geochemical signatures of the brook samples draining both compartments were compared to the signature of the Peyne River outlet just before the confluence into the Hérault River. It appears that the signature of the Peyne River, integrating all the water draining the basin, is relatively stable whatever the hydrological conditions and mainly marked by the Miocene formations. Sr isotopes further highlight that this signature seems to result

  15. The Accretion and Differentiation of Mars: Trace element constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuff, J.; Wood, B. J.; Wade, J.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to use the increasing amounts of information on the composition of the Martian surface as a means to determine the history of Martian accretion and differentiation. The approach requires an estimate of the average composition of the Martian mantle combined with experimental data on the partitioning of a wide range of elements between metallic and silicate liquids and between silicate crystals and melts. When applied to the Earth this methodology indicates that Earth started accreting as a small reduced body and progressively added more oxidised and volatile-rich material as it grew. We began by testing the Martian mantle composition proposed by Dreibus and Wänke (D&W; [1]) using experimental phase equilibrium data [2] to test whether the observed basaltic compositions can be derived from such a mantle. We find that the experimentally observed phase compositions allow calculation of a simple differentiation path, dominated by olivine and pyroxene fractionation, which explains most major and minor element compositional trends in both the Martian surface basalts (Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum) and the SNC basaltic meteorites: in short, the Martian samples may be derived from a Martian mantle similar to that proposed by D&W (i.e. richer in FeO than the terrestrial mantle). Using the major element model as a starting point, we then calculated trace-element fractionation trends, using experimentally determined mineral-melt partition coefficients, in order to back-calculate the trace-element concentrations in the Martian mantle. In agreement with previous work, our calculated Martian mantle contains higher Cr and lower Ni and Mo than the Terrestrial mantle. Differences in Ni (and Zn) between the Martian surface samples and the SNCs are most likely due to hydrothermal alteration of the former (e.g., serpentinization in the case of increased Ni in the Martian surface samples). We also calculate that the Martian mantle has similar or lower

  16. Trace Element Condensation in Circumstellar Envelopes of Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodders, K.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    1992-07-01

    It is now well established that meteorites contain reduced presolar grains, such as graphite and silicon carbide (SiC), which are probably formed by condensation of dust in the circumstellar envelopes of carbon-rich AGB stars. Here we model condensation in envelopes of carbon stars, with an emphasis on trace elements. Since absolute elemental abundances in stellar atmospheres are generally not known, we assume solar abundances (Anders and Grevesse 1989), except for carbon. A C/O ratio of 2, consistent with the mean and median values of 2.1 and 1.8 respectively, for 61 carbon stars (Gow 1977) was used. The C/O ratio was increased by adding carbon because astrophysicists believe that carbon produced in helium-burning zones may be mixed to the surfaces of C stars (e.g. Lucy 1976). We used physical parameters for the circumstellar shell of the high mass-loss rate, prototypical carbon star IRC +10216 (e.g. Keady et al. 1988, Dominik et al. 1990) and theoretical considerations by Salpeter (1974a,b) to construct a P-T-model of the envelope (see Fig. 1). Thermodynamic equilibrium condensation calculations for a reduced gas include ~600 gaseous and solid compounds of the elements H, C, N, O, S, P, F, Cl, Fe, Mg, Al, Ti, Si, Ca, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and REE. Refractory oxides, sulfides, nitrides, and carbides were considered as condensates. The calculations were done from T = 800 to 2500 K, and P= 10^-5 to 10^-13 bars. The effects of nucleation on condensation temperatures were calculated using the nucleation model discussed by Salpeter (1974a,b) and Cameron and Fegley (1982). The temperature drop required for condensation depends on (P,T, density) in the expanding envelope and also on the abundance, density, and surface energy (Es) of the nucleating compound. The range of E(sub)s values for NaCl-type carbides are about 800-1700 erg/cm^2 (Livey & Murray 1956); however, these data are generally poorly known. Another important variable is the sticking coefficient (s

  17. Design and Performance Assessment of a Stable Astigmatic Herriott Cell for Trace Gas Measurements on Airborne Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyroff, Christoph; Fried, Alan; Richter, Dirk; Walega, James G.; Zahniser, Mark S.; McManus, J. Barry

    2005-01-01

    The present paper discusses a new, more stable, astigmatic Herriott cell employing carbon fiber stabilizing rods. Laboratory tests using a near-IR absorption feature of CO at 1564.168-nm revealed a factor of two improvement in measurement stability compared with the present commercial design when the sampling pressure was changed by +/-2 Torr around 50 Torr. This new cell should significantly enhance our efforts to measure trace gases employing pathlengths of 100 to 200-meters on airborne platforms with minimum detectable line center absorbances of less than 10(exp -6).

  18. Algorithms research of airborne long linear multi-elements whisk broom remote sensing image geometric correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Ma, Yan-hua; Li, Sheng-hong

    2015-10-01

    Multi-Element scanning imaging is an imaging method that is conventionally used in space-born spectrometer. By multipixel scanning at the same time, increased exposure time can be achieved and the picture quality can be enhanced. But when this imaging method is applied in airborne remote sensing image systems, corresponding imaging model and correction algorithms must be built, because of the poor posture stability of airborne platform and different characteristics and requirements. This paper builds a geometric correction model of airborne long linear multi-element scanning imaging system by decomposing the process of imaging and also deduced related correction algorithms. The sampling moment of linear CCD can be treated as push broom imaging and a single pixel imaging during the whole whisk broom period can be treated as whisk broom imaging. Based on this kind of decomposition, col-linearity equation correction algorithm and a kind of new tangent correction algorithm are deduced. As shown in the simulation experiment result, combining with position and attitude date collected by the posture position measurement system, these algorithms can map pixel position from image coordinate to WGS84 coordinate with high precision. In addition, some error factors and correction accuracy are roughly analyzed.

  19. Trace Elements and Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes in Organisms from a Tropical Coastal Lagoon

    PubMed Central

    van Hattum, B.; de Boer, J.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Rezende, C. E.; Salomons, W.

    2010-01-01

    Trace elements (Fe, Mn, Al, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Hg, and As) and stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) were analyzed in sediments, invertebrates, and fishes from a tropical coastal lagoon influenced by iron ore mining and processing activities to assess the differences in trace element accumulation patterns among species and to investigate relations with trophic levels of the organisms involved. Overall significant negative relations between trophic level (given by 15N) and trace element concentrations in gastropods and crustaceans showed differences in internal controls of trace element accumulation among the species of different trophic positions, leading to trace element dilution. Generally, no significant relation between δ15N and trace element concentrations was observed among fish species, probably due to omnivory in a number of species as well as fast growth. Trace element accumulation was observed in the fish tissues, with higher levels of most trace elements found in liver compared with muscle and gill. Levels of Fe, Mn, Al, and Hg in invertebrates, and Fe and Cu in fish livers, were comparable with levels in organisms and tissues from other contaminated areas. Trace element levels in fish muscle were below the international safety baseline standards for human consumption. PMID:20217062

  20. Selective dissolution and characterization of trace elements in hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Essington, M.E.; Sorini, S.S.

    1986-09-01

    A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the influence of hydration and recarbonation on the solid phase distribution of trace elements in retorted oil shale. The oil shale samples were retorted by the Paraho direct heating process and equilibrated in the laboratory under controlled carbon dioxide conditions. A sequential extraction technique was then used to fractionate trace elements into soluble, KNO/sub 3/-extractable, H/sub 2/O-extractable, NaOH-extractable, EDTA-extractable, HNO/sub 3/-extractable, and residual (nonextractable) phases. This procedure is purported to identify trace elements that reside in the soluble, easily exchangeable, adsorbed, organic, carbonate, sulfide, and silicate phases, respectively. The chemical fractions present in retorted oil shale and hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale are compared to identify trace element mineralogical changes that may occur in retorted oil shale disposal environments. The trace elements examined in this study included barium, cobalt, chromium, copper, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, strontium, vanadium, and zinc. The extractabilities of the major elements - aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, and silicon - were also examined to provide evidence of solid phase elemental associations with trace elements. A significant result of this study is that the mineralogical residencies of trace elements in retorted oil shale were altered in response to hydration and recarbonation. Thus, the behavior of trace elements in retorted oil shale disposal environments may not be adequately predicted through the application of extraction procedures that assess potential trace element leachability. The results of this study also justify the further characterization of trace element selective extractabilities using procedures that partition trace elements residing in the HNO/sub 3/-extractable and residual fractions. 21 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. HUMAN SCALP HAIR: AN ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE INDEX FOR TRACE ELEMENTS. I. FIFTEEN TRACE ELEMENTS IN NEW YORK, N.Y. (1971-72)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have revealed that hair trace element concentrations can reflect exposure in cases of frank poisoning and deficiency. Correlations have been found also in some populations living in regions where metallurgic processes are conducted. This study reports significant...

  2. TRACE-P OH and HO2 Measurements with the Airborne Tropospheric Hydrogen Oxides Sensor (ATHOS) on the DC-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brune, William H.; Martinez-Harder, Monica; Harder, Hartwig

    2004-01-01

    The Airborne Tropospheric Hydrogen Oxides Sensor (ATHOS) measures OH and HO2 from the NASA DC-8. This instrument detects OH by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in detection chambers at low pressure and detects HO2 by chemical conversion with NO followed by LIF detection. The demonstrated detection limit (S/N=2, 5 min.) for OH is about 0.005 pptv (1x10(exp 6)/cu cm at 2 km altitude) and for HO2 is 0.05 pptv (1x10(exp 6)/cu cm at 2 km altitude). We will use ATHOS to measure OH, HO2, and HO2/OH during TRACE- P, analyze these results by comparing them against fundamental relationships and computer models, and publish the analyses. TRACE-P HO(x), measurements will help develop a clearer picture of the atmospheric oxidation and 0 3 production that occur as Asian pollution spreads across the Pacific Ocean.

  3. Concentrations, size-distributions and air-to-sea fluxes of bio-active trace elements on the New Jersey coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Xu, G.; Xu, T.; Mukherjee, P.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal marine atmosphere adjacent to large urban and industrial centers can be strongly impacted by pollution emissions, resulting in high loading of pollutants in the ambient air. Among airborne substances are certain bioactive trace elements including Cd, Cu, and Zn from a variety of emission sources. High concentrations of these elements in coastal air could not only result in enhanced air-to-sea deposition fluxes to coastal waters, but they could also be transported over the open ocean, affecting the composition of the remote marine atmosphere. In this presentation, we will discuss the concentrations, particle-size distributions of selected trace elements in aerosols and their properties in precipitation observed on the New Jersey coast. The estimates of the air-to-water deposition fluxes of these elements will also be discussed.

  4. Characterization of trace elements in chicken and duck litter ash.

    PubMed

    Faridullah; Irshad, Muhammad; Yamamoto, Sadahiro; Honna, Toshimasa; Eneji, A Egrinya

    2009-01-01

    For safe and sustainable management of poultry litter, it is important to evaluate and understand the chemical forms and concentrations of their constituent trace elements during treatment for disposal. This experiment was carried out to compare changes in metal (Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb and Ni) fractions in chicken and duck litter after incineration at temperatures ranging from 200 to 900 degrees C. The metals were stepwise fractionated into exchangeable, adsorbed, organically bound, carbonate precipitated and residual forms by extracting with 0.5M KNO3, de-ionized water, 0.5M NaOH, 0.05M Na2 EDTA and 4M HNO3, respectively. The content of total metal and other elements (i.e., Ca, Mg and K) were was also determined. Results showed an increasing trend in the total concentrations of metals with increasing temperature with higher amounts in chicken litter ash (CLA) than duck litter ash (DLA). Higher temperatures significantly reduced the levels of H2O-soluble Mn, Zn and Ni and enhanced those of Cu and Pb. The metal fractions extracted by EDTA and HNO3 increased directly with increasing temperature while the fraction extracted with KNO3 and NaOH decreased with ashing. For Cu, Mn, Pb and Ni, the amount extracted varied in the order EDTA>HNO3>NaOH>KNO3>H2O, but the absolute amounts differed between CLA and DLA. Peak concentrations of the total metals were achieved at the highest burning temperature. The amount of H2O soluble Ca and Mg decreased and K increased in both CLA and DLA with temperature. Total and exchangeable forms of cations increased with increasing temperature. Total Ca was highest in DLA, whereas total Mg and K were higher in CLA. This study indicated that incinerating poultry litter before soil application may have mixed effects on the vulnerable metal fractions by increasing or decreasing some fractions, depending on poultry type. PMID:18538557

  5. Nuclear microscopy in trace-element biology — from cellular studies to the clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindh, Ulf

    1993-05-01

    The concentration and distribution of trace and major elements in cells are of great interest in cell biology. PIXE can provide elemental concentrations in the bulk of cells or organelles as other bulk techniques such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry and nuclear activation analysis. Supplementary information, perhaps more exciting, on the intracellular distributions of trace elements can be provided using nuclear microscopy. Intracellular distributions of trace elements in normal and malignant cells are presented. The toxicity of mercury and cadmium can be prevented by supplementation of the essential trace element selenium. Some results from an experimental animal model are discussed. The intercellular distribution of major and trace elements in isolated blood cells, as revealed by nuclear microscopy, provides useful clinical information. Examples are given concerning inflammatory connective-tissue diseases and the chronic fatigue syndrome.

  6. Macrominerals and Trace Element Requirements for Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Costa e Silva, Luiz Fernando; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Engle, Terry Eugene; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Silva, Flávia Adriane Sales; Martins, Edilane Costa; Tokunaga, Arnaldo Taishi

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven Nellore animals were utilized in this study to estimate net requirements for the maintenance and growth of beef cattle as well as the retention coefficients of 13 minerals: macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S) and trace elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, Co, and Cr). The net requirements for maintenance and the true retention coefficient were estimated by using the regression between apparent retention and intake for each mineral. The net requirement for maintenance (μg/kg BW) and retention coefficients (%) were 163 and 85 for Cu, 2,097 and 53 for Fe, 32.3 and 24 for Mn, 3.72 and 48 for Se, 669 and 0.80 for Zn, 18.4 and 86 for Co, and 22.9 and 78 for Cr. The dietary requirements of macrominerals (g/kg DMI) were 5.12 for Ca, 2.38 for P, 0.96 for Mg, 2.40 for K, 0.79 for Na, and 1.47 for S. This is the first study using Nellore cattle to estimate mineral requirements; considering that Nellore cattle are the most common breed in Brazil and that Brazil is a major beef producer globally, this knowledge can help producers to improve animal performance by supplying the correct amount of minerals. PMID:26657049

  7. Macrominerals and Trace Element Requirements for Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Costa e Silva, Luiz Fernando; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Engle, Terry Eugene; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Silva, Flávia Adriane Sales; Martins, Edilane Costa; Tokunaga, Arnaldo Taishi

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven Nellore animals were utilized in this study to estimate net requirements for the maintenance and growth of beef cattle as well as the retention coefficients of 13 minerals: macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S) and trace elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, Co, and Cr). The net requirements for maintenance and the true retention coefficient were estimated by using the regression between apparent retention and intake for each mineral. The net requirement for maintenance (μg/kg BW) and retention coefficients (%) were 163 and 85 for Cu, 2,097 and 53 for Fe, 32.3 and 24 for Mn, 3.72 and 48 for Se, 669 and 0.80 for Zn, 18.4 and 86 for Co, and 22.9 and 78 for Cr. The dietary requirements of macrominerals (g/kg DMI) were 5.12 for Ca, 2.38 for P, 0.96 for Mg, 2.40 for K, 0.79 for Na, and 1.47 for S. This is the first study using Nellore cattle to estimate mineral requirements; considering that Nellore cattle are the most common breed in Brazil and that Brazil is a major beef producer globally, this knowledge can help producers to improve animal performance by supplying the correct amount of minerals. PMID:26657049

  8. [Analysis of trace elements in limestone for archeological functions

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, A.; Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G.

    1998-12-31

    Numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the Paris Basin provided stone for the building and the decoration of monuments from antiquity to the present. To determine the origin of stone used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 samples. Petrographic and paleontologic examination of thin sections allows geologists to distinguish Lutetian limestones from Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. Geologists also seek to formulate hypotheses regarding the origin of Lutetian limestones used for building and sculpture in the Paris region. In the search for the sources of building and sculptural stone, the analytical methods of geologists are limited because often several quarries produce the same lithofacies. A new tool is now available, however, to attack questions of provenance raised by art historians. Because limestones from different sources have distinctive patterns of trace-element concentrations, compositional analysis by neutron activation allows one to compare building or sculptural stone from one monument with stone from quarries or other monuments. This analytical method subjects a powdered limestone sample to standard neutron activation analysis procedures at Brookhaven National Laboratory. With the help of computer programs, the compositional fingerprints of Lutetian limestones can be determined and stored in a database. The limestone database contains data for approximately 2,100 samples from monuments, sculptures and quarries. It is particularly rich in samples from the Paris Basin.

  9. Aerosol, Cloud and Trace Gas Observations Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions. The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. Dunagan et al. [2013] present results establishing the performance of the instrument, along with calibration, engineering flight test, and preliminary scientific field data. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS [Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys] experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE [Department of Energy]-sponsored TCAP [Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013] experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft (Shinozuka et al., 2013), and acquired a wealth of data in support of mission objectives on all SEAC4RS and TCAP research flights. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2; Segal-Rosenheimer et al., 2014), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In addition, 4STAR measured zenith radiances underneath cloud decks for retrievals of cloud optical depth and effective diameter. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new

  10. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements and other trace elements in the Amazon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2014-05-01

    Rivers transport large amounts of dissolved and suspended particulate material from the catchment area to the oceans and are a major source of trace metals to seawater. The Amazon River is the world's largest river and supplies approximately 20% of the oceans' freshwater (Molinier et al., 1997). However, the behavior of trace elements, especially particle-reactive elements such as the rare earth elements (REE), within the river as well as in the estuary is not well constrained and rather little is known about their transport mechanisms. This study aims at understanding the transport properties of particle-reactive elements in the Amazon River and some of its major tributaries, including the Rio Solimões, Rio Negro, Tapajos, Xingu and Jari Rivers. Samples were taken at 12 stations, seven of which were located in the Amazon mainstream, while the other five stations sampled its tributaries. To account for the effects of variable discharge, the samples were collected during periods of high and low discharge. We present data for major and trace elements, including REE, of the dissolved and suspended load of these samples. First results indicate that the shale-normalized REE pattern of the dissolved load (filtered through 0.2 µm membranes) of the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões confirm earlier studies (Elderfield et al., 1990; Gerard et al., 2003) and show an enrichment of the middle REE relative to the light and heavy REE (LaSN/GdSN: 0.25 - 0.32; GdSN/YbSN: 1.54 - 1.78). In contrast to the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões, which are considered to be whitewater rivers, blackwater rivers, such as the Rio Negro, have a flat REE pattern with higher REE concentrations than whitewater rivers. The third water-type found in the Amazon Basin is clearwater, e.g. Rio Tapajos, with REE patterns in between those of the other two types, i.e. LaSN/GdSN: 0.55 - 0.70; GdSN/YbSN: 1.26 - 1.55. A similar behavior can be identified for other major and trace elements. While

  11. Assessment of Elemental Content in Airborne Particulate Matter in Bratislava Atmosphere using INAA and AAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meresova, J.; Florek, M.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Holy, K.; Sykora, I.

    2007-11-01

    The wide range concentration of elements including heavy metals, halogens and rare earths in airborne particulate matter were investigated. Sixteen samples were collected on filters in Meteorological station, Comenius University Bratislava (Slovak Republic) in different seasons. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) the concentrations of 29 elements (Na, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Dy, Tm, W, Au, Hg, Th, U) were determined. The concentrations of other 6 elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The obtained results allow us to better understand the dynamic processes in the atmosphere and to quantify the air pollution and its trends.

  12. Assessment of Elemental Content in Airborne Particulate Matter in Bratislava Atmosphere using INAA and AAS

    SciTech Connect

    Meresova, J.; Florek, M.; Holy, K.; Sykora, I.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2007-11-26

    The wide range concentration of elements including heavy metals, halogens and rare earths in airborne particulate matter were investigated. Sixteen samples were collected on filters in Meteorological station, Comenius University Bratislava (Slovak Republic) in different seasons. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) the concentrations of 29 elements (Na, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Dy, Tm, W, Au, Hg, Th, U) were determined. The concentrations of other 6 elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The obtained results allow us to better understand the dynamic processes in the atmosphere and to quantify the air pollution and its trends.

  13. CORRELATION OF COAL PROPERTIES WITH ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY NEEDS FOR SULFUR AND TRACE ELEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews existing reports and data on the occurrence of sulfur and trace elements in U.S. coals and on the effect of coal properties on trace element partitioning during coal use. Emphasis was on: (1) the effect of depositional conditions on the formation and compositio...

  14. Constraints on the bioavailability of trace elements to terrestrial fauna at mining and smelting sites

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorok, R.; Schoof, R.; LaTier, A.; Mellott, R.; Shields, W.; Ruby, M.

    1995-12-31

    At mining and smelting sites, the bioavailability of waste-related trace elements to terrestrial wildlife is limited by mineralogy of the waste material and the geochemistry of the waste-soil mixture. For example, encapsulation of trace elements in inert mineral matrices limits the assimilation of particle-associated trace elements that are ingested by wildlife. The bioavailability of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, silver, and zinc at mining and smelting sites in Oklahoma and Montana was evaluated based on analysis of waste material, soil chemistry, and concentrations of trace elements in whole-body samples of key food web species. Concentrations of trace elements were generally elevated relative to reference area values for selected species of vegetation, insects, spiders, and small mammals. Soil-to-tissue bioconcentration factors derived from field data at these sites were generally low (< 1), with the exception of cadmium in vegetation. For all of the trace elements evaluated, wildlife exposure models indicate that the potential for transfer of contaminants to wildlife species of public concern and high trophic-level predators is limited. Moreover, laboratory feeding experiments conducted with cadmium and lead indicate that the assimilation of waste-related trace elements by mammals is relatively low (24--47 percent for lead in blood and bone; 22--44 percent for cadmium in kidney). The relatively low bioavailability of trace elements at mining and smelting sites should be considered when estimating exposure of ecological receptors and when deriving soil cleanup criteria based on measured or modeled ecological risk.

  15. Measurement of Trace Elements During the Development and Immune Response of Heliothis virescens Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While many studies have examined the effect of microbial infections on the status of trace elements in mammalian tissues, similar studies have not been performed in insects. We used inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to quantify changes in trace elements of Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and ...

  16. Trace-Element Analyses of Carbonate Minerals in the Gunflint Banded Iron Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pun, Aurora; Papike, James J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the petrography, mineralogy and trace-element abundances of individual carbonate grains in the Early Proterozoic Gunflint BIF (Banded Iron Formation). Trace-element data may be used as environmental recorders of the fluid evolution from which the various carbonate phases precipitated. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Sources and contents of heavy metals and other trace elements in animal manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trace elements take part in various physiological functions including enzyme formation, vitamin formation, metabolism, and electron transport in animals. Thus, trace elements are added to livestock and poultry diets to prevent diseases, improve weight gains and feed conversion, and increase egg prod...

  18. TRACE ELEMENT CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL WASTES. SECOND ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER 1, 1976--SEPTEMBER 30, 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analyses of the trace elements and major minerals in bulk refuse and coal samples from the Illinois Basin were completed. This activity was followed by studies to elucidate the structural relationships and associations among the trace elements. Several series of weathering and le...

  19. Temperature and Gravity Dependence of Trace Element Abundances in Hot DA White Dwarfs (94-EUVE-094)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, David S.

    1998-01-01

    EUV spectroscopy has shown that DA white dwarfs hotter than about 45,000 K may contain trace heavy elements, while those hotter than about 50,000 K almost always have significant abundances of trace heavy elements. One of our continuing challenges is to identify and determine the abundances of these trace constituents, and then to relate the observed abundance patterns to the present conditions and previous evolutionary histories of the hot DA white dwarfs.

  20. Trace Element Compositions of Pallasite Olivine Grains and Pallasite Origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Herrin, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    Pallasites are mixtures of metal with magnesian olivine. Most have similar metal compositions and olivine oxygen isotopic compositions; these are the main-group pallasites (PMG). The Eagle Station grouplet of pallasites (PES) have distinctive metal and olivine compositions and oxygen isotopic compositions. Pallasites are thought to have formed at the core-mantle boundary of their parent asteroids by mixing molten metal with solid olivine of either cumulatic or restitic origin. We have continued our investigation of pallasite olivines by doing in situ trace element analyses in order to further constrain their origin. We determined Al, P, Ca, Ga and first row transition element contents of olivine grains from suite of PMG and PES by LA-ICP-MS at JSC. Included in the PMG suite are some that have anomalous metal compositions (PMG-am) and atypically ferroan olivines (PMG-as). Our EMPA work has shown that there are unanticipated variations in olivine Fe/Mn, even within those PMG that have uni-form Fe/Mg. Manganese is homologous with Fe2+, and thus can be used the same way to investigate magmatic fractionation processes. It has an advantage for pallasite studies in that it is unaffected by redox exchange with the metal. PMG can be divided into three clusters on the basis of Mn/Mg; low, medium and high that can be thought of as less, typically and more fractionated in an igneous sense. The majority of PMG have medium Mn/Mg ratios. PMG-am occur in all three clusters; there does not seem to be any relationship between putative olivine igneous fractionation and metal composition. The PMG-as and one PMG-am make up the high Mn/Mg cluster; no PMG are in this cluster. The high Mn/Mg cluster ought to be the most fractionated (equivalent to the most Fe-rich in igneous suites), yet they have among the lowest contents of incompatible lithophile elements Al and Ti and the two PMG-as in this cluster also have low Ca and Sc contents. This is inconsistent with simple igneous

  1. Risk assessment of bioaccessible trace elements in smoke haze aerosols versus urban aerosols using simulated lung fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian; Betha, Raghu; Tan, Li Yun; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Smoke-haze episodes, caused by uncontrolled peat and forest fires, occur almost every year in the South-East Asian region with increased concentrations of PM2.5 (airborne particulate matter (PM) with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm). Particulate-bound trace elements (TrElems), especially carcinogenic and toxic elements, were measured during smoke haze as well as non-haze periods in 2014 as they are considered to be indicators of potential health effects. The bioaccessibilities of 13 TrElems were investigated using two types of simulated lung fluids (SLFs), Gamble's solution and artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF), instead of the commonly used leaching agent (water). The dissolution kinetics was also examined for these TrElems. Many TrElems showed higher solubility in SLFs, and were more soluble in ALF compared to the Gamble's solution. Cu, Mn and Cd were observed to be the most soluble trace elements in ALF, while in Gamble's solution the most soluble trace elements were Cu, Mn and Zn. The dissolution rates were highly variable among the elements. Health risk assessment was conducted based on the measured concentrations of TrElems and their corresponding toxicities for three possible scenarios involving interactions between carcinogenic and toxic TrElems and SLFs, using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health risk assessment model. The cumulative cancer risks exceeded the acceptable level (1 in a million i.e. 1 × 10-6). However, the estimation of health quotient (HQ) indicated no significant chronic toxic health effects. The risk assessment results revealed that the assessment of bioaccessibility of particulate-bound TrElems using water as the leaching agent may underestimate the health risk.

  2. Some aspects of statistical distribution of trace element concentrations in biomedical samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewska, U.; Braziewicz, J.; Banaś , D.; Kubala-Kukuś , A.; Góź Dź , S.; Pajek, M.; Zadrozsolarna, M.; Jaskóla, M.; Czyzsolarewski, T.

    1999-04-01

    Concentrations of trace elements in biomedical samples were studied using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methods. Used analytical methods were compared in terms of their detection limits and applicability for studying the trace elements in large populations of biomedical samples. In a result, the XRF and TRXRF methods were selected to be used for the trace element concentration measurements in the urine and woman full-term placenta samples. The measured trace element concentration distributions were found to be strongly asymmetric and described by the logarithmic-normal distribution. Such a distribution is expected for the random sequential process, which realistically models a level of trace elements in studied biomedical samples. The importance and consequences of this finding are discussed, especially in the context of comparison of the concentration measurements in different populations of biomedical samples.

  3. Geochemistry of trace elements in the highland lunar rocks based on SRXFA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, L. S.; Kudryashova, A. F.; Ulyanov, A. A.; Baryshev, V. B.; Zolotarev, K. V.

    1998-02-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using synchrotron radiation (SRXFA) has been applied for determination of trace elements in the highland lunar rocks (Luna 20 and Apollo 16). On the basis of the distribution of Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Nb in 69 lunar highland fragments six geochemical groups of rocks with various aluminium and trace element contents were distinguished for each station. They have various levels of trace element content. This suggests the various petrological processes: cumulation of rock-forming minerals and partial melting of source rocks. The last process lead up to enriching in trace elements in rocks formed from these melts. The distribution of trace elements in highland and mare rocks of the Moon were compared.

  4. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation. PMID:26157675

  5. Deformation-induced trace element redistribution in zircon revealed using atom probe tomography

    PubMed Central

    Piazolo, Sandra; La Fontaine, Alexandre; Trimby, Patrick; Harley, Simon; Yang, Limei; Armstrong, Richard; Cairney, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements diffuse negligible distances through the pristine crystal lattice in minerals: this is a fundamental assumption when using them to decipher geological processes. For example, the reliable use of the mineral zircon (ZrSiO4) as a U-Th-Pb geochronometer and trace element monitor requires minimal radiogenic isotope and trace element mobility. Here, using atom probe tomography, we document the effects of crystal–plastic deformation on atomic-scale elemental distributions in zircon revealing sub-micrometre-scale mechanisms of trace element mobility. Dislocations that move through the lattice accumulate U and other trace elements. Pipe diffusion along dislocation arrays connected to a chemical or structural sink results in continuous removal of selected elements (for example, Pb), even after deformation has ceased. However, in disconnected dislocations, trace elements remain locked. Our findings have important implications for the use of zircon as a geochronometer, and highlight the importance of deformation on trace element redistribution in minerals and engineering materials. PMID:26868040

  6. Deformation-induced trace element redistribution in zircon revealed using atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Piazolo, Sandra; La Fontaine, Alexandre; Trimby, Patrick; Harley, Simon; Yang, Limei; Armstrong, Richard; Cairney, Julie M

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements diffuse negligible distances through the pristine crystal lattice in minerals: this is a fundamental assumption when using them to decipher geological processes. For example, the reliable use of the mineral zircon (ZrSiO4) as a U-Th-Pb geochronometer and trace element monitor requires minimal radiogenic isotope and trace element mobility. Here, using atom probe tomography, we document the effects of crystal-plastic deformation on atomic-scale elemental distributions in zircon revealing sub-micrometre-scale mechanisms of trace element mobility. Dislocations that move through the lattice accumulate U and other trace elements. Pipe diffusion along dislocation arrays connected to a chemical or structural sink results in continuous removal of selected elements (for example, Pb), even after deformation has ceased. However, in disconnected dislocations, trace elements remain locked. Our findings have important implications for the use of zircon as a geochronometer, and highlight the importance of deformation on trace element redistribution in minerals and engineering materials. PMID:26868040

  7. Deformation-induced trace element redistribution in zircon revealed using atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazolo, Sandra; La Fontaine, Alexandre; Trimby, Patrick; Harley, Simon; Yang, Limei; Armstrong, Richard; Cairney, Julie M.

    2016-02-01

    Trace elements diffuse negligible distances through the pristine crystal lattice in minerals: this is a fundamental assumption when using them to decipher geological processes. For example, the reliable use of the mineral zircon (ZrSiO4) as a U-Th-Pb geochronometer and trace element monitor requires minimal radiogenic isotope and trace element mobility. Here, using atom probe tomography, we document the effects of crystal-plastic deformation on atomic-scale elemental distributions in zircon revealing sub-micrometre-scale mechanisms of trace element mobility. Dislocations that move through the lattice accumulate U and other trace elements. Pipe diffusion along dislocation arrays connected to a chemical or structural sink results in continuous removal of selected elements (for example, Pb), even after deformation has ceased. However, in disconnected dislocations, trace elements remain locked. Our findings have important implications for the use of zircon as a geochronometer, and highlight the importance of deformation on trace element redistribution in minerals and engineering materials.

  8. Problems in Trace Element EPMA: Modeling Secondary Fluorescence with PENEPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournelle, J.

    2007-12-01

    In EPMA the incident electron beam scatters, producing the "electron interaction volume". However, X-rays produced within that volume may spread tens to hundreds of microns and produce secondary fluorescence in other materials. This can be ignored in many/most cases where major element compositions are being measured. However, when minor or especially trace elements are being measured by EPMA, secondary fluorescence needs to be considered. In some cases it can be eliminated by separating the materials and mounting them by themselves, or by reducing the kV to minimize fluorescence. However, in many cases these efforts are not possible. In those cases, modeling the EPMA experience by Monte Carlo simulation is useful. PENEPMA is a Fortran program based upon the PENELOPE radiation transport model of Salvat et al (2006). It differs from other MC electron interaction programs in that it follows each electron and photon and records all interactions at each point in the "particle's path". It also permits complicated geometries with many materials. Both continuum and characteristic secondary fluorescence can be tracked, and at the end of a run, compared to x-rays produced only from primary electrons. This has important applications in geology and petrology. Llovet and Galan (2003) used it to correct calculations for olivine-cpx thermobarometry. Recent attention has been given to Ti in zircon as a geothermometer. PENEPMA has now been used to model 2 different situations: (1) rutiles present on or near zircon, (2) ilmenite present near zircon. In the first case, several geometries are modeled: a 30 micron diameter zircon (Ti-free) is surrounded by Ti-bearing silicate glass (yielding an apparent 452 ppm Ti in zircon core); with five 30 um surrounding rutiles at 15 micron distance (yielding an apparent 948 ppm Ti in zircon core); if the silicate glass were replaced by epoxy, the apparent Ti would increase to 1179 ppm. In a second case, the effect of zircon with nearby ilmenite

  9. Microbial acidification and pH effects on trace element release from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Shabnam; Richards, Brian K; Steenhuis, Tammo S; McBride, Murray B; Baveye, Philippe; Dousset, Sylvie

    2004-11-01

    Leaching of sludge-borne trace elements has been observed in experimental and field studies. The role of microbial processes in the mobilization of trace elements from wastewater sludge is poorly defined. Our objectives were to determine trace element mobilization from sludge subjected to treatments representing microbial acidification, direct chemical acidification and no acidification, and to determine the readsorption potential of mobilized elements using calcareous sand. Triplicate columns (10-cm diameter) for incubation and leaching of sludge had a top layer of digested dewatered sludge (either untreated, acidified with H2SO4, or limed with CaCO3; all mixed with glass beads to prevent ponding) and a lower glass bead support bed. Glass beads in the sludge layer, support layer or both were replaced by calcareous sand in four treatments used for testing the readsorption potential of mobilized elements. Eight sequential 8-day incubation and leaching cycles were operated, each consisting of 7.6 d of incubation at 28 degrees C followed by 8 h of leaching with synthetic acid rain applied at 0.25 cm/h. Leachates were analyzed for trace elements, nitrate and pH, and sludge layer microbial respiration was measured. The largest trace element, nitrate and S losses occurred in treatments with the greatest pH depression and greatest microbial respiration rates. Cumulative leaching losses from both microbial acidification and direct acidification treatments were > 90% of Zn and 64-80% of Cu and Ni. Preventing acidification with sludge layer lime or sand restricted leaching for all trace elements except Mo. Results suggested that the primary microbial role in the rapid leaching of trace elements was acidification, with results from direct acidification being nearly identical to microbial acidification. Microbial activity in the presence of materials that prevented acidification mobilized far lower concentrations of trace elements, with the exception of Mo. Trace elements

  10. Trace elements in hemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Marcello; Wiebe, Natasha; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Klarenbach, Scott; Field, Catherine; Manns, Braden; Thadhani, Ravi; Gill, John

    2009-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis patients are at risk for deficiency of essential trace elements and excess of toxic trace elements, both of which can affect health. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing literature on trace element status in hemodialysis patients. Methods All studies which reported relevant data for chronic hemodialysis patients and a healthy control population were eligible, regardless of language or publication status. We included studies which measured at least one of the following elements in whole blood, serum, or plasma: antimony, arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, tellurium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc. We calculated differences between hemodialysis patients and controls using the differences in mean trace element level, divided by the pooled standard deviation. Results We identified 128 eligible studies. Available data suggested that levels of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and vanadium were higher and that levels of selenium, zinc and manganese were lower in hemodialysis patients, compared with controls. Pooled standard mean differences exceeded 0.8 standard deviation units (a large difference) higher than controls for cadmium, chromium, vanadium, and lower than controls for selenium, zinc, and manganese. No studies reported data on antimony, iodine, tellurium, and thallium concentrations. Conclusion Average blood levels of biologically important trace elements were substantially different in hemodialysis patients, compared with healthy controls. Since both deficiency and excess of trace elements are potentially harmful yet amenable to therapy, the hypothesis that trace element status influences the risk of adverse clinical outcomes is worthy of investigation. PMID:19454005

  11. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    PubMed Central

    Borell, Esther M.; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments—the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone’s tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A

  12. Trace element transformations and partitioning during the roasting of pyrite ores in the sulfuric acid industry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunxia; Chen, Yongheng; Peng, Ping'an; Li, Chao; Chang, Xiangyang; Wu, Yingjuan

    2009-08-15

    Total concentrations combined with chemical partitioning of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, and Zn) in raw pyrite ore and solid roasting wastes were investigated in order to elucidate their transformations and partitioning during the roasting of raw pyrite ores in sulfuric acid production. In order to better understand the behavior of these elements during roasting, mineral transformations accompanying roasting were also investigated by using microscopy. Results indicated that the mode of occurrence of trace elements in raw pyrite ore and the thermostability of trace element-bearing species formed during roasting played major roles in the transformations of the selected trace elements. Silicate- and amorphous iron (hydr)oxide-bound elements (Cr and Pb) were stable and mainly retained in their original phases. However, acid-exchangeable and sulfide-bound elements tended to transform into other forms via different pathways: elements that tend to form low thermostable species (Cd, Pb and Tl) were significantly vaporized, whereas elements that tend to form high thermostable species (Co, Mn and Ni) mainly reacted with iron oxides or silicates, which then remained in the solid residues. The volatility of trace elements during the roasting has a significant effect on their subsequent partitioning in roasting wastes. Nonvolatile element (Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni) partitioning was determined by settling of the particulate in which they are bound, whereas the partitioning of (semi)volatile elements (Cd, Pb, Tl, and Zn) was controlled by the adsorption of their gaseous species on the particulate. PMID:19261379

  13. Airborne trace organic contaminant removal using thermally regenerable multi-media layered sorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Holtsnider, John T.

    1991-01-01

    A cyclic two-step process is described which forms the basis for a simple and highly efficient air purification technology. Low molecular weight organic vapors are removed from contaminated airstreams by passage through an optimized sequence of sorbent media layers. The contaminant loaded sorbents are subsequently regenerated by thermal desorption into a low volume inert gas environment. A mixture of airborne organic contaminants consisting of acetone, 2-butanone, ethyl acetate, Freon-113 and methyl chloroform has been quantitatively removed from breathing quality air using this technique. The airborne concentrations of all contaminants have been reduced from initial Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) levels to below the analytical limits of detection. No change in sorption efficiency was observed through multiple cycles of contaminant loading and sorbent regeneration via thermal desorption.

  14. Trace elements have limited utility for studying migratory connectivity in shorebirds that winter in Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Dowdall, J.; Farmer, A.H.; Abril, M.; Bucher, E.H.; Ridley, I.

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element analysis has been suggested as a tool for the study of migratory connectivity because (1) trace-element abundance varies spatially in the environment, (2) trace elements are assimilated into animals' tissues through the diet, and (3) current technology permits the analysis of multiple trace elements in a small tissue sample, allowing the simultaneous exploration of several elements. We explored the potential of trace elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cs, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, and U) to clarify the migratory connectivity of shorebirds that breed in North America and winter in southern South America. We collected 66 recently replaced secondary feathers from Red Knots (Calidris canutus) at three sites in Patagonia and 76 from White-rumped Sandpipers (C. fuscicollis) at nine sites across Argentina. There were significant differences in trace-element abundance in shorebird feathers grown at different nonbreeding sites, and annual variability within a site was small compared to variability among sites. Across Argentina, there was no large-scale gradient in trace elements. The lack of such a gradient restricts the application of this technique to questions concerning the origin of shorebirds to a small number of discrete sites. Furthermore, our results including three additional species, the Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), and Collared Plover (Charadrius collaris), suggest that trace-element profiles change as feathers age. Temporal instability of trace-element values could undermine their application to the study of migratory connectivity in shorebirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  15. Airborne flux measurements of trace species in an Arctic boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, John A.; Barrick, John D. W.; Sachse, Glen W.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Woerner, Mary A.; Watson, Catherine E.; Hill, Gerald F.; Collins, James E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    In situ airborne flux values for O3, CO, an CH4 over selected wetlands of Alaska are reported, and airborne CH4 flux measurements are presented for the first time. The source/sink distribution over the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) is qualitatively correlated with surface vegetation type. The CH4 source strength over the YKD ranged from 25 to 85 mg/sq m/d. A spatially averaged, seasonally adjusted source strength of 51 mg/sq m/d was established for the YKD. Indirect CH4 flux estimates obtained over the Alaskan North Slope indicate a much lower source strength. The global CH4 emission from tundra are estimated to be 44 Tg/a at an upper limit. Airborne CO flux measurements over the YKD indicate low negative flux values over the coastal areas, while some positive fluxes were observed in the inland sparsely forested regions. An inspection of the cospectrum of CO with vertical velocity for sample runs in coastal areas indicate the possibility of in situ photochemical destruction/production of CO.

  16. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Hyoung-Tae; Lim, Yaeji; Kim, Min-Ji; Kwon, O Jung; Jeon, Kyeongman; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.01). Moreover, serum selenium and zinc concentrations were positively correlated (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.05). A high serum copper concentration was associated with a worse clinical outcome, as assessed after one month of antituberculosis therapy. Specifically, culture-positive patients had higher serum copper concentrations than culture-negative patients (p < 0.05). Patients with tuberculosis had altered serum trace element concentrations. Further research is needed to elucidate the roles of individual trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis. PMID:26197334

  17. Comparative assessment of the trace-element composition of coals, crude oils, and oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    M.Y. Shpirt; S.A. Punanova

    2007-10-15

    A comparative analysis of the amounts of 42 trace elements in coals, crude oils, and oil and black shales was performed. The degree of concentration of trace elements by caustobioliths and their ashes relative to their abundance in argillaceous rocks and the Earth's crust was calculated. Typomorphic trace elements were distinguished, of which many turned out to be common for the different kinds of caustobioliths in question. The trace elements were classified according to their concentration factors in different caustobioliths. The ash of crude oils is enriched in trace elements (Cs, V, Mo, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Hg, Se, Cr, Co, Ni, U) to the greatest extent (concentration factor above 3.5) and that of oil shales is enriched to the least extent (Re, Cs, Hg, Se). The ratios between typomorphic trace elements in general strongly differ from those in the Earth's crust and argillaceous rocks and are not identical in different caustobioliths. Quantitative parameters that make it possible to calculate a change in these ratios on passing from one caustobiolith type to another were proposed and the relative trace-element affinity of different caustobioliths was estimated.

  18. [Determination of the contents of trace elements in chinese herbal medicines for treating respiratory system diseases].

    PubMed

    Han, Li-Qin; Dong, Shun-Fu; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2008-02-01

    There is an intimate connection between trace elements and body healthiness, trace elements and organism depend on each other, and each trace element exists with certain proportion, which preserve physio-function. If the balance is of maladjustment, diseases may occur or develop. The trace elements were determined in 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines by atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicines include lilium brownii, herba houttuyniae, licorice root, radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Beimu, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Lithospermum officinalel, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi, Pinellia ternate Breit, Salisburia adiantifolia, Lonicera japonica, Radices puerarire, Bupleurum falcatum and Ligusticum wallichii, all of which could be bought on the market. Sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to treat respiratroy system diseases in clinic were selected, dried and powdered, completely mixed, 1.000 0 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and 3 portions were used for each kind of sample. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the contents of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn), and the content discrepancy of the trace elements in different medicines was observed the results shows that the contents of the trace elements were rich in the 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines, there were more contents of Fe, Zn and Mn, but they were different in different medicines. And there were more trace elements in Salisburia adiantifolia, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Bupleurum falcatum, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Pinellia ternate Breit and Lithospermum officinalel, and lower trace elements in Radices puerarire, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi and Radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi. The analytic results provided useful data for using Chinese herbal medicines and provided theoretical basis for studying Chinese herbal medicines theory. PMID:18479045

  19. Nitrogen dioxide observations from the Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument: Retrieval algorithm and measurements during DISCOVER-AQ Texas 2013

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument is a test bed for upcoming air quality satellite instruments that will measure backscattered ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light from geostationary orbit. GeoTASO flew on the NASA F...

  20. Trace element abundances in major minerals of Late Permian coals from southwestern Guizhou province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Jiahua; Ren, D.; Zheng, C.; Zeng, R.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen samples of minerals were separated by handpicking from Late Permian coals in southwestern Guizhou province, China. These 14 minerals were nodular pyrite, massive recrystallized pyrite, pyrite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water; clay minerals; and calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water. The mineralogy, elemental composition, and distribution of 33 elements in these samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and ion-selective electrode (ISE). The results show that various minerals in coal contain variable amounts of trace elements. Clay minerals have high concentrations of Ba, Be, Cs, F, Ga, Nb, Rb, Th, U, and Zr. Quartz has little contribution to the concentration of trace elements in bulk coal. Arsenic, Mn, and Sr are in high concentrations in calcite. Pyrite has high concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and Zn. Different genetic types of calcite in coal can accumulate different trace elements; for example Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sn, Sr, and Zn are in higher concentrations in calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid than in that deposited from ground water. Furthermore, the concentrations of some trace elements are quite variable in pyrite; different genetic types of pyrites (Py-A, B, C, D) have different concentrations of trace elements, and the concentrations of trace elements are also different in pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal origin collected from different locations. The study shows that elemental concentration is rather uniform in a pyrite vein. There are many micron and submicron mosaic pyrites in a pyrite vein, which is enriched in some trace elements, such as As and Mo. The

  1. Scale as a factor in designing sampling programs for determination of annual trace element fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Concentration data of suspended sediment-associated trace elements are a requisite for estimation of annual chemical fluxes. Fluvial suspended sediment and associated trace elements display marked shortterm spatial and temporal variability, suggesting that determination of annual fluxes requires high frequency depth and width integrated sampling and subsequent chemical analyses. When time scales are shifted from hours or days to a year, short-term variability is less important. A 2 year study on the Arkansas River indicates that it may be possible, after detailed site characterization of mean/median sediment chemical data, to estimate annual fluxes of trace elements solely through monitoring of discharge and suspended sediment concentration.

  2. [Comparison of serum trace element spectrum of liver cancer patients and healthy adults].

    PubMed

    Yin, D Z

    1990-05-01

    The contents of 15 trace elements in the sera of 30 liver cancer patients and 30 healthy adults were assayed by ICP-AES method. The data obtained were analysed by routine statistical tests, multi-variate discrimination analysis, multi-variate stepwise regression analysis and non-linear mapping algorithm. The results showed that the contents of copper, vanadium, cadmium, stannum, cobalt, nickel in liver cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy adults. The serum trace element spectrum of liver cancer patients was different from that of healthy adults. Hence, the liver cancer patients could be differentiated from healthy adults by serum trace element spectrum. PMID:2249593

  3. Trace elements in migrating high-temperature fluids: Effects of diffusive exchange with the adjoining solid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, Patricia M.

    1993-01-01

    Trace element concentrations and isotopic ratios are frequently used to study the behavior of high-temperature fluids in both metamorphic and igneous systems. Many theoretical formulations of the effects of fluid migration on trace elements have assumed instantaneous reequilibration between the migrating fluid and the solid material through which it is passing. This paper investigates the additional effects which arise when equilibration is not instantaneous due to a limited rate of diffusion in the solid, using an analytical steady state solution to a set of partial differential equations describing the exchange of trace elements between the fluid and the solid during the migration of the fluid.

  4. Trace elements in migrating high-temperature fluids: Effects of diffusive exchange with the adjoining solid

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    Trace element concentrations and isotopic ratios are frequently used to study the behavior of high-temperature fluids in both metamorphic and igneous systems. Many theoretical formulations of the effects of fluid migration on trace elements have assumed instantaneous reequilibration between the migrating fluid and the solid material through which it is passing. This paper investigates the additional effects which arise when equilibration is not instantaneous due to a limited rate of diffusion in the solid, using an analytical steady state solution to a set of partial differential equations describing the exchange of trace elements between the fluid and the solid during the migration of the fluid.

  5. Trace element content of leaves of desert shrubs in south-central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.; Garland, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of leaves of desert shrubs showed strong differences in macroelements according to species and location on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) site in south-central Washington. Halophytes were characterized by high levels of K, Cl, Br, Mn, and Na, and glycophytes by high levels of Ca and Mg. However, trace element content was not significantly different. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) leaves from Wyoming and the ALE site were not greatly different in trace element content. Natural leaf fall collections can be used to monitor changing levels of trace element content induced by coal combustion steam-electric plants.

  6. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. Fate of trace elements in the SRC process. [Ph. D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, C.S.

    1980-09-01

    A study of the forms of trace elements occurring in Solvent Refined Coal has been performed by chemical separation of the Solvent Refined Coal based on differences in the functionality and molecular weight of the organic matrix. Analysis of the fractions separated for various trace elements has revealed associations of certain elements with other elements as well as with certain fractions. The analysis of Solvent Refined Coal I by these methods provided data on the distribution of Ti, V, Ca, S, Al, Mn, As, Se, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sc, and Ga in the fractions generated. Because of the low trace element content of Solvent Refined Coal II only As, Se, and Cr could be detected in the silica fractions. Based on the distributions three different groups of elements have been based on the association of elements with each other and with certain fractions. The first group is composed of As, Se, and Cr associated with silica fractions of relatively low functionality; these elements have a high percent solubility in the starting Solvent Refined Coal II oil. The second group composed of Ti, V, and to a lesser extent a second form of Cr, is associated with fractions that have a high concentration of phenolic material and is probably present as phenoxide complexes. The third group composed of Fe, Ca, K, Al, and Mg is associated with the most functional fractions and is possibly present as humic acid type complexes or as submicron size particulates. The integration of chromatographic methods with trace element analysis of the fractions generated is capable of discerning the presence of different forms of the elements. The methods used are applicable to other important geologically occurring organic matter.

  7. Geochemistry of environmentally sensitive trace elements in Permian coals from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Jiang, M.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, H.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Lingyun; Jiang, D.

    2011-01-01

    To study the geochemical characteristics of 11 environmentally sensitive trace elements in the coals of the Permian Period from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui province, China, borehole samples of 336 coals, two partings, and four roof and floor mudstones were collected from mineable coal seams. Major elements and selected trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HAAS). The depositional environment, abundances, distribution, and modes of occurrence of trace elements were investigated. Results show that clay and carbonate minerals are the principal inorganic constituents in the coals. A lower deltaic plain, where fluvial channel systems developed successively, was the likely depositional environment of the Permian coals in the Huainan coalfield. All major elements have wider variation ranges than those of Chinese coals except for Mg and Fe. The contents of Cr, Co, Ni, and Se are higher than their averages for Chinese coals and world coals. Vertical variations of trace elements in different formations are not significant except for B and Ba. Certain roof and partings are distinctly higher in trace elements than underlying coal bench samples. The modes of occurrence of trace elements vary in different coal seams as a result of different coal-forming environments. Vanadium, Cr, and Th are associated with aluminosilicate minerals, Ba with carbonate minerals, and Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb mainly with sulfide minerals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  8. An evaluation of atmospheric deposition of trace elements into the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Biegalski, S; Landsberger, S

    1999-01-01

    High-volume air samplers were used to collect aerosol samples on Whatman 41 air filters at the Canadian air sampling stations Burnt Island, Egbert, and Point Petre. Once collected, the samples were analyzed for trace elements by neutron activation analysis. Air concentrations of over 30 trace elements were determined. A special focus was made to utilize Compton suppression gamma-ray spectroscopy and epithermal irradiations to enhance the detection limits of neutron activation analysis. These techniques allowed for the determination of trace elements at very low levels. Results of the study of the trace-metal dry deposition into Lakes Huron and Ontario indicated that the majority of the total deposition resulted from crustal materials. However, dry deposition is also a significant pathway for many toxic anthropogenic trace metals into the Great Lakes. PMID:10676498

  9. Influence of trace elements in human tissue in low-energy photon brachytherapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Shane A.; Landry, Guillaume; van Gils, Francis; Verhaegen, Frank; Reniers, Brigitte

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the dosimetric impact of trace elements in human tissues for low-energy photon sources used in brachytherapy. Monte Carlo dose calculations were used to investigate the dosimetric effect of trace elements present in normal or cancerous human tissues. The effect of individual traces (atomic number Z = 11-30) was studied in soft tissue irradiated by low-energy brachytherapy sources. Three other tissue types (prostate, adipose and mammary gland) were also simulated with varying trace concentrations to quantify the contribution of each trace to the dose distribution. The dose differences between cancerous and healthy prostate tissues were calculated in single- and multi-source geometries. The presence of traces in a tissue produces a difference in the dose distribution that is dependent on Z and the concentration of the trace. Low-Z traces (Na) have a negligible effect (<0.3%) in all tissues, while higher Z (K) had a larger effect (>3%). There is a potentially significant difference in the dose distribution between cancerous and healthy prostate tissues (4%) and even larger if compared to the trace-free composition (15%) in both single- and multi-sourced geometries. Trace elements have a non-negligible (up to 8% in prostate D90) effect on the dose in tissues irradiated with low-energy photon sources. This study underlines the need for further investigation into accurate determination of the trace composition of tissues associated with low-energy brachytherapy. Alternatively, trace elements could be incorporated as a source of uncertainty in dose calculations. This work was part of an invited presentation at the ‘International Workshop on Recent Advances in Monte Carlo Techniques for Radiation Therapy’, held in Montreal, June 8-10, 2011.

  10. Relating urban airborne particle concentrations to shipping using carbon based elemental emission ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Graham R.; Juwono, Alamsyah M.; Friend, Adrian J.; Cheung, Hing-Cho; Stelcer, Eduard; Cohen, David; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia

    2014-10-01

    This study demonstrates a novel method for testing the hypothesis that variations in primary and secondary particle number concentration (PNC) in urban air are related to residual fuel oil combustion at a coastal port lying 30 km upwind, by examining the correlation between PNC and airborne particle composition signatures chosen for their sensitivity to the elemental contaminants present in residual fuel oil. Residual fuel oil combustion indicators were chosen by comparing the sensitivity of a range of concentration ratios to airborne emissions originating from the port. The most responsive were combinations of vanadium and sulphur concentration ([S], [V]) expressed as ratios with respect to black carbon concentration ([BC]). These correlated significantly with ship activity at the port and with the fraction of time during which the wind blew from the port. The average [V] when the wind was predominantly from the port was 0.52 ng m-3 (87%) higher than the average for all wind directions and 0.83 ng m-3 (280%) higher than that for the lowest vanadium yielding wind direction considered to approximate the natural background. Shipping was found to be the main source of V impacting urban air quality in Brisbane. However, contrary to the stated hypothesis, increases in PNC related measures did not correlate with ship emission indicators or ship traffic. Hence at this site ship emissions were not found to be a major contributor to PNC compared to other fossil fuel combustion sources such as road traffic, airport and refinery emissions.

  11. [Determination of Trace Elements in Marine Cetaceans by ICP-MS and Health Risk Assessment].

    PubMed

    Ding, Yu-long; Ning, Xi; Gui, Duan; Mo, Hui; Li, Yu-sen; Wu, Yu-ping

    2015-09-01

    The liver, kidney and muscle samples from seven cetaceans were digested by microwave digestion, and trace elements amounts of V, Cd, Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Ni, Mn, Se, Hg and Pb were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the health risk assessment for Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, Se in the liver was conducted. The results of international lobster hepatopancreas standard (TORT-2) showed acceptable agreement with the certified values, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of eleven kinds of trace elements were less than 3.54%, showing that the method is suitable for the determination of trace elements in cetaceans. The experimental results indicated that different tissues and organs of the dolphins had different trace elements, presenting the tissue specificity. There is a certain inter-species difference among different dolphins about the bioaccumulation ability of the trace elements. The distribution of trace elements in whales presented a certain regularity: the contents of most elements in liver, kidney were much higher than the contents of muscle tissues, Cu, Mn, Hg, Se, and Zn exhibit the higher concentrations in liver, while Cd was mainly accumulated in kidney. And according to the health risk assessment in liver, the exceeding standardrate of selenium and copper in seven kinds of whales was 100%, suggesting that these whales were suffering the contamination of trace elements. The experimental results is instructive to the study of trace elements in cetaceans, while this is the first report for the concentrations in organs of Striped dolphin, Bottlenose dolphin, Fraser's Dolphin and Risso's dolphin in China, it may provide us valuable data for the conservation of cetaceans. PMID:26669139

  12. [Analysis of a disturbance of trace element balance in patients with ischemic stroke with arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kuramshina, D B; Novikova, L B; Nikonov, A A; Torshin, I Iu; Gromova, O A

    2012-01-01

    Disturbance of trace element balance increases the risk of cerebrovascular disease and, above all, ischemic stroke (IS). A comparative analysis of clinical and demographic parameters and trace element composition of hair was performed in the group of 30 ischemic stroke patients with arterial hypertension (AH) and 30 stroke patients without hypertension (mean age 55±7 years). The stroke patients with hypertension were characterized by the elevated body mass index (28.5±4.1 kg/m2, AI, 26.0±2.9 kg/m2, p=0.006), higher incidence of coronary heart disease (p=0.04). Alcohol consumption more than 3 drinks a week was associated with a 5-fold increase of the risk of stroke with hypertension (95% CI 1.0-27, p=0.035). The results revealed a number of statistically significant differences in trace element profile in the studied groups of patients: deficits of essential magnesium, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, a statistically significant increase in sodium levels, toxic and conditionally toxic trace elements (cadmium, mercury, bismuth, barium, etc.). One of the probable factors that lead to the accumulation of toxic trace elements in stroke patients is the increased consumption of alcohol including that of substandard quality. The data obtained also show the feasibility of implementing screening programs to assess micronutrient status (including trace elements) for early detection of pathological abnormalities in the elemental homeostasis that might lead to an increased risk of ischemic stroke and hypertension. PMID:22677769

  13. Using trace elements in skin to discriminate the populations of minke whales in southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Kunito, Takashi; Watanabe, Izumi; Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-03-01

    Concentrations of 12 trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Cd, Cs, Ba, and Hg) were determined in liver and skin tissues of minke whales from various regions within the Antarctic Ocean. Cd concentrations in livers of southern minke whale were apparently higher than those in cetaceans from other regions, while Hg concentrations were lower. There were significant positive correlations between body length and concentrations of Cd and Hg in the liver. The concentrations of all trace elements in the skin were lower than those in other cetaceans reported previously. Significant positive correlations between liver and skin were found for Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, and Cs, implying that the concentrations of these trace elements in the skin reflect those of internal organs. Large interannual variation of the accumulation pattern of trace elements in the skin was observed for the southern minke whales from Area V. There were significant differences in the skin element concentrations among Areas III, IV, and V, especially for males. Also, discriminant analysis between geographically two different groups collected during 1995/1996 austral summer season, based on the concentrations of trace elements in the skin, allowed for a correct classification of 90% of these minke whales. These results suggest that measurement of trace elements in skin samples could provide valuable information on the status of contamination and possible geographic differences in the accumulation levels in southern minke whales. PMID:11824827

  14. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 2: Measurements of trace gases with stratospheric or tropospheric origin in the UTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkat, T.; Kaufmann, S.; Voigt, C.; Schäuble, D.; Jeßberger, P.; Ziereis, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the role of climate-sensitive trace gas variabilities in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region (UTLS) and their impact on its radiative budget requires accurate measurements. The composition of the UTLS is governed by transport and chemistry of stratospheric and tropospheric constituents, such as chlorine, nitrogen oxide and sulphur components. The Airborne chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer AIMS has been developed to accurately measure a set of these constituents on aircraft by means of chemical ionization. Here we present a setup using chemical ionization with SF5- reagent ions for the simultaneous measurement of trace gas concentrations in the pptv to ppmv (10-12 to 10-6 mol mol-1) range of HCl, HNO3 and SO2 with in-flight and online calibration called AIMS-TG. Part 1 of this paper (Kaufmann et al., 2015) reports on the UTLS water vapour measurements with the AIMS-H2O configuration. The instrument can be flexibly switched between two configurations depending on the scientific objective of the mission. For AIMS-TG, a custom-made gas discharge ion source has been developed generating a characteristic ionization scheme. HNO3 and HCl are routinely calibrated in-flight using permeation devices, SO2 is permanently calibrated during flight adding an isotopically labelled 34SO2 standard. In addition, we report on trace gas measurements of HONO which is sensitive to the reaction with SF5-. The detection limit for the various trace gases is in the low ten pptv range at a 1 s time resolution with an overall uncertainty of the measurement in the order of 20 %. AIMS has been integrated and successfully operated on the DLR research aircraft Falcon and HALO. Exemplarily, measurements conducted during the TACTS/ESMVal mission with HALO in 2012 are presented, focusing on a classification of tropospheric and stratospheric influences in the UTLS region. Comparison of AIMS measurements with other measurement techniques allow to draw a comprehensive

  15. Determination of trace elements in triglycine sulfate solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadros, Shawky H.

    1993-01-01

    Ten elements were divided into 2 groups. The elements in the first group included iron, nickel, chromium, manganese, copper, and gold. The elements in the second group included zinc, cobalt, lead, cadmium, and gold. Five ppm of each element in each group was spiked in a 1 percent triglycine sulfate (TGS) solution. Glycine was removed with 1-naphthyl isocyanate in ether medium. The glycine derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine was removed by filtration, and the filtrates were analyzed for the different elements. Analysis of these elements was performed by using the 5100 Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The result of these experiments was the observation that there was a decrease in the concentration of chromium and gold, which was interpreted to be due to the chelation of these elements by the derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine. Further research is needed to determine the concentration of other elements in triglycine sulfate (TGS) solutions. These elements will include lithium, sodium, rubidium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, aluminum, and silicon. These are the most likely elements to be found in the sulfuric acid used in manufacturing the TGS crystal. Moreover, we will extend our research to investigate the structural formula of the violet colored chelated compounds, which had been formed by interaction of the derivative 1-naphthyl isocyanate glycine with the different elements, such as gold, chromium.

  16. ATLAS: Airborne Tunable Laser Absorption Spectrometer for stratospheric trace gas measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Strahan, Susan E.

    1990-01-01

    The ATLAS instrument is an advanced technology diode laser based absorption spectrometer designed specifically for stratospheric tracer studies. This technique was used in the acquisition of N2O tracer data sets on the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. These data sets have proved valuable for comparison with atmospheric models, as well as in assisting in the interpretation of the entire ensemble of chemical and meteorological data acquired on these two field studies. The N2O dynamical tracer data set analysis revealed several ramifications concerning the polar atmosphere: the N2O/NO(y) correlation, which is used as a tool to study denitrification in the polar vertex; the N2O Southern Hemisphere morphology, showing subsidence in the winter polar vortex; and the value of the N2O measurements in the interpretation of ClO, O3, and NO(y) measurements and of the derived dynamical tracer, potential vorticity. Field studies also led to improved characterization of the instrument and to improved accuracy.

  17. Physiological Effects of Trace Elements and Chemicals in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, M. M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The physiological effects on humans and animals of trace amounts of organic and unorganic pollutants in natural and waste waters are examined. The sensitivity of particular organs and species is emphasized. Substances reviewed include mercury, arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, fluorides, nitrates and organics, including polychlounated biphenyls.…

  18. Aerosol emissions by tropical forest and savanna biomass burning: Characteristic trace elements and fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Echalar, F.; Gaudichet, A.; Cachier, H.

    1995-11-15

    This report characterizes and compares trace element emissions from fires of three different types of savannas and from the southwestern amazonian rain forest. This study tries to verify a fingerprint that may characterize savanna fires or tropical biomass burning.

  19. Diel cycling of trace elements in streams draining mineralized areas: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gammons, Christopher H.; Nimick, David A.; Parker, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Many trace elements exhibit persistent diel, or 24-h, concentration cycles in streams draining mineralized areas. These cycles can be caused by various physical and biogeochemical mechanisms including streamflow variation, photosynthesis and respiration, as well as reactions involving photochemistry, adsorption and desorption, mineral precipitation and dissolution, and plant assimilation. Iron is the primary trace element that exhibits diel cycling in acidic streams. In contrast, many cationic and anionic trace elements exhibit diel cycling in near-neutral and alkaline streams. Maximum reported changes in concentration for these diel cycles have been as much as a factor of 10 (988% change in Zn concentration over a 24-h period). Thus, monitoring and scientific studies must account for diel trace-element cycling to ensure that water-quality data collected in streams appropriately represent the conditions intended to be studied.

  20. Understanding Biogeochemical Transformations Of Trace Elements In Multi Metal-Rich Geomaterials Under Stimulated Redox Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural and anthropogenic influences on hydrological conditions can induce periodic or long-term reduced conditions in geologic materials. Such conditions can cause significant impacts on biogeochemical processes of trace elements in subsurface or near surface environments. The...

  1. COEUR D'ALENE LAKE, IDAHO. HYPOLIMNETIC CONCENTRATIONS OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN, NUTRIENTS, AND TRACE ELEMENTS, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    A reconnaissance study of Coeur dAlene Lake, Idaho (17010303) done from May through November 1987 assessed water quality throughout the lake. Particular emphasis was on hypolimnetic concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and trace elements. Study results enabled refinem...

  2. TRACE ELEMENT STUDY AT A PRIMARY COPPER SMELTER. VOLUME II. REPORT APPENDIX

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was undertaken to explore the distribution of trace elements in environmental emissions from a primary copper smelter. The efforts were concentrated on the reverberatory furnace and the electrostatic precipitator controlling emissions from the reverberatory furnace. ...

  3. Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates (AOAs) in the Efremovka (CVR) Chondrite: First SIMS Trace-Element Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, A.; Floss, C.; Hutson, M.

    2008-03-01

    SIMS trace-element results for six inclusions in Efremovka imply that condensation was important in the formation of AOAs and that precursor compositions or mode of origin were different for olivine in AOAs and in chondrules.

  4. TRACE ELEMENT CHEMISTRY IN RESIDUAL-TREATED SOIL: KEY CONCEPTS AND METAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace element solubility and availability in land-applied residuals is governed by fundamental chemical reactions between metal constituents, soil, and residual components. Iron, aluminum, and manganese oxides; organic matter; and phosphates, carbonates, and sulfides are importan...

  5. TRACE AND POTENTIALLY TOXIC ELEMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH URANIUM DEPOSITS IN SOUTH TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmentally sensitive trace elements molybdenum, arsenic, and selenium are concentrated with uranium in ore deposits in South Texas. Cattle grazing in some pastures in mining areas have contracted molybdenosis, a cattle disease resulting from an imbalance of molybdenum an...

  6. Trace element geochemistry of soils and plants in Kenyan conservation areas and implications for wildlife nutrition.

    PubMed

    Maskall, J; Thornton, I

    1991-06-01

    Trace element concentrations in soils, plants and animals in National Parks and Wildlife Reserves in Kenya are assessed using geochemical mapping techniques. Soil trace element concentrations are shown to be related to soil parent material and possibly to pedological and hydrological factors. At Lake Nakuru National Park, plant trace element concentrations vary with plant species and the geochemical conditions that influence uptake are discussed. Impala at Lake Nakuru National Park and black rhino at Solio Wildlife Reserve are shown to have a lower blood copper status than animals from other areas. The trace element status of wildlife is assessed also with respect to critical concentrations used for domestic ruminants. It is suggested that at Lake Nakuru National Park, the low soil copper content and high molybdenum content of some plants contributes to the low copper status of impala and may also influence the nutrition of other species. PMID:24202842

  7. Study on water-rock interactions of trace elements in groundwater with leaching experiments.

    PubMed

    Yu, Z; Zhang, L; Jiang, P; Papelis, C; Li, Y

    2015-04-01

    Measurements of trace elements leached from host rocks can indicate the source of flowing groundwater and provide the host rock's fingerprint information that may be useful in understanding the mixing patterns of different groundwaters and flowpaths. In this study, the leaching characteristics of three widely-distributed aquifer host rocks in Southern Nevada were investigated through leaching experiments of 13 trace elements under different experimental conditions (leaching time, pH, grain size, and rock mineralogy). The fraction of leached trace elements from different aquifer host rocks was calculated for examining the water-rock interaction in different conditions. The effect of host rock mineralogy on leachate composition was examined, which could provide useful information about groundwater source. Solute speciation and saturation indices were simulated using geochemical modeling to further explore the redistribution and leaching process of trace elements. PMID:24601971

  8. Change in field turbidity and trace element concentrations during well purging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibs, J.; Szabo, Z.; Ivahnenko, T.; Wilde, F.D.

    2000-01-01

    Various physical and chemical properties were monitored sequentially in the field during well purging as indicators of stabilization of the composition of the water in the well. Turbidity was monitored on site during purging of oxic water from three wells with screened intervals open to an unconfined aquifer system in the Coastal Plain of southern New Jersey to determine if stabilization of turbidity is a reliable indicator of the optimum purge time required to collect unbiased trace element samples. Concurrent split (one filtered, one unfiltered) samples collected during purging of the wells were analyzed for concentrations of trace elements so that the relationships between trace element concentrations and turbidity could be compared. Turbidity correlated with the whole water recoverable (WWR) concentration of trace element species, such as iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and manganese (Mn) in the oxic ground water. Turbidity appeared to be independent of other field-measured characteristics of water such as conductivity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. The WWR concentrations of lead and copper, considered to be hydrophobic, correlated significantly with the sum of the WWR concentration of Fe, Al, and Mn. High values of field-measured turbidity were a key indicator of an overestimate of ambient hydrophobic trace element WWR concentrations. Stabilization of turbidity was a better indicator of stable, unfiltered trace element concentrations than were the other commonly measured field characteristics. At one well, turbidity was a better indicator of stable, filtered trace element concentrations than the other commonly measured field characteristics. As analytical methods for trace elements improve resulting in smaller MRLs (method reporting levels) and better precision, turbidity of ground water at values of less than 10 NTU (nepheiometric turbidity units) will become important in interpreting the significance of both unfiltered and filtered sample results.

  9. Trace Elements Affect Methanogenic Activity and Diversity in Enrichments from Subsurface Coal Bed Produced Water

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Burcu; Perry, Verlin Ryan; Sheth, Mili; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients) are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effects of eight trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, boron, and copper) on methane production, on mcrA transcript levels, and on methanogenic community structure in enrichment cultures obtained from coal bed methane (CBM) well produced water samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Methane production was shown to be limited both by a lack of additional trace elements as well as by the addition of an overly concentrated trace element mixture. Addition of trace elements at concentrations optimized for standard media enhanced methane production by 37%. After 7 days of incubation, the levels of mcrA transcripts in enrichment cultures with trace element amendment were much higher than in cultures without amendment. Transcript levels of mcrA correlated positively with elevated rates of methane production in supplemented enrichments (R2 = 0.95). Metabolically active methanogens, identified by clone sequences of mcrA mRNA retrieved from enrichment cultures, were closely related to Methanobacterium subterraneum and Methanobacterium formicicum. Enrichment cultures were dominated by M. subterraneum and had slightly higher predicted methanogenic richness, but less diversity than enrichment cultures without amendments. These results suggest that varying concentrations of trace elements in produced water from different subsurface coal wells may cause changing levels of CBM production and alter the composition of the active methanogenic community. PMID

  10. Analysis of the trace element content of coals from the Wabaunsee Group southeastern Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, S.S.; Carr, J.D.; Kelter, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    Eight coal samples obtained from the Honey Creek, Lorton, Wamego, Elmo, and Nodaway coals of the Wabaunsee Group (Upper Pennsylvanian) were analyzed for their concentration of certain trace elements. Analysis of the data suggests (a) a general decrease of trace element concentrations away from the Precambrian Nemaha Arch in a basinward direction, and (b) the post-diagenetic emplacement of lead, zinc and cadmium typical of mid-continent coals.

  11. HUMAN SCALP HAIR: AN ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE INDEX FOR TRACE ELEMENTS. III. SEVENTEEN TRACE ELEMENTS IN BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA AND CHARLOTTE, NORTH CAROLINA (1972)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seventeen trace elements - arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron, (B), cadmium, (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), tin (Sn), vanadium (V), and Zinc (Zn) - were measured in human s...

  12. Toxic effects of trace elements on newborns and their birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mengling; Xu, Chenye; Lin, Nan; Yin, Shanshan; Zhang, Yongli; Yu, Xinwei; Liu, Weiping

    2016-04-15

    Some trace elements are essential for newborns, their deficiency may cause abnormal biological functions, whereas excessive intakes due to environmental contamination may create adverse health effects. This study was conducted to measure the levels of selected trace elements in Chinese fish consumers by assessing their essentiality and toxicity via colostrum intake in newborns, and evaluated the effects of these trace elements on birth outcomes. Trace elements in umbilical cord serum and colostrum of the studied population were relatively high compared with other populations. The geometric means (GM) of estimated daily intake (EDI, mgday(-1)) of the trace elements were in the safe ranges for infant Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) recommended by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). When using total dietary intake (TDI, mgkg(-1)bwday(-1)), zinc (Zn) (0.880mgkg(-1)bwday(-1)) and selenium (Se) (6.39×10(-3)mgkg(-1)bwday(-1)) were above the Reference Doses (RfD), set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that Se was negatively correlated with birth outcomes. Our findings suggested that overloading of trace elements due to environmental contamination may contribute to negative birth outcomes. PMID:26803687

  13. Trace Element Supplementation Following Severe Burn Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kurmis, Rochelle; Greenwood, John; Aromataris, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements have an important physiological role after severe burn injury with patients routinely receiving supplementation. Although commonly prescribed after burn injury, variation exists among supplement composition, frequency, and the dosage administered. This review aims to assess the effectiveness of trace element supplementation on clinically meaningful outcomes in patients who have sustained a severe burn injury. Supplementation of selenium, copper and zinc, either alone or combined, compared with placebo or standard treatment were eligible for inclusion. Predetermined primary outcome measures were mortality, length of stay, rate of wound healing, and complications. A comprehensive search strategy was undertaken. Methodological quality of eligible studies was appraised and relevant data extracted for meta-analysis. Eight studies met eligibility criteria for the review; four randomized controlled trials and four nonrandomized experimental trials, including a total of 398 participants with an age range of 6 to 67 years. Parenteral supplementation of combined trace elements was associated with a significant decrease in infectious episodes (weighted mean difference: -1.25 episodes, 95% confidence intervals: -1.70, -0.80; P < .00001). The results of this review indicate that the use of parentally administered combined trace elements after burn injury confer positive effects in decreasing infectious complications. Combined parenteral trace element supplementation and combined oral and parenteral zinc supplementation have potentially clinically significant findings on reducing length of stay. Oral zinc supplementation shows possible beneficial effects on mortality. Definitive studies are required to accurately define optimal trace element supplementation regimens, dosages, and routes after burn injury. PMID:26056754

  14. Risk assessment of trace elements in cultured freshwater fishes from Jiangxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Dawen; Wei, Yihua; Luo, Linguan; Dai, Tingcan

    2014-04-01

    The levels of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in eight species of cultured freshwater fishes from Jiangxi province were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. All the studied trace element levels in fish muscles from Jiangxi province did not exceed Chinese national standard and European Union standard, and they were often lower than previous studies. The calculated target hazard quotient values for all the studied trace elements in fish samples were much less than 1, suggesting that the studied trace elements in fish muscles from Jiangxi province had not pose obvious health hazards to consumers. As and Cd concentrations in northern snakehead were much higher than that in other fishes, demonstrating that this fish species could be valuable as a bioindicator of As and Cd in environmental surveys. In addition, the highest concentrations of Fe, Zn, and moderate contents of other essential trace elements in crucian carp indicated that crucian carp could be a good nutrient source of essential trace elements for human health. PMID:24258771

  15. Soil amendments reduce trace element solubility in a contaminated soil and allow regrowth of natural vegetation.

    PubMed

    Madejón, Engracia; de Mora, Alfredo Pérez; Felipe, Efraín; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    We tested the effects of three amendments (a biosolid compost, a sugar beet lime, and a combination of leonardite plus sugar beet lime) on trace element stabilisation and spontaneous revegetation of a trace element contaminated soil. Soil properties were analysed before and after amendment application. Spontaneous vegetation growing on the experimental plot was studied by three surveys in terms of number of taxa colonising, percentage vegetation cover and plant biomass. Macronutrients and trace element concentrations of the five most frequent species were analysed. The results showed a positive effect of the amendments both on soil chemical properties and vegetation. All amendments increased soil pH and TOC content and reduced CaCl(2)-soluble-trace element concentrations. Colonisation by wild plants was enhanced in all amended treatments. The nutritional status of the five species studied was improved in some cases, while a general reduction in trace element concentrations of the aboveground parts was observed in all treated plots. The results obtained show that natural assisted remediation has potential for success on a field scale reducing trace element entry in the food chain. PMID:16005126

  16. Trace elements in wild grasses: a phytoavailability study on a remediated field.

    PubMed

    Burgos, P; Pérez-de-Mora, A; Madejón, P; Cabrera, F; Madejón, E

    2008-04-01

    There have been significant efforts to establish a widely usable method for the prediction of trace element bioavailability in soil. In this work, we used extraction with 0.01 M CaCl2 and 0.05 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to estimate bioavailable concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in a soil moderately contaminated with trace elements 1 and 2 years after the application of three amendments. The experiment took place in a field plot of a soil affected by the toxic spill of the Aznalcóllar mine. Four treatments were established: three with amendments (biosolid compost, sugar beet lime, and a combination of leonardite plus sugar beet lime) and a control without amendment. Trace element concentrations of two representative species in each year (Lamarckia aurea and Poa annua in 2004 and Lamarckia aurea and Bromus rubens in 2005) were analyzed. The results showed a positive effect of the amendments both on soil and vegetation. Trace element concentrations in plants growing in the amended subplots were lower than those in plants from nonamended subplots. As a rule, concentrations of CaCl2-soluble Cd, Cu, and Zn in soil were positively correlated with trace elements in plants, whereas EDTA extraction was scarcely correlated with plant concentration. For species of grasses, especially L. aurea, CaCl2 seems to be a more suitable extractant to predict trace element bioavailability in this contaminated soil. PMID:18253844

  17. Occurrence, transport, and fate of trace elements, Blue River Basin, Summit County, Colorado: an integrated approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.; Driver, N.E.; Bails, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Mining activities in the Blue River Basin, Summit County, Colorado, have affected the trace-element chemistry and biota along French Gulch and the Blue River. Elevated concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were present in the bed and suspended sediments. Bed sediment trace-element concentrations were high in the streams in and near mining activities in the basin and remained high as water flowed into Dillon Reservoir about 3.5 km downstream. Bed-sediment (< 63 μm) data were useful in assessing the distribution of trace elements in the basin. Suspended-sediment measurements provided information as to the transport of the trace elements. Filtered (< 0.45 μm) water-column trace-element concentrations were orders of magnitude less than the sediment concentrations. Concentrations of Cd and Zn in the water column at some sites exceeded stream water-quality standards. Elevated trace-element concentrations in the sediment and water column are a source of contamination and must be considered in water-quality management of the Blue River Basin.

  18. Long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Lei; Jahng, Deokjin

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Korean food waste was found to contain low level of trace elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved by adding trace elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Iron played an important role in anaerobic digestion of food waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt addition further enhanced the process performance in the presence of iron. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste in a semi-continuous single-stage reactor could be stabilized by supplementing trace elements. Contrary to the failure of anaerobic digestion of food waste alone, stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved for 368 days by supplementing trace elements. Under the conditions of OLR (organic loading rates) of 2.19-6.64 g VS (volatile solid)/L day and 20-30 days of HRT (hydraulic retention time), a high methane yield (352-450 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}) was obtained, and no significant accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed. The subsequent investigation on effects of individual trace elements (Co, Fe, Mo and Ni) showed that iron was essential for maintaining stable methane production. These results proved that the food waste used in this study was deficient in trace elements.

  19. Trace Elements in the Fetal and Neonate Ruminant: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hidiroglou, M.

    1980-01-01

    The placental transfer and localization of four elements, Se, Fe, I and Zn in the ruminant fetus are described in this review. The problems facing the fetus or neonate born from cows or ewes with an inadequate supply of these elements during gestation are discussed. PMID:7020911

  20. Trace elemental characteristics of aerosols emitted from municipal incinerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a continuing investigation of high temperature combustion aerosols, elemental composition of size differentiated aerosols emitted from a local municipal incinerator was studied. Aerosols were aerodynamically separated into eight diameter groups ranging from 0.43 mm to 20 mm, collected, and analyzed by charged particle induced X-ray emission technique. On line data collection and reduction codes generated aerial densities for elements from Na to U with sensitivities in the ng/cu m range for most elements. From the total weights of aerosols collected per stage, their size distribution was determined to be bimodal, with one group centered at a diameter of 0.54 mm and the other at a diameter of 5.6 mm. Measured elemental concentrations in various size ranges indicate that K and S show a strong tendency to concentrate on aerosol surfaces. A weaker trend for surface preference was also observed for Mn and Ni, but other elements show no such trend.

  1. Capillary microextraction (CME) and its application to trace elements analysis and their speciation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Zheng, Fei; He, Man; Zhang, Nan

    2009-09-14

    As a solvent-free miniaturized sample preparation technique, capillary microextraction (CME) has been hyphenated with different analytical instruments for trace elements analysis of environmental, biological, food and pharmaceutical samples. This review discusses the fundamentals and recent development of CME, including the theoretical basis, extraction modes (packed, open-tubular and monolithic CME) and capillary materials for CME. The emphasis is placed on the application of CME to trace/ultra-trace elements analysis and their speciation. Existing coating/monolithic materials used for CME are summarized together with a detailed overview of their preparation methods. PMID:19720168

  2. Assessment of trace elements levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes using multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Badran, M; Morsy, R; Soliman, H; Elnimr, T

    2016-01-01

    The trace elements metabolism has been reported to possess specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of diabetes mellitus. Due to the continuous increase in the population of patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D), this study aims to assess the levels and inter-relationships of fast blood glucose (FBG) and serum trace elements in Type 2 diabetic patients. This study was conducted on 40 Egyptian Type 2 diabetic patients and 36 healthy volunteers (Hospital of Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt). The blood serum was digested and then used to determine the levels of 24 trace elements using an inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Multivariate statistical analysis depended on correlation coefficient, cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to analysis the data. The results exhibited significant changes in FBG and eight of trace elements, Zn, Cu, Se, Fe, Mn, Cr, Mg, and As, levels in the blood serum of Type 2 diabetic patients relative to those of healthy controls. The statistical analyses using multivariate statistical techniques were obvious in the reduction of the experimental variables, and grouping the trace elements in patients into three clusters. The application of PCA revealed a distinct difference in associations of trace elements and their clustering patterns in control and patients group in particular for Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn that appeared to be the most crucial factors which related with Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, on the basis of this study, the contributors of trace elements content in Type 2 diabetic patients can be determine and specify with correlation relationship and multivariate statistical analysis, which confirm that the alteration of some essential trace metals may play a role in the development of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26653752

  3. Multielement extraction system for the determination of 18 trace elements in geochemical samples

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.R.; Viets, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    A Methyl isobutyl ketone-Amine synerGistic Iodide Complex (MAGIC) extraction system has been developed for use in geochemical exploration which separates a maximum number of trace elements from interfering matrices. Extraction curves for 18 of these trace elements are presented: Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Ga, In, Tl, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Se, and Te. The acid normality of the aqueous phase controls the extraction into the organic phase, and each of these 18 elements has a broad range of HCl normality over which it is quantitatively extracted, making it possible to determine all 18 trace elements from a single sample digestion or leach solution. The extract can be analyzed directly by flame atomic absorption or inductivity coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Most of these 18 elements can be determined by flameless atomic absorption after special treatment of the organic extract.

  4. Phytostabilization of semiarid soils residually contaminated with trace elements using by-products: sustainability and risks.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Madejón, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco; Lepp, Nicholas W; Madejón, Engracia

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the efficiency of various by-products (sugarbeet lime, biosolid compost and leonardite), based on single or repeated applications to field plots, on the establishment of a vegetation cover compatible with a stabilization strategy on a multi-element (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contaminated soil 4-6 years after initial amendment applications. Results indicate that the need for re-treatment is amendment- and element-dependent; in some cases, a single application may reduce trace element concentrations in above-ground biomass and enhance the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Amendment performance as evaluated by % cover, biomass and number of colonizing taxa differs; however, changes in plant community composition are not necessarily amendment-specific. Although the translocation of trace elements to the plant biotic compartment is greater in re-vegetated areas, overall loss of trace elements due to soil erosion and plant uptake is usually smaller compared to that in bare soil. PMID:21561696

  5. Attenuation of trace elements in coal fly ash leachates by surfactant-modified zeolite.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Ghanashyam; Donahoe, Rona J

    2012-08-30

    Potential leaching of trace elements from older, unlined fly ash disposal facilities is a serious threat to groundwater and surface water contamination. Therefore, effective methods for containing the pollutant elements within the unlined coal combustion products (CCPs) disposal facilities are required to minimize any potential impact of leachate emanating from such facilities into the nearby environment. Because surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has the potential to sequester both cationic and anionic trace elements from aqueous solutions, bench-scale batch and column experiments were performed to test its ability to remediate trace elements in leachates generated from both alkaline and acidic fly ash samples. Fly ash leachate treatment results showed the potential application of SMZ as an effective permeable reactive barrier (PRB) material to control the dispersion of heavy metals and metalloids from ash disposal sites. Quantitative comparison of the elemental composition of SMZ-treated and untreated leachates indicated that SMZ was effective in decreasing the concentrations of trace elements in fly ash leachates. Similarly, SMZ treatment column experiments showed the delayed peak leaching events and overall reductions in leachate concentrations of trace elements. The effectiveness of SMZ column treatments, however, decreased with time potentially due to the saturation of sorption sites. PMID:22721834

  6. Distribution of trace elements in soil from repeated sewage sludge applications

    SciTech Connect

    Berti, W.R.; Jacobs, L.W.

    1998-11-01

    The authors studied the horizontal and vertical distribution in a soil profile of trace elements as a result of their loading at phytotoxic levels to cropland. Municipal sludges containing high concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn were applied to cropland from 1977 to 1986 at three rates plus an untreated control. Total elemental analysis of soils collected in 1989 and 1990 indicated that lateral distributions of trace elements had occurred. This lateral distribution was most likely a result of the physical movement of soil particles with agronomic operations. The elements, however, were not distributed below the sampling depth of from 15 to 30 cm. Mass balance calculations resulted in average trace element recoveries that ranged from 45 to 155% of the total applied. These calculations were highly variable, indicative of the highly variable nature of sludge composition, lack of total uniform sludge applications, soil movement due to tillage operations, and sampling methods. Because of the potential errors associated in mass balance calculations, recoveries that have been calculated in this and other studies that deviate substantially from 100% should reasonably be expected. Direct examination of the relatively few ways in which trace elements are lost from a soil may be more meaningful than mass balance calculations to determine the fate of trace elements applied to soil.

  7. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    SciTech Connect

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  8. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents' material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  9. Airborne trace metals and organochlorine compounds in arctic Alaska and Siberia: How important?

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, D.H.; Allen-Gil, S.; Gubala, C.P.; Ford, J.

    1995-12-31

    Metal contaminants of anthropogenic origin identified in the arctic atmosphere and the presence of organochlorines in arctic marine mammal tissues has raised the question of the importance of long-range transport of contaminants to the Arctic. Research focused on arctic regions in Alaska and the Taimyr peninsula of north central Russia. Inland watersheds were examined for evidence of increases in trace metal flux during the past 150 years and the presence of organochlorine compounds. Fish and ground squirrels were examined for body burdens of organic contaminants and plasma biomarkers were examined to evaluate biological effects. Sediment data from several lakes suggest that over broad regions, trace metal fluxes have increased only slightly (< 10%), if at all, since the pre-industrial era. The highest metal concentrations in lake sediments are associated with known elevated geologic sources of metals within the respective watersheds. Organochlorines are present in remote inland arctic ecosystems and are most concentrated in the tissues (e.g. liver) of organisms representing higher trophic levels. Arctic Siberia and Alaska (Taimyr peninsula) are similar with regard to contaminant concentrations. However, lichen and moss data suggest that Pb from Eurasian sources does not reach arctic Alaska. The results indicate that long range, transpolar transport and deposition of trace metals is not a large scale current phenomena in the two study regions. The transport and deposition of organochlorine compounds, however, is occurring but at relatively low levels.

  10. Concentration of trace elements in water samples by reductive precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Skogerboe, R.K.; Hanagan, W.A.; Taylor, H.E.

    1985-12-01

    The use of borohydride reduction as a means of preconcentrating elements by precipitation as the element or as a boride has been explored. It has been shown that the optimized procedure reproducibly effects the precipitation of all 18 elements studied; only four of these exhibited recoveries less than 90%. The general ease of use, the demonstrated accuracy and precision, the high preconcentration factors available, the self-cleansing properties of the primary reagent, the granular character of the precipitate are all factors to recommend this approach. 25 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  11. High spatial resolution imaging of methane and other trace gases with the airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulley, Glynn C.; Duren, Riley M.; Hopkins, Francesca M.; Hook, Simon J.; Vance, Nick; Guillevic, Pierre; Johnson, William R.; Eng, Bjorn T.; Mihaly, Jonathan M.; Jovanovic, Veljko M.; Chazanoff, Seth L.; Staniszewski, Zak K.; Kuai, Le; Worden, John; Frankenberg, Christian; Rivera, Gerardo; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Miller, Charles E.; Malakar, Nabin K.; Sánchez Tomás, Juan M.; Holmes, Kendall T.

    2016-06-01

    Currently large uncertainties exist associated with the attribution and quantification of fugitive emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases such as methane across large regions and key economic sectors. In this study, data from the airborne Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) have been used to develop robust and reliable techniques for the detection and wide-area mapping of emission plumes of methane and other atmospheric trace gas species over challenging and diverse environmental conditions with high spatial resolution that permits direct attribution to sources. HyTES is a pushbroom imaging spectrometer with high spectral resolution (256 bands from 7.5 to 12 µm), wide swath (1-2 km), and high spatial resolution (˜ 2 m at 1 km altitude) that incorporates new thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing technologies. In this study we introduce a hybrid clutter matched filter (CMF) and plume dilation algorithm applied to HyTES observations to efficiently detect and characterize the spatial structures of individual plumes of CH4, H2S, NH3, NO2, and SO2 emitters. The sensitivity and field of regard of HyTES allows rapid and frequent airborne surveys of large areas including facilities not readily accessible from the surface. The HyTES CMF algorithm produces plume intensity images of methane and other gases from strong emission sources. The combination of high spatial resolution and multi-species imaging capability provides source attribution in complex environments. The CMF-based detection of strong emission sources over large areas is a fast and powerful tool needed to focus on more computationally intensive retrieval algorithms to quantify emissions with error estimates, and is useful for expediting mitigation efforts and addressing critical science questions.

  12. Responses of trace elements to aerobic maximal exercise in elite sportsmen.

    PubMed

    Otag, Aynur; Hazar, Muhsin; Otag, Ilhan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Okan, Ilyas

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism. In biochemistry, a trace element is also referred to as a micronutrient. Trace elements, such as nickel, cadmium, aluminum, silver, chromium, molybdenum, germanium, tin, titanium, tungsten, scandium, are found naturally in the environment and human exposure derives from a variety of sources, including air, drinking water and food. The Purpose of this study was investigated the effect of aerobic maximal intensity endurance exercise on serum trace elements as well-trained individuals of 28 wrestlers (age (year) 19.64±1.13, weight (Kg) 70.07 ± 15.69, height (cm) 176.97 ± 6.69) during and after a 2000 meter Ergometer test protocol was used to perform aerobic (75 %) maximal endurance exercise. Trace element serum levels were analyzed from blood samples taken before, immediately after and one hour after the exercise. While an increase was detected in Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum (Mo) and Titanium (Ti) serum levels immediately after the exercise, a decrease was detected in Aluminum (Al), Scandium (Sc) and Tungsten (W) serum levels. Except for aluminum, the trace elements we worked on showed statistically meaningful responses (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). According to the responses of trace elements to the exercise showed us the selection and application of the convenient sport is important not only in terms of sportsman performance but also in terms of future healthy life plans and clinically. PMID:24762350

  13. Responses of Trace Elements to Aerobic Maximal Exercise in Elite Sportsmen

    PubMed Central

    OTAĞ, Aynur; HAZAR, Muhsin; OTAĞ, İlhan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Okan, İlyas

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism. In biochemistry, a trace element is also referred to as a micronutrient. Trace elements, such as nickel, cadmium, aluminum, silver, chromium, molybdenum, germanium, tin, titanium, tungsten, scandium, are found naturally in the environment and human exposure derives from a variety of sources, including air, drinking water and food. The Purpose of this study was investigated the effect of aerobic maximal intensity endurance exercise on serum trace elements as well-trained individuals of 28 wrestlers (age (year) 19.64±1.13, weight (Kg) 70.07 ± 15.69, height (cm) 176.97 ± 6.69) during and after a 2000 meter Ergometer test protocol was used to perform aerobic (75 %) maximal endurance exercise. Trace element serum levels were analyzed from blood samples taken before, immediately after and one hour after the exercise. While an increase was detected in Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum (Mo) and Titanium (Ti) serum levels immediately after the exercise, a decrease was detected in Aluminum (Al), Scandium (Sc) and Tungsten (W) serum levels. Except for aluminum, the trace elements we worked on showed statistically meaningful responses (P<0.05 and P<0.001). According to the responses of trace elements to the exercise showed us the selection and application of the convenient sport is important not only in terms of sportsman performance but also in terms of future healthy life plans and clinically. PMID:24762350

  14. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive. PMID:26213134

  15. Potential health and environmental effects of trace elements and radionuclides from increased coal utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Van Hook, R I

    1979-01-01

    This report addresses the effects of coal-derived trace and radioactive elements. A summary of our current understanding of health and environmental effects of trace and radioactive elements released during coal mining, cleaning, combustion, and ash disposal is presented. Physical and biological transport phenomena which are important in determining organism exposure are also discussed. Biological concentration and transformation as well as synergistic and antagonistic actions among trace contaminants are discussed in terms of their importance in mobility, persistence, availability, and ultimate toxicity. The consequences of implementing the President's National Energy Plan are considered in terms of the impact of the NEP in 1985 and 2000 on the potential effects of trace and radioactive elements from the coal fuel cycle. Areas of needed research are identified in specific recommendations. PMID:540619

  16. Modelling Coral Biomineralization: Mixed Kinetic/Equilibrium Trace Element Coprecipitation Models Reveal new Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, D. J.; Risk, M.

    2004-12-01

    A mixed kinetic/equilibrium steady state model of trace-element co-precipitation in coral skeleton is presented, and tested against high spatial resolution observations of coral trace-element composition made previously by LA-ICP-MS. The model is implemented in PHREEQC, and simulates physicochemical precipitation from a small pocket of seawater which is isolated by the coral, and modified by enzyme exchange of 2 H+ for Ca2+. The model assumes that all aqueous trace-element species in the calcifying fluid are in full equilibrium and that selected trace element species compete kinetically for precipitation with the major aqueous species (Ca2+ for cation substituents and CO32- for anion substituents). No equilibrium is assumed for the CaCO3 skeleton. Carbon is supplied to the system by diffusion of CO2 into the high-pH calcifying fluid, and trace elements are continuously replenished through the addition of fresh seawater. The rate at which the coral operates the enzyme pump, and the rate at which it replenishes the seawater component are independent variables, and the steady state trace-element composition of the skeleton/calcifying fluid are evaluated over a 2D grid of variables spanning realistic rates of pumping and seawater influx. It is assumed that variations in the trace element composition of the coral skeleton are the result of shifts in the steady-state caused by changes to these variables. The results indicate an unexpected complexity in the response of the trace elements. First order predictions suggest that increasing the rate of calcification by increasing the enzyme pumping should result in a mutual dilution of most trace element species by pumped Ca2+ and diffused CO2. However, for high rates of pumping and low seawater replenishment, the model predicts a change in the trace-element response of the system as high CO32- concentrations drive calcification and deplete Ca2+. This added complexity makes rationalizing observations with models more difficult.

  17. Trace element mineral transformations associated with hydration and recarbonation of retorted oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essington, M. E.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the influence of hydration and recarbonation on the solidphase distribution of trace elements in retorted oil shale. The oil shale samples were retorted by the Paraho direct heating process and equilibrated with deionized—distilled water under controlled carbon dioxide conditions. A sequential extraction technique was then used to fractionate trace elements into soluble, KNO3-extractable (easily exchangeable), H2O-extractable (easily adsorbed), NaOh-extractable (organic), EDTA-extractable (carbonate), HNO3-extractable (sulfide), and residual (nonextractable silicate) phases. The chemical fractions present in retorted oil shale and hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale were compared to identify trace element mineralogical changes that may occur in retorted oil shale disposal environments. Trace elements examined in this study were found to reside predominantly in the HNO3-extractable and residual fractions. Hydration of retorted oil shale resulted in a shift in the majority of trace elements from residual to extractable forms. Cobalt, nickel, and zinc extractabilities were not significantly influenced by hydration, whereas antimony increased in the residual fraction. Subjecting retorted oil shale to atmospheric (0.033%) and 10% CO2(g) levels over a nine-month equilibration period resulted in partial and full recarbonation, respectively. As the influence of recarbonation increased, trace elements reverted to residual forms. Vanadium, choromium, copper, zinc, antimony, and molybdenum in the 10% CO2(g) recarbonated material were more resistant to sequential extraction than in retorted oil shale, whereas strontium, barium, and manganese were less resistant to sequential extraction. The extractabilities of cobalt, nickel, and lead were not affected by recarbonation. Recarbonation did not result in a predicted increase in EDTA-extractable trace elements. In general, the amounts of trace elements extracted by EDTA (and

  18. Insights into Igneous Geochemistry from Trace Element Partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.; Hanson, B. Z.

    2001-01-01

    Partitioning of trivalent elements into olivine are used to explore basic issues relevant to igneous geochemistry, such as Henry's law. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Size fractionation of trace elements in the surface water and groundwater of the Ganjiang River and Xiushui River basins, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatova, E. A.; Guseva, N. V.; Sun, Z.; Mazurova, I. S.

    2015-11-01

    The research of trace element behaviour and size fractionation is significant to understand the processes in the water-rock system. Moreover, the aqueous speciation of trace elements is strongly related to their distribution and toxicity. In this research, trace elements behaviour and their size fractionation are investigated in the natural water (the surface water and shallow groundwater) of the Ganjiang River and Xiushui River basins. Trace element concentrations were measured by ICP-MS. The authors estimated the size fractionation of the trace elements between suspended forms (>0.45μm) and dissolved fractions, which included truly dissolved (1 kDa) and colloidal particles (0.45μm-1 kDa)), after filtration through a 0.45 μm acetate cellulose membrane filter. The distinct features of the trace element size fractionation were identified. The size fractionation of the trace elements under different conditions (in the surface water and shallow groundwater) was studied.

  20. Airborne boundary layer flux measurements of trace species over Canadian boreal forest and northern wetland regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, John A.; Barrick, John D. W.; Watson, Catherine E.; Sachse, Glen W.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Woerner, Mary A.; Collins, James E., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Airborne heat, moisture, O3, CO, and CH4 flux measurements were obtained over the Hudson Bay lowlands (HBL) and northern boreal forest regions of Canada during July - August 1990. The airborne flux measurements were an integral part of the NASA/Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B field experiment executed in collaboration with the Canadian Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES). Airborne CH4 flux measurements were taken over a large portion of the HBL. The surface level flux of CH4 was obtained from downward extrapolations of multiple-level CH4 flux measurements. Methane source strengths ranged from -1 to 31 mg m(exp -2)/d, with the higher values occurring in relatively small, isolated areas. Similar measurements of the CH4 source strength in the boreal forest region of Schefferville, Quebec, ranged from 6 to 27 mg m(exp -2)/d and exhibited a diurnal dependence. The CH4 source strengths found during the ABLE 3B expedition were much lower than the seasonally averaged source strength of 51 mg m(exp -2)/d found for the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska during the previous ABLE 3A study. Large positive CO fluxes (0.31 to 0.53 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) m/s) were observed over the inland, forested regions of the HBL study area, although the mechanism for the generation of these fluxes was not identified. Repetitive measurements along the same ground track at various times of day near the Schefferville site also suggested a diurnal dependence for CO emissions. Measurements of surface resistance to the uptake of O3 (1.91 to 0.80 s/cm) for the HBL areas investigated were comparable to those observed near the Schefferville site (3.40 to 1.10 s/cm). Surface resistance values for the ABLE 3B study area were somewhat less than those observed over the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta during the previous ABLE 3A study. The budgets for heat, moisture, O3, CO, and CH4 were evaluated. The residuals from these budget studies indicated, for the cases selected, a moderate net

  1. Accuracy of trace element determinations in alternate fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenbauer-Seng, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the techniques used at Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in trace metals analysis is presented, including the results of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and DC Arc Emission Spectrometry of blank levels and recovery experiments for several metals. The design of an Interlaboratory Study conducted by LeRC is presented. Several factors were investigated, including: laboratory, analytical technique, fuel type, concentration, and ashing additive. Conclusions drawn from the statistical analysis will help direct research efforts toward those areas most responsible for the poor interlaboratory analytical results.

  2. Analysis of trace elements in Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Xu, Hou-En

    2009-01-01

    The bioactive elements in Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs that are frequently consumed by people in both the East and West are analyzed. These elements in their appropriate dosage range are considered to be beneficial to health. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) were applied to determine the concentrations of various elements. Twenty-two Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs, resourced from the traditional high therapeutic quality areas or provinces were selected. Bioactive analysis focused on Lanthanum (La), Strontium (Sr), Zinc (Zn) and Selenium (Se), especially in the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia and its associate disorders. The higher elemental concentration herbs, La in: Rhizoma Gastrodiae Elatae, Fructus Crataegi and Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae. Sr in: Radix Puerariae and Folium Ginkgo Biloba. Zn in: Flos Carthami Tinctorii and Fructus Crataegi. Se in: Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and Portulaca Oleracea. The results mainly showed that Chinese herbs which are also therapeutic foods may be used as nutritional supplements for preventing and treating elemental deficiency, e.g., hyperlipidemia. More attention in this regard should be paid to herbs that contain La and are traditionally used for regulating cardiovascular disorders. The knowledge of the effects and concentrations of bioactive elements in foods and herbs could guide the selection of Chinese herbs in clinical practice in conjunction with traditional Chinese medicine theories. Further studies should also be considered in relation to Sr, Zn and blood regulating herbs, which could prove to be beneficial. PMID:19655402

  3. Airborne particulate matter, platinum group elements and human health: a review of recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Clare L S; Zereini, Fathi

    2009-04-01

    Environmental concentrations of the platinum group elements (PGE) platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) have been on the rise, due largely to the use of automobile catalytic converters which employ these metals as exhaust catalysts. It has generally been assumed that the health risks associated with environmental exposures to PGE are minimal. More recent studies on PGE toxicity, environmental bioavailability and concentrations in biologically relevant media indicate however that environmental exposures to these metals may indeed pose a health risk, especially at a chronic, subclinical level. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent evidence and provide an up-to-date assessment of the risks related to environmental exposures of PGE, particularly in airborne particulate matter (PM). This review concludes that these metals may pose a greater health risk than once thought for several reasons. First, emitted PGE may be easily mobilised and solubilised by various compounds commonly present in the environment, thereby enhancing their bioavailability. Second, PGE may be transformed into more toxic species upon uptake by organisms. The presence of chloride in lung fluids, for instance, may lead to the formation of halogenated PGE complexes that have a greater potential to induce cellular damage. Third, a significant proportion of PGE found in airborne PM is present in the fine fraction that been found to be associated with increases in morbidity and mortality. PGE are also a concern to the extent that they contribute to the suite of metals found in fine PM suspected of eliciting a variety of health effects, especially in vulnerable populations. All these factors highlight the need to monitor environmental levels of PGE and continue research on their bioavailability, behaviour, speciation and associated toxicity to enable us to better assess their potential to elicit health effects in humans. PMID:19181366

  4. Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements in Ombrotrophic Peat as a Result of Anthropic Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabio Lourençato, Lucio; Cabral Teixeira, Daniel; Vieira Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-05-01

    Ombrotrophic peat can be defined as a soil rich in organic matter, formed from the partial decomposition of vegetable organic material in a humid and anoxic environment, where the accumulation of material is necessarily faster than the decomposition. From the physical-chemical point of view, it is a porous and highly polar material with high adsorption capacity and cation exchange. The high ability of trace elements to undergo complexation by humic substances happens due to the presence of large amounts of oxygenated functional groups in these substances. Since the beginning of industrialization human activities have scattered a large amount of trace elements in the environment. Soil contamination by atmospheric deposition can be expressed as a sum of site contamination by past/present human activities and atmospheric long-range transport of trace elements. Ombrotrophic peat records can provide valuable information about the entries of trace metals into the atmosphere and that are subsequently deposited on the soil. These trace elements are toxic, non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain, even in relatively low quantities. Thus studies on the increase of trace elements in the environment due to human activities are necessary, particularly in the southern hemisphere, where these data are scarce. The aims of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of mercury in ombrotrophic peat altomontanas coming from atmospheric deposition. The study is conducted in the Itatiaia National Park, Brazilian conservation unit, situated between the southeastern state of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Minas Gerais. An ombrotrophic peat core is being sampled in altitude (1980m), to measure the trace elements concentrations of this material. As it is conservation area, the trace elements found in the samples is mainly from atmospheric deposition, since in Brazil don't exist significant lithology of trace elements. The samples are characterized by organic matter content which

  5. Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Preeti Tomar; Misra, Satya Ranjan; Hussain, Mohsina

    2016-01-01

    Human body requires certain essential elements in small quantities and their absence or excess may result in severe malfunctioning of the body and even death in extreme cases because these essential trace elements directly influence the metabolic and physiologic processes of the organism. Rapid urbanization and economic development have resulted in drastic changes in diets with developing preference towards refined diet and nutritionally deprived junk food. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, augmented vulnerability to various oral and systemic diseases, impaired physical and mental growth, and reduced efficiency. Diet and nutrition affect oral health in a variety of ways with influence on craniofacial development and growth and maintenance of dental and oral soft tissues. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) are treated with antioxidants containing essential trace elements like selenium but even increased dietary intake of trace elements like copper could lead to oral submucous fibrosis. The deficiency or excess of other trace elements like iodine, iron, zinc, and so forth has a profound effect on the body and such conditions are often diagnosed through their early oral manifestations. This review appraises the biological functions of significant trace elements and their role in preservation of oral health and progression of various oral diseases. PMID:27433374

  6. Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mohsina

    2016-01-01

    Human body requires certain essential elements in small quantities and their absence or excess may result in severe malfunctioning of the body and even death in extreme cases because these essential trace elements directly influence the metabolic and physiologic processes of the organism. Rapid urbanization and economic development have resulted in drastic changes in diets with developing preference towards refined diet and nutritionally deprived junk food. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, augmented vulnerability to various oral and systemic diseases, impaired physical and mental growth, and reduced efficiency. Diet and nutrition affect oral health in a variety of ways with influence on craniofacial development and growth and maintenance of dental and oral soft tissues. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) are treated with antioxidants containing essential trace elements like selenium but even increased dietary intake of trace elements like copper could lead to oral submucous fibrosis. The deficiency or excess of other trace elements like iodine, iron, zinc, and so forth has a profound effect on the body and such conditions are often diagnosed through their early oral manifestations. This review appraises the biological functions of significant trace elements and their role in preservation of oral health and progression of various oral diseases. PMID:27433374

  7. Trace Elements in Stormflow, Ash, and Burned Soil following the 2009 Station Fire in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Carmen A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Baumberger, Katherine L.; Backlin, Adam R.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Most research on the effects of wildfires on stream water quality has focused on suspended sediment and nutrients in streams and water bodies, and relatively little research has examined the effects of wildfires on trace elements. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to determine the effect of the 2009 Station Fire in the Angeles National Forest northeast of Los Angeles, CA on trace element concentrations in streams, and 2) compare trace elements in post-fire stormflow water quality to criteria for aquatic life to determine if trace elements reached concentrations that can harm aquatic life. Pre-storm and stormflow water-quality samples were collected in streams located inside and outside of the burn area of the Station Fire. Ash and burned soil samples were collected from several locations within the perimeter of the Station Fire. Filtered concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Hg and total concentrations of most trace elements in storm samples were elevated as a result of the Station Fire. In contrast, filtered concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Se and total concentrations of Cu were elevated primarily due to storms and not the Station Fire. Total concentrations of Se and Zn were elevated as a result of both storms and the Station Fire. Suspended sediment in stormflows following the Station Fire was an important transport mechanism for trace elements. Cu, Pb, and Zn primarily originate from ash in the suspended sediment. Fe primarily originates from burned soil in the suspended sediment. As, Mn, and Ni originate from both ash and burned soil. Filtered concentrations of trace elements in stormwater samples affected by the Station Fire did not reach levels that were greater than criteria established for aquatic life. Total concentrations for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were detected at concentrations above criteria established for aquatic life. PMID:27144270

  8. Trace Elements in Stormflow, Ash, and Burned Soil following the 2009 Station Fire in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Burton, Carmen A; Hoefen, Todd M; Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Baumberger, Katherine L; Backlin, Adam R; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Fisher, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    Most research on the effects of wildfires on stream water quality has focused on suspended sediment and nutrients in streams and water bodies, and relatively little research has examined the effects of wildfires on trace elements. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to determine the effect of the 2009 Station Fire in the Angeles National Forest northeast of Los Angeles, CA on trace element concentrations in streams, and 2) compare trace elements in post-fire stormflow water quality to criteria for aquatic life to determine if trace elements reached concentrations that can harm aquatic life. Pre-storm and stormflow water-quality samples were collected in streams located inside and outside of the burn area of the Station Fire. Ash and burned soil samples were collected from several locations within the perimeter of the Station Fire. Filtered concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Hg and total concentrations of most trace elements in storm samples were elevated as a result of the Station Fire. In contrast, filtered concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Se and total concentrations of Cu were elevated primarily due to storms and not the Station Fire. Total concentrations of Se and Zn were elevated as a result of both storms and the Station Fire. Suspended sediment in stormflows following the Station Fire was an important transport mechanism for trace elements. Cu, Pb, and Zn primarily originate from ash in the suspended sediment. Fe primarily originates from burned soil in the suspended sediment. As, Mn, and Ni originate from both ash and burned soil. Filtered concentrations of trace elements in stormwater samples affected by the Station Fire did not reach levels that were greater than criteria established for aquatic life. Total concentrations for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were detected at concentrations above criteria established for aquatic life. PMID:27144270

  9. Trace elements in stormflow, ash, and burned soil following the 2009 station fire in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Baumberger, Katherine L.; Backlin, Adam R.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Most research on the effects of wildfires on stream water quality has focused on suspended sediment and nutrients in streams and water bodies, and relatively little research has examined the effects of wildfires on trace elements. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to determine the effect of the 2009 Station Fire in the Angeles National Forest northeast of Los Angeles, CA on trace element concentrations in streams, and 2) compare trace elements in post-fire stormflow water quality to criteria for aquatic life to determine if trace elements reached concentrations that can harm aquatic life. Pre-storm and stormflow water-quality samples were collected in streams located inside and outside of the burn area of the Station Fire. Ash and burned soil samples were collected from several locations within the perimeter of the Station Fire. Filtered concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Hg and total concentrations of most trace elements in storm samples were elevated as a result of the Station Fire. In contrast, filtered concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Se and total concentrations of Cu were elevated primarily due to storms and not the Station Fire. Total concentrations of Se and Zn were elevated as a result of both storms and the Station Fire. Suspended sediment in stormflows following the Station Fire was an important transport mechanism for trace elements. Cu, Pb, and Zn primarily originate from ash in the suspended sediment. Fe primarily originates from burned soil in the suspended sediment. As, Mn, and Ni originate from both ash and burned soil. Filtered concentrations of trace elements in stormwater samples affected by the Station Fire did not reach levels that were greater than criteria established for aquatic life. Total concentrations for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were detected at concentrations above criteria established for aquatic life.

  10. Trace elements contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-You; Zhang, Hui-Min; Sojinu, Samuel O; Liu, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    The levels of seven essential trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo) and six non-essential trace elements (Cr, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb) in a total of 89 drinking water samples collected in Shenzhen, China were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the present study. Both the essential and non-essential trace elements were frequently detectable in the different kinds of drinking waters assessed. Remarkable temporal and spatial variations were observed among most of the trace elements in the tap water collected from two tap water treatment plants. Meanwhile, potential human health risk from these non-essential trace elements in the drinking water for local residents was also assessed. The median values of cancer risks associated with exposure to carcinogenic metals via drinking water consumption were estimated to be 6.1 × 10(-7), 2.1 × 10(-8), and 2.5 × 10(-7) for As, Cd, and Cr, respectively; the median values of incremental lifetime for non-cancer risks were estimated to be 6.1 × 10(-6), 4.4 × 10(-5), and 2.2 × 10(-5) for Hg, Pb, and Sb, respectively. The median value of total incremental lifetime health risk induced by the six non-essential trace elements for the population was 3.5 × 10(-5), indicating that the potential health risks from non-carcinogenic trace elements in drinking water also require some attention. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the most important factor for health risk assessment should be the levels of heavy metal in drinking water. PMID:25514858

  11. The role of sample preparation in interpretation of trace element concentration variability in moss bioindication studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Crock, J.G.; Galuszka, A.; Dolegowska, S.

    2011-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in plant bioindicators are often determined to assess the quality of the environment. Instrumental methods used for trace element determination require digestion of samples. There are different methods of sample preparation for trace element analysis, and the selection of the best method should be fitted for the purpose of a study. Our hypothesis is that the method of sample preparation is important for interpretation of the results. Here we compare the results of 36 element determinations performed by ICP-MS on ashed and on acid-digested (HNO3, H2O2) samples of two moss species (Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi) collected in Alaska and in south-central Poland. We found that dry ashing of the moss samples prior to analysis resulted in considerably lower detection limits of all the elements examined. We also show that this sample preparation technique facilitated the determination of interregional and interspecies differences in the chemistry of trace elements. Compared to the Polish mosses, the Alaskan mosses displayed more positive correlations of the major rock-forming elements with ash content, reflecting those elements' geogenic origin. Of the two moss species, P. schreberi from both Alaska and Poland was also highlighted by a larger number of positive element pair correlations. The cluster analysis suggests that the more uniform element distribution pattern of the Polish mosses primarily reflects regional air pollution sources. Our study has shown that the method of sample preparation is an important factor in statistical interpretation of the results of trace element determinations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Biodiversity of mineral nutrient and trace element accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to grow on soils that vary widely in chemical composition, plants have evolved mechanisms for regulating the elemental composition of their tissues to balance the mineral nutrient and trace element bioavailability in the soil with the requirements of the plant for growth and development. T...

  13. Trace element content of chondritic cosmic dust: Volatile enrichments, thermal alterations, and the possibility of contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Bajt, S.

    1993-01-01

    Trace element abundances in 51 chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDP's) were measured by Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence (SXRF). The data allow us to determine an average composition of chondritic IDP's and to examine the questions of volatile loss during the heating pulse experienced on atmospheric entry and possible element addition due to contamination during atmospheric entry, stratospheric residence, and curation.

  14. Trace-element distribution around a South Texas roll-type uranium deposit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spirakis, Charles S.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of trace elements around a south Texas roll-type uranium deposit was examined using semiquantitative emission spectroscopic analytical data complemented by some quantitative data. The results suggest that of the 50 elements analyzed, only beryllium and possibly vanadium are enriched in the altered rock on the updip side of the deposit.

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN SEDIMENTS NEAR FORT PULASKI NATIONAL MONUMENT OF SAVANNAH, GEORGIA, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Availability of comprehensive information on environmental parameters and elemental distribution is a key to fully assess the capacity and condition of coastal ecosystems. The distribution of trace elements in sediments collected from various locations along Atlantic and brackish waters around Fort...

  16. Airborne In-Situ Trace Gas Measurements of Multiple Wildfires in California (2013-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Yates, E. L.; Tanaka, T.; Roby, M.; Gore, W.; Clements, C. B.; Lareau, N.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Quayle, B.; Schroeder, W.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning emissions are an important source of a wide range of trace gases and particles that can impact local, regional and global air quality, climate forcing, biogeochemical cycles and human health. In the western US, wildfires dominate over prescribed fires, contributing to atmospheric trace gas budgets and regional and local air pollution. Limited sampling of emissions from wildfires means western US emission estimates rely largely on data from prescribed fires, which may not be a suitable proxy for wildfire emissions. We report here in-situ measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, ozone and water vapor from the plumes of a variety of wildfires sampled in California in the fire seasons of 2013 and 2014. Included in the analysis are the Rim Fire (August - October 2013, near Yosemite National Park), the Morgan Fire (September 2013, near Clayton, CA), and the El Portal Fire (July - August 2014, in Yosemite National Park), among others. When possible, fires were sampled on multiple days. Emission ratios and estimated emission factors will be presented and discussed in the context of fuel composition, plume structure, and fire phase. Correlations of plume chemical composition to MODIS/VIIRS Fire Radiative Power (FRP) and other remote sensing information will be explored. Furthermore, the role of plumes in delivery of enhanced ozone concentrations to downwind municipalities will be discussed.

  17. The Potential Impacts on Aquatic Ecosystems from the Release of Trace Elements in Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.

    2000-03-14

    Geothermal energy will likely constitute an increasing percentage of our nation's future energy ''mix,'' both for electrical and nonelectrical uses. Associated with the exploitation of geothermal resources is the handling and disposal of fluids which contain a wide variety of potentially toxic trace elements. We present analyses of 14 trace elements found in hydrothermal fluids from various geothermal reservoirs in the western United States. The concentrations of these elements vary over orders of magnitude between reservoirs. Potential impacts are conservatively assessed on the basis of (1) toxicity to freshwater biota, and (2) bioaccumulation in food fish to the point where consumption might be hazardous to human health. Trace element concentrations generally range from benign levels to levels which might prove toxic to freshwater biota and contaminate food fisheries. We stress the need for site-specific analyses and careful handling of geothermal fluids in order to minimize potential impacts.

  18. Mass-spectrometric determination of trace elements in aqueous media without preconcentration

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, G. O.

    1981-10-01

    Feasibility of using a low pressure glow discharge as an ion source for the mass spectrometric determination of trace elements in aqueous media was investigated. A cryogenically cooled hollow cathode ion source was developed to analyze aqueous samples without external preconcentration. Aqueous solutions containing seventy elements were analyzed and the detection limits, sensitivity factors, and linear regression correlation coefficients were determined. A standard test solution of trace elements in water was analyzed and the concentrations of trace elements were calculated using the sensitivity factors determined previously. The results compared favorably within the error limits predicted by the semiquantitative survey methods used. Tap water and natural lake water samples were examined and minimal interference effects due to organic compounds and biological compounds were noted. A research ion optical system (RIOS) was developed as a flexible mass analyzer for the development of new ion sources. The RIOS is a double focussing mass analyzer designed utilizing the Mattauch-Herzog geometry with externally adjustable slit assemblies.

  19. Petrogenesis of Challis volcanics from central and southwestern Idaho - Trace element and Pb isotopic evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Marc D.; Mertzman, Stanley A.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of the lava flows and ash-flow tuffs in Idaho is conducted to determine the composition of the volcanics in terms of major and trace elements and Pb isotopic substances. Al2O3 is found to be low, MgO content is high, and the concentration of K2O is higher or equal to that of Na2O with respect to the lavas of mafic to intermediate composition. Trace elements and element ratios are compatible with the crustal component, and the Pb isotopic compositions suggest a lack of assimilation during crystallization. The evidence does not support the notion of a magma system related to subduction, and the data regarding Pb isotopes and trace elements point to a connection with the lithosphere. A model is proposed for the Challis volcanics in which they resulted from completely melting within the lithosphere and then extending during the late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic compression.

  20. [Spectrometric determination of trace elements in 'Jinguang' prunus mume var. bungo of different growth periods].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-lai; Fan, Wen-xiu; Gao, Qi-ming; Jing, Rui-jun; Lin, Zi-yu

    2005-07-01

    A study was carried out on the content of trace elements such as Ca, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu of prunus mume var. bungo in different growth periods by WFX-110 atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated that the linear relationships of different elements within the limits of working curves are good and the range of the recovery is 98% -105%, hence showing that the results are satisfactory. The total content of these five trace elements increases as the fruit grows, but the concentration is related to the growth of fruit and fruit core, which provides us with valuable data. The contents of the trace elements essential to human body are relatively high, which shows that this fruit breed has a relatively high nutritive value. PMID:16241076

  1. Trace element emissions. Semi-annual report, October 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pigeaud, A.; Maru, H.; Wilemski, G.; Helble, J.

    1995-02-01

    Many trace elements can exist in raw coal gas either in the form of metallic vapors or gaseous compounds which, besides their action on potentially ``very clean`` advanced power generating systems such as fuel cells and gas turbines, can also be detrimental to plant and animal life when released into the atmosphere. Therefore, volatile trace contaminants from coal which can also be toxic must be removed before they become detrimental to both power plant performance/endurance and the environment. Five trace elements were selected in this project based on: abundance in solid coal, volatility during gasification, effects on downstream systems and toxicity to plant and animal life. An understanding was sought in this investigation of the interactions of these five trace elements (and their high temperature species) with the different components in integrated cleanup and power generating systems, as well as the ultimate effects with respect to atmospheric emissions. Utilizing thermodynamic calculations and various experimental techniques, it was determined that a number of trace contaminants that exist in coal may be substantially removed by flyash, and after that by different sorbent systems. High temperature cleanup of contaminants by sorbents such as zinc titanate, primarily to remove sulfur, can also absorb some metallic contaminants such as cadmium and antimony. Further polishing will be required, however, to eliminate trace contaminant species incorporating the elements arsenic, selemium, lead, and mercury.

  2. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dalsem, D.J.; Robinson, L.; Ehmann, W.D.

    1996-02-01

    ORNL`s High Flux Isotope Reactor was used in a neutron activation analysis experiment to determine selected elemental composition of fingernails from patients afflicted with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (AL). While no statistical difference were found in aluminium a suggestive difference was observed for copper concentrations.

  3. Trace and Major Elements in Food Articles in Latvia: Root Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane; Klavins, Maris; Rudovica, Vita; Viksna, Arturs

    2011-01-01

    It is known that the content of trace and major elements in plants is dependent on several factors, such as type of species, soil properties, climate conditions, agricultural and agrichemical factors, pollution. The aim of the study was to quantify element content of root vegetables grown in farmlands and allotment gardens in Latvia. Samples of onion bulbs and carrot roots were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Quantitative amounts of 17 trace elements (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, V, Zn) and 5 major elements (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na) were determined. It was detected that carrot roots contained higher amounts of several elements than onion bulbs. Differences in element content of vegetables were also detected between the subgroups of samples grown in farmlands versus samples grown in allotment gardens. Data revealed that onions grown in farmlands were more affected by contaminants.

  4. A Synopsis of Technical Issues of Concern for Monitoring Trace Elements in Highway and Urban Runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements, which are regulated for aquatic life protection, are a primary concern in highway- and urban-runoff studies because stormwater runoff may transport these constituents from the land surface to receiving waters. Many of these trace elements are essential for biological activity and become detrimental only when geologic or anthropogenic sources exceed concentrations beyond ranges typical of the natural environment. The Federal Highway Administration and State Transportation Agencies are concerned about the potential effects of highway runoff on the watershed scale and for the management and protection of watersheds. Transportation agencies need information that is documented as valid, current, and scientifically defensible to support planning and management decisions. There are many technical issues of concern for monitoring trace elements; therefore, trace-element data commonly are considered suspect, and the responsibility to provide data-quality information to support the validity of reported results rests with the data-collection agency. Paved surfaces are fundamentally different physically, hydraulically, and chemically from the natural surfaces typical of most freshwater systems that have been the focus of many traceelement- monitoring studies. Existing scientific conceptions of the behavior of trace elements in the environment are based largely upon research on natural systems, rather than on systems typical of pavement runoff. Additionally, the logistics of stormwater sampling are difficult because of the great uncertainty in the occurrence and magnitude of storm events. Therefore, trace-element monitoring programs may be enhanced if monitoring and sampling programs are automated. Automation would standardize the process and provide a continuous record of the variations in flow and water-quality characteristics. Great care is required to collect and process samples in a manner that will minimize potential contamination or attenuation of trace

  5. Trace element emissions from spontaneous combustion of gob piles in coal mines, Shanxi, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z.; Ge, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2008-01-01

    The emissions of potentially hazardous trace elements from spontaneous combustion of gob piles from coal mining in Shanxi Province, China, have been studied. More than ninety samples of solid waste from gob piles in Shanxi were collected and the contents of twenty potentially hazardous trace elements (Be, F, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, and U) in these samples were determined. Trace element contents in solid waste samples showed wide ranges. As compared with the upper continental crust, the solid waste samples are significantly enriched in Se (20x) and Tl (12x) and are moderately enriched in F, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, Hg, Th, and U (2-5x). The solid waste samples are depleted in V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The solid waste samples are enriched in F, V, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sb, Th, and U as compared with the Shanxi coals. Most trace elements are higher in the clinker than in the unburnt solid waste except F, Sn, and Hg. Trace element abundances are related to the ash content and composition of the samples. The content of F is negatively correlated with the ash content, while Pb is positively correlated with the ash. The concentrations of As, Mn, Zn, and Cd are highly positively correlated with Fe2O3 in the solid waste. The As content increases with increasing sulfur content in the solid waste. The trace element emissions are calculated for mass balance. The emission factors of trace elements during the spontaneous combustion of the gobs are determined and the trace element concentrations in the flue gas from the spontaneous combustion of solid waste are calculated. More than a half of F, Se, Hg and Pb are released to the atmosphere during spontaneous combustion. Some trace element concentrations in flue gas are higher than the national emission standards. Thus, gob piles from coal mining pose a serious environmental problem. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Seasonal variations of trace elements in precipitation at the largest city in Tibet, Lhasa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junming; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Qianggong; Tripathee, Lekhendra; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-02-01

    Precipitation samples were collected from March 2010 to August 2012 at an urban site in Lhasa, the capital and largest city of Tibet. The volume weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of 17 trace elements in precipitation were higher during the non-monsoon season than in the monsoon season, but inverse seasonal variations occurred for wet deposition fluxes of most of the trace elements. Concentrations for most of trace elements were negatively correlated with precipitation amount, indicating that below-cloud scavenging of trace elements was an important mechanism contributing to wet deposition of these elements. The elements Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mn, Ni, and U displayed low crustal enrichment factors (EFs), whereas Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd Sn, Pb, and Bi showed high EF values in precipitation, suggesting that anthropogenic activities might be important contributors of these elements at Lhasa. However, this present work indicates a much lower anthropogenic emission at Lhasa than in seriously polluted regions. Our study will not only provide insights for assessing the current status of the atmospheric environment in Lhasa but also enhance our understanding for updating the baseline for environmental protection over the Tibetan Plateau.

  7. Trace elements in Northern Great Plains strip mine and livestock impoundment water

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.T.; Hawkes, C.L.

    1984-04-01

    The water from 32 strip mine water impoundments and mine livestock watering ponds in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming were analyzed for trace elements. Because of the high concentrations of trace elements in coal and bentonite clay, the possibility exists for these elements to dissolve or be suspended in the water. Strip mine ponds were not significantly higher in trace element concentrations compared to livestock ponds. All but one of the 41 ponds sampled contained elemental concentrations that would be detrimental for livestock use or aquatic life use. Cadmium and lead were the elements most frequently in excess of water quality criteria. Lead was found in the study ponds about 35 times the median concentration of North American rivers. Manganese concentrations were found to exceed iron in many ponds, which is unusual in natural waters. The potential for detrimental concentrations of trace elements in pond water must be evaluated when designing land use management plans for ponds intended to be used by livestock or aquatic life.

  8. Essential and toxic trace element concentrations in different commercial veal cuts in Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Alonso, M; Miranda, M; Benedito, J L; Pereira, V; García-Vaquero, M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate essential and toxic element concentration of ten commercially available veal cuts, together with diaphragm, cardiac muscle and liver tissue from 10 animals of "Galician Supreme Veal". Essential trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) and toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg and Pb) were determined by ICP-MS. Essential trace element concentrations ranged from 0.002-55.64mg/kg between muscles. Toxic element concentrations were very low, and high numbers of samples showed unquantifiable residues of Cd and Pb. Veal cuts including muscles with a high proportion of oxidative slow-twitch fibers (diaphragm and cardiac muscle) showed significantly higher essential trace element concentrations, the lower concentrations being found in veal cuts including glycolytic fast-twitch fibers (eye round). Our results suggest that essential and toxic trace element concentration could be used as a new meat quality parameter, or to add further value to certain products (i.e. livestock reared on extensive systems with high physical activity). PMID:27261950

  9. Evaluation of atmospheric trace constituent sensors operating from remote space and airborne platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, E.; Kindle, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory gas analysis system was developed specifically to make trace level measurements of carbon monoxide. To assure that the data collected with this system are correctly aligned with other established methods for making these measurements, an intercalibration study was conducted. The calibration gas was analyzed by the various participating laboratories and found to contain 1.28 ppm CO. Samples were collected at 25 deg, 35 deg, and 45 deg N for profile data to study the variation in concentrations of CO and CH4 as a function of altitude and latitude in continental air over the eastern seaboard of the United States. The experiment was repeated several months later to determine if there were seasonally dependent variations in the CO and CH4 concentrations.

  10. Movement of Trace Elements During Residence in the Antarctic Ice: a Laboratory Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strait, Melissa M.

    1991-01-01

    Recent work has determined that differences in the trace element distribution between Antarctic eucrites and non-Antarctic eucrites may be due to weathering during residence in the ice, and samples that demonstrate trace element disturbances do not necessarily correspond to eucrites that appear badly weathered to the naked eye. This study constitutes a preliminary test of the idea that long-term residence in the ice is the cause of the trace element disturbances observed in the eucrites. Samples of a non-Antarctic eucrite were leached in water at room temperature conditions. Liquid samples were analyzed for rare earth element abundances using ion chromatography. The results for the short-term study showed little or no evidence that leaching had occurred. However, there were tantalizing hints that something may be happening. The residual solid samples are currently being analyzed for the unleached trace metals using instrumental neutron activation analysis and should show evidence of disturbance if the chromatography clues were real. In addition, another set of samples continues to be intermittently sampled for later analysis. The results should give us information about the movement of trace elements under our conditions and allow us to make some tentative extrapolations to what we observe in actual Antarctic eucrite samples.

  11. Liquid phase microextraction for the analysis of trace elements and their speciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Xia, Linbo

    2013-08-01

    Trace/ultra-trace elements and their speciation analysis in complex matrices usually require sample preparation procedures to achieve sample clean-up and analyte preconcentration. Sample preparation is often the bottleneck in trace elements and their speciation analysis which has a direct impact on accuracy, precision and limits of detection and is often the rate-determining step of the analytical process. Recent trends in sample preparation include miniaturization, automation, high-throughput performance and reduction in solvent/sample consumption and operation time. Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) technique as a novel and promising alternative in sample preparation can meet these requirements and has become a very efficient sample preparation technique. This review updates the state of art of LPME for trace elements and their speciation analysis and discusses its promising prospects. The major thrust of the article highlights the applications of LPME including single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) and solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) to the fields of elemental and their speciation analysis by atomic spectrometry-based methods, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. General and specific concepts, different extraction formats and characteristics of LPME are described and compared, along with examples of recent innovations and applications presented to demonstrate its potential for trace elements and their speciation analysis in biological and environmental fields. Moreover, the application potential and an outlook on the combination of LPME and atomic spectrometry-based techniques for inorganic analysis are commentated.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Trace Element Content of the Leaves and Roots of Three Plantago Species.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Nemereshina, Olga N; Suliburska, Joanna; Gatiatulina, Evgenia R; Regula, Julita; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective of this study is to perform a comparative analysis of the trace element content of the leaves and roots of three Plantago species (P. maxima Juss. ex Jacq., P. major L., and P. lanceolata L.). Trace element levels were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The data indicate that the leaves of P. lanceolata are characterized by the highest Co, Cr, and Se content, whereas P. maxima leaves contained the greatest levels of Si and Zn. In contrast, the highest concentrations of Co, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Si, and V were detected in the roots of P. major. Zn content was also higher in P. maxima roots than in the other species analyzed. The toxic trace elements were differentially distributed across the studied species. In particular, P. lanceolata leaves contained significantly higher Al, As, Li, Ni, Pb, and Sr levels, whereas the B and Cd content was elevated in P. major as compared to the other species. Surprisingly, the leaf Hg level was the lowest in P. major, whose levels of Al, As, B, Cd, Ni, Li, and Sr were significantly higher than the other two species. The data indicate that the concentration of most of the essential trace elements was higher in the leaves and roots of P. major and P. lanceolata than in P. maxima, while P. maxima had less toxic metals. The obtained data on trace elements content in Plantago tissues may be taken into account while using plant preparations in practical medicine. PMID:26811105

  13. Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

  14. Discrimination of trait-based characteristics by trace element bioaccumulation in riverine fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, T.M.; DeWeese, L.R.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Relations between tissue trace element concentrations and species traits were examined for 45 fish species to determine the extent to which trait-based characteristics accounted for relative differences among species in trace element bioaccumulation. Percentages of fish species correctly classified by discriminant analysis according to traits predicted by tissue trace element concentrations ranged from 72% to 87%. Tissue concentrations of copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc appeared to have the greatest overall influence on differentiating species according to trait characteristics. Discrimination of trait characteristics did not appear to be strongly influenced by local sources of trace elements in the streambed sediment. Bioaccumulation was greatest for those species classified as primarily detritivores, having relatively large adult body size, considered nonmigratory with respect to reproductive strategy, occurring mostly in large or variable size streams and rivers, preferring depositional areas within the stream channel, and preferring benthic rather than open-water habitats. Our findings provide evidence of the strong relationship between bioaccumulation of environmental trace elements and trait-based factors that influence contaminant exposure. ?? 2008 NRC.

  15. Seedling emergence, growth and trace elements tolerance and accumulation by Lamiaceae species in a mine soil.

    PubMed

    Parra, A; Zornoza, R; Conesa, E; Gómez-López, M D; Faz, A

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of three Laminaceae species (Lavandula dentata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) for the phytostabilisation of a trace elements contaminated (acid) soil has been evaluated. These species were grown in mine tailing soil unamended (TS) and amended with calcium carbonate and pig manure (ATS), and unpolluted substrate for control (CT); plant growth, root characterisation, soil trace elements contents and their accumulation in plants were measured. Results indicated that seed emergence was independent from substrate characteristics, but seedlings died in TS with 40% survival in ATS. The biomass of L. dentata and T. vulgaris and root development in R. officinalis were negatively affected when grown in TS but without differences between ATS and CT. Applicating amendments reduced soil exchangeable and extractable fractions concentrations of trace elements in ATS compared with TS. The establishment of L. dentata and R. officinalis were related to trace elements immobilisation. Trace element concentrations in plants grown in tailing soils were similar to those reported for control, although applicating amendments reduced Zn accumulation in all species, and favoured increased absorption and aerial translocation of As and Pb by L. dentata and T. vulgaris; nonetheless, levels were below toxicity thresholds. Thus, these species fulfill the criteria for phytostabilisation purposes, aided by employing amendments. PMID:25065800

  16. Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, D.; Fried, A.; Wert, B. P.; Walega, J. G.; Tittel, F. K.

    The development of a compact tunable mid-IR laser system at 3.5 μm for quantitative airborne spectroscopic trace gas absorption measurements is reported. The mid-IR laser system is based on difference frequency generation (DFG) in periodically poled LiNbO3 and utilizes optical fiber amplified near-IR diode and fiber lasers as pump sources operating at 1083 nm and 1562 nm, respectively. This paper describes the optical sensor architecture, performance characteristics of individual pump lasers and DFG, as well as its application to wavelength modulation spectroscopy employing an astigmatic Herriott multi-pass gas absorption cell. This compact system permits detection of formaldehyde with a minimal detectable concentration (1σ replicate precision) of 74 parts-per-trillion by volume (pptv) for 1 min of averaging time and was achieved using calibrated gas standards, zero air background and rapid dual-beam subtraction. This corresponds to a pathlength-normalized replicate fractional absorption sensitivity of 2.5×10-10 cm-1.

  17. Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection.

    PubMed

    Richter, D; Fried, A; Wert, B P; Walega, J G; Tittel, F K

    2002-01-01

    The development of a compact tunable mid-IR laser system at 3.5 micrometers for quantitative airborne spectroscopic trace gas absorption measurements is reported. The mid-IR laser system is based on difference frequency generation (DFG) in periodically poled LiNbO3 and utilizes optical fiber amplified near-IR diode and fiber lasers as pump sources operating at 1083 nm and 1562 nm, respectively. This paper describes the optical sensor architecture, performance characteristics of individual pump lasers and DFG, as well as its application to wavelength modulation spectroscopy employing an astigmatic Herriott multi-pass gas absorption cell. This compact system permits detection of formaldehyde with a minimal detectable concentration (1 sigma replicate precision) of 74 parts-per-trillion by volume (pptv) for 1 min of averaging time and was achieved using calibrated gas standards, zero air background and rapid dual-beam subtraction. This corresponds to a pathlength-normalized replicate fractional absorption sensitivity of 2.5 x 10-(10 )cm-1. PMID:12599397

  18. Trace element analysis of Cretan wines and wine products.

    PubMed

    Galani-Nikolakaki, S; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N; Katsanos, A A

    2002-02-21

    The object of this research is to investigate the ways and the degree of contamination of Cretan grapes from the area of Chania and their alcoholic products, with the elements aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. Fifteen samples of grapes were collected and used for the production of experimental wines from rinsed and unrinsed grapes. A microwave furnace was used for the digestion and dissolution of the experimental wines, the precipitates that originated in these wines, as well as the wines of the corresponding producers. The analyses of all mentioned samples as well as 34 local alcoholic distillates were performed using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations for all the elements that were determined were almost in all cases, well below the maximum permissible levels by the Greek and the European Union legislation. PMID:11874038

  19. Luna 20 soil - Abundance of 17 trace elements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Kraehenbuehl, U.; Ganapathy, R.; Anders, E.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of radiochemical neutron activation analysis of two Luna 20 fine soil and breccia samples for the abundance of 17 mainly siderophile and volatile elements that are strongly depleted in lunar surface rocks and hence represent sensitive indicators of meteoritic materials. These results are compared with those previously obtained for Apollo 16 soils. Some of the source rocks of Luna 20 regolith are identified.

  20. Assessment of coal cleaning for trace element control. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.; Arnold, B.

    1998-12-01

    Current methods of cleaning coal already reduce the concentration of most of the elements named as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) under Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments because most of these elements are associated with ash-forming or sulfur-bearing minerals. Advanced methods of physical cleaning may prove even more effective than conventional cleaning technologies, in HAPs control, especially if the coal is crushed before cleaning. The most significant disadvantage of conventional or advanced physical cleaning methods for HAPs control is that reductions of 90% or greater from as-fired coal may not be possible. Chemical and biologic methods of cleaning coal can potentially remove greater amounts of at least some HAPs elements than conventional or advanced physical cleaning methods. At least one promising chemical process (HAPs-Rx) has been developed and tested at laboratory scale that has the potential of removing over half of the mercury and arsenic remaining in coal after conventional cleaning. An assessment of the cost and effectiveness of conventional, advanced, and the HAPs-Rx chemical process was performed using laboratory data and computer simulations. The study found that the cost of removing a pound of mercury from coal by cleaning often compared favorably with cost projections by the Environmental Protection Agency for removing a pound of mercury by activated carbon injection.

  1. New analytical methods for determining trace elements in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, L.S.; Riley, K.W.

    1996-12-31

    New and improved analytical methods, based on modem spectroscopic techniques, have been developed to provide more reliable data on the levels of environmentally significant elements in Australian bituminous thermal coals. Arsenic, selenium and antimony are determined using hydride generation atomic absorption or fluorescence spectrometry, applied to an Eschka fusion of the raw coal. Boron is determined on the same digest using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES). ICPAES is also used to determine beryllium, chromium, cobalt, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead and zinc, after fusion of a low temperature ash with lithium borate. Other elements of concern including cadmium, uranium and thorium are analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on a mixed acid digest of a low temperature ash. This technique was also suitable for determining elements analyzed by the ICPAES. Improved methods for chlorine and fluorine have also been developed. Details of the methods will be given and results of validation trials discussed on some of the methods which are anticipated to be designated Australian standard methods.

  2. Modulatory role of vanadium on trace element profile in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Selvaraj, S.; Sudarshan, M.; Dutta, R. K.; Ghugre, S. S.; Chintalapudi, S. N.

    2000-09-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis was employed in the present study to investigate the chemopreventive potential of vanadium in influencing trace elemental profile and antioxidant status in chemical carcinogenesis. The elements with Z=15-40 were studied. Data reveal remarkable alterations in elemental composition in the hepatic tissue of diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced Sprague-Dawley male rats (intraperitoneal (ip) dose: 200 mg/kg body weight) after four weeks of induction. Several elements like Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb showed large depletion while other elements like Fe, Ca, K, Br showed large enhancement in comparison to that of the normal control animals. These elements compete for binding sites in the cell, change its enzymatic activity and exert direct or indirect action on the carcinogenic process. Supplementary vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water) has shown effective modulation by alteration in the concentration of trace elements in the tumorigenic tissue ( P<0.001-0.005). Data reflect a definite correlation between elemental composition, antioxidant status in the initiation phase of carcinogenesis and the period of exposure to vanadium. The possibility of selecting vanadium as a therapeutic agent for chemoprevention is discussed in the light of its influence in maintaining trace elemental homeostasis, a parameter of importance in cancer prevention research.

  3. [Distribution Characteristics and Source Analysis of Dustfall Trace Elements During Winter in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Chen, Fan-tao; Shu, Tong-tong; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Wen-hui

    2015-08-01

    The dustfall content is one of the evaluation indexes of atmospheric pollution. Trace elements especially heavy metals in dustfall can lead to risks to ecological environment and human health. In order to study the distribution characteristics of trace elements, heavy metals pollution and their sources in winter atmospheric dust, 49 dustfall samples were collected in Beijing City and nearby during November 2013 to March 2014. Then the contents (mass percentages) of 40 trace elements were measured by Elan DRC It type inductively coupled plasma mass (ICP-MS). Test results showed that more than half of the trace elements in the dust were less than 10 mg x kg(-1); about a quarter were between 10-100 mg x kg-1); while 7 elements (Pb, Zr, Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr and Ba) were more than 100 mg x kg(-1). The contents of Pb, Cu, Zn, Bi, Cd and Mo of winter dustfall in Beijing city.were respectively 4.18, 4.66, 5.35, 6.31, 6.62, and 8.62 times as high as those of corresponding elements in the surface soil in the same period, which went beyond the soil background values by more than 300% . The contribution of human activities to dustfall trace heavy metals content in Beijing city was larger than that in the surrounding region. Then sources analysis of dustfall and its 20 main trace elements (Cd, Mo, Nb, Ga, Co, Y, Nd, Li, La, Ni, Rb, V, Ce, Pb, Zr, Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba) was conducted through a multi-method analysis, including Pearson correlation analysis, Kendall correlation coefficient analysis and principal component analysis. Research results indicated that sources of winter dustfall in Beijing city were mainly composed of the earth's crust sources (including road dust, construction dust and remote transmission of dust) and the burning of fossil fuels (vehicle emissions, coal combustion, biomass combustion and industrial processes). PMID:26591998

  4. Optimizing detector geometry for trace element mapping by X-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yue; Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte; Jacobsen, Chris; Kirz, Janos; Vogt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We report that trace metals play critical roles in a variety of systems, ranging from cells to photovoltaics. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) microscopy using X-ray excitation provides one of the highest sensitivities available for imaging the distribution of trace metals at sub-100 nm resolution. With the growing availability and increasing performance of synchrotron light source based instruments and X-ray nanofocusing optics, and with improvements in energy-dispersive XRF detectors, what are the factors that limit trace element detectability? To address this question, we describe an analytical model for the total signal incident on XRF detectors with various geometries, including the spectral response of energy dispersive detectors. This model agrees well with experimentally recorded X-ray fluorescence spectra, and involves much shorter calculation times than with Monte Carlo simulations. With such a model, one can estimate the signal when a trace element is illuminated with an X-ray beam, and when just the surrounding non-fluorescent material is illuminated. From this signal difference, a contrast parameter can be calculated and this can in turn be used to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for detecting a certain elemental concentration. We apply this model to the detection of trace amounts of zinc in biological materials, and to the detection of small quantities of arsenic in semiconductors. In conclusion, we conclude that increased detector collection solid angle is (nearly) always advantageous even when considering the scattered signal. However, given the choice between a smaller detector at 90° to the beam versus a larger detector at 180° (in a backscatter-like geometry), the 90° detector is better for trace element detection in thick samples, while the larger detector in 180° geometry is better suited to trace element detection in thin samples.

  5. Optimizing detector geometry for trace element mapping by X-ray fluorescence

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, Yue; Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte; Jacobsen, Chris; Kirz, Janos; Vogt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We report that trace metals play critical roles in a variety of systems, ranging from cells to photovoltaics. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) microscopy using X-ray excitation provides one of the highest sensitivities available for imaging the distribution of trace metals at sub-100 nm resolution. With the growing availability and increasing performance of synchrotron light source based instruments and X-ray nanofocusing optics, and with improvements in energy-dispersive XRF detectors, what are the factors that limit trace element detectability? To address this question, we describe an analytical model for the total signal incident on XRF detectors with various geometries, including the spectral responsemore » of energy dispersive detectors. This model agrees well with experimentally recorded X-ray fluorescence spectra, and involves much shorter calculation times than with Monte Carlo simulations. With such a model, one can estimate the signal when a trace element is illuminated with an X-ray beam, and when just the surrounding non-fluorescent material is illuminated. From this signal difference, a contrast parameter can be calculated and this can in turn be used to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for detecting a certain elemental concentration. We apply this model to the detection of trace amounts of zinc in biological materials, and to the detection of small quantities of arsenic in semiconductors. In conclusion, we conclude that increased detector collection solid angle is (nearly) always advantageous even when considering the scattered signal. However, given the choice between a smaller detector at 90° to the beam versus a larger detector at 180° (in a backscatter-like geometry), the 90° detector is better for trace element detection in thick samples, while the larger detector in 180° geometry is better suited to trace element detection in thin samples.« less

  6. Optimizing detector geometry for trace element mapping by X-ray fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yue; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Jacobsen, Chris; Kirz, Janos; Vogt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals play critical roles in a variety of systems, ranging from cells to photovoltaics. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) microscopy using X-ray excitation provides one of the highest sensitivities available for imaging the distribution of trace metals at sub-100 nm resolution. With the growing availability and increasing performance of synchrotron light source based instruments and X-ray nanofocusing optics, and with improvements in energy-dispersive XRF detectors, what are the factors that limit trace element detectability? To address this question, we describe an analytical model for the total signal incident on XRF detectors with various geometries, including the spectral response of energy dispersive detectors. This model agrees well with experimentally recorded X-ray fluorescence spectra, and involves much shorter calculation times than with Monte Carlo simulations. With such a model, one can estimate the signal when a trace element is illuminated with an X-ray beam, and when just the surrounding non-fluorescent material is illuminated. From this signal difference, a contrast parameter can be calculated and this can in turn be used to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for detecting a certain elemental concentration. We apply this model to the detection of trace amounts of zinc in biological materials, and to the detection of small quantities of arsenic in semiconductors. We conclude that increased detector collection solid angle is (nearly) always advantageous even when considering the scattered signal. However, given the choice between a smaller detector at 90° to the beam versus a larger detector at 180° (in a backscatter-like geometry), the 90° detector is better for trace element detection in thick samples, while the larger detector in 180° geometry is better suited to trace element detection in thin samples. PMID:25600825

  7. Trace elemental distribution in the scalp hair of bipolars using PIXE technique.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, A S; Naga Raju, G J; Sattar, S Abdul; Sarita, P; Prasada Rao, A Durga; Ray, Dinesh Kumar; Reddy, B Seetharami; Reddy, S Bhuloka

    2014-04-01

    Trace metals play a significant role in neurological disorders. There is very limited information available on the role of macro and trace elements in bipolar disorders. The objective of this investigation was to identification, quantification of essential trace elements in the scalp hair samples of the patients and compare with those of normal subjects. We made a hypothesis about the role played by essential trace metals whose concentrations are significantly different to those of normals in the disease process. The analysis was carried out in the scalp hair samples of 26 male and 26 female patients suffering from bipolar disorder (BD) by Particle Induced X-ray Emission Technique (PIXE). The concentration of Cu (p < 0.002) was found to be higher in the hair samples of male bipolar disorder patients while the concentrations of Mn (p < 0.001), Fe (p < 0.005), Zn (p < 0.0001) and Se (p < 0.005) were found to be lower than those in normal subjects. The concentration of Cu (p < 0.0001) was higher in the hair samples of female bipolar patients but depressed levels of Fe (p < 0.005), Ni (p < 0.05), Zn (p < 0.00001) and Se (p < 0.05) were observed compared to controls. Cu/Zn ratio was found to be higher in the hair samples of male and female patients compared with normals. While the imbalance of certain trace elements leads to generation of more free radicals, the imbalance of some other trace elements causes changes in dopamine (neurotransmitter) activity. It is essential to monitor before and periodically during treatment the levels of essential trace elements for effective treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:24548755

  8. Trace Element Abundance Measurements on Cosmic Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George

    1996-01-01

    The X-Ray Microprobe on beamline X-26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was used to determine the abundances of elements from Cr through Sr in individual interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected from the Earth's stratosphere and the Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (STXM) on beamline X-1A at the NSLS was used to determine the carbon abundances and spatial distributions in IDPs. In addition, modeling was performed in an attempt to associate particular types of IDPs with specific types of parent bodies, and thus to infer the chemistry, mineralogy, and structural properties of those parent bodies.

  9. Atmospheric wet deposition of trace elements to a suburban environment, Reston, Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conko, K.M.; Rice, K.C.; Kennedy, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Wet deposition from a suburban area in Reston, Virginia was collected during 1998 and analyzed to assess the anion and trace-element concentrations and depositions. Suburban Reston, approximately 26km west of Washington, DC, is densely populated and heavily developed. Wet deposition was collected bi-weekly in an automated collector using trace-element clean sampling and analytical techniques. The annual volume-weighted concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb were similar to those previously reported for a remote site on Catoctin Mt., Maryland (70km northwest), which indicated a regional signal for these elements. The concentrations and depositions of Cu and Zn at the suburban site were nearly double those at remote sites because of the influence of local vehicular traffic. The 1998 average annual wet deposition (??gm-2yr -1) was calculated for Al (52,000), As (94), Cd (54), Cr (160), Cu (700), Fe (23,000), Mn (2000), Ni (240), Pb (440), V (430), and Zn (4100). The average annual wet deposition (meqm-2yr-1) was calculated for H+ (74), Cl- (8.5), NO3- (33), and SO42- (70). Analysis of digested total trace-element concentrations in a subset of samples showed that the refractory elements in suburban precipitation comprised a larger portion of the total deposition of trace elements than in remote areas. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayrault, S.; Clochiatti, R.; Carrot, F.; Daudin, L.; Bennett, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7????m. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationship between trace elements in fish otoliths of wild carp and hydrochemical conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yonghua; Feng, Qingling; Ren, Dongni; Qiao, Li; Li, Shengrong

    2010-03-01

    The trace element composition of the fish otolith is an indicator of biomineralization. In contrast to other skeletal tissue, the otolith retains its entire original structure and does not absorb any elements after the fish dies. Because otoliths in carp degrade very slowly in the dead body, the information it provides on the environment is retained, even in fossil form. Here, we report our analysis of the trace elements in otoliths of carp and of the water in Donghu Lake and Longhupao Lake, Heilongjiang province, China, where the fish lived. The results revealed that the trace elements found in the carp otoliths were clearly correlated with those found in these water bodies. There were high concentrations of Au, Ba, K, Sr and Zn in both the water and otoliths; in contrast there were high levels of As, Na and Se in water, but low concentrations in otoliths. These results indicate that an analysis of the otoliths of carps provides an accurate procedure for studying the surrounding hydrochemistry conditions. The interaction of the elements during deposition was also studied. The correlation coefficients of 13 trace elements identified in the otoliths in both lakes were calculated. PMID:19093220

  12. Concentrations and health risk assessment of trace elements in animal-derived food in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaketon; Zhang, Huimin; Liu, Guihua; Zhang, Jianqing; Wang, Jizhong; Yu, Yingxin; Lu, Shaoyou

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the levels of trace elements in animal-derived food in Shenzhen, Southern China. The concentrations of 14 trace elements (Cd, Hg, Pb, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mo, Ni, Co, Se and Ti) in a total of 220 meat samples, collected from the local markets of Shenzhen were determined. Cu, Fe and Zn were the major elements, with concentrations approximately 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those of other elements. However, the daily intakes of Cu, Fe and Zn merely via the consumption of the meat products were lower than the recommended nutrient intake values provided by the 2013 Chinese Dietary Guide. Among the non-essential trace elements, Cd was accumulated in animal viscera, and the concentration ratios of chicken gizzard/chicken, chicken liver/chicken, pig kidney/pork and pig liver/pork were 41.6, 55.2, 863 and 177, respectively. In addition, high concentrations of As were found in aquatic products, especially in marine fish. The concentration of As in marine fish was slightly higher than the limits recommended by China, USA and Croatia. The health risk assessment of trace elements through the consumption of meat products by adult residents in Shenzhen was evaluated by using the target hazard quotient (THQ) method. The total THQ was greater than 1, implying a potential health risk. Approximately 66% of total THQ values, mainly from As, were from the consumption of aquatic products. PMID:26401636

  13. Trace Element Uptake in Marine Bivalve Shells Constraints from Field- and Laboratory Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klünder, M.; Hippler, D.; Witbaard, R.; Frei, D.; Immenhauser, A.

    2006-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of the trace element signatures recorded in calcium carbonate skeletons of marine organisms as archives of past and present environmental conditions, such as temperature, salinity or nutrition level. Because of their global occurrence in the modern and ancient oceans, the trace element chemistry of bivalve shells might be used as a potential proxy for present and past environmental conditions. If the composition of bivalve shells, for instance, can be shown to represent the environment in which they lived, then shells can be used to investigate conditions in the lifetime of the animal. And as the shell material is sequentially deposited, an understanding of the internal shell structure will enable time- resolution of the analyses. Therefore, the trace element signature of bivalve shells may provide an important record of climate changes and global geochemical cycles. One of the difficulties of using the trace element signatures of bivalve shells as proxies for environmental conditions is that little is known about the mechanisms by which the trace elements are incorporated into the shells. There has been quite an amount of research into the use of bivalve shell chemistry as proxy for one or more environmental parameters, but there are relatively few datasets in which both bivalve shells and the water in which the animals lived have been analysed. It is as yet not clear to what extent the trace element incorporation into bivalve shells is governed by biological processes, like growth rate and metabolism of the animals, or by physical and crystal chemical parameters. An added difficulty is that the existing data do suggest that trace element uptake in bivalve shells may be species specific. Therefore, studies that investigate the relationships between the content of these elements in the shells and the ambient water and the possible incorporation mechanisms are needed if the potential that bivalve shells offer as

  14. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kan-Atireklap, Supawat; Iwata, Hisato; Ismail, Ahmad; Sanguansin, Joompol; Muchtar, Muswerry; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-02-01

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. PMID:16828209

  15. [Dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and problems in clinical fields].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshifumi

    2016-07-01

    In the dietary reference intakes, EAR(estimated average requirement), RDA(recommended dietary allowance), AL(adequate intake), DG(tentative dietary goal for preventing life style related diseases) and UL(tolerable upper intake level) of eight types of trace elements (iron: Fe, zinc: Zn, copper: Cu, manganese: Mn, iodine: I, selenium: Se, chromium: Cr, molybdenum: Mo) have been set. However, in the meals of hospitals, only iron of which has been taken into account. The content of these trace elements in the enteral nutrient released after 2000 was determined by considering the content of dietary reference intakes of trace elements for Japanese and considered so not fall into deficiency. However, enteral nutrient must be used considering the content of Zn, Cu and the Zn/Cu ratio, the selenium content, and the route of administration, in order to avoid falling into deficiency. PMID:27455794

  16. Determination of thorium and other select trace elements in human tissues by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, S.E.; Grimm, C.A.; Filby, R.H.

    1997-12-01

    Iyengar pointed out the significance of multidisciplinary approaches to biological trace element research and the problems that may be associated with much of the early trace element data (until the early 1970s). Problems identified included the analysis of spurious samples (e.g., hair) based on their availability with no consideration of the biological basis for the investigations and the uncontrolled collection of biological samples by investigators unable to assess the biological integrity of the sample and inadequate quality assurance/quality control. A significant inadequacy is that many trace element analysis studies have been performed on biopsies or samples that may not be representative of the whole organ, or that distribution data have been derived from pooled analyses of organs from many individuals.

  17. Micro-PIXE analysis of trace element concentrations of natural rubies from different locations in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, J. L.; Osipowicz, T.; Tang, S. M.; Tay, T. S.; Win, T. T.

    1997-07-01

    The trace element concentrations found in geological samples can shed light on the formation process. In the case of gemstones, which might be of artificial or natural origin, there is also considerable interest in the development of methods that provide identification of the origin of a sample. For rubies, trace element concentrations present in natural samples were shown previously to be significant indicators of the region of origin [S.M. Tang et al., Appl. Spectr. 42 (1988) 44, and 43 (1989) 219]. Here we report the results of micro-PIXE analyses of trace element (Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Cu and Ga) concentrations of a large set ( n = 130) of natural rough rubies from nine locations in Myanmar (Burma). The resulting concentrations are subjected to statistical analysis. Six of the nine groups form clusters when the data base is evaluated using tree clustering and principal component analysis.

  18. Nanometer-sized materials for solid-phase extraction of trace elements.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei

    2015-04-01

    This review presents a comprehensive update on the state-of-the-art of nanometer-sized materials in solid-phase extraction (SPE) of trace elements followed by atomic-spectrometry detection. Zero-dimensional nanomaterials (fullerene), one-dimensional nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, inorganic nanotubes, and nanowires), two-dimensional nanomaterials (nanofibers), and three-dimensional nanomaterials (nanoparticles, mesoporous nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, and dendrimers) for SPE are discussed, with their application for trace-element analysis and their speciation in different matrices. A variety of other novel SPE sorbents, including restricted-access sorbents, ion-imprinted polymers, and metal-organic frameworks, are also discussed, although their applications in trace-element analysis are relatively scarce so far. PMID:25577358

  19. Detection and characterization of trace element contamination on silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Andy; Baur, Katharina; Brennan, Sean; Pianetta, Piero; Homma, Takayuki; Kubo, Nobuhiro

    2003-01-24

    Increasing the speed and complexity of semiconductor integrated circuits requires advanced processes that put extreme constraints on the level of metal contamination allowed on the surfaces of silicon wafers. Such contamination degrades the performance of the ultrathin SiO2 gate dielectrics that form the heart of the individual transistors. Ultimately, reliability and yield are reduced to levels that must be improved before new processes can be put into production. It should be noted that much of this metal contamination occurs during the wet chemical etching and rinsing steps required for the manufacture of integrated circuits and industry is actively developing new processes that have already brought the metal contamination to levels beyond the measurement capabilities of conventional analytical techniques. The measurement of these extremely low contamination levels has required the use of synchrotron radiation total reflection x-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) where sensitivities 100 times better than conventional techniques have been achieved. This has resulted in minimum detection limits for transition metals of 8x107 atoms/cm2. SR-TXRF studies of the amount of metal contamination deposited on a silicon surface as a function of pH and oxygen content of the etching solutions have provided insights into the mechanisms of metal deposition from solutions containing trace amounts of metals ranging from parts per trillion to parts per billion. Furthermore, by using XANES to understand the chemical state of the metal atoms after deposition, it has been possible to develop chemical models for the deposition processes. Examples will be provided for copper deposition from ultra pure water and acidic solutions.

  20. Preparation steps in environmental trace element analysis - facts and traps.

    PubMed

    Hoenig, M

    2001-07-01

    The laboratory of CERVA is for several decades involved in the Belgian environmental research. The activity was associated to national monitoring programs dealing with trace metal pollution of all compartments of the environment (sea and river waters, sediments and organisms but also soils, plants, animal and food samples). Such a monitoring dealing with the total analyte contents in samples needed a comprehensive development of the whole methodology associated to the analyses using atomic absorption and emission spectroscopy techniques. This includes measurement but also preparation steps. The latter is the subject of this work. Long-term experience has shown that precisely sample preparation is the most critical part of the analysis because it is responsible for the largest and often hidden sources of errors. Errors due to contaminations may be usually overcome if necessary precautions are taken concerning reagents, tools and the manner of working. The problem is different for analyte losses: in this case, the responsible factor is an inappropriate methodology. This is particularly true for preparation of solid samples that have to be brought in a solution in order to satisfy needs of introduction systems of most spectroscopic techniques utilized in routine laboratories. For some types of samples (e.g. animal tissues), the dissolution is not a problem: it may be readily achieved by several procedures. This is not the case for samples that contain silicates in their matrix (e.g. soils, sediments, plants) because their complete dissolution cannot be ensured by a simple procedure. This review describes the present knowledge regarding possibilities and errors that concern preparation steps. In addition, possible effects of the preparation procedure on the quality of measurement are also systematically discussed. PMID:18968324

  1. Trace Elements in Coal - Modes of Ocurrence Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, C.A.; Kolker, A.; Finkelman, R.B.; Kolb, K.C.; Mroozkowski, S.J.; Crowley, S.S.; Belkin, H.E.; Bullock, J.H., Jr.; Motooka, J.M.

    1997-07-24

    The objective is to provide modes of occurrence information for the CQ Inc. (CQ) effort being performed under DOE Contract entitled HAPs-Rx: Precombustion Removal of Hazardous Air Pollutant Precursors. This work attempts to provide semi-quantative date on modes of occurrence of 15 elements. Coals investigated include as-mined coals and cleaned fines from the Northern Appalachian and Southern Application, and Eastern Interior regions, and as-mined and natural fines from the Powder River Basin. Study techniques include scanning electron microscopy, electron micropole analysis, and leaching procedures. Microprobe data analysis indicate that pyrite grains in Northern Appalachian and Eastern Interior, and Powder River Basin coals and most of the pyrite grains of the Southern Appalachian coal contain low As concentrations, generally in the 100-500 ppm range. However, the Southern Appalachian coal contains some pyrite grains with much higher As contents, in excess of 4.0 wt. percent As. Micropole analyses and data from leaching experiments indicate that arsenic is primarily associated with pyrite in the bituminous coals. These techniques also indicate that Cr is primarily associated with illite. Other HAP`s elements have multiple associations.

  2. Trace elements in coal - model of occurrence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, C.A.; Kolker, A.; Finkelman, R.B.; Kolb, K.C.; Mroczkowski, S.J.; Crowley, S.S.; Belkin, H.E.

    1997-06-21

    The overall objective of this project is to provide modes of occurrence information for the CQ Inc. (CQ) effort being performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-95PC95153, entitled `HAPs-R{sub x} : Precombustion Removal of Hazardous Air Pollutant Precursors`. This work attempt to provide semi-quantitative data on modes of occurrence of 15 elements. Coals investigated include as-mined coals and cleaned fines from the Northern Appalachian and Southern Appalachian, and Eastern Interior coal regions, and as-mined and natural fines from the Powder River Basin. Study techniques include scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and leaching procedures. Microprobe data indicate that pyrite grains in the Northern Appalachian, Eastern Interior and Powder River Basin coals and most of the pyrite grains in the Southern Appalachian coal contain low As concentrations, generally in the 100-500 ppm range. However, the Southern Appalachian coal contains some pyrite grains with much higher As contents, in excess of 4.0 wt. percent As. Microprobe analyses and data from leaching experiments indicate that arsenic is primarily associated with pyrite in the bituminous coals. These techniques also indicate that Cr is primarily associated with illite. Other HAP`s elements have multiple associations.

  3. Brief communication: Choice of washing method of hair samples for trace element analysis in environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Sen, J; Das Chaudhuri, A B

    2001-07-01

    Determination of inseparable exogenous and endogenous levels of toxic trace elements such as lead in human scalp hair has been used to understand and assess population exposure to such elements. For any such analysis, washing of the hair samples to remove superficial contamination is the foremost requirement. However, the use of such washing methods prior to elemental analysis removes minute quantities of trace elements from the hair strands. This degree of loss is dependent on the washing method employed. In the present study, the element lead has been determined in human scalp hair after three methods of hair washing. It is apparent that the nonionic detergent-acetone method is best suited for securing valid lead analysis results in human scalp hair. PMID:11424080

  4. Trace elements in chondritic stratospheric particles - Zinc depletion as a possible indicator of atmospheric entry heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Major-element abundances in 11 C, C?, and TCA cosmic dust particles have been measured using SEM and TEM energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) systems. The Fe/Ni ratio, when coupled with major element abundances, appears to be a useful discriminator of cosmic particles. Three particles classified as C?, but having Fe/Ni peak height ratios similar to those measured on the powdered Allende meteorite sample in their HSC EDX spectra, exhibit chondritic minor-/trace-element abundance patterns, suggesting they are extraterrestrial. The one particle classified as C-type, but without detectable Ni in its JSC EDX spectrum, exhibits an apparently nonchondritic minor-/trace-element abundance pattern. A class of particles that are chondritic except for large depletions in the volatile elements Zn and S has been identified. It is likely that these particles condensed with a C1 abundance pattern and that Zn and S were removed by some subsequent process.

  5. Trace elements as quantitative probes of differentiation processes in planetary interiors

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, M.J.

    1980-02-01

    Abundances of trace elements in extrusive igneous rocks may be used as petrological and geochemical probes of the source regions of the rocks if differentiation processes, partition coefficients, phase equilibria, and initial concentrations in the source region are known. The characteristic trace element signature that each mineral in the source region imparts on the magma forms the conceptual basis for trace element modeling. The task of the trace element geochemist is to solve mathematically the inverse problem. Given trace element abundances in a magma, what is the ode of its source region. The most successful modeling has been performed for small planetary bodies which underwent relatively simple igneous differentiation events. An example is the eucrite parent body, a planet which produced basals at approx. =4.6 Gy. and has been quiescent ever since. This simple differentiation history permits the calculation of its bulk composition (a feldspathic peridotite) and has led to the tentative identification of asteroid 4 Westa as the eucrite parent body. The differentiation of iron meteorite groups in parent body cores is amenable to similar treatment. The 'anomalous' behavior of Cr, suggests that IIIA, B irons and main group pallasites equilibrated with troilite, spinel, ferromagnesian silicates, or some combination thereof. The moon has undergone more complex differentiation, and quantitative geochemical modeling is correspondingly more difficult. Nevertheless, modeling the two-stage evolution of mare basals raises the possibility that the primordial moon did not have chondritic relative abundances of such refractory elements as Ca, Al, U, and the rare-earth elements. The nonchondritic element ratios are characteristic of planetary, not nebular, fractionation processes and are consistent with the derivation of the moon from a precursor planet, possibly the earth.

  6. Particulate Trace Element Cycling in a Diatom Bloom at Station ALOHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisend, R.; Morton, P. L.; Landing, W. M.; Fitzsimmons, J. N.; Hayes, C. T.; Boyle, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Phytoplankton in oligotrophic marine deserts depend on remote sources to supply trace nutrients. To examine these sources, marine particulate matter samples from the central North Pacific (Station ALOHA) were collected during the July-August 2012 HOE-DYLAN cruises and analyzed for a suite of trace (e.g., Fe, Mn) and major (e.g. Al, P) elements. Daily surface SPM samples were examined for evidence of atmospheric deposition and biological uptake, while five vertical profiles were examined for evidence of surface vertical export and subsurface horizontal transport from nearby sources (e.g., margin sediments, hydrothermal plumes). Maxima in surface particulate P (a biological tracer) corresponded with a diatom bloom, and surprisingly also coincided with maxima in particulate Al (typically a tracer for lithogenic inputs). The surface particulate Al distributions likely result from the adsorption of dissolved Al onto diatom silica frustules, not from atmospheric dust deposition. In addition, a subsurface maximum in particulate Al and P was observed four days later at 75m, possibly resulting from vertical export of the surface diatom bloom. The distributions of other bioactive trace elements (e.g. Cd, Co, Cu) will be presented in the context of the diatom bloom and other biological, chemical and physical features. A second, complementary poster is also being presented which examines the cycling of trace elements in lithogenic particles (Morton et al., "Trace Element Cycling in Lithogenic Particles at Station ALOHA").

  7. Near-real-time trace element measurements in a rural, traffic-influenced environment with some fireworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furger, Markus; Slowik, Jay G.; Cruz Minguillón, María; Hueglin, Christoph; Koch, Chris; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol-bound trace elements can affect the environment in significant ways especially when they are toxic. Characterizing the trace element spatial and temporal variability is a prerequisite for human exposure studies. The requirement for high time resolution and consequently the low sample masses asked for analysis methods not easily accessible, such as synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF). In recent years, instrumentation that samples and analyzes airborne particulate matter with time resolutions of less than an hour in near real time has entered the market. We present the results of a three-week campaign in a rural environment close to a freeway. The measurement period included the fireworks of the Swiss National Day. The XRF instrument was set up at the monitoring station Härkingen of the Swiss Monitoring Network for Air Pollution (NABEL). It was configured to sample and analyze ambient PM10 aerosols in 1-hour intervals. Sample analysis with XRF was performed by the instrument immediately after collection, i.e. during the next sampling interval. 24 elements were analyzed and quantified (Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Pt, Hg, Pb, Bi). The element concentrations obtained by the XRF instrument were compared to those determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS in PM10 samples collected by NABEL high volume samplers. The results demonstrate the capability of the instrument to measure over a wide range of concentrations, from a few ng m‑3 to μg m‑3, under ambient conditions. The time resolution allows for the characterization of diurnal variations of element concentrations, which provides information on the contribution of emission sources, such as road traffic, soil, or fireworks. Some elements (V, Co, As, Pt) were below their detection limit during most of the time, but As could be quantified during the fireworks. Transition metals Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn could be attributed to freeway traffic

  8. Determination of trace elements in epiphytic lichens from Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor using INAA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairudin, Nurshafiq Ezam; Siong, Khoo Kok; Siong, Wee Boon

    2014-02-01

    Lichens have been used as effective biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants as they can take up nutrients and pollutants directly from the atmosphere. In this study, trace element contents in epiphytic lichens were determined using INAA method. Samples were collected from 7 sampling locations around Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. The elements detected were As (1.73+0.85 mg/kg), Ce (3.65+1.91 mg/kg), Co (0.29+0.12 mg/kg), Cr (5.92+3.54 mg/kg), Cs (0.92+0.25 mg/kg), Eu (0.03+0.02 mg/kg), Fe (1280+760 mg/kg), Hf (0.37+0.18 mg/kg), La (1.52+0.89 mg/kg), Rb (27.7+4.8 mg/kg), Sc (0.33+0.19 mg/kg), Sm (0.28+0.16 mg/kg), Th (1.21+0.62 mg/kg) and Zn (116+27 mg/kg). Comparisons were then made between the elemental concentrations obtained and the baseline data from literature. Results showed that most of the elements were within the concentration range of the baseline data. Enrichment factors (EF) of the trace element in lichens showed that most of the elements were within the range of the baseline data except for As which was found to be slightly enriched (EF: 13.2 - 28.5). Regression analysis indicated significant correlation (p<0.05) with Sc for most of the elements which signifies crustal input except for Cs and Rb. The poor correlations of Cs and Rb with Sc may be due to the mobility of these elements. In summary, trace element data obtained using INAA were very useful and demonstrated that lichens were suitable biomonitors for identifying potential trace element pollutants in ambient air around the sampling area.

  9. Neutron activation analysis; A sensitive test for trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, T.Z. . Ward Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses neutron activation analysis (NAA), an extremely sensitive technique for determining the elemental constituents of an unknown specimen. Currently, there are some twenty-five moderate-power TRIGA reactors scattered across the United States (fourteen of them at universities), and one of their principal uses is for NAA. NAA is procedurally simple. A small amount of the material to be tested (typically between one and one hundred milligrams) is irradiated for a period that varies from a few minutes to several hours in a neutron flux of around 10{sup 12} neutrons per square centimeter per second. A tiny fraction of the nuclei present (about 10{sup {minus}8}) is transmuted by nuclear reactions into radioactive forms. Subsequently, the nuclei decay, and the energy and intensity of the gamma rays that they emit can be measured in a gamma-ray spectrometer.

  10. Concentrations of trace elements in Pacific and Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforova, N. K.; Tsygankov, V. Yu.; Boyarova, M. D.; Lukyanova, O. N.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu were analyzed in the two most abundant species of Pacific salmon, chum and pink salmon, caught in the Kuril Islands at the end of July, 2013. The concentrations of toxic elements (Hg, As, Pb, Cd) in males and females of these species are below the maximum permissible concentrations for seafood. It was found that farmed filleted Atlantic salmon are dominated by Zn and Cu, while muscles of wild salmon are dominated by Pb. Observed differences are obviously related to peculiar environmental geochemical conditions: anthropogenic impact for Atlantic salmon grown in coastal waters and the influence of the natural factors volcanism and upwelling for wild salmon from the Kuril waters.

  11. Regional geochemistry of trace elements in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinex, S. A.; Helz, G. R.

    1981-11-01

    The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in 177 surface sediment samples from throughout Chesapeake Bay are reported. Analyses were made of both unfractionated samples and the <63 μm fractions. Analytical uncertainty, always less than ±10%, controlled reproducibility in analyses of the <63 μm fractions, but sampling variance controlled reproducibility in the unfractionated samples, especially when coarse-grained sediments were being analyzed. Sediments in the northernmost part of the bay are enriched relative to average continental crust in all elements except Cr. This reflects the composition of dissolved and suspended material being delivered to that region by the Susquehanna River. The enriched sediments appear not to be transported south of Baltimore in significant quantily. Zinc, cadmium, and lead are enriched relative to average crust throughout the bay and in most other estuaries in the eastern United States.

  12. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Robert A; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad S; Budahn, James R; Ranville, James F

    2011-04-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived (226)Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (±SD) of (226)Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ± 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (<10%) of (226)Ra in the finer (<53 μm) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of (226)Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the (226)Ra. (226)Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (<10 μm) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. PMID:20623320

  13. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Al-Hwaiti, M. S.; Budahn, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived 226Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (??SD) of 226Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ?? 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (< 10%) of 226Ra in the finer (< 53 ??m) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of 226Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the 226Ra. 226Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (< 10 ??m) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. ?? 2010 US Government.

  14. Trace element content of Flavoparmelia caperata (L. ) Hale due to industrial emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Showman, R.E.; Hendricks, J.C.

    1989-03-01

    Trace element concentrations of the lichen, Flavoparmelia caperata, were determined by neutron activation analysis before and after stringent particulate controls were employed in an industrialized section of the Ohio River Valley. Initial studies in 1973 showed elevated concentrations of arsenic, cobalt, iron, vanadium, and titanium in lichens collected near coal-fire power plants. Elevated values for cerium, chromium, and lanthanum were found in samples near a ferro-alloys foundry. A repeat study in 1987 demonstrated that lichen trace element concentrations were much lower after improved particulate controls were installed on the power plants and ferro-alloys foundry.

  15. Indirect laser-induced breakdown of transparent thin gel layer for sensitive trace element detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Junshan; Bai, Xueshi; Negre, Erwan; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Yu, Jin

    2013-06-01

    Optical emissions from major and trace elements embodied in a transparent gel prepared from cooking oil were detected when the gel was spread in thin film on a metallic substrate and a plasma was induced on the substrate surface using nanosecond infrared pulsed laser. Such emissions are due to indirect breakdown of the coating layer. The generated plasma, a mixture of substances from the substrate, the layer, and the ambient gas, was characterized using emission spectroscopy. Temperature higher than 15 000 K determined in the plasma allows considering sensitive detection of trace elements in liquids, gels, biological samples, or thin films.

  16. Controls on trace-element partitioning in cave-analogue calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Christopher C.; Henderson, Gideon M.

    2013-11-01

    We report trace-element data from a series of carbonate growth experiments in cave-analogue conditions in the laboratory with the goal of better understanding environmental controls on trace-element incorporation in stalagmites. The experimental setup closely mimics natural processes (e.g. precipitation driven by CO2-degassing, low ionic strength solution, thin solution-film) but with a tight control on growth conditions (temperature, pCO2, drip rate, calcite saturation index and the composition of the initial solution). Calcite is dissolved in deionized water in a 20,000 ppmV pCO2 environment, with trace-elements (Li, Na, Mg, Co, Sr, Cd, Ba, U) at appropriate concentrations to mimic natural cave drip-waters. This solution is dripped onto glass plates (coated with seed-calcite) in a lower pCO2 environment at 7, 15, 25 and 35 °C and drip rates of 2, 6 and 10 drips per minute. D(Sr) was shown to be statistically invariant over the full range of temperature and growth rate studied. No relationship between Sr/Ca and growth rate is therefore expected in stalagmite samples over comparable growth rates. D(Mg) has a relationship with temperature defined by D(Mg) = 0.01e0.02[±0.006]T, but temperature is not expected to be the dominant control on Mg/Ca in cave calcite due to the larger impact of calcite precipitation on Mg/Ca. Over short timescales, in conditions where temperature is well buffered, the fraction of calcium remaining in solution (f) is likely to be the dominant control on Mg/Ca and other trace-element ratios. But differences in the response of trace-elements to f and T may allow their combined use to assess past cave conditions. High Cd/Castalagmite is particularly indicative of low amounts of prior calcite precipitation and Cd/Ca would be a useful addition to trace-element studies of natural stalagmites. Significant scatter is observed in trace-element ratios during the laboratory experiments, which cannot be explained by simple Rayleigh distillation. This

  17. Changes in sediment-associated trace element concentrations in the Seine river basin (1994-2001)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meybeck, Michel; Horowitz, A.J.; Grosbois, C.; Gueguen, Y.

    2003-01-01

    In the 1980's, based on the concentrations of particulate-associated Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn relative to very low natural background levels, the Seine River Basin was one of the most impacted in the world. Over the past 20 years, there has been a general decline in these elevated concentrations that parallels declines in Paris sewage sludge trace element levels. Within the basin, marked differences in spatial and temporal geochemical patterns have been observed: (1) between major tributaries, (2) between trace elements, and (3) with stream order and population density, all of which illustrate the complexity of the geochemical processes ongoing in the basin.

  18. Trace elements measurement by PIXE in the appraisal of the ancient potteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Q.; Cheng, H. S.; Xia, H. N.; Jiang, J. C.; Gao, M. H.; Yang, F. J.

    2002-05-01

    Fifty pieces of pottery samples were collected from two domains with different types of ancient Sino-civilization. The concentrations of trace elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr were measured by proton-induced X-ray emission technique. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allows us to locate the provenance of the ancient potteries. The experimental results also show that the relative trace element contents Ni-Rb-Zr are useful for distinguishing these two types of Chinese ancient potteries.

  19. Corticosterone levels in relation to trace element contamination along an urbanization gradient in the common blackbird (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Bustamante, Paco; Michaud, Bruno; Parenteau, Charline; Marciau, Coline; Angelier, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    In a rapidly urbanizing world, trace element pollution may represent a threat to human health and wildlife, and it is therefore crucial to assess both exposition levels and associated effects of trace element contamination on urban vertebrates. In this study, we investigated the impact of urbanization on trace element contamination and stress physiology in a wild bird species, the common blackbird (Turdus merula), along an urbanization gradient (from rural to moderately urbanized areas). Specifically, we described the contamination levels of blackbirds by 4 non-essential (Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb) and 9 essential trace elements (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn), and explored the putative disrupting effects of the non-essential element contamination on corticosterone levels (a hormonal proxy for environmental challenges). We found that non-essential trace element burden (Cd and Pb specifically) increased with increasing urbanization, indicating a significant trace element contamination even in medium sized cities and suburban areas. Interestingly, the increased feather non-essential trace element concentrations were also associated with elevated feather corticosterone levels, suggesting that urbanization probably constrains birds and that this effect may be mediated by trace element contamination. Future experimental studies are now required to disentangle the influence of multiple urban-related constraints on corticosterone levels and to specifically test the influence of each of these trace elements on corticosterone secretion. PMID:27213675

  20. Lunar ferroan anorthosite petrogenesis: clues from trace element distributions in FAN subgroups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Floss, C.; James, O.B.; McGee, J.J.; Crozaz, G.

    1998-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) and selected other trace elements were measured in plagioclase and pyroxene from nine samples of the lunar ferroan anorthosite (FAN) suite of rocks. Samples were selected from each of four FAN subgroups previously defined by James et al. (1989). Plagioclase compositions are homogeneous within each sample, but high- and low-Ca pyroxenes from lithic clasts typically have different REE abundances from their counterparts in the surrounding granulated matrices. Measured plagioclase/low-Ca pyroxene concentration ratios for the REE have steeper patterns than experimentally determined plagioclase/low-Ca pyroxene partition coefficients in most samples. Textural and trace element evidence suggest that, although subsolidus equilibration may be responsible for some of the discrepancy, plagioclase compositions in most samples have been largely unaffected by intermineral redistribution of the REE. The REE systematics of plagioclase from the four subgroups are broadly consistent with their deviation through crystallization from a single evolving magma. However, samples from some of the subgroups exhibit a decoupling of plagioclase and pyroxene compositions that probably reflects the complexities inherent in crystallization from a large-scale magmatic system. For example, two anorthosites with very magnesian mafic minerals have highly evolved trace element compositions; major element compositions in plagioclase also do not reflect the evolutionary sequence recorded by their REE compositions. Finally, a noritic anorthosite breccia with relatively ferroan mafic minerals contains several clasts with high and variable REE and other trace element abundances. Although plagioclase REE compositions are consistent with their derivation from a magma with a KREEPy trace element signature, very shallow REE patterns in the pyroxenes suggest the addition of a component enriched in the light REE.

  1. Spatial distribution of dust-bound trace elements in Pakistan and their implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Kanwal, Ayesha; Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Sohail, Mohammad; Ullah, Rizwan; Ali, Syeda Maria; Alamdar, Ambreen; Ali, Nadeem; Fasola, Mauro; Shen, Heqing

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to assess the spatial patterns of selected dust-borne trace elements alongside the river Indus Pakistan, their relation with anthropogenic and natural sources, and the potential risk posed to human health. The studied elements were found in descending concentrations: Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, and Cd. The Index of Geo-accumulation indicated that pollution of trace metals were higher in lower Indus plains than on mountain areas. In general, the toxic elements Cr, Mn, Co and Ni exhibited altitudinal trends (P < 0.05). The few exceptions to this trend were the higher values for all studied elements from the northern wet mountainous zone (low lying Himalaya). Spatial PCA/FA highlighted that the sources of different trace elements were zone specific, thus pointing to both geological influences and anthropogenic activities. The Hazard Index for Co and for Mn in children exceeded the value of 1 only in the riverine delta zone and in the southern low lying zone, whereas the Hazard Index for Pb was above the bench mark for both children and adults (with few exceptions) in all regions, thus indicating potential non-carcinogenic health risks. These results will contribute towards the environmental management of trace metal(s) with potential risk for human health throughout Pakistan. PMID:26901073

  2. Trace elemental imaging of coralline hydroxyapatite by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chou, J; Austin, C; Doble, P; Ben-Nissan, B; Milthorpe, B

    2014-07-01

    The determination of trace element concentrations, as well as their distribution in different biomaterials aimed for clinical applications, is a challenging task in both the areas of biological and materials research. In this research, LA-ICP-MS was employed for image mapping of the trace element distribution in a hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite material aimed for tissue-scaffolding applications. Quantification using synthetic matrix-matched standards was successfully applied for the determination and distribution of elements of interest, Sr and Mg, that influences the mechanical and biological properties of hydroxyapatite-based bone graft materials. The results showed that the instrument can successfully analyse trace elements and a relatively good image can be produced that identifies their distribution. The LA-ICP-MS method can provide an easy and effective tool, in the field of biomaterials with respect to distribution of trace elements, to better understand tissue-implant interactions, and will open up a new window for in vitro and in vivo analysis and imaging of different tissues and structures. PMID:22899384

  3. Trace elemental analysis of bituminuos coals using the Heidelberg proton microprobe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, J.R.; Kneis, H.; Martin, B.; Nobiling, R.; Traxel, K.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Trace elements in coal can occur as components of either the organic constituents (macerals) or the inorganic constituents (minerals). Studies of the concentrations and distribution of the trace elements are vital to understanding the geochemical millieu in which the coal was formed and in evaluating the attempts to recover rare but technologically valuable metals. In addition, information on the trace element concentrations is important in predicting the environmental impact of burning particular coals, as many countries move toward greater utilization of coal reserves for energy production. Traditionally, the optical and the electron microscopes and more recently the electron microprobe have been used in studying the components of coal. The proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) microprobe offers a new complementary approach with an order of magnitude or more better minimum detection limit. We present the first measurements with a PIXE microprobe of the trace element concentrations of bituminous coal samples. Elemental analyses of the coal macerals-vitrinite, exinite, and inertinite-are discussed for three coal samples from the Eastern U.S.A., three samples from the Western U.S.A., and one sample from the Peoples Republic of China. ?? 1981.

  4. Kinetic determinations of trace element bioaccumulation in the mussel Mytilus edulis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory experiments employing radiotracer methodology were conducted to determine the assimilation efficiencies from ingested natural seston, the influx rates from the dissolved phase and the efflux rates of 6 trace elements (Ag, Am, Cd, Co, Se and Zn) in the mussel Mytilus edulis. A kinetic model was then employed to predict trace element concentration in mussel tissues in 2 locations for which mussel and environmental data are well described: South San Francisco Bay (California, USA) and Long Island Sound (New York, USA). Assimilation efficiencies from natural seston ranged from 5 to 18% for Ag, 0.6 to 1% for Am, 8 to 20% for Cd, 12 to 16% for Co, 28 to 34% for Se, and 32 to 41% for Zn. Differences in chlorophyll a concentration in ingested natural seston did not have significant impact on the assimilation of Am, Co, Se and Zn. The influx rate of elements from the dissolved phase increased with the dissolved concentration, conforming to Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The calculated dissolved uptake rate constant was greatest for Ag, followed by Zn > Am = Cd > Co > Se. The estimated absorption efficiency from the dissolved phase was 1.53% for Ag, 0.34% for Am, 0.31% for Cd, 0.11% for Co, 0.03% for Se and 0.89% for Zn. Salinity had an inverse effect on the influx rate from the dissolved phase and dissolved organic carbon concentration had no significant effect on trace element uptake. The calculated efflux rate constants for all elements ranged from 1.0 to 3.0% d-1. The route of trace element uptake (food vs dissolved) and the duration of exposure to dissolved trace elements (12 h vs 6 d) did not significantly influence trace element efflux rates. A model which used the experimentally determined influx and efflux rates for each of the trace elements, following exposure from ingested food and from water, predicted concentrations of Ag, Cd, Se and Zn in mussels that were directly comparable to actual tissue concentrations independently measured in the 2

  5. Biogeochemical interactions affecting hepatic trace element levels in aquatic birds

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, G.

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge of elemental interactions is important to the toxicological assessment of wildlife in the geochemical environment. This study determines the concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mg, Mn, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Ag, V, and Zn in aquatic bird liver, fish liver, whole bivalves, insects, and waters in several aquatic ecosystems in northern California. There is evidence of strong in vivo and environmental interactions, including the observation of manganese as a possible cofactor or indicator in selenium bioaccumulation. The nearest neighbor selenium correlation in aquatic bird liver tissue that results from this work is Cd-Mn-Se-Hg-As. The correlation of liver selenium to manganese in vivo and the result that the majority of the variance in liver selenium concentration is contained in the manganese term of the regression model relating Se to Cd, Mn, and Hg is new knowledge in the study of aquatic birds. A linear relationship between liver selenium and environmental manganese (water and sediment) is found in the data, suggesting a water chemistry compartmentalization or activation of toxicants. Alternatively, the hepatic concentrations of selenium, manganese, and iron suggest induction of enzymes in response to oxidative stress.

  6. Concentration of trace elements in feathers of waterfowl, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2014-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) were analyzed in the breast feather of white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons, n = 15), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos, n = 4), and spot-billed ducks (Anas poecilorhyncha, n = 13) found dead in Gimpo, Korea. All of the mallards and eight of the 13 spot-billed ducks had embedded shot. Concentrations of Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were significantly different among waterfowl species. Mallards with embedded shot had relatively higher Pb, Cr, Mn, and Fe concentrations than the other species. Cd and Cr in feathers of waterfowl species were within the range reported for other birds, and no specimen exceeded the tentative threshold effect levels of Cd (2 μg/g dry weight (dw)) and Cr (2.8 μg/g dw) for birds. However, Pb in feathers of all four mallards and two spot-billed ducks exceeded the threshold for deleterious effects (>4 μg/g dw). Essential elements such as Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe in the feather of waterfowl species were not at toxic levels and within the background or normal range for the homeostatic mechanisms. PMID:25208517

  7. Trace-element partitioning in pantellerites and trachytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mahood, G.A.; Stimac, J.A. )

    1990-08-01

    In order to investigate the effect of increasing melt peralkalinity on partitioning, partition coefficients have been determined using neutron activation analyses of coexisting phenocrysts and glass of five samples from Pantelleria spanning the range trachyte to pantellerite. Alkali feldspar partition coefficients for Fe, Rb, Ba, Sr, and Eu vary with melt peralkalinity due to changes in melt polymerization and to the systematic increase in X{sub or} and decrease in X{sub an} of the feldspar. In going from trachyte to pantellerite, Fe partition coefficients increase from 0.04 to 0.10, presumably because Fe{sup +3} increasingly substitutes in the feldspar tetrahedral site as melt activity of Al declines and Fe concentrations increase. Partition coefficients for trivalent light REEs (rare earth elements) decrease and the partitioning pattern becomes flatter, the most evolved samples having some of the lowest published values for feldspar. The hundredfold decline in Eu partition coefficients (2.5 to 0.024) and the decrease in the size of the positive partitioning anomaly are attributed to increasing Eu{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 2+} in the melt as it becomes more peralkaline, as well as to concomitant decrease in the Ca content of feldspar. As a result, the behavior of Eu during fractional crystallization of peralkaline suites is fundamentally different from that in metaluminous suites; absolute abundances rise and the size of the negative Eu anomaly changes little with fractionation beyond pantelleritic trachyte.

  8. Correlations of trace elements in breast human tissues: Evaluation of spatial distribution using μ-XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Marina Piacenti da; Silva, Deisy Mara da; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Poletti, Martin Eduardo

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate microscopic correlations between trace elements in breast human tissues. A synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe system (μ-XRF) was used to obtain two-dimensional distribution of trace element Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in normal (6 samples) and malignant (14 samples) breast tissues. The experiment was performed in X-ray Fluorescence beam line at Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS), Campinas, Brazil. The white microbeam was generated with a fine conical capillary with a 20 μm output diameter. The samples were supported on a XYZ table. An optical microscope with motorized zoom was used for sample positioning and choice the area to be scanned. Automatic two-dimensional scans were programmed and performed with steps of 30 μm in each direction (x, y) on the selected area. The fluorescence signals were recorded using a Si(Li) detector, positioned at 90 degrees with respect to the incident beam, with a collection time of 10 s per point. The elemental maps obtained from each sample were overlap to observe correlation between trace elements. Qualitative results showed that the pairs of elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman correlation tests, indicate that there is a spatial correlation between these pairs of elements (p < 0.001) suggesting the importance of these elements in metabolic processes associated with the development of the tumor.

  9. Correlations of trace elements in breast human tissues: Evaluation of spatial distribution using {mu}-XRF

    SciTech Connect

    Piacenti da Silva, Marina; Silva, Deisy Mara da; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Poletti, Martin Eduardo

    2012-05-17

    The aim of this work is to investigate microscopic correlations between trace elements in breast human tissues. A synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe system ({mu}-XRF) was used to obtain two-dimensional distribution of trace element Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in normal (6 samples) and malignant (14 samples) breast tissues. The experiment was performed in X-ray Fluorescence beam line at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, Brazil. The white microbeam was generated with a fine conical capillary with a 20 {mu}m output diameter. The samples were supported on a XYZ table. An optical microscope with motorized zoom was used for sample positioning and choice the area to be scanned. Automatic two-dimensional scans were programmed and performed with steps of 30 {mu}m in each direction (x, y) on the selected area. The fluorescence signals were recorded using a Si(Li) detector, positioned at 90 degrees with respect to the incident beam, with a collection time of 10 s per point. The elemental maps obtained from each sample were overlap to observe correlation between trace elements. Qualitative results showed that the pairs of elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman correlation tests, indicate that there is a spatial correlation between these pairs of elements (p < 0.001) suggesting the importance of these elements in metabolic processes associated with the development of the tumor.

  10. How are trace elements mobilized during the postweaning fast in Northern elephant seals?

    PubMed

    Habran, Sarah; Crocker, Daniel E; Debier, Cathy; Das, Krishna

    2012-10-01

    Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups undergo a substantial intertissue reorganization of protein, minerals, and other cellular components during their postweaning development, which might entail the mobilization of associated contaminants. The authors investigated the changes in concentrations of 11 elements (Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn) in a longitudinal study on 22 northern elephant seal pups during the postweaning fast. Slight changes in most element concentrations were observed in blood throughout the fast. Circulating levels of Hg, Se, and Cu appeared less altered during the postweaning fast than measured during suckling. Despite the considerable fat utilization, element concentrations, except Fe, in blubber remained stable throughout the fast, which suggests that elements are mobilized from blubber as efficiently as lipids. As indicators of the placental transfer, concentrations in lanugo hair revealed the existence of maternal transfer and accumulation of all assayed trace elements during fetal development. In addition, the new pelage, rapidly produced after weaning, appeared to be an important elimination route for toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, and Pb. The high mineral content detected in pup hair suggests that this species would be more exposed to trace elements than other phocids (except Cd and Pb). Nevertheless, this statement needs further monitoring and toxicological studies to determine better the exposition to trace elements and its potential impact on the health of the northern elephant seal. PMID:22833380

  11. [Comparison and correlative analysis of trace elements in five kinds of radix curcumae].

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu-mei; Zhou, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Cun-gui

    2008-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine materials (TCM) contained abundant trace elements needed in human body. Mixed acid (HNO3:HClO4) was added into samples treated by microwave digestion, and a systematic study was carried out by selection of the most appropriate working conditions and optimization of the sample mass. Some inorganic elements in 5 kinds of radix curcumae (Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling, Curcuma longa L., Curcuma kwangsiensis S. G. Lee et C. F. Liang, Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. and Curcuma chuanyujin C. K Hsieh et H. Zhang) necessary to lives were determined by flames atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Elements, such as K, Ca, Na, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn were detected. The results show that there are similar elements in the five kinds of radix curcumae, while differences only exist in a few elements contents. The correlative analysis of trace elements in samples was carried out by cluster analysis of the 4 kinds of radix curcumae (Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling, Curcuma longa L., Curcuma kwangsiensis S. G. Lee et C. F. Liang and Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. ) in codex populations in a cluster, different from the unofficial sample (Curcuma chuanyujin C. K. Hsieh et H. Zhang). The cluster analysis results are consistent with the morphological characteristics of the traditional taxonomy results. The results showed that the analytic method is advisable. This paper provides scientific basis for deeply studing the relation between trace elements and drug effect of radix curcumae. PMID:19093592

  12. Trace elements in human physiology and pathology: zinc and metallothioneins.

    PubMed

    Tapiero, Haim; Tew, Kenneth D

    2003-11-01

    Zinc is one of the most abundant nutritionally essential elements in the human body. It is found in all body tissues with 85% of the whole body zinc in muscle and bone, 11% in the skin and the liver and the remaining in all the other tissues. In multicellular organisms, virtually all zinc is intracellular, 30-40% is located in the nucleus, 50% in the cytoplasm, organelles and specialized vesicles (for digestive enzymes or hormone storage) and the remainder in the cell membrane. Zinc intake ranges from 107 to 231 micromol/d depending on the source, and human zinc requirement is estimated at 15 mg/d. Zinc has been shown to be essential to the structure and function of a large number of macromolecules and for over 300 enzymic reactions. It has both catalytic and structural roles in enzymes, while in zinc finger motifs, it provides a scaffold that organizes protein sub-domains for the interaction with either DNA or other proteins. It is critical for the function of a number of metalloproteins, inducing members of oxido-reductase, hydrolase ligase, lyase family and has co-activating functions with copper in superoxide dismutase or phospholipase C. The zinc ion (Zn(++)) does not participate in redox reactions, which makes it a stable ion in a biological medium whose potential is in constant flux. Zinc ions are hydrophilic and do not cross cell membranes by passive diffusion. In general, transport has been described as having both saturable and non-saturable components, depending on the Zn(II) concentrations involved. Zinc ions exist primarily in the form of complexes with proteins and nucleic acids and participate in all aspects of intermediary metabolism, transmission and regulation of the expression of genetic information, storage, synthesis and action of peptide hormones and structural maintenance of chromatin and biomembranes. PMID:14652165

  13. Occurrence and fate of some trace elements during pyrolysis of Yima coal, China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yiwei; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Lei; Kang, Yu; Yang, Jianli

    2008-11-15

    Modes of occurrence and transformation behaviors of selected trace elements during coal pyrolysis were studied. The element content in coal and chars was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elemental occurrence in raw coal was analyzed through a sequential extraction procedure and determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic absorption spectroscopy (ICP-AAS). The trace elements in Yima coal are separated into five fractions: water soluble, ion exchangeable, carbonate, organic material, and residue. All the elements studied mainly exist in the residue fraction. With regard to heavy-metal elements studied, the residue fraction takes about 50-80% and the organic fraction takes about 15-40%; other chemical forms occurred at a very low level. Only Mn and Ni showed a sizable distribution of water-soluble, ion-exchangeable, and carbonate fraction. During coal pyrolysis, part of the element became released from the coal body and some other parts became enriched in chars. All the elements showed a increasing release ratio with the temperature ascending; at the same pyrolysis temperature, the release ratio of heavy-metal elements is higher than that of the rare earth elements (REEs). At 900{degree}C, the volatilizable fraction of the coal body is nearly depleted, the pyrolysis almost came to an end and the release intensity was approaching zero. All the elements showed a enrichment in chars and the enrichment ratioincreases with the temperature ascending. The modes of occurrence of the element is a key role affecting the transformation during pyrolysis. With regard to REEs, there is a negative correlation between the elements left in chars and the residue fraction in raw coal, indicatingthat the element content left in chars for REEs is a result of the element distribution in the residue fraction in raw coal. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Gases and trace elements in soils at the North Silver Bell deposit, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, M.E.; Dilbert, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Soil samples were collected over the North Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit near Tucson, Arizona. Volatile elements and compounds in gases derived from the soils and metallic elements in the soils were analyzed in order: (1) to see which volatile constituents of the soils might be indicative of the ore body or the alteration zones; and (2) to distinguish the ore and alteration zones by comparison of trace elements in the soil. Plots of analytical data on trace elements in soils indicated a typical distribution pattern for metals around a porphyry copper deposit, with copper, molybdenum, and arsenic concentrations higher over the ore body, and zinc, lead, and silver concentrations higher over the alteration zones. Higher than average concentrations of helium, carbon disulfide, and sulfur dioxide adsorbed on soils were found over the ore body, whereas higher concentrations of carbon dioxide and carbonyl sulfide were found over the alteration zones. ?? 1984.

  15. Clouding tracing: Visualization of the mixing of fluid elements in convection-diffusion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Kwan-Liu; Smith, Philip J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a highly interactive method for computer visualization of the basic physical process of dispersion and mixing of fluid elements in convection-diffusion systems. It is based on transforming the vector field from a traditionally Eulerian reference frame into a Lagrangian reference frame. Fluid elements are traced through the vector field for the mean path as well as the statistical dispersion of the fluid elements about the mean position by using added scalar information about the root mean square value of the vector field and its Lagrangian time scale. In this way, clouds of fluid elements are traced and are not just mean paths. We have used this method to visualize the simulation of an industrial incinerator to help identify mechanisms for poor mixing.

  16. Determination of mineral and trace elements in some medicinal herbs and their infusions consumed in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Başgel, S; Erdemoğlu, S B

    2006-04-15

    Fourteen mineral and trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Turkey such as chamomile (Matricaria chammomile L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), linden (Tilia vulgaris), nettle (Urtica dioical), rosehip (Fr.Rosa caninae), sage (Salvia officinalis) and senna tea (Cassia anqustifolia). Microwave digestion procedure was applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in the medicinal herbs and their infusions were determined by FAAS and ICP-AES. The accuracy and precision were verified against a GBW 07605 Poplar leaves and Tea certified reference material. The mineral and trace element content of medicinal herbs and their infusions showed a wide variability. However, distribution of the elements in the infusions is not high and it is nil especially for Cd, Co, Cr and Pb. PMID:15907975

  17. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy determination of trace element composition of argan oil.

    PubMed

    Gonzálvez, A; Ghanjaoui, M E; El Rhazi, M; de la Guardia, M

    2010-02-01

    A methodology based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) after microwave assisted acid digestion has been developed to determine the trace element content of Moroccan argan oil. Limit of detection values equal or lower than few mg/kg were obtained for all elements under study. To assure the accuracy of the whole procedure, recovery studies were carried out on argan oil samples spiked at different concentration levels from 10 to 200 µg/L. Quantitative average recovery values were obtained for all elements evaluated, demonstrating the suitability of this methodology for the determination of trace elements in argan oil samples. Aluminum, calcium, chromium, iron, potassium, lithium, magnesium, sodium, vanadium and zinc were quantitatively determined in Moroccan argan oils being found that their concentration is different of that found in other edible oils thus offering a way for authentication and for the evaluation of possible adulterations. PMID:21339122

  18. Airborne and ground-based measurements of the trace gases and particles emitted from prescribed fires in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Burling, Ian; Yokelson, Robert J.; Akagi, Sheryl; Urbanski, Shawn; Wold, Cyle E.; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Reardon, James; Weise, David

    2011-12-07

    We measured the emission factors for 19 trace gas species and particulate matter (PM2.5) from 14 prescribed fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These are likely the most extensive emission factor field measurements for temperate biomass burning to date and the only published emission factors for temperate oak savanna fuels. This study helps close the gap in emissions data available for temperate zone fires relative to tropical biomass burning. We present the first field measurements of the biomass burning emissions of glycolaldehyde, a possible precursor for aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol formation. We also measured the emissions of phenol, another aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol precursor. Our data confirm previous suggestions that urban deposition can impact the NOx emission factors and thus subsequent plume chemistry. For two fires, we measured the emissions in the convective smoke plume from our airborne platform at the same time the unlofted residual smoldering combustion emissions were measured with our ground-based platform after the flame front passed through. The smoke from residual smoldering combustion was characterized by emission factors for hydrocarbon and oxygenated organic species that were up to ten times higher than in the lofted plume, including significant 1,3-butadiene and isoprene concentrations which were not observed in the lofted plume. This should be considered in modeling the air quality impacts of smoke that disperses at ground level, and we show that the normally-ignored unlofted emissions can also significantly impact estimates of total emissions. Preliminary evidence of large emissions of monoterpenes was seen in the residual smoldering spectra, but we have not yet quantified these emissions. These data should lead to an improved capacity to model the impacts of biomass burning in similar

  19. Trace element accumulation in relation to trophic niches of shorebirds using intertidal mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Magali; Bocher, Pierrick; Chambosse, Mélanie; Delaporte, Philippe; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the link between trace element concentrations and respective diets of two shorebird species present in the Pertuis Charentais, Atlantic coast of France: the Dunlin (Calidris alpina) and Redshank (Tringa totanus). Trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) were investigated in the liver, kidney, muscle and feathers of 28 dunlins and 15 redshanks accidentally dead during catches by mist net. Analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were carried out in liver, muscle and feathers to determine whether differences in diet explained the variations in elemental levels. These results were compared to previous data obtained on two other shorebird species present on the same sites: the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) and the Red Knot (Calidris canutus). This study demonstrated that shorebirds of the Pertuis Charentais were characterized by differential trace element bioaccumulation. Arsenic and Se concentrations in internal tissues were elevated in red knots and dunlins, whereas redshanks displayed higher Cd concentrations. These trace element bioaccumulation discrepancies could mainly come from divergences of trophic habits between shorebirds. Species with the highest trophic position displayed the highest Hg concentrations in the liver, muscle and feathers demonstrating therefore the biomagnification potential of this metal, as opposed to Cd and Pb. The same trend was observed in muscle and feathers for Se and only in feathers for As. These data highlighted the need to study several tissues to obtain a full comprehension of trace element exposure and pathways especially for long-distance migrating species using various habitats and sites.

  20. Selected trace elements in the Sacramento River, California: occurrence and distribution.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H E; Antweiler, R C; Roth, D A; Alpers, C N; Dileanis, P

    2012-05-01

    The impact of trace elements from the Iron Mountain Superfund site on the Sacramento River and selected tributaries is examined. The concentration and distribution of many trace elements-including aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, chromium, cesium, copper, dysprosium, erbium, europium, iron, gadolinium, holmium, potassium, lanthanum, lithium, lutetium, manganese, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, lead, praseodymium, rubidium, rhenium, antimony, selenium, samarium, strontium, terbium, thallium, thulium, uranium, vanadium, tungsten, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium-were measured using a combination of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Samples were collected using ultraclean techniques at selected sites in tributaries and the Sacramento River from below Shasta Dam to Freeport, California, at six separate time periods from mid-1996 to mid-1997. Trace-element concentrations in dissolved (ultrafiltered [0.005-μm pore size]) and colloidal material, isolated at each site from large volume samples, are reported. For example, dissolved Zn ranged from 900 μg/L at Spring Creek (Iron Mountain acid mine drainage into Keswick Reservoir) to 0.65 μg/L at the Freeport site on the Sacramento River. Zn associated with colloidal material ranged from 4.3 μg/L (colloid-equivalent concentration) in Spring Creek to 21.8 μg/L at the Colusa site on the Sacramento River. Virtually all of the trace elements exist in Spring Creek in the dissolved form. On entering Keswick Reservoir, the metals are at least partially converted by precipitation or adsorption to the particulate phase. Despite this observation, few of the elements are removed by settling; instead the majority is transported, associated with colloids, downriver, at least to the Bend Bridge site, which is 67 km from Keswick Dam. Most trace elements are strongly associated with the colloid phase going

  1. Brain trace element concentration of rats treated with the plant alkaloid, vincamine.

    PubMed

    Fayed, Abdel-Hasseb A

    2010-09-01

    Trace elements are essential for normal brain functions. Tiny amounts of these elements help in the formation of neurotransmitters and involved in the antioxidant defense and intracellular redox regulation and modulation of neural cells. Vincamine is a plant alkaloid used clinically as a peripheral vasodilator that increases cerebral blood flow and oxygen and glucose utilization by neural tissue to combat the effect of aging. Neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging characterized by a disturbance in trace element levels in the brain. The objective of this study was to determine the level of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), Selenium (Se), and chromium (Cr) in the brain of rats treated with vincamine. Vincamine was injected i.m. to rats at a dose of 15 mg/Kg bodyweight daily for 14 days. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, rats were killed, and brains were ashed and digested by concentrated acids and analyzed for trace elements concentrations by flame emission atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that Zn was the highest trace element in the brain of control rats (3.134 +/- 0.072 ppm) and Cr was the lowest (0.386 +/- 0.027 ppm). Vincamine administration significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the brain Fe concentration (1.393 +/- 0.165 ppm) compared to control (2.807 +/- 0.165 ppm). It was concluded that Zn was the highest trace element in the brain of rats. Vincamine administration resulted in approximately 50% reduction in brain Fe concentration which suggests its beneficial effect to prevent the oxidative stress of Fe in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. PMID:19902161

  2. Changes in trace elements during lactation in a marine top predator, the grey seal.

    PubMed

    Habran, Sarah; Pomeroy, Paddy P; Debier, Cathy; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-15

    Lactation in pinnipeds represents the most significant cost to mothers during the reproductive cycle. Dynamics of trace elements and their mobilization associated with energy reserves during such an intense physiological process remains poorly understood in marine mammals. The changes in tissue concentrations of 11 elements (Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn) were investigated in a longitudinal study during the lactation period and during the post-weaning fast period. Blood, milk, blubber, and hair samples were collected sequentially from 21 mother-pup pairs of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from the Isle of May in Scotland. Maternal transfer through the milk was observed for all trace elements, except for Cd. As an indicator of the placental transfer, levels in pup lanugo (natal coat) revealed also the existence of maternal transfer and accumulation of all assayed trace elements during the foetal development. The placental and mammary barriers against non-essential metal transfer to offspring appear to be absent or weak in grey seals. Examining the contamination levels showed that this grey seal population seems more highly exposed to Pb than other phocid populations (2.2 mg/kg dw of grey seal hair). In contrast, blood and hair levels reflected a lower Hg exposure in grey seals from the Isle of May than in harbour seals from the southeastern North Sea. This study also showed that trace element concentrations in blood and blubber could change rapidly over the lactation period. Such physiological processes must be considered carefully during biomonitoring of trace elements, and potential impacts that rapid fluctuations in concentrations can exert on seal health should be further investigated. PMID:23010392

  3. Trace elements in bed sediments and aquatic invertebrates from three streams in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, S.

    1995-12-31

    In September 1992, the US Geological Survey, as part of the National Water Quality Assessment Program, collected crayfish (Pacifastacus Ieniusculus and Procambarus clarkii), asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea), caddis-fly larvae (Hydropsyche spp.) and bed-sediment samples from the Truckee and Carson Rivers, and Las Vegas Wash in Nevada and analyzed them for selected trace elements. This report describes and compares the concentrations of arsenic, copper, manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc in those samples. In the Truckee and Carson Rivers, concentrations of the six trace elements in aquatic invertebrate samples are similar to concentrations measured in bed sediments. In the Truckee River, concentrations of these elements in crayfish and bed-sediment samples were highest in the Reno-Sparks urban area. In the Carson River, arsenic and copper are highest in bed-sediment samples upstream of Carson City due to geothermal springs and acid-mine drainage from an abandoned sulfur mine; concentrations of manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc were highest in bed-sediment samples collected downstream of the Carson City urban area due to historic gold and silver mining, and urban runoff. The highest mercury concentration in crayfish tissue, 48 {micro}g/g dry weight, was measured in a sample from the lower Carson River. In Las Vegas Wash, bed-sediment concentrations were lower than those in the Truckee and Carson Rivers; but, trace-element concentrations in crayfish tissue tended to be higher than those in bed sediment. Samples collected during this study show that trace elements are enriched in the bed sediments of all three rivers and are bioavailable. Trace-element concentrations among samples of crayfish, asiatic clam, and caddis-fly larvae showed little similarity.

  4. Trace elements distributions at Datoko-Shega artisanal mining site, northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Arhin, Emmanuel; Boansi, Apea Ohene; Zango, M S

    2016-02-01

    Environmental geochemistry classifies elements into essential, non-essential and toxic elements in relationship to human health. To assess the environmental impact of mining at Datoko-Shega area, the distributions and concentrations of trace elements in stream sediments and soil samples were carried out. X-ray fluorescence analytical technique was used to measure the major and trace element concentrations in sediments and modified fire assay absorption spectrometry in soils. The results showed general depletion of major elements except titanium oxide (TiO2) compared to the average crustal concentrations. The retention of TiO2 at the near surface environment probably was due to the intense tropical weathering accompanied by the removal of fine sediments and soil fractions during the harmattan season by the dry north-east trade winds and sheet wash deposits formed after flash floods. The results also showed extreme contamination of selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), plus strong contaminations of arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) in addition to moderate contamination of lead (Pb) in the trace element samples relative to crustal averages in the upper continental crust. However Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations tend to be high around the artisanal workings. It was recognised from the analysis of the results that the artisanal mining activity harnessed and introduces some potentially toxic elements such as Hg, Cd and Pb mostly in the artisan mine sites. But the interpretation of the trace element data thus invalidates the elevation of As concentrations to be from the mine operations. It consequently noticed As values in the mine-impacted areas to be similar or sometimes lower than As values in areas outside the mine sites from the stream sediment results. PMID:25906709

  5. [Effect of chromium on the trace element homeostasis of biosubstrates in laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The authors studied the levels of chromium in potable water, snow, soil, and the hair of inhabitants in 3 territorial economic zones of the Orenburg region, water and snow prooxidant loads, and the impact of excessive potassium bichromate intake on the imbalance of some elements in the blood and spleen of laboratory animals. There was dissimilar distribution between the media in relation to the area, as well as a pronounced imbalance of trace elements in the biosubstrates of experimental animals. PMID:23082675

  6. The partitioning of trace elements between clinopyroxene and trachybasaltic melt during rapid cooling and crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollo, S.; Blundy, J. D.; Iezzi, G.; Scarlato, P.; Langone, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present the variation in trace element partition coefficients measured at the interface between rapidly cooled clinopyroxene crystals and co-existing melts. Results indicate that, as the cooling rate is increased, clinopyroxene crystals are progressively depleted in Si, Ca and Mg counterbalanced by enrichments in Al (mainly tetrahedral Aliv), Na and Ti. Partition coefficients (Ds) for rare earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE) and transition elements (TE) increase with increasing cooling rate, in response to clinopyroxene compositional variations. The entry of REE into the M2 site is facilitated by a coupled substitution where either Na substitutes for Ca on the M2 site or Aliv substitutes for Si in the tetrahedral site. The latter substitution reflects an increased ease of locally balancing the excess charge at M2 as the number of surrounding Aliv atoms increases. Due to the lower concentration of Ca in rapidly cooled clinopyroxenes, divalent large ion lithophile elements (LILE) on M2 decrease at the expense of monovalent cations. Conversely, higher concentrations of HFSE and TE on the M1 site are facilitated as the average charge on this site increases with the replacement of divalent-charged cations by Alvi. Although crystallization kinetics modify clinopyroxene composition, deviations from equilibrium partitioning are insufficient to change the tendency of a trace element to be compatible or incompatible. Consequently, there are regular relationships between ionic radius, valence of the trace element and D. At both equilibrium and cooling rate conditions, Ds for isovalent cations define parabola-like curves when plotted against ionic radius, consistent with the lattice strain model, demonstrating that the partitioning of trace elements is driven by charge balance mechanisms; cation substitution reactions can be treated in terms of the energetics of the various charge-imbalanced configurations.

  7. Detection and quantification of trace elements in rice and rice products using x-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foran, Kelly A.; Fleming, David E. B.

    2015-12-01

    We used X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to examine the presence of arsenic (As) and other trace elements (manganese, iron, nickel, copper, and zinc) in rice and rice products. A portable XRF analyzer was used to test samples, and amplitudes for the analyzed elements were identified in the resulting data. The detection limit of the system was sufficiently low to detect As in some rice and rice product samples.

  8. Trace element identification of three chemically distinct very low titanium (VLT) basalt glasses from Apollo 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, David J.; McKay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Martinez, Rene R.

    1994-02-01

    Small VLT samples from Apollo 17 soils were analyzed for trace elements using newly developed high sensitivity INAA techniques. Three distinct groups of VLT compositions are identified. Cobalt contents clearly delineate the HICo, MECo, and LOCo groups, which are also clearly identifiable by their major and minor element compositions. The results allow conclusions to be drawn concerning the sequence of events that produced the regolith at the Apollo 17 landing site.

  9. Urinary Concentrations of Toxic and Essential Trace Elements among Rural Residents in Hainan Island, China

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Yosuke; Umezaki, Masahiro; Jiang, Hongwei; Li, Dandan; Du, Jianwei; Jin, Yuming; Yang, Bin; Li, Bai; Li, Yufeng; Watanabe, Chiho

    2014-01-01

    Background: Toxic element exposure and essential trace element consumption may have changed after the Chinese economy transformed to a market-oriented system. The objectives of this study were to measure urinary concentrations of toxic (arsenic, cadmium, lead) and essential trace (selenium, zinc, copper) elements among rural residents in Hainan, China and to examine if variations in economic development are linked to differences in toxic and trace element exposure. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey and undertook anthropometric measurements of residents aged ≥20 years (n = 599). Urinary samples were collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The median (μg/g creatinine) element concentrations were: arsenic, 73.2; cadmium, 1.8; lead, 3.1; selenium, 36.5; zinc, 371; and copper, 11.0. Intra-community variation in element concentrations was explained by age (arsenic, cadmium, zinc and copper), sex (arsenic, cadmium and selenium: higher in females; zinc: higher in males), body mass index (cadmium) and individual involvement in the market economy as indexed by agrochemical use (lead and selenium). The degree of community-level economic development, which was determined by the proportion of people living in better housing among the study communities, was positively associated with cadmium concentration. Conclusions: The degree of community-level economic development was positively associated with urinary cadmium concentration while individual involvement in the market economy was positively associated with lead and selenium. PMID:25514155

  10. Trace element abundance determinations by Synchrotron X Ray Fluorescence (SXRF) on returned comet nucleus mineral grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    Trace element analyses were performed on bulk cosmic dust particles by Proton Induced X Ray Emission (PIXE) and Synchrotron X Ray Fluorescence (SXRF). When present at or near chondritic abundances the trace elements K, Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, Se, and Br are presently detectable by SXRF in particles of 20 micron diameter. Improvements to the SXRF analysis facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source presently underway should increase the range of detectable elements and permit the analysis of smaller samples. In addition the Advanced Photon Source will be commissioned at Argonne National Laboratory in 1995. This 7 to 8 GeV positron storage ring, specifically designed for high-energy undulator and wiggler insertion devices, will be an ideal source for an x ray microprobe with one micron spatial resolution and better than 100 ppb elemental sensitivity for most elements. Thus trace element analysis of individual micron-sized grains should be possible by the time of the comet nucleus sample return mission.

  11. [Comparative analysis of trace elements in five marine-derived shell TCM using multivariate statistical analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Chen, Zhen; Fu, Yu-qiang; Gong, Hui-li; Guan, Hua-shi; Liu, Hong-bing

    2015-11-01

    A comparable study were carried out by determination of trace elements on five marine-derived shell traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (Ostreae Concha, Haliotidis Concha, Margaritifera Concha, Meretricis Concha, and Arcae Concha), which were recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 version). Seven trace elements in 51 batches of this type of shell TCM were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), combined with principal component analysis (PCA) methods. The content of element Se, which exhibited significant differences among different drugs, could be used as a key element to distinguish this type of drugs. Meanwhile, the contents of elements Co, Cu, Mo, and Ba in Haliotidis Concha, Co and As in Margaritifera Concha, Mo and As in Meretricis Concha, Mo, As, and Ba in Arcae Concha, and Zn in Meretricis Concha were relatively stable. In the PCA plot, Arcae Concha and Meretricis Concha could be efficiently distinguished from Ostreae Concha together with Haliotidis Concha, and Margaritifera Concha. The results also showed a correlation with their medicinal function. In conclusion, trace elements in marine-derived shell TCM could not be neglected for their quality control. PMID:27071261

  12. COMPARISON OF LEACHABLE TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS IN COAL GASIFIER ASH WITH LEVELS IN POWER PLANT ASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of the levels of 14 trace elements in leachates from three types of ash of a common origin coal. The 1-year study was conducted at the Kosovo plant in Obilic, Yugoslavia, comparing coal gasifier ash with fly ash and bottom ash from a coal-f...

  13. A WASHABILITY AND ANALYTICAL EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL POLLUTION FROM TRACE ELEMENTS IN COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a washability study showing the trace element contents of various specific gravity fractions for ten coal samples collected from four coal producing regions of the U.S. Reliable analytical methods were developed to quantitatively determine cadmium, chr...

  14. Organic amendments increase phylogenetic diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in acid soil contaminated by trace elements.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Rozas, María Del Mar; López-García, Álvaro; Kjøller, Rasmus; Madejón, Engracia; Rosendahl, Søren

    2016-08-01

    In 1998, a toxic mine spill polluted a 55-km(2) area in a basin southward to Doñana National Park (Spain). Subsequent attempts to restore those trace element-contaminated soils have involved physical, chemical, or biological methodologies. In this study, the restoration approach included application of different types and doses of organic amendments: biosolid compost (BC) and leonardite (LEO). Twelve years after the last addition, molecular analyses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities associated with target plants (Lamarckia aurea and Chrysanthemum coronarium) as well as analyses of trace element concentrations both in soil and in plants were performed. The results showed an improved soil quality reflected by an increase in soil pH and a decrease in trace element availability as a result of the amendments and dosages. Additionally, the phylogenetic diversity of the AM fungal community increased, reaching the maximum diversity at the highest dose of BC. Trace element concentration was considered the predominant soil factor determining the AM fungal community composition. Thereby, the studied AM fungal community reflects a community adapted to different levels of contamination as a result of the amendments. The study highlights the long-term effect of the amendments in stabilizing the soil system. PMID:27072359

  15. Siderophile and volatile trace elements in 72255 and 72275. [meteoritic and igneous composition of lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Ganapathy, R.; Higuchi, H.; Anders, E.

    1974-01-01

    Of six samples from boulder 1 at Station 2, four contain a unique meteoritic component, which is attributed to the Crisium projectile. The other two samples are meteorite free, igneous rocks: an unusual, alkali- and Ge-rich pigeonitic basalt, and an alkali-poor norite of unexceptional trace element chemistry.

  16. Trace elements in moose (Alices alces) found dead in Northwestern Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Cox, E.; Gray, B.

    2004-01-01

    The moose (Alces alces) population in bog and forest areas of Northwestern Minnesota has declined for more than 25 years, and more recently the decline is throughout Northwestern Minnesota. Both deficiencies and elevations in trace elements have been linked to the health of moose worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether trace element toxicity or deficiency may have contributed to the decline of moose in Northwestern Minnesota. Livers of 81 moose found dead in Northwestern Minnesota in 1998 and 1999 were analyzed for trace elements. With the exception of selenium (Se) and copper (Cu), trace elements were not at toxic or deficient levels based on criteria set for cattle. Selenium concentrations in moose livers based on criteria set for cattle were deficient in 3.7% of livers and at a chronic toxicity level in 16% of livers. Copper concentrations based on criteria set for cattle were deficient in 39.5% of livers, marginally deficient in 29.5% of livers and adequate in 31% of livers. Moose from agricultural areas had higher concentrations, on average, of Cd, Cu, Mo and Se in their livers than moose from bog and forest areas. Older moose had higher concentrations of Cd and Zn, and lower concentrations of Cu than younger moose. Copper deficiency, which has been associated with population declines of moose in Alaska and Sweden, may be a factor contributing to the decline of moose in Northwestern Minnesota. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF ARSENIC AND OTHER TRACE ELEMENTS IN BAY MUSSELS 'MYTILUS EDULIS' (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purposes of this study were to investigate seasonal variations of arsenic in a population of bay mussels (Mytilus edulis) and to compare results with variations of several other trace elements more commonly measured in environmental studies. Seasonal variations of manganese, ...

  18. Minor and trace elements in coal: a selected bibliography of reports in English, January 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1976-01-01

    A bibliography of 175 selected references on trace elements in is presented as a guide to readily available information and as an aid to further study. All the reports cited are in English, and most are applicable to the United States

  19. TRACE ELEMENT CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL WASTES. FOURTH ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER 1, 1978-SEPTEMBER 30, 1979

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past year assessment studies of low-sulfur coal wastes from the Appalachian Region have been continued. These included mineralogical and trace elemental analyses on these materials and studies of their weathering and leaching behavior. Although the concentrations of the ac...

  20. TRACE ELEMENT CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL WASTES. THIRD ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER 1, 1977-SEPTEMBER 30, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives third year results of a program to characterize the trace element content of coal waste. In 1978 laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the efficacy of several control options to treat coal wastes at the preparation plant or during disposal. The res...

  1. Prolidase-Associated Trace Elements (Mn, Zn, Co, and Ni) in the Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Verma, Akhilesh Kumar; Keshari, Anand Kumar; Raj, Janak; Kumari, Renu; Kumar, Tarun; Sharma, Vivek; Singh, Tej Bali; Srivastava, Shalabh; Srivastava, Ragini

    2016-05-01

    Micronutrients and trace elements have been identified to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). In our previous study, we observed that prolidase activity is associated with oxidative stress and progression of PD. In present study, we aimed to study the association of prolidase-associated trace elements, such as Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn in the plasma of patients with PD by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Plasma levels of Co, Mn, and Ni were significantly increased, whereas plasma levels of Zn was significantly decreased (all P < 0.05) in the patients with PD than healthy controls. Plasma prolidase activity was not correlated to its associated trace elements in PD. A positive, linear, and significant correlation was observed between age and Co, and Mn, and Ni while negative and non-significant between age and status of Zn in the patients. Co, Mn, and Ni were continually elevated with increase in age as well as duration of disease in the patients with PD, whereas status of Zn was continually decreased. Thus, the study concluded that trace elements Co, Ni, and Mn status were increased and Zn status was decreased in the plasma of patients with PD. It is also concluded that elevated Co, Mn, and Ni has been associated with progression of Parkinson's disease. PMID:26364956

  2. Controls on Fe(II)-Activated Trace Element Release from Goethite and Hematite

    SciTech Connect

    Frierdich, Andrew J.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2012-03-26

    Electron transfer and atom exchange (ETAE) between aqueous Fe(II) and Fe(III) oxides induces surface growth and dissolution that affects trace element fate and transport. We have recently demonstrated Ni(II) cycling through goethite and hematite (adsorbed Ni incorporates into the mineral structure and preincorporated Ni releases to solution) during Fe(II)-Fe(III) ETAE. However, the chemical parameters affecting net trace element release remain unknown. Here, we examine the chemical controls on Ni(II) and Zn(II) release from Ni- and Zn-substituted goethite and hematite during reaction with Fe(II). Release follows a rate law consistent with surface reaction limited mineral dissolution and suggests that release occurs near sites of Fe(III) reductive dissolution during Fe(II)-Fe(III) ETAE. Metal substituent type affects reactivity; Zn release is more pronounced from hematite than goethite, whereas the opposite trend occurs for Ni. Buildup of Ni or Zn in solution inhibits further release but this resumes upon fluid exchange, suggesting that sustained release is possible under flow conditions. Mineral and aqueous Fe(II) concentrations as well as pH strongly affect sorbed Fe(II) concentrations, which directly control the reaction rates and final metal concentrations. Our results demonstrate that structurally incorporated trace elements are mobilized from iron oxides into fluids without abiotic or microbial net iron reduction. Such release may affect micronutrient availability, contaminant transport, and the distribution of redox-inactive trace elements in natural and engineered systems.

  3. Concentrations of trace elements in marine fish and its risk assessment in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Yasunaga, Genta; Iwata, Hisato; Subramanian, Annamalai; Ismail, Ahmad; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi) were determined in muscle and liver of 12 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas in Malaysia. Levels of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Ba and Pb in liver were higher than those in muscle, whereas Rb and Cs concentrations showed the opposite trend. Positive correlations between concentrations in liver and muscle were observed for all the trace elements except Cu and Sn. Copper, Zn, Se, Ag, Cd, Cs and Hg concentrations in bigeye scads from the east coast of the Peninsular Malaysia were higher than those from the west, whereas V showed the opposite trend. The high concentration of V in the west coast might indicate oil contamination in the Strait of Malacca. To evaluate the health risk to Malaysian population through consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated on the basis of the concentrations of trace elements in muscle of fish and daily fish consumption. Some specimens of the marine fish had Hg levels higher than the guideline value by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), indicating that consumption of these fish at the present rate may be hazardous to Malaysian people. To our knowledge, this is the first study on multielemental accumulation in marine fish from the Malaysian coast. PMID:16023148

  4. DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE ELEMENT EMISIONS FROM THE LIQUID INJECTION INCINERATOR COMBUSTION RESEARCH FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of tests was conducted at EPA's Combustion Research Facility (CRF) to investigate the fate of volatile trace elements in liquid injection hazardous waste incineration. In these tests, arsenic in the form of arsenic trioxide and antimony in the form of antimony trichlorid...

  5. Dietary composition affect levels of trace elements in the predator Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects require small amounts of dietary minerals because of the roles minerals serve as antioxidants, enzyme co-factors and as constituents of metalloproteins. We measured the levels of ten trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn) in the predatory insect, Podisus maculiventris rea...

  6. Pixe analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, R. W.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Kinyua, A. M.; O'Neill, M. P.; Wilder, B. J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P. F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  7. Trace element mobility in soils seven years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; García-Sánchez, A; Querol, X; Moyano, A

    2008-11-01

    The long-term influence of the Aznalcóllar mine spill on soils was studied seven years after the accident in the area of Vado del Quema. Soils where the pyritic sludge was not removed after the cleaning operations and soils where this process was accomplished successfully were sampled and studied in detail. Sludge and soil horizons were characterised, determining their physico-chemical parameters, mineralogy and the total concentrations of major and trace elements. Moreover, leaching studies were performed using batch tests. The main mineralogical changes detected in the soil beneath the weathered sludge are the neo-formation of jarosite, gypsum and sainfeldite, together with the almost total depletion of calcite. An important acidification of soil has been also produced, especially in the uppermost soil layers. These two factors show to be the main responsible for the vertical distribution and leachability displayed by trace elements. Critical total concentrations were found for most trace elements in the soil still affected by the sludge weathering. Furthermore, the Cd and Zn leachable contents showed to be extremely high. Therefore, in those areas affected by the mine spill where the removal of sludge was not accomplished properly, special care should be paid to trace elements highly mobile in acidic conditions. Additional restoration measures should be undertaken to avoid further pollutant dispersion. PMID:18774588

  8. Emissions Inventory of PM2.5 Trace Elements across the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the first National Emissions Inventory (NEI) of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes the full suite of PM2.5 trace elements (atomic number >10) measured at ambient monitoring sites across the U.S. PM 2.5 emissions in ...

  9. Trace element partitioning in coal mine drainage and impacted waters, Harrison County, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Smilley, M.J.; Vesper, D.J.; Edenborn, H.M.

    2006-10-01

    Lamberts Run is a tributary of the West Fork River and is impacted by drainage from abandoned coal mines within its watershed. In this study, we examined the distribution of iron, manganese and trace elements in discharge downstream of one abandoned mine portal and after its entry into Lamberts Run. Construction of a wetland and passive treatment system is slated to begin along this discharge in summer 2006. Dissolved iron and manganese, which were present in the mine discharge at concentrations of 7 and 6 mg/L, respectively, demonstrated sequential precipitation over the approximately 200-m distance between the mine portal and creek. Significant loss of manganese from the water and net accumulation in the sediments was not observed until 100 m downstream of the portal. Trace elements Ba, Co, Cr, Ni and Zn were detected in water, sediment and black coatings on stream cobbles in Lamberts Run. The trace elements are progressively enriched, relative to iron and manganese, respectively through those media. The coatings contained over 55,000 mg/kg manganese and high concentrations of the trace elements. Selenium was at or below the detection limit in water and sediments but substantially enriched in the black coatings (72 mg/kg). Diffusive equilibration in thin film (DET) and redox gel probes were used to measure sediment porewater concentrations at high resolution in the near-surface sediments.

  10. Interplanetary dust - Trace element analysis of individual particles by neutron activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathy, R.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Although micrometeorites of cometary origin are thought to be the dominant component of interplanetary dust, it has never been possible to positively identify such micrometer-sized particles. Two such particles have been identified as definitely micrometeorites since their abundances of volatile and nonvolatile trace elements closely match those of primitive solar system material.

  11. Using water, bryophytes, and macroinvertebrates to assess trace element concentrations in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deacon, J.R.; Spahr, N.E.; Mize, S.V.; Boulger, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined trace elements concentrations and macroinvertebrate community structure at 32 sites in 22 streams in Colorado. Sites affected by mining activities (mining sites) and sites that were minimally disturbed (nonmining sites) were selected for the assessment. Water and transplanted aquatic bryophyte samples were analyzed for trace elements. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected to assess the effects of trace elements on the aquatic community of the stream. All samples of aquatic bryophytes had detectable concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Principal components analysis of chemical and physical properties classified sites into three groups. The first group represented sites that were unaffected to minimally affected by mining activities; the second group was characterized by sites with Cd, Pb and Zn predominant in the mineralogy; and the third group was characterized by sites with Cu predominant in the mineralogy. Six macroinvertebrate families were common in the study area. Median values of total abundance, taxa richness and mayfly and stonefly abundance were reduced at mining sites. Abundances of Heptageniidae, Chloroperlidae and Rhyacophila and Baetis sp. also were reduced at sites with elevated trace element concentrations. Tanytarsini chironomids were most abundant at reference and minimally-disturbed sites.

  12. DEMONSTRATION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN: XRF TECHNOLOGIES OF MEASURING TRACE ELEMENTS IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of field portable/mobile technologies for measuring trace elements in soil and sediments was conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The demonstration took place from January 24 to 28, 200...

  13. Trace element siting in iron sulfides from coal determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, R.G. Jr. ); Muir, I.J.; Fyfe, W.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Intact samples of coal have been analyzed by SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) ion imaging and ion probe techniques for determination of the distribution of trace elements in pyrite and marcasite and in the associated clay minerals. Ion mapping of site-specific concentrations of trace elements is important as one considers the environmental consequences of not only the combustion of coal, but also the disposal of coal-washing plant refuse and the placement of mine spoils during reclamation. Iron sulfides and clays are both involved in the oxidation-hydration reactions that result in the formation of acid waters and the release of trace elements into the ecosystem. Iron sulfides from selected Ohio coals contain site-specific concentrations of Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, and Pb. Clay minerals found within and marginal to the sulfides contain V, Cr, and also As and Co. The distribution of trace elements in the sulfides and associated clays clearly is related to microenvironments that existed during the formation of successive parts of the sulfide grains. The sulfide-clay relationships determine the extent to which the sulfides break down in oxidation-hydration reactions.

  14. STATUS OF RESEARCH ON AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER. (R827649)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Quality Conference reviewed the state of science and policy on the pollutants mercury, trace elements, and particulate matter (PM) in the environment. Critical issues dealing with impacts on health and ecosystems, emission prevention and control, measurement methods, a...

  15. Effects of Imbalance in Trace Element on Thyroid Gland from Moroccan Children.

    PubMed

    El-Fadeli, Sana; Bouhouch, Sabir; Skalny, Anatoly V; Barkouch, Yassir; Pineau, Alain; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Sedki, Azeddine

    2016-04-01

    The major environmental factor that determines goiter prevalence is iodine status. However, other trace elements like selenium and zinc can influence the thyroid function. Hair samples (n = 68) were collected from goitrous and non-goitrous children aged 8-12 years living in the area of Al Haouz Marrakech-(Morocco). Trace element concentrations (Cr, Fe, Mg, Zn, Se, I) in hair were measured using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Difference in the mean concentration of each trace element between groups was determined by ANOVA test. The mean concentration levels of I, Se, and Zn for goitrous children were lower and were similar to the mean concentrations reported in the literature for subjects with goiter. The regression results gave us a better model that revealed significant positive relations between thyroid volume and Zn contents and significant negative relation with I and Se. The overall findings of the present study revealed that the actual factors of thyroid gland volume increase are I and Se deficiency. This work could shed some light on the effects of trace elements-other than iodine-on the thyroid disorders. PMID:26315305

  16. MATERNAL-FETAL TISSUE LEVELS OF SIXTEEN TRACE ELEMENTS IN EIGHT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The developing fetus probably represents one of the most vulnerable subgroups of the general population to the toxic effects of trace elements. There have been numerous reports of abortion or fetal malformation due to excessive exposure of the expectant mother to mercury and othe...

  17. Laboratory comparison of four iron-based filter materials for water treatment of trace element contaminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory investigation was conducted to evaluate four iron-based filter materials for trace element contaminant water treatment. The iron-based filter materials evaluated were zero valent iron (ZVI), porous iron composite (PIC), sulfur modified iron (SMI), and iron oxide/hydroxide (IOH). Only fi...

  18. Transport of trace elements in runoff from unamended and pond-ash amended feedlot surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of pond ash (fly ash that has been placed in evaporative ponds for storage and subsequently dewatered) for feedlot surfaces provides a drier environment for livestock and furnishes economic benefits. However, pond ash is known to have high concentrations of trace elements and the runoff wate...

  19. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. In the current study, piglets were fed soy infant formula (Soy), cow's milk formula (Milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum ...

  20. Spinel from Apollo 12 Olivine Mare Basalts: Chemical Systematics of Selected Major, Minor, and Trace Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papike, J. J.; Karner, J. M.; Shearer, C. K.; Spilde, M. N.

    2002-01-01

    Spinels from Apollo 12 Olivine basalts have been studied by Electron and Ion microprobe techniques. The zoning trends of major, minor and trace elements provide new insights into the conditions under which planetary basalts form. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Mass fractions of 52 trace elements and zinc/trace element content ratios in intact human prostates investigated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zaichick, Sofia; Zaichick, Vladimir; Nosenko, Sergey; Moskvina, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Contents of 52 trace elements in intact prostate of 64 apparently healthy 13-60-year-old men (mean age 36.5 years) were investigated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mean values (M ± SΕΜ) for mass fraction (in milligrams per kilogram, on dry-weight basis) of trace elements were as follows: Ag 0.041 ± 0.005, Al 36 ± 4, Au 0.0039 ± 0.0007, B 0.97 ± 0.13, Be 0.00099 ± 0.00006, Bi 0.021 ± 0.008, Br 29 ± 3, Cd 0.78 ± 0.09, Ce 0.028 ± 0.004, Co 0.035 ± 0.003, Cs 0.034 ± 0.003, Dy 0.0031 ± 0.0005, Er 0.0018 ± 0.0004, Gd 0.0030 ± 0.0005, Hg 0.046 ± 0.006, Ho 0.00056 ± 0.00008, La 0.074 ± 0.015, Li 0.040 ± 0.004, Mn 1.53 ± 0.09, Mo 0.30 ± 0.03, Nb 0.0051 ± 0.0009, Nd 0.013 ± 0.002, Ni 4.3 ± 0.7, Pb 1.8 ± 0.4, Pr 0.0033 ± 0.0004, Rb 15.9 ± 0.6, Sb 0.040 ± 0.005, Se 0.73 ± 0.03, Sm 0.0027 ± 0.0004, Sn 0.25 ± 0.05, Tb 0.00043 ± 0.00009, Th 0.0024 ± 0.0005, Tl 0.0014 ± 0.0001, Tm 0.00030 ± 0.00006, U 0.0049 ± 0.0014, Y 0.019 ± 0.003, Yb 0.0015 ± 0.0002, Zn 782 ± 97, and Zr 0.044 ± 0.009, respectively. The upper limit of mean contents of As, Cr, Eu, Ga, Hf, Ir, Lu, Pd, Pt, Re, Ta, and Ti were the following: As ≤ 0.018, Cr ≤ 0.64, Eu ≤ 0.0006, Ga ≤ 0.08, Hf ≤ 0.02, Ir ≤ 0.0004, Lu ≤ 0.00028, Pd ≤ 0.007, Pt ≤ 0.0009, Re ≤ 0.0015, Ta ≤ 0.005, and Ti ≤ 2.6. In all prostate samples, the content of Te was under detection limit (<0.003). Additionally, ratios of the Zn content to other trace element contents as well as correlations between Zn and trace elements were calculated. Our data indicate that the human prostate accumulates such trace elements as Al, Au, B, Br, Cd, Cr, Ga, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, and Zn. No special relationship between Zn and other trace elements was found. PMID:22549701

  2. Trace Elements in Foraminiferal and Coral Calcium Carbonate in View of Their Biomineralization Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erez, J.; Bentov, S.; Braun, A.; Grinstein, M.; Segev, E.; Koheler-Rink, S.; Schoon, R.; de-Beer, D.

    2006-12-01

    Biomineralization processes affect trace elements (e.g. Mg, Sr, Cd, Ba) distribution in foraminiferal and coral shells. These "vital effects" reduce the reliability of paleoceanographic reconstructions based on trace elements proxies. Our recent observations on calcification physiology in both groups provide a mechanistic framework for understanding the biological variability. In parallel micro-analytical techniques (i.e. SIMS, LA- ICP-MS, nano-SIMS, EPMA and others), reveal large intra-shell variability associated with the biomineralization process. This information, (together with in-situ and laboratory proxy calibration experiments), allow for the formulation of a conceptual model for trace elements incorporation into these biogenic carbonates. Both foraminifera and corals precipitate two types of CaCO3 that are completely different in their mode of formation and in their chemical composition. In foraminifera, primary calcite is precipitated in close association with the organic matrix, and is enriched in Mg, S, Na and possibly other trace elements. Secondary calcite is precipitated on the primary calcite, mainly by a process of seawater vacuolization. The secondary calcite, (roughly 95 % of the calcite in the shell), with calcitic-radial texture, is composed of low-Mg calcite with low concentrations of S, Na, and other trace elements. The proportion between the two calcite types may change with environmental parameters (e.g. temperature). Similarly in corals calcification starts at the centers of calcification (COC) which are associated with higher proportion of the organic matrix, and display different chemical composition (i.e. enrichment in Sr, S, Na and Mg) compared to the bulk aragonite skeleton. Ca and other trace elements may reach the calcification site in one of two pathways or their combinations: 1.via direct seawater supply to the calcification space by vacuolization in foraminifera and by parallel pathways between epithelial cells in corals. 2. by

  3. Trace elements in urinary stones: a preliminary investigation in Fars province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Yavarashayeri, Nasrin; Irani, Dariush; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Salari, Mehrdad

    2015-04-01

    In view of the high incidence rate of urinary stones in the south and southwest of Iran, this paper investigates trace elements content including heavy metals in 39 urinary stones, collected from patients in Fars province, Iran. The mineralogy of the stones is investigated using X-ray diffractometry. The samples are classified into five mineral groups (calcium oxalate, uric acid, cystine, calcium phosphate and mixed stone). Major and trace elements in each group were determined using ICP-MS method. P and Ca constitute the main elements in urinary stones with Ca being more affine to oxalates while other alkali and alkaline earths precipitate with phosphate. Significant amounts of trace elements, especially Zn and Sr, were found in urinary calculi (calcium oxalate and phosphates) relative to biominerals (uric acid and cystine). Among urinary calculi, calcium phosphate contains greater amounts of trace metal than calcium oxalate. Phosphates seem to be the most important metal-bearing phases in urinary stones. Results indicate that concentrations of elements in urinary stones depend on the type of mineral phases. Significant differences in elements content across various mineralogical groups were found by applying statistical methods. Kruskal-Wallis test reveals significant difference between Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Zn, Sr, Se, Cd, and Co content in different investigated mineral groups. Moreover, Mann-Whitney test differentiates Ca, Na, Zn, Sr, Co, and Ni between minerals in oxalate and uric acid stones. This study shows that urinary stone can provide complementary information on human exposure to elements and estimate the environmental risks involved in urinary stones formation. PMID:25433503

  4. Major and trace elements of river-borne material: The Congo Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dupre, B.; Rousseau, D.

    1996-04-01

    The Congo river Basin is the second largest drainage basin in the world, after the Amazon. The materials carried by its main rivers provide the opportunity to study the products of denudation of a large fraction of the upper continental crust of the African continent. This paper presents the chemical composition of the different phases carried in the Congo rivers and is followed by a companion paper, devoted to the modelling of major and trace elements. The Congo river between Bangui and Brazzaville as well as its main tributaries, including a few organic-rich rivers, also called Black Rivers, were sampled during the 1989 high water stage. The three main phases (suspended load, dissolved load, and bedload) were analysed for twenty-five major and trace elements. Concentrations normalized to the upper continental crust show that in each river, suspended sediments and dissolved load are chemical complements for the most soluble elements (Ca, Na, Sr, K, Ba, Rb, and U). While these elements are enriched in the dissolved loads, they are considerably depleted in the corresponding suspended sediments. This is consistent with their high mobility during weathering. Another type of complementarity is observed for Zr and Hf between suspended sediments and bedload, related to the differential velocity of suspended sediments and zircons which are concentrated in bedloads. Compared to other rivers, absolute dissolved concentrations of Ca, Na, Sr, K, Ba, Rb, and U are remarkably low. Surprisingly, high dissolved concentrations are found in the Congo waters for other trace elements (e.g., REEs), especially in the Black rivers. On a world scale, these concentrations are among the highest measured in rivers and are shown to be pH dependent for a number of dissolved trace elements. The dissolved loads are systematically normalized to the suspended loads for each river, in order to remove the variations of the element abundances owing to source rock variations.

  5. Investigation of the behavior of potentially hazardous trace elements in Kentucky coals and combustion byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.D.; Blanchard, L.J.; Srikantapura, S.; Parekh, B.K.; Lafferty, C.J.

    1996-12-31

    The minor- and trace-element content of coal is of great interest because of the potentially hazardous impact on human health and the environment resulting from their release during coal combustion. Of the one billion tons of coal mined annually in the United States, 85-90% is consumed by coal-fired power plants. Potentially toxic elements present at concentrations as low as a few egg can be released in large quantities from combustion of this magnitude. Of special concern are those trace elements that occur naturally in coal which have been designated as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. The principle objective of this work was to investigate a combination of physical and chemical coal cleaning techniques to remove 90 percent of HAP trace elements at 90 percent combustibles recovery from Kentucky No. 9 coal. Samples of this coal were first subjected to physical separation by flotation in a Denver cell. The float fraction from the Denver cell was then used as feed material for hydrothermal leaching tests in which the efficacy of dilute alkali (NaOH) and acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions at various temperatures and pressures was investigated. The combined column flotation and mild chemical cleaning strategy removed 60-80% of trace elements with greater than 85, recovery of combustibles from very finely ground (-325 mesh) coal. The elemental composition of the samples generated at each stage was determined using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. PIXE is a rapid, instrumental technique that, in principle, is capable of analyzing all elements from sodium through uranium with sensitivities as low as 1 {mu}g/g.

  6. The role of plant-associated bacteria in the mobilization and phytoextraction of trace elements in contaminated soils

    PubMed Central

    Sessitsch, Angela; Kuffner, Melanie; Kidd, Petra; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Wenzel, Walter W.; Fallmann, Katharina; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Phytoextraction makes use of trace element-accumulating plants that concentrate the pollutants in their tissues. Pollutants can be then removed by harvesting plants. The success of phytoextraction depends on trace element availability to the roots and the ability of the plant to intercept, take up, and accumulate trace elements in shoots. Current phytoextraction practises either employ hyperaccumulators or fast-growing high biomass plants; the phytoextraction process may be enhanced by soil amendments that increase trace element availability in the soil. This review will focus on the role of plant-associated bacteria to enhance trace element availability in the rhizosphere. We report on the kind of bacteria typically found in association with trace element – tolerating or – accumulating plants and discuss how they can contribute to improve trace element uptake by plants and thus the efficiency and rate of phytoextraction. This enhanced trace element uptake can be attributed to a microbial modification of the absorptive properties of the roots such as increasing the root length and surface area and numbers of root hairs, or by increasing the plant availability of trace elements in the rhizosphere and the subsequent translocation to shoots via beneficial effects on plant growth, trace element complexation and alleviation of phytotoxicity. An analysis of data from literature shows that effects of bacterial inoculation on phytoextraction efficiency are currently inconsistent. Some key processes in plant–bacteria interactions and colonization by inoculated strains still need to be unravelled more in detail to allow full-scale application of bacteria assisted phytoremediation of trace element contaminated soils. PMID:23645938

  7. Signatures of Evolutionary Adaptation in Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing Trace Element Homeostasis in Liver.

    PubMed

    Engelken, Johannes; Espadas, Guadalupe; Mancuso, Francesco M; Bonet, Nuria; Scherr, Anna-Lena; Jímenez-Álvarez, Victoria; Codina-Solà, Marta; Medina-Stacey, Daniel; Spataro, Nino; Stoneking, Mark; Calafell, Francesc; Sabidó, Eduard; Bosch, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Essential trace elements possess vital functions at molecular, cellular, and physiological levels in health and disease, and they are tightly regulated in the human body. In order to assess variability and potential adaptive evolution of trace element homeostasis, we quantified 18 trace elements in 150 liver samples, together with the expression levels of 90 genes and abundances of 40 proteins involved in their homeostasis. Additionally, we genotyped 169 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the same sample set. We detected significant associations for 8 protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL), 10 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), and 15 micronutrient quantitative trait loci (nutriQTL). Six of these exceeded the false discovery rate cutoff and were related to essential trace elements: 1) one pQTL for GPX2 (rs10133290); 2) two previously described eQTLs for HFE (rs12346) and SELO (rs4838862) expression; and 3) three nutriQTLs: The pathogenic C282Y mutation at HFE affecting iron (rs1800562), and two SNPs within several clustered metallothionein genes determining selenium concentration (rs1811322 and rs904773). Within the complete set of significant QTLs (which involved 30 SNPs and 20 gene regions), we identified 12 SNPs with extreme patterns of population differentiation (FST values in the top 5% percentile in at least one HapMap population pair) and significant evidence for selective sweeps involving QTLs at GPX1, SELENBP1, GPX3, SLC30A9, and SLC39A8. Overall, this detailed study of various molecular phenotypes illustrates the role of regulatory variants in explaining differences in trace element homeostasis among populations and in the human adaptive response to environmental pressures related to micronutrients. PMID:26582562

  8. Trace element concentrations and bioindicator responses in tree swallows from northwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Warburton, D.; Hoffman, D.J.; Bickham, J.W.; Matson, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Extremely high concentrations of cadmium (3.5 ug/g dry wgt.) and elevated concentrations of chromium (>10 ug/g dry wgt.) and mercury (1.6 ug/g dry wgt.) were reported in waterbird tissues at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge in northwestern Minnesota in 1994. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were studied during 1998-2001 at three drainages into the Refuge, two pools on the Refuge, and at a nearby reference location to document whether high levels of contaminants were still present, and if so to quantify the source and severity of the contamination. Trace elements were measured in tree swallow eggs, livers, and diet. Reproductive success and bioindicator responses were monitored. In 2000, water was drawn down on Agassiz Pool, one of the main pools on the Refuge. This presented an opportunity to evaluate the response of trace element concentrations in the diet and tissues of tree swallows after reflooding. High concentrations of trace elements were not detected in swallow tissues, nor were there differences among locations. Less than 20% of swallow samples had detectable concentrations of cadmium or chromium. Mercury concentrations were low and averaged <0.25 ug/g dry wgt. in swallow tissues. Trace elements, including mercury, did not increase in tree swallows following the 2000 drawdown at Agassiz Pool. Hatching success and survival of nestlings to 12 days-of-age for tree swallows on the Refuge were similar to the national average and consistent with background trace element concentrations. Bioindicator measurements were within the normal ranges as well.

  9. Distribution and speciation of trace elements in iron and manganese oxide cave deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frierdich, Andrew J.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2012-08-01

    Fe and Mn oxide minerals control the distribution and speciation of heavy metals and trace elements in soils and aquatic systems through chemical mechanisms involving adsorption, incorporation, and electron transfer. The Pautler Cave System in Southwest Illinois, an analog to other temperate carbonate-hosted karst systems, contains Fe and Mn oxide minerals that form in multiple depositional environments and have high concentrations of associated trace elements. Synchrotron-based micro-scanning X-ray fluorescence (μ-SXRF) shows unique spatial distributions of Fe, Mn, and trace elements in mineral samples. Profile maps of Mn oxide cave stream pebble coatings show Fe- and As-rich laminations, indicating dynamic redox conditions in the cave stream. μ-SXRF maps demonstrate that Ni, Cu, and Zn correlate primarily with Mn whereas As correlates with both Mn and Fe; As is more enriched in the Fe phase. Zn is concentrated in the periphery of Mn oxide stream pebble coatings, and may be an indication of recent anthropogenic surface activity. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements reveal that As(V) occurs as surface complexes on Mn and Fe oxides whereas Zn(II) associated with Mn oxides is adsorbed to the basal planes of phyllomanganates in a tetrahedral coordination. Co(III) and Se(IV) are also observed to be associated with Mn oxides. The observation of Fe, Mn, and trace element banding in Mn oxide cave stream pebble coatings suggests that these materials are sensitive to and document aqueous redox conditions, similar to ferromanganese nodules in soils and in marine and freshwater sediments. Furthermore, speciation and distribution measurements indicate that these minerals scavenge trace elements and limit the transport of micronutrients and contaminants in karst aquifer systems while also potentially recording changes in anthropogenic surface activity and land-use.

  10. Distribution and speciation of trace elements in iron and manganese oxide cave deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Frierdich, Andrew J.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2012-10-24

    Fe and Mn oxide minerals control the distribution and speciation of heavy metals and trace elements in soils and aquatic systems through chemical mechanisms involving adsorption, incorporation, and electron transfer. The Pautler Cave System in Southwest Illinois, an analog to other temperate carbonate-hosted karst systems, contains Fe and Mn oxide minerals that form in multiple depositional environments and have high concentrations of associated trace elements. Synchrotron-based micro-scanning X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) shows unique spatial distributions of Fe, Mn, and trace elements in mineral samples. Profile maps of Mn oxide cave stream pebble coatings show Fe- and As-rich laminations, indicating dynamic redox conditions in the cave stream. {mu}-SXRF maps demonstrate that Ni, Cu, and Zn correlate primarily with Mn whereas As correlates with both Mn and Fe; As is more enriched in the Fe phase. Zn is concentrated in the periphery of Mn oxide stream pebble coatings, and may be an indication of recent anthropogenic surface activity. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements reveal that As(V) occurs as surface complexes on Mn and Fe oxides whereas Zn(II) associated with Mn oxides is adsorbed to the basal planes of phyllomanganates in a tetrahedral coordination. Co(III) and Se(IV) are also observed to be associated with Mn oxides. The observation of Fe, Mn, and trace element banding in Mn oxide cave stream pebble coatings suggests that these materials are sensitive to and document aqueous redox conditions, similar to ferromanganese nodules in soils and in marine and freshwater sediments. Furthermore, speciation and distribution measurements indicate that these minerals scavenge trace elements and limit the transport of micronutrients and contaminants in karst aquifer systems while also potentially recording changes in anthropogenic surface activity and land-use.

  11. Signatures of Evolutionary Adaptation in Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing Trace Element Homeostasis in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Sabidó, Eduard; Bosch, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Essential trace elements possess vital functions at molecular, cellular, and physiological levels in health and disease, and they are tightly regulated in the human body. In order to assess variability and potential adaptive evolution of trace element homeostasis, we quantified 18 trace elements in 150 liver samples, together with the expression levels of 90 genes and abundances of 40 proteins involved in their homeostasis. Additionally, we genotyped 169 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the same sample set. We detected significant associations for 8 protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL), 10 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), and 15 micronutrient quantitative trait loci (nutriQTL). Six of these exceeded the false discovery rate cutoff and were related to essential trace elements: 1) one pQTL for GPX2 (rs10133290); 2) two previously described eQTLs for HFE (rs12346) and SELO (rs4838862) expression; and 3) three nutriQTLs: The pathogenic C282Y mutation at HFE affecting iron (rs1800562), and two SNPs within several clustered metallothionein genes determining selenium concentration (rs1811322 and rs904773). Within the complete set of significant QTLs (which involved 30 SNPs and 20 gene regions), we identified 12 SNPs with extreme patterns of population differentiation (FST values in the top 5% percentile in at least one HapMap population pair) and significant evidence for selective sweeps involving QTLs at GPX1, SELENBP1, GPX3, SLC30A9, and SLC39A8. Overall, this detailed study of various molecular phenotypes illustrates the role of regulatory variants in explaining differences in trace element homeostasis among populations and in the human adaptive response to environmental pressures related to micronutrients. PMID:26582562

  12. Trace elements in foods and meals consumed by students attending the faculty cafeteria.

    PubMed

    Alberti-Fidanza, Adalberta; Burini, Giovanni; Perriello, Gabriele

    2002-03-15

    The content and intake of some trace elements (Pb, Cd, Ni, Hg, Cr) in meals, consumed by students attending the Faculty Cafeteria, were assessed. The study was carried out over 6 days of the 2nd week of February, 1993 and in three consecutive days of the second week of May. In those periods 10453 and 4055 students attended the cafeteria, respectively. After recording the ingredients and the preparation and cooking methods, some edible portions of foods and dishes were collected, homogenised, lyophilised and kept in polyethylene bottles until analysis. We found few differences in food content and dietary intake of some (Ni and Cr) but not all trace elements between February and May. Higher levels of Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr were present in bread (21.5+/-14.0, 5.6+/-0.02, 55.6+/-1.7 and 66.9+/-0.1 microg/100 g of edible portion, respectively), followed by meat, filled pasta and cheese, whereas lower values were observed in vegetables and fruit. The highest Hg content was recorded in the pasta group. Among the most frequently consumed foods and meals, the highest levels of P, Pb, Cr, Hg, Ni were found in bread, meat and pasta. The calculation of mean trace element intake, corrected for leftovers, showed pasta, bread and meat as the main sources of Pb, Cd, Ni, Hg and Cr over the two periods. The estimated potential tolerated weekly intake (PTWI) resulted high for Pb and Cd and low for Hg. Finally, a large variability in trace element content between raw and cooked foods was observed. These results give valuable information on trace element content of foods to be used for preparation of meals at the Faculty cafeteria in different seasons. PMID:11883754

  13. Trace element fluxes in sediments of an environmentally impacted river from a coastal zone of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Yuri Jacques Agra Bezerra; Cantalice, José Ramon Barros; Singh, Vijay P; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Piscoya, Victor Casimiro; Guerra, Sérgio M S

    2015-10-01

    Data regarding trace element concentrations and fluxes in suspended sediments and bedload are scarce. To fill this gap and meet the international need to include polluted rivers in future world estimation of trace element fluxes, this study aimed to determine the trace element fluxes in suspended sediment and bedload of an environmentally impacted river in Brazil. Water, suspended sediment, and bedload from both the upstream and the downstream cross sections were collected. To collect both the suspended sediment and water samples, we used the US DH-48. Bedload measurements were carried out using the US BLH 84 sampler. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). As and Hg were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-FIAS). The suspended sediments contributed more than 99 % of the trace element flux. By far Pb and to a less extent Zn at the downstream site represents major concerns. The yields of Pb and Zn in suspended sediments were 4.20 and 2.93 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively. These yields were higher than the values reported for Pb and Zn for Tuul River (highly impacted by mining activities), 1.60 and 1.30 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively, as well as the Pb yield (suspended + dissolved) to the sea of some Mediterranean rivers equal to 3.4 kg km(2) year(-1). Therefore, the highest flux and yield of Pb and Zn in Ipojuca River highlighted the importance to include medium and small rivers-often overlooked in global and regional studies-in the future estimation of world trace element fluxes in order to protect estuaries and coastal zones. PMID:25989857

  14. Trace element concentrations and bioindicator responses in tree swallows from northwestern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Warburton, David; Hoffman, David J; Bickham,