Science.gov

Sample records for airborne wind shear

  1. Airborne infrared low level wind shear predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, P. M.; Kurkowski, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The operating principles and test performance of an airborne IR (13-16 micron) temperature-sensing detection and warning system for low-level wind shear (LLWS) are presented. The physics of LLWS phenomena and of the IR radiometer are introduced. The cold density-current outflow or gust front related to LLWS is observed in the IR spectrum of CO2 by a radiometer with + or - 0.5-C accuracy at 0.5-Hz sampling rate; LLWS alerts are given on the basis of specific criteria. Test results from the JAWS experiments conducted at Denver in July 1982, are presented graphically and discussed. The feasibility of the passive IR system is demonstrated, with an average warning time of 51 sec, corresponding to a distance from touchdown of about 2 miles.

  2. Airborne in situ computation of the wind shear hazard index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera, Rosa M.; Bowles, Roland L.; Robinson, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm for airborne in situ computation of the wind shear hazard index (F-factor) was developed and evaluated in simulation and verified in flight. The algorithm was implemented on NASA's B-737-100 airplane, and tested under severe maneuvering, nonhazardous wind conditions, and normal takeoffs and landings. The airplane was flown through actual microburst conditions in Orlando, FL, where the algorithm produced wind shear measurements which were confirmed by an independent, ground-based radar measurement. Flight test results indicated that the in situ F-factor algorithm correctly measured the effect of the wind environment on the airplane's performance, and produced no nuisance alerts.

  3. Algorithms for airborne Doppler radar wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillberg, Jeff; Pockrandt, Mitch; Symosek, Peter; Benser, Earl T.

    1992-01-01

    Honeywell has developed algorithms for the detection of wind shear/microburst using airborne Doppler radar. The Honeywell algorithms use three dimensional pattern recognition techniques and the selection of an associated scanning pattern forward of the aircraft. This 'volumetric scan' approach acquires reflectivity, velocity, and spectral width from a three dimensional volume as opposed to the conventional use of a two dimensional azimuthal slice of data at a fixed elevation. The algorithm approach is based on detection and classification of velocity patterns which are indicative of microburst phenomenon while minimizing the false alarms due to ground clutter return. Simulation studies of microburst phenomenon and x-band radar interaction with the microburst have been performed and results of that study are presented. Algorithm performance indetection of both 'wet' and 'dry' microbursts is presented.

  4. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: First Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the first year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-looking technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of FAA certification requirements and the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment.

  5. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on airborne wind shear detection and warning systems are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: terms of reference; case study; flight management; sensor fusion and flight evaluation; Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data link/display; heavy rain aerodynamics; and second generation reactive systems.

  6. The detection and measurement of microburst wind shear by an airborne lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Paul A.; Bowles, Roland L.; Targ, Russell

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) Coherent Lidar Airborne Shear Sensor (CLASS) employs coherent lidar technology as a basis for a forward-looking predictive wind shear detection system. Line of sight wind velocities measured ahead of the aircraft are combined with aircraft state parameters to relate the measured wind change (or shear) ahead of an aircraft to its performance loss or gain. In this way the system can predict whether a shear detected ahead of the aircraft poses a significant threat to the aircraft and provide an advance warning to the flight crew. Installed aboard NASA's Boeing 737 research aircraft, the CLASS system is flown through convective microburst wind shears in Denver, Co., and Orlando, Fl. Some preliminary flight test results are presented. It is seen that the system was able to detect and measure wind shears ahead of the aircraft in the relatively dry Denver environment, but its performance was degraded in the high humidity and heavy rain in Orlando.

  7. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The Third Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was held in Hampton, Va., on October 16-18, 1990. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant on-going results of the NASA/FAA joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  8. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference hosted jointly by NASA Langley (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, on October 18 to 20, 1988. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the second year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  9. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems: Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Passman, Robert H. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant ongoing results of the NASA/FAA joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements. The present document was compiled to record the essence of the technology updates and discussions which follow each.

  10. Performance analysis and technical assessment of coherent lidar systems for airborne wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. Milton; Targ, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Detailed computer simulations of the lidar wind-measuring process have been conducted to evaluate the use of pulsed coherent lidar for airborne windshear monitoring. NASA data fields for an actual microburst event were used in the simulation. Both CO2 and Ho:YAG laser lidar systems performed well in the microburst test case, and were able to measure wind shear in the severe weather of this wet microburst to ranges in excess of 1.4 km. The consequent warning time gained was about 15 sec.

  11. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Passman, Robert H. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The Fourth Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was hosted jointly by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 14-16, 1992. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr. Roland Bowles of LaRC and Bob Passman of the FAA. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant ongoing results of the NASA/FAA Joint Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements. The present document has been compiled to record the essence of the technology updates and discussions which follow each.

  12. Airborne Wind Shear Detection and Warning Systems. Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, Amos A., Jr. (Compiler); Bowles, Roland L. (Compiler); Schlickenmaier, Herbert (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Second Combined Manufacturers' and Technologists' Conference was hosted jointly by NASA Langley (LaRC) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in Williamsburg, Virginia, on October 18 to 20, 1988. The meeting was co-chaired by Dr. Roland Bowles of LaRC and Herbrt Schlickenmaier of the FAA. The purpose of the meeting was to transfer significant, ongoing results gained during the second year of the joint NASA/FAA Airborne Wind Shear Program to the technical industry and to pose problems of current concern to the combined group. It also provided a forum for manufacturers to review forward-look technology concepts and for technologists to gain an understanding of the problems encountered by the manufacturers during the development of airborne equipment and the FAA certification requirements.

  13. An airborne FLIR detection and warning system for low altitude wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, Peter C.; Kuhn, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown through some preliminary flight measurement research that a forward looking infrared radiometer (FLIR) system can be used to successfully detect the cool downdraft of downbursts (microbusts/macrobursts) and thunderstorm gust front outflows that are responsible for most of the low altitude wind shear (LAWS) events. The FLIR system provides a much greater safety margin for the pilot than that provided by reactive designs such as inertial air speed systems. Preliminary results indicate that an advanced airborne FLIR system could provide the pilot with remote indication of microburst (MB) hazards along the flight path ahead of the aircraft. Results of a flight test of a prototype FLIR system show that a minimum warning time of one to four minutes (5 to 10 km), depending on aircraft speed, is available to the pilot prior to the microburst encounter.

  14. The Orlando TDWR testbed and airborne wind shear date comparison results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Steven; Berke, Anthony; Matthews, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The focus of this talk is on comparing terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) and airborne wind shear data in computing a microburst hazard index called the F factor. The TDWR is a ground-based system for detecting wind shear hazards to aviation in the terminal area. The Federal Aviation Administration will begin deploying TDWR units near 45 airports in late 1992. As part of this development effort, M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory operates under F.A.A. support a TDWR testbed radar in Orlando, FL. During the past two years, a series of flight tests has been conducted with instrumented aircraft penetrating microburst events while under testbed radar surveillance. These tests were carried out with a Cessna Citation 2 aircraft operated by the University of North Dakota (UND) Center for Aerospace Sciences in 1990, and a Boeing 737 operated by NASA Langley Research Center in 1991. A large data base of approximately 60 instrumented microburst penetrations has been obtained from these flights.

  15. Application of infrared radiometers for airborne detection of clear air turbulence and low level wind shear, airborne infrared low level wind shear detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, P. M.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of infrared optical techniques for the advance detection and avoidance of low level wind shear (LLWS) or low altitude wind shear hazardous to aircraft operations was investigated. A primary feasibility research effort was conducted with infrared detectors and instrumentation aboard the NASA Ames Research Center Learjet. The main field effort was flown on the NASA-Ames Dryden B57B aircraft. The original approach visualized a forward-looking, infrared transmitting (KRS-5) window through which signals would reach the detector. The present concept of a one inch diameter light pipe with a 45 deg angled mirror enables a much simpler installation virtually anywhere on the aircraft coupled with the possibility of horizontal scanning via rotation of the forward directed mirror. Present infrared detectors and filters would certainly permit ranging and horizontal scanning in a variety of methods. CRT display technology could provide a contoured picture with possible shear intensity levels from the infrared detection system on the weather radar or a small adjunct display. This procedure shoud be further developed and pilot evaluated in a light aircraft such as a Cessna 207 or equivalent.

  16. The Multi-Dimensional Nature of Wind Shear Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The impact of air carrier accidents has lead to investigations into the wind shear phenomenon. This report includes such topics as wind shear characterization, aircraft pilot performance in shear conditions, terminology and language development, wind shear forecasting, ground and flight wind shear displays, wind shear data collection and dissemination, and pilot factors associated with wind shear encounters. Some areas which show promise for short term solutions to the wind shear hazards includes: (1) improved gust front warning through ground based sensors; (2) greater pilot awareness of wind shear through improved training; and (3) airborne displays based on groundspeed/airspeed comparisons.

  17. Fighting wind shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A “coherent and sustained program” of improved radar detection of weather, pilot training, and better communication between pilots and air controllers can greatly reduce the risk of wind shear to airplanes landing or taking off, according to a National Research Council (NRC) committee.Wind shear, characterized by winds rapidly changing direction and speed, has caused several serious accidents in recent years; among the most notable is the July 8, 1982, crash of a Pan American World Airlines jetliner at the New Orleans International Airport, which killed 153 persons. Following the accident, Congress directed the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to contract with the NRC to study wind shear.

  18. NASA airborne radar wind shear detection algorithm and the detection of wet microbursts in the vicinity of Orlando, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Bracalente, Emedio M.

    1992-01-01

    The algorithms used in the NASA experimental wind shear radar system for detection, characterization, and determination of windshear hazard are discussed. The performance of the algorithms in the detection of wet microbursts near Orlando is presented. Various suggested algorithms that are currently being evaluated using the flight test results from Denver and Orlando are reviewed.

  19. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  20. Integration of the TDWR and LLWAS wind shear detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornman, Larry

    1991-01-01

    Operational demonstrations of a prototype TDWR/LLWAS (Terminal Doppler Weather Radar/Low Level Wind shear Alarm System) integrated wind shear detection system were conducted. The integration of wind shear detection systems is needed to provide end-users with a single, consensus source of information. A properly implemented integrated system provides wind shear warnings of a higher quality than stand-alone LLWAS or TDWR systems. The algorithmic concept used to generate the TDWR/LLWAS integrated products and several case studies are discussed, indicating the viability and potential of integrated wind shear detection systems. Implications for integrating ground and airborne wind shear detection systems are briefly examined.

  1. Flight in low-level wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.

    1983-01-01

    Results of studies of wind shear hazard to aircraft operation are summarized. Existing wind shear profiles currently used in computer and flight simulator studies are reviewed. The governing equations of motion for an aircraft are derived incorporating the variable wind effects. Quantitative discussions of the effects of wind shear on aircraft performance are presented. These are followed by a review of mathematical solutions to both the linear and nonlinear forms of the governing equations. Solutions with and without control laws are presented. The application of detailed analysis to develop warning and detection systems based on Doppler radar measuring wind speed along the flight path is given. A number of flight path deterioration parameters are defined and evaluated. Comparison of computer-predicted flight paths with those measured in a manned flight simulator is made. Some proposed airborne and ground-based wind shear hazard warning and detection systems are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of systems are discussed.

  2. Case history of FAA/SRI wind shear models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlickenmaier, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    In order to understand the development of the FAA/SRI wind fields, it is important to understand the operating philosophy of the FAA's Wind Shear Program Office. The goal of the office was to ensure an integrated solution to the wind shear problem which addressed three area: ground based equipment and coordination; airborne systems and procedures; and weather prediction. This triply addressed goal was central to the development of the wind fields. The primary user of the wind shear modeling during the FAA's program was airborne simulation. The project requirement was to use wind shear models that resulted from accidents so that effective procedures and/or equipment could be found for hazardous wind shear encounters. The wind shear model development is discussed in detail.

  3. Infrared low-level wind shear work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, Pat

    1988-01-01

    Results of field experiments for the detection of clear air disturbance and low level wind shear utilizing an infrared airborne system are given in vugraph form. The hits, misses and nuisance alarms scores are given. Information is given on the infrared spatial resolution technique. The popular index of aircraft hazard (F= WX over g - VN over AS) is developed for a remote temperature sensor.

  4. CAT LIDAR wind shear studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goff, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The studies considered the major meteorological factors producing wind shear, methods to define and classify wind shear in terms significant from an aircraft perturbation standpoint, the significance of sensor location and scan geometry on the detection and measurement of wind shear, and the tradeoffs involved in sensor performance such as range/velocity resolution, update frequency and data averaging interval.

  5. Wind shear predictive detector technology study status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gandolfi, C.

    1990-01-01

    Among the different elements to be investigated when considering the Wind Shear hazard, the Aeronautical Navigation Technical Service (STNA/3E), whose task is to participate in the development of new technologies and equipments, focused its effort on airborne and ground sensors for the detection of low-level wind shear. The first task, initiated in 1986, consists in the evaluation of three candidate techniques for forward-looking sensors: lidar, sodar, and radar. No development is presently foreseen for an infrared based air turbulence advance warning system although some flight experiments took place in the 70's. A Thomson infrared radiometer was then installed on an Air France Boeing 707 to evaluate its capability of detecting clear air turbulence. The conclusion showed that this technique was apparently able to detect cloud layers but that additional experiments were needed; on the other hand, the rarity of the phenomenon and the difficulty in operating on a commercial aircraft were also mentioned.

  6. Wind shear and vortex wake research in UK, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodfield, A. A.

    1983-01-01

    A wind shear and vortex wake and their impact on aircraft were investigated. The systems and advice to help pilots, and rational scientific methods to assist in advising certification authorities and those interested in improving flight safety were developed. Wind Shear and Vortex Wakes are related, they are both invisible enemies of aircraft in the form of large disturbances in the atmosphere, both cause major accidents. Problems of building wakes at airports are is considered. Research on wind shear was initiated by the American FAA following the Boston, New York and Denver accidents to civil airliners. This resulted in: useful advice to pilots about wind shear; better attempts by the meteorologists at forecasting wind shear conditions; and useful ideas for wind shear measurement and warning systems. Three major research tasks are outstanding: (1) Worldwide measurements to give reliable estimates of probability and details of the forms of large wind shears; (2) Developments of real time wind shear measuring systems for ground or airborne use; and (3) Establishing relationships between measured wind shear and the potential hazard to an aircraft, or class of aircraft.

  7. Cockpit display of hazardous wind shear information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Information on cockpit display of wind shear information is given in viewgraph form. Based on the current status of windshear sensors and candidate data dissemination systems, the near-term capabilities for windshear avoidance will most likely include: (1) Ground-based detection: TDWR (Terminal Doppler Weather Radar), LLWAS (Low-Level Windshear Alert System), Automated PIREPS; (2) Ground-Air datalinks: Air traffic control voice channels, Mode-S digital datalink, ACARS alphanumeric datalink. The possible datapaths for integration of these systems are illustrated in a diagram. In the future, airborne windshear detection systems such as lidars, passive IR detectors, or airborne Doppler radars may also become available. Possible future datalinks include satellite downlink and specialized en route weather channels.

  8. Air/ground wind shear information integration: Flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1992-01-01

    An element of the NASA/FAA wind shear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne wind shear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a wind shear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. High level microburst products were extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the wind shear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in the core of each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which in situ 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne in situ measurements. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurement would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the feasibility of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

  9. Status of NASA's IR wind shear detection research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissick, Burnell

    1991-01-01

    The status of NASA's wind shear detection research is reported in viewgraph form. Information is given on early experience, FLIR detectors, quantities measured by Airborne Warning and Avoidance System 1 (AWAS 1), the time series model for Flight 551, conclusions from NASA 737 flights, conclusions on Orlando 7-7-90, and AWAS 3 mnemonics.

  10. Structure of wind-shear turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, G.; Laituri, T. R.

    1988-01-01

    The statistical characteristics of wind-shear turbulence are modelled. Isotropic turbulence serves as the basis of comparison for the anisotropic turbulence which exists in wind shear. The question of how turbulence scales in a wind shear is addressed from the perspective of power spectral density.

  11. Structure of wind-shear turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, G.; Laituri, T. R.

    1989-01-01

    The statistical characteristics of wind shear turbulence are modelled. Isotropic turbulence serves as the basis of comparison for the anisotropic turbulence which exists in wind shear. The question of turbulence scales in wind shear is addressed from the perspective of power spectral density.

  12. The relationship of an integral wind shear hazard to aircraft performance limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. S.; Robinson, P. A.; Hinton, D. A.; Bowles, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    The development and certification of airborne forward-looking wind shear detection systems has required a hazard definition stated in terms of sensor observable wind field characteristics. This paper outlines the definition of the F-factor wind shear hazard index and an average F-factor quantity, calculated over a specified averaging interval, which may be used to judge an aircraft's potential performance loss due to a given wind shear field. A technique for estimating airplane energy changes during a wind shear encounter is presented and used to determine the wind shear intensity, as a function of the averaging interval, that presents significant hazard to transport category airplanes. The wind shear hazard levels are compared to averaged F-factor values at various averaging intervals for four actual wind shear encounters. Results indicate that averaging intervals of about one kilometer could be used in a simple method to discern hazardous shears.

  13. Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind LIDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y. (Inventor); Koch, Grady J. (Inventor); Kavaya, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the present invention enable airborne Doppler Wind LIDAR system measurements and INS/GPS measurements to be combined to estimate wind parameters and compensate for instrument misalignment. In a further embodiment, the wind speed and wind direction may be computed based on two orthogonal line-of-sight LIDAR returns.

  14. Continuous wave laser for wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Loren

    1991-01-01

    Details of the design and development of a continuous-wave heterodyne carbon dioxide laser which has wind shear detection capabilities are given in viewgraph form. The goal of the development was to investigate the lower cost CW (rather than pulsed) lidar option for look-ahead wind shear detection from aircraft. The device has potential utility for ground based wind shear detection at secondary airports where the high cost of a Terminal Doppler Weather Radar system is not justifiable.

  15. Wind shear modeling for aircraft hazard definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Camp, D. W.; Wang, S. T.

    1978-01-01

    Mathematical models of wind profiles were developed for use in fast time and manned flight simulation studies aimed at defining and eliminating these wind shear hazards. A set of wind profiles and associated wind shear characteristics for stable and neutral boundary layers, thunderstorms, and frontal winds potentially encounterable by aircraft in the terminal area are given. Engineering models of wind shear for direct hazard analysis are presented in mathematical formulae, graphs, tables, and computer lookup routines. The wind profile data utilized to establish the models are described as to location, how obtained, time of observation and number of data points up to 500 m. Recommendations, engineering interpretations and guidelines for use of the data are given and the range of applicability of the wind shear models is described.

  16. Lidar wind shear detection for commercial aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targ, Russell; Bowles, Roland L.

    1991-08-01

    National attention has focused on the critical problem of detecting and avoiding windshear since the crash on August 2, 1985, of a Lockheed L-1011 at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. As part of The NASA/FAA National Integrated Windshear Program, the authors have defined a measurable windshear hazard index that can be remotely sensed from an aircraft, to give the pilot information about the wind conditions he will experience at some later time if he continues along the present flight path. The technology analysis and end- to-end performance simulation, which measures signal-to-noise ratios and resulting wind velocity errors for competing coherent lidar systems, shows that a Ho:YAG lidar at a wavelength of 2.1 micrometers and a CO2 lidar at 10.6 micrometers can give the pilot information about the line-of-sight component of a windshear threat in a region extending from his present position to 2 to 4 km in front of the aircraft. This constitutes a warning time of 20 to 40 s, even under conditions of moderately heavy precipitation. Using these results, a Coherent Lidar Airborne Shear Sensor (CLASS), using a Q-switched CO2 laser at 10.6 micrometers , is being designed and developed for flight evaluation in early 1992.

  17. Software Development for an Airborne Wind LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jishan; Li, Zhigang; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Zhishen

    2014-11-01

    Currently, Wind lidar offers an important way to obtain clear air wind field [1]. The principle of the wind lidar is based on the Doppler frequency shift in the air of the laser. The received signal of the lidar is scattered by the air molecular and particles [2]. They are Rayleigh scattering and Mie scattering. Coherent detection technique is an effective method to get the Doppler shift from the scattering in the air. From the Doppler shift we can get the radial wind speed. Generally, the horizontal wind field is that people concerned about. Based on the radial wind speed of more than 3 directions, we can use the VAD technique to retrieve the horizontal wind field. For an airborne lidar, some corrections such as the air plane posture, the air plane velocity must be performed. We developed a set of software for an airborne wind lidar using the MFC visual C++ Programming technology. Functions of the software are raw data decoding, radial wind speed inversion, horizontal wind field retrieve by VAD technique, air plane posture correction, air plane velocity correction, and so on. It also has functions for data display and saves. The results can be saved as picture or numerical values.

  18. Summary Proceedings of a Wind Shear Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.; Melvin, W. W.; Frost, W.; Camp, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    A number of recent program results and current issues were addressed: the data collection phase of the highly successful Joint Airport Weather Study (JAWS) Project and the NASA-B5f7B Gust Gradient Program, the use of these data for flight crew training through educational programs (e.g., films) and with manned flight training simulators, methods for post-accident determination of wind conditions from flight data recorders, the microburst wind shear phenomenon which was positively measured and described the ring vortex as a possible generating mechanism, the optimum flight procedure for use during an unexpected wind shear encounter, evaluation of the low-level wind shear alert system (LLWSAS), and assessment of the demonstrated and viable application of Doppler radar as an operational wind shear warning and detection system.

  19. Problems pilots face involving wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melvin, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    Educating pilots and the aviation industry about wind shears presents a major problem associated with this meteorological phenomenon. The pilot's second most pressing problem is the need for a language to discuss wind shear encounters with other pilots so that the reaction of the aircraft to the wind shear encounter can be accurately described. Another problem is the flight director which gives a centered pitch command for a given angular displacement from the glide slope. It was suggested that they should instead be called flight path command and should not center unless the aircraft is actually correcting to the flight path.

  20. Wind shear measuring on board an airliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauspe, P.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement technique which continuously determines the wind vector on board an airliner during takeoff and landing is introduced. Its implementation is intended to deliver sufficient statistical background concerning low frequency wind changes in the atmospheric boundary layer and extended knowledge about deterministic wind shear modeling. The wind measurement scheme is described and the adaptation of apparatus onboard an A300 airbus is shown. Preliminary measurements made during level flight demonstrate the validity of the method.

  1. Reducing Airborne Debris In Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleeper, Robert K.

    1993-01-01

    In proposed technique to trap airborne particles during normal wind-tunnel testing, large sections of single-backed adhesive paper or cloth mounted with adhesive side exposed to flow. Adhesive material securely installed on flow vanes, walls, or other surfaces of wind tunnel in manner facilitating replacement. Installed or replaced anytime permissible to enter tunnel. Provides safe, inexpensive, rugged, passive, continuous, and otherwise inert cleansing action suitable for wind tunnel of any size. Also applied to specialized clean-room environments and to air-conditioning systems in general.

  2. Wind shear related research at Princeton University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed are: (1) real-time decision aiding-aircraft guidance for wind shear avoidance; (2) reducing the thrust-manual recovery strategies; and (3) dynamic behaviour of and aircraft encountering a single axis vortex.

  3. Pulsed laser Doppler measurements of wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimarzio, C.; Harris, C.; Bilbro, J. W.; Weaver, E. A.; Burnham, D. C.; Hallock, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    There is a need for a sensor at the airport that can remotely detect, identify, and track wind shears near the airport in order to assure aircraft safety. To determine the viability of a laser wind-shear system, the NASA pulsed coherent Doppler CO2 lidar (Jelalian et al., 1972) was installed in a semitrailer van with a rooftop-mounted hemispherical scanner and was used to monitor thunderstorm gust fronts. Wind shears associated with the gust fronts at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) between 5 July and 4 August 1978 were measured and tracked. The most significant data collected at KSC are discussed. The wind shears were clearly visible in both real-time velocity vs. azimuth plots and in postprocessing displays of velocities vs. position. The results indicate that a lidar system cannot be used effectively when moderate precipitation exists between the sensor and the region of interest.

  4. Unresolved issues in wind shear encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Much remains to be learned about the hazards of low altitude wind shear to aviation. New research should be conducted on the nature of the atmospheric environment, on aircraft performance, and on guidance and control aids. In conducting this research, it is important to distinguish between near-term and far-term objectives, between basic and applied research, and between uses of results for aircraft design or for real-time implementation. Advances in on-board electronics can be applied to assuring that aircraft of all classes have near optimal protection against wind shear hazards.

  5. Flight penetration of wind shear: Control strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Amit S.

    1988-01-01

    Wind shear is a dangerous condition where there is a sharp change in the direction and magnitude of the wind velocity over a short distance or time. This condition is especially dangerous to aircraft during landing and takeoff and can cause a sudden loss of lift and thereby height at a critical time. A numerical simulation showed the effective performance of the Linear Quadratic Regulator and the Nonlinear Inverse Dynamics controllers. The major conclusions are listed and discussed.

  6. Protecting Airplanes From Wind Shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, Richard S.

    1988-01-01

    Improvements in flightpath displays help pilots avoid crashes in downbursts. Report presents computer-simulated response of large transport aircraft to downbursts of wind during takeoffs and landings. Simulation clearly demonstrates benefits of increased available energy in form of initial speed, initial altitude, or higher thrust-to-weight ratio.

  7. History of wind shear turbulence models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusimano, Lou

    1987-01-01

    The Office of Flight Operations, Flight Technical Programs Div., at the FAA Headquarters, interfaces with industry, R&D communities and air carriers during the introduction of new types of equipment into operational services. A brief highlight of the need which FAA operations sees for new wind shear and turbulence data sets from the viewpoint of equipment certification and simulation is presented.

  8. Laboratory model of flight through wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.

    1985-01-01

    The simulation of an aircraft flying through a downdraft or microburst is presented. The simulation was performed under the conditions of constant takeoff thrust. The resulting wind shear conditions were filmed and examined for possible pilot corrective action in the future.

  9. 76 FR 76333 - Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES) AGENCY...,'' to airborne wind energy systems (AWES). In addition, this notice requests information from...

  10. Progress on Intelligent Guidance and Control for Wind Shear Encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stratton, D. Alexander

    1990-01-01

    Low altitude wind shear poses a serious threat to air safety. Avoiding severe wind shear challenges the ability of flight crews, as it involves assessing risk from uncertain evidence. A computerized intelligent cockpit aid can increase flight crew awareness of wind shear, improving avoidance decisions. The primary functions of a cockpit advisory expert system for wind shear avoidance are discussed. Also introduced are computational techniques being implemented to enable these primary functions.

  11. Wind shear training applications for 91/135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbon, ED

    1991-01-01

    The requirement for wind shear training of all pilots has been demonstrated too often by the accident statistics of past years. Documents were developed to train airline crews on specific aircraft and to teach recognition of the meteorological conditions that are conducive to wind shear and microburst formation. A Wind Shear Training Aid program is discussed.

  12. Wind Field Measurements With Airborne Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    In collaboration with lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, we have developed and flown the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) lidar on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. The scientific motivations for this effort are: to obtain measurements of subgrid scale (i.e. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in global/regional-scale models; to improve understanding and predictive capabilities on the mesoscale; and to assess the performance of Earth-orbiting Doppler lidar for global tropospheric wind measurements. MACAWS is a scanning Doppler lidar using a pulsed transmitter and coherent detection; the use of the scanner allows 3-D wind fields to be produced from the data. The instrument can also be radiometrically calibrated and used to study aerosol, cloud, and surface scattering characteristics at the lidar wavelength in the thermal infrared. MACAWS was used to study surface winds off the California coast near Point Arena, with an example depicted in the figure below. The northerly flow here is due to the Pacific subtropical high. The coastal topography interacts with the northerly flow in the marine inversion layer, and when the flow passes a cape or point that juts into the winds, structures called "hydraulic expansion fans" are observed. These are marked by strong variation along the vertical and cross-shore directions. The plots below show three horizontal slices at different heights above sea level (ASL). Bottom plots are enlargements of the area marked by dotted boxes above. The terrain contours are in 200-m increments, with the white spots being above 600-m elevation. Additional information is contained in the original.

  13. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers (presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-06-05

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites for diverse areas in the central plains (Texas to North Dakota)--Turbines hub heights are now 70-100 m above ground and Wind measurements at 70-100+ m have been rare. (2) Present conclusions about wind shear characteristics for prime wind energy development regions.

  14. Exploratory Meeting on Airborne Doppler Lidar Wind Velocity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, G. H. (Editor); Kaufman, J. W. (Editor); Vaughan, W. W. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The scientific interests and applications of the Airborne Doppler Lidar Wind Velocity Measurement System to severe storms and local weather are discussed. The main areas include convective phenomena, local circulation, atmospheric boundary layer, atmospheric dispersion, and industrial aerodynamics.

  15. Microbursts as an aviation wind shear hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The downburst-related accidents or near-misses of jet aircraft have been occurring at the rate of once or twice a year since 1975. A microburst with its field comparable to the length of runways can induce a wind shear which endangers landing or liftoff aircraft; the latest near miss landing of a 727 aircraft at Atlanta, Ga. in 1979 indicated that some microbursts are too small to trigger the warning device of the anemometer network at major U.S. airports. The nature of microbursts and their possible detection by Doppler radar are discussed, along with proposed studies of small-scale microbursts.

  16. Nocturnal wind direction shear and its potential impact on pollutant transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, B.M.; Baars, J.A.; Stone, G.L.

    1998-12-31

    The estimation of transport and diffusion of airborne pollutants during the nighttime is challenging, especially over complex terrain where gravity driven drainage flows may be overlain with wind from a different direction. This study investigates the character of wind direction shear in the lowest 100 m using tower measurements from a complex, semi-arid site where local thermally-driven flows are common. The effects of wind direction shear on plume transport are studied by simulating a hypothetical elevated term release. This is accomplished by first simulating transport and dispersion using wind measurements from only the 12-m level from a network of towers. This case represents the approach commonly taken at many facilities where a network of short towers is available. Then the release is modeled using wind measurements made at four levels in the lowest 100 m. The differences between the two simulations are significant and would lead to very different responses in an emergency situation.

  17. Nocturnal wind direction shear and its potential impact on pollutant transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, B.M.; Baars, J.A.; Stone, G.L.

    1997-09-01

    The estimation of transport and diffusion of airborne pollutants during the nighttime is challenging, especially over complex terrain where gravity driven drainage flows may be overlain with wind from a different direction. This study investigates the character of wind direction shear in the lowest 100 m using tower measurements from a complex, semi-arid site where local thermally-driven flows are common. the effects of wind direction shear on plume transport are studied by simulating a hypothetical elevated term release. This is accomplished by first simulating transport and dispersion using wind measurements from only the 12-m level from a network of towers. This case represents the approach commonly taken at many facilities where a network of short towers is available. Then the release is modeled using wind measurements made at four levels in the lowest 100 m. The differences between the two simulations are significant and would lead to very different responses in an emergency situation.

  18. Pilot-aircraft system reponse to wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, B. S.; Frost, W.

    1980-01-01

    The nonlinear aircraft motion and automatic control model is expanded to incorporate the human pilot into simulations of aircraft response to wind to wind shear. The human pilot is described by a constant gains lag filter. Two runs are carried out using pilot transfer functions. Fixed-stick, autopilot, and manned computer simulations are made with an aircraft having characteristics of a small commuter type aircraft flown through longitudinal winds measured by a Doppler radar beamed along the glide slope. Simulations are also made flying an aircraft through sinusoidal head wind and tail wind shears at the phugoid frequency to evaluate the response of manned aircraft in thunderstorm wind environments.

  19. Impact of Vertical Wind Shear on Tropical Cyclone Rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Dan; Marchok, Tim

    2014-01-01

    While tropical cyclone rainfall has a large axisymmetric component, previous observational and theoretical studies have shown that environmental vertical wind shear leads to an asymmetric component of the vertical motion and precipitation fields. Composites consistently depict a precipitation enhancement downshear and also cyclonically downwind from the downshear direction. For consistence with much of the literature and with Northern Hemisphere observations, this is subsequently referred to as "Downshear-Left". Stronger shear magnitudes are associated with greater amplitude precipitation asymmetries. Recent work has reinforced the prior findings, and explored details of the response of the precipitation and kinematic fields to environmental vertical wind shear. Much of this research has focused on tropical cyclones away from land, to limit the influence of other processes that might distort the signal related to vertical wind shear. Recent evidence does suggest vertical wind shear can also play a major role in precipitation asymmetries during and after landfall.

  20. United Airlines wind shear incident of May 31, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, John

    1987-01-01

    An incident involving wind shear which occured on 31 May 1984 on a United Airlines aircraft is discussed by a member of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The meteorological parameters important to this incident are detailed.

  1. An experimental cockpit display for TDWR wind shear alerts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Steven D.; Daly, Peter M.; Demillo, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    The first successful ground-to-air data link and cockpit display of terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR) wind shear warnings in real-time are reported. During the summer of 1990, wind shear warnings generated by the TDWR testbed radar at Orlando, Florida, were transmitted in real-time to a research aircraft performing microburst penetrations. Automatic delivery of TDWR wind shear warnings potentially result in decreased controller workload and improved pilot information. Pilot responses indicate that the information provided by the cockpit displays was useful in visualizing the location of wind shear hazards. The graphical display of microburst hazards provided better information than that currently provided by ATC verbal messages and pilot reports. This information was useful in assessing the microburst hazard, deciding whether to continue the approach, and planning escape maneuvers.

  2. United Airlines wind shear incident of May 31, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmon, David A.

    1987-01-01

    An incident involving wind shear on 31 May 1984 is discussed by an airline employee. The specs of the plane are given, the weather conditions are listed, and the actions taken by the flight crew are discussed.

  3. TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear

    NASA Video Gallery

    TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Bertha on Aug. 1 was created from TRMM satellite data. It shows (from the south) intense thunderstor...

  4. Accuracy of wind measurements using an airborne Doppler lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Simulated wind fields and lidar data are used to evaluate two sources of airborne wind measurement error. The system is sensitive to ground speed and track angle errors, with accuracy required of the angle to within 0.2 degrees and of the speed to within 1 knot, if the recovered wind field is to be within five percent of the correct direction and 10 percent of the correct speed. It is found that errors in recovered wind speed and direction are dependent on wind direction relative to the flight path. Recovery of accurate wind fields from nonsimultaneous sampling errors requires that the lidar data be displaced to account for advection so that the intersections are defined by air parcels rather than fixed points in space.

  5. Design of airborne wind turbine and computational fluid dynamics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbreen, Faiqa

    Wind energy is a promising alternative to the depleting non-renewable sources. The height of the wind turbines becomes a constraint to their efficiency. Airborne wind turbine can reach much higher altitudes and produce higher power due to high wind velocity and energy density. The focus of this thesis is to design a shrouded airborne wind turbine, capable to generate 70 kW to propel a leisure boat with a capacity of 8-10 passengers. The idea of designing an airborne turbine is to take the advantage of higher velocities in the atmosphere. The Solidworks model has been analyzed numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software StarCCM+. The Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Simulation (URANS) with K-epsilon turbulence model has been selected, to study the physical properties of the flow, with emphasis on the performance of the turbine and the increase in air velocity at the throat. The analysis has been done using two ambient velocities of 12 m/s and 6 m/s. At 12 m/s inlet velocity, the velocity of air at the turbine has been recorded as 16 m/s. The power generated by the turbine is 61 kW. At inlet velocity of 6 m/s, the velocity of air at turbine increased to 10 m/s. The power generated by turbine is 25 kW.

  6. Surface and airborne evidence for plumes and winds on triton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, C.J.; McEwen, A.S.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Terrile, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Aeolian features on Triton that were imaged during the Voyager Mission have been grouped. The term "aeolian feature" is broadly defined as features produced by or blown by the wind, including surface and airborne materials. Observations of the latitudinal distributions of the features probably associated with current activity (known plumes, crescent streaks, fixed terminator clouds, and limb haze with overshoot) all occur from latitude -37?? to latitude -62??. Likely indicators of previous activity (dark surface streaks) occur from latitude -5?? to -70??, but are most abundant from -15?? to -45??, generally north of currently active features. Those indicators which give information on wind direction and speed have been measured. Wind direction is a function of altitude. The predominant direction of the surface wind streaks is found to be between 40?? and 80?? measured clockwise from north. The average orientation of streaks in the northeast quadrant is 59??. Winds at 1- to 3-kilometer altitude are eastward, while those at >8 kilometers blow west.

  7. Sporadic-E layers and unstable wind shears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. G.; Miller, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Electron density profiles of sporadic-E layers have been observed with good height resolution using rocket-borne probes. These generally show a simple shape consistent with the effect of a linear wind shear acting on metallic ions. Occasionally more complex shapes have been recorded, including double peaks and, on one occasion, a nearly rectangular profile. A direct method of obtaining the wind profile from the concentration profile of metallic ions has been developed. The metallic ion concentration profile itself is obtained from the electron density profile. Both procedures derive from the steady-state continuity equation. For linear wind shears it is found that the maximum value of the shear is about 50 m/s/km which corresponds to a Richardson number of 1/4. Layers of complex shape are associated with non-linear wind shears in which the maximum shear considerably exceeds this value. It is concluded that the complex profiles of sporadic-E layers can be interpreted as an effect of unstable wind shears.

  8. Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar Post Data Processing Software DAPS-LV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y. (Inventor); Koch, Grady J. (Inventor); Kavaya, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the present invention enable post processing of airborne Doppler wind LIDAR data. In an embodiment, airborne Doppler wind LIDAR data software written in LabVIEW may be provided and may run two versions of different airborne wind profiling algorithms. A first algorithm may be the Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind LIDAR ("APOLO") using airborne wind LIDAR data from two orthogonal directions to estimate wind parameters, and a second algorithm may be a five direction based method using pseudo inverse functions to estimate wind parameters. The various embodiments may enable wind profiles to be compared using different algorithms, may enable wind profile data for long haul color displays to be generated, may display long haul color displays, and/or may enable archiving of data at user-selectable altitudes over a long observation period for data distribution and population.

  9. Velocity shear layers in solar winds affect Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-09-01

    Human society is increasingly reliant on technology that can be disrupted by space weather. For instance, geomagnetic storms can cause high-latitude air fights to be rerouted, costing as much as $100,000 per fight; induce errors of up to 46 meters in GPS systems; and affect satellites and the International Space Station. Space weather is determined by how the solar wind, a stream of hot plasma from the Sun, interacts with Earth's magnetic field. In studying space weather, scientists have largely neglected the fact that the solar wind contains layers of very strong velocity shear. Scientists understand very little about how these wind shears affect space weather.

  10. Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Airborne Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodrow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Google, through its Makani project, is developing a new type of wind energy conversion device called an energy kite. Using a tethered airfoil flying in vertical loops, energy kites access stronger, more consistent wind resources at altitudes between 100-500m AGL. By eliminating mass and cost of the tower, nacelle, and gearbox of a conventional wind turbine, and by increasing the capacity factor of energy generation, energy kites promise to significantly reduce the levelized cost of wind energy. The focus of this presentation will be on the approach Makani has taken to characterize the wind resource at 100-500m, where far less study has taken place compared to the atmosphere accessed by conventional wind turbines.

  11. Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhothermel, Jeffry; Jones, W. D.; Dunkin, J. A.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This effort involves development of a calibrated, pulsed coherent CO2 Doppler lidar, followed by a carefully-planned and -executed program of multi-dimensional wind velocity and aerosol backscatter measurements from the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. The lidar, designated as the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS), will be applicable to two research areas. First, MACAWS will enable specialized measurements of atmospheric dynamical processes in the planetary boundary layer and free troposphere in geographic locations and over scales of motion not routinely or easily accessible to conventional sensors. The proposed observations will contribute fundamentally to a greater understanding of the role of the mesoscale, helping to improve predictive capabilities for mesoscale phenomena and to provide insights into improving model parameterizations of sub-grid scale processes within large-scale circulation models. As such, it has the potential to contribute uniquely to major, multi-institutional field programs planned for the mid 1990's. Second, MACAWS measurements can be used to reduce the degree of uncertainty in performance assessments and algorithm development for NASA's prospective Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), which has no space-based instrument heritage. Ground-based lidar measurements alone are insufficient to address all of the key issues. To minimize costs, MACAWS is being developed cooperatively by the lidar remote sensing groups of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory, and MSFC using existing lidar hardware and manpower resources. Several lidar components have already been exercised in previous airborne lidar programs (for example, MSFC Airborne Doppler Lidar System (ADLS) used in 1981,4 Severe Storms Wind Measurement Program; JPL Airborne Backscatter Lidar Experiment (ABLE) used in 1989,90 Global Backscatter Experiment Survey Missions). MSFC has been given responsibility for directing the overall

  12. Aircraft Low Altitude Wind Shear Detection and Warning System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Peter C.; Kuhn, Peter M.

    1991-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence to substantiate the causal relationship between low altitude wind shear (LAWS) and the recent increase in low-altitude aircraft accidents. The National Research Council has found that for the period 1964 to 1982, LAWS was involved in nearly all the weather-related air carrier fatalities. However, at present, there is no acceptable method, technique, or hardware system that provides the necessary safety margins, for spatial and timely detection of LAWS from an aircraft during the critical phases of landing and takeoff. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has addressed this matter and supports the development of an airborne system for detecting hazardous LAWS with at least a one minute warning of the potential hazard to the pilot. One of the purposes of this paper is to show from some of our preliminary flight measurement research that a forward looking infrared radiometer (FLIR) system can be used to successfully detect the cool downdraft of downbursts [microbursts/macrobursts (MB)] and thunderstorm gust front outflows that are responsible for most of the LAWS events. The FLIR system provides a much greater safety margin for the pilot than that provided by reactive designs such as inertial-air speed systems that require the actual penetration of the MB before a pilot warning can be initiated. Our preliminary results indicate that an advanced airborne FLIR system could provide the pilot with remote indication of MB threat, location, movement, and predicted MB hazards along the flight path ahead of the aircraft.In a proof-of-concept experiment, we have flight tested a prototype FLIR system (nonscanning, fixed range) near and within Colorado MBs with excellent detectability. The results show that a minimum warning time of one-four minutes (5×10 km), depending on aircraft speed, is available to the pilot prior to a MB encounter. Analysis of the flight data with respect to a modified `hazard index' indicates the severe hazard

  13. Intelligent guidance and control for wind shear encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The principal objective is to develop methods for assessing the likelihood of wind shear encounter, for deciding what flight path to pursue, and for using the aircraft's full potential for combating wind shear. This study requires the definition of both deterministic and statistical techniques for fusing internal and external information, for making go/no-go decisions, and for generating commands to the aircraft's cockpit displays and autopilot for both manually controlled and automatic flight. The program has begun with the development of a real-time expert system for pilot aiding that is based on the results of the FAA Windshear Training Aids Program. A two-volume manual that presents an overview, pilot guide, training program, and substantiating data provides guidelines for this initial development. The Expert System to Avoid Wind Shear (ESAWS) currently contains over 140 rules and is coded in the LISP programming language for implementation on a Symbolics 3670 LISP machine.

  14. Temperature lapse rate as an adjunct to wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweifil, Terry

    1991-01-01

    Several meteorological parameters were examined to determine if measurable atmospheric conditions can improve windshear detection devices. Lapse rate, the temperature change with altitude, shows promise as being an important parameter in the prediction of severe wind shears. It is easily measured from existing aircraft instrumentation, and it can be important indicator of convective activity including thunderstorms and microbursts. The meteorological theory behind lapse rate measurement is briefly reviewed, and and FAA certified system is described that is currently implemented in the Honeywell Wind Shear Detection and Guidance System.

  15. Hourly wind profiler observations of the jet stream - Wind shear and pilot reports of turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syrett, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Hourly wind profiler observations of the jet stream are reported on the basis of over 400 hr of wind and temperature data taken during two prolonged jet stream passages over western and central Pennsylvania during mid-November 1986 and mid-January 1987. The mean wind speed profile with error bars for the 79 hr that the Crown radar was determined to be 'under' the jet stream is shown. A mean speed of 83 m/s for the period was found. A plot of wind shear for the hours of interest is given. Typically, the shear was at a maximum from 3 to 4 km below the level of maximum wind. Thus, an aircraft would have to fly through potentially rough air to reach the fuel savings and relative smoothness of flight at the jet stream level. A good correlation between pilot reports of turbulence and wind shear was found.

  16. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Menzies, Robert T.; Howell, James; Johnson, Steven C.; Tratt, David M.; Olivier, Lisa D.; Banta, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 the atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory began a joint collaboration to develop an airborne high-energy Doppler laser radar (lidar) system for atmospheric research and satellite validation and simulation studies. The result is the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS, which has the capability to remotely sense the distribution of wind and absolute aerosol backscatter in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. A factor critical to the programmatic feasibility and technical success of this collaboration has been the utilization of existing components and expertise which were developed for previous atmospheric research by the respective institutions. The motivation for the MACAWS program Is three-fold: to obtain fundamental measurements of sub-synoptic scale processes and features which may be used as a basis to improve sub-grid scale parameterizations in large-scale models; to obtain similar datasets in order to improve the understanding and predictive capabilities on the mesoscale; and to validate (simulate) the performance of existing (planned) satellite-borne sensors. Examples of the latter include participation in the validation of the NASA Scatterometer and the assessment of prospective satellite Doppler lidar for global tropospheric wind measurement. Initial flight tests were made in September 1995; subsequent flights were made in June 1996 following improvements. This paper describes the MACAWS instrument, principles of operation, examples of measurements over the eastern Pacific Ocean and western United States, and future applications.

  17. Doppler weather radar with predictive wind shear detection capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntman, Daryal

    1991-01-01

    The status of Bendix research on Doppler weather radar with predictive wind shear detection capability is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the RDR-4A, a fully coherent, solid state transmitter having Doppler turbulence capability. Frequency generation data, plans, modifications, system characteristics and certification requirements are covered.

  18. EFFECTS OF WIND SHEAR ON POLLUTION DISPERSION. (R827929)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using an accurate numerical method for simulating the advection and diffusion of pollution puffs, it is demonstrated that point releases of pollution grow into a shape reflecting the vertical wind shear profile experienced by the puff within a time scale less than 4 h. Fo...

  19. Surface and airborne evidence for plumes and winds on triton.

    PubMed

    Hansen, C J; McEwen, A S; Ingersoll, A P; Terrile, R J

    1990-10-19

    Aeolian features on Triton that were imaged during the Voyager Mission have been grouped. The term "aeolian feature" is broadly defined as features produced by or blown by the wind, including surface and airborne materials. Observations of the latitudinal distributions of the features probably associated with current activity (known plumes, crescent streaks, fixed terminator clouds, and limb haze with overshoot) all occur from latitude -37 degrees to latitude -62 degrees . Likely indicators of previous activity (dark surface streaks) occur from latitude -5 degrees to -70 degrees , but are most abundant from -15 degrees to -45 degrees , generally north of currently active features. Those indicators which give information on wind direction and speed have been measured. Wind direction is a function of altitude. The predominant direction of the surface wind streaks is found to be between 40 degrees and 80 degrees measured clockwise from north. The average orientation of streaks in the northeast quadrant is 59 degrees . Winds at 1- to 3- kilometer altitude are eastward, while those at &8 kilometers blow west. PMID:17793018

  20. Surface and airborne evidence for plumes and winds on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Terrile, R. J.; Mcewen, A.; Ingersoll, A.

    1990-01-01

    Aeolian features on Triton that were imaged during the Voyager Mission have been grouped. The term 'aeolian feature' is broadly defined as features produced by or blown by the wind, including surface and airborne materials. Observations of the latitudinal distributions of the features probably associated with current activity (known plumes, crescent streaks, fixed terminator clouds, and limb haze with overshoot) all occur from latitude -37 deg to latitude -62 deg. Likely indicators of previous activity (dark surface streaks) occur from latitude -5 deg to -70 deg, but are most abundant from -15 deg to -45 deg, generally north of currently active features. Those indicators which give information on wind direction and speed have been measured. Wind direction is a function of altitude. The predominant direction of the surface wind streaks is found to be between 40 deg and 80 deg measured clockwise from north. The average orientation of streaks in the northeast quadrant is 59 deg. Winds at 1- to 3-kilometer altitude are eastward, while those at more than 8 kilometers blow west.

  1. Coherent lidar airborne wind sensor II: flight-test results at 2 and 10 νm.

    PubMed

    Targ, R; Steakley, B C; Hawley, J G; Ames, L L; Forney, P; Swanson, D; Stone, R; Otto, R G; Zarifis, V; Brockman, P; Calloway, R S; Klein, S H; Robinson, P A

    1996-12-20

    The use of airborne laser radar (lidar) to measure wind velocities and to detect turbulence in front of an aircraft in real time can significantly increase fuel efficiency, flight safety, and terminal area capacity. We describe the flight-test results for two coherent lidar airborne shear sensor (CLASS) systems and discuss their agreement with our theoretical simulations. The 10.6-μm CO(2) system (CLASS-10) is a flying brassboard; the 2.02-μm Tm:YAG solid-state system (CLASS-2) is configured in a rugged, light-weight, high-performance package. Both lidars have shown a wind measurement accuracy of better than 1 m/s. PMID:21151317

  2. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-01-01

    The object of this study is to analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites in the Central Plains of the United States. The hub heights of modern turbines used for wind farm projects are now 70 meters (m) to 100 m above ground and some advanced turbines under development for deployment during the second half of this decade are rated at 2-5 megawatts of energy generation with rotor diameters near 100 m and hub heights of 100-120 m. These advanced turbines will take advantage of the higher wind speeds aloft to generate more wind energy. Specific knowledge of important wind shear characteristics near and at turbine hub height is needed to optimize turbine design and wind farm layout. Unfortunately, wind speed shear measurements at heights of 80-120 m were virtually nonexistent a few years ago and are still quite uncommon today. The Central Plains is a prime wind energy development region and knowledge about the wind shear characteristics will reduce uncertainty about the resource and enhance wind farm design. Previous analyses of tall tower data (Schwartz and Elliott, 2005) concentrated on data from specific states. The wind energy community has recognized the need to fill the gap of direct wind speed measurements at levels 70 m and higher above the ground. Programs instituted during the last 5 years at the state level and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) State Energy Program initiative have placed anemometers and vanes at several levels on existing tall (70 m+) communication towers. The Central Plains has a fairly high concentration of tall tower sites. The distribution of tall tower sites varies among the states in the Central Plains, because the tall tower program is new and the available state and federal funding to establish tall towers is variable. Our wind resource assessment group at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has obtained much of these necessary measurement data from both individual state sources and regional

  3. Response of wind shear warning systems to turbulence with implication of nuisance alerts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to predict the inherent turbulence response characteristics of candidate wind shear warning system concepts and to assess the potential for nuisance alerts. Information on the detection system and associated signal processing, physical and mathematical models, wind shear factor root mean square turbulence response and the standard deviation of the wind shear factor due to turbulence is given in vugraph form.

  4. Design and Evaluation of Airborne Wind Turbine Utilizing Physical Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavi, Edris; Namakian, Mohsen; Sirén, Tim; Magnéli, Rickard; Ölvander, Johan

    Moving towards renewable sources of energy has become one of the most important energy-related strategies in recent decades. High-altitude wind power (HAWP) has been discovered in 1833 as a source of useful energy. Wind power density (Watts/m2) can significantly increase (~6 times) by going from 80 to 500 m altitude. The global capacity of 380 TW (terawatt) as well as abundance, strength, and relative persistency of wind in higher altitude are eye-catching points to consider HAWP as a reliable energy source in the future. A research project called "THOR" has been initiated at Linköping University by a group of master students (soon to graduate) as proof of concept of airborne wind energy (AWES). THOR is about feasibility analysis of different concepts of HAWP and proof of concept of balloon based AWES as one of the appropriate existing concepts. THOR is intended to be a research platform at Linköping University for further development of AWES concepts in future.

  5. Airborne sound propagation over sea during offshore wind farm piling.

    PubMed

    Van Renterghem, T; Botteldooren, D; Dekoninck, L

    2014-02-01

    Offshore piling for wind farm construction has attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to the extremely high noise emission levels associated with such operations. While underwater noise levels were shown to be harmful for the marine biology, the propagation of airborne piling noise over sea has not been studied in detail before. In this study, detailed numerical calculations have been performed with the Green's Function Parabolic Equation (GFPE) method to estimate noise levels up to a distance of 10 km. Measured noise emission levels during piling of pinpiles for a jacket-foundation wind turbine were assessed and used together with combinations of the sea surface state and idealized vertical sound speed profiles (downwind sound propagation). Effective impedances were found and used to represent non-flat sea surfaces at low-wind sea states 2, 3, and 4. Calculations show that scattering by a rough sea surface, which decreases sound pressure levels, exceeds refractive effects, which increase sound pressure levels under downwind conditions. This suggests that the presence of wind, even when blowing downwind to potential receivers, is beneficial to increase the attenuation of piling sound over the sea. A fully flat sea surface therefore represents a worst-case scenario. PMID:25234870

  6. Jet transport performance in thunderstorm wind shear conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Blick, E. F.; Bensch, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Several hours of three dimensional wind data were collected in the thunderstorm approach-to-landing environment, using an instrumented Queen Air airplane. These data were used as input to a numerical simulation of aircraft response, concentrating on fixed-stick assumptions, while the aircraft simulated an instrument landing systems approach. Output included airspeed, vertical displacement, pitch angle, and a special approach deterioration parameter. Theory and the results of approximately 1000 simulations indicated that about 20 percent of the cases contained serious wind shear conditions capable of causing a critical deterioration of the approach. In particular, the presence of high energy at the airplane's phugoid frequency was found to have a deleterious effect on approach quality. Oscillations of the horizontal wind at the phugoid frequency were found to have a more serious effect than vertical wind. A simulation of Eastern flight 66, which crashed at JFK in 1975, served to illustrate the points of the research. A concept of a real-time wind shear detector was outlined utilizing these results.

  7. Wind shear detection. Forward-looking sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracalente, E. M. (Compiler); Delnore, V. E. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    A meeting took place at NASA Langley Research Center in February 1987 to discuss the development and eventual use of forward-looking remote sensors for the detection and avoidance of wind shear by aircraft. The participants represented industry, academia, and government. The meeting was structured to provide first a review of the current FAA and NASA wind shear programs, then to define what really happens to the airplane, and finally to give technology updates on the various types of forward-looking sensors. This document is intended to informally record the essence of the technology updates (represented here through unedited duplication of the vugraphs used), and the floor discussion following each presentation. Also given are key issues remaining unresolved.

  8. Wind Shear/Turbulence Inputs to Flight Simulation and Systems Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L. (Editor); Frost, Walter (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for industry, universities, and government to assess current status and likely future requirements for application of flight simulators to aviation safety concerns and system certification issues associated with wind shear and atmospheric turbulence. Research findings presented included characterization of wind shear and turbulence hazards based on modeling efforts and quantitative results obtained from field measurement programs. Future research thrusts needed to maximally exploit flight simulators for aviation safety application involving wind shear and turbulence were identified. The conference contained sessions on: Existing wind shear data and simulator implementation initiatives; Invited papers regarding wind shear and turbulence simulation requirements; and Committee working session reports.

  9. Design of Shrouded Airborne Wind Turbine & CFD Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbreen, Faiqa; Faiqa Anbreen Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The focus is to design a shrouded airborne wind turbine, capable to generate 70 kW to propel a leisure boat. The idea of designing an airborne turbine is to take the advantage of different velocity layers in the atmosphere. The blades have been designed using NREL S826 airfoil, which has coefficient of lift CL of 1.4 at angle of attack, 6°. The value selected for CP is 0.8. The rotor diameter is 7.4 m. The balloon (shroud) has converging-diverging nozzle design, to increase the mass flow rate through the rotor. The ratio of inlet area to throat area, Ai/At is 1.31 and exit area to throat area, Ae/At is1.15. The Solidworks model has been analyzed numerically using CFD. The software used is StarCCM +. The Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Simulation (URANS) K- ɛ model has been selected, to study the physical properties of the flow, with emphasis on the performance of the turbine. Stress analysis has been done using Nastran. From the simulations, the torque generated by the turbine is approximately 800N-m and angular velocity is 21 rad/s.

  10. The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Menzies, Robert T.; Howell, James N.; Johnson, Steven C.; Tratt, David M.; Olivier, Lisa D.; Banta, Robert M.

    1998-04-01

    In 1992 the atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Space Flight Center, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Environmental Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory began a joint collaboration to develop an airborne high-energy Doppler laser radar (lidar) system for atmospheric research and satellite validation and simulation studies. The result is the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS), which has the capability to remotely sense the distribution of wind and absolute aerosol backscatter in three-dimensional volumes in the troposphere and lower stratosphere.A factor critical to the programmatic feasibility and technical success of this collaboration has been the utilization of existing components and expertise that were developed for previous atmospheric research by the respective institutions. For example, the laser transmitter is that of the mobile ground-based Doppler lidar system developed and used in atmospheric research for more than a decade at NOAA/ETL.The motivation for MACAWS is threefold: 1) to obtain fundamental measurements of subsynoptic-scale processes and features to improve subgrid-scale parameterizations in large-scale models, 2) to obtain datasets in order to improve the understanding of and predictive capabilities for meteorological systems on subsynoptic scales, and 3) to validate (simulate) the performance of existing (planned) satellite-borne sensors.Initial flight tests were made in September 1995; subsequent flights were made in June 1996 following system improvements. This paper describes the MACAWS instrument, principles of operation, examples of measurements over the eastern Pacific Ocean and western United States, and future applications.

  11. Aircraft performance and control in downburst wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, Richard S.

    1986-01-01

    The methods developed for analyses of the winds and of aircraft performance during an investigation of a downburst wind-shear-induced accident have been utilized in a more general study of aircraft performance in such encounters. The computed responses of a generic, large transport aircraft to take-off and approach encounters with a downburst wind field were used in examining the effects of performance factors and control procedures on the ability of the aircraft to survive. Obvious benefits are seen for higher initial encounter speeds, maximum thrust-weight values typical of two-engined aircraft, and immediacy of pilot response. The results of controlling to a constant, predetermined, pitch attitude are demonstrated. Control algorithms that sacrifice altitude for speed appear to provide a higher level of survivability, but guidance displays more explicitly defining flightpath than those commonly in use might be required.

  12. Flight guidance research for recovery from microburst wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Research is in progress to develop flight strategy concepts for avoidance and recovery from microburst wind shears. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the performance of various strategies for recovery from wind shear encountered during the approach-to-landing, examine the associated piloting factors, and evaluate the payoff of forward-look sensing. Both batch and piloted simulations are utilized. The industry-recommended manual recovery technique is used as a baseline strategy. Two advanced strategies were selected for the piloted tests. The first strategy emulates the recovery characteristics shown by prior optimal trajectory analysis, by initially tracking the glideslope, then commanding a shallow climb. The second strategy generates a flight path angle schedule that is a function of airplane energy state and the instantaneous shear strength. All three strategies are tested with reactive sensing only and with forward-look sensing. Piloted simulation tests are in progress. Tentative results indicate that, using only reactive alerts, there appears to be little difference in performance between the various strategies. With forward-look alerts, the advanced guidance strategies appear to have advantages over the baseline strategy. Relatively short forward-look alert times, on the order of 10 or 15 seconds, produce a far greater recovery benefit than optimizing a recovery from a reactive alert.

  13. A problem formulation for glideslope tracking in wind shear using advanced robust control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Chang, B.-C.; Fischl, Robert

    1992-01-01

    A formulation of the longitudinal glideslope tracking of a transport-class aircraft in severe wind shear and turbulence for application to robust control system design is presented. Mathematical wind shear models are incorporated into the vehicle mathematical model, and wind turbulence is modeled as an input disturbance signal. For this problem formulation, the horizontal and vertical wind shear gradients are treated as real uncertain parameters that vary over an entire wind shear profile. The primary objective is to examine the formulation of this problem into an appropriate design format for use in m-synthesis control system design.

  14. Roles of wind shear at different vertical levels: Cloud system organization and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qian; Fan, Jiwen; Hagos, Samson; Gustafson, William I.; Berg, Larry K.

    2015-07-01

    Understanding critical processes that contribute to the organization of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) is important for accurate weather forecasts and climate predictions. In this study, we investigate the effects of wind shear at different vertical levels on the organization and properties of convective systems using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with spectral bin microphysics. Based on a control run for a MCS with weak wind shear (Ctrl), we find that increasing wind shear at the lower troposphere (L-shear) leads to a more organized quasi-line convective system. Strong wind shear in the middle troposphere (M-shear) tends to produce large vorticity and form a mesocyclone circulation and an isolated strong storm that leans toward supercellular structure. By increasing wind shear at the upper vertical levels only (U-shear), the organization of the convection is not changed much, but the convective intensity is weakened. Increasing wind shear in the middle troposphere for the selected case results in a significant drying, and the drying is more significant when conserving moisture advection at the lateral boundaries, contributing to the suppressed convective strength and precipitation relative to Ctrl. Precipitation in the L-shear and U-shear does not change much from Ctrl. Evident changes of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties in the strong wind shear cases are mainly due to large changes in convective organization and water vapor. The insights obtained from this study help us better understand the major factors contributing to convective organization and precipitation.

  15. Comparison of simulated and actual wind shear radar data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Charles L.; Crittenden, Lucille H.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the development of the NASA experimental wind shear radar system, extensive computer simulations were conducted to determine the performance of the radar in combined weather and ground clutter environments. The simulation of the radar used analytical microburst models to determine weather returns and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) maps to determine ground clutter returns. These simulations were used to guide the development of hazard detection algorithms and to predict their performance. The structure of the radar simulation is reviewed. Actual flight data results from the Orlando and Denver tests are compared with simulated results. Areas of agreement and disagreement of actual and simulated results are shown.

  16. Multicenter airborne coherent atmospheric wind sensor (MACAWS) instrument: recent upgrades and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, James N.; Rothermel, Jeffrey; Tratt, David M.; Cutten, Dean; Darby, Lisa S.; Hardesty, R. Michael

    1999-10-01

    The Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor instrument is an airborne coherent Doppler laser radar (Lidar) capable of measuring atmospheric wind fields and aerosol structure. Since the first demonstration flights onboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in September 1995, two additional science flights have been completed. Several system upgrades have also bee implemented. In this paper we discuss the system upgrades and present several case studies which demonstrate the various capabilities of the system.

  17. Performance of Airborne Precision Spacing Under Realistic Wind Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Frederick; Santos, Michel; Krueger, William; Houston, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    With the expected worldwide increase of air traffic during the coming decade, both the Federal Aviation Administration s (FAA s) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as well as Eurocontrol s Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program have, as part of their plans, air traffic management solutions that can increase performance without requiring time-consuming and expensive infrastructure changes. One such solution involves the ability of both controllers and flight crews to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater accuracy than is possible today. Previous research has shown that time-based spacing techniques, wherein the controller assigns a time spacing to each pair of arriving aircraft, is one way to achieve this goal by providing greater runway delivery accuracy that produces a concomitant increase in system-wide performance. The research described herein focuses on a specific application of time-based spacing, called Airborne Precision Spacing (APS), which has evolved over the past ten years. This research furthers APS understanding by studying its performance with realistic wind conditions obtained from atmospheric sounding data and with realistic wind forecasts obtained from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) short-range weather forecast. In addition, this study investigates APS performance with limited surveillance range, as provided by the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system, and with an algorithm designed to improve APS performance when an ADS-B signal is unavailable. The results presented herein quantify the runway threshold delivery accuracy of APS un-der these conditions, and also quantify resulting workload metrics such as the number of speed changes required to maintain spacing.

  18. Shear and Turbulence Estimates for Calculation of Wind Turbine Loads and Responses Under Hurricane Strength Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovic, B.; Bryan, G. H.; Haupt, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Schwartz et al. (2010) recently reported that the total gross energy-generating offshore wind resource in the United States in waters less than 30m deep is approximately 1000 GW. Estimated offshore generating capacity is thus equivalent to the current generating capacity in the United States. Offshore wind power can therefore play important role in electricity production in the United States. However, most of this resource is located along the East Coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico, areas frequently affected by tropical cyclones including hurricanes. Hurricane strength winds, associated shear and turbulence can affect performance and structural integrity of wind turbines. In a recent study Rose et al. (2012) attempted to estimate the risk to offshore wind turbines from hurricane strength winds over a lifetime of a wind farm (i.e. 20 years). According to Rose et al. turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons. They concluded that there is "substantial risk that Category 3 and higher hurricanes can destroy half or more of the turbines at some locations." More robust designs including appropriate controls can mitigate the risk of wind turbine damage. To develop such designs good estimates of turbine loads under hurricane strength winds are essential. We use output from a large-eddy simulation of a hurricane to estimate shear and turbulence intensity over first couple of hundred meters above sea surface. We compute power spectra of three velocity components at several distances from the eye of the hurricane. Based on these spectra analytical spectral forms are developed and included in TurbSim, a stochastic inflow turbulence code developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/preprocessors/turbsim/). TurbSim provides a numerical simulation including bursts of coherent turbulence associated with organized turbulent structures. It can generate realistic flow conditions that an operating turbine

  19. Simulation study to evaluate a constant-groundspeed approach method in moderate and severe wind shears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a constant-groundspeed procedure for flying final approaches in moderate and severe wind shear environments was investigated. Performance was compared to results of simulated constant-airspeed approaches in identical wind profiles. The simulation model was a medium twin-jet transport equipped with an autothrottle for maintaining constant groundspeed or constant airspeed. For both moderate and severe wind shears, the constant-groundspeed approach method was shown to provide a way to more safely negotiate the shears while also providing predictable and acceptable touchdown performance. Results showed airspeeds on final approach to be considerably higher using the constant-groundspeed method, which supplied the additional stall margin needed when tail-wind shears were encountered. Throttle movements were noticeably reduced in all wind profiles when constant-groundspeed approaches were flown. Touchdown conditions were practically identical for both approach methods in moderate wind shear.

  20. All-Fiber Airborne Coherent Doppler Lidar to Measure Wind Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiqiao; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Diao, Weifeng; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Yuan; Bi, Decang; Jiang, Liyuan; Shi, Wei; Zhu, Xiaolei; Chen, Weibiao

    2016-06-01

    An all-fiber airborne pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) prototype at 1.54μm is developed to measure wind profiles in the lower troposphere layer. The all-fiber single frequency pulsed laser is operated with pulse energy of 300μJ, pulse width of 400ns and pulse repetition rate of 10kHz. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest pulse energy of all-fiber eye-safe single frequency laser that is used in airborne coherent wind lidar. The telescope optical diameter of monostatic lidar is 100 mm. Velocity-Azimuth-Display (VAD) scanning is implemented with 20 degrees elevation angle in 8 different azimuths. Real-time signal processing board is developed to acquire and process the heterodyne mixing signal with 10000 pulses spectra accumulated every second. Wind profiles are obtained every 20 seconds. Several experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of the lidar. We have carried out airborne wind lidar experiments successfully, and the wind profiles are compared with aerological theodolite and ground based wind lidar. Wind speed standard error of less than 0.4m/s is shown between airborne wind lidar and balloon aerological theodolite.

  1. Investigations of Wind Shear Distribution on the Baltic Shore of Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukovs, V.; Zacepins, A.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Komashilovs, V.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a review of wind parameter measurement complexes and investigation methods used for potential wind energy evaluation. Based on results of long-term investigations of wind shear distribution regularities are shown up to 160 m height on the Baltic Sea shore. Distribution of potential wind energy in Latvia is shown as a map and table of average and average cubic wind speed values. Database of wind parameter measurements is available at a public website.

  2. Magnitude and frequency of wind speed shears from 3 to 150 meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. B.; Camp, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is presented of high resolution wind profile measurements recorded at the NASA 150-m ground winds tower facility, showing wind speed shear frequency and magnitude distributions for six vertical layers of the atmosphere and one vertical distance. Vertical wind shear is defined as the change of wind speed with height, and its magnitudes were derived by algebraically subtracting lower level wind speeds from those of higher levels and dividing the distance between levels. Horizontal wind shear is understood to be change of wind speed with horizontal distance, and its magnitudes were derived by algebraically subtracting the wind speed at a short tower from that at a tall one and dividing by the distance between towers.

  3. Optimal nonlinear estimation for aircraft flight control in wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulgund, Sandeep S.

    1994-01-01

    The most recent results in an ongoing research effort at Princeton in the area of flight dynamics in wind shear are described. The first undertaking in this project was a trajectory optimization study. The flight path of a medium-haul twin-jet transport aircraft was optimized during microburst encounters on final approach. The assumed goal was to track a reference climb rate during an aborted landing, subject to a minimum airspeed constraint. The results demonstrated that the energy loss through the microburst significantly affected the qualitative nature of the optimal flight path. In microbursts of light to moderate strength, the aircraft was able to track the reference climb rate successfully. In severe microbursts, the minimum airspeed constraint in the optimization forced the aircraft to settle on a climb rate smaller than the target. A tradeoff was forced between the objectives of flight path tracking and stall prevention.

  4. Analysis of strong nocturnal shears for wind machine design. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrt, L.; Heald, R.C.

    1980-11-01

    Wind shear data at wind turbine heights from several sites is reviewed and new data is documented in terms of total and component shear. A variety of atmospheric scenarios may combine to give large persistent shear. Among these, strong boundary layer stability is foremost. It occurs with strong nocturnal surface cooling, in low level frontal and subsidence inversions, and in thunderstorm outflows. Strong shears resulting from surface radiation inversions are particularly evident over the High Plains where dry air and high altitude combine to result in strong radiational cooling. Terrain is also an important influence on shear but it is not well understood and is very site specific.

  5. Effect of Wind Shear on the Characteristics of a Rotating Blade of a Field Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Takao; Kawabuchi, Hideyuki

    This paper shows the aerodynamic characteristics at the mid-length of a rotor blade of a 10-m-diameter wind turbine exposed to wind shear. A sonic wind speed meter and six cup-anemometers were installed one diameter upwind of the turbine in order to measure wind profiles. The anemometers at the top, middle and bottom levels were installed at heights of 18.3, 13.3 and 8.3 meters, respectively, which correspond to the heights of the tip of the blade at the blade top position, the hub height, and the tip of the blade at the blade bottom position, respectively. Our measurements suggest that the normal force coefficients in strong wind shear conditions are lower than those in weak wind shear condition. Even if the local angle of attack is almost the same, the normal force coefficient shows differences due to the hysteresis effect. In particular, the influence of shear is large not only when there is strong wind shear in a vertical direction, but also when there is strong wind shear in a horizontal direction. A remarkable difference appears in the pressure distribution under these conditions.

  6. Comparison of surface wind stress measurements - Airborne radar scatterometer versus sonic anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brucks, J. T.; Leming, T. D.; Jones, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Sea surface wind stress measurements recorded by a sonic anemometer are correlated with airborne scatterometer measurements of ocean roughness (cross section of radar backscatter) to establish the accuracy of remotely sensed data and assist in the definition of geophysical algorithms for the scatterometer sensor aboard Seasat A. Results of this investigation are as follows: Comparison of scatterometer and sonic anemometer wind stress measurements are good for the majority of cases; however, a tendency exists for scatterometer wind stress to be somewhat high for higher wind conditions experienced in this experiment (6-9 m/s). The scatterometer wind speed algorithm tends to overcompute the higher wind speeds by approximately 0.5 m/s. This is a direct result of the scatterometer overestimate of wind stress from which wind speeds are derived. Algorithmic derivations of wind speed and direction are, in most comparisons, within accuracies defined by Seasat A scatterometer sensor specifications.

  7. Effect of land uses and wind direction on the contribution of local sources to airborne pollen.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Rapp, Ana; Lara, Beatriz; Fernández-González, Federico; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-12-15

    The interpretation of airborne pollen levels in cities based on the contribution of the surrounding flora and vegetation is a useful tool to estimate airborne allergen concentrations and, consequently, to determine the allergy risk for local residents. This study examined the pollen spectrum in a city in central Spain (Guadalajara) and analysed the vegetation landscape and land uses within a radius of 20km in an attempt to identify and locate the origin of airborne pollen and to determine the effect of meteorological variables on pollen emission and dispersal. The results showed that local wind direction was largely responsible for changes in the concentrations of different airborne pollen types. The land uses contributing most to airborne pollen counts were urban green spaces, though only 0.1% of the total surface area studied, and broadleaved forest which covered 5% of the study area. These two types of land use together accounted for 70% of the airborne pollen. Crops, scrubland and pastureland, though covering 80% of the total surface area, contributed only 18.6% to the total pollen count, and this contribution mainly consisted of pollen from Olea and herbaceous plants, including Poaceae, Urticaceae and Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae. Pollen from ornamental species were mainly associated with easterly (Platanus), southerly (Cupressaceae) and westerly (Cupressaceae and Platanus) winds from the areas where the city's largest parks and gardens are located. Quercus pollen was mostly transported by winds blowing in from holm-oak stands on the eastern edge of the city. The highest Populus pollen counts were associated with easterly and westerly winds blowing in from areas containing rivers and streams. The airborne pollen counts generally rose with increasing temperature, solar radiation and hours of sunlight, all of which favour pollen release. In contrast, pollen counts declined with increased relative humidity and rainfall, which hinder airborne pollen transport

  8. The Effects of Atmospheric Stability and Wind Shear on Wind Farm Power Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderwende, B. J.; Lundquist, J. K.

    2011-12-01

    Power production from wind turbines can vary significantly from manufacturer's ratings due to atmospheric stability and wind shear. In this study, remotely sensed and in-situ data from a wind farm in the High Plains of Central North America were examined to quantify the effects of atmospheric conditions in the boundary layer on power generation. Several approaches for segregating time periods by atmospheric conditions were applied to this dataset, including methods based on the time-of-day, the power law exponent α, the bulk Richardson number RB, and diurnal cycles in wind and temperature. These classifications were used to generate stability-dependent power curves. For this site, all classification metrics indicated underperformance during stable/night regimes and overperformance during convective/day regimes at moderate wind speeds (7-12m/s). A simple attempt at forecasting power production values proved both the feasibility and the utility of applying meteorological classifications for forecasting applications. The success in diagnosis and forecasting of power production using boundary layer data demonstrate that power output is strongly influenced by boundary layer stability, but further research is required that involves measurements taken across the rotor-disk; remote sensing of such profiles is recommended.

  9. Longitudinal stability and control in wind shear with energy height rate feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gera, J.

    1980-01-01

    The longitudinal linearized equations of motion in wind shear were derived for the NASA Terminal Configured Vehicle, a modified Boeing 737 airplane. In addition to the apparent acceleration terms resulting from wind shear, the equations included altitude dependent stability derivatives. A linear analysis of these equations indicates a first order divergence type of instability due to wind shear in which head wind decreased with altitude. Furthermore, this instability cannot be stabilized by attitude control alone. However, attitude control used in combination with an addition feedback loop which consisted of the energy height rate feedback to the throttle proved to be effective in suppressing instability due to wind shear. A brief piloted, real time, nonlinear simulation indicated the desirability of using a display based on the rate of change of energy height rate and of commanded thrust.

  10. Predicting wind shear effects: A study of Minnesota wind data collected at heights up to 70 meters

    SciTech Connect

    Artig, R.

    1997-12-31

    The Minnesota Department of Public Service (DPS) collects wind data at carefully selected sites around the state and analyzes the data to determine Minnesota`s wind power potential. DPS recently installed advanced new monitoring equipment at these sites and began to collect wind data at 30, 50, and 70 meters above ground level, with two anemometers at each level. Previously, the Department had not collected data at heights above ground level higher than 30 meters. DPS also, with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), installed four sophisticated monitoring sites as part of a Tall Tower Wind Shear Study that is assessing the effects of wind shear on wind power potential. At these sites, wind data are being collected at the 10, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 meter heights. This paper presents the preliminary results of the analysis of wind data from all sites. These preliminary results indicate that the traditional 1/7 power law does not effectively predict wind shear in Minnesota, and the result is an underestimation of Minnesota`s wind power potential at higher heights. Using a power factor of 1/5 or 1/4 may be more accurate and provide sound justification for installing wind turbines on taller towers in Minnesota.

  11. Recovery strategies for microburst encounters using reactive and forward-look wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The threat of convective microburst wind shear phenomena to aircraft is studied. An attempt was made to quantify the benefits of forward-look sensing and to develop and test a candidate set of strategies for recovery from inadvertent microburst encounters during the landing approach. A batch simulation of various wind shear encounters was carried out; the simulation consisted of a point-mass aircraft model, an analytical microburst, and a simple wind shear detection scheme. It was found that forward-look alerts given 10 sec prior to microburst entry permitted recoveries to be made with little altitude loss.

  12. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor: Recent Measurements and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Howell, James N.; Darby, Lisa S.; Tratt, David M.; Menzies, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    The coherent Doppler lidar, when operated from an airborne platform, offers a unique measurement capability for study of atmospheric dynamical and physical properties. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are at a disadvantage in terms of spatial resolution and coverage. Recent experience suggests airborne coherent Doppler lidar can yield unique wind measurements of--and during operation within--extreme weather phenomena. This paper presents the first airborne coherent Doppler lidar measurements of hurricane wind fields. The lidar atmospheric remote sensing groups of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory jointly developed an airborne lidar system, the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS). The centerpiece of MACAWS is the lidar transmitter from the highly successful NOAA Windvan. Other field-tested lidar components have also been used, when feasible, to reduce costs and development time. The methodology for remotely sensing atmospheric wind fields with scanning coherent Doppler lidar was demonstrated in 1981; enhancements were made and the system was reflown in 1984. MACAWS has potentially greater scientific utility, compared to the original airborne scanning lidar system, owing to a factor of approx. 60 greater energy-per-pulse from the NOAA transmitter. MACAWS development was completed and the system was first flown in 1995. Following enhancements to improve performance, the system was re-flown in 1996 and 1998. The scientific motivation for MACAWS is three-fold: obtain fundamental measurements of subgrid scale (i.e., approx. 2-200 km) processes and features which may be used to improve parameterizations in hydrological, climate, and general

  13. Comparison of low-altitude wind-shear statistics derived from measured and proposed standard wind profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Wind shear statistics were calculated for a simulated set of wind profiles based on a proposed standard wind field data base. Wind shears were grouped in altitude in altitude bands of 100 ft between 100 and 1400 ft and in wind shear increments of 0.025 knot/ft. Frequency distributions, means, and standard deviations for each altitude band were derived for the total sample were derived for both sets. It was found that frequency distributions in each altitude band for the simulated data set were more dispersed below 800 ft and less dispersed above 900 ft than those for the measured data set. Total sample frequency of occurrence for the two data sets was about equal for wind shear values between +0.075 knot/ft, but the simulated data set had significantly larger values for all wind shears outside these boundaries. It is shown that normal distribution in both data sets neither data set was normally distributed; similar results are observed from the cumulative frequency distributions.

  14. Quantification of Shear-Relative Asymmetries in Eyewall Slope Using Airborne Doppler Radar Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazelton, A.; Rogers, R.; Hart, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, it has become apparent that typical methods for analyzing tropical cyclones (TCs), such as track and intensity, are insufficient for evaluating TC structural evolution and numerical model forecasts of that evolution. Many studies have analyzed different metrics related to TC inner-core structure in an attempt to better understand the processes that drive changes in core structure. One important metric related to vertical TC structure is the slope of the eyewall. Hazelton and Hart (2013) discussed azimuthal mean eyewall slope based on radar reflectivity data, and its relationship with TC intensity and core structure. That study also noted significant azimuthal variation in slopes, but did not significantly explore reasons for this variation. Accordingly, in this study, we attempt to quantify the role of vertical wind shear in causing azimuthal variance of slope, using research quality Doppler radar composites from the NOAA Hurricane Research Division (HRD). We analyze the slope of the 20 dBZ surface as in Hazelton and Hart (2013), and also look at azimuthal variation in other measures of eyewall slope, such as the slope of the radius of maximum winds (RMW), which has been analyzed in an azimuthal mean sense by Stern and Nolan (2009), and an angular momentum surface. The shear-relative slopes are quantified by separating the radar data into four quadrants relative to the vertical shear vector: Downshear Left (DSL), Upshear Left (USL), Upshear Right (USR), and Downshear Right (DSR). This follows the method employed in shear-relative analyses of other aspects of TC core structure, such as Rogers et al. (2013) and Reasor et al. (2013). The data suitable for use in this study consist of 36 flights into 15 different TCs (14 Atlantic, 1 Eastern Pacific) between 1997 and 2010. Preliminary results show apparent shear-induced asymmetries in eyewall slope. The slope of the RMW shows an asymmetry due to the tilt of the vortex approximately along the shear vector, with

  15. Overview of the first Multicenter Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) experiment: conversion of a ground-based lidar for airborne applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, James N.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Rothermel, Jeffrey; Menzies, Robert T.

    1996-11-01

    The first Multi center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) field experiment demonstrated an airborne high energy TEA CO2 Doppler lidar system for measurement of atmospheric wind fields and aerosol structure. The system was deployed on the NASA DC-8 during September 1995 in a series of checkout flights to observe several important atmospheric phenomena, including upper level winds in a Pacific hurricane, marine boundary layer winds, cirrus cloud properties, and land-sea breeze structure. The instrument, with its capability to measure 3D winds and backscatter fields, promises to be a valuable tool for climate and global change, severe weather, and air quality research. In this paper, we describe the airborne instrument, assess its performance, discuss future improvements, and show some preliminary results from the September experiments.

  16. Wind turbine blade shear web disbond detection using rotor blade operational sensing and data analysis.

    PubMed

    Myrent, Noah; Adams, Douglas E; Griffith, D Todd

    2015-02-28

    A wind turbine blade's structural dynamic response is simulated and analysed with the goal of characterizing the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. Computer models of a 5 MW offshore utility-scale wind turbine were created to develop effective algorithms for detecting such damage. Through data analysis and with the use of blade measurements, a shear web disbond was quantified according to its length. An aerodynamic sensitivity study was conducted to ensure robustness of the detection algorithms. In all analyses, the blade's flap-wise acceleration and root-pitching moment were the clearest indicators of the presence and severity of a shear web disbond. A combination of blade and non-blade measurements was formulated into a final algorithm for the detection and quantification of the disbond. The probability of detection was 100% for the optimized wind speed ranges in laminar, 30% horizontal shear and 60% horizontal shear conditions. PMID:25583871

  17. Hourly observations of the jet stream - Wind shear, Richardson number and pilot reports of turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syrett, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of observations of the jet stream made on the basis of over 400 hr of wind and temperature data taken during two prolonged jet stream passages above western and central Pennsylvania during mid-November 1986 and mid-January 1987. Wind profilers are found to be far better suited for the detailed examination of jet stream structure than are weather balloons. The combination of good vertical resolution with not previously obtained temporal resolution reveals structural details not seen before. Development of probability forecasts of turbulence based on wind profiler-derived shear values appears possible. A good correlation between pilot reports and turbulence and wind shear is found.

  18. A method for three-dimensional modeling of wind-shear environments for flight simulator applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    A computational method for modeling severe wind shears of the type that have been documented during severe convective atmospheric conditions is offered for use in research and training flight simulation. The procedure was developed with the objectives of operational flexibility and minimum computer load. From one to five, simple down burst wind models can be configured and located to produce the wind field desired for specific simulated flight scenarios. A definition of related turbulence parameters is offered as an additional product of the computations. The use of the method to model several documented examples of severe wind shear is demonstrated.

  19. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor: Recent Measurements and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Howell, Burgess F.; Hardesty, Robert M.; Tratt, David M.; Darby, Lisa S.

    1999-01-01

    The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center jointly developed an airborne scanning coherent Doppler Lidar. We describe the system, present recent measurement (including the first wind fields measured within a hurricane using Doppler lidar), and describe prospective instrument improvements and research applications.

  20. Roles of Wind Shear at Different Vertical Levels, Part I: Cloud System Organization and Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qian; Fan, Jiwen; Hagos, Samson M.; Gustafson, William I.; Berg, Larry K.

    2015-07-16

    Understanding of critical processes that contribute to the organization of mesoscale convective systems is important for accurate weather forecast and climate prediction. In this study, we investigate the effects of wind shear at different vertical levels on the organization and properties of cloud systems using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model with a spectral-bin microphysical scheme. The sensitivity experiments are performed by increasing wind shear at the lower (0-5 km), middle (5-10 km), upper (> 10 km) and the entire troposphere, respectively, based on a control run for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) with weak wind shear. We find that increasing wind shear at the both lower and middle vertical levels reduces the domain-accumulated precipitation and the occurrence of heavy rain, while increasing wind shear at the upper levels changes little on precipitation. Although increasing wind shear at the lower-levels is favorable for a more organized quasi-line system which leads to enlarged updraft core area, and enhanced updraft velocities and vertical mass fluxes, the precipitation is still reduced by 18.6% compared with the control run due to stronger rain evaporation induced by the low-level wind shear. Strong wind shear in the middle levels only produces a strong super-cell over a narrow area, leading to 67.3% reduction of precipitation over the domain. By increasing wind shear at the upper levels only, the organization of the convection is not changed much, but the increased cloudiness at the upper-levels leads to stronger surface cooling and then stabilizes the atmosphere and weakens the convection. When strong wind shear exists over the entire vertical profile, a deep dry layer (2-9 km) is produced and convection is severely suppressed. There are fewer very-high (cloud top height (CTH) > 15 km) and very-deep (cloud thickness > 15 km) clouds, and the precipitation is only about 11.8% of the control run. The changes in cloud microphysical

  1. Estimation of Separation Buffers for Wind-Prediction Error in an Airborne Separation Assistance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Allen, B. Danette

    2009-01-01

    Wind prediction errors are known to affect the performance of automated air traffic management tools that rely on aircraft trajectory predictions. In particular, automated separation assurance tools, planned as part of the NextGen concept of operations, must be designed to account and compensate for the impact of wind prediction errors and other system uncertainties. In this paper we describe a high fidelity batch simulation study designed to estimate the separation distance required to compensate for the effects of wind-prediction errors throughout increasing traffic density on an airborne separation assistance system. These experimental runs are part of the Safety Performance of Airborne Separation experiment suite that examines the safety implications of prediction errors and system uncertainties on airborne separation assurance systems. In this experiment, wind-prediction errors were varied between zero and forty knots while traffic density was increased several times current traffic levels. In order to accurately measure the full unmitigated impact of wind-prediction errors, no uncertainty buffers were added to the separation minima. The goal of the study was to measure the impact of wind-prediction errors in order to estimate the additional separation buffers necessary to preserve separation and to provide a baseline for future analyses. Buffer estimations from this study will be used and verified in upcoming safety evaluation experiments under similar simulation conditions. Results suggest that the strategic airborne separation functions exercised in this experiment can sustain wind prediction errors up to 40kts at current day air traffic density with no additional separation distance buffer and at eight times the current day with no more than a 60% increase in separation distance buffer.

  2. Results from 1984 airborne Doppler lidar wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry

    1986-01-01

    Observations made with the revised Airborne Doppler Lidar System (ADLS) during research flights in the summer of 1984 are described. The functioning of the ADLS system is described. The research flights measured the flow around Mt. Shasta about 3 km above the surrounding terrain as well as the flow in the area of the Carquenez Strait in the Sacramento River Valley. The flight tracks are described and the resulting scan radial velocities are shown and discussed. The results demonstrate the success of the modifications made in order to correct major error sources present in the 1981 flights of the ADLS system.

  3. Power spectral density analysis of wind-shear turbulence for related flight simulations. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laituri, Tony R.

    1988-01-01

    Meteorological phenomena known as microbursts can produce abrupt changes in wind direction and/or speed over a very short distance in the atmosphere. These changes in flow characteristics have been labelled wind shear. Because of its adverse effects on aerodynamic lift, wind shear poses its most immediate threat to flight operations at low altitudes. The number of recent commercial aircraft accidents attributed to wind shear has necessitated a better understanding of how energy is transferred to an aircraft from wind-shear turbulence. Isotropic turbulence here serves as the basis of comparison for the anisotropic turbulence which exists in the low-altitude wind shear. The related question of how isotropic turbulence scales in a wind shear is addressed from the perspective of power spectral density (psd). The role of the psd in related Monte Carlo simulations is also considered.

  4. Numerical study of shear stress distribution at sand ripple surface in wind tunnel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar, Nitsan; Elperin, Tov; Katra, Itzhak; Yizhaq, Hezi

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism responsible for the formation and sustainability of sand ripples sheared by a uniform air flow is not well understood, despite the significant attention that has been given to it ever since the pioneering studies of Bagnold (1941). In this study we explore ANSYS Fluent simulations of fine-scale turbulent flow structure in the vicinity of 2D sand ripples with particular emphasis on shear stress distribution at the sand bed. The flow parameters in the simulations were pertinent to the wind tunnel experiments for studying sand ripples formation. The simulations show that the shear stress at the crest is about 2.5 times larger than the shear stress at the trough and that in most of the simulations a separation bubble has been developed at the lee slope. In contrast to wind tunnel experiments the simulations show that ripples will be flattened at wind speed of 9 m/s as shear stress at the ripples surface exceeds the fluid threshold. This discrepancy between the calculations and real wind tunnel measurements are due to the important role of the saltation layer on the decrease of the shear stress at the surface. Without this effect ripples cannot grow higher and will be diminished at quite moderate winds.

  5. In-flight Visualization of Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar Data Using KML and Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, S. T.; Greco, S.; Emmitt, D.; Wood, S. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and Google Earth (GE) are utilized together for real-time in-flight visualization of wind, aerosol and turbulence data taken by an airborne Doppler Wind Lidar (DWL). Among the DWL products that can be displayed within GE are vertical profiles, cross-sections, and raster volume scans. External user interfaces are added to enhance GE capabilities and usability in the airborne environment. Additional information including gridded mesoscale model output is also superimposed in GE for comparison studies and flight experiment planning. The system architecture supports real-time feedback for in-flight experiment plan modification, and reprogramming of the scanning DWL sampling pattern. Various DWL products are demonstrated in post-flight analysis mode using GE for several topographic environments.

  6. Wind barriers suppress fugitive dust and soil-derived airborne particles in arid regions

    SciTech Connect

    Grantz, D.A.; Vaughn, D.L.; Farber, R.J.; Kim, B.; Ashbaugh, L.; Van Curen, T.; Campbell, R.

    1998-07-01

    Areas of abandoned agricultural land in the Antelope Valley, western Mojave (high) desert of California have proven in the previous studies to be recalcitrant to conventional tillage and revegetation strategies designed to suppress wind erosion of soil and transport of sediment and fugitive dust. These areas represented a continuing source of drifting sand and of coarse and respirable suspended particulate matter. The traditional techniques failed because furrows collapsed and the water holding capacity of the overburden was too low to support seed germination and transplant survival. In this study a variety of wind barriers were evaluated for suppression of sediment transport. Airborne particles were measured with an array of coarse particle samplers at heights of 0.2, 1.0, and 2.0 m above the soil surface. Discrete artificial wind barriers, consisting of widely spaced roughness elements were effective in suppressing fugitive emissions. Wind fences established along the leeward edge of an area of blowing sand, perpendicular to the prevailing wind, significantly decreased fugitive emissions. Control was greatest and precision of the measurements was highest under high wind conditions. These techniques provide rapid and effective suppression of fugitive emissions of soil-derived particles under conditions that resist conventional tillage and revegetation techniques. A simple, indirect procedure for determining local wind velocity erosion thresholds requiring only sampling of wind run and suspended particulate mass compared favorably with direct measurement of saltation as a function of wind velocity.

  7. Total energy-rate feedback for automatic glide-slope tracking during wind-shear penetration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, C. M.; Ostroff, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Low-altitude wind shear is recognized as an infrequent but significant hazard to all aircraft during the take-off and landing phases of flight. A total energy-rate sensor was developed for measuring the specific total energy rate of an airplane with respect to the air mass. Control-system designs, both with and without energy-rate feedback, for the approach to landing of a transport airplane through a severe-wind-shear and gust environment are presented in order to evaluate this application of the sensor. A system model incorporates wind-shear-dynamics equations with the airplane equations of motion to permit analysis of the control systems under various wind-shear conditions. The control systems are designed using optimal-output feedback and are analyzed using frequency-domain control-theory techniques. Control-system performance is evaluated using a complete nonlinear simulation of the airplane combined with a severe-wind-shear and gust data package. This evaluation is concerned with control system stability and regulation capability only.

  8. Evaluation of total energy-rate feedback for glidescope tracking in wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, C. M.; Ostroff, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Low-altitude wind shear is recognized as an infrequent but significant hazard to all aircraft during take-off and landing. A total energy-rate sensor, which is potentially applicable to this problem, has been developed for measuring specific total energy-rate of an airplane with respect to the air mass. This paper presents control system designs, with and without energy-rate feedback, for the approach to landing of a transport airplane through severe wind shear and gusts to evaluate application of this sensor. A system model is developed which incorporates wind shear dynamics equations with the airplance equations of motion, thus allowing the control systems to be analyzed under various wind shears. The control systems are designed using optimal output feedback and are analyzed using frequency domain control theory techniques. Control system performance is evaluated using a complete nonlinear simulation of the airplane and a severe wind shear and gust data package. The analysis and simulation results indicate very similar stability and performance characteristics for the two designs. An implementation technique for distributing the velocity gains between airspeed and ground speed in the simulation is also presented, and this technique is shown to improve the performance characteristics of both designs.

  9. Hurricane Wind Field Measurements with Scanning Airborne Doppler Lidar During CAMEX-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, D. R.; Howell, J. N.; Darby, L. S.; Hardesty, R. M.; Traff, D. M.; Menzies, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    During the 1998 Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3), the first hurricane wind field measurements with Doppler lidar were achieved. Wind fields were mapped within the eye, along the eyewall, in the central dense overcast, and in the marine boundary layer encompassing the inflow region. Spatial coverage was determined primarily by cloud distribution and opacity. Within optically-thin cirrus slant range of 20- 25 km was achieved, whereas no propagation was obtained during penetration of dense cloud. Measurements were obtained with the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) on the NASA DC-8 research aircraft. MACAWS was developed and operated cooperatively by the atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A pseudo-dual Doppler technique ("co-planar scanning") is used to map the horizontal component of the wind at several vertical levels. Pulses from the laser are directed out the left side of the aircraft in the desired directions using computer-controlled rotating prisms. Upon exiting the aircraft, the beam is completely eyesafe. Aircraft attitude and speed are taken into account during real-time signal processing, resulting in determination of the ground-relative wind to an accuracy of about 1 m/s magnitude and about 10 deg direction. Beam pointing angle errors are about 0.1 deg, equivalent to about 17 m at 10 km. Horizontal resolution is about 1 km (along-track) for typical signal processor and scanner settings; vertical resolution varies with range. Results from CAMEX-3 suggest that scanning Doppler wind lidar can complement airborne Doppler radar by providing wind field measurements in regions that are devoid of hydrometeors. At present MACAWS observations are being assimilated into experimental forecast models and satellite Doppler wind lidar simulations to evaluate the relative impact.

  10. Climatological characteristics of high altitude wind shear and lapse rate layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehernberger, L. J.; Guttman, N. B.

    1981-01-01

    Indications of the climatological distribution of wind shear and temperature lapse and inversion rates as observed by rawinsonde measurements over the western United States are recorded. Frequencies of the strongest shear, lapse rates, and inversion layer strengths were observed for a 1 year period of record and were tabulated for the lower troposphere, the upper troposphere, and five altitude intervals in the lower stratosphere. Selected bivariate frequencies were also tabulated. Strong wind shears, lapse rates, and inversion are observed less frequently as altitude increases from 175 millibars to 20 millibars. On a seasonal basis the frequencies were higher in winter than in summer except for minor influences due to increased tropopause altitude in summer and the stratospheric wind reversal in the spring and fall.

  11. A candidate concept for display of forward-looking wind shear information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1989-01-01

    A concept is proposed which integrates forward-look wind shear information with airplane performance capabilities to predict future airplane energy state as a function of range. The information could be displayed to a crew either in terms of energy height or airspeed deviations. The anticipated benefits of the proposed display information concept are: (1) a wind shear hazard product that scales directly to the performance impact on the airplane and that has intuitive meaning to flight crews; (2) a reduction in flight crew workload by automatic processing of relevant hazard parameters; and (3) a continuous display of predicted airplane energy state if the approach is continued. Such a display may be used to improve pilot situational awareness or improve pilot confidence in wind shear alerts generated by other systems. The display is described and the algorithms necessary for implementation in a simulation system are provided.

  12. A Monte Carlo simulation technique for low-altitude, wind-shear turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.; Laituri, Tony R.; Trevino, George

    1990-01-01

    A case is made for including anisotropy in a Monte Carlo flight simulation scheme of low-altitude wind-shear turbulence by means of power spectral density. This study attempts to eliminate all flight simulation-induced deficiencies in the basic turbulence model. A full-scale low-altitude wind-shear turbulence simulation scheme is proposed with particular emphasis on low cost and practicality for near-ground flight. The power spectral density statistic is used to highlight the need for realistic estimates of energy transfer associated with low-altitude wind-shear turbulence. The simulation of a particular anisotropic turbulence model is shown to be a relatively simple extension from that of traditional isotropic (Dryden) turbulence.

  13. The Coplane Analysis Technique for Three-Dimensional Wind Retrieval Using the HIWRAP Airborne Doppler Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didlake, Anthony C., Jr.; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Tian, Lin; Guimond, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    The coplane analysis technique for mapping the three-dimensional wind field of precipitating systems is applied to the NASA High Altitude Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP). HIWRAP is a dual-frequency Doppler radar system with two downward pointing and conically scanning beams. The coplane technique interpolates radar measurements to a natural coordinate frame, directly solves for two wind components, and integrates the mass continuity equation to retrieve the unobserved third wind component. This technique is tested using a model simulation of a hurricane and compared to a global optimization retrieval. The coplane method produced lower errors for the cross-track and vertical wind components, while the global optimization method produced lower errors for the along-track wind component. Cross-track and vertical wind errors were dependent upon the accuracy of the estimated boundary condition winds near the surface and at nadir, which were derived by making certain assumptions about the vertical velocity field. The coplane technique was then applied successfully to HIWRAP observations of Hurricane Ingrid (2013). Unlike the global optimization method, the coplane analysis allows for a transparent connection between the radar observations and specific analysis results. With this ability, small-scale features can be analyzed more adequately and erroneous radar measurements can be identified more easily.

  14. Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithms for the Pulsed 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Ray, Taylor J.

    2013-01-01

    Two versions of airborne wind profiling algorithms for the pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia are presented. Each algorithm utilizes different number of line-of-sight (LOS) lidar returns while compensating the adverse effects of different coordinate systems between the aircraft and the Earth. One of the two algorithms APOLO (Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind Lidar) estimates wind products using two LOSs. The other algorithm utilizes five LOSs. The airborne lidar data were acquired during the NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign in 2010. The wind profile products from the two algorithms are compared with the dropsonde data to validate their results.

  15. Remote Sensing of Wind Fields and Aerosol Distribution with Airborne Scanning Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Johnson, Steven C.; Jazembski, Maurice; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The coherent Doppler laser radar (lidar), when operated from an airborne platform, is a unique tool for the study of atmospheric and surface processes and features. This is especially true for scientific objectives requiring measurements in optically-clear air, where other remote sensing technologies such as Doppler radar are typically at a disadvantage. The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of several US institutions, led by Marshall Space Flight Center, have developed an airborne coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping the wind field and aerosol structure in three dimensions. The instrument consists of an eye-safe approx. 1 Joule/pulse lidar transceiver, telescope, scanner, inertial measurement unit, and flight computer system to orchestrate all subsystem functions and tasks. The scanner is capable of directing the expanded lidar beam in a variety of ways, in order to extract vertically-resolved wind fields. Horizontal resolution is approx. 1 km; vertical resolution is even finer. Winds are obtained by measuring backscattered, Doppler-shifted laser radiation from naturally-occurring aerosol particles (of order 1 micron diameter). Measurement coverage depends on aerosol spatial distribution and composition. Velocity accuracy has been verified to be approx. 1 meter per second. A variety of applications have been demonstrated during the three flight campaigns conducted during 1995-1998. Examples will be shown during the presentation. In 1995, boundary layer winds over the ocean were mapped with unprecedented resolution. In 1996, unique measurements were made of. flow over the complex terrain of the Aleutian Islands; interaction of the marine boundary layer jet with the California coastal mountain range; a weak dry line in Texas - New Mexico; the angular dependence of sea surface scattering; and in-flight radiometric calibration using the surface of White Sands National Monument. In 1998, the first measurements of eyewall and boundary layer winds within a

  16. Wind Shear May Produce Long-Lived Storms and Squall Lines on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafkin, S.; Barth, E.

    2015-10-01

    The impact of CAPE and wind shear on storms in a Titan-like environment are explored through numerical simulation. Model results indicate that Titan storms should respond to changes in the Richardson Number. Very long-lived storms (>24hours) propagating for 1000 km or more might be possible. Varying amounts of shear in the Titan environment might explain the variety of convective cloud expressions identified in Cassini orbiter and ground-based observations. The resulting distribution and magnitude of precipitation as well as surface winds associated with storms have implications on the formation of fluvial and aeolian features and on the exchange of methane with the surface and lakes.

  17. Three-Dimensional Wind Profiling of Offshore Wind Energy Areas With Airborne Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Cowen, Larry J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Grant, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    A technique has been developed for imaging the wind field over offshore areas being considered for wind farming. This is accomplished with an eye-safe 2-micrometer wavelength coherent Doppler lidar installed in an aircraft. By raster scanning the aircraft over the wind energy area (WEA), a three-dimensional map of the wind vector can be made. This technique was evaluated in 11 flights over the Virginia and Maryland offshore WEAs. Heights above the ocean surface planned for wind turbines are shown to be within the marine boundary layer, and the wind vector is seen to show variation across the geographical area of interest at turbine heights.

  18. Wind Retrieval Algorithms for the IWRAP and HIWRAP Airborne Doppler Radars with Applications to Hurricanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guimond, Stephen Richard; Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Frasier, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Algorithms for the retrieval of atmospheric winds in precipitating systems from downward-pointing, conically-scanning airborne Doppler radars are presented. The focus in the paper is on two radars: the Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler(IWRAP) and the High-altitude IWRAP (HIWRAP). The IWRAP is a dual-frequency (Cand Ku band), multi-beam (incidence angles of 30 50) system that flies on the NOAAWP-3D aircraft at altitudes of 2-4 km. The HIWRAP is a dual-frequency (Ku and Kaband), dual-beam (incidence angles of 30 and 40) system that flies on the NASA Global Hawk aircraft at altitudes of 18-20 km. Retrievals of the three Cartesian wind components over the entire radar sampling volume are described, which can be determined using either a traditional least squares or variational solution procedure. The random errors in the retrievals are evaluated using both an error propagation analysis and a numerical simulation of a hurricane. These analyses show that the vertical and along-track wind errors have strong across-track dependence with values of 0.25 m s-1 at nadir to 2.0 m s-1 and 1.0 m s-1 at the swath edges, respectively. The across-track wind errors also have across-track structure and are on average, 3.0 3.5 m s-1 or 10 of the hurricane wind speed. For typical rotated figure four flight patterns through hurricanes, the zonal and meridional wind speed errors are 2 3 m s-1.Examples of measured data retrievals from IWRAP during an eyewall replacement cycle in Hurricane Isabel (2003) and from HIWRAP during the development of Tropical Storm Matthew (2010) are shown.

  19. Local and Remote Influences on Vertical Wind Shear over the Northern Tropical Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, R.; Zhu, X.

    2009-12-01

    Vertical wind shear is one of the most important parameters controlling the frequency and intensity of Atlantic hurricanes. It has been argued that in global warming scenarios, the mechanical effect of changing vertical wind shear may even trump the thermodynamic effect of increasing Atlantic sea surface temperatures, when it comes to projected trends in Atlantic hurricane activity. Despite its importance, little is known about the connection between vertical shear in the north Atlantic region and the global atmospheric circulation, apart from the well-known positive correlation with El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In this study, we analyze the statistical relationship between vertical shear and features of the large-scale circulation such as the distribution of sea surface temperature and vertical motion. We examine whether this relationship is different on interannual timescales associated with ENSO as compared to the decadal timescales associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). We also investigate how well the global general circulation models manage to simulate the observed vertical shear in this region, and its relationship to the large-scale circulation. Our analyses reveal an interesting sensitivity to air-sea coupling in model simulations of vertical shear. Another interesting property of vertical shear, as defined in the context of hurricane studies, is that it is positive definite, rather like precipitation. This means that it has a very nongaussian probability distribution on short timescales. We analyze how this nongaussianity changes when averaged over longer timescales.

  20. New observations of Bolivian wind streaks by JPL Airborne SAR: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumberg, Dan G.; Greeley, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    In 1993 NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar system (AIRSAR) was deployed to South America to collect multi-parameter radar data over pre-selected targets. Among the sites targeted was a series of wind streaks located in the Altiplano of Bolivia. The objective of this investigation is to study the effect of wavelength, polarization, and incidence angle on the visibility of wind streaks in radar data. Because this is a preliminary evaluation of the recently acquired data we will focus on one scene and, thus, only on the effects of wavelength and polarization. Wind streaks provide information on the near-surface prevailing winds and on the abundance of winderodible material, such as sand. The potential for a free-flyer radar system that could provide global radar images in multiple wavelengths, polarizations, and incidence angles requires definition of system parameters for mission planning. Furthermore, thousands of wind streaks were mapped from Magellan radar images of Venus; their interpretation requires an understanding of the interaction of radar with wind streaks and the surrounding terrain. Our experiment was conducted on wind streaks in the Altiplano of Bolivia to address these issues.

  1. Reconciling Discrepancies Between Airborne and Buoy-Based Measurements of Wind Stress Over Mixed Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Nava, Héctor; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Hwang, Paul A.

    2015-06-01

    In a previous study it was found that airborne and buoy-based measurements of wind stress made in the Gulf of Tehuantepc, México failed to agree. Here we revisit the issue and analyze data from both platforms in the context of flux-sampling strategies and find that there is now good agreement between wind-stress estimates from both experiments. The sampling strategies used for airborne and buoy-based sampling capture most of the contributing scales to the momentum flux and, correspondingly, the systematic errors for both stress estimates are low. On the other hand, the random error is much larger for the airborne measurements as compared with that for the buoy-based estimates. Increasing the averaging period for the aircraft-based estimates reduces the random error and brings the stress estimates into a better agreement with those from the buoy data. Since there is a good agreement between stress estimates, the apparent underestimation found earlier seems to be coincidental and caused by the interpolation method employed by the source paper.

  2. Wind field measurements for the mitigation of airborne health threats in a complex urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arend, Mark; Santoro, David; Abdelazim, Sameh; Moshary, Fred; Ahmed, Sam

    2009-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) sponsored Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) resulted in the strategic placement of weather instruments in New York City (NYC) and the transition of some instruments to the City College of New York (CCNY) operated NYC MetNet to provide timely and accurate information on "skimming field" winds above city building tops. In order to extend the observational capabilities of the NYC MetNet, a cost effective portable eye safe fiber optic based coherent wind lidar system is currently under development in CCNY laboratories. Wind lidar measurements, coupled with the continuous observations from the NYC MetNet, should support the initialization, feedback and development of plume models that would be used after an initial detection of airborne toxins. An overview of the lidar system design and the NYC MetNet will be given.

  3. Factors influencing tolerance to wind shears in landing approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    Flight simulator studies were conducted to examine the piloting problems resulting from encounters with unusual atmospheric disturbances late in landing approach. Simulated encounters with disturbances, including examples derived from accident data, provided the opportunity to study aircraft and pilot performance. It was observed that substantial delays in pilot response to shear-induced departures from glide slope often seriously amplified the consequences of the encounter. In preliminary assessments, an integrated flight instrument display featuring flight path as the primary controlled element appeared to provide the means to minimize such delays by improving tolerance to disturbances in landing approaches.

  4. Simulator investigation of wind shear recovery techniques. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective was the development of practical flight procedures and guidance for near-optimal trajectories during inadvertent wind shear encounters following takeoff. The approach was to conduct preliminary development of candidate strategies using batch simulation of the point mass B737-100 performance model and to evaluate candidate guidance strategies in piloted, real time, six degrees of freedom simulation.

  5. The effect of roughness elements on wind erosion: The importance of surface shear stress distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Representation of surface roughness effects on aeolian sediment transport is a key source of uncertainty in wind erosion models. Drag partitioning schemes are used to account for roughness by scaling the soil entrainment threshold by the ratio of shear stress on roughness elements to that on the veg...

  6. Wind-Driven Angular Dependence of Sea-Surface Reflectance Measured with an Airborne Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tratt, David M.; Menzies, Robert T.; Cutten, Dean R.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of wind-stress on the optical properties of the ocean surface have been studied for several decades. In particular, the classic study by Cox and Munk (1954) linking sea-surface wind field to wave slope statistics provides a phenomenology by which the sea-surface wind velocity can be estimated from direct measurement of the wave-modulated surface reflectance. A limited number of studies along these lines have been conducted using airborne or spaceborne lidar systems. In these instances, truthing was provided by in situ ship reports or satellite microwave remote sensing instruments (e.g., ERS scatterometer, SSM/I). During the second deployment of the MACAWS Doppler wind lidar in the summer of 1996 measurements of sea-surface reflectance as a function of azimuth- and nadir-viewing angles were acquired off the California coast. MACAWS data products include directly measured winds, as well as calibrated backscatter/reflectance profiles, thus enabling comparison of the winds inferred from sea-surface reflectance measurements with those deriving from the Doppler-processed direct line-of-sight (LOS) estimates. Additional validation data was extracted from the ERS and SSM/I satellite microwave sensor archives maintained by the JPL Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO- DAAC).

  7. Turbulence generation by mountain wave breaking in flows with directional wind shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittoria Guarino, Maria; Teixeira, Miguel A. C.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, wave breaking, and the potential for the generation of turbulence in the atmosphere, is investigated using high-resolution numerical simulations of idealized atmospheric flows with directional wind shear over a three-dimensional isolated mountain. These simulations, which use the WRF-ARW model, differ in degree of flow non-linearity and directional wind shear intensity, quantified through the dimensionless mountain height and the Richardson number of the incoming flow. The aim is to predict wave breaking occurrence based on large-scale variables. The simulation results have been used to produce a regime diagram representing a description of wave breaking behavior in parameter space. By selecting flow overturning occurrence as a discriminating factor, it was possible to split the regime diagram in two sub-regions representing: a non-wave breaking regime and a wave breaking regime. The regime diagram shows that in the presence of directional shear wave breaking may occur over lower mountains that in a constant-wind case. When mountain waves break, the associated convective instability can lead to turbulence generation (known as Clear Air Turbulence or CAT in a non-cloudy atmosphere), thus, regions within the simulation domain where wave breaking and potential development of CAT are expected have been identified. The extent of these regions is variable and increases with the background shear intensity. In contrast with constant-wind flows, where wave breaking occurs in the stream-wise direction aligned with the mountain, for the helical wind profiles considered in this study as prototypes of flows with directional wind shear, flow overturning regions have a more three-dimensional geometry. The analysis of the model outputs, supported by theoretical arguments, suggest the existence of a link between wave breaking and the relative orientation of the incoming wind vector and the horizontal velocity perturbation vector. In particular, in a wave breaking

  8. Temperature and wind measurements and model atmospheres of the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. R.; Bui, T. P.; Scott, S. G.; Bowen, S. W.; Dean-Day, J.

    1990-01-01

    The ER-2 Meteorological Measurement System provides accurate in situ measurements of atmospheric state variables. During the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) the ER-2 flew over the polar region on 14 occasions in January and February, 1989. Vertical temperature profiles, during aircraft takeoff at about 60 deg N and during midflight descent and ascent at high latitudes, are presented. Latitudinal variations of the horizontal wind measurement are illustrated and discussed. Based on observation data, model atmospheres at 60 deg and 75 deg N, representative of the environment of the AASE campaign, are developed.

  9. Organization of vertical shear of wind and daily variability of monsoon rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, K. C.; Goswami, P.

    2016-02-01

    Very little is known about the mechanisms that govern the day to day variability of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall; in the current dominant view, the daily rainfall is essentially a result of chaotic dynamics. Most studies in the past have thus considered monsoon in terms of its seasonal (June-September) or monthly rainfall. We show here that the daily rainfall in June is associated with vertical shear of horizontal winds at specific scales. While vertical shear had been used in the past to investigate interannual variability of seasonal rainfall, rarely any effort has been made to examine daily rainfall. Our work shows that, at least during June, the daily rainfall variability of ISM rainfall is associated with a large scale dynamical coherence in the sense that the vertical shear averaged over large spatial extents are significantly correlated with area-averaged daily rainfall. An important finding from our work is the existence of a clearly delineated monsoon shear domain (MSD) with strong coherence between area-averaged shear and area-averaged daily rainfall in June; this association of daily rainfall is not significant with shear over only MSD. Another important feature is that the association between daily rainfall and vertical shear is present only during the month of June. Thus while ISM (June-September) is a single seasonal system, it is important to consider the dynamics and variation of June independently of the seasonal ISM rainfall. The association between large-scale organization of circulation and daily rainfall is suggested as a basis for attempting prediction of daily rainfall by ensuring accurate simulation of wind shear.

  10. Influence of wind on daily airborne pollen counts in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    tareq Majeed, Husam; Periago, Cristina; Alarcón, Marta; De Linares, Concepción; Belmonte, Jordina

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analize the influence of wind (speed and direction) on the daily airborne pollen counts recorded in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) of 21 pollen taxa recorded at 6 aerobiological stations: Barcelona, Bellaterra, Girona, Lleida Manresa, and Tarragona for the period 2004-2014. The taxa studied are Alnus, Betula, Castanea, Cupressaceae, Fagus, Fraxinus, Olea, Pinus, Platanus, total Quercus, Quercus deciduous type, Quercus evergreen type, Ulmus, Corylus, Pistacia, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, and Urticaceae. The mean daily wind direction was divided into 8 sectors: N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W and NW. For each sector, the correlation between the daily pollen concentrations and wind speed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was computed and compared with the wind rose charts. The results showed that Tarragona was the station with more significant correlations followed by Bellaterra, Lleida and Manresa. On the other hand, Artemisia was the most correlated taxon with mainly negative values, and Fagus was the least. The W wind direction showed the largest number of significant correlations, mostly positive, while the N direction was the least and negatively correlated.

  11. Development of the NASA High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Lihua; Heymsfield, Gerald; Carswell, James; Schaubert, Dan; McLinden, Matthew; Vega, Manuel; Perrine, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the development and recent field deployments of the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP), which was funded under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) [1]. HIWRAP is a dual-frequency (Ka- and Ku-band), dual-beam (300 and 400 incidence angles), conical scanning, Doppler radar system designed for operation on the NASA high-altitude (65,000 ft) Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial System (UAS). It utilizes solid state transmitters along with a novel pulse compression scheme that results in a system with compact size, light weight, less power consumption, and low cost compared to radars currently in use for precipitation and Doppler wind measurements. By combining measurements at Ku- and Ka-band, HIWRAP is able to image winds through measuring volume backscattering from clouds and precipitation. In addition, HIWRAP is also capable of measuring surface winds in an approach similar to SeaWinds on QuikScat. To this end, HIWRAP hardware and software development has been completed. It was installed on the NASA WB57 for instrument test flights in March, 2010 and then deployed on the NASA Global Hawk for supporting the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field campaign in August-September, 2010. This paper describes the scientific motivations of the development of HIWRAP as well as system hardware, aircraft integration and flight missions. Preliminary data from GRIP science flights is also presented.

  12. Solid-state coherent laser radar wind shear measuring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. Milton

    1992-01-01

    Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) was established in 1984 to engage in the development of coherent laser radar systems and subsystems with applications in atmospheric remote sensing, and in target tracking, ranging and imaging. CTI focuses its capabilities in three major areas: (1) theoretical performance and design of coherent laser radar system; (2) development of coherent laser radar systems for government agencies such as DoD and NASA; and (3) development of coherent laser radar systems for commercial markets. The topics addressed are: (1) 1.06 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system; (2) wind measurement using 1.06 micron system; and flashlamp-pumped 2.09 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system.

  13. Combined VHF Dopplar radar and airborne (CV-990) measurements of atmospheric winds on the mesoscale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairall, Christopher W.; Thomson, Dennis W.

    1989-01-01

    Hourly measurements of wind speed and direction obtained using two wind profiling Doppler radars during two prolonged jet stream occurrences over western Pennsylvania were analyzed. In particular, the time-variant characteristics of derived shear profiles were examined. To prevent a potential loss of structural detail and retain statistical significance, data from both radars were stratified into categories based on the location data from the Penn State radar were also compared to data from Pittsburgh radiosondes. Profiler data dropouts were studied in an attempt to determine possible reasons for the apparently reduced performance of profiling radars operating beneath a jet stream. Temperature profiles for the radar site were obtained using an interpolated temperature and dewpoint temperature sounding procedure developed at Penn State. The combination of measured wind and interpolated temperature profiles allowed Richardson number profiles to be generated for the profiler sounding volume. Both Richardson number and wind shear statistics were then examined along with pilot reports of turbulence in the vicinity of the profiler.

  14. Improved Hurricane Boundary Layer Observations with the Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Changy, P.; Carswell, J.; Contreras, R.; Chu, T.

    2006-01-01

    During the NOAA/NESDIS 2005 Hurricane Season (HS2005) and the 2006 Winter Experiment, the University of Massachusetts (UMass) installed two instruments on the NOAA N42RF WP-3D research aircraft: the Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (IWRAP) and the Simultaneous Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). IWRAP is a dual-band (C- and Ku), dual-polarized pencil-beam airborne radar that profiles the volume backscatter and Doppler velocity from rain and that also measures the ocean backscatter response. It simultaneously profiles along four separate incidence angles while conically scanning at 60 RPM. SFMR is a C-band nadir viewing radiometer that measures the emission from the ocean surface and intervening atmosphere simultaneously at six frequencies. It is designed to obtain the surface wind speed and the column average rain rate. Both instruments have previously been flown during the 2002, 2003 and 2004 hurricane seasons. For the HS2005, the IWRAP system was modified to implement a raw data acquisition system. The importance of the raw data system arises when trying to profile the atmosphere all the way down to the surface with a non-nadir looking radar system. With this particular geometry, problems arise mainly from the fact that both rain and ocean provide a return echo coincident in time through the antenna s main lobe. This paper shows how this limitation has been removed and presents initial results demonstrating its new capabilities to derive the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind field within the inner core of hurricanes to much lower altitudes than the ones the original system was capable of, and to analyze the spectral response of the ocean backscatter and the rain under different wind and rain conditions.

  15. Mapping the Risk of Forest Wind Damage Using Airborne Scanning LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarinen, N.; Vastaranta, M.; Honkavaara, E.; Wulder, M. A.; White, J. C.; Litkey, P.; Holopainen, M.; Hyyppä, J.

    2015-03-01

    Wind damage is known for causing threats to sustainable forest management and yield value in boreal forests. Information about wind damage risk can aid forest managers in understanding and possibly mitigating damage impacts. The objective of this research was to better understand and quantify drivers of wind damage, and to map the probability of wind damage. To accomplish this, we used open-access airborne scanning light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. The probability of wind-induced forest damage (PDAM) in southern Finland (61°N, 23°E) was modelled for a 173 km2 study area of mainly managed boreal forests (dominated by Norway spruce and Scots pine) and agricultural fields. Wind damage occurred in the study area in December 2011. LiDAR data were acquired prior to the damage in 2008. High spatial resolution aerial imagery, acquired after the damage event (January, 2012) provided a source of model calibration via expert interpretation. A systematic grid (16 m x 16 m) was established and 430 sample grid cells were identified systematically and classified as damaged or undamaged based on visual interpretation using the aerial images. Potential drivers associated with PDAM were examined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Risk model predictors were extracted from the LiDAR-derived surface models. Geographic information systems (GIS) supported spatial mapping and identification of areas of high PDAM across the study area. The risk model based on LiDAR data provided good agreement with detected risk areas (73 % with kappa-value 0,47). The strongest predictors in the risk model were mean canopy height and mean elevation. Our results indicate that open-access LiDAR data sets can be used to map the probability of wind damage risk without field data, providing valuable information for forest management planning.

  16. Retrieval of aerosol backscatter and extinction from airborne coherent Doppler wind lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, F.; Reitebuch, O.; Groß, S.; Rahm, S.; Freudenthaler, V.; Toledano, C.; Weinzierl, B.

    2015-07-01

    A novel method for calibration and quantitative aerosol optical property retrieval from Doppler wind lidars (DWLs) is presented in this work. Due to the strong wavelength dependence of the atmospheric molecular backscatter and the low sensitivity of the coherent DWLs to spectrally broad signals, calibration methods for aerosol lidars cannot be applied to coherent DWLs usually operating at wavelengths between 1.5 and 2 μm. Instead, concurrent measurements of an airborne DWL at 2 μm and the POLIS ground-based aerosol lidar at 532 nm are used in this work, in combination with sun photometer measurements, for the calibration and retrieval of aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles at 532 nm. The proposed method was applied to measurements from the SALTRACE experiment in June-July 2013, which aimed at quantifying the aerosol transport and change in aerosol properties from the Sahara desert to the Caribbean. The retrieved backscatter and extinction coefficient profiles from the airborne DWL are within 20 % of POLIS aerosol lidar and CALIPSO satellite measurements. Thus the proposed method extends the capabilities of coherent DWLs to measure profiles of the horizontal and vertical wind towards aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles, which is of high benefit for aerosol transport studies.

  17. Noise Whitening in Airborne Wind Profiling With a Pulsed 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Arthur, Grant E.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Two different noise whitening methods in airborne wind profiling with a pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia are presented. In order to provide accurate wind parameter estimates from the airborne lidar data acquired during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign in 2010, the adverse effects of background instrument noise must be compensated properly in the early stage of data processing. The results of the two methods are presented using selected GRIP data and compared with the dropsonde data for verification purposes.

  18. Evolution and Growth Competition of Salt Fingers in Saline Lake with Slight Wind Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ray-Yeng; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Shugan, Igor

    2010-05-01

    Since the discover of double-diffusive convection by Stommel, Arons & Blanchard (1956), 'evidence has accumulated for the widespread presence of double-diffusion throughout the ocean' and for its 'significant effects on global water-mass structure and the thermohaline convection' (Schmitt, 1998). The salt-fingering form of double-diffusion has particularly attracted interest because of salt-finger convection being now widely recognized as an important mechanism for mixing heat and salt both vertically and laterally in the ocean and saline lake. In oceanographic situations or saline lake where salt fingers may be an important mechanism for the transport of heat and salt in the vertical, velocity shears may also be present. Salt finger convection is analogous to Bénard convection in that the kinetic energy of the motions is obtained from the potential energy stored in the unstable distribution of a stratifying component. On the basis of the thermal analogy it is of interest to discover whether salt fingers are converted into two-dimensional sheets by the wind shear, and how the vertical fluxes of heat and salt are changed by the wind shear. Salt finger convection under the effect of steady wind shear is theoretically examined in this paper. The evolution of developing in the presence of a vertical density gradient disturbance and the horizontal Couette flow is considered near the onset of salt fingers in the saline lake under a moderate rate of wind shear. We use velocity as the basic variable and solve the pressure Poisson equation in terms of the associated Green function. Growth competition between the longitudinal rolls (LR) and the transverse rolls (TR), whose axes are respectively in the direction parallel to and perpendicular to the Couette flow, is investigated by the weakly nonlinear analysis of coupled-mode equations. The results show that the TR mode is characterized in some range of the effective Rayleigh number, and that the stability is dominated by

  19. Contributions on the Subject of Longitudinal Movements of Aircraft in Wind Shears. Ph.D. Thesis - Technischen Univ., 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauspe, P.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of downburst-type wind shears on the longitudinal dynamic behavior of an unguided aircraft is simulated numerically on the basis of published meteorological data and the flight characteristics of an A300-B passenger jet. The nonlinear differential equations of the aircraft motion are linearized by conventional methods, and the wind effects are introduced via the linear derivatives of the wind components referred to the wind gradients to obtain simplified technical models of the longitudinal response to all possible types of constant-gradient wind shears during the first 20-60 sec. Graphs, maps, and diagrams are provided, and a number of accidents presumed to have involved wind shears are analyzed in detail.

  20. WIND-SHEARING IN GASEOUS PROTOPLANETARY DISKS AND THE EVOLUTION OF BINARY PLANETESIMALS

    SciTech Connect

    Perets, Hagai B.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.

    2011-05-20

    One of the first stages of planet formation is the growth of small planetesimals and their accumulation into large planetesimals and planetary embryos. This early stage occurs much before the dispersal of most of the gas from the protoplanetary disk. Due to their different aerodynamic properties, planetesimals of different sizes and shapes experience different drag forces from the gas during this time. Such differential forces produce a wind-shearing (WISH) effect between close by, different-sized planetesimals. For any two planetesimals, a WISH radius can be considered at which the differential acceleration due to the wind becomes greater than the mutual gravitational pull between the planetesimals. We find that the WISH radius could be much smaller than the gravitational shearing radius by the star (the Hill radius). In other words, during the gas-phase of the disk, WISH could play a more important role than tidal perturbations by the star. Here, we study the WISH radii for planetesimal pairs of different sizes and compare the effects of wind and gravitational shearing (drag force versus gravitational tidal force). We then discuss the role of WISH for the stability and survival of binary planetesimals. Binaries are sheared apart by the wind if they are wider than their WISH radius. WISH-stable binaries can also inspiral, and possibly coalesce, due to gas drag. Here, we calculate the WISH radius and the gas-drag-induced merger timescale, providing stability and survival criteria for gas-embedded binary planetesimals. Our results suggest that even WISH-stable binaries may merge in times shorter than the lifetime of the gaseous disk. This may constrain currently observed binary planetesimals to have formed far from the star or at a late stage after the dispersal of most of the disk gas. We note that the WISH radius may also be important for other processes such as planetesimal erosion and planetesimal encounters and collisions in a gaseous environment.

  1. Wind Shear May Produce Long-Lived Storms and Squall Lines on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Barth, Erika

    2015-11-01

    The impact of CAPE and wind shear on storms in a Titan-like environment are explored through numerical simulation. Numerical modeling indicates that both large-scale shear and CAPE environment control the dynamics of the clouds. This response to the large-scale environment is analogous to the behavior of deep convective clouds on Earth. The balance between shear and CAPE, as expressed through the bulk Richardson Number (NR), is a good indicator of the response of a storm to its environment. Large NR results in short-lived single cell storms (Figure 1). As shear increases for a given CAPE, and NR decreases, the storms transition to a multicellular regime. Multicellular storms are longer-lived and are characterized by a downdraft generated cold pool that interacts with the background shear vorticity to initiate cells along the leading edge of the storm gust front (Figure 2). Very long-lived storms (>24 hours) propagating for 1000 km or more might be possible. The most intense multicellular systems simulated in this study behave similar to terrestrial squall lines, and very long-lived storms (>24 hours) propagating for 1000 km or more might be possible. Cloud outbursts and linear cloud features observed from ground and Cassini may be the result of these organized storm systems. Varying amounts of shear in the Titan environment might explain the variety of convective cloud expressions identified in Cassini orbiter and ground-based observations. The resulting distribution and magnitude of precipitation as well as surface winds associated with storms have implications on the formation of fluvial and aeolian features, including dunes, and on the exchange of methane with the surface and lakes.

  2. An Examination of Aviation Accidents Associated with Turbulence, Wind Shear and Thunderstorm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2013-01-01

    The focal point of the study reported here was the definition and examination of turbulence, wind shear and thunderstorm in relation to aviation accidents. NASA project management desired this information regarding distinct subgroups of atmospheric hazards, in order to better focus their research portfolio. A seven category expansion of Kaplan's turbulence categories was developed, which included wake turbulence, mountain wave turbulence, clear air turbulence, cloud turbulence, convective turbulence, thunderstorm without mention of turbulence, and low altitude wind shear, microburst or turbulence (with no mention of thunderstorms).More than 800 accidents from flights based in the United States during 1987-2008 were selected from a National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database. Accidents were selected for inclusion in this study if turbulence, thunderstorm, wind shear or microburst was considered either a cause or a factor in the accident report, and each accident was assigned to only one hazard category. This report summarizes the differences between the categories in terms of factors such as flight operations category, aircraft engine type, the accident's geographic location and time of year, degree of injury to aircraft occupants, aircraft damage, age and certification of the pilot and the phase of flight at the time of the accident.

  3. Flight evaluation of a simple total energy-rate system with potential wind-shear application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, A. J.; Hueschen, R. M.; Hellbaum, R. F.; Creedon, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Wind shears can create havoc during aircraft terminal area operations and have been cited as the primary cause of several major aircraft accidents. A simple sensor, potentially having application to the wind-shear problem, was developed to rapidly measure aircraft total energy relative to the air mass. Combining this sensor with either a variometer or a rate-of-climb indicator provides a total energy-rate system which was successfully applied in soaring flight. The measured rate of change of aircraft energy can potentially be used on display/control systems of powered aircraft to reduce glide-slope deviations caused by wind shear. The experimental flight configuration and evaluations of the energy-rate system are described. Two mathematical models are developed: the first describes operation of the energy probe in a linear design region and the second model is for the nonlinear region. The calculated total rate is compared with measured signals for many different flight tests. Time history plots show the tow curves to be almost the same for the linear operating region and very close for the nonlinear region.

  4. Equatorial F region neutral winds and shears near sunset measured with chemical release techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiene, A.; Larsen, M. F.; Kudeki, E.

    2015-10-01

    The period near sunset is a dynamic and critical time for the daily development of the equatorial nighttime ionosphere and the instabilities that occur there. It is during these hours that the preconditions necessary for the later development of Equatorial Spread F (ESF) plasma instabilities occur. The neutral dynamics of the sunset ionosphere are also of critical importance to the generation of currents and electric fields; however, the behavior of the neutrals is experimentally understood primarily through very limited single-altitude measurements or measurements that provide weighted altitude means of the winds as a function of time. To date, there have been very few vertically resolved neutral wind measurements in the F region at sunset. We present two sets of sounding rocket chemical release measurements, one from a launch in the Marshall Islands on Kwajalein atoll and one from Alcantara, Brazil. Analysis of the release motions has yielded vertically resolved neutral wind profiles that show both the mean horizontal winds and the vertical shears in the winds. In both experiments, we observe significant vertical gradients in the zonal wind that are unexpected by classical assumptions about the behavior of the neutral wind at these altitudes at sunset near the geomagnetic equator.

  5. Effect of wind turbulence and shear on landing performance of jet transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blick, E. F.; Mccarthy, J.; Bensch, R. R.; Sarabudla, N. R.

    1978-01-01

    Computer simulations of a Boeing 727 class aircraft landing in turbulence were developed by programming the longitudinal aircraft equations of motion into a digital computer with various input values of vertical and horizontal wind speeds. Turbulent wind data was fed to the computer in one-second intervals. The computer computed in one-second intervals the aircraft speed, altitude, horizontal distance traveled, rate-of-descent, pitch attitude, glide path angle (from edge of runway) and elevator angle. All computer runs were made in the 'stick-fixed' mode. The RMS values of altitude and velocity perturbations (from equilibrium) were found to be large when horizontal wind gusts had sinusoidal components at or near the phugoid (long period) frequency. Maximum RMS altitude deviations occurred when the vertical wind had sinusoidal components which were 1/10 to 1/5 of the phugoid frequency. When real wind data (obtained from NCAR Queen Air) were used as input winds good correlations were found to exist between RMS velocity perturbations and both horizontal and vertical wind shears.

  6. Rossby-Khantadze electromagnetic planetary waves driven by sheared zonal winds in the E-layer ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futatani, S.; Horton, W.; Kahlon, L. Z.; Kaladze, T. D.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear simulations of electromagnetic Rossby and Khantadze planetary waves in the presence of a shearless and sheared zonal flows in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer are carried out. The simulations show that the nonlinear action of the vortex structures keeps the solitary character in the presence of shearless zonal winds as well as the ideal solutions of solitary vortex in the absence of zonal winds. In the presence of sheared zonal winds, the zonal flows result in breaking into separate multiple smaller pieces. A passively convected scalar field is shown to clarify the transport associated with the vortices. The work shows that the zonal shear flows provide an energy source into the vortex structure according to the shear rate of the zonal winds.

  7. Rossby-Khantadze electromagnetic planetary waves driven by sheared zonal winds in the E-layer ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Futatani, S.; Horton, W.; Kahlon, L. Z.; Kaladze, T. D.

    2015-01-15

    Nonlinear simulations of electromagnetic Rossby and Khantadze planetary waves in the presence of a shearless and sheared zonal flows in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer are carried out. The simulations show that the nonlinear action of the vortex structures keeps the solitary character in the presence of shearless zonal winds as well as the ideal solutions of solitary vortex in the absence of zonal winds. In the presence of sheared zonal winds, the zonal flows result in breaking into separate multiple smaller pieces. A passively convected scalar field is shown to clarify the transport associated with the vortices. The work shows that the zonal shear flows provide an energy source into the vortex structure according to the shear rate of the zonal winds.

  8. Analysis of satellite and airborne wind measurements during the SEMAPHORE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tournadre, J.; Hauser, D.

    1994-12-31

    During the SEMAPHORE experiment Intensive Observation Period (IOP), held in October and November 1993 in the Azores-Madeira region, two airplanes, instrumented for atmospheric research, and two oceanographic research vessels have conducted in situ measurements in a 500km x 500km domain. Within the framework of SEMAPHORE, the SOFIA program is dedicated to the study of the air-sea fluxes and interactions from local scale up to mesoscale. The analysis of the structure of the wind and wave fields and their relations to the surface fluxes (especially near oceanic fronts) and the validation of the satellite data are two of the main goals of the SOFIA program. During the IOP, the experiment domain was regularly overflown by the ERS-1 and Topex-Poseidon (TP) satellites. This study presents a preliminary analysis of the ERS-1 and TP altimeter wind and wave measurement and ERS-1 scatterometer wind fields. The data from the airborne RESSAC (a radar ocean wave spectrometer) are also presented.

  9. Watershed Scale Shear Stress From Tethersonde Wind Profile Measurements Under Near Neutral and Unstable Atmospheric Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlange, M. B.; Katul, G. G.

    1995-04-01

    Mean wind speed profiles were measured in the atmospheric surface layer, using a tethersonde system, above the Ojai Valley Watershed in southern California. The valley is mainly planted with mature avocado and orange trees. The surface shear stress and latent and sensible heat fluxes were measured above the trees which are up to 9 m in height. Near-neutral wind speed profile measurements allowed the determination of the watershed surface roughness (z0 = 1.4 m) and the momentum displacement height (d0 = 7.0 m). The wind speed measurements obtained under unstable atmospheric stability were analyzed using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. New stability correction functions proposed based on theory and experiments of Kader-Yaglom as well as the now classic Businger-Dyer type functions were tested. The watershed shear stress values calculated using the surface layer wind speed profiles with the new Monin-Obukhov stability functions were found to be improved in comparison with the values obtained with the Businger-Dyer functions under strongly unstable stability conditions. The Monin-Obukhov model with the Businger-Dyer stability correction function underpredicted the momentum flux by 25% under strongly unstable stability conditions, while the new Kader-Yaglom formulation compared well on average (R2 = 0.77) with the surface eddy correlation measurements for all atmospheric stability conditions. The unstable 100-m drag coefficient was found to be u*2/V1002 = 0.0182.

  10. Simulated flight through JAWS wind shear - In-depth analysis results. [Joint Airport Weather Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Chang, H.-P.; Elmore, K. L.; Mccarthy, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) field experiment was carried out in 1982 near Denver. An analysis is presented of aircraft performance in the three-dimensional wind fields. The fourth dimension, time, is not considered. The analysis seeks to prepare computer models of microburst wind shear from the JAWS data sets for input to flight simulators and for research and development of aircraft control systems and operational procedures. A description is given of the data set and the method of interpolating velocities and velocity gradients for input to the six-degrees-of-freedom equations governing the motion of the aircraft. The results of the aircraft performance analysis are then presented, and the interpretation classifies the regions of shear as severe, moderate, or weak. Paths through the severe microburst of August 5, 1982, are then recommended for training and operational applications. Selected subregions of the flow field defined in terms of planar sections through the wind field are presented for application to simulators with limited computer storage capacity, that is, for computers incapable of storing the entire array of variables needed if the complete wind field is programmed.

  11. Aerosol Backscatter and Extinction Retrieval from Airborne Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, F.; Reitebuch, O.; Groß, S.; Rahm, S.; Freudenthaler, V.; Toledano, C.; Weinzierl, B.

    2016-06-01

    A novel method for coherent Doppler wind lidars (DWLs) calibration is shown in this work. Concurrent measurements of a ground based aerosol lidar operating at 532 nm and an airborne DWL at 2 μm are used in combination with sun photometer measurements for the retrieval of backscatter and extinction profiles. The presented method was successfully applied to the measurements obtained during the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE: http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/saltrace), which aimed to characterize the Saharan dust long range transport between Africa and the Caribbean.

  12. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE): An Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Instrument Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Global measurement of tropospheric winds is a key measurement for understanding atmospheric dynamics and improving numerical weather prediction. Global wind profiles remain a high priority for the operational weather community and also for a variety of research applications including studies of the global hydrologic cycle and transport studies of aerosols and trace species. In addition to space based winds, a high altitude airborne system flown on UAV or other advanced platforms would be of great interest for studying mesoscale dynamics and hurricanes. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE) project was selected in 2005 by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office as part of the Instrument Incubator Program. TWiLiTE will leverage significant research and development investments in key technologies made in the past several years. The primary focus will be on integrating these sub-systems into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57, so that the nadir viewing lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. TWiLiTE is a collaboration involving scientists and technologists from NASA Goddard, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab and industry partners Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. NASA Goddard and it's partners have been at the forefront in the development of key lidar technologies (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a fixture spaceborne tropospheric wind system. The completed system will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 h to the surface with 250 m vertical

  13. Airborne Wind Profiling With the Data Acquisition and Processing System for a Pulsed 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia flew on the NASA's DC-8 aircraft during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) during the summer of 2010. The participation was part of the project Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) Air. Selected results of airborne wind profiling are presented and compared with the dropsonde data for verification purposes. Panoramic presentations of different wind parameters over a nominal observation time span are also presented for selected GRIP data sets. The realtime data acquisition and analysis software that was employed during the GRIP campaign is introduced with its unique features.

  14. A spatial model of wind shear and turbulence for flight simulation. Ph.D. Thesis - Colorado State Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    A three dimensional model which combines measurements of wind shear in the real atmosphere with three dimensional Monte Carlo simulated turbulence was developed. The wind field over the body of an aircraft can be simulated and all aerodynamic loads and moments calculated.

  15. First observation of mesospheric wind shear as high as 330 m s-1 km-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yong-Fu; Widdel, H.-U.; Offermann, D.

    1995-09-01

    Mesospheric wind profiles with an altitude resolution of 25 m have been obtained by means of radar tracking of foil chaff clouds. Such experiments were performed during winter 1990 at Biscarrosse, France (44°N, 1°W). On one flight, a wind shear as high as 330 m s-1 km-1 at 87.4 km and a region of dynamical instability between 86 and 88 km was measured. This wind shear is believed to be the largest value ever measured in the mesosphere. The region of dynamical instability results from a superposition of two wave motions, and is found to link well with enhanced turbulence and small-scale wave activity. Acknowledgements. I thank D. R. McDiarmid of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, Canada, for important ideas and discussions during the development of this work. I thank the referees for useful comments which have improved the paper. I also thank E.M. Poulter of NIWA for helpful suggestions, and for reading the manuscript and making useful comments. The work was supported by contract CO1309 of the New Zealand Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Topical Editor C.-G. Fälthammar thanks K. Mursula and W. J. Hughes for their help in evaluating this paper.--> Correspondence to: W. Allan-->

  16. Estimation of sea-surface winds using backscatter cross-section measurements from airborne research weather radar

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, P.H. . Remote Sensing Facility)

    1994-01-01

    A technique is presented for estimation of sea-surface winds using backscatter cross-section measurements from an airborne research weather radar. The technique is based on an empirical relation developed for use with satellite-borne microwave scatterometers which derives sea-surface winds from radar backscatter cross-section measurements. Unlike a scatterometer, the airborne research weather radar is a Doppler radar designed to measure atmospheric storm structure and kinematics. Designed to scan the atmosphere, the radar also scans the ocean surface over a wide range of azimuths, with the incidence angle and polarization angle changing continuously during each scan. The new sea-surface wind estimation technique accounts for these variations in incidence angle and polarization and derives the atmospheric surface winds. The technique works well over the range of wind conditions over which the wind speed-backscatter cross-section relation holds, about 2--20 m/s. The problems likely to be encountered with this new technique are evaluated and it is concluded that most problems are those which are endemic to any microwave scatterometer wind estimation technique. The new technique will enable using the research weather radar to provide measurements which would otherwise require use of a dedicated scatterometer.

  17. Turbulent transport model of wind shear in thunderstorm gust fronts and warm fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, W. S.; Teske, M. E.; Segur, H. C. O.

    1978-01-01

    A model of turbulent flow in the atmospheric boundary layer was used to simulate the low-level wind and turbulence profiles associated with both local thunderstorm gust fronts and synoptic-scale warm fronts. Dimensional analyses of both type fronts provided the physical scaling necessary to permit normalized simulations to represent fronts for any temperature jump. The sensitivity of the thunderstorm gust front to five different dimensionless parameters as well as a change from axisymmetric to planar geometry was examined. The sensitivity of the warm front to variations in the Rossby number was examined. Results of the simulations are discussed in terms of the conditions which lead to wind shears which are likely to be most hazardous for aircraft operations.

  18. Analysis of aircraft control strategies for microburst encounter. [low altitude wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.; Psiaki, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Analyses have indicated that improved control strategies could reduce the threat posed by the presence of microburst-type wind shear during aircraft takeoffs and landings. The attenuation of flight path response to microburst inputs by feedback control to elevators and throttle was studied for the cases of a jet transport and a general aviation aircraft, using longitudinal equations of motion, root locus analysis, Bode plots of altitude response to wind inputs, and nonlinear numerical simulation. Energy management relative to the airmass, a pitch-up response to the decreasing airspeed, increased phugoid mode damping, and decreased phugoid natural frequency, are found to improve microburst penetration aircraft behavior. Aircraft stall, and throttle saturation, are limiting factors in an aircraft's ability to maintain a given flight path during a microburst encounter.

  19. MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR WIND AT CURRENT SHEETS ASSOCIATED WITH EXTREMELY SMALL FIELD SHEAR ANGLES

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J. T.; Phan, T. D.

    2013-02-01

    Using Wind 3 s plasma and magnetic field data, we have identified nine reconnection exhausts within a solar wind disturbance on 1998 October 18-20 driven by a moderately fast interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME). Three of the exhausts within the ICME were associated with current sheets having local field shear angles, {theta}, ranging from 4 Degree-Sign to 9 Degree-Sign , the smallest reported values of {theta} yet associated with reconnection exhausts in a space plasma. They were observed in plasma characterized by extremely low (0.02-0.04) plasma {beta}, and very high (281-383 km s{sup -1}) Alfven speed, V{sub A}. Low {beta} allows reconnection to occur at small {theta} and high V{sub A} leads to exhaust jets that are fast enough relative to the surrounding solar wind to be readily identified. Very small-{theta} current sheets are common in the solar wind at 1 AU, but typically are not associated with particularly low plasma {beta} or high V{sub A}. On the other hand, small-{theta} current sheets should be common in the lower solar corona, a plasma regime of extremely low {beta} and extremely high V{sub A}. Our observations lend credence to models that predict that reconnection at small-{theta} current sheets is primarily responsible for coronal heating.

  20. Assessment of Wind Shear and Wind Energy Potential in the Baltic Sea Region of Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukovs, V.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Zacepins, A.; Komashilovs, V.

    2015-04-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation into the wind energy potential based on long-term observations of the wind speed and energy density fluctuations at heights from 10 to 160 m on the Baltic Sea coast of Latvia. During the observations (2004 - 2013), the wind speed and direction values were measured, and the statistical database was accumulated using a LOGGER 9200 Symphonie measuring systems mounted on 60 m masts - one on the western coast and another on the north-east of Latvia. From June 2011 to May 2012, these measurements were complemented with the data for the heights from 40 to 160 m obtained by means of a ZephIR lidar and with the metrological data provided by "Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre" for the same period. The graphs of seasonal fluctuations in the wind speed were obtained for the heights up to 160 m by measurements over the period of 2007 - 2013. The results of the research on the wind speed distribution up to 200 m are promising for evaluation of the wind energy potential of Latvia and will be helpful in assessment of prospective sites for construction of WPPs. Zinātniskais raksts ir veltīts pētījumam par vēja enerģijas potenciālu Latvijas teritorijā, Baltijas jūras piekrastē, balstoties uz ilgtermiņa vēja ātruma un vēja enerģijas blīvuma svārstību novērojumiem no 10 līdz 160 metriem augstumā. Vēja ātruma un vēja virziena mērījumu dati tika iegūti un apkopoti statistiskajā datubāzē laika periodā no 2004 līdz 2013. gadam, izmantojot mērīšanas sistēmu LOGGER 9200 Symphonie, kas bija ierīkotā uz 60 metru augsta masta - viena rietumu piekrastē un otra Latvijas ziemeļu-austrumos. No 2011. gada jūnija līdz 2012. gada maijam mērījumu datubāze tika papildināta ar datiem, kas tika iegūti ar lidaruZephIR augstumos no 40 līdz 160 metriem, un datiem no "Latvijas Vides, ģeoloģijas un meteoroloģijas centra" tam pašam laika periodam. Analizējot mērījumus 2007. g.-2013. g., grafiki ar

  1. Source localization corrections for airborne acoustic platforms based on a climatological assessment of temperature and wind velocity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Cheinet, Sylvain; Collier, Sandra L.; Reiff, Christian; Ligon, David A.; Wilson, D. Keith; Noble, John M.; Alberts, W. C. Kirkpatrick, II

    2012-06-01

    Acoustic sensors are being employed on airborne platforms, such as Persistent Threat Detection System (PTDS) and Persistent Ground Surveillance System (PGSS), for source localization. Under certain atmospheric conditions, airborne sensors oer a distinct advantage over ground sensors. The performance of both ground and airborne sensors is aected by environmental factors, such as atmospheric turbulence and wind and temperature proles. For airborne sensors, the eects of refraction must be accounted for in order to determine the source coordinates. Such a method for ground-to-air applications has been developed and is further rened here. Ideally, knowledge of the exact atmospheric proles will allow for the most accurate mitigation of refractive eects. However, acoustic sensors deployed in theater are rarely supported by atmospheric sensing systems that retrieve real-time temperature and wind elds. Atmospheric conditions evolve through seasons, time of day, and are strongly location dependent. Therefore, the development of an atmospheric proles database based on a long time series climatological assessment will provide knowledge for use in physics-based bearing estimation algorithms, where otherwise no correction would have been performed. Long term atmospheric data sets from weather modeling systems are used for a climatological assessment of the refraction corrections and localization errors over selected sites.

  2. Wind-wave-induced velocity in ATI SAR ocean surface currents: First experimental evidence from an airborne campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Adrien C. H.; Gommenginger, Christine; Marquez, Jose; Doody, Sam; Navarro, Victor; Buck, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Conventional and along-track interferometric (ATI) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) senses the motion of the ocean surface by measuring the Doppler shift of reflected signals. Measurements are affected by a Wind-wave-induced Artifact Surface Velocity (WASV) which was modeled theoretically in past studies and has been estimated empirically only once before with Envisat ASAR by Mouche et al. (2012). An airborne campaign in the tidally dominated Irish Sea served to evaluate this effect and the current retrieval capabilities of a dual-beam SAR interferometer known as Wavemill. A comprehensive collection of Wavemill airborne data acquired in a star pattern over a well-instrumented validation site made it possible for the first time to estimate the magnitude of the WASV, and its dependence on azimuth and incidence angle from data alone. In light wind (5.5 m/s) and moderate current (0.7 m/s) conditions, the wind-wave-induced contribution to the measured ocean surface motion reaches up to 1.6 m/s upwind, with a well-defined second-order harmonic dependence on direction to the wind. The magnitude of the WASV is found to be larger at lower incidence angles. The airborne WASV results show excellent consistency with the empirical WASV estimated from Envisat ASAR. These results confirm that SAR and ATI surface velocity estimates are strongly affected by WASV and that the WASV can be well characterized with knowledge of the wind knowledge and of the geometry. These airborne results provide the first independent validation of Mouche et al. (2012) and confirm that the empirical model they propose provides the means to correct airborne and spaceborne SAR and ATI SAR data for WASV to obtain accurate ocean surface current measurements. After removing the WASV, the airborne Wavemill-retrieved currents show very good agreement against ADCP measurements with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) typically around 0.1 m/s in velocity and 10° in direction.

  3. The Structural Changes of Tropical Cyclones Upon Interaction with Vertical Wind Shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, Elizabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    The Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4) provided a unique opportunity to observe the distributions and document the roles of important atmospheric factors that impact the development of the core asymmetries and core structural changes of tropical cyclones embedded in vertical wind shear. The state-of-the-art instruments flown on the NASA DC-8 and ER-2, in addition to those on the NOAA aircraft, provided a unique set of observations that documented the core structure throughout the depth of the tropical cyclone. These data have been used to conduct a combined observational and modeling study using a state-of-the-art, high- resolution mesoscale model to examine the role of the environmental vertical wind shear in producing tropical cyclone core asymmetries, and the effects on the structure and intensity of tropical cyclones.The scientific objectives of this study were to obtain in situ measurements that would allow documentation of the physical mechanisms that influence the development of the asymmetric convection and its effect on the core structure of the tropical cyclone.

  4. Simple kinematic models for the environmental interaction of tropical cyclones in vertical wind shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemer, M.; Montgomery, M. T.

    2011-09-01

    A major impediment to the intensity forecast of tropical cyclones (TCs) is believed to be associated with the interaction of TCs with dry environmental air. However, the conditions under which pronounced TC-environment interaction takes place are not well understood. As a step towards improving our understanding of this problem, we analyze here the flow topology of a TC immersed in an environment of vertical wind shear in an idealized, three-dimensional, convection-permitting numerical experiment. A set of distinct streamlines, the so-called manifolds, can be identified under the assumptions of steady and layer-wise horizontal flow. The manifolds are shown to divide the flow around the TC into distinct regions. The manifold structure in our numerical experiment is more complex than the well-known manifold structure of a non-divergent point vortex in uniform background flow. In particular, one manifold spirals inwards and ends in a limit cycle, a meso-scale dividing streamline encompassing the eyewall above the layer of strong inflow associated with surface friction and below the outflow layer in the upper troposphere. From the perspective of a steady and layer-wise horizontal flow model, the eyewall is well protected from the intrusion of environmental air. In order for the environmental air to intrude into the inner-core convection, time-dependent and/or vertical motions, which are prevalent in the TC inner-core, are necessary. Air with the highest values of moist-entropy resides within the limit cycle. This "moist envelope" is distorted considerably by the imposed vertical wind shear, and the shape of the moist envelope is closely related to the shape of the limit cycle. In a first approximation, the distribution of high- and low-θe air around the TC at low to mid-levels is governed by the stirring of convectively modified air by the steady, horizontal flow. Motivated by the results from the idealized numerical experiment, an analogue model based on a weakly

  5. On the vertical wind shear of Saturn's Equatorial Jet at cloud level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.

    2005-08-01

    With the aim of retrieving the altitude of cloud features used as zonal wind tracers in Saturn's atmosphere, we have reanalyzed three different sets of photometric and calibrated data corresponding to the Voyager epoch 1979-1981 (ground-based in 1979, Voyager 2 PPS and ISS observations in 1981), and we have analyze a new set of Hubble Space Telescope images for 2004. This analysis is put in the perspective of our previous HST study for 1994-2003 (Pérez-Hoyos et al., Icarus, 176, 155. 2005). A common result is found that the individual cloud tracers are embedded within a variable tropospheric haze. According to our models, the Voyager 2 ISS images locate the cloud tracers moving with zonal velocities of 455 to 465 (± 2) m/s at a pressure level of 360 ± 140 mbar. For HST observations, the cloud tracers moving with zonal wind speeds of 280 ± 10 m/s, locate at a pressure level of about 50 ± 10 mbar. All these values are calculated in the latitude 3 deg North. The speed difference, if interpreted as a vertical wind shear (Porco et al., Science, 307, 1226. 2005), requires a change of 90 m/s per scale height, two times greater than that estimated from Cassini CIRS data (Flasar et al., Science, 307, 1247, 2005). We also perform an initial guess on Cassini ISS vertical sounding levels, retrieving values compatible with the HST ones but not with Voyager wind measurements. We conclude that the wind speed velocity differences measured between 1979-81 and 2004 in the upper troposphere cannot be solely explained as a wind shear effect and demand dynamical processes. We discuss the possible action of Rossby waves or an intrinsic circulation change in the ammonia cloud layer and above, following a large period of equatorial storm activity. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by MCYT AYA2003-03216, FEDER, and Grupos UPV 15946/2004. S.P.-H. acknowledges a PhD fellowship from the Spanish MEC and R. H. a post-doc contract from Gobierno Vasco.

  6. Dust Transport Across the Atlantic Studied by Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar During the Saltrace Experiment in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Rahm, Stephan; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-06-01

    During the SALTRACE field experiment, conducted during June/July 2013, the Saharan dust transport across the Atlantic was analyzed by a set of ground based, in-situ and airborne instruments, including a 2-μm coherent DWL (Doppler wind lidar) mounted onboard the DLR Falcon 20 research aircraft. An overview of the measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction, horizontal and vertical winds retrieved from the DWL are presented together with a brief description of the applied methods. The retrieved measurements provide direct observation of Saharan dust transport mechanisms across the Atlantic as well as island induced lee waves in the Barbados region.

  7. Microburst wind structure and evaluation of Doppler radar for airport wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Roberts, R. D.; Kessinger, C.; Mccarthy, J.

    1984-01-01

    The horizontal and vertical structure of airflow within microbursts has been determined using Doppler weather radar data from the Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) Project. It is shown that the downdraft typically associated with microbursts is about 1 km wide and begins to spread horizontally at a height below 1 km. The median time from initial divergence at the surface to maximum differential wind velocity across the microburst is five minutes. The height of maximum differential velocity is about 75 m, and the median velocity differential is 22 m/s over an average distance of 3.1 km. The outflow of the air is asymmetric, averaging twice as strong along the maximum axis compared to the mininum axis. Some technical requirements for a radar system to detect microbursts and to provide aircraft with early warnings of the onset of windshear are identified.

  8. Performance of Airborne Precision Spacing Under Realistic Wind Conditions and Limited Surveillance Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Frederick; Santos, Michel; Krueger, William; Houston, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    With the expected worldwide increase of air traffic during the coming decade, both the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), as well as Eurocontrol's Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) program have, as part of their plans, air traffic management (ATM) solutions that can increase performance without requiring time-consuming and expensive infrastructure changes. One such solution involves the ability of both controllers and flight crews to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater accuracy than they can today. Previous research has shown that time-based spacing techniques, wherein the controller assigns a time spacing to each pair of arriving aircraft, can achieve this goal by providing greater runway delivery accuracy and producing a concomitant increase in system-wide performance. The research described herein focuses on one specific application of time-based spacing, called Airborne Precision Spacing (APS), which has evolved over the past ten years. This research furthers APS understanding by studying its performance with realistic wind conditions obtained from atmospheric sounding data and with realistic wind forecasts obtained from the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) short-range weather forecast. In addition, this study investigates APS performance with limited surveillance range, as provided by the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system, and with an algorithm designed to improve APS performance when ADS-B surveillance data is unavailable. The results presented herein quantify the runway threshold delivery accuracy of APS under these conditions, and also quantify resulting workload metrics such as the number of speed changes required to maintain spacing.

  9. Spectrum characteristics of Denver and Philadelphia ground clutter and the problem of distinguishing wind shear targets from moving clutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.

    1992-01-01

    Spectral analysis of 1991 wind shear flight data has provided information about the power spectral density, spectral width, and velocity of ground clutter detected by the wind shear radar at several major airports. Ground clutter must be recognized and separated from weather targets before wind shear can be computed. Information will be presented characterizing and comparing ground clutter and weather target spectra. The information includes (1) spectral widths of stationary ground clutter seen at various scan and tilt angles, (2) power spectral density and velocity of moving ground clutter relative to the stationary ground clutter, and (3) spectral widths and velocities of weather targets. A summary of numerical results in the form of histograms and example numerical results in the form of spectral plots are presented.

  10. A shear sensitive monomer-polymer liquid crystal system for wind tunnel applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of a liquid crystal system, comprised of a shear-sensitive cholesteric-monomer liquid crystal thin-film coated on a liquid-crystal polymer substrate, are described. The system provides stable Grandjean texture, a desirable feature for shear-stress measurements using selective reflection from the monomer liquid-crystal helix structure. Impingement of gas or air flow on the monomer liquid-crystal free surface changes the wavelength of the selective reflection for an incident white light from red toward blue with increase in the rate of gas flow. The contrast of the selectively reflected light improves considerably by providing a thin black coating of about 5 microns at the monomer-polymer interface. The coating thickness is such that the steric interactions are still sufficiently strong to maintain Grandjean texture. For a small angle of incidence of a monochromatic light, the measurement of the reflected light intensity normal to the monomer-polymer liquid-crystal interface enables the determination of the wavelength for selective reflection as a function of the gas-flow differential pressure applied in the plane of the interface. The variation of the wavelength with the pressure is linear with a slope of about 2 nm/mmHg. Furthermore, the shear-stress effects are reversible unlike for monomer liquid crystal-metal systems used for flow visualization on wind-tunnel model surfaces. The present system offers a suitable method for direct on-line measurement of shear stress field from measurements of the wavelength for selective reflection for an incident white light.

  11. Solar wind driving of magnetospheric ULF waves: Pulsations driven by velocity shear at the magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudepierre, S. G.; Elkington, S. R.; Wiltberger, M.

    2008-05-01

    We present results from global, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar wind/magnetosphere interaction. These MHD simulations are used to study ultra low frequency (ULF) pulsations in the Earth's magnetosphere driven by shear instabilities at the flanks of the magnetopause. We drive the simulations with idealized, constant solar wind input parameters, ensuring that any discrete ULF pulsations generated in the simulation magnetosphere are not due to fluctuations in the solar wind. The simulations presented in this study are driven by purely southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, changing only the solar wind driving velocity while holding all of the other solar wind input parameters constant. We find surface waves near the dawn and dusk flank magnetopause and show that these waves are generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. We also find that two KH modes are generated near the magnetopause boundary. One mode, the magnetopause KH mode, propagates tailward along the magnetopause boundary. The other mode, the inner KH mode, propagates tailward along the inner edge of the boundary layer (IEBL). We find large vortical structures associated with the inner KH mode that are centered on the IEBL. The phase velocities, wavelengths, and frequencies of the two KH modes are computed. The KH waves are found to be fairly monochromatic with well-defined wavelengths. In addition, the inner and magnetopause KH modes are coupled and lead to a coupled oscillation of the low-latitude boundary layer. The boundary layer thickness, d, is computed and we find maximum wave growth for kd = 0.5-1.0, where k is the wave number, consistent with the linear theory of the KH instability. We comment briefly on the effectiveness of these KH waves in the energization and transport of radiation belt electrons.

  12. Test and evaluation of the Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR)-8 wind shear detection system (phase 2), revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offi, D. L.; Lewis, W.; Lee, T.; Delamarche, A.

    1980-08-01

    A wind shear detection system developed by the Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) to operate with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR)-8 was installed and is being tested at the FAA technical Center. Initial efforts, previously reported in Report NA-78-59-LR, were directed toward hardware and software shakedown and feasibility determination. Second phase tests compared radar with aircraft and tower winds, evaluated the wind shear measurement capability under various weather conditions, and investigated the effectiveness of a simple two-azimuth pointing strategy and system capabilities and limitations. Results showed the system to be compatible with and to operate satisfactorily with the ASR-8. The processing and spectral display of clear air and precipitation returns is feasible. The accuracy of agreement between radar-measured winds and components of the aircraft-measured winds in both radially oriented flights and runway offset flights, using a two-azimuth pointing technique, was examined. Radar versus tower wind agreement was also examined. Potentially dangerous wind shears associated with weather during these tests were detectable. Certain system limitations also have been defined and considered. It is recommended that tests continue to complete definition of and demonstrate capabilities in all weather situations, to optimize performance, and to provide information to specify system design for possible development of a prototype model.

  13. Structural characterization of wind-sheared turbulent flow using self-organized mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Nicholas V.; Handler, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    A nonlinear cluster analysis algorithm is used to characterize the spatial structure of a wind-sheared turbulent flow obtained from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the three-dimensional temperature and momentum fields. The application of self-organizing mapping to DNS data for data reduction is utilized because of the dimensional similitude in structure between DNS data and remotely sensed hyperspectral and multispectral data where the technique has been used extensively. For the three Reynolds numbers of 150, 180, and 220 used in the DNS, self-organized mapping is successful in the extraction of boundary layer streaky structures from the turbulent temperature and momentum fields. In addition, it preserves the cross-wind scale structure of the streaks exhibited in both fields which loosely scale with the inverse of the Reynolds number. Self-organizing mapping of the along wind component of the helicity density shows a layer of the turbulence field which is spotty suggesting significant direct coupling between the large and small-scale turbulent structures. The spatial correlation of the temperature and momentum fields allows for the possibility of the remote extrapolation of the momentum structure from thermal structure.

  14. Integrated Analysis of Airborne Geophysical Data to Understand the Extent, Kinematics and Tectonic Evolution of the Precambrian Aswa Shear Zone in East Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katumwehe, A. B.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Aswa Shear zone (ASZ) is a Precambrian lithospheric structure which forms the western margin of the East African Orogeny (EAO) that influenced the evolution of many tectonic events in Eastern Africa including the East African Rift System. It separates the cratonic entities of Saharan Metacraton in the northeast from the Congo craton and the Tanzanian craton and the Kibaran orogenic belt to the southwest. However little is known about its kinematics and the extent and tectonic origin are not fully understood. We developed a new technique based on the tilt method to extract kinematic information from high-resolution airborne magnetic data. We also used radiometric data over Uganda integrated with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in South Sudan to understand the extent, kinematics and define the tectonic origin of ASZ. (1) Our results suggest that the ASZ extends in a NW-SE for ~550 km in Uganda and South Sudan. (2) The airborne magnetic and radiometric data revealed a much wider (~50 km) deformation belt than the mapped 5-10 km of exposed surface expression of the ASZ. The deformation belt associated with the shear is defined by three NW-trending sinistral strike-slip shear zones bounding structural domains with magnetic fabrics showing splays of secondary shear zones and shear-related folds. These folds are tighter close to the discrete shear zones with their axial traces becoming sub-parallel to the shear zones. Similar fold patterns are observed from South Sudan in the SRTM DEM. We interpret these folds as due to ENE-WSW shortening associated with the sinistral strike-slip movement. (3) To the northeast of the shear zone, the magnetic patterns suggest a series of W-verging nappes indicative of strong E-W oriented shortening. Based on the above observations, we relate the evolution of the ASZ to Neoproterozoic E-W collision between East and West Gondwana. This collision produced E-W contraction resulting in W-verging thrusts

  15. Final Report DE-EE0005380: Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Sea Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Hao; Hamilton, Mark F.; Bhalla, Rajan; Brown, Walter E.; Hay, Todd A.; Whitelonis, Nicholas J.; Yang, Shang-Te; Naqvi, Aale R.

    2013-09-30

    Offshore wind energy is a valuable resource that can provide a significant boost to the US renewable energy portfolio. A current constraint to the development of offshore wind farms is the potential for interference to be caused by large wind farms on existing electronic and acoustical equipment such as radar and sonar systems for surveillance, navigation and communications. The US Department of Energy funded this study as an objective assessment of possible interference to various types of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed. The objective of this project was to conduct a baseline evaluation of electromagnetic and acoustical challenges to sea surface, subsurface and airborne electronic systems presented by offshore wind farms. To accomplish this goal, the following tasks were carried out: (1) survey electronic systems that can potentially be impacted by large offshore wind farms, and identify impact assessment studies and research and development activities both within and outside the US, (2) engage key stakeholders to identify their possible concerns and operating requirements, (3) conduct first-principle modeling on the interactions of electromagnetic signals with, and the radiation of underwater acoustic signals from, offshore wind farms to evaluate the effect of such interactions on electronic systems, and (4) provide impact assessments, recommend mitigation methods, prioritize future research directions, and disseminate project findings. This report provides a detailed description of the methodologies used to carry out the study, key findings of the study, and a list of recommendations derived based the findings.

  16. 1983 lightning, turbulence, wind shear, and Doppler radar studies at the National Severe Storms Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    As part of continuing research on aviation related weather hazards, numerous experiments were incorporated into the 1983 Spring Observation Program. This year's program was an abbreviated one because of commitments made to the development of the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) project. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) P-3 Orion and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) RB-57B and U-2 were the main aircraft involved in the studies of lightning, wind shear, turbulence, and storm structure. A total of 14 flights were made by these aircraft during the period of May 16 through June 5, 1983. Aircraft instrumentation experiments are described, and resultant data sets available for research are detailed. Aircraft instrumentation and Doppler radar characteristics are detailed.

  17. Piloted-simulation evaluation of escape guidance for microburst wind shear encounters. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Numerous air carrier accidents and incidents result from encounters with the atmospheric wind shear associated with microburst phenomena, in some cases resulting in heavy loss of life. An important issue in current wind shear research is how to best manage aircraft performance during an inadvertent wind shear encounter. The goals of this study were to: (1) develop techniques and guidance for maximizing an aircraft's ability to recover from microburst encounters following takeoff, (2) develop an understanding of how theoretical predictions of wind shear recovery performance might be achieved in actual use, and (3) gain insight into the piloting factors associated with recovery from microburst encounters. Three recovery strategies were implemented and tested in piloted simulation. Results show that a recovery strategy based on flying a flight path angle schedule produces improved performance over constant pitch attitude or acceleration-based recovery techniques. The best recovery technique was initially counterintuitive to the pilots who participated in the study. Evidence was found to indicate that the techniques required for flight through the turbulent vortex of a microburst may differ from the techniques being developed using classical, nonturbulent microburst models.

  18. Conceptual design of an airborne laser Doppler velocimeter system for studying wind fields associated with severe local storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, J. A. L.; Davies, A. R.; Sulzmann, K. G. P.

    1976-01-01

    An airborne laser Doppler velocimeter was evaluated for diagnostics of the wind field associated with an isolated severe thunderstorm. Two scanning configurations were identified, one a long-range (out to 10-20 km) roughly horizontal plane mode intended to allow probing of the velocity field around the storm at the higher altitudes (4-10 km). The other is a shorter range (out to 1-3 km) mode in which a vertical or horizontal plane is scanned for velocity (and possibly turbulence), and is intended for diagnostics of the lower altitude region below the storm and in the out-flow region. It was concluded that aircraft flight velocities are high enough and severe storm lifetimes are long enough that a single airborne Doppler system, operating at a range of less than about 20 km, can view the storm area from two or more different aspects before the storm characteristics change appreciably.

  19. Dynamic impact of the vertical shear of gradient wind on the tropical cyclone boundary layer wind field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ninghao; Xu, Xin; Song, Lili; Bai, Lina; Ming, Jie; Wang, Yuan

    2014-02-01

    This work studies the impact of the vertical shear of gradient wind (VSGW) in the free atmosphere on the tropical cyclone boundary layer (TCBL). A new TCBL model is established, which relies on fiveforce balance including the pressure gradient force, Coriolis force, centrifugal force, turbulent friction, and inertial deviation force. This model is then employed to idealize tropical cyclones (TCs) produced by DeMaria's model, under different VSGW conditions (non-VSGW, positive VSGW, negative VSGW, and VSGW increase/decrease along the radial direction). The results show that the free-atmosphere VSGW is particularly important to the intensity of TC. For negative VSGW, the total horizontal velocity in the TCBL is somewhat suppressed. However, with the maximum radial inflow displaced upward and outward, the radial velocity notably intensifies. Consequently, the convergence is enhanced throughout the TCBL, giving rise to a stronger vertical pumping at the TCBL top. In contrast, for positive VSGW, the radial inflow is significantly suppressed, even with divergent outflow in the middle-upper TCBL. For varying VSGW along the radial direction, the results indicate that the sign and value of VSGW is more important than its radial distribution, and the negative VSGW induces stronger convergence and Ekman pumping in the TCBL, which favors the formation and intensification of TC.

  20. Data Acquisition and Processing System for Airborne Wind Profiling with a Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection, Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, J. Y.; Koch, G. J.; Kavaya, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    A data acquisition and signal processing system is being developed for a 2-micron airborne wind profiling coherent Doppler lidar system. This lidar, called the Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN), is based on a Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser transmitter and 15-cm diameter telescope. It is being packaged for flights onboard the NASA DC-8, with the first flights in the summer of 2010 in support of the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign for the study of hurricanes. The data acquisition and processing system is housed in a compact PCI chassis and consists of four components such as a digitizer, a digital signal processing (DSP) module, a video controller, and a serial port controller. The data acquisition and processing software (DAPS) is also being developed to control the system including real-time data analysis and display. The system detects an external 10 Hz trigger pulse and initiates the data acquisition and processing process, and displays selected wind profile parameters such as Doppler shift, power distribution, wind directions and velocities. Doppler shift created by aircraft motion is measured by an inertial navigation/GPS sensor and fed to the signal processing system for real-time removal of aircraft effects from wind measurements. A general overview of the system and the DAPS as well as the coherent Doppler lidar system is presented in this paper.

  1. Compact, Engineered 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Prototype for Field and Airborne Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Koch, Grady J.

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar breadboard at NASA/LaRC will be engineered and compactly packaged consistent with future aircraft flights. The packaged transceiver will be integrated into a coherent Doppler wind lidar system test bed at LaRC. Atmospheric wind measurements will be made to validate the packaged technology. This will greatly advance the coherent part of the hybrid Doppler wind lidar solution to the need for global tropospheric wind measurements.

  2. Organization of Tropical Convection in Low Vertical Wind Shears: The Role of Cold Pools.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Adrian M.

    2001-07-01

    An investigation is conducted to document the role convectively generated cold pools play in determining the spatial organization of tropical deep convection. Using a high-resolution cloud-resolving model, the evolution of cold pools produced by deep convection is examined, in the situation of limited large-scale wind shear, and a homogeneous underlying sea surface temperature. Ignoring the cold pools resulting from multiple deep convective events, the mean model cold pool attained a minimum temperature and water vapor mixing ratio depression of 1 K and 1.5 g kg1, respectively; a horizontal velocity increase of 4.8 m s1; and the latent and sensible heat fluxes are increased by a factor of 1.9 and 2.6, respectively. The cold pools had a mean lifetime of approximately 2.5 h and attained maximum radii ranging from 3 to 18 km, with a mean of 8.6 km. Taking the organization of convection into account, these figures are consistent with observational studies of convective wakes.The composite cold pool showed that development occurred in three distinct stages. As seen in observations, the air in the vicinity of deep convection has a higher equivalent potential energy than average. In the first stage, before the downdraft develops and reaches the subcloud layer, the area below the convection is cooled and moistened by the evaporation of rainfall. The downdraft then injects cold and dry air into the boundary layer, and the spreading cold pool is consequentially moister than average just inside the gust front but drier in the central regions. Finally, mass conservation requires that air from above the boundary layer be entrained into the wake of the expiring downdraft-thus causing the central regions of the cold pool to recover very quickly in temperature-but increases further the moisture perturbation. These features are confirmed by a number of observational studies.The key to the triggering of new deep convective cells lies with the band of high equivalent potential

  3. Effects of vertical wind shear on convective development during a landfall of severe tropical storm Bilis (2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Donghai; Li, Xiaofan; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wang, Yuan

    2009-10-01

    Effects of vertical wind shear on convective development during the landfall of tropical storm Bilis (2006) are investigated with a pair of sensitivity experiments using a two-dimensional cloud-resolving model. The validated simulation data from Wang et al. [Wang, D., Li, X., Tao, W.-K., Liu, Y., Zhou, H., 2009: Torrential rainfall processes associated with a landfall of severe tropical storm Bilis (2006): A two-dimensional cloud-resolving modeling study. Atmos. Res., 91, 94-104.] are used as the control experiment. The difference between the control and sensitivity experiments is that vertically varying zonal winds in the control experiment are replaced by their mass-weighted means in the sensitivity experiment. The imposed vertical velocity with ascending motion in the upper troposphere and descending motion in the lower troposphere is responsible for dominant stratiform rainfall on 15 July. The vertical wind shear does not have important impacts on development of stratiform rainfall. One day later, imposed upward motion extends to the lower troposphere. The inclusion of negative vertical wind shear produces well-organized convection and strong convective rainfall because it causes kinetic energy transfer from large-scale forcing to perturbation circulations.

  4. Numerical simulation to determine the effects of incident wind shear and turbulence level on the flow around a building

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.Q.; Huber, A.H.; Arya, S.P.S.; Snyder, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of incident shear and turbulence on flow around a cubical building are being investigated by a turbulent kinetic energy/dissipation model (TEMPEST). The numerical simulations demonstrate significant effects due to the differences in the incident flow. The addition of upstream turbulence and shear results in a reduced size of the cavity directly behind the building. The accuracy of numerical simulations is verified by comparing the predicted mean flow fields with the available wind-tunnel measurements of Castro and Robins (1977). Comparing the authors' results with experimental data, the authors show that the TEMPEST model can reasonably simulate the mean flow.

  5. Eddy and deep chlorophyl maximum response to wind-shear in the lee of Gran Canaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basterretxea, G.; Barton, E. D.; Tett, P.; Sangrá, P.; Navarro-Perez, E.; Arístegui, J.

    2002-06-01

    The physical and biological properties of the warm wake of Gran Canaria were examined during a survey carried out in June 1998. The sampling region was dominated by the presence of a warm triangular region downwind the island and an anticyclonic eddy spun off the island. Convergent and divergent frontal regions were generated by the wind shear zones extending along either side of the sheltered region of the warm wake. With increasing distance from shore, evidence of convergent/divergent frontal regions weakened, but the influence of the eddy increased. Both structures, frontal regions and the eddy, clearly altered the vertical phytoplankton biomass distribution as indicated by chlorophyll-fluorescence. Downwelling on the convergent boundary moved the 26.2 kg m -3 isopycnal and its associated deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) below the 1% light zone. Upwelling at the divergent boundary not only elevated the DCM with its associated isopycnal but also, because of the increased light levels, allowed a shift in the DCM to higher (deeper) density surfaces (26.4 kg m -3). However, the highest integrated chlorophyll occurred in the central wake.

  6. Time-accurate aeroelastic simulations of a wind turbine in yaw and shear using a coupled CFD-CSD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, D. O.; Kwon, O. J.

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, aeroelastic simulations of horizontal-axis wind turbine rotor blades were conducted using a coupled CFD-CSD method. The unsteady blade aerodynamic loads and the dynamic blade response due to yaw misalignment and non-uniform sheared wind were investigated. For this purpose, a CFD code solving the RANS equations on unstructured meshes and a FEM-based CSD beam solver were used. The coupling of the CFD and CSD solvers was made by exchanging the data between the two solvers in a loosely coupled manner. The present coupled CFD-CSD method was applied to the NREL 5MW reference wind turbine rotor, and the results were compared with those of CFD-alone rigid blade calculations. It was found that aeroelastic blade deformation leads to a significant reduction of blade aerodynamic loads, and alters the unsteady load behaviours, mainly due to the torsional deformation. The reduction of blade aerodynamic loads is particularly significant at the advancing rotor blade side for yawed flow conditions, and at the upper half of rotor disk where wind velocity is higher due to wind shear.

  7. The ATC evaluation of the prototype Airport Surveillance Radar Wind Shear Processor (ASR-WSP) at Orlando International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Radame

    1993-03-01

    The Airport Surveillance Radar Wind Shear Processor (ASR-WSP), also known as Airport Surveillance Radar-9 (ASR-9) modification for low altitude wind shear detection, is a production ASR-9 with an expanded weather channel for added processing capabilities. The primary mission of the ASR-WSP is to enhance the safety of air travel through the timely detection and reporting of hazardous wind shear in and near the terminal approach and departure zones of the airport. It will also improve the management of air traffic (AT) in the terminal area through the forecast of precipitation, and ultimately the detection of other hazardous weather phenomena. The ASR-WSP may be used as a stand-alone system at airports without a Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) or Enhanced-Low Level Wind Shear Alert System (E-LLWAS), or in an integrated mode with either or both the TDWR and E-LLWAS. An operational evaluation of a prototype ASR-WSP, developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratories (MIT/LL), was conducted at the Orlando International Airport (MCO) in Orlando, Florida, during the period 29 Jun. to 31 Aug. 1992. The objective of the evaluation was to obtain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) air traffic controller reaction to the prototype ASR-WSP weather data and display equipment. The following are highlights of the evaluation: (1) the ASW-WSP is very useful when making runway configuration changes; (2) the ASR-WSP is not perceived to be as accurate as the prototype TDWR; (3) the gust front prediction feature is not reliable; and (4) the information provided on both the RDT and the GSD is very useful.

  8. Analysis of the diurnal development of the Ora del Garda wind in the Alps from airborne and surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiti, L.; Zardi, D.; de Franceschi, M.; Rampanelli, G.

    2013-07-01

    A lake-breeze and valley-wind coupled circulation system, known as Ora del Garda, typically arises in the late morning from the northern shorelines of Lake Garda (southeastern Italian Alps), and then channels into the Sarca and Lakes valleys to the north. After flowing over an elevated saddle, in the early afternoon this wind breaks out from the west into the nearby Adige Valley, hindering the regular development of the local up-valley wind by producing a strong and gusty anomalous flow in the area. Two targeted flights of an equipped motorglider were performed in the morning and afternoon of 23 August 2001 in the above valleys, exploring selected vertical slices of the atmosphere, from the lake's shore to the area where the two local airflows interact. At the same time, surface observations were collected during an intensive field measurement campaign held in the interaction area, as well as from routinely-operated weather stations disseminated along the whole study area, allowing the analysis of the different stages of the Ora del Garda development. From airborne measurements, an atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) vertical structure, typical of deep Alpine valleys, was detected in connection with the wind flow, with rather shallow (∼500 m) convective mixed layers surmounted by deeper, weakly stable layers. On the other hand, close to the lake's shoreline the ABL was found to be stabilized down to very low heights, as an effect of the onshore advection of cold air by the lake breeze. Airborne potential temperature observations were mapped over high-resolution 3-D grids for each valley section explored by the flights, using a geostatistical technique called residual kriging (RK). RK-regridded fields revealed fine-scale features and inhomogeneities of ABL thermal structures associated with the complex thermally-driven wind field developing in the valleys. The combined analysis of surface observations and RK-interpolated fields revealed an irregular propagation of

  9. Automatic detection of low altitude wind shear due to gust fronts in the terminal Doppler weather radar operational demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingle-Wilson, Diana

    1990-01-01

    A gust front is the leading edge of the cold air outflow from a thunderstorm. Wind shears and turbulence along the gust front may produce potentially hazardous conditions for an aircraft on takeoff or landing such that runway operations are significantly impacted. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has therefore determined that the detection of gust fronts in the terminal environment be an integral part of the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) system. Detection of these shears by the Gust Front Algorithm permits the generation of warnings that can be issued to pilots on approach and departure. In addition to the detection capability, the algorithm provides an estimate of the wind speed and direction following the gust front (termed wind shift) and the forecasted location of the gust front up to 20 minutes before it impacts terminal operations. This has shown utility as a runway management tool, alerting runway supervisors to approaching wind shifts and the possible need to change runway configurations. The formation and characteristics of gust fronts and their signatures in Doppler radar data are discussed. A brief description of the algorithm and its products for use by Air Traffic Control (ATC), along with an assessment of the algorithm's performance during the 1988 Operational Test and Evaluation, is presented.

  10. Adaptive Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar Beam Scanning Patterns for Complex Terrain and Small Scale Organized Atmospheric Structure Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmitt, G.; O'Handley, C.; de Wekker, S. F.

    2008-12-01

    The conical scan is the traditional pattern used to obtain vertical profiles of the wind field with an airborne Doppler wind lidar. Nadir or zenith pointing scanning wedges are ideal for this type of scan. A bi-axis scanner has been operated on a Navy Twin Otter for more than 6 years and has been recently installed on a Navy P3 for use in a field experiment to study typhoons. The bi-axis scanner enables a broad range of scanning patterns. A subset of the possible patterns is critical to obtaining useful wind profiles in the presence of complex terrain or small (~ 100's of meters) organized atmospheric structures (rolls, updrafts, waves, etc). Several scanning strategies have been tested in flights over the Monterey Peninsula and within tropical cyclones. Combined with Google Earth (on-board) and satellite imagery overlays, new realtime adaptive scanning algorithms are being developed and tested. The results of these tests (both real and simulated) will be presented in the form of case studies.

  11. Temperature and horizontal wind measurements on the ER-2 aircraft during the 1987 airborne Antarctic ozone experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. Roland; Scott, Stan G.; Bui, T. Paul; Bowen, Stuart W.; Day, Jon

    1988-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 aircraft is equipped with special instrumentation to provide accurate in situ measurement of the atmospheric state variables during flight. The Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) on the ER-2 aircraft is described. Since the meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure, and wind vector) are extensively used by other ER-2 experimenters for data processing and interpretation, the accuracy and resolution of each of these parameters are assessed and discussed. During the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) mission, the ER-2 aircraft was stationed at Punta Arenas, Chile (53 S, 72 W), and successfully flew over Antarctica on 12 occasions between August 17 and September 22, 1987. On each of the 12 flights, the ER-2 aircraft flight plan was to take off at approximately the same local time, fly southward at a near constant potential temperature surface, descend and ascend at the southernmost terminus at about 72 S over Antarctica and return northward at either the same or a different constant potential temperature surface. The measurements of the MMS experiment during the AAOE mission are presented. MMS data are organized to provide a composite view of the polar atmosphere, which is characterized by frigid temperatures and high zonal winds. Altitudinal variations of the temperature measurement (during takeoff/landing at Punta Arenas and during descent/ascent at the southern terminus) and latitudinal variations of the zonal wind (on near constant potential temperature surfaces) are emphasized and discussed.

  12. Very High Resolution Numerical Weather Prediction of Wind Shear Event in the Complex Terrain Around Juneau Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D.; Arnold, D.; Schicker, I.; Dierking, C.; Harrison, K.

    2011-12-01

    Juneau International Airport is surrounded by complex terrain, often presenting challenging conditions to departing aircraft. General aviation departure procedures for Runway 08 include a 180-degree right turn "as soon as practical" in order to avoid steeply rising terrain. Under strong wind conditions characterized by post-frontal topographically enhanced wind shear, aircraft following these procedures may encounter turbulence or wind shear classified as severe. In January 1993, a Boeing 727 aircraft at a 30-degree bank encountered extreme crosswinds resulting in departure from controlled flight, with successful recovery occurring within only 50 meters of the ground. In this work, we focus on a similar event at Juneau from December 2009. This case has been modeled with WRF at very high resolutions down to 111 m horizontal, with mixed results. The focus of this work is to investigate in more detail the problems, costs and benefits of using very high resolution topography and model runs in a high-wind event in complex terrain. Several model runs will be performed, and results will be compared with each other and station observations available through the Juneau Airport Wind System (JAWS). Two high resolution topographies - the USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) - will be compared with the USGS 30s topography in their ability to match the real topography and their influence on forecast winds. Additionally, an attempt will be made to push the model into the realm of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a 50 m horizontal resolution in a limited region.

  13. Airborne/Space-Based Doppler Lidar Wind Sounders Sampling the PBL and Other Regions of Significant Beta and U Inhomogeneities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmitt, Dave

    1998-01-01

    This final report covers the period from April 1994 through March 1998. The proposed research was organized under four main tasks. Those tasks were: (1) Investigate the vertical and horizontal velocity structures within and adjacent to thin and subvisual cirrus; (2) Investigate the lowest 1 km of the PBL and develop algorithms for processing pulsed Doppler lidar data obtained from single shots into regions of significant inhomogeneities in Beta and U; (3) Participate in OSSEs including those designed to establish shot density requirements for meso-gamma scale phenomena with quasi-persistent locations (e.g., jets, leewaves, tropical storms); and (4) Participate in the planning and execution of an airborne mission to measure winds with a pulsed CO2 Doppler lidar. Over the four year period of this research contract, work on all four tasks has yielded significant results which have led to 38 professional presentations (conferences and publications) and have been folded into the science justification for an approved NASA space mission, SPARCLE (SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment), in 2001. Also this research has, through Task 4, led to a funded proposal to work directly on a NASA field campaign, CAMEX III, in which an airborne Doppler wind lidar will be used to investigate the cloud-free circulations near tropical storms. Monthly progress reports required under this contract are on file. This final report will highlight major accomplishments, including some that were not foreseen in the original proposal. The presentation of this final report includes this written document as well as material that is better presented via the internet (web pages). There is heavy reference to appended papers and documents. Thus, the main body of the report will serve to summarize the key efforts and findings.

  14. CloudSat & A-Train Observations of Tropical Cyclones: Examining Effects of Wind Shear on Storm Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourville, N. D.; Knaff, J. A.; Demaria, M.; Stephens, G. L.; Vane, D.

    2014-12-01

    CloudSat (CS) heralded a new era of profiling the planet's cloud systems and storms with its launch in 2006. This satellite flies the first 94 GHz spaceborne cloud profiling radar and the data collected has provided a unique perspective on Earth's cloudiness and processes that affect clouds. While passes of the nadir-pointing CPR antenna occur infrequently over tropical cyclones (TCs), they happen enough to provide a detailed compilation of the inner structure of clouds and precipitation of these complex storm systems. Over 8,000 vertical profiles of TCs have been collected during the period June 2006 through June 2014 and observations continue as CS flies in daylight only mode. Each unique overpass profiled by CS has been compiled with corresponding A-Train sensors, model data and storm specific best track information.With the volume of data collected, it is possible to composite TC structure information with respect to various environmental parameters that are known to have a controlling influence on storms. To illustrate this characteristic of the data, we show composites of the vertical structure of TCs as a function of environmental wind shear. Observations of wind shear at varying levels (for example 200-850 mb) and TC composites relative to the direction of the larger scale shear will be examined and discussed in detail.

  15. Experimental evaluation of a wind shear alert and energy management display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraiss, K.-F.; Baty, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A method is proposed for onboard measurement and display of specific windshear and energy management data derived from an air data computer. An open-loop simulation study is described which was carried out to verify the feasibility of this display concept, and whose results were used as a basis to develop the respective cockpit instrumentation. The task was to fly a three-degree landing approach under various shear conditions with and without specific information on the shear. Improved performance due to augmented cockpit information was observed. Critical shears with increasing tailwinds could be handled more consistently and with less deviation from the glide path.

  16. Role of upper-level wind shear on the structure and maintenance of derecho-producing convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglio, Michael Charles

    Common large-scale environments associated with the development of derecho-producing convective systems from a large number of events are identified using statistical clustering of the 500-mb geopotential heights as guidance. The majority of the events (72%) fall into three main patterns that include a well-defined upstream trough (40%), a ridge (20%), and a zonal, low-amplitude flow (12%), which is defined as an additional warm-season pattern that is not identified in past studies of derecho environments. Through an analysis of proximity soundings, discrepancies are found in both low-level and deep-tropospheric shear parameters between observations and the shear profiles considered favorable for strong, long-lived convective systems in idealized simulations. To explore the role of upper-level shear in derecho environments, a set of two-dimensional simulations of density currents within a dry, neutrally stable environment are used to examine the ability of a cold pool to lift environmental air within a vertically sheared flow. The results confirm that the addition of upper-level shear to a wind profile with weak to moderate low-level shear increases the vertical displacement of low-level parcels despite a decrease in the vertical velocity along the cold pool interface, as suggested by previous studies. Parcels that are elevated above the surface (1-2 km) overturn and are responsible for the deep lifting in the deep-shear environments. This deep overturning caused by the upper-level shear helps to maintain the tilt of the convective systems in more complex two-dimensional and three dimensional simulations. The overturning also is shown to greatly increase the size of the convective systems in the three-dimensional simulations by facilitating the initiation and maintenance of convective cells along the cold pool. When combined with estimates of the cold pool motion and the storm-relative hodograph, these results may best be used for the prediction of the demise of

  17. Competing mechanisms of plasma transport in inhomogeneous configurations with velocity shear: the solar-wind interaction with earth's magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Faganello, M; Califano, F; Pegoraro, F

    2008-01-11

    Two-dimensional simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in an inhomogeneous compressible plasma with a density gradient show that, in a transverse magnetic field configuration, the vortex pairing process and the Rayleigh-Taylor secondary instability compete during the nonlinear evolution of the vortices. Two different regimes exist depending on the value of the density jump across the velocity shear layer. These regimes have different physical signatures that can be crucial for the interpretation of satellite data of the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetospheric plasma. PMID:18232777

  18. Improved Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observations of Tropical Cyclones with the Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, D. Esteban; Chang, P.; Carswel, J.; Contreras, R.; Chu, T.; Asuzu, P.; Black, P.; Marks, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Imaging Wind and Rain Arborne Profilers (IWRAP) is a dual-frequency, conically-scanning Doppler radar that measures high-resolution, dual-polarized, multi-beam C- and Ku-band reflectivity and Doppler velocity profiles of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) within the inner core of hurricanes.From the datasets acquired during the 2002 through 20O5 hurricane seasons as part of the ONR Coupled Boundary Layer Air-Sea Transfer (CBLAST) program and the NOAA/NESDIS Ocean Winds and Rain experiments, very high resolution radar observations of hurricanes have been acquired and made available to the CBLAST community. Of particular interest am the ABL wind fields and 3-D structures found within the inner core of hurricanes. As a result of these analysis, a limitation in the ability to retrieve the ABL wind field at very low altitudes was identified. This paper shows how this limitation has been removed and presents initial results demonstrating its new capabilities to derive the ABL wind field within the inner are of hurricanes to much lower altitudes than the ones the original system was capable of.

  19. Transport of mineral dust derived from airborne wind lidar measurements during SALTRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Groß, Silke; Rahm, Stephan; Freudenthaler, Volker; Toledano, Carlos; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2015-04-01

    During the SALTRACE field experiment conducted between the 10 of June and the 15 of July 2013, the transport and properties of Saharan dust were characterized by a 2-µm Doppler wind lidar (DWL) deployed on the DLR Falcon 20 research aircraft. Unlike aerosol lidars, the DLW is able to simultaneously measure wind fields and -by means of an adequate calibration- aerosol optical properties, which is more adequate for aerosol transport studies. The retrieved horizontal and vertical wind speed provide a direct observation of dust long range transport mechanisms across the Atlantic (e.g. by the African easterly jet) from Western Africa to the Caribbean. Vertical wind observations revealed the structure of island induced lee waves in the Cape Verde and Barbados regions. A novel method for the calibration of DWLs based on simultaneous measurements with a ground-based aerosol lidar and sun photometer was developed. After being calibrated, the system is able to retrieve quantitative aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients, which is usually not obtained from coherent lidars. Results from the validation with a ground-based aerosol lidar in Barbados and the CALIPSO satellite instrument will be discussed.

  20. An airport wind shear detection and warning system using Doppler radar: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Blick, E. F.; Elmore, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to determine whether ground based Doppler radar could measure the wind along the path of an approaching aircraft with sufficient accuracy to predict aircraft performance. Forty-three PAR approaches were conducted, with 16 examined in detail. In each, Doppler derived longitudinal winds were compared to aircraft measured winds; in approximately 75 percent of the cases, the Doppler and aircraft winds were in acceptable agreement. In the remaining cases, errors may have been due to a lack of Doppler resolution, a lack of co-location of the two sampling volumes, the presence of eddy or vortex like disturbances within the pulse volume, or the presence of point targets in antenna side lobes. It was further concluded that shrouding techniques would have reduced the side lobe problem. A ground based Doppler radar operating in the optically clear air, provides the appropriate longitudinal winds along an aircraft's intended flight path.

  1. Solar-wind turbulence and shear: a superposed-epoch analysis of corotating interaction regions at 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Borovsky, Joseph E; Denton, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    A superposed-epoch analysis of ACE and OMNI2 measurements is performed on 27 corotating interaction regions (CIRs) in 2003-2008, with the zero epoch taken to be the stream interface as determined by the maximum of the plasma vorticity. The structure of CIRs is investigated. When the flow measurements are rotated into the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system the shear is seen to be abrupt and intense, with vorticities on the order of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} sec{sup -1}. Converging flows perpendicular to the stream interface are seen in the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system and about half of the CIRs show a layer of divergent rebound flow away from the stream interface. Arguments indicate that any spreading of turbulence away from the region where it is produced is limited to about 10{sup 6} km, which is very small compared with the thickness of a CrR. Analysis of the turbulence across the CrRs is performed. When possible, the effects of discontinuities are removed from the data. Fluctuation amplitudes, the Alfvenicity, and the level of Alfvenic correlations all vary smoothly across the CrR. The Alfven ratio exhibits a decrease at the shear zone of the stream interface. Fourier analysis of 4.5-hr subintervals of ACE data is performed and the results are superposed averaged as an ensemble of realizations. The spectral slopes of the velocity, magnetic-field, and total-energy fluctuations vary smoothly across the CIR. The total-energy spectral slope is {approx} 3/2 in the slow and fast wind and in the CrRs. Analysis of the Elsasser inward-outward fluctuations shows a smooth transition across the CrR from an inward-outward balance in the slow wind to an outward dominance in the fast wind. A number of signatures of turbulence driving at the shear zone are sought (entropy change, turbulence amplitude, Alfvenicity, Alfven ratio, spectral slopes, in-out nature): none show evidence of driving of turbulence by shear.

  2. A new method for GPS-based wind speed determinations during airborne volcanic plume measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doukas, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Begun nearly thirty years ago, the measurement of gases in volcanic plumes is today an accepted technique in volcano research. Volcanic plume measurements, whether baseline gas emissions from quiescent volcanoes or more substantial emissions from volcanoes undergoing unrest, provide important information on the amount of gaseous output of a volcano to the atmosphere. Measuring changes in gas emission rates also allows insight into eruptive behavior. Some of the earliest volcanic plume measurements of sulfur dioxide were made using a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC). The COSPEC, developed originally for industrial pollution studies, is an upward-looking optical spectrometer tuned to the ultraviolet absorption wavelength of sulfur dioxide (Millán and Hoff, 1978). In airborne mode, the COSPEC is mounted in a fixed-wing aircraft and flown back and forth just underneath a volcanic plume, perpendicular to the direction of plume travel (Casadevall and others, 1981; Stoiber and others, 1983). Similarly, for plumes close to the ground, the COSPEC can be mounted in an automobile and driven underneath a plume if a suitable road system is available (Elias and others, 1998). The COSPEC can also be mounted on a tripod and used to scan a volcanic plume from a fixed location on the ground, although the effectiveness of this configuration declines with distance from the plume (Kyle and others, 1990). In the 1990’s, newer airborne techniques involving direct sampling of volcanic plumes with infrared spectrometers and electrochemical sensors were developed in order to measure additional gases such as CO2 and H2S (Gerlach and others, 1997; Gerlach and others, 1999; McGee and others, 2001). These methods involve constructing a plume cross-section from several measurement traverses through the plume in a vertical plane. Newer instruments such as open-path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers are now being used to measure the gases in volcanic plumes mostly from fixed

  3. Solid-State 2-Micron Laser Transmitter Advancement for Wind and Carbon Dioxide Measurements From Ground, Airborne, and Space-Based Lidar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Ismail, Syed

    2008-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has been developing 2-micron lidar technologies over a decade for wind measurements, utilizing coherent Doppler wind lidar technique and carbon dioxide measurements, utilizing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique. Significant advancements have been made towards developing state-of-the-art technologies towards laser transmitters, detectors, and receiver systems. These efforts have led to the development of solid-state lasers with high pulse energy, tunablility, wavelength-stability, and double-pulsed operation. This paper will present a review of these technological developments along with examples of high resolution wind and high precision CO2 DIAL measurements in the atmosphere. Plans for the development of compact high power lasers for applications in airborne and future space platforms for wind and regional to global scale measurement of atmospheric CO2 will also be discussed.

  4. Linear coupling of planetary scale waves in ionospheric zonal shear winds: Generation of fast magnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanishvili, R.; Chagelishvili, G.; Uchava, E.; Kharshiladze, O.

    2016-04-01

    Our goal is to gain new insight into the physics of wave dynamics in ionospheric zonal shear flows. We study the shear flow non-normality induced linear coupling of planetary scale (slow) modified Rossby waves and westward propagating fast magnetized (Khantadze) waves using an approach different from the existing one to the linear wave dynamics. The performed analysis allows us to separate from each other different physical processes, grasp their interplay, and, by this way, construct the basic physics of the linear coupling of the slow and fast waves in an ionospheric zonal flow with linear shear of mean velocity, U0=(S y ,0 ) . It should be noted from the beginning that we consider incompressible flow and the classified "slow" and "fast" waves are not connected with the similarly labeled magnetosonic waves in compressible heliosphere. We show that: the modified Rossby waves generate fast magnetized waves due to the coupling for a quite wide range of ionospheric and shear flow parameters; the linear transient processes are highly anisotropic in wavenumber plane; the generation of the magnetized waves/oscillations is most efficient/optimal for S ≃0.1 (S is the shear rate normalized to the combination of the angular velocity and latitude, Ω0 cos θ0 ); the streamwise wave number of the optimally generated magnetized wave harmonics decreases (the length scale increases) with increasing the Hall parameter, α. At the end, we discuss nonlinear consequences of the described anisotropic linear dynamics—they should lead to an anisotropy of nonlinear cascade processes (in wavenumber plane). In turn, an interplay of the analyzed quite strong transient growth of the fast magnetic waves with anisotropic nonlinear processes should ensure self-sustenance of (stochastic or regular) magnetic perturbations.

  5. Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements of waves in the lee of Mount Shasta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumen, William; Hart, John E.

    1988-01-01

    Doppler lidar wind data obtained along one leg of a race track traverse around Mount Shasta are presently studied to establish their value and limitations for the study of orographic flows, as well as to evaluate the relative usefulness of a linear model in the analyses of the observed fields-of-motion. The model successfully reproduced the observed downstream lee of positive horizontal divergence which embedded spatially irregular waves, but the amplitudes of the model downstream divergence is smaller than the observations by a factor of two.

  6. Airborne pollen sampling in Manoa Valley, Hawaii: effect of rain, humidity and wind.

    PubMed

    Massey, D G; Fournier-Massey, G

    1984-05-01

    Kramer-Collins pollen sampling was conducted over 24 hours for 25 consecutive months at two valley sites in Honolulu. Of 1,059 expected samples, 699 (66.0%) were collected. Only 25 were considered excellent, i.e., eight three-hour collection bands. Twenty eight were considered good, ie., two to six bands. The difficulties in the study were associated with the weather directly (17.5%), the power source (3.9%), inadequancy of the samplers (63.1%) and the inexperience of technicians (15.3%). Sampler problems were also indirectly attributable to the high humidity, rain and wind, which differed at the two sites. PMID:6721258

  7. Optical fiber-based laser remote sensor for airborne measurement of wind velocity and turbulence.

    PubMed

    Spuler, Scott M; Richter, Dirk; Spowart, Michael P; Rieken, Kathrin

    2011-02-20

    We discuss an optical fiber-based continuous-wave coherent laser system for measuring the wind speed in undisturbed air ahead of an aircraft. The operational principles of the instrument are described, and estimates of performance are presented. The instrument is demonstrated as a single line of sight, and data from the inaugural test flight of August 2010 is presented. The system was successfully operated under various atmospheric conditions, including cloud and clear air up to 12 km (40,300 ft). PMID:21343963

  8. Microburst vertical wind estimation from horizontal wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    1994-01-01

    The vertical wind or downdraft component of a microburst-generated wind shear can significantly degrade airplane performance. Doppler radar and lidar are two sensor technologies being tested to provide flight crews with early warning of the presence of hazardous wind shear. An inherent limitation of Doppler-based sensors is the inability to measure velocities perpendicular to the line of sight, which results in an underestimate of the total wind shear hazard. One solution to the line-of-sight limitation is to use a vertical wind model to estimate the vertical component from the horizontal wind measurement. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of simple vertical wind models to improve the hazard prediction capability of an airborne Doppler sensor in a realistic microburst environment. Both simulation and flight test measurements were used to test the vertical wind models. The results indicate that in the altitude region of interest (at or below 300 m), the simple vertical wind models improved the hazard estimate. The radar simulation study showed that the magnitude of the performance improvement was altitude dependent. The altitude of maximum performance improvement occurred at about 300 m.

  9. Reduction of unsteady wind torques on an open port airborne optical turret

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. P., Jr.; Vankuren, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for reducing the unsteady torques acting on the inner gimbal of a turret were developed. The reductions in the unsteady torques were obtained by using fixes that alter undesirable flow characteristics or change the acoustic properties of the turret cavity. These fixes were designed to be used in the subsonic and transonic flow regimes. The flow field about the turret generally three dimensional and turbulent, and shock waves formed because of the rapid acceleration of the compressible gas about the blunt turret. The situation was further complicated by the presence of the cavity flow, and the fact that the mouth of the cavity must sweep through a wide angular variation relative to the direction of the freestream. Results indicate that significant reductions of the unsteady pressures measured in the turret cavity could be obtained by the use of porous wind screens around the aperature of the cavity mouth.

  10. A new paradigm for intensity modification of tropical cyclones: thermodynamic impact of vertical wind shear on the inflow layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemer, M.; Montgomery, M. T.; Nicholls, M. E.

    2010-04-01

    An important roadblock to improved intensity forecasts for tropical cyclones (TCs) is our incomplete understanding of the interaction of a TC with the environmental flow. In this paper we re-visit the canonical problem of a TC in vertical wind shear on an f-plane. A suite of numerical experiments is performed with intense TCs in moderate to strong vertical shear. We employ a set of simplified model physics - a simple bulk aerodynamic boundary layer scheme and "warm rain" microphysics - to foster better understanding of the dynamics and thermodynamics that govern the modification of TC intensity. In all experiments the TC is resilient to shear but significant differences in the intensity evolution occur. The ventilation of the TC core with dry environmental air at mid-levels and the dilution of the upper-level warm core are two prevailing hypotheses for the adverse effect of vertical shear on storm intensity. Here we propose an alternative and arguably more effective mechanism how cooler and drier (lower θe) air - "anti-fuel" for the TC power machine - can enter the core region of the TC. Strong and persistent, shear-induced downdrafts flux low θe air into the boundary layer from above, significantly depressing the θe values in the storm's inflow layer. Air with lower θe values enters the eyewall updrafts, considerably reducing eyewall θe values in the azimuthal mean. When viewed from the perspective of an idealised Carnot-cycle heat engine a decrease of storm intensity can thus be expected. Although the Carnot cycle model is - if at all - only valid for stationary and axisymmetric TCs, a close association of the downward transport of low θe into the boundary layer and the intensity evolution offers further evidence in support of our hypothesis. The downdrafts that flush the boundary layer with low θe air are tied to a quasi-stationary, azimuthal wave number 1 convective asymmetry outside of the eyewall. This convective asymmetry and the associated downdraft

  11. Lightning activity and its relationship with typhoon intensity and vertical wind shear for Super Typhoon Haiyan (1330)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Qie, Xiushu; Liu, Dongxia; Shi, Haifeng; Srivastava, Abhay

    2016-02-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan (1330), which occurred in 2013, is the most powerful typhoon during landfall in the meteorological record. In this study, the temporal and spatial distributions of lightning activity of Haiyan were analyzed by using the lightning data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network, typhoon intensity and position data from the China Meteorological Administration, and horizontal wind data from the ECMWF. Three distinct regions were identified in the spatial distribution of daily average lightning density, with the maxima in the inner core and the minima in the inner rainband. The lightning density in the intensifying stage of Haiyan was greater than that in its weakening stage. During the time when the typhoon intensity measured with maximum sustained wind speed was between 32.7 and 41.4 ms-1, the storm had the largest lightning density in the inner core, compared with other intensity stages. In contrast to earlier typhoon studies, the eyewall lightning burst out three times. The first two eyewall lightning outbreaks occurred during the period of rapid intensification and before the maximum intensity of the storm, suggesting that the eyewall lightning activity could be used to identify the change in tropical cyclone intensity. The flashes frequently occurred in the inner core, and in the outer rainbands with the black body temperature below 220 K. Combined with the ECMWF wind data, the influences of vertical wind shear (VWS) on the azimuthal distribution of flashes were also analyzed, showing that strong VWS produced downshear left asymmetry of lightning activity in the inner core and downshear right asymmetry in the rainbands.

  12. Use of the Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) to study microburst wind shears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Gregory P.

    1988-01-01

    Ground-based and airborne Doppler radar and LIDAR systems are being designed to alert pilots when a hazardous windshear is present. A key element in this design effort is understanding the microburst itself. This is accomplished by means of the TASS model which was developed for NASA by Proctor (1987a,b). The time-dependent TASS model has two vesions: a two-demensional high resolution axisymmetric model, and a three-demensional model. The model includes a sophisticated parameterization of cloud microphysics and a friction layer, both of which are essential to a realistic simulation of the microburst phenomenon. The TASS model has been successfully tested on well-observed convective events.

  13. Advances in High Energy Solid-State Pulsed 2-micron Lidar Development for Ground and Airborne Wind, Water Vapor and CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Upendra; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Kavaya, Michael; Remus, Ruben

    2015-04-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2 µm lasers. From fundamental spectroscopy research, theoretical prediction of new materials, laser demonstration and engineering of lidar systems, it has been a very successful program spanning around two decades. Successful development of 2 µm lasers has led to development of a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement with an unprecedented laser pulse energy of 250-mJ in a rugged package. This high pulse energy is produced by a Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser with an optical amplifier. While the lidar is meant for use as an airborne instrument, ground-based tests were carried out to characterize performance of the lidar. Atmospheric measurements will be presented, showing the lidar's capability for wind measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer and free troposphere. Lidar wind measurements are compared to a balloon sonde, showing good agreement between the two sensors. Similar architecture has been used to develop a high energy, Ho:Tm:YLF double-pulsed 2 μm Integrated Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) instrument based on direct detection technique that provides atmospheric column CO2 measurements. This instrument has been successfully used to measure atmospheric CO2 column density initially from a ground mobile lidar trailer, and then it was integrated on B-200 plane and 20 hrs of flight measurement were made from an altitude ranging 1500 meter to 8000 meter. These measurements were compared to in-situ measurements and NOAA airborne flask measurement to derive the dry mixing ratio of the column CO2 by reflecting the signal by various reflecting surfaces such as land, vegetation, ocean surface, snow and sand. The lidar measurements when compared showed a very agreement with in-situ and airborne flask measurement. NASA Langley Research Center is currently developing a triple-pulsed 2 μm Integrated Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA

  14. Advances in High Energy Solid-State Pulsed 2-Micron Lidar Development for Ground and Airborne Wind, Water Vapor and CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Kavaya, Michael J.; Remus, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron lasers. From fundamental spectroscopy research, theoretical prediction of new materials, laser demonstration and engineering of lidar systems, it has been a very successful program spanning around two decades. Successful development of 2-micron lasers has led to development of a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement with an unprecedented laser pulse energy of 250 millijoules in a rugged package. This high pulse energy is produced by a Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser with an optical amplifier. While the lidar is meant for use as an airborne instrument, ground-based tests were carried out to characterize performance of the lidar. Atmospheric measurements will be presented, showing the lidar's capability for wind measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer and free troposphere. Lidar wind measurements are compared to a balloon sonde, showing good agreement between the two sensors. Similar architecture has been used to develop a high energy, Ho:Tm:YLF double-pulsed 2-micron Integrated Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) instrument based on direct detection technique that provides atmospheric column CO2 measurements. This instrument has been successfully used to measure atmospheric CO2 column density initially from a ground mobile lidar trailer, and then it was integrated on B-200 plane and 20 hours of flight measurement were made from an altitude ranging 1500 meters to 8000 meters. These measurements were compared to in-situ measurements and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) airborne flask measurement to derive the dry mixing ratio of the column CO2 by reflecting the signal by various reflecting surfaces such as land, vegetation, ocean surface, snow and sand. The lidar measurements when compared showed a very agreement with in-situ and airborne flask measurement. NASA Langley Research Center is currently developing a

  15. Wind shear and wet and dry thermodynamic indices as predictors of thunderstorm motion and severity and application to the AVE 4 experimental data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. R.; Ey, L.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of parameters are computed and mapped for use in assessing their individual merits as predictors of occurrence and severity of thunderstorms. The first group is comprised of equivalent potential temperature, potential temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and wind speed. Equivalent potential temperature maxima and strong gradients of equivalent potential temperature at the surface correlate well with regions of thunderstorm activity. The second type, comprised of the energy index, shear index, and energy shear index, incorporates some model dynamics of thunderstorms, including nonthermodynamic forcing. The energy shear index is found to improve prediction of tornadic and high-wind situations slightly better than other indices. It is concluded that further development and refinement of nonthermodynamic aspects of predictive indices are definitely warranted.

  16. Signal processing for airborne doppler radar detection of hazardous wind shear as applied to NASA 1991 radar flight experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Radar data collected during the 1991 NASA flight tests have been selectively analyzed to support research directed at developing both improved as well as new algorithms for detecting hazardous low-altitude windshear. Analysis of aircraft attitude data from several flights indicated that platform stability bandwidths were small compared to the data rate bandwidths which should support an assumption that radar returns can be treated as short time stationary. Various approaches at detection of weather returns in the presence of ground clutter are being investigated. Non-coventional clutter rejection through spectrum mode tracking and classification algorithms is a subject of continuing research. Based upon autoregressive modeling of the radar return time sequence, this approach may offer an alternative to overcome errors in conventional pulse-pair estimates. Adaptive filtering is being evaluated as a means of rejecting clutter with emphasis on low signal-to-clutter ratio situations, particularly in the presence of discrete clutter interference. An analysis of out-of-range clutter returns is included to illustrate effects of ground clutter interference due to range aliasing for aircraft on final approach. Data are presented to indicate how aircraft groundspeed might be corrected from the radar data as well as point to an observed problem of groundspeed estimate bias variation with radar antenna scan angle. A description of how recorded clutter return data are mixed with simulated weather returns is included. This enables the researcher to run controlled experiments to test signal processing algorithms. In the summary research efforts involving improved modelling of radar ground clutter returns and a Bayesian approach at hazard factor estimation are mentioned.

  17. Fixed-base simulation study of decoupled longitudinal controls during approach and landing of a medium jet transport in the presence of wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, G. K., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The use of decoupled longitudinal controls during the approach and landing of a typical twin-engine jet transport in the presence of wind shear was studied. The simulation included use of a localizer and flight director to capture and maintain a 3 deg glide slope. The pilot then completed the landing by using visual cues provided below an altitude of 200 m by closed-circuit television and a terrain model. The decoupled controls used constant prefilter and feedback gains to provide steady state decoupling of flight path angle, pitch angle, and forward velocity. The use of the decoupled control system improved pilot performance during the approach and at touchdown in the presence of wind shears. The pilots preferred the decoupled controls and rated the task 1 to 3 increments better on a pilot rating scale, depending on wind conditions, than was the case when conventional controls were used.

  18. Simulation comparison of a decoupled longitudinal control system and a velocity vector control wheel steering system during landings in wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimball, G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A simulator comparison of the velocity vector control wheel steering (VCWS) system and a decoupled longitudinal control system is presented. The piloting task was to use the electronic attitude direction indicator (EADI) to capture and maintain a 3 degree glide slope in the presence of wind shear and to complete the landing using the perspective runway included on the EADI. The decoupled control system used constant prefilter and feedback gains to provide steady state decoupling of flight path angle, pitch angle, and forward velocity. The decoupled control system improved the pilots' ability to control airspeed and flight path angle during the final stages of an approach made in severe wind shear. The system also improved their ability to complete safe landings. The pilots preferred the decoupled control system in severe winds and, on a pilot rating scale, rated the approach and landing task with the decoupled control system as much as 3 to 4 increments better than use of the VCWS system.

  19. Vertical wind retrieved by airborne lidar and analysis of island induced gravity waves in combination with numerical models and in situ particle measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Jähn, Michael; Rahm, Stephan; Weinzierl, Bernadett

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the analysis of island induced gravity waves observed by an airborne Doppler wind lidar (DWL) during SALTRACE. First, the instrumental corrections required for the retrieval of high spatial resolution vertical wind measurements from an airborne DWL are presented and the measurement accuracy estimated by means of two different methods. The estimated systematic error is below -0.05 m s-1 for the selected case of study, while the random error lies between 0.1 and 0.16 m s-1 depending on the estimation method. Then, the presented method is applied to two measurement flights during which the presence of island induced gravity waves was detected. The first case corresponds to a research flight conducted on 17 June 2013 in the Cabo Verde islands region, while the second case corresponds to a measurement flight on 26 June 2013 in the Barbados region. The presence of trapped lee waves predicted by the calculated Scorer parameter profiles was confirmed by the lidar and in situ observations. The DWL measurements are used in combination with in situ wind and particle number density measurements, large-eddy simulations (LES), and wavelet analysis to determine the main characteristics of the observed island induced trapped waves.

  20. Observation of Shear-Induced Turbulence Using HARLIE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David O.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Sanders, Jason; Guerra, David; Moody, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric aerosol structure were made using the Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE) during the HOLO-1 field campaign. The scanning ability of HARLIE affords a unique opportunity to view various atmospheric phenomena. Shear-induced turbulence plays an important role in the transport of kinetic energy in the atmosphere and on March 10, 1999, several instances of shear-induced turbulence were observed via HARLIE. Using the data collected and upper-air wind profiles the nature of the instabilities is discussed.

  1. VELOCITY-SHEAR-INDUCED MODE COUPLING IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE AND SOLAR WIND: IMPLICATIONS FOR PLASMA HEATING AND MHD TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Hollweg, Joseph V.; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Kaghashvili, Edisher Kh. E-mail: ekaghash@aer.com

    2013-06-01

    We analytically consider how velocity shear in the corona and solar wind can cause an initial Alfven wave to drive up other propagating signals. The process is similar to the familiar coupling into other modes induced by non-WKB refraction in an inhomogeneous plasma, except here the refraction is a consequence of velocity shear. We limit our discussion to a low-beta plasma, and ignore couplings into signals resembling the slow mode. If the initial Alfven wave is propagating nearly parallel to the background magnetic field, then the induced signals are mainly a forward-going (i.e., propagating in the same sense as the original Alfven wave) fast mode, and a driven signal propagating like a forward-going Alfven wave but polarized like the fast mode; both signals are compressive and subject to damping by the Landau resonance. For an initial Alfven wave propagating obliquely with respect to the magnetic field, the induced signals are mainly forward- and backward-going fast modes, and a driven signal propagating like a forward-going Alfven wave but polarized like the fast mode; these signals are all compressive and subject to damping by the Landau resonance. A backward-going Alfven wave, thought to be important in the development of MHD turbulence, is also produced, but it is very weak. However, we suggest that for oblique propagation of the initial Alfven wave the induced fast-polarized signal propagating like a forward-going Alfven wave may interact coherently with the initial Alfven wave and distort it at a strong-turbulence-like rate.

  2. The propagation of gravity waves through a critical layer for conditions of moderate wind shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, M. R.; Thomas, L.; Thomas, R. H.

    1980-02-01

    Solutions of the linearised hydrodynamic equations for a viscous atmosphere using (i) a full-wave integration procedure and (ii) a simplified analytical approach are used to examine the attenuation of gravity waves passing through a critical layer, where the horizontal phase velocity is equal to that of the mean wind. Particular attenuation is paid to the variation of this attenuation with values of Richardson number, Ri, greater than unity. The two sets of results are in good agreement with the predictions of Booker and Bretherton (1967) for an inviscid fluid for values of Ri up to about 4. However, a marked discrepancy from these predicted values is found for larger values of Ri, the present results indicating substantially smaller attenuation. Further calculations suggest that the wave-amplitude attenuation factor predicted by the inviscid model is approached asymptotically in the limit of vanishingly small viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients. The inclusion of viscosity and thermal conduction gives rise to three characteristic modes of propagation for each direction of energy flow, in place of the single mode occurring in the inviscid case. The importance of energy exchange between these modes in the propagation through the critical layer is demonstrated.

  3. Motion and interaction of decaying trailing vortices in spanwise shear wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.; Lu, T.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation is presented of the drift of trailing vortices in a cross-wind near the ground by an unsteady, two-dimensional, rotational flow field with a concentration of large vorticity in vortical spots (having a finite but small effective size and finite total strength). The problem is analyzed by a combination of the method of matched asymptotic analyses for the decay of the vortical spots and the Euler solution for the unsteady rotational flow. Using the method of averaging, a special numerical method is developed in which the grid size and time step depend only on the length and velocity scales of the background flow and are independent of the effective core size of a vortical spot. The core size can be much smaller than the grid size, whereas the peak velocity in the core is inversely propertional to the spot size. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the strong interaction between the trajectories of the vortical spots and the change of the vorticity distribution in the background flow field.

  4. Organization of tropical deep convection in low vertical wind shears: The role of boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezahegn Semie, Addisu; Tompkins, Adrian Mark

    2015-04-01

    Previous Experiments with convection-permitting models have documented the various roles of water vapor, cold pools, and radiative feedbacks in the self-organization of tropical deep convection. Most of these simulations were conducted using idealized conditions with fixed and spatially homogeneous sea surface temperatures (SST), and over large enough domains the feedback mechanisms lead to strongly organized convection. In its equilibrium state the convection occurs in a single organised cluster or band, depending on the system mean wind state, surrounded by regions that are extremely dry and free of deep convection. . We hypothesize that radiative feedbacks involving the surface may provide a strong negative feedback to counter the organisation of convection. For example, the enhanced downwelling short-wave radiation in suppressed area should lead to enhanced SST (sometime termed SST hotspots). Which will ultimately lead to convection if the atmosphere moistens sufficiently to permit it. Similar feedback may occur over land. We therefore extend the numerical idealized experiment framework by including the effect of an interactive lower boundary sea and land conditions such as ocean and land with a range of soil moisture contents. To ascertain how this affects the self-organization of convection we construct a simple set of diagnostics to classify which mechanisms are operating, their relative importance and spacial scales.

  5. The development of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in relation to convection activity and synoptic systems in AVE 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Data from the Fourth Atmospheric Variability Experiment were used to investigate conditions/factors responsible for the development (local time rate-of-change) of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in areas with varying degrees of convective activity. AVE IV sounding data were taken at 3 or 6 h intervals during a 36 h period on 24-25 April 1975 over approximately the eastern half of the United States. An error analysis was performed for each variable studied.

  6. Advances in High Energy Solid-State 2-micron Laser Transmitter Development for Ground and Airborne Wind and CO2 Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Chen, Songsheng; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Modlin, Edward A.; Koch, Grady; Beyon, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) during last fifteen years have resulted in a significant advancement in 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurement from ground, air and space-borne platform. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  7. Wind shear hazard determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: F-factor relationship with aircraft performance; F-factor formulations; the F-bar index; F-factor hazard limit; F-bar with Doppler sensors; and F-bar profile composite.

  8. Results from 1984 airborne Doppler lidar wind measurement program. Flight 6: Analysis of line-of-sight elevation angle errors and apparent Doppler velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry

    1987-01-01

    During the summer of 1984 the Marshall Space Flight Center's Airborne Doppler Lidar System (ADLS) made a series of wind measurements in the California Central Valley. This study quantifies the lidar beam angle errors and velocity errors through analysis of ground return signals. Line-of-sight elevation (LOSE) angle errors are under 1 deg. Apparent Doppler ground velocities, as large as 2m/s, are considerably less than in a previous flight experiment in 1981. No evidence was found of a Schuler resonance phenomenon common to inertial navigation systems (INS), however the aperiodic nature of the apparent velocities implies an error in the INS-derived ground speeds. Certain features and subtleties in the ground returns are explained in terms of atmospheric structure and characteristics of the ADLS hardware and software. Finally, least squares and low-pass filtering techniques are suggested for eliminating errors during post-processing.

  9. Estimated airborne release of plutonium from Atomics International's Nuclear Materials Development Facility in the Santa Susana site, California, as a result of postulated damage from severe wind and earthquake hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, J.; Ayer, J.E.

    1981-09-01

    The potential mass of airborne releases of plutonium (source term) that could result from wind and seismic damage is estimated for the Atomics International Company's Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF) at the Santa Susana site in California. The postulated source terms will be useful as the basis for estimating the potential dose to the maximum exposed individual by inhalation and to the total population living within a prescribed radius of the site. The respirable fraction of airborne particles is thus the principal concern. The estimated source terms are based on the damage ratio, and the potential airborne releases if all enclosures suffer particular levels of damage. In an attempt to provide a realistic range of potential source terms that include most of the normal processing conditions, a best estimate bounded by upper and lower limits is provided. The range of source terms is calculated by combining a high best estimate and a low damage ratio, based on a fraction of enclosures suffering crush or perforation, with the airborne release from enclosures based upon an upper limit, average, and lower limit inventory of dispersible materials at risk. Two throughput levels are considered. The factors used to evaluate the fractional airborne release of materials and the exchange rates between enclosed and exterior atmospheres are discussed. The postulated damage and source terms are discussed for wind and earthquake hazard scenarios in order of their increasing severity.

  10. A wind density model to quantify the airborne spread of Culicoides species during north-western Europe bluetongue epidemic, 2006.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Guy; Gilbert, Marius; Staubach, Christoph; Elbers, Armin; Mintiens, Koen; Gerbier, Guillaume; Ducheyne, Els

    2008-10-15

    Increased transport and trade as well as climate shifts play an important role in the introduction, establishment and spread of new pathogens. Arguably, the introduction of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8 in Benelux, Germany and France in 2006 is such an example. After its establishment in receptive local vector and host populations the continued spread of such a disease in a suitable environment will mainly depend on movement of infected vectors and animals. In this paper we explore how wind models can contribute to explain the spread of BTV in a temperate eco-climatic setting. Based on previous work in Greece and Bulgaria filtered wind density maps were computed using data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Six hourly forward wind trajectories were computed at pressure levels of 850 hPa for each infected farm as from the recorded onset of symptoms. The trajectories were filtered to remove wind events that do not contribute to possible spread of the vector. The suitable wind events were rastered and aggregated on a weekly basis to obtain weekly wind density maps. Next to this, cumulated wind density maps were also calculated to assess the overall impact of wind dispersal of vectors. A strong positive correlation was established between wind density data and the horizontal asymmetrical spread pattern of the 2006 BTV8 epidemic. It was shown that short (<5 km), medium (5-31 km) and long (>31 km) distance spread had a different impact on disease spread. Computed wind densities were linked to the medium/long-distance spread whilst short range spread was mainly driven by active Culicoides flight. Whilst previous work in the Mediterranean basin showed that wind driven spread of Culicoides over sea occurred over distances of up to 700 km, this phenomenon was not observed over land. Long-distance spread over land followed a hopping pattern, i.e. with intermediary stops and establishment of local virus circulation clusters at distances of

  11. Remote sensing of multi-level wind fields with high-energy airborne scanning coherent Doppler lidar.

    PubMed

    Rothermel, J; Olivier, L; Banta, R; Hardesty, R M; Howell, J; Cutten, D; Johnson, S; Menzies, R; Tratt, D M

    1998-01-19

    The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory have developed and flown a scanning, 1 Joule per pulse, CO2 coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping a three-dimensional volume of atmospheric winds and aerosol backscatter in the planetary boundary layer, free troposphere, and lower stratosphere. Applications include the study of severe and non-severe atmospheric flows, intercomparisons with other sensors, and the simulation of prospective satellite Doppler lidar wind profilers. Examples of wind measurements are given for the marine boundary layer and near the coastline of the western United States. PMID:19377577

  12. Remote Sensing of Multi-Level Wind Fields with High-Energy Airborne Scanning Coherent Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Olivier, Lisa D.; Banta, Robert M.; Hardesty, R. Michael; Howell, James N.; Cutten, Dean R.; Johnson, Steven C.; Menzies, Robert T.; Tratt, David M.

    1997-01-01

    The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory have developed and flown a scanning, 1 Joule per pulse, CO2 coherent Doppler lidar capable of mapping a three-dimensional volume of atmospheric winds and aerosol backscatter in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Applications include the study of severe and non-severe atmospheric flows, intercomparisons with other sensors, and the simulation of prospective satellite Doppler lidar wind profilers. Examples of wind measurements are given for the marine boundary layer and near the coastline of the western United States.

  13. Rossby-Khantadze Electromagnetic Planetary Waves Driven by Sheared Zonal Winds in the E-Layer Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futatani, S.; Horton, W.; Kahlon, L. Z.; Kaladze, T.

    2014-10-01

    Nonlinear simulations are carried out for planetary scale [ >1000 km] electromagnetic Rossby and Khantadze planetary waves in the presence of a sheared zonal flow in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer. A variety of sheared flow profiles are studied. We shown that the nonlinear dynamics with the sheared zonal flows provides an energy source into the vortex structures. The energy transfer through the Reynolds stress tensor produces growth of the stable vortices under a variety of conditions. The energy accumulation breaks the vortex structure into multiple species according to the non-uniformity of profile of the external zonal shear flows. S. Futatani, W. Horton, T. D. Kaladze, Phys. Plasmas 20, 102903 (2013). T. D. Kaladze, L. Z. Kahlon, W. Horton. O Pokhotelov, and O. Onishenchenko, EPL 106, A05302 (2014).

  14. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  15. Compact, Engineered, 2-Micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Prototype for Field and Airborne Validation: Doppler Aerosol WiNd Lidar (DAWN). Interim Review #1 (6 months)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2006-01-01

    A new project, selected in 2005 by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), under the Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), will be described. The 3-year effort is intended to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a packaged, rugged, compact, space-qualifiable coherent Doppler wind lidar (DWL) transceiver capable of future validation in an aircraft and/or Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The state-of-the-art 2-micron coherent DWL breadboard at NASA/LaRC will be engineered and compactly packaged consistent with future aircraft flights. The packaged transceiver will be integrated into a coherent DWL system test bed at LaRC. Atmospheric wind measurements will be made to validate the packaged technology. This will greatly advance the coherent part of the hybrid DWL solution to the need for global tropospheric wind measurements.

  16. Temperature and horizontal wind measurements on the ER-2 aircraft during the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. R.; Scott, S. G.; Bui, T. P.; Bowen, S. W.; Day, J.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of temperature, pressure, potential temperature, and horizontal wind measurements is discussed in connection with the use of Meteorological Measurement System data in the AAOE. The vertical distribution of temperature measurements and latitudinal variations of the zonal wind for 12 flights over Antarctica during the 1987 AAOE campaign are summarized. Model atmospheres from 0 to 32 km at 70 deg and 55 deg S for the August-September period are constructed. Above the 420 K isentropic surface, the polar vortex remains strong throughout August and September of 1987.

  17. Estimates of the low-level wind shear and turbulence in the vicinity of Kennedy International Airport on 24 June 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, W. S.; Williamson, G. G.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the type of wind and turbulence distributions which may have existed at the time of the crash of Eastern Airlines Flight 66 while attempting to land. A number of different wind and turbulence profiles are predicted for the site and date of the crash. The morning and mid-afternoon predictions are in reasonably good agreement with magnitude and direction as reported by the weather observer. Although precise predictions cannot be made during the passage of the thunderstorm which coincides with the time of the accident, a number of different profiles which might exist under or in the vicinity of a thunderstorm are presented. The profile that is most probable predicts the mean headwind shear over 100 m (300 feet) altitude change and the average fluctuations about the mean headwind distribution. This combination of means and fluctuations leads to a reasonable probability that the instantaneous headwind shear would equal the maximum value reported in the flight recorder data.

  18. NUMERICAL SIMULATION TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF INCIDENT WIND SHEAR AND TURBULENCE LEVEL ON THE FLOW AROUND A BUILDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of incident shear and turbulence on flow around a cubical building are being investigated by a turbulent kinetic energy dissipation (k-e) model (TEMPEST). he numerical simulations demonstrate significant effects due to the differences in the incident flow. he addition...

  19. Estimated airborne release of plutonium from the 102 Building at the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Vallecitos, California, as a result of damage from severe wind and earthquake hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, J.; Ayer, J.E.; Hays, I.D.

    1980-12-01

    This report estimates the potential airborne releases of plutonium as a consequence of various severities of earthquake and wind hazard postulated for the 102 Building at the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center in California. The releases are based on damage scenarios developed by other specialists. The hazard severities presented range up to a nominal velocity of 230 mph for wind hazard and are in excess of 0.8 g linear acceleration for earthquakes. The consequences of thrust faulting are considered. The approaches and factors used to estimate the releases are discussed. Release estimates range from 0.003 to 3 g Pu.

  20. Use of Dual-Polarization Radar Variables to Assess Low-Level Wind Shear in Severe Thunderstorm Near-storm Environments in the Tennessee Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, Christina C.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Kumjian, Matthew; Carey, Lawerence D.; Petersen, Walter A.

    2011-01-01

    The upgrade of the National Weather Service (NWS) network of S ]band dual-polarization radars is currently underway, and the incorporation of polarimetric information into the real ]time forecasting process will enhance the forecaster fs ability to assess thunderstorms and their near ]storm environments. Recent research has suggested that the combination of polarimetric variables differential reflectivity (ZDR) and specific differential phase (KDP) can be useful in the assessment of low level wind shear within a thunderstorm. In an environment with strong low ]level veering of the wind, ZDR values will be largest along the right inflow edge of the thunderstorm near a large gradient in horizontal reflectivity (indicative of large raindrops falling with a relative lack of smaller drops), and take the shape of an arc. Meanwhile, KDP values, which are proportional to liquid water content and indicative of a large number of smaller drops, are maximized deeper into the forward flank precipitation shield than the ZDR arc as the smaller drops are being advected further from the updraft core by the low level winds than the larger raindrops. Using findings from previous work, three severe weather events that occurred in North Alabama were examined in order to assess the utility of these signatures in determining the potential for tornadic activity. The first case is from October 26, 2010, where a large number of storms indicated tornadic potential from a standard reflectivity and velocity analysis but very few storms actually produced tornadoes. The second event is from February 28, 2011, where tornadic storms were present early on in the event, but as the day progressed, the tornado threat transitioned to a high wind threat. The third case is from April 27, 2011, where multiple rounds of tornadic storms ransacked the Tennessee Valley. This event provides a dataset including multiple modes of tornadic development, including QLCS and supercell structures. The overarching goal

  1. The Selection of Q-Switch for a 350mJ Air-borne 2-micron Wind Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petros, Mulugeta; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    In the process of designing a coherent, high energy 2micron, Doppler wind Lidar, various types of Q-Switch materials and configurations have been investigated for the oscillator. Designing an oscillator with a relatively low gain laser material, presents challenges related to the management high internal circulating fluence due to high reflective output coupler. This problem is compounded by the loss of hold-off. In addition, the selection has to take into account the round trip optical loss in the resonator and the loss of hold-off. For this application, a Brewster cut 5mm aperture, fused silica AO Q-switch is selected. Once the Q-switch is selected various rf frequencies were evaluated. Since the Lidar has to perform in single longitudinal and transverse mode with transform limited line width, in this paper, various seeding configurations are presented in the context of Q-Switch diffraction efficiency. The master oscillator power amplifier has demonstrated over 350mJ output when the amplifier is operated in double pass mode and higher than 250mJ when operated in single pass configuration. The repetition rate of the system is 10Hz and the pulse length 200ns.

  2. Analysis of airborne Doppler lidar, Doppler radar and tall tower measurements of atmospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluestein, H. B.; Doviak, R. J.; Eilts, M. D.; Mccaul, E. W.; Rabin, R.; Sundara-Rajan, A.; Zrnic, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    The first experiment to combine airborne Doppler Lidar and ground-based dual Doppler Radar measurements of wind to detail the lower tropospheric flows in quiescent and stormy weather was conducted in central Oklahoma during four days in June-July 1981. Data from these unique remote sensing instruments, coupled with data from conventional in-situ facilities, i.e., 500-m meteorological tower, rawinsonde, and surface based sensors, were analyzed to enhance understanding of wind, waves and turbulence. The purposes of the study were to: (1) compare winds mapped by ground-based dual Doppler radars, airborne Doppler lidar, and anemometers on a tower; (2) compare measured atmospheric boundary layer flow with flows predicted by theoretical models; (3) investigate the kinematic structure of air mass boundaries that precede the development of severe storms; and (4) study the kinematic structure of thunderstorm phenomena (downdrafts, gust fronts, etc.) that produce wind shear and turbulence hazardous to aircraft operations. The report consists of three parts: Part 1, Intercomparison of Wind Data from Airborne Lidar, Ground-Based Radars and Instrumented 444 m Tower; Part 2, The Structure of the Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer as Revealed by Lidar and Doppler Radars; and Part 3, Doppler Lidar Observations in Thunderstorm Environments.

  3. Wind Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curto, Paul A. (Inventor); Brown, Gerald E. (Inventor); Zysko, Jan A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a two-part wind advisory system comprising a ground station at an airfield and an airborne unit placed inside an aircraft. The ground station monitors wind conditions (wind speed, wind direction, and wind gust) at the airfield and transmits the wind conditions and an airfield ID to the airborne unit. The airborne unit identifies the airfield by comparing the received airfield ID with airfield IDs stored in a database. The airborne unit also calculates the headwind and crosswind for each runway in both directions at the airfield using the received wind conditions and runway information stored in the database. The airborne unit then determines a recommended runway for takeoff and landing operations of the aircraft based on th runway having the greatest headwind value and displays the airfield ID, wind conditions, and recommended runway to the pilot. Another embodiment of the present invention includes a wireless internet based airborne unit in which the airborne unit can receive the wind conditions from the ground station over the internet.

  4. A Simple Method for Collecting Airborne Pollen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Peter G.; DiGiovanni, Franco; Ho, Rong H.; Taki, Hisatomo; Ferguson, Kristyn A.; Pawlowski, Agata K.

    2006-01-01

    Pollination is a broad area of study within biology. For many plants, pollen carried by wind is required for successful seed set. Airborne pollen also affects human health. To foster studies of airborne pollen, we introduce a simple device--the "megastigma"--for collecting pollen from the air. This device is flexible, yielding easily obtained data…

  5. Meeting Review: Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Huebert, Barry; Wilson, Chuck

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings from the Airborne Aerosol Inlet Workshop are presented. The two central topics of discussion were the role of aerosols in atmospheric processes and the difficulties in characterizing aerosols. The following topics were discussed during the working sessions: airborne observations to date; identification of inlet design issues; inlet modeling needs and directions; objectives for aircraft experiments; and future laboratory and wind tunnel studies.

  6. Evidence for tropospheric wind shear excitation of high-phase-speed gravity waves reaching the mesosphere using the ray-tracing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramitha, M.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Taori, A.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.; Pallamraju, D.; Vijaya Bhaskar Rao, S.

    2015-03-01

    Sources and propagation characteristics of high-frequency gravity waves observed in the mesosphere using airglow emissions from Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) and Hyderabad (17.5° N, 78.5° E) are investigated using reverse ray tracing. Wave amplitudes are also traced back, including both radiative and diffusive damping. The ray tracing is performed using background temperature and wind data obtained from the MSISE-90 and HWM-07 models, respectively. For the Gadanki region, the suitability of these models is tested. Further, a climatological model of the background atmosphere for the Gadanki region has been developed using nearly 30 years of observations available from a variety of ground-based (MST radar, radiosondes, MF radar) and rocket- and satellite-borne measurements. ERA-Interim products are utilized for constructing background parameters corresponding to the meteorological conditions of the observations. With the reverse ray-tracing method, the source locations for nine wave events could be identified to be in the upper troposphere, whereas for five other events the waves terminated in the mesosphere itself. Uncertainty in locating the terminal points of wave events in the horizontal direction is estimated to be within 50-100 km and 150-300 km for Gadanki and Hyderabad wave events, respectively. This uncertainty arises mainly due to non-consideration of the day-to-day variability in the tidal amplitudes. Prevailing conditions at the terminal points for each of the 14 events are provided. As no convection in and around the terminal points is noticed, convection is unlikely to be the source. Interestingly, large (~9 m s-1km-1) vertical shears in the horizontal wind are noticed near the ray terminal points (at 10-12 km altitude) and are thus identified to be the source for generating the observed high-phase-speed, high-frequency gravity waves.

  7. Description and availability of airborne Doppler radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrah, S. D.; Bracalente, E. M.; Schaffner, P. R.; Baxa, E. G.

    1993-01-01

    An airborne, forward-looking, pulse, Doppler radar has been developed in conjunction with the joint FAA/NASA Wind Shear Program. This radar represents a first in an emerging technology. The radar was developed to assess the applicability of an airborne radar to detect low altitude hazardous wind shears for civil aviation applications. Such a radar must be capable of looking down into the ground clutter environment and extracting wind estimates from relatively low reflectivity weather targets. These weather targets often have reflectivities several orders of magnitude lower than the surrounding ground clutter. The NASA radar design incorporates numerous technological and engineering achievements in order to accomplish this task. The basic R/T unit evolved from a standard Collins 708 weather radar, which supports specific pulse widths of 1-7 microns and Pulse Repetition Frequencies (PRF) of less than 1-10 kHz. It was modified to allow for the output of the first IF signal, which fed a NASA developed receiver/detector subsystem. The NASA receiver incorporated a distributed, high-speed digital attenuator, producing a range bin to range bin automatic gain control system with 65 dB of dynamic range. Using group speed information supplied by the aircraft's navigation system, the radar signal is frequency demodulated back to base band (zero Doppler relative to stationary ground). The In-phase & Quadrature-phase (I/Q) components of the measured voltage signal are then digitized by a 12-bit A-D converter (producing an additional 36 dB of dynamic range). The raw I/Q signal for each range bin is then recorded (along with the current radar & aircraft state parameters) by a high-speed Kodak tape recorder.

  8. Fourth Airborne Geoscience Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on how the airborne community can assist in achieving the goals of the Global Change Research Program. The many activities that employ airborne platforms and sensors were discussed: platforms and instrument development; airborne oceanography; lidar research; SAR measurements; Doppler radar; laser measurements; cloud physics; airborne experiments; airborne microwave measurements; and airborne data collection.

  9. Airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven E.

    2002-06-01

    The US Air Force Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the risk reduction approach being utilized to ensure program success.

  10. Mutagenicity of airborne particles.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Fisher, G L

    1980-09-01

    The physical and chemical properties of airborne particles are important for the interpretation of their potential biologic significance as genotoxic hazards. For polydisperse particle size distributions, the smallest, most respirable particles are generally the most mutagenic. Particulate collection for testing purposes should be designed to reduce artifact formation and allow condensation of mutagenic compounds. Other critical factors such as UV irradiation, wind direction, chemical reactivity, humidity, sample storage, and temperature of combustion are important. Application of chemical extraction methods and subsequent class fractionation techniques influence the observed mutagenic activity. Particles from urban air, coal fly ash, automobile and diesel exhaust, agricultural burning and welding fumes contain primarily direct-acting mutagens. Cigarette smoke condensate, smoke from charred meat and protein pyrolysates, kerosene soot and cigarette smoke condensates contain primarily mutagens which require metabolic activation. Fractionation coupled with mutagenicity testing indicates that the most potent mutagens are found in the acidic fractions of urban air, coal fly ash, and automobile diesel exhaust, whereas mutagens in rice straw smoke and cigarette smoke condensate are found primarily in the basic fractions. The interaction of the many chemical compounds in complex mixtures from airborne particles is likely to be important in determining mutagenic or comutagenic potentials. Because the mode of exposure is generally frequent and prolonged, the presence of tumor-promoting agents in complex mixtures may be a major factor in evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of airborne particles. PMID:7005667

  11. EXTENT AND KINEMATICS OF ASWA SHEAR ZONE IN UGANDA AND SOUTH SUDAN USING AIRBORNE GEOPHYSICAL AND REMOTE SENSING DATA. A. Katumwehe. 1, E. A. Atekwana. 1, M.G. Abdelsalam.1 1Oklahoma State University, Boone Pickens School of Geology, Stillwater, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    katumwehe, A. B.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdel Salam, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Aswa Shear zone (ASZ) is a fundamental Precambrian lithospheric structure playing an important role in the evolution of the Mesozoic South Sudan rifts, the propagation of the Cenozoic East African Rift System (EARS), the eruption of EARS shield volcanoes (Mt Kilimanjaro and Mt Elgon), re-organization of drainage systems (the White Nile), and the distribution of recent seismicity in South Sudan. Traces of the shear zone have been mapped extending in central and east Africa in a NW-SE direction from South Sudan in the northwest through Uganda and Tanzania to the southeast and possibly into Madagascar. Gondwana reconstructions suggest that the ASZ continues further southeast into south India. Nonetheless, the kinematics and extent of the ASZ have not been fully understood because of limited exposure. In areas where it is exposed the shear zone is expressed by narrow dominantly NW-trending outcrops. We use recently acquired high resolution airborne magnetic and radiometric data over Uganda integrated with 90 m spatial resolution Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and 30 m spatial resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data to elucidate the kinematics and ascertain the significance of the ASZ in the development of the EARS and the tectonic architecture of east and central Africa. Vertical derivative, Euler deconvolution and analytical signal filters were applied to the total field magnetic data to image the shallow subsurface structures associated with the ASZ while upward continuation (5000 m) was applied to assess the ASZ depth continuity. We also used radiometric data to create ternary images while SRTM and Landsat TM data were used to map the surface expression of the shear zone. The geophysical data from Uganda suggest that the ASZ is characterised by a 50-60 km wide corridor of ductile deformation associated with NW-trending strike-slip shearing. It is dominated by three, equally-spaced and discrete sinistral strike

  12. Investigation of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission during low-wind conditions in the early phase of the UK 2001 epidemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Alexandersen, S.; Astrup, P.; Champion, H. J.; Donaldson, A. I.; Dunkerley, F. N.; Gloster, J.; Sørensen, J. H.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.

    2003-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed domesticated and wild animals. The highly contagious nature of FMD is a reflection of the wide range of host species, the enormous quantities of virus liberated by infected animals, the range of excretions and secretions which can be infectious, the stability of the virus in the environment, the multiplicity of routes of infection and the very small doses of the virus that can initiate infection. One of the mechanisms of spread is the carriage of droplets and droplet nuclei exhaled in the breath of infected animals. Such spread can be rapid and extensive, and it is known in certain circumstances to have transmitted disease over a distance of several hundred kilometres. During the 2001 FMD epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK), atmospheric dispersion models were applied in real time in order to assess the potential for atmospheric dispersion of the disease. The operational value of such modelling is primarily to identify premises which may have been exposed so that the human resources for surveillance and disease control purposes are employed most effectively.

    The paper describes the combined modelling techniques and presents the results obtained of detailed analyses performed during the early stages of the UK 2001 epidemic. This paper investigates the potential for disease spread in relation to two outbreaks (Burnside Farm, Heddon-on-the-Wall and Prestwick Hall Farm, Ponteland, Northumberland). A separate paper (Gloster et al., 2002) provides a more detailed analysis of the airborne disease transmission in the vicinity of Burnside Farm.

    The combined results are consistent with airborne transmission of disease to livestock in the Heddon-on-the-Wall area. Local topography may have played a significant role in influencing the pattern of disease spread.

  13. Investigation of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission during low-wind conditions in the early phase of the UK 2001 epidemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Alexandersen, S.; Astrup, P.; Champion, H. J.; Donaldson, A. I.; Dunkerley, F. N.; Gloster, J.; Sørensen, J. H.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.

    2003-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed domesticated and wild animals. The highly contagious nature of FMD is a reflection of the wide range of host species, the enormous quantities of virus liberated by infected animals, the range of excretions and secretions which can be infectious, the stability of the virus in the environment, the multiplicity of routes of infection and the very small doses of the virus that can initiate infection. One of the mechanisms of spread is the carriage of droplets and droplet nuclei exhaled in the breath of infected animals. Such spread can be rapid and extensive, and it is known in certain circumstances to have transmitted disease over a distance of several hundred kilometres. During the 2001 FMD epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK), atmospheric dispersion models were applied in real time in order to assess the potential for atmospheric dispersion of the disease. The operational value of such modelling is primarily to identify premises which may have been exposed so that the human resources for surveillance and disease control purposes are employed most effectively. The paper describes the combined modelling techniques and presents the results obtained of detailed analyses performed during the early stages of the UK 2001 epidemic. This paper investigates the potential for disease spread in relation to two outbreaks (Burnside Farm, Heddon-on-the-Wall and Prestwick Hall Farm, Ponteland, Northumberland). A separate paper (Gloster et al., 2002) provides a more detailed analysis of the airborne disease transmission in the vicinity of Burnside Farm. The combined results are consistent with airborne transmission of disease to livestock in the Heddon-on-the Wall area. Local topography may have played a significant role in influencing the pattern of disease spread.

  14. Juneau Airport Doppler Lidar Deployment: Extraction of Accurate Turbulent Wind Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannon, Stephen M.; Frehlich, Rod; Cornman, Larry; Goodrich, Robert; Norris, Douglas; Williams, John

    1999-01-01

    A 2 micrometer pulsed Doppler lidar was deployed to the Juneau Airport in 1998 to measure turbulence and wind shear in and around the departure and arrival corridors. The primary objective of the measurement program was to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of a pulsed coherent lidar to remotely and unambiguously measure wind turbulence. Lidar measurements were coordinated with flights of an instrumented research aircraft operated by representatives of the University of North Dakota (UND) under the direction of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The data collected is expected to aid both turbulence characterization as well as airborne turbulence detection algorithm development activities within NASA and the FAA. This paper presents a summary of the deployment and results of analysis and simulation which address important issues regarding the measurement requirements for accurate turbulent wind statistics extraction.

  15. Relative merits of reactive and forward-look detection for wind-shear encounters during landing approach for various microburst escape strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1990-01-01

    The goal was to quantify the benefits of airborne forward-look windshear detection and to develop and test a candidate set of strategies for recovery from inadvertent microburst encounters during the landing approach, given the utilization of both reactive-only and forward-look windshear detection. Candidate strategies were developed and evaluated using a non-piloted simulation consisting of a simple point-mass performance model of a transport-category airplane flying through an analytical microburst model. The results indicate that the factor which most strongly effects a microburst recovery is the time at which the recovery is initiated. Forward-look alerts given 10 seconds prior to microburst entry permitted recoveries to be made with negligible altitude loss. The results also show that no single microburst scenario can be used to evaluate the relative merits of various recovery strategies. The type of alert used to initiate the recovery (reactive or forward-look) and the altitude of the microburst encounter had an effect on the type of recovery strategy that performed best. These factors may have serious implications for the design and certification of windshear systems.

  16. Shear-Sensitive Monomer/Polymer Liquid Crystal System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; Parmar, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes preliminary investigation of new monomer/polymer liquid crystal system, thin film of shear-sensitive cholesteric monomer liquid crystal (TI 511) on Xydar (STR800) (or equivalent) liquid crystal polymer substrate. Monomer/polymer liquid crystal films applied to surfaces provide quantitative indications of shear stresses caused by winds blowing along surfaces. Effects of shear stresses reversible in new coating system. System provides quantitative data on flows in wind tunnels.

  17. Inviscid Interactions Between Wake Vortices and Shear Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Z. C.; Baek, K.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft trailing vortices can be influenced significantly by atmospheric conditions such as crosswind, turbulence, and stratification. According to the NASA 1994 and 1995 field measurement program in Memphis, Tennessee, the descending aircraft wake vortices could stall or be deflected at the top of low-level temperature inversions that usually produce pronounced shear zones. Numerical simulations of vortex/shear interactions with ground effects have been performed by several groups. Burnham used a series of evenly spaced line vortices at a particular altitude to model the ground shear layer of the cross- wind. He found that the wind shear was swept up around the downwind vortex and caused the downwind vortex to move upward, and claimed that the effect was actually produced by the vertical gradient in the wind shear rather than by the wind shear directly, because uniformly distributed wind-shear vortices would have no effect on the trailing vortex vertical motion. Recently, Proctor et al. numerically tested the effects of narrow shear zones on the behavior of the vortex pair, motivated by the observation of the Memphis field data. The shear-layer sensitivity tests indicated that the downwind vortex was more sensitive and deflected to a higher altitude than its upwind counterpart. The downstream vortex contained vorticity of opposite sign to that of the shear. There was no detectable preference for the downwind vortex (or upwind vortex) to weaken (or strengthen) at a greater rate.

  18. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) are given. The AOL system is described and its potential for various measurement applications including bathymetry and fluorosensing is discussed.

  19. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  20. Wind-induced ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderyan, Vahid; Hickey, Craig J.; Raspet, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Wind noise is a problem in seismic surveys and can mask the seismic signals at low frequency. This research investigates ground motions caused by wind pressure and shear stress perturbations on the ground surface. A prediction of the ground displacement spectra using the measured ground properties and predicted pressure and shear stress at the ground surface is developed. Field measurements are conducted at a site having a flat terrain and low ambient seismic noise. Triaxial geophones are deployed at different depths to study the wind-induced ground vibrations as a function of depth and wind velocity. Comparison of the predicted to the measured wind-induced ground displacement spectra shows good agreement for the vertical component but significant underprediction for the horizontal components. To validate the theoretical model, a test experiment is designed to exert controlled normal pressure and shear stress on the ground using a vertical and a horizontal mass-spring apparatus. This experiment verifies the linear elastic rheology and the quasi-static displacements assumptions of the model. The results indicate that the existing surface shear stress models significantly underestimate the wind shear stress at the ground surface and the amplitude of the fluctuation shear stress must be of the same order of magnitude as the normal pressure. Measurement results show that mounting the geophones flush with the ground provides a significant reduction in wind noise on all three components of the geophone. Further reduction in wind noise with depth of burial is small for depths up to 40 cm.

  1. A feasibility study for the detection of upper atmospheric winds using a ground based laser Doppler velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, J. A. L.; Meng, J. C. S.

    1975-01-01

    A possible measurement program designed to obtain the information requisite to determining the feasibility of airborne and/or satellite-borne LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimeter) systems is discussed. Measurements made from the ground are favored over an airborne measurement as far as for the purpose of determining feasibility is concerned. The expected signal strengths for scattering at various altitude and elevation angles are examined; it appears that both molecular absorption and ambient turbulence degrade the signal at low elevation angles and effectively constrain the ground based measurement of elevation angles exceeding a critical value. The nature of the wind shear and turbulence to be expected are treated from a linear hydrodynamic model - a mountain lee wave model. The spatial and temporal correlation distances establish requirements on the range resolution, the maximum detectable range and the allowable integration time.

  2. Performance testing of a Savonius windmill rotor in shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojola, O. O.; Onasanya, O. E.

    The effects of flow shear and/or unsteady behavior on the power generation capability of a Savonius wind turbine rotor are assessed in view of measurements conducted, both in two statistically steady shear flows and in the wind, of rotor tip speed and torque at a number of streamwise stations for each of four values of the rotor bucket overlap ratio. It is found that, even in the absence of shear, the power coefficient of a Savonius wind turbine rotor is most strongly dependent on tip speed ratio.

  3. Wind Erosion and Dune Formation on High Frozen Bluffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, W. M.; Marsh, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    Frost penetration increases upslope on barren, windswept bluffs in cold environments. Along the south shore of Lake Superior, near the brow of 100 m high bluffs it typically exceeds 5 m. Frost increases the shear strength of damp sand to a level comparable to that of concrete, making winter slopes highly stable despite undercutting by waves and ground-water sapping along the footslope. Sublimation of interparticle ice in the slope face increases with wind speed and lower vapor pressures. The cold and dry winter winds of Lake Superior ablate these slopes through loss of binding ice. Wind erosion rates, based on measurements of sand accumulation on the forest floor downwind of the brow, show most airborne sand falls out within several meters of the brow, forming a berm 1 to 3 m high after many years. The spatial pattern of sand deposition, however, varies considerably over distances of several hundred meters along the top bluffs in response to frost conditions and the build-up of gravel lag on the slope face, sand exposure from mass movements, and local aerodynamics of the crest slope. The formation of perched sand dunes in the Great Lakes region is clearly related to wind erosion of sand from high bluffs in winter. Broadly similar processes may operate on Mars.

  4. Airborne gravity is here

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, S.

    1982-01-11

    After 20 years of development efforts, the airborne gravity survey has finally become a practical exploration method. Besides gravity data, the airborne survey can also collect simultaneous, continuous records of high-precision magneticfield data as well as terrain clearance; these provide a topographic contour map useful in calculating terrain conditions and in subsequent planning and engineering. Compared with a seismic survey, the airborne gravity method can cover the same area much more quickly and cheaply; a seismograph could then detail the interesting spots.

  5. Triad resonance between gravity and vorticity waves in vertical shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drivas, Theodore D.; Wunsch, Scott

    2016-07-01

    Weakly nonlinear theory is used to explore the effect of vertical shear on surface gravity waves in three dimensions. An idealized piecewise-linear shear profile motivated by wind-driven profiles and ambient currents in the ocean is used. It is shown that shear may mediate weakly nonlinear resonant triad interactions between gravity and vorticity waves. The triad results in energy exchange between gravity waves of comparable wavelengths propagating in different directions. For realistic ocean shears, shear-mediated energy exchange may occur on timescales of minutes for shorter wavelengths, but slows as the wavelength increases. Hence this triad mechanism may contribute to the larger angular spreading (relative to wind direction) for shorter wind-waves observed in the oceans.

  6. Wind turbine acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1990-01-01

    Available information on the physical characteristics of the noise generated by wind turbines is summarized, with example sound pressure time histories, narrow- and broadband frequency spectra, and noise radiation patterns. Reviewed are noise measurement standards, analysis technology, and a method of characterizing wind turbine noise. Prediction methods are given for both low-frequency rotational harmonics and broadband noise components. Also included are atmospheric propagation data showing the effects of distance and refraction by wind shear. Human perception thresholds, based on laboratory and field tests, are given. Building vibration analysis methods are summarized. The bibliography of this report lists technical publications on all aspects of wind turbine acoustics.

  7. Toolsets for Airborne Data

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-04-02

    article title:  Toolsets for Airborne Data     View larger image The ... limit of detection values. Prior to accessing the TAD Web Application ( https://tad.larc.nasa.gov ) for the first time, users must ...

  8. Speed and Direction Shear in the Stable Nocturnal Boundary Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.; Weiss, C. C.; Swift, A. H. P.; Chapman, J.; Kelley, N. D.

    2009-02-01

    Numerous previous works have shown that vertical shear in wind speed and wind direction exist in the atmospheric boundary layer. In this work, meteorological forcing mechanisms, such as the Ekman spiral, thermal wind, and inertial oscillation, are discussed as likely drivers of such shears in the statically stable environment. Since the inertial oscillation, the Ekman spiral, and statically stable conditions are independent of geography, potentially significant magnitudes of speed and direction shear are hypothesized to occur to some extent at any inland site in the world. The frequency of occurrence of non-trivial magnitudes of speed and direction shear are analyzed from observation platforms in Lubbock, Texas and Goodland, Indiana. On average, the correlation between speed and direction shear magnitudes and static atmospheric stability are found to be very high. Moreover, large magnitude speed and direction shears are observed in conditions with relatively high hub-height wind speeds. The effects of speed and direction shear on wind turbine power performance are tested by incorporating a simple steady direction shear profile into the fatigue analysis structures and turbulence simulation code from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. In general, the effect on turbine power production varies with the magnitude of speed and direction shear across the turbine rotor, with the majority of simulated conditions exhibiting power loss relative to a zero shear baseline. When coupled with observational data, the observed power gain is calculated to be as great as 0.5% and depletion as great as 3% relative to a no shear baseline. The average annual power change at Lubbock is estimated to be -0.5%

  9. The airborne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven; Schall, Harold; Shattuck, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the current program status.

  10. Airborne myxomycete spores: detection using molecular techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamono, Akiko; Kojima, Hisaya; Matsumoto, Jun; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fukui, Manabu

    2009-01-01

    Myxomycetes are organisms characterized by a life cycle that includes a fruiting body stage. Myxomycete fruiting bodies contain spores, and wind dispersal of the spores is considered important for this organism to colonize new areas. In this study, the presence of airborne myxomycetes and the temporal changes in the myxomycete composition of atmospheric particles (aerosols) were investigated with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for Didymiaceae and Physaraceae. Twenty-one aerosol samples were collected on the roof of a three-story building located in Sapporo, Hokkaido Island, northern Japan. PCR analysis of DNA extracts from the aerosol samples indicated the presence of airborne myxomycetes in all the samples, except for the one collected during the snowfall season. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the PCR products showed seasonally varying banding patterns. The detected DGGE bands were subjected to sequence analyses, and four out of nine obtained sequences were identical to those of fruiting body samples collected in Hokkaido Island. It appears that the difference in the fruiting period of each species was correlated with the seasonal changes in the myxomycete composition of the aerosols. Molecular evidence shows that newly formed spores are released and dispersed in the air, suggesting that wind-driven dispersal of spores is an important process in the life history of myxomycetes. This study is the first to detect airborne myxomycetes with the use of molecular ecological analyses and to characterize their seasonal distribution.

  11. Advanced technology wind shear prediction system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gering, Greg

    1992-01-01

    The program overviews: (1) American Airline (AA)/Turbulence Prediction Systems (TPS), which have installed forward looking infrared predictive windshear system on 3 MD-80 aircraft; (2) AA/TPS AWAS III evaluation, which is a joint effort and is installed in the noise landing gear (NLG) area and a data recorder installed in the E/E compartment.

  12. Wind Shear radar program future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Roy E.

    1991-01-01

    The status of the Windshear Radar Program at the Collins Air Transport Division of Rockwell International is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include goals, modifications to the WXR-700 system, flight test plans, technical approaches, design considerations, system considerations, certification, and future plans.

  13. Mitigating shear lag in tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, Himanshu; Goliya, Ravindra K.

    2015-09-01

    As the height of building increases, effect of shear lag also becomes considerable in the design of high-rise buildings. In this paper, shear lag effect in tall buildings of heights, i.e., 120, 96, 72, 48 and 36 stories of which aspect ratio ranges from 3 to 10 is studied. Tube-in-tube structural system with façade bracing is used for designing the building of height 120 story. It is found that bracing system considerably reduces the shear lag effect and hence increases the building stiffness to withstand lateral loads. Different geometric patterns of bracing system are considered. The best effective geometric configuration of bracing system is concluded in this study. Lateral force, as wind load is applied on the buildings as it is the most dominating lateral force for such heights. Wind load is set as per Indian standard code of practice IS 875 Part-3. For analysis purpose SAP 2000 software program is used.

  14. Risk factors for injuries during airborne static line operations.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Steelman, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    US Army airborne operations began in World War II. Continuous improvements in parachute technology, aircraft exit procedures, and ground landing techniques have reduced the number of injuries over time from 27 per 1,000 descents to about 6 per 1,000 jumps. Studies have identified a number of factors that put parachutists at higher injury risk, including high wind speeds, night jumps, combat loads, higher temperatures, lower fitness, heavier body weight, and older age. Airborne injuries can be reduced by limiting risker training (higher wind speeds, night jumps, combat load) to the minimum necessary for tactical and operational proficiency. Wearing a parachute ankle brace (PAB) will reduce ankle injuries without increasing other injuries and should be considered by all parachutists, especially those with prior ankle problems. A high level of upper body muscular endurance and aerobic fitness is not only beneficial for general health but also associated with lower injury risk during airborne training. PMID:25344715

  15. Design and performance measurements of an airborne aerosol backscatter lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Tratt, David M.; Brothers, Alan M.; Dermenjian, Stephen H.; Esproles, Carlos

    1990-01-01

    The global winds measurement application of coherent Doppler lidar requires intensive study of the global climatology of atmospheric aerosol backscatter at infrared wavelengths. An airborne backscatter lidar is discussed, which has been developed to measure atmospheric backscatter profiles at CO2 laser wavelengths. The instrument characteristics and representative flight measurement results are presented.

  16. Turbulent shear stresses in compressible boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laderman, A. J.; Demetriades, A.

    1979-01-01

    Hot-wire anemometer measurements of turbulent shear stresses in a Mach 3 compressible boundary layer were performed in order to investigate the effects of heat transfer on turbulence. Measurements were obtained by an x-probe in a flat plate, zero pressure gradient, two dimensional boundary layer in a wind tunnel with wall to freestream temperature ratios of 0.94 and 0.71. The measured shear stress distributions are found to be in good agreement with previous results, supporting the contention that the shear stress distribution is essentially independent of Mach number and heat transfer for Mach numbers from incompressible to hypersonic and wall to freestream temperature ratios of 0.4 to 1.0. It is also found that corrections for frequency response limitations of the electronic equipment are necessary to determine the correct shear stress distribution, particularly at the walls.

  17. Turbulent diffusion with memories and intrinsic shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tchen, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The first part of the present theory is devoted to the derivation of a Fokker-Planck equation. The eddies smaller than the hydrodynamic scale of the diffusion cloud form a diffusivity, while the inhomogeneous, bigger eddies give rise to a nonuniform migratory drift. This introduces an eddy-induced shear which reflects on the large-scale diffusion. The eddy-induced shear does not require the presence of a permanent wind shear and is intrinsic to the diffusion. Secondly, a transport theory of diffusivity is developed by the method of repeated-cascade and is based upon a relaxation of a chain of memories with decreasing information. The full range of diffusion consists of inertia, composite, and shear subranges, for which variance and eddy diffusivities are predicted. The coefficients are evaluated. Comparison with experiments in the upper atmosphere and oceans is made.

  18. Potential airborne release from soil-working operations in a contaminated area

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, S.L.

    1980-08-01

    Experiments were performed to provide an indication of how much material could be made airborne during soil-working operations in a contaminated area. Approximately 50 kg of contaminated soil were collected, dried, and mixed, and particle size distribution and /sup 137/Cs content were characterized. In four experiments performed in a 2 ft x 2 ft wind tunnel at the Radioactive Aerosol Release Test Facility, soil was pumped into an airstream moving at 3.2, 10.4, 15.2, and 20 mph. These experiments were designed to maximize airborne releases by fluidizing the soil as it was pumped into the wind tunnel. Thus the airborne releases should represent upper limit values for soil-working operations. Airborne concentration and particle size samples were collected and all of the material deposited downstream was collected to calculate a mass balance. The fraction airborne was calculated using these measurements.

  19. Ground clutter measurements using the NASA airborne doppler radar: Description of clutter at the Denver and Philadelphia airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrah, Steven D.; Delnore, Victor E.; Goodrich, Michael S.; Vonhagel, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Detection of hazardous wind shears from an airborne platform, using commercial sized radar hardware, has been debated and researched for several years. The primary concern has been the requirement for 'look-down' capability in a Doppler radar during the approach and landing phases of flight. During 'look-down' operation, the received signal (weather signature) will be corrupted by ground clutter returns. Ground clutter at and around urban airports can have large values of Normalized Radar Cross Section (NRCS) producing clutter returns which could saturate the radar's receiver, thus disabling the radar entirely, or at least from its intended function. The purpose of this research was to investigate the NRCS levels in an airport environment (scene), and to characterize the NRCS distribution across a variety of radar parameters. These results are also compared to results of a similar study using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of the same scenes. This was necessary in order to quantify and characterize the differences and similarities between results derived from the real-aperature system flown on the NASA 737 aircraft and parametric studies which have previously been performed using the NASA airborne radar simulation program.

  20. Reduced shear power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Shapiro, Charles; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /UC, Berkeley

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  1. Rotatable shear plate interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Duffus, Richard C.

    1988-01-01

    A rotatable shear plate interferometer comprises a transparent shear plate mounted obliquely in a tubular supporting member at 45.degree. with respect to its horizontal center axis. This tubular supporting member is supported rotatably around its center axis and a collimated laser beam is made incident on the shear plate along this center axis such that defocus in different directions can be easily measured.

  2. Performance testing of a Savonius windmill rotor in shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojola, O. O.; Onasanya, O. E.

    The effects of flow shear and/or unsteadiness on the power producing performance of a Savonius windmill rotor are studied. Measurements are made in two laboratory statistically-steady shear flows, and in the natural wind, which is both viscous and unsteady. The measurements were made of the speed, torque, and power of the rotor at a number of streamwise stations for each of four values of the bucket overlap ratio. Flow velocity profiles and graphs of wind shear variation are given. It is concluded that even in the presence of shear, the power coefficient of a Savonius windmill rotor is most strongly dependent on the tip speed ratio. As in inviscid flow, the power coefficient peaked at a tip speed ratio = 0.8. The major effect of shear was to reduce the power coefficient below the inviscid flow level, the magnitude of reduction depending on the magnitude of shear present. In field testing of the Savonius rotor, the unsteadiness of the wind proved to be a greater source of power loss than the wind shear.

  3. The Airborne Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberson, Steven E.

    2002-09-01

    The US Air Force Airborne Laser (ABL) is an airborne, megawatt-class laser system with a state-of-the-art atmospheric compensation system to destroy enemy ballistic missiles at long ranges. This system will provide both deterrence and defense against the use of such weapons during conflicts. This paper provides an overview of the ABL weapon system including: the notional operational concept, the development approach and schedule, the overall aircraft configuration, the technologies being incorporated in the ABL, and the risk reduction approach being utilized to ensure program success.

  4. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  5. A model of Barchan dunes including lateral shear stress.

    PubMed

    Schwämmle, V; Herrmann, H J

    2005-01-01

    Barchan dunes are found where sand availability is low and wind direction quite constant. The two dimensional shear stress of the wind field and the sand movement by saltation and avalanches over a barchan dune are simulated. The model with one dimensional shear stress is extended including surface diffusion and lateral shear stress. The resulting final shape is compared to the results of the model with a one dimensional shear stress and confirmed by comparison to measurements. We found agreement and improvements with respect to the model with one dimensional shear stress. Additionally, a characteristic edge at the center of the windward side is discovered which is also observed for big barchans. Diffusion effects reduce this effect for small dunes. PMID:15688141

  6. NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar July 1991 Data from the 1991 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of Pinatubo in July ... and Osborn [1992a, 1992b]. Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  7. NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar May 1992 An airborne Nd:YAG (532 nm) lidar was operated by the NASA Langley Research Center about a year following the June 1991 eruption of ... Osborn [1992a, 1992b].  Project Title:  NASA Airborne Lidar Discipline:  Field Campaigns ...

  8. Concentrations of trace elements and compounds in the airborne suspended particulate matter in Cleveland, Ohio, from August 1971 to August 1972 and their dependence on wind direction: Complete data listing and concentration roses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Neustadter, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Concentrations of 75 chemical constituents in the airborne particulate matter were measured in Cleveland, Ohio during 1971 and 1972. Daily values, maxima, geometric means and their standard deviations covering a 1-year period (45 to 50 sampling days) at each of 16 sites are presented on microfiche for 60 elements, and for a lesser number of days for 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAH), the aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds (AH) as a group and carbon. In addition, concentration roses showing directional properties are presented for 39 elements, 10 PAH and the AH as a group. The elements (except carbon) are shown both in terms of concentration and percentage of the suspended particulate matter.

  9. Gulf stream ground truth project - Results of the NRL airborne sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.; Chen, D. T.; Hammond, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an airborne study of the waves in the Gulf Stream are presented. These results show that the active microwave sensors (high-flight radar and wind-wave radar) provide consistent and accurate estimates of significant wave height and surface wind speed, respectively. The correlation between the wave height measurements of the high-flight radar and a laser profilometer is excellent.

  10. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knerr, T. J.; Schaffner, P. R.; Mielke, R. R.; Gilreath, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for numerically calculating radiation patterns of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas using the Volumetric Pattern Analysis Program is presented. Special attention is given to aircraft modeling. An actual case study involving a large commercial aircraft is included to illustrate the analysis procedure.

  11. Recognizing Airborne Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Christian M.

    1990-01-01

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in older buildings often do not adequately handle air-borne contaminants. Outlines a three-stage Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) assessment and describes a case in point at a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, school. (MLF)

  12. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  13. Airborne Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA imaging technology has provided the basis for a commercial agricultural reconnaissance service. AG-RECON furnishes information from airborne sensors, aerial photographs and satellite and ground databases to farmers, foresters, geologists, etc. This service produces color "maps" of Earth conditions, which enable clients to detect crop color changes or temperature changes that may indicate fire damage or pest stress problems.

  14. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  15. Using airborne and satellite SAR for wake mapping offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Merete B.; Hasager, Charlotte B.

    2006-09-01

    Offshore wind energy is progressing rapidly around Europe. One of the latest initiatives is the installation of multiple wind farms in clusters to share cables and maintenance costs and to fully exploit premium wind resource sites. For siting of multiple nearby wind farms, the wind turbine wake effect must be considered. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an imaging remote sensing technique which offers a unique opportunity to describe spatial variations of wind speed offshore. For the first time an airborne SAR instrument was used for data acquisition over a large offshore wind farm. The aim was to identify the turbine wake effect from SAR-derived wind speed maps as a downstream region of reduced wind speed. The aircraft SAR campaign was conducted on 12 October 2003 over the wind farm at Horns Rev in the North Sea. Nearly simultaneous measurements were acquired over the area by the SAR on board the ERS-2 satellite. In addition, meteorological data were collected. Both aircraft and satellite SAR-derived wind speed maps showed significant velocity deficits downstream of the wind farm. Wind speed maps retrieved from aircraft SAR suggested deficits of up to 20% downstream of the last turbine, whereas satellite SAR-derived maps showed deficits of the order of 10%. The difference originated partly from the two different reference methods used for normalization of measured wind speeds. The detected region of reduced wind speed had the same width as the wind turbine array, indicating a low degree of horizontal wake dispersion. The downstream wake extent was approximately 10 km, which corresponds well with results from previous studies and with wake model predictions. Copyright

  16. Airborne Infrared Spectrograph for Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, L.; Cheimets, P.; DeLuca, E. E.; Samra, J.; Judge, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    Direct measurements of the coronal magnetic field have significant potential to enhance our understanding of coronal dynamics, and improve forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of coronal field lines in the Transition Corona, the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on eruptive instabilities and on the origin of the slow solar wind. While current instruments routinely observe the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, the proposed airborne spectrometer will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. The targeted lines are five forbidden magnetic dipole transitions between 1.4 and 4 um. The airborne system will consist of a telescope, grating spectrometer and pointing/stabilization system to be flown on the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) during the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse. We will discuss the scientific objectives of the 2017 flight, describe details of the instrument design, and present the observing program for the eclipse.

  17. Assessment of Soil Moisture and Fixatives Performance in Controlling Wind Erosion of Contaminated Soil at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, L.E.; Gudavalli, R.K.

    2008-07-01

    During the remediation of burial grounds at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in Washington State, the dispersion of contaminated soil particles and dust is an issue that is faced by site workers on a daily basis. This contamination issue is even more of a concern when one takes into account the semi-arid characteristics of the region where the site is located. To mitigate this problem, workers at the site use a variety of engineered methods to minimize the dispersion of contaminated soil and dust particles. Once such methods is the use of water and/or suppression agents (fixatives) that stabilizes the soil prior to soil excavation, segregation, and removal activities. A primary contributor to the dispersion of contaminated soil and dust is wind soil erosion. The erosion process occurs when the wind speed exceeds a certain threshold value (threshold shear velocity), which depends on a number of factors including wind force loading, particle size, surface soil moisture, and the geometry of the soil. Thus under these circumstances the mobility of contaminated soil and generation and dispersion of particulate matter are significantly influenced by these parameters. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at the Florida International University's Applied Research Center (FIU-ARC) to evaluate the effectiveness of three commercially available fixatives in controlling the mobility of soil particles on soil mounds when exposed to varying wind forces. The fixatives tested included: (1) a calcium chloride solution; (2) a petroleum hydrocarbon emulsion; and 3) a synthetic organic. As an initial step, approximately 500 lbs of uncontaminated soil was obtained from the Hanford Reservation in Washington State. Soil samples were placed in an open-loop, low speed wind tunnel and exposed to wind forces ranging from 10 to 30 miles per hour (mph). Wind erosion controlling capabilities of commercially available fixatives and soil moisture were tested at a laboratory

  18. Shearing stability of lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiba, Y.; Gijyutsu, G.

    1984-01-01

    Shearing stabilities of lubricating oils containing a high mol. wt. polymer as a viscosity index improver were studied by use of ultrasound. The oils were degraded by cavitation and the degradation generally followed first order kinetics with the rate of degradation increasing with the intensity of the ultrasonic irradiation and the cumulative energy applied. The shear stability was mainly affected by the mol. wt. of the polymer additive and could be determined in a short time by mechanical shearing with ultrasound.

  19. Shear Stress Sensing with Elastic Microfence Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisotto, Alexxandra; Palmieri, Frank L.; Saini, Aditya; Lin, Yi; Thurman, Christopher S; Kim, Jinwook; Kim, Taeyang; Connell, John W.; Zhu, Yong; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Jiang, Xiaoning; Wohl, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, elastic microfences were generated for the purpose of measuring shear forces acting on a wind tunnel model. The microfences were fabricated in a two part process involving laser ablation patterning to generate a template in a polymer film followed by soft lithography with a two-part silicone. Incorporation of a fluorescent dye was demonstrated as a method to enhance contrast between the sensing elements and the substrate. Sensing elements consisted of multiple microfences prepared at different orientations to enable determination of both shear force and directionality. Microfence arrays were integrated into an optical microscope with sub-micrometer resolution. Initial experiments were conducted on a flat plate wind tunnel model. Both image stabilization algorithms and digital image correlation were utilized to determine the amount of fence deflection as a result of airflow. Initial free jet experiments indicated that the microfences could be readily displaced and this displacement was recorded through the microscope.

  20. TURBULENT SHEAR ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2013-04-10

    We consider particle acceleration by large-scale incompressible turbulence with a length scale larger than the particle mean free path. We derive an ensemble-averaged transport equation of energetic charged particles from an extended transport equation that contains the shear acceleration. The ensemble-averaged transport equation describes particle acceleration by incompressible turbulence (turbulent shear acceleration). We find that for Kolmogorov turbulence, the turbulent shear acceleration becomes important on small scales. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm that the ensemble-averaged transport equation describes the turbulent shear acceleration.

  1. Shear Thinning in Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergm Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Yao, Minwu; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    We measured shear thinning, a viscosity decrease ordinarily associated with complex liquids such as molten plastics or ketchup, near the critical point of xenon. The data span a wide range of dimensionless shear rate: the product of the shear rate and the relaxation time of critical fluctuations was greater than 0.001 and was less than 700. As predicted by theory, shear thinning occurred when this product was greater than 1. The measurements were conducted aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia to avoid the density stratification caused by Earth's gravity.

  2. Flux Observations of Carbon from an Airborne Laboratory (FOCAL): Using Advances in Spectroscopy, Turbulent Wind Measurements, and Small, Commercial Aircraft to Create Eddy Covariance Flux Maps from the Air.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayres, D. S.; Allen, N.; Healy, C. E.; Munster, J. B.; Rivero, M.; Tuozzolo, C.; Wilkerson, J.; Dobosy, R.; Dumas, E. J.; Heuer, M.; Kochendorfer, J.; Meyers, T. P.; Baker, B.; Langford, J.; Anderson, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade improvements in high-sensitivity, cavity-enhanced spectroscopic techniques have allowed for near-real time acquisition of atmospherically important gases at rates fast enough for use in eddy covariance. We report on the development of a suite of spectrometers capable of in situ measurements of the carbon-13 isotopologues of methane and carbon dioxide at high acquisition rates (10 Hz). Coupled with a mature airborne turbulence probe and a small, economical, commercial aircraft flying at 10 m above the surface FOCAL provides region scale surface fluxes of these important greenhouse gases. We describe the instrumentation, with emphasis on how new technology is changing the way these types of measurements can be made. FOCAL was first flown over the North Slope of Alaska in August, 2013. We will present a regional view of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes over parts of the North Slope as well as comparisons to traditional eddy covariance methods.

  3. [Air-borne disease].

    PubMed

    Lameiro Vilariño, Carmen; del Campo Pérez, Victor M; Alonso Bürger, Susana; Felpeto Nodar, Irene; Guimarey Pérez, Rosa; Pérez Alvarellos, Alberto

    2003-11-01

    Respiratory protection is a factor which worries nursing professionals who take care of patients susceptible of transmitting microorganisms through the air more as every day passes. This type of protection covers the use of surgical or hygienic masks against the transmission of infection by airborne drops to the use of highly effective masks or respirators against the transmission of airborne diseases such as tuberculosis or SARS, a recently discovered disease. The adequate choice of this protective device and its correct use are fundamental in order to have an effective protection for exposed personnel. The authors summarize the main protective respiratory devices used by health workers, their characteristics and degree of effectiveness, as well as the circumstances under which each device is indicated for use. PMID:14705591

  4. Airborne forest fire research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

  5. MLS airborne antenna research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.; Burnside, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction was used to analyze the elevation plane pattern of on-aircraft antennas. The radiation patterns for basic elements (infinitesimal dipole, circumferential and axial slot) mounted on fuselage of various aircrafts with or without radome included were calculated and compared well with experimental results. Error phase plots were also presented. The effects of radiation patterns and error phase plots on the polarization selection for the MLS airborne antenna are discussed.

  6. The MSU free shear flow facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disimile, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    A free shear layer wind tunnel has been constructed in order to undertake detailed, high quality transverse vorticity measurements in an isothermal, single stream mixing layer. The large 50 x 80 cm primary flow and 3-m test section length allows the generation of large, isolated vortical motions in high Reynolds number flow. A uniformly developed, irrotational secondary flow is achieved by means of an entrainment module.

  7. Airborne field strength monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredemeyer, J.; Kleine-Ostmann, T.; Schrader, T.; Münter, K.; Ritter, J.

    2007-06-01

    In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS) are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS) increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR) is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz), the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) accelerated method of moments (MoM) using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  8. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  9. Designing clutter rejection filters with complex coefficients for airborne pulsed Doppler weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamora, Dennis A.

    1993-01-01

    Ground clutter interference is a major problem for airborne pulse Doppler radar operating at low altitudes in a look-down mode. With Doppler zero set at the aircraft ground speed, ground clutter rejection filtering is typically accomplished using a high-pass filter with real valued coefficients and a stopband notch centered at zero Doppler. Clutter spectra from the NASA Wind Shear Flight Experiments of l991-1992 show that the dominant clutter mode can be located away from zero Doppler, particularly at short ranges dominated by sidelobe returns. Use of digital notch filters with complex valued coefficients so that the stopband notch can be located at any Doppler frequency is investigated. Several clutter mode tracking algorithms are considered to estimate the Doppler frequency location of the dominant clutter mode. From the examination of night data, when a dominant clutter mode away from zero Doppler is present, complex filtering is able to significantly increase clutter rejection over use of a notch filter centered at zero Doppler.

  10. Quantification of Barchan Dune Evolution over Monthly to Interannual Time Scales Using Airborne LIDAR and Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoose, M.; Pelletier, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Barchan dunes are among the most rapidly evolving landforms on Earth, with migration rates of up to 100 m/yr. Despite the central importance of barchan dunes in aeolian geomorphology and the relative ease of quantifying changes in their shape and position, basic questions remain about barchan dune evolution. For example, how does the position of a dune relative to its neighbors affect the evolution of a dune? The presence of a dune influences the air flow around the dune, potentially modifying the evolution of neighboring dunes. Also, a dune may grow in size more rapidly if neighboring dunes are located immediately upwind of the dune, thus providing additional sources of sand for the dune relative to the case of an isolated dune. To address these questions, we quantified the change in the position of 14 dunes, and the sand flux among them, in the Salton Sea dune field over two time scales: 1 month and 3 years. The 1-month change map was created using two TLS surveys completed in the summer of 2013, and the 3-year change map was created using the results of a TLS survey in 2013 and an airborne LIDAR survey from 2010. The PHOENICS Computational Fluid Dynamics solver was used to predict the change in the positions of the dunes and the flux of sand among them. PHOENICS was used to model the shear stress over the dune field using DEM data from the beginning of each interval of study, together with data on the wind profile collected at the study site using a wind tower. The output of PHOENICS was used as input to a shear-stress-dependent aeolian transport formula with the effect of slope on the threshold of entrainment included. Preliminary analyses of the ALSM- and TLS-derived change maps indicate that clustered dunes interact via boundary layer effects to alter the migration and growth rates of their downwind neighbors. Additionally, the effects of subdominant, southeasterly winds were observed in the 1-month change map in the form of sand wedges deposited along the

  11. Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA-Ames grant NAG2-1068 to Caltech, entitled "Airborne Submillimeter Spectroscopy", which extended over the period May 1, 1996 through January 31, 1998. The grant was funded by the NASA airborne astronomy program, during a period of time after the Kuiper Airborne Observatory was no longer operational. Instead. this funding program was intended to help develop instrument concepts and technology for the upcoming SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. SOFIA, which is funded by NASA and is now being carried out by a consortium lead by USRA (Universities Space Research Association), will be a 747 aircraft carrying a 2.5 meter diameter telescope. The purpose of our grant was to fund the ongoing development of sensitive heterodyne receivers for the submillimeter band (500-1200 GHz), using sensitive superconducting (SIS) detectors. In 1997 July we submitted a proposal to USRA to construct a heterodyne instrument for SOFIA. Our proposal was successful [1], and we are now continuing our airborne astronomy effort with funding from USRA. A secondary purpose of the NAG2-1068 grant was to continue the anaIN'sis of astronomical data collected with an earlier instrument which was flown on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The KAO instrument and the astronomical studies which were carried out with it were supported primarily under another grant, NAG2-744, which extended over October 1, 1991 through Januarv 31, 1997. For a complete description of the astronomical data and its anailysis, we refer the reader to the final technical report for NAG2-744, which was submitted to NASA on December 1. 1997. Here we report on the SIS detector development effort for SOFIA carried out under NAG2-1068. The main result of this effort has been the demonstration of SIS mixers using a new superconducting material niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), which promises to deliver dramatic improvements in sensitivity in the 700

  12. Interpretation of combined wind profiler and aircraft-measured tropospheric winds and clear air turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, D. W.; Syrett, William J.; Fairall, C. W.

    1991-01-01

    In the first experiment, it was found that wind profilers are far better suited for the detailed examination of jet stream structure than are weather balloons. The combination of good vertical resolution with not previously obtained temporal resolution reveals structural details not seen before. Development of probability-derived shear values appears possible. A good correlation between pilot reports of turbulence and wind shear was found. In the second experiment, hourly measurements of wind speed and direction obtained using two wind profiling Doppler radars during two prolonged jet stream occurrences over western Pennsylvania were analyzed. In particular, the time-variant characteristics of derived shear profiles were examined. Profiler data dropouts were studied in an attempt to determine possible reasons for the apparently reduced performance of profiling radar operating beneath a jet stream. Richardson number and wind shear statistics were examined along with pilot reports of turbulence in the vicinity of the profiler.

  13. Shear flexibility for structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stangeland, Maynard L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    This device comprises a flexible sheet member having cross convolutions oriented 45.degree. to the shear vector with spherical reliefs at the convolution junctions. The spherical reliefs are essential to the shear flexibility by interrupting the principal stress lines that act along the ridges of the convolutions. The spherical reliefs provide convolutions in both directions in the plane of the cross-convolution ridges.

  14. Shear flexibility for structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stangeland, Maynard L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    This device comprises a flexible sheet member having cross convolutions oriented 45.degree. to the shear vector with spherical reliefs at the convolution junctions. The spherical reliefs are essential to the shear flexibility by interrupting the principal stress lines that act along the ridges of the convolutions. The spherical reliefs provide convolutions in both directions in the plane of the cross-convolution ridges.

  15. VisibleWind: wind profile measurements at low altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Tom; Bradford, Bill; Marchant, Alan; Apedaile, Tom; Wright, Cordell

    2009-09-01

    VisibleWindTM is developing an inexpensive rapid response system, for accurately characterizing wind shear and small scale wind phenomena in the boundary layer and for prospecting suitable locations for wind power turbines. The ValidWind system can also collect reliable "ground truth" for other remote wind sensors. The system employs small (0.25 m dia.) lightweight balloons and a tracker consisting of an Impulse 200 XL laser rangefinder coupled to a PC for automated data recording. Experiments on balloon trajectories demonstrate that the laser detection of range (+/- 0.5 m), together with measured azimuth and altitude, is an inexpensive, convenient, and capable alternative to other wind tracking methods. The maximum detection range has been increased to 2200 meters using micro-corner-cube retroreflector tape on balloons. Low power LEDs enable nighttime tracking. To avoid large balloon gyrations about the mean trajectory, we use balloons having low ascent rates and subcritical Reynolds numbers. Trajectory points are typically recorded every 4 - 7 seconds. Atmospheric features observed under conditions of inversions or "light and variable winds" include abrupt onsets of shear at altitudes of 100-250 m, velocity changes of order 1-3 m/s within layers of 10-20 m thickness, and veering of the wind direction by 180 degrees or more as altitude increases from 300 to 500 m. We have previously reported comparisons of balloon-based wind profiles with the output of a co-located sodar. Even with the Impulse rangefinder, our system still requires a "man in the loop" to track the balloon. A future system enhancement will automate balloon tracking, so that laser returns are obtained automatically at 1 Hz. While balloon measurements of large-scale, high altitude wind profiles are well known, this novel measurement system provides high-resolution, real-time characterization of the fluctuating local wind fields at the bottom of the boundary layer where wind power turbines and other

  16. Measurement of airborne particle concentrations near the Sunset Crater volcano, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Benke, Roland R; Hooper, Donald M; Durham, James S; Bannon, Donald R; Compton, Keith L; Necsoiu, Marius; McGinnis, Ronald N

    2009-02-01

    Direct measurements of airborne particle mass concentrations or mass loads are often used to estimate health effects from the inhalation of resuspended contaminated soil. Airborne particle mass concentrations were measured using a personal sampler under a variety of surface-disturbing activities within different depositional environments at both volcanic and nonvolcanic sites near the Sunset Crater volcano in northern Arizona. Focused field investigations were performed at this analog site to improve the understanding of natural and human-induced processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The level of surface-disturbing activity was found to be the most influential factor affecting the measured airborne particle concentrations, which increased over three orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. As the surface-disturbing activity level increased, the particle size distribution and the majority of airborne particle mass shifted from particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 mum (0.00039 in) to particles with aerodynamic diameters greater than 10 mum (0.00039 in). Under ambient conditions, above average wind speeds tended to increase airborne particle concentrations. In contrast, stronger winds tended to decrease airborne particle concentrations in the breathing zone during light and heavy surface-disturbing conditions. A slight increase in the average airborne particle concentration during ambient conditions was found above older nonvolcanic deposits, which tended to be finer grained than the Sunset Crater tephra deposits. An increased airborne particle concentration was realized when walking on an extremely fine-grained deposit, but the sensitivity of airborne particle concentrations to the resuspendible fraction of near-surface grain mass was not conclusive in the field setting when human activities disturbed the bulk of near-surface material. Although the limited sample size precluded detailed statistical analysis, the differences in airborne particle

  17. PHARUS airborne SAR concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Pouwels, Henk; Koomen, Peter J.; Hoogeboom, Peter

    1995-11-01

    PHARUS (phased array universal SAR) is an airborne SAR concept which is being developed in the Netherlands. The PHARUS system differs from other airborne SARs by the use of a phased array antenna, which provides both for the flexibility in the design as well as for a compact, light-weight instrument that can be carried on small aircraft. The concept allows for the construction of airborne SAR systems on a common generic basis but tailored to specific user needs and can be seen as a preparation for future spaceborne SAR systems using solid state transmitters with electronically steerable phased array antenna. The whole approach is aimed at providing an economic and yet technically sophisticated solution to remote sensing or surveying needs of a specific user. The solid state phased array antenna consists of a collection of radiating patches; the design flexibility for a large part resides in the freedom to choose the number of patches, and thereby the essential radar performance parameters such as resolution and swath width. Another consequence of the use of the phased array antenna is the system's compactness and the possibility to rigidly mount it on a small aircraft. The use of small aircraft of course considerably improves the cost/benefit ratio of the use of airborne SAR. Flight altitude of the system is flexible between about 7,000 and 40,000 feet, giving much operational freedom within the meteo and airspace control limits. In the PHARUS concept the airborne segment is complemented by a ground segment, which consists of a SAR processor, possibly extended by a matching image processing package. (A quick look image is available in real-time on board the aircraft.) The SAR processor is UNIX based and runs on easily available hardware (SUN station). Although the additional image processing software is available, the SAR processing software is nevertheless designed to be able to interface with commercially available image processing software, as well as being able

  18. A year-round study on functional relationships of airborne fungi with meteorological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, De-Wei; Kendrick, Bryce

    1995-06-01

    Air sampling was conducted in Waterloo, Canada throughout 1992. Functional relationships between aeromycota and meteorological factors were analysed. The meteorological factors were, in descending order of importance: mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean wind speed, relative humidity (RH), rain, maximum wind speed and snow. The most important airborne fungal propagules in descending order were: total fungal spores, unidentified Ascomycetes, Cladosporium, Coprinus, unidentified Basidiomycetes, Alternaria and unidentified fungi. Most airborne fungal taxa had highly significant relationship with temperature, but Aspergillus/Penicillium, hyphal fragments and Epicoccum did not. Epicoccum and hyphal fragments were positively associated with wind speed. In comparison with other airborne fungal taxa, Leptosphaeria and unidentified Ascomycetes were more closely correlated with rain and RH during the growing season.

  19. Tropospheric Wind Measurements from Space: The SPARCLE Mission and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Emmitt, G. David

    1998-01-01

    For over 20 years researchers have been investigating the feasibility of profiling tropospheric vector wind velocity from space with a pulsed Doppler lidar. Efforts have included theoretical development, system and mission studies, technology development, and ground-based and airborne measurements. Now NASA plans to take the next logical step towards enabling operational global tropospheric wind profiles by demonstrating horizontal wind measurements from the Space Shuttle in early 2001 using a coherent Doppler wind lidar system.

  20. Airborne radioactive contamination monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, C.R.; Adams, J.R.; Bounds, J.A.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-03-01

    Current technologies for the detection of airborne radioactive contamination do not provide real-time capability. Most of these techniques are based on the capture of particulate matter in air onto filters which are then processed in the laboratory; thus, the turnaround time for detection of contamination can be many days. To address this shortcoming, an effort is underway to adapt LRAD (Long-Range-Alpha-Detection) technology for real-time monitoring of airborne releases of alpa-emitting radionuclides. Alpha decays in air create ionization that can be subsequently collected on electrodes, producing a current that is proportional to the amount of radioactive material present. Using external fans on a pipe containing LRAD detectors, controlled samples of ambient air can be continuously tested for the presence of radioactive contamination. Current prototypes include a two-chamber model. Sampled air is drawn through a particulate filter and then through the first chamber, which uses an electrostatic filter at its entrance to remove ambient ionization. At its exit, ionization that occurred due to the presence of radon is collected and recorded. The air then passes through a length of pipe to allow some decay of short-lived radon species. A second chamber identical to the first monitors the remaining activity. Further development is necessary on air samples without the use of particulate filtering, both to distinguish ionization that can pass through the initial electrostatic filter on otherwise inert particulate matter from that produced through the decay of radioactive material and to separate both of these from the radon contribution. The end product could provide a sensitive, cost-effective, real-time method of determining the presence of airborne radioactive contamination.

  1. Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-05-01

    A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

  2. Airborne Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaps, Wm. S.; Burris, J.

    1996-12-01

    We designed and tested an airborne lidar system using Raman scattering to make simultaneous measurements of methane, water vapor, and temperature in a series of flights on a NASA-operated C-130 aircraft. We present the results for methane detection, which show that the instrument has the requisite sensitivity to atmospheric trace gases. Ultimately these measurements can be used to examine the transport of chemically processed air from within the polar vortex to mid-latitudinal regions and the exchange of stratospheric air between tropical and mid-latitudinal regions.

  3. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  4. Buried wire gage for wall shear stress measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. S.; Rose, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    A buried wire gage for measuring wall shear stress in fluid flow was studied and further developed. Several methods of making this relatively new type of gage were examined to arrive at a successful technique that is well-suited for wind-tunnel testing. A series of measurements was made to demonstrate the adequacy of a two-point calibration procedure for these gages. The buried wire gage is also demonstrated to be ideally suited for quantitative measurement of wall shear stress in wind-tunnel testing.

  5. Sea surface wind stress in stratified atmospheric flow

    SciTech Connect

    Myrhaug, D.; Slaattelid, O.H.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the wind shear stress on the sea surface as well as the velocity profile in stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer flow over wind waves by using similarity theory. For a given geostrophic velocity, Coriolis parameter, spectral peak period and stratification parameter the sea surface shear stress is determined. Further, the direction of the sea surface shear stress and the velocity profile are given. Parameterizations of the results are also presented. Finally, the engineering relevance of the results is discussed.

  6. 24 CFR 3285.403 - Sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and shear wall straps. 3285.403 Section 3285.403 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.403 Sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, and shear wall straps. If sidewall, over-the-roof, mate-line, or shear wall straps are installed on the home, they must be connected to...

  7. Airborne concentrations of peanut protein.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rodney M; Barnes, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy to peanut is a significant health problem, and there are reported allergic reactions to peanuts despite not eating or having physical contact with peanuts. It is presumed that an allergic reaction may have occurred from inhalation of airborne peanut allergens. The purpose of this study was to detect the possible concentrations of airborne peanut proteins for various preparations and during specific activities. Separate Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a polyclonal sandwich enzyme immunoassay for peanuts were used to detect the amount of airborne peanut protein collected using a Spincon Omni 3000 air collector (Sceptor Industries, Inc., Kansas City, MO) under different peanut preparation methods and situations. Air samples were measured for multiple peanut preparations and scenarios. Detectable amounts of airborne peanut protein were measured using a whole peanut immunoassay when removing the shells of roasted peanut. No airborne peanut allergen (Ara h 1 or Ara h 2) or whole peanut protein above the LLD was measured in any of the other peanut preparation collections. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and polyclonal peanut proteins were detected from water used to boil peanuts. Small amounts of airborne peanut protein were detected in the scenario of removing shells from roasted peanuts; however, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 proteins were unable to be consistently detected. Although airborne peanut proteins were detected, the concentration of airborne peanut protein that is necessary to elicit a clinical allergic reaction is unknown. PMID:23406937

  8. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  9. Shear Stress Partitioning in Airflow over Rough Surfaces: Roughness Form Effects and Influence on the Distribution of Shear Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, J. A.; Nickling, W. G.; King, J.

    2004-12-01

    Roughness elements distributed across a surface can significantly decrease the entrainment and transport of underlying fine-grained sediments by wind. The parameterization of roughness effects on wind erosion thresholds and sediment transport is critical to the development of models that can provide realistic predictions of sediment thresholds and fluxes due to wind erosion. Raupach et al. (1993) present a model for predicting the protective role of roughness elements in terms of a threshold friction velocity ratio as a function of the roughness geometry and the aerodynamic properties of the surface and roughness elements. The predictive capacity of this model remains uncertain and the work presented here represents part of an on-going effort of our group to improve the parameterization of the Raupach et al. (1993) model. To gain additional understanding of how roughness elements influence the magnitude and nature of the shear stress acting on the surface among the elements and evaluate strength and weaknesses of the roughness density parameter to characterize these effects, a wind tunnel study using model roughness arrays of similar roughness density composed of cube-shaped elements of different length dimensions was undertaken. Roughness density is defined as the total frontal area of all the elements to the total surface area that they occupy. Shear stress in the above element air flow was determined from vertical wind speed profile measurements. Point measurements of near surface shear stresses within the roughness array were made with simple omni-directional skin friction meters in order to investigate the partitioning of shear stress to the intervening surface. The results suggest that the roughness density parameter has severe limitations in describing the shear stress partitioning for these regularly arrayed rough surfaces. For surfaces with identical roughness densities, the surface composed of more and smaller elements was observed to have average and

  10. Thermocline bulk shear analysis in the northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shengli; Polton, Jeff A.; Hu, Jianyu; Xing, Jiuxing

    2016-04-01

    Thermocline bulk shear is investigated in the northern North Sea using historical observations. The conventional bulk shear is modified to define a thermocline bulk shear (TBS), in order to better represent the shear across the thermocline. The TBS computed by observed currents is decomposed into components at different frequency bands. The near-inertial TBS is the largest component. Its dominance is significant during the period of high wind. It is formed by the wind-driven near-inertial current which has a distinct phase shift (˜180°) across the thermocline. A linear model is presented, which well simulates the observed near-inertial TBS, especially during the period of relatively strong wind. The semidiurnal TBS makes a secondary contribution to the total TBS. It is only slightly smaller than the near-inertial TBS when the wind is relatively weak. The large values of semidiurnal TBS are associated with semidiurnal currents which have a phase shift (˜30-40°) or a magnitude difference (˜5 cm/s) across the thermocline. The low-frequency (<0.7 cpd) TBS also makes an episodic contribution to the total. Its variation coincides with the Ekman transport during the period of relatively strong wind. The low-frequency TBS is mainly formed by an Ekman-like clockwise spiraling of velocity with depth or a distinct magnitude difference in velocities between upper and lower layers.

  11. Airborne transmission of lyssaviruses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N; Phillpotts, R; Fooks, A R

    2006-06-01

    In 2002, a Scottish bat conservationist developed a rabies-like disease and subsequently died. This was caused by infection with European bat lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2), a virus closely related to Rabies virus (RABV). The source of this infection and the means of transmission have not yet been confirmed. In this study, the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, particularly RABV and the bat variant EBLV-2, might be transmitted via the airborne route was tested. Mice were challenged via direct introduction of lyssavirus into the nasal passages. Two hours after intranasal challenge with a mouse-adapted strain of RABV (Challenge Virus Standard), viral RNA was detectable in the tongue, lungs and stomach. All of the mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation developed disease signs by 7 days post-infection. Two out of five mice challenged by direct intranasal inoculation of EBLV-2 developed disease between 16 and 19 days post-infection. In addition, a simple apparatus was evaluated in which mice could be exposed experimentally to infectious doses of lyssavirus from an aerosol. Using this approach, mice challenged with RABV, but not those challenged with EBLV-2, were highly susceptible to infection by inhalation. These data support the hypothesis that lyssaviruses, and RABV in particular, can be spread by airborne transmission in a dose-dependent manner. This could present a particular hazard to personnel exposed to aerosols of infectious RABV following accidental release in a laboratory environment. PMID:16687600

  12. Viscous shear dampers

    SciTech Connect

    Zilahi-Szabo, I.

    1980-10-07

    In a viscous shear damper, the seismic mass is chamfered at all its corners. Thus, the clearances between the seismic mass and its casing are gaps with oppositely widening out sections separated by middle sections of smallest widths.

  13. Turbulence length scales in stably stratified free shear flow analyzed from slant aircraft profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Tjernstroem, M. )

    1993-05-01

    The vertical turbulence structure in the marine atmosphere close to a coastline is investigated using airborne measurements. The measurements are from a field experiment close to the coast in the southeast of Sweden, in the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea has two main properties that make it particularly interesting to study: significant annual lag in sea surface temperature compared to inland surface temperatures and the fact that it is surrounded by land in all directions within advection distances of from a few hours up to 10-15 hours in normal meteorological conditions. The present results are mostly from spring or early summer with mainly cool water: with a stable or neutral marine boundary layer but with substantial heating of the land area during daytime. When the daytime inland convective boundary layer is advected out over the cool sea, there is a frictional decoupling in space analogous to the same nocturnal process in time. This sometimes creates a residual layer, a remnant of the inland convective boundary layer, that can be advected for considerable distances over the sea. At the top of this layer, wind shear gives rise to a local increase in turbulent kinetic energy. These layers are used for an analysis of turbulent scales for free shear flow in stable stratification. The analysis is based on different length scales used in numerical model closures for turbulence processes and reveals the asymptotic behavior of different scales in the neutral limit and their functional form, and illustrates the nonlinear relationship between scales for different properties. The profiles from the aircraft are taken from 25 slant soundings performed in connection to low-level boundary-layer flights. The results are calculated from turbulence data extracted through filtering techniques on instantaneous time series (individual profiles). The calculated turbulence parameters from all profiles are grouped and averaged compositely over all profiles. 48 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  14. AESMIR: A New NASA Airborne Microwave Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Hood, Robbie; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Airborne Earth Science Microwave Imaging Radiometer (AESMIR) is a versatile new airborne imaging radiometer under development by NASA. The AESMIR design is unique in that it will perform dual-polarized imaging at all AMSR frequency bands (6.9 through 89 GHz) using only one sensor head/scanner package, providing an efficient solution for AMSR-type science applications (snow, soil moisture/land parameters, precip, ocean winds, SST, water vapor, sea ice, etc.). The microwave radiometers themselves will incorporate state-of-the-art receivers, with particular attention given to instrument calibration for the best possible accuracy and sensitivity. The single-package design of AESMIR makes it compatible with high-altitude aircraft platforms such as the NASA ER-2s and the Proteus. The arbitrary 2-axis gimbal can perform conical and cross-track scanning, as well as fixed-beam staring. This compatibility with high-altitude platforms coupled with the flexible scanning configuration, opens up previously unavailable science opportunities for convection/precip/cloud science and co-flying with complementary instruments, as well as providing wider swath coverage for all science applications. By designing AESMIR to be compatible with these high-altitude platforms, we are also compatible with the NASA P-3, the NASA DC-8, and ground-based deployments. Thus AESMIR can provide low-, mid-, and high altitude microwave imaging.

  15. Offshore Wind Measurements Using Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The latest flight demonstration of Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is presented. The goal of the campaign was to demonstrate the improvement of DAWN system since the previous flight campaign in 2012 and the capabilities of DAWN and the latest airborne wind profiling algorithm APOLO (Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind Lidar) developed at LaRC. The comparisons of APOLO and another algorithm are discussed utilizing two and five line-of-sights (LOSs), respectively. Wind parameters from DAWN were compared with ground-based radar measurements for validation purposes. The campaign period was June - July in 2013 and the flight altitude was 8 km in inland toward Charlotte, NC, and offshores in Virginia Beach, VA and Ocean City, MD. The DAWN system was integrated into a UC12B with two operators onboard during the campaign.

  16. Wind turbulence characterization for wind energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendell, L. L.; Gower, G. L.; Morris, V. R.; Tomich, S. D.

    1991-09-01

    As part of its support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Wind Energy Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has initiated an effort to work jointly with the wind energy community to characterize wind turbulence in a variety of complex terrains at existing or potential sites of wind turbine installation. Five turbulence characterization systems were assembled and installed at four sites in the Tehachapi Pass in California, and one in the Green Mountains near Manchester, Vermont. Data processing and analyses techniques were developed to allow observational analyses of the turbulent structure; this analysis complements the more traditional statistical and spectral analyses. Preliminary results of the observational analyses, in the rotating framework or a wind turbine blade, show that the turbulence at a site can have two major components: (1) engulfing eddies larger than the rotor, and (2) fluctuating shear due to eddies smaller than the rotor disk. Comparison of the time series depicting these quantities at two sites showed that the turbulence intensity (the commonly used descriptor of turbulence) did not adequately characterize the turbulence at these sites.

  17. Processor architecture for airborne SAR systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Digital processors for spaceborne imaging radars and application of the technology developed for airborne SAR systems are considered. Transferring algorithms and implementation techniques from airborne to spaceborne SAR processors offers obvious advantages. The following topics are discussed: (1) a quantification of the differences in processing algorithms for airborne and spaceborne SARs; and (2) an overview of three processors for airborne SAR systems.

  18. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  19. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  20. Internal gravity wave-atmospheric wind interaction - A cause of clear air turbulence.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekofske, K.; Liu, V. C.

    1972-01-01

    The interaction between an internal gravity wave (IGW) and a vertical wind shear is discussed as a possible cause in the production of clear air turbulence in the free atmosphere. It is shown that under certain typical condition the interaction of an IGW with a background wind shear near a critical level provides a mechanism for depositing sufficient momentum in certain regions of the atmosphere to significantly increase the local mean wind shear and to lead to the production of turbulence.

  1. Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, Sean; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Dan; Law, Emily; Kay-Im, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE) is JPL's internal investment to improve the return on airborne missions. Improve development performance of the data system. Improve return on the captured science data. The investment is to develop a common science data system capability for airborne instruments that encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation.

  2. Excitation of vortex meandering in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröttle, Josef; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Schumann, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of a streamwise aligned columnar vortex with vorticity {\\boldsymbol{ ω }} in an axial background shear of magnitude Ω by means of linear stability analysis and numerical simulations. A long wave mode of vorticity normal to the plane spanned by the background shear vector {\\boldsymbol{ Ω }} and the vorticity of the vortex are excited by an instability. The stationary wave modes of the vertical and lateral vorticity are amplified. In order to form a helical vortex, the lateral and vertical vorticity can be phase shifted by half a wavelength. The linear and nonlinear evolutions of the vortex in the shear flow are studied numerically. Linearized simulations confirm the results of the stability analysis. The nonlinear simulations reveal further evolution of the helix in the shear flow. The linearly excited mode persists in co-existence with evolving smaller scale instabilities until the flow becomes fully turbulent at the time of O(100 {{Ω }-1}). Turbulent mixing dampens the amplifying mode. The described phenomenon of vortex meandering may serve as an alternative explanation for the excitation of wind turbine wake meandering in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  3. Modeling of wind-initiated liberation of fungal propagules from host plant leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalinajec, Trevor

    2014-11-01

    Successful airborne propagule dispersal must begin with liberation into the air. The physical shedding mechanism of airborne propagules in the 100--250 μm size range are not well understood. Many fungal plant pathogens have propagules in this size range that are shed from the bottom of infected leaves. If turbulent air flow is sufficient to liberate the sporocarps of fungi from leaves then the aerodynamic forces exerted must be sufficient to overcome adhesive forces. In this study I have sought to quantify the magnitude and direction of these aerodynamic forces and their causal flow fields with dynamically scaled physical models. I chose a genus of powdery mildew because maturation of the sporocarp entails morphological changes that lever the sporocarp further away from the leaf surface and out of the viscous boundary layer. Consequently I varied the sporocarp morphology, the boundary layer thickness, and the flow velocity as forces on models were measured with a transducer. Additionally I analyzed the fluid velocity around the models using PIV, which allowed for quantification of the relative importance of shear forces and pressure-gradient forces. The results suggest that forces from steady and unsteady wind alike are insufficient to explain liberation.

  4. Converging shear rheometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hyung M.; Mix, Adam W.; Giacomin, A. Jeffrey

    2014-05-01

    For highly viscous fluids that slip in parallel sliding plate rheometers, we want to use a slightly converging flow to suppress this wall slip. In this work, we first attack the steady shear flow of a highly viscous Newtonian fluid between two gently converging plates with no slip boundaries using the equation of motion in cylindrical coordinates, which yields no analytical solution. Then we treat the same problem using the lubrication approximation in Cartesian coordinates to yield exact, explicit solutions for dimensionless velocity, pressure and shear stress. This work deepens our understanding of a drag flow through a gently converging slit of arbitrary convergence angle. We also employ the corotational Maxwell model to explore the role of viscoelasticity in this converging shear flow. We then compare these analytical solutions to finite element calculations for both Newtonian and corotational Maxwell cases. A worked example for determining the Newtonian viscosity using a converging shear rheometer is also included. With this work, we provide the framework for exploring other constitutive equations or other boundary conditions in future work. Our results can also be used to design the linear bearings used for the parallel sliding plate rheometer (SPR). This work can also be used to evaluate the error in the shear stress that is caused by bearing misalignment and specify the parallelism tolerance for the linear bearings incorporated into a SPR.

  5. Final Report for The Creation of a Physics-based Ground-effect Model, Phase 2 - Inclusion of the Effects of Wind, Stratification, and Shear into the New Ground Effect Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarpkaya, Turgut

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of the separation of the leading and following aircrafts is desirable to enhance the airport capacity provided that there is a physics-based operational model applicable to all regions of the flight domain (out of ground effect, OGE; near ground effect, NGE; and in ground effect, IGE) and that the quality of the quantitative input from the measurements of the prevailing atmospheric conditions and the quality of the total airport operations regarding the safety and the sound interpretation of the prevailing conditions match the quality of the analysis and numerical simulations. In the absence of an analytical solution, the physics of the flow is best expressed by a mathematical model based on numerical simulations, field and laboratory experiments, and heuristic reasoning. This report deals with the creation of a sound physics-based real-time IGE model of the aircraft wake vortices subjected to crosswind, stratification and shear.

  6. WAVE ACTION AND BOTTOM SHEAR STRESSES IN LAKE ERIE

    EPA Science Inventory

    For Lake Erie, the amplitudes and periods of wind-driven, surface gravity waves were calculated by means of the SMB hindcasting method. Bottom orbital velocities and bottom shear stresses were then calculated using linear wave theory and Kajiura's (1968) turbulent oscillating bou...

  7. Free volume under shear.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H A; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-14

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems - particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior. PMID:26472384

  8. Metal shearing energy absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, R. J.; Wittrock, E. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A metal shearing energy absorber is described. The absorber is composed of a flat thin strip of metal which is pulled through a slot in a cutter member of a metal, harder than the metal of the strip. The slot's length, in the direction perpendicular to the pull direction, is less than the strip's width so that as the strip is pulled through the slot, its edges are sheared off, thereby absorbing some of the pulling energy. In one embodiment the cutter member is a flat plate of steel, while in another embodiment the cutter member is U-shaped with the slot at its base.

  9. Ultrasonic shear wave couplant

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, D.S.; Lanham, R.N.

    1984-04-11

    Ultrasonically testing of an article at high temperatures is accomplished by the use of a compact layer of a dry ceramic powder as a couplant in a method which involves providing an ultrasonic transducer as a probe capable of transmitting shear waves, coupling the probe to the article through a thin compact layer of a dry ceramic powder, propagating a shear wave from the probe through the ceramic powder and into the article to develop echo signals, and analyzing the echo signals to determine at least one physical characteristic of the article.

  10. Ultrasonic shear wave couplant

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Lanham, Ronald N.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonically testing of an article at high temperatures is accomplished by the use of a compact layer of a dry ceramic powder as a couplant in a method which involves providing an ultrasonic transducer as a probe capable of transmitting shear waves, coupling the probe to the article through a thin compact layer of a dry ceramic powder, propagating a shear wave from the probe through the ceramic powder and into the article to develop echo signals, and analyzing the echo signals to determine at least one physical characteristic of the article.

  11. Infrared lateral shearing interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, O.

    1980-04-01

    Recently IR interferometry has received much attention for its special capabilities of testing IR materials, diamond-turned metal mirrors, deep aspherics, unpolished rough surface optics, and other unconventional optics. A CW CO2 laser is used as a coherent light source at 10.6 microns, and germanium and zinc selenide optics are used for lenses and beam splitters. A pyroelectric vidicon (PEV) detects the modulated interference pattern through a TV monitor and video recorder-player. This paper presents three methods of IR lateral shear interferometry using (1) a germanium plane-parallel plate, (2) a Ronchi ruling, and (3) a double-grating lateral shear interferometer.

  12. Thermospheric neutral wind profile in moonlit midnight by Lithium release experiments in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, M. Y.; Watanabe, S.; Abe, T.; Kakinami, Y.; Habu, H.; Yamamoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Neutral wind profiles were observed in lower thermosphere at about between 90 km and 130 km altitude by using resonance scattering light of moonlit Lithium (Li) vapor released from sounding rockets in midnight (with almost full-moon condition) in 2013 in Japan. As a target of the Daytime Dynamo campaign, Li release experiment was operated at Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) of NASA, U.S.A. in July, 2013 (Pfaff et al., 2015, this meeting), while the same kind of rocket-ground observation campaign in midnight was carried out by using S-520-27/S-310-42 sounding rockets in Uchinoura Space Center (USC) of JAXA, Kagoshima, Japan, also in July 2013.Since imaging signal-to-noise (S/N) condition of the experiment was so severe, we conducted to apply airborne observation for imaging the faint moonlit Li tracers so as to reduce the illuminating intensity of the background skies as an order of magnitude. Two independent methods for calculating the wind profile were applied to the Lithium emission image sequences successfully obtained by the airborne imaging by special Li imagers aboard the airplanes in order to derive precise information of Li tracers motion under the condition of single observation site on a moving aircraft along its flight path at about 12 km altitude in lower stratosphere. Slight attitude-feedback motion of the aircraft's 3-axes attitude changes (rolling, yawing and pitching) was considered for obtaining precise coordinates on each snapshot. Another approach is giving a simple mathematic function for wind profile to resolve the shape displacement of the imaged Li tracers. As a result, a wind profile in moonlit thermosphere was calculated in a range up to about 150 m/s with some fluctuated parts possibly disturbed by wind shears. In the same experiment, another sounding rocket S-310-42 with a TMA canister was also launched from USC/JAXA at about 1 hour before the rocket with carrying the Lithium canisters, thus, we can derive the other 2 profiles determined by

  13. Design and Development of a Scanning Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    In the fall of 2005 we began developing an airborne scanning direct detection molecular Doppler lidar. The instrument is being built as part of the Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE), a three year project selected by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office under the Instrument Incubator Program. The TWiLiTE project is a collaboration involving scientists and engineers from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab, Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. The TWiLiTE instrument will leverage significant research and development investments made by NASA Goddard and it's partners in the past several years in key lidar technologies and sub-systems (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. These sub-systems will be integrated into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57. The WB57 flies at an altitude of 18 km and from this vantage point the nadir viewing Doppler lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a future spaceborne tropospheric wind system. In addition to being a technology testbed for space based tropospheric wind lidar, when completed the TWiLiTE high altitude airborne lidar will be used for studying mesoscale dynamics and storm research (e.g. winter storms, hurricanes) and could be used for calibration and validation of satellite based wind systems such as ESA's Aeolus Atmospheric Dynamics Mission. The TWiLiTE Doppler lidar will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 km to the surface with 250 m vertical resolution and < 2mls

  14. A towed airborne platform for turbulence measurements over the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friehe, Carl; Khelif, Djamal

    2008-11-01

    Measurements of wind stress and associated heat and mass fluxes (water vapor and CO2) down to ˜10 meters height over the ocean are required to establish parameterizations for wave, weather, hurricane and climate models. At high winds and accompanying sea states, such measurements are difficult or impossible. A new airborne instrumented towed platform has been developed that allows measurements down to 10 meters under radar-altitude control while the tow aircraft is safely above. Measurements include the three components of the wind, temperature, humidity, infrared surface temperature, CO2, and motion and navigational parameters. The bandwidth of the sensors allows calculation of the Reynolds averaged covariance's of stress and sensible heat and evaporation fluxes. Results are compared to equivalent measurements made with an instrumented aircraft. We would like to thank Robert Bluth of the Naval Postgraduate School and Jesse Barge and Dan Bierly of Zivko Aeronautics.

  15. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  16. Shear wave transmissivity measurement by color Doppler shear wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Mayuko; Kasahara, Toshihiro; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuminaka, Yasushi

    2016-07-01

    Shear wave elastography is a useful method for evaluating tissue stiffness. We have proposed a novel shear wave imaging method (color Doppler shear wave imaging: CD SWI), which utilizes a signal processing unit in ultrasound color flow imaging in order to detect the shear wave wavefront in real time. Shear wave velocity is adopted to characterize tissue stiffness; however, it is difficult to measure tissue stiffness with high spatial resolution because of the artifact produced by shear wave diffraction. Spatial average processing in the image reconstruction method also degrades the spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a novel measurement method for the shear wave transmissivity of a tissue boundary. Shear wave wavefront maps are acquired by changing the displacement amplitude of the shear wave and the transmissivity of the shear wave, which gives the difference in shear wave velocity between two mediums separated by the boundary, is measured from the ratio of two threshold voltages required to form the shear wave wavefronts in the two mediums. From this method, a high-resolution shear wave amplitude imaging method that reconstructs a tissue boundary is proposed.

  17. The Intensification of Sheared Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Leon Trungduong

    Environmental vertical wind shear has been shown to have a generally detrimental impact on tropical cyclone (TC) intensity change. However, many cases of rapidly intensifying (RI) sheared TCs have been observed, and TCs in moderate (5-10 m s-1) shear often have the largest intensity forecast errors. Thus, advancing the understanding of TC-shear interactions is vital to improving TC intensity forecasts, which have not seen much improvement over the past few decades. This dissertation employs both observational and high-resolution numerical modeling approaches to investigate how some TCs are able to resist shear and intensify. The rapid intensification of Hurricane Irene (1999) was studied using observations, while the short-term RI of Tropical Storm Gabrielle (2001) was simulated using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model run at 1-km horizontal resolution. Both storms exhibited a downshear-left vortex tilt and a marked azimuthal wavenumber-1 convective asymmetry. However, the azimuthally averaged diabatic heating also increased, suggesting that TC intensity may be more sensitive to the azimuthally averaged component of diabatic heating rather than the asymmetric component. Furthermore, this increase occurred within the radius of maximum winds (RMW), a region theorized to favor rapid spinup of the vortex. A key difference between the Irene and Gabrielle cases was that the latter underwent a downshear reformation. The circulation associated with an intense mesovortex and other localized cyclonic vorticity anomalies comprised a developing "inner vortex" on the downshear-left (downtilt) periphery of the broader parent vortex. This inner vortex was nearly upright within a parent vortex that was tilted significantly with height. The inner vortex became the dominant vortex of the system, advecting and absorbing the broad, tilted parent vortex. A method was developed for diagnosing vortex tilt in the simulation. The reduction of TC vortex tilt from 65 km to 20 km

  18. Wind Simulation

    2008-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel that provides an hourly simulation of a wind energy system, which includes a calculation of wind turbine output as a power-curve fit of wind speed.

  19. Sheared Electroconvective Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Lim, Kiang Meng; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-11-01

    Recently, ion concentration polarization (ICP) and related phenomena draw attention from physicists, due to its importance in understanding electrochemical systems. Researchers have been actively studying, but the complexity of this multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon has been limitation for gaining a detailed picture. Here, we consider electroconvective(EC) instability initiated by ICP under pressure-driven flow, a scenario often found in electrochemical desalinations. Combining scaling analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we reveal unique behaviors of sheared EC: unidirectional vortex structures, its size selection and vortex propagation. Selected by balancing the external pressure gradient and the electric body force, which generates Hagen-Poiseuille(HP) flow and vortical EC, the dimensionless EC thickness scales as (φ2 /UHP)1/3. The pressure-driven flow(or shear) suppresses unfavorably-directed vortices, and simultaneously pushes favorably-directed vortices with constant speed, which is linearly proportional to the total shear of HP flow. This is the first systematic characterization of sheared EC, which has significant implications on the optimization of electrodialysis and other electrochemical systems.

  20. Measuring the reduced shear

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    Neglecting the second order corrections in weak lensing measurements can lead to a few percent uncertainties on cosmic shears, and becomes more important for cluster lensing mass reconstructions. Existing methods which claim to measure the reduced shears are not necessarily accurate to the second order when a point spread function (PSF) is present. We show that the method of Zhang (2008) exactly measures the reduced shears at the second order level in the presence of PSF. A simple theorem is provided for further confirming our calculation, and for judging the accuracy of any shear measurement method at the second order based on its properties at the first order. The method of Zhang (2008) is well defined mathematically. It does not require assumptions on the morphologies of galaxies and the PSF. To reach a sub-percent level accuracy, the CCD pixel size is required to be not larger than 1/3 of the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the PSF, regardless of whether the PSF has a power-law or exponential profile at large distances. Using a large ensemble (∼>10{sup 7}) of mock galaxies of unrestricted morphologies, we study the shear recovery accuracy under different noise conditions. We find that contaminations to the shear signals from the noise of background photons can be removed in a well defined way because they are not correlated with the source shapes. The residual shear measurement errors due to background noise are consistent with zero at the sub-percent level even when the amplitude of such noise reaches about 1/10 of the source flux within the half-light radius of the source. This limit can in principle be extended further with a larger galaxy ensemble in our simulations. On the other hand, the source Poisson noise remains to be a cause of systematic errors. For a sub-percent level accuracy, our method requires the amplitude of the source Poisson noise to be less than 1/80 ∼ 1/100 of the source flux within the half-light radius of the source

  1. Airborne GLM Simulator (FEGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stewart, M. F.; Podgorny, S.; Corredor, D.

    2015-12-01

    Real time lightning observations have proven to be useful for advanced warning and now-casting of severe weather events. In anticipation of the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard GOES-R that will provide continuous real time observations of total (both cloud and ground) lightning, the Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS) is in production. FEGS is an airborne instrument designed to provide cal/val measurements for GLM from high altitude aircraft. It consists of a 5 x 5 array of telescopes each with a narrow passband filter to isolate the 777.4 nm neutral oxygen emission triplet radiated by lightning. The telescopes will measure the optical radiance emitted by lightning that is transmitted through the cloud top with a temporal resolution of 10 μs. When integrated on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the FEGS array with its 90° field-of-view will observe a cloud top area nearly equal to a single GLM pixel. This design will allow FEGS to determine the temporal and spatial variation of light that contributes to a GLM event detection. In addition to the primary telescope array, the instrument includes 5 supplementary optical channels that observe alternate spectral emission features and will enable the use of FEGS for interesting lightning physics applications. Here we present an up-to-date summary of the project and a description of its scientific applications.

  2. Airborne rescue system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The airborne rescue system includes a boom with telescoping members for extending a line and collar to a rescue victim. The boom extends beyond the tip of the helicopter rotor so that the victim may avoid the rotor downwash. The rescue line is played out and reeled in by winch. The line is temporarily retained under the boom. When the boom is extended, the rescue line passes through clips. When the victim dons the collar and the tension in the line reaches a predetermined level, the clips open and release the line from the boom. Then the rescue line can form a straight line between the victim and the winch, and the victim can be lifted to the helicopter. A translator is utilized to push out or pull in the telescoping members. The translator comprises a tape and a rope. Inside the telescoping members the tape is curled around the rope and the tape has a tube-like configuration. The tape and rope are provided from supply spools.

  3. Technology-enabled Airborne Spacing and Merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, James; Barmore, Bryan; Abbott, Tetence

    2005-01-01

    Over the last several decades, advances in airborne and groundside technologies have allowed the Air Traffic Service Provider (ATSP) to give safer and more efficient service, reduce workload and frequency congestion, and help accommodate a critically escalating traffic volume. These new technologies have included advanced radar displays, and data and communication automation to name a few. In step with such advances, NASA Langley is developing a precision spacing concept designed to increase runway throughput by enabling the flight crews to manage their inter-arrival spacing from TRACON entry to the runway threshold. This concept is being developed as part of NASA s Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) project under the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program. Precision spacing is enabled by Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), which provides air-to-air data exchange including position and velocity reports; real-time wind information and other necessary data. On the flight deck, a research prototype system called Airborne Merging and Spacing for Terminal Arrivals (AMSTAR) processes this information and provides speed guidance to the flight crew to achieve the desired inter-arrival spacing. AMSTAR is designed to support current ATC operations, provide operationally acceptable system-wide increases in approach spacing performance and increase runway throughput through system stability, predictability and precision spacing. This paper describes problems and costs associated with an imprecise arrival flow. It also discusses methods by which Air Traffic Controllers achieve and maintain an optimum interarrival interval, and explores means by which AMSTAR can assist in this pursuit. AMSTAR is an extension of NASA s previous work on in-trail spacing that was successfully demonstrated in a flight evaluation at Chicago O Hare International Airport in September 2002. In addition to providing for precision inter-arrival spacing, AMSTAR

  4. The Origin And Spread Of Airborne Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson-Begg, S. K.; Moffett, B. F.

    2009-12-01

    wind speed and direction, marine organisms would have been airborne for at least 16 hours in the Thursley sample and for at least 4 hours in the East London sample. The origin and spread of airborne organisms warrants further investigation.

  5. Wind Turbines Adaptation to the Variability of the Wind Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulianov, Yuriy; Martynenko, Gennadii; Misaylov, Vitaliy; Soliannikova, Iuliia

    2010-05-01

    WIND TURBINES ADAPTATION TO THE VARIABILITY OF THE WIND FIELD The subject of our scientific research is wind power turbines (WPT) with the horizontal axis which were now common in the world. Efficient wind turbines work is largely determined by non-stationarity of the wind field, expressed in its gustiness, the presence of vertical and horizontal shifts of wind speed and direction. At critical values of the wind parameters WPT has aerodynamic and mechanical overload, leading to breakdowns, premature wear and reduce the life of the wind turbine. To prevent accidents at the peak values of wind speed it is used the regulatory system of windwheels. WPT control systems provide a process orientation of the wind turbine rotor axis in the line of the mean wind. Wind turbines are also equipped with braking device used to protect against breakdowns when a significant increase in the wind. In general, all these methods of regulation are not always effective. Thus, in practice there may be situations when the wind speed is many times greater than the stated limit. For example, if there are microbursts in the atmospheric boundary layer, low-level wind shears caused by its gust front, storms, etc. It is required for a wind power turbine adaptation to intensive short-term wind impulses and considerable vertical wind shifts that the data about them shall be obtained ahead of time. To do this it is necessary to have the information on the real structure of the wind field in the area of the blade sweep for the minimum range against the wind that is determined by the mean speed and the system action time. The implementation of acoustic and laser traditional wind sounding systems is limited by ambient acoustic noise, by heavy rain, snowfall and by fog. There are free of these disadvantages the inclined radioacoustic sounding (IRASS) technique which works for a system of remote detection and control of wind gusts. IRASS technique is realized as low-potential Doppler pulse radar

  6. BOREAS AFM-06 Mean Wind Profile Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) tower from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994. The data set provides wind profiles at 38 heights, containing the variables of wind speed; wind direction; and the u-, v-, and w-components of the total wind. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The mean wind profile data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  7. LIDAR wind speed measurements at a Taiwan onshore wind park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Lin, Ta-Hui; Hsuan, Chung-Yao; Li, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Ya-Fei; Tai, Tzy-Hwan; Huang, Chien-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of wind speed and wind direction were carried out using a Leosphere Windcube LIDAR system at a Taiwan onshore wind park. The Lidar shot a total of five laser beams to the atmosphere to collect the light-of-sight (LOS) velocity. Four beams were sent successively in four cardinal directions along a 28° scanning cone angle, followed by a fifth, vertical beam. An unchangeable sampling rate of approximately 1.2 Hz was set in the LIDAR system to collect the LOS velocity. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data from two GE 1.5 MW wind turbines near the LIDAR deployment site were acquired for the whole measuring period from February 4 to February 16 of 2015. The SCADA data include the blade angular velocity, the wind velocity measured at hub height from an anemometer mounted on the nacelle, the wind turbine yaw angle, and power production; each parameter was recorded as averages over 1-min periods. The data analysis involving the LIDAR measurements and the SCADA data were performed to obtain the turbulent flow statistics. The results show that the turbine power production has significant dependence to the wind speed, wind direction, turbulence intensity and wind shear.

  8. Airborne Laser Polar Nephelometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Gerald W.

    1973-01-01

    A polar nephelometer has been developed at NCAR to measure the angular variation of the intensity of light scattered by air molecules and particles. The system has been designed for airborne measurements using outside air ducted through a 5-cm diameter airflow tube; the sample volume is that which is common to the intersection of a collimated source beam and the detector field of view within the airflow tube. The source is a linearly polarized helium-neon laser beam. The optical system defines a collimated field-of-view (0.5deg half-angle) through a series of diaphragms located behind a I72-mm focal length objective lens. A photomultiplier tube is located immediately behind an aperture in the focal plane of the objective lens. The laser beam is mechanically chopped (on-off) at a rate of 5 Hz; a two-channel pulse counter, synchronized to the laser output, measures the photomultiplier pulse rate with the light beam both on and off. The difference in these measured pulse rates is directly proportional to the intensity of the scattered light from the volume common to the intersection of the laser beam and the detector field-of-view. Measurements can be made at scattering angles from 15deg to 165deg with reference to the direction of propagation of the light beam. Intermediate angles are obtained by selecting the angular increments desired between these extreme angles (any multiple of 0.1deg can be selected for the angular increment; 5deg is used in normal operation). Pulses provided by digital circuits control a stepping motor which sequentially rotates the detector by pre-selected angular increments. The synchronous photon-counting system automatically begins measurement of the scattered-light intensity immediately after the rotation to a new angle has been completed. The instrument has been flown on the NASA Convair 990 airborne laboratory to obtain data on the complex index of refraction of atmospheric aerosols. A particle impaction device is operated simultaneously

  9. Flexible Micropost Arrays for Shear Stress Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Palmieri, Frank L.; Hopkins, John W.; Jackson, Allen M.; Connell, John W.; Lin, Yi; Cisotto, Alexxandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Increased fuel costs, heightened environmental protection requirements, and noise abatement continue to place drag reduction at the forefront of aerospace research priorities. Unfortunately, shortfalls still exist in the fundamental understanding of boundary-layer airflow over aerodynamic surfaces, especially regarding drag arising from skin friction. For example, there is insufficient availability of instrumentation to adequately characterize complex flows with strong pressure gradients, heat transfer, wall mass flux, three-dimensionality, separation, shock waves, and transient phenomena. One example is the acoustic liner efficacy on aircraft engine nacelle walls. Active measurement of shear stress in boundary layer airflow would enable a better understanding of how aircraft structure and flight dynamics affect skin friction. Current shear stress measurement techniques suffer from reliability, complexity, and airflow disruption, thereby compromising resultant shear stress data. The state-of-the-art for shear stress sensing uses indirect or direct measurement techniques. Indirect measurements (e.g., hot-wire, heat flux gages, oil interferometry, laser Doppler anemometry, small scale pressure drag surfaces, i.e., fences) require intricate knowledge of the studied flow, restrictive instrument arrangements, large surface areas, flow disruption, or seeding material; with smaller, higher bandwidth probes under development. Direct measurements involve strain displacement of a sensor element and require no prior knowledge of the flow. Unfortunately, conventional "floating" recessed components for direct measurements are mm to cm in size. Whispering gallery mode devices and Fiber Bragg Gratings are examples of recent additions to this type of sensor with much smaller (?m) sensor components. Direct detection techniques are often single point measurements and difficult to calibrate and implement in wind tunnel experiments. In addition, the wiring, packaging, and installation

  10. Dual-Polarized Ku-Band Backscatter Signatures of Hurricane Ocean Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, S. H.; West, R.; Li, F. K.; Tsai, W. Y.; Lay, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Ku-band dual-polarized backscatter signatures of ocean surfaces are described in this article with the airborne scatterometer measurements collected in the Hurricane Ocean Wind Experiment in September 1997.

  11. Atmospheric energy harvesting: use of Doppler Wind Lidars on UAVs to extend mission endurance and enable quiet operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, S.; Emmitt, G. D.; Wood, S. A.; Costello, M.

    2014-10-01

    The investigators are developing a system tool that utilizes both pre-flight information and continuous real-time knowledge and description of the state of the atmosphere and atmospheric energetics by an Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar (ADWL) to provide the autonomous guidance for detailed and adaptive flight path planning by UAS and small manned aircraft. This flight planning and control has the potential to reduce mission dependence upon preflight assumptions, extend flight duration and endurance, enable long periods of quiet operations and allow for the optimum self-routing of the aircraft. The ADWL wind data is used in real-time to detect atmospheric energy features such as thermals, waves, wind shear and others. These detected features are then used with an onboard, weather model driven flight control model to adaptively plan a flight path that optimizes energy harvesting with frequent updates on local changes in the opportunities and atmospheric flow characteristics. We have named this package AEORA for the Atmospheric Energy Opportunity Ranking Algorithm (AEORA).

  12. Three Dimensional Dynamic Model Based Wind Field Reconstruction from Lidar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-06-01

    Using the inflowing horizontal and vertical wind shears for individual pitch controller is a promising method if blade bending measurements are not available. Due to the limited information provided by a lidar system the reconstruction of shears in real-time is a challenging task especially for the horizontal shear in the presence of changing wind direction. The internal model principle has shown to be a promising approach to estimate the shears and directions in 10 minutes averages with real measurement data. The static model based wind vector field reconstruction is extended in this work taking into account a dynamic reconstruction model based on Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis. The presented method provides time series over several seconds of the wind speed, shears and direction, which can be directly used in advanced optimal preview control. Therefore, this work is an important step towards the application of preview individual blade pitch control under realistic wind conditions. The method is tested using a turbulent wind field and a detailed lidar simulator. For the simulation, the turbulent wind field structure is flowing towards the lidar system and is continuously misaligned with respect to the horizontal axis of the wind turbine. Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis is taken into account to model the wind evolution. For the reconstruction, the structure is discretized into several stages where each stage is reduced to an effective wind speed, superposed with a linear horizontal and vertical wind shear. Previous lidar measurements are shifted using again Taylor's Hypothesis. The wind field reconstruction problem is then formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem, which minimizes the residual between the assumed wind model and the lidar measurements to obtain the misalignment angle and the effective wind speed and the wind shears for each stage. This method shows good results in reconstructing the wind characteristics of a three dimensional

  13. Coherent lidar technology for global wind profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Current lidar systems are proven sensors for atmospheric wind measurement. Ground-based and airborne continuous wave and pulsed CO2 systems were developed and applied to several wind measuring applications. Analytical and hardware feasibility studies indicte the feasibility of measuring the global wind field from a space splatform. A Global Backscater Experiment is planned by NASA to develop a global model of aerosol backscatter using a CO2 laser. Ground-based aerosol backscatter profiles will also be obtained using a ruby and a pulsed CO2 lidar.

  14. Shear-thinning Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Whipped cream and the filling for pumpkin pie are two familiar materials that exhibit the shear-thinning effect seen in a range of industrial applications. It is thick enough to stand on its own atop a piece of pie, yet flows readily when pushed through a tube. This demonstrates the shear-thinning effect that was studied with the Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002. CVX observed the behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The principal investigator was Dr. Robert Berg of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, MD.

  15. Gelation under shear

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, B.D.; Hanley, H.J.M.; Straty, G.C.; Muzny, C.D.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of dense silica gels, prepared from suspensions of 24 nm colloidal silica particles at several volume fractions {theta} is discussed. Provided that {theta}{approx_lt}0.18, the scattered intensity at small wave vectors q increases as the gelation proceeds, and the structure factor S(q, t {yields} {infinity}) of the gel exhibits apparent power law behavior. Power law behavior is also observed, even for samples with {theta}>0.18, when the gel is formed under an applied shear. Shear also enhances the diffraction maximum corresponding to the inter-particle contact distance of the gel. Difficulties encountered when trying to interpret SANS data from these dense systems are outlined. Results of computer simulations intended to mimic gel formation, including computations of S(q, t), are discussed. Comments on a method to extract a fractal dimension characterizing the gel are included.

  16. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.

    2013-04-01

    NCAR's Electra Doppler radar (ELDORA) with a dual-beam slotted waveguide array using dual-transmitter, dual-beam, rapid scan and step-chirped waveform significantly improved the spatial scale to 300m (Hildebrand et al. 1996). However, ELDORA X-band radar's penetration into precipitation is limited by attenuation and is not designed to collect polarimetric measurements to remotely estimate microphysics. ELDORA has been placed on dormancy because its airborne platform (P3 587) was retired in January 2013. The US research community has strongly voiced the need to continue measurement capability similar to the ELDORA. A critical weather research area is quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting (QPE/QPF). In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006). In the case of convective precipitation, two issues, namely, (1) when and where convection will be initiated, and (2) determining the organization and structure of ensuing convection, are key for QPF. Therefore collocated measurements of 3-D winds and precipitation microphysics are required for achieving significant skills in QPF and QPE. Multiple radars in dual-Doppler configuration with polarization capability estimate dynamical and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation are mostly available over land. However, storms over complex terrain, the ocean and in forest regions are not observable by ground-based radars (Bluestein and Wakimoto, 2003). NCAR/EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next generation airborne radar that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. ELDORA's slotted waveguide array radar is not compatible for dual-polarization measurements. Therefore, the new design has to address both dual-polarization capability and platform requirements to replace the ELDORA system. NCAR maintains a C-130

  17. Erosion: Wind

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion refers to the detachment, transport and deposition of sediment by wind. It is a dynamic, physical process where loose, dry, bare soils are transported by strong winds. Wind erosion is a soil degrading process that affects over 500 million ha of land worldwide and creates between 500 an...

  18. Meteorology (Wind)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    Wind speed at 50 m (m/s) The average and percent difference minimum and ... are given.   Percent of time for ranges of wind speed at 50 m (percent) Percentage [frequency] of time that wind ... be adjusted to heights from 10 to 300 meters using the Gipe power law. Wind speeds may be adjusted for different terrain by selecting from ...

  19. Micromechanics of shear banding

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    Shear-banding is one of many instabilities observed during the plastic flow of solids. It is a consequence of the dislocation mechanism which makes plastic flow fundamentally inhomogeneous, and is exacerbated by local adiabatic heating. Dislocation lines tend to be clustered on sets of neighboring glide planes because they are heterogeneously generated; especially through the Koehler multiple-cross-glide mechanism. Factors that influence their mobilities also play a role. Strain-hardening decreases the mobilities within shear bands thereby tending to spread (delocalize) them. Strain-softening has the inverse effect. This paper reviews the micro-mechanisms of these phenomena. It will be shown that heat production is also a consequence of the heterogeneous nature of the microscopic flow, and that dislocation dipoles play an important role. They are often not directly observable, but their presence may be inferred from changes in thermal conductivity. It is argued that after deformation at low temperatures dipoles are distributed a la Pareto so there are many more small than large ones. Instability at upper yield point, the shapes of shear-band fronts, and mechanism of heat generation are also considered. It is shown that strain-rate acceleration plays a more important role than strain-rate itself in adiabatic instability.

  20. An airborne isothermal haze chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal gradient diffusion cloud chambers (TGDCC) are used to determine the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with critical supersaturations greater than or equal to about 0.2%. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than theoretically predicted by factors ranging between 7.9 and 9.0. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than the concentrations measured with the larger laboratory IHC's by factors ranging between 3.9 and 7.5. The bounds of the supersaturation ranges of the airborne IHC and the CSU-Mee TGDCC do not overlap. Nevertheless, the slopes of the interpolated data between the bounds agree favorably with the theoretical slopes.

  1. Airborne laser topographic mapping results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Collins, J. G.; Link, L. E.; Swift, R. N.; Butler, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of terrain mapping experiments utilizing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) over forested areas are presented. The flight tests were conducted as part of a joint NASA/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE) investigation aimed at evaluating the potential of an airborne laser ranging system to provide cross-sectional topographic data on flood plains that are difficult and expensive to survey using conventional techniques. The data described in this paper were obtained in the Wolf River Basin located near Memphis, TN. Results from surveys conducted under winter 'leaves off' and summer 'leaves on' conditions, aspects of day and night operation, and data obtained from decidous and coniferous tree types are compared. Data processing techniques are reviewed. Conclusions relative to accuracy and present limitations of the AOL, and airborne lidar systems in general, to terrain mapping over forested areas are discussed.

  2. WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS ASSESSMENT PROJECT RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) is to assess the deposition of airborne contaminants in Western National Parks, providing regional and local information on exposure, accumulation, impacts, and probable sources. This project is being desig...

  3. Airborne radar technology for windshear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibey, Joseph L.; Khalaf, Camille S.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives and accomplishments of the two-and-a-half year effort to describe how returns from on-board Doppler radar are to be used to detect the presence of a wind shear are reported. The problem is modeled as one of first passage in terms of state variables, the state estimates are generated by a bank of extended Kalman filters working in parallel, and the decision strategy involves the use of a voting algorithm for a series of likelihood ratio tests. The performance issue for filtering is addressed in terms of error-covariance reduction and filter divergence, and the performance issue for detection is addressed in terms of using a probability measure transformation to derive theoretical expressions for the error probabilities of a false alarm and a miss.

  4. Analysis of airborne Doppler lidar measurements of the extended California sea breeze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne Doppler lidar data obtained by NASA near the top of the PBL in the central valley of California are analyzed. The experimental conditions and quality of the data are described. Wind vectors are produced on a geographic grid divided into 1-km square cells. The resulting wind field has features similar to those seen in ground level wind observations. It is suggested that, although the analysis is labor intensive and cumbersome, it produces a previously unattainable high-resolution depiction of air flow over a broad region.

  5. NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-26

    NASA Airborne Lidar 1982-1984 Flights Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon ... continuing to January 1984. Transcribed from the following NASA Tech Reports: McCormick, M. P., and M. T. Osborn, Airborne lidar ...

  6. Imaging Faults and Shear Zones Using Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Pelkum, Vera; Mahan, Kevin H.

    2014-11-01

    The geometry of faults at seismogenic depths and their continuation into the ductile zone is of interest for a number of applications ranging from earthquake hazard to modes of lithospheric deformation. Teleseismic passive source imaging of faults and shear zones can be useful particularly where faults are not outlined by local seismicity. Passive seismic signatures of faults may arise from abrupt changes in lithology or foliation orientation in the upper crust, and from mylonitic shear zones at greater depths. Faults and shear zones with less than near-vertical dip lend themselves to detection with teleseismic mode-converted waves (receiver functions) provided that they have either a contrast in isotropic shear velocity ( V s), or a contrast in orientation or strength of anisotropic compressional velocity ( V p). We introduce a detection method for faults and shear zones based on receiver functions. We use synthetic seismograms to demonstrate common features of dipping isotropic interfaces and contrasts in dipping foliation that allows determination of their strike and depth without making further assumptions about the model. We proceed with two applications. We first image a Laramide thrust fault in the western U.S. (the Wind River thrust fault) as a steeply dipping isotropic velocity contrast in the middle crust near the surface trace of the fault; further downdip and across the range, where basin geometry suggests the fault may sole into a subhorizontal shear zone, we identify a candidate shear zone signal from midcrustal depths. The second application is the use of microstructural data from exhumed ductile shear zones in Scotland and in the western Canadian Shield to predict the character of seismic signatures of present-day deep crustal shear zones. Realistic anisotropy in observed shear fabrics generates a signal in receiver functions that is comparable in amplitude to first-order features like the Moho. Observables that can be robustly constrained without

  7. Airborne derivation of microburst alerts from ground-based Terminal Doppler Weather Radar information: A flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    An element of the NASA/FAA windshear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne windshear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a windshear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. Microburst information was extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the windshear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which atmospheric 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne reactive windshear detection system. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurements would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the practicality of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

  8. Wind information display system user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, J.; Smith, G.

    1977-01-01

    The Wind Information Display System (WINDS) provides flexible control through system-user interaction for collecting wind shear data, processing this data in real time, displaying the processed data, storing raw data on magnetic tapes, and post-processing raw data. The data are received from two asynchronous laser Doppler velocimeters (LDV's) and include position, velocity and intensity information. The raw data is written onto magnetic tape for permanent storage and is also processed in real time to depict wind velocities in a given spacial region.

  9. Winds aloft statistical analysis in support of day of launch Shuttle systems evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelfang, S. I.; Smith, O. E.; Batts, G. W.; Hill, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    In connection with the development of the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) for utilization by the Launch Systems Evaluation Advisory Team (LSEAT), requirements have been established to expand the pre-launch analysis of winds aloft for the Space Shuttle. Statistical analyses developed for the system include: comparison of pre-launch wind component profiles to wind component extremes at each altitude calculated from launch site historical data; conditional probability ellipses for wind vectors at a future time given the wind vector at an initial time; comparison of observed extreme wind shear and associated wind speed with launch site historical data utilizing the bivariate extreme value (Gumbel) distribution; estimation of extremes of wind speed or wind shear at a future time given the extremes of either variable at an initial time, utilizing the conditional extreme value distribution; power spectrum analysis for tracking wind perturbation energy in sequential pre-launch Jimsphere wind profiles.

  10. Airborne Imagery Collections Barrow 2013

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cherry, Jessica; Crowder, Kerri

    2015-07-20

    The data here are orthomosaics, digital surface models (DSMs), and individual frames captured during low altitude airborne flights in 2013 at the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The orthomosaics, thermal IR mosaics, and DSMs were generated from the individual frames using Structure from Motion techniques.

  11. Airborne fungi--a resurvey

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.H.; Prince, H.E.; Raymer, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    A 15-month survey of airborne fungi at 14 geographical stations was conducted to determine the incidence of different fungal genera. Five of these stations were surveyed 25 years earlier. A comparison between previous studies and present surveys revealed similar organisms at each station with slight shifts in frequency of dominant genera.

  12. Tropospheric and Airborne Emission Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, Thomas; Beer, Reinhard

    1996-01-01

    X This paper describes the development of two related instruments, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES). Both instruments are infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometers, used for measuring the state of the lower atmosphere, and in particular the measurement of ozone and ozone sources and sinks.

  13. AARD - Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewers, Dick

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration program, and NASA Dryden's work in the program. The primary goal of the program is to make one fully automatic probe-to-drogue engagement using the AARD system. There are pictures of the aircraft approaching to the docking.

  14. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  15. Sensitivity of Southern Ocean circulation to wind stress changes: Role of relative wind stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, D. R.; Zhai, X.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of different wind stress bulk formulae on the response of the Southern Ocean circulation to wind stress changes is investigated using an idealised channel model. Surface/mixed layer properties are found to be sensitive to the use of the relative wind stress formulation, where the wind stress depends on the difference between the ocean and atmosphere velocities. Previous work has highlighted the surface eddy damping effect of this formulation, which we find leads to increased circumpolar transport. Nevertheless the transport due to thermal wind shear does lose sensitivity to wind stress changes at sufficiently high wind stress. In contrast, the sensitivity of the meridional overturning circulation is broadly the same regardless of the bulk formula used due to the adiabatic nature of the relative wind stress damping. This is a consequence of the steepening of isopycnals offsetting the reduction in eddy diffusivity in their contribution to the eddy bolus overturning, as predicted using a residual mean framework.

  16. Safety Performance of Airborne Separation: Preliminary Baseline Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wing, David J.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2007-01-01

    The Safety Performance of Airborne Separation (SPAS) study is a suite of Monte Carlo simulation experiments designed to analyze and quantify safety behavior of airborne separation. This paper presents results of preliminary baseline testing. The preliminary baseline scenario is designed to be very challenging, consisting of randomized routes in generic high-density airspace in which all aircraft are constrained to the same flight level. Sustained traffic density is varied from approximately 3 to 15 aircraft per 10,000 square miles, approximating up to about 5 times today s traffic density in a typical sector. Research at high traffic densities and at multiple flight levels are planned within the next two years. Basic safety metrics for aircraft separation are collected and analyzed. During the progression of experiments, various errors, uncertainties, delays, and other variables potentially impacting system safety will be incrementally introduced to analyze the effect on safety of the individual factors as well as their interaction and collective effect. In this paper we report the results of the first experiment that addresses the preliminary baseline condition tested over a range of traffic densities. Early results at five times the typical traffic density in today s NAS indicate that, under the assumptions of this study, airborne separation can be safely performed. In addition, we report on initial observations from an exploration of four additional factors tested at a single traffic density: broadcast surveillance signal interference, extent of intent sharing, pilot delay, and wind prediction error.

  17. TUBE SHEARING VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Wilner, L.B.

    1960-05-24

    Explosive operated valves can be used to join two or more containers in fluid flow relationship, one such container being a sealed reservoir. The valve is most simply disposed by mounting it on the reservoir so thst a tube extends from the interior of the reservoir through the valve body, terminating at the bottom of the bore in a closed end; other containers may be similarly connected or may be open connected, as desired. The piston of the valve has a cutting edge at its lower end which shears off the closed tube ends and a recess above the cutting edge to provide a flow channel. Intermixing of the fluid being transferred with the explosion gases is prevented by a copper ring at the top of the piston which is force fitted into the bore at the beginning of the stroke. Although designed to avoid backing up of the piston at pressures up to 10,000 psi in the transferred fluid, proper operation is independent of piston position, once the tube ends were sheared.

  18. Excited waves in shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechert, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    The generation of instability waves in free shear layers is investigated. The model assumes an infinitesimally thin shear layer shed from a semi-infinite plate which is exposed to sound excitation. The acoustical shear layer excitation by a source further away from the plate edge in the downstream direction is very weak while upstream from the plate edge the excitation is relatively efficient. A special solution is given for the source at the plate edge. The theory is then extended to two streams on both sides of the shear layer having different velocities and densities. Furthermore, the excitation of a shear layer in a channel is calculated. A reference quantity is found for the magnitude of the excited instability waves. For a comparison with measurements, numerical computations of the velocity field outside the shear layer were carried out.

  19. Inductive shearing of drilling pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ludtka, Gerard M.; Wilgen, John; Kisner, Roger; Mcintyre, Timothy

    2016-04-19

    Induction shearing may be used to cut a drillpipe at an undersea well. Electromagnetic rings may be built into a blow-out preventer (BOP) at the seafloor. The electromagnetic rings create a magnetic field through the drillpipe and may transfer sufficient energy to change the state of the metal drillpipe to shear the drillpipe. After shearing the drillpipe, the drillpipe may be sealed to prevent further leakage of well contents.

  20. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.; Moninger, William R.; Mamrosh, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) project, giving some history on the project, various applications of the atmospheric data, and future ideas and plans. As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, the TAMDAR project developed a small low-cost sensor that collects useful meteorological data and makes them available in near real time to improve weather forecasts. This activity has been a joint effort with FAA, NOAA, universities, and industry. A tri-agency team collaborated by developing a concept of operations, determining the sensor specifications, and evaluating sensor performance as reported by Moosakhanian et. al. (2006). Under contract with Georgia Tech Research Institute, NASA worked with AirDat of Raleigh, NC to develop the sensor. The sensor is capable of measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and icing. It can compute pressure altitude, indicated and true air speed, ice accretion rate, wind speed and direction, peak and average turbulence, and eddy dissipation rate. The overall development process, sensor capabilities, and performance based on ground and flight tests is reported by Daniels (2002), Daniels et. al. (2004) and by Tsoucalas et. al. (2006). An in-service evaluation of the sensor was performed called the Great Lakes Fleet Experiment (GLFE), first reported by Moninger et. al. (2004) and Mamrosh et. al. (2005). In this experiment, a Mesaba Airlines fleet was equipped to collect meteorological data over the Great Lakes region during normal revenue-producing flights.

  1. The NCAR Airborne Infrared Lidar System (NAILS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwiesow, R. L.; Lightsey, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    A planned airborne lidar system is presented which is intended to provide a remote sensing facility for a variety of applications. The eventual goal of the system development is a Doppler wind measurement capability for boundary layer dynamics and cloud physics applications. The first stage of development is focused initially on a direct detection lidar to measure aerosol profiles and depolarization from cloud backscatter. Because of the Doppler goal, interest in larger particles to define the top of the mixed layer, and eye safety, the first stage of the system is based on a pulsed CO2 laser. A compact, relatively simple and inexpensive system that achieves flexibility to meet the data requirements of a variety of investigators by being easily modified rather than having many different capabilities built in is the goal. Although the direct detection sensitivity is less than that for heterodyne detection, the simpler system allows the achievement of useful scientific results and operating experience towards more complex lidars while staying within budget and time constraints.

  2. Satellite and airborne IR sensor validation by an airborne interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Gumley, L.E.; Delst, P.F. van; Moeller, C.C.

    1996-11-01

    The validation of in-orbit longwave IR radiances from the GOES-8 Sounder and inflight longwave IR radiances from the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) is described. The reference used is the airborne University of Wisconsin High Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS). The calibration of each sensor is described. Data collected during the Ocean Temperature Interferometric Survey (OTIS) experiment in January 1995 is used in the comparison between sensors. Detailed forward calculations of at-sensor radiance are used to account for the difference in GOES-8 and HIS altitude and viewing geometry. MAS radiances and spectrally averaged HIS radiances are compared directly. Differences between GOES-8 and HIS brightness temperatures, and GOES-8 and MAS brightness temperatures, are found to be with 1.0 K for the majority of longwave channels examined. The same validation approach will be used for future sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). 11 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. True Shear Parallel Plate Viscometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin; Kaukler, William

    2010-01-01

    This viscometer (which can also be used as a rheometer) is designed for use with liquids over a large temperature range. The device consists of horizontally disposed, similarly sized, parallel plates with a precisely known gap. The lower plate is driven laterally with a motor to apply shear to the liquid in the gap. The upper plate is freely suspended from a double-arm pendulum with a sufficiently long radius to reduce height variations during the swing to negligible levels. A sensitive load cell measures the shear force applied by the liquid to the upper plate. Viscosity is measured by taking the ratio of shear stress to shear rate.

  4. A Comparison between Airborne and Mountaintop Cloud Microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, R.; Lowenthal, D. H.; Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I.; Avallone, L. M.; Mace, G. G.; Wang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Complex terrain has a large impact on cloud dynamics and microphysics. Several studies have examined the microphysical details of orographically-enhanced clouds from either an aircraft or from a mountain top location. However, further research is needed to characterize the relationships between mountain top and airborne microphysical properties. During the winter of 2011, an airborne study, the Colorado Airborne Mixed-Phase Cloud Study (CAMPS), and a ground-based field campaign, the Storm Peak Lab (SPL) Cloud Property Validation Experiment (StormVEx) were conducted in the Park Range of the Colorado Rockies. The CAMPS study utilized the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) to provide airborne cloud microphysical and meteorological data on 29 flights totaling 98 flight hours over the Park Range from December 15, 2010 to February 28, 2011. The UWKA was equipped with instruments that measured both cloud droplet and ice crystal size distributions, liquid water content, total water content (vapor, liquid, and ice), and 3-dimensional wind speed and direction. The Wyoming Cloud Radar and Lidar were also deployed during the campaign. These measurements are used to characterize cloud structure upwind and above the Park Range. StormVEx measured cloud droplet, ice crystal, and aerosol size distributions at SPL, located on the west summit of Mt. Werner at 3220m MSL. The observations from SPL are used to determine mountain top cloud microphysical properties at elevations lower than the UWKA was able to sample in-situ. Comparisons showed that cloud microphysics aloft and at the surface were consistent with respect to snow growth processes while small crystal concentrations were routinely higher at the surface, suggesting ice nucleation near cloud base. The effects of aerosol concentrations and upwind stability on mountain top and downwind microphysics are considered.

  5. Airborne test flight of HY-2A satellite microwave scatterometer and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Juhong; Guo, Maohua; Cui, Songxue; Zhou, Wu

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces the background, aim, experimental design, configuration and data processing for an airborne test flight of the HY-2 Microwave scatterometer (HSCAT). The aim was to evaluate HSCAT performance and a developed data processing algorithm for the HSCAT before launch. There were three test flights of the scatterometer, on January 15, 18 and 22, 2010, over the South China Sea near Lingshui, Hainan. The test flights successfully generated simultaneous airborne scatterometer normalized radar cross section (NRCS), ASCAT wind, and ship-borne-measured wind datasets, which were used to analyze HSCAT performance. Azimuthal dependence of the NRCS relative to the wind direction was nearly cos(2w), with NRCS minima at crosswind directions, and maxima near upwind and downwind. The NRCS also showed a small diff erence between upwind and downwind directions, with upwind crosssections generally larger than those downwind. The dependence of airborne scatterometer NRCS on wind direction and speed showed favorable consistency with the NASA scatterometer geophysical model function (NSCAT GMF), indicating satisfactory HSCAT performance.

  6. Wind turbine wake detection with a single Doppler wind lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.

    2015-06-01

    Using scanning lidar wind turbine wakes can be probed in three dimensions to produce a wealth of temporally and spatially irregular data that can be used to characterize the wakes. Unlike data from a meteorological mast or upward pointing lidar, the spatial coordinates of the measurements are not fixed and the location of the wake also varies in three dimensions. Therefore the challenge is to provide automated detection algorithms to identify wakes and quantify wake characteristics from this type of dataset. Here an algorithm is developed and evaluated on data from a large wind farm in the Midwest. A scanning coherent Doppler wind lidar was configured to measure wind speed in the wake of a continuously yawing wind turbine for two days during the experiment and wake profiles were retrieved with input of wind direction information from the nearby meteorological mast. Additional challenges to the analysis include incomplete coverage of the entire wake due to the limited scanning domain, and large wind shear that can contaminate the wake estimate because of the height variation along the line-of-sight. However, the algorithm developed in this paper is able to automatically capture wakes in lidar data from Plan Position Indicator (PPI) scans and the resultant wake statistics are consistent with previous experiment's results.

  7. Improving Maryland's Offshore Wind Energy Resource Estimate Using Doppler Wind Lidar Technology to Assess Microtmeteorology Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Pé, Alexandra; Wesloh, Daniel; Antoszewski, Graham; Daham, Farrah; Goudarzi, Navid; Rabenhorst, Scott; Delgado, Ruben

    2016-06-01

    There is enormous potential to harness the kinetic energy of offshore wind and produce power. However significant uncertainties are introduced in the offshore wind resource assessment process, due in part to limited observational networks and a poor understanding of the marine atmosphere's complexity. Given the cubic relationship between a turbine's power output and wind speed, a relatively small error in the wind speed estimate translates to a significant error in expected power production. The University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) collected in-situ measurements offshore, within Maryland's Wind Energy Area (WEA) from July-August 2013. This research demonstrates the ability of Doppler wind lidar technology to reduce uncertainty in estimating an offshore wind resource, compared to traditional resource assessment techniques, by providing a more accurate representation of the wind profile and associated hub-height wind speed variability. The second objective of this research is to elucidate the impact of offshore micrometeorology controls (stability, wind shear, turbulence) on a turbine's ability to produce power. Compared to lidar measurements, power law extrapolation estimates and operational National Weather Service models underestimated hub-height wind speeds in the WEA. In addition, lidar observations suggest the frequent development of a low-level wind maximum (LLWM), with high turbinelayer wind shear and low turbulence intensity within a turbine's rotor layer (40m-160m). Results elucidate the advantages of using Doppler wind lidar technology to improve offshore wind resource estimates and its ability to monitor under-sampled offshore meteorological controls impact on a potential turbine's ability to produce power.

  8. Magnetic energy flow in the solar wind.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modisette, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the effect of rotation (tangential flow) of the solar wind on the conclusions of Whang (1971) suggesting an increase in the solar wind velocity due to the conversion of magnetic energy to kinetic energy. It is shown that the effect of the rotation of the sun on the magnetic energy flow results in most of the magnetic energy being transported by magnetic shear stress near the sun.

  9. Winter meso-scale shear front in the Yellow Sea and its sedimentary effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Qiao, Lulu; Li, Guangxue

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the authors explored the presence of shear fronts between the Yellow Sea Coastal Current (YSCC) and the monsoon-strengthened Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC) in winter and their sedimentary effects within the shear zone based on a fully validated numerical model. This work added the wind force to a tidal model during simulating the winter baroclinic circulation in the Yellow Sea. The results indicate that the YSWC is significantly strengthened by wind-driven compensation due to a northeast monsoon during winter time. When this warm current encounters the North Shandong-South Yellow Sea coastal current, there is a strong reverse shear action between the two current systems, forming a reverse-S-shaped shear front that begins near 34°N in the south and extends to approximately 38°N, with an overall length of over 600 km. The main driving force for the formation of this shear front derives from the circulation system with the reverse flow. In the shear zone, temperature and salinity gradients increase, flow velocities are relatively small and the flow direction on one side of the shear zone is opposite to that on the other side. The vertical circulation structure is complicated, consisting of a series of meso- and small-scale anti-clockwise eddies. Particularly, this shear effect significantly hinders the horizontal exchange of coastal sediments carried by warm currents, resulting in fine sediments deposition due to the weak hydrodynamic regime.

  10. Large aperture scanning airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J.; Bindschadler, R.; Boers, R.; Bufton, J. L.; Clem, D.; Garvin, J.; Melfi, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A large aperture scanning airborne lidar facility is being developed to provide important new capabilities for airborne lidar sensor systems. The proposed scanning mechanism allows for a large aperture telescope (25 in. diameter) in front of an elliptical flat (25 x 36 in.) turning mirror positioned at a 45 degree angle with respect to the telescope optical axis. The lidar scanning capability will provide opportunities for acquiring new data sets for atmospheric, earth resources, and oceans communities. This completed facility will also make available the opportunity to acquire simulated EOS lidar data on a near global basis. The design and construction of this unique scanning mechanism presents exciting technological challenges of maintaining the turning mirror optical flatness during scanning while exposed to extreme temperatures, ambient pressures, aircraft vibrations, etc.

  11. Magnetic airborne survey - geophysical flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Camara, Erick; Nei Pereira Guimarães, Suze

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a technical review process in the area of airborne acquisition of geophysical data, with emphasis for magnetometry. In summary, it addresses the calibration processes of geophysical equipment as well as the aircraft to minimize possible errors in measurements. The corrections used in data processing and filtering are demonstrated with the same results as well as the evolution of these techniques in Brazil and worldwide.

  12. Microbial immigration across the Mediterranean via airborne dust

    PubMed Central

    Rosselli, Riccardo; Fiamma, Maura; Deligios, Massimo; Pintus, Gabriella; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Duce, Pierpaolo; Squartini, Andrea; Muresu, Rosella; Cappuccinelli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Dust particles lifting and discharge from Africa to Europe is a recurring phenomenon linked to air circulation conditions. The possibility that microorganisms are conveyed across distances entails important consequences in terms of biosafety and pathogens spread. Using culture independent DNA-based analyses via next generation sequencing of the 16 S genes from the airborne metagenome, the atmospheric microbial community was characterized and the hypothesis was tested that shifts in species diversity could be recorded in relation to dust discharge. As sampling ground the island of Sardinia was chosen, being an ideal cornerstone within the Mediterranean and a crossroad of wind circulation amidst Europe and Africa. Samples were collected in two opposite coastal sites and in two different weather conditions comparing dust-conveying winds from Africa with a control situation with winds from Europe. A major conserved core microbiome was evidenced but increases in species richness and presence of specific taxa were nevertheless observed in relation to each wind regime. Taxa which can feature strains with clinical implications were also detected. The approach is reported as a recommended model monitoring procedure for early warning alerts in frameworks of biosafety against natural spread of clinical microbiota across countries as well as to prevent bacteriological warfare. PMID:26542754

  13. Microbial immigration across the Mediterranean via airborne dust.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, Riccardo; Fiamma, Maura; Deligios, Massimo; Pintus, Gabriella; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Duce, Pierpaolo; Squartini, Andrea; Muresu, Rosella; Cappuccinelli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Dust particles lifting and discharge from Africa to Europe is a recurring phenomenon linked to air circulation conditions. The possibility that microorganisms are conveyed across distances entails important consequences in terms of biosafety and pathogens spread. Using culture independent DNA-based analyses via next generation sequencing of the 16 S genes from the airborne metagenome, the atmospheric microbial community was characterized and the hypothesis was tested that shifts in species diversity could be recorded in relation to dust discharge. As sampling ground the island of Sardinia was chosen, being an ideal cornerstone within the Mediterranean and a crossroad of wind circulation amidst Europe and Africa. Samples were collected in two opposite coastal sites and in two different weather conditions comparing dust-conveying winds from Africa with a control situation with winds from Europe. A major conserved core microbiome was evidenced but increases in species richness and presence of specific taxa were nevertheless observed in relation to each wind regime. Taxa which can feature strains with clinical implications were also detected. The approach is reported as a recommended model monitoring procedure for early warning alerts in frameworks of biosafety against natural spread of clinical microbiota across countries as well as to prevent bacteriological warfare. PMID:26542754

  14. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    PubMed

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste. PMID:23047084

  15. Airborne lidar global positioning investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) network of satellites shows high promise of revolutionizing methods for conducting surveying, navigation, and positioning. This is especially true in the case of airborne or satellite positioning. A single GPS receiver (suitably adapted for aircraft deployment) can yield positioning accuracies (world-wide) in the order of 30 to 50 m vertically, as well as horizontally. This accuracy is dramatically improved when a second GPS receiver is positioned at a known horizontal and vertical reference. Absolute horizontal and vertical positioning of 1 to 2 m are easily achieved over areas of separation of tens of km. If four common satellites remain in lock in both receivers, then differential phase pseudo-ranges on the GPS L-band carrier can be utilized to achieve accuracies of + or - 10 cm and perhaps as good as + or - 2 cm. The initial proof of concept investigation for airborne positioning using the phase difference between the airborne and stationary GPS receivers was conducted and is examined.

  16. NASA Student Airborne Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, E. L.; Shetter, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) is a unique summer internship program for advanced undergraduates and early graduate students majoring in the STEM disciplines. SARP participants acquire hands-on research experience in all aspects of an airborne research campaign, including flying onboard an major NASA resource used for studying Earth system processes. In summer 2012, thirty-two participants worked in four interdisciplinary teams to study surface, atmospheric, and oceanographic processes. Participants assisted in the operation of instruments onboard the NASA P-3B aircraft where they sampled and measured atmospheric gases and imaged land and water surfaces in multiple spectral bands. Along with airborne data collection, students participated in taking measurements at field sites. Mission faculty and research mentors helped to guide participants through instrument operation, sample analysis, and data reduction. Over the eight-week program, each student developed an individual research project from the data collected and delivered a conference-style final presentation on his/her results. We will discuss the results and effectiveness of the program from the first four summers and discuss plans for the future.

  17. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  18. A wake detector for wind farm control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottasso, C. L.; Cacciola, S.; Schreiber, J.

    2015-06-01

    The paper describes an observer capable of detecting the impingement on a wind turbine rotor of the wake of an upstream machine. The observer estimates the local wind speed and turbulence intensity on the left and right parts of the rotor disk. The estimation is performed based on blade loads measured by strain gages or optical fibers, sensors which are becoming standard equipment on many modern machines. A lower wind speed and higher turbulence intensity on one part of the rotor, possibly in conjunction with other information, can then be used to infer the presence of a wake impinging on the disk. The wake state information is useful for wind plant control strategies, as for example wake deflection by active yawing. In addition, the local wind speed estimates may be used for a rough evaluation of the vertical wind shear.

  19. APPARATUS FOR SHEARING TUBULAR JACKETS

    DOEpatents

    Simon, J.P.

    1962-09-01

    A machine is designed for removing the jacket from the core of a used rod-like fuel element by shearing the jacket into a spiral ribbon. Three skewed rolls move the fuel element axially and rotatively, and a tool cooperates with one of the rolls to carry out the shearing action. (AEC)

  20. Electrostatic Solitary Waves in the Solar Wind: Evidence for Instability at Solar Wind Current Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malaspina, David M.; Newman, David L.; Wilson, Lynn Bruce; Goetz, Keith; Kellogg, Paul J.; Kerstin, Kris

    2013-01-01

    A strong spatial association between bipolar electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and magnetic current sheets (CSs) in the solar wind is reported here for the first time. This association requires that the plasma instabilities (e.g., Buneman, electron two stream) which generate ESWs are preferentially localized to solar wind CSs. Distributions of CS properties (including shear angle, thickness, solar wind speed, and vector magnetic field change) are examined for differences between CSs associated with ESWs and randomly chosen CSs. Possible mechanisms for producing ESW-generating instabilities at solar wind CSs are considered, including magnetic reconnection.

  1. Field investigation of airborne radioactivity anomalies in Marquette County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, Harold L.

    1950-01-01

    The broad radioactivity anomalies recorded by the airborne detector in the vicinity of Republic, Marquette County, Michigan, coincide rather closely with parts of a granitic complex chiefly of Archean age. Ground examination of the rock in these areas of high radioactivity shows that the granitic rock typically yields two to four times the normal background activity. Fissures, shear zones, veins, and pegmatites were tested carefully. None exhibited activity higher than that of the adjacent granitic rock. It is significant that the zones of more-than-average radio-activity are related to the larger elements of the geology - in fact, the information will be of considerable value in reconsideration of some of the regional problems.

  2. A Piezoelectric Shear Stress Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress suppressing effects of normal stress generated from the vortex lift-up by applying opposite poling vectors to the: piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces and it showed high sensitivity to shear stress (=91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-33%PT (d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also showed almost no sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is 0-800 Hz. Keywords: Piezoelectric sensor, shear stress, floating element, electromechanical symmetry

  3. Survival rate of airborne Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Gannon, B W; Hayes, C M; Roe, J M

    2007-04-01

    Despite years of study the principle transmission route of bovine tuberculosis to cattle remains unresolved. The distribution of pathological lesions, which are concentrated in the respiratory system, and the very low dose of Mycobacterium bovis needed to initiate infection from a respiratory tract challenge suggest that the disease is spread by airborne transmission. Critical to the airborne transmission of a pathogenic microorganism is its ability to survive the stresses incurred whilst airborne. This study demonstrates that M. bovis is resistant to the stresses imposed immediately after becoming airborne, 94% surviving the first 10 min after aerosolisation. Once airborne the organism is robust, its viability decreasing with a half-life of approximately 1.5 hours. These findings support the hypothesis that airborne transmission is the principle route of infection for bovine tuberculosis. PMID:17045316

  4. Passive cyclic pitch control for horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottrell, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    A flexible rotor concept, called the balanced pitch rotor, is described. The system provides passive adjustment of cyclic pitch in response to unbalanced pitching moments across the rotor disk. Various applications are described and performance predictions are made for wind shear and cross wind operating conditions. Comparisons with the teetered hub are made and significant cost savings are predicted.

  5. Surface and Airborne Arsenic Concentrations in a Recreational Site near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic, up to 7058 μg g-1 in topsoil and bedrock, and more than 0.03 μg m-3 in air on a 2-week basis, were measured in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA), a very popular off-road area near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. The elevated arsenic concentrations in the topsoil and bedrock are correlated to outcrops of yellow sandstone belonging to the Muddy Creek Formation (≈ 10 to 4 Ma) and to faults crossing the area. Mineralized fluids moved to the surface through the faults and deposited the arsenic. A technique was developed to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations from the arsenic content in the topsoil. The technique was tested by comparing calculated with measured concentrations at 34 locations in the NDRA, for 3 periods of 2 weeks each. We then applied it to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations for more than 500 locations all over the NDRA. The highest airborne arsenic concentrations occur over sand dunes and other zones with a surficial layer of aeolian sand. Ironically these areas show the lowest levels of arsenic in the topsoil. However, they are highly susceptible to wind erosion and emit very large amounts of sand and dust during episodes of strong winds, thereby also emitting much arsenic. Elsewhere in the NDRA, in areas not or only very slightly affected by wind erosion, airborne arsenic levels equal the background level for airborne arsenic in the USA, approximately 0.0004 μg m-3. The results of this study are important because the NDRA is visited by more than 300,000 people annually. PMID:25897667

  6. Instability of Stratified Shear Flow: Intermittency and Length Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecke, Robert; Odier, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The stability of stratified shear flows which occur in oceanic overflows, wind-driven thermoclines, and atmospheric inversion layers is governed by the Richardson Number Ri , a non-dimensional balance between stabilizing stratification and destabilizing shear. For a shear flow with velocity difference U, density difference Δρ and characteristic length H, one has Ri = g (Δρ / ρ) H /U2 . A more precise definition is the gradient Richardson Number Rig =N2 /S2 where the buoyancy frequency N =√{ (g / ρ) ∂ρ / ∂z } , the mean strain S = ∂U / ∂z with z parallel to gravity and with ensemble or time averages defining the gradients. We explore the stability and mixing properties of a wall-bounded shear flow for 0 . 1 < Rig < 1 using simultaneous measurements of density and velocity fields. The flow, confined from the top by a horizontal boundary, is a lighter alcohol-water mixture injected from a nozzle into quiescent heavier salt-water fluid. The injected flow is turbulent with Taylor Reynolds number about 75. We compare a set of length scales that characterize the mixing properties of our turbulent stratified shear flow including Thorpe Length LT, Ozmidov Length LO, and Ellison Length LE.

  7. Optical depth of cirrus and embedded contrails from airborne Lidar and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, U.; Wirth, M.

    2009-04-01

    A new developed high performance airborne Lidar is applied to measure the backscatter, extinction, depolarization and water vapor profiles from above a thin cirrus cloud along a flight path of about 1000 km over Germany with high temporal/spatial resolution (about 0.2 s, 40 m). The observations revealed surprisingly many embedded contrails within the cirrus. The observations are roughly explained by a simple multiple-plume model simulating the many contrails that formed during the four hours before the observations. Direct airborne measurements of the optical thickness tau of thin cirrus layers have been performed using the high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) channel at 532 nm wavelength of the Lidar instrument called WALES (Water Vapour Lidar Experiment in Space). During the 4 h flight, more than 1000 aircraft passed below the flight path of the Falcon. The observations show variable optical depth with a mean value of about 0.3 and large fluctuations with many sharp isolated peaks of typically 200 - 1000 m width up to or even exceeding unity. The observations are explained using a combination of two models versions. First we use the ice water content and extinction predicted with various versions of weather prediction models (ECMWF and COSMO, initiated at various times between 3 and 12 hours before start of the observations). These models explain roughly the mean behavior of the measured tau. The peaky structure of the tau signal is qualitatively explained by a multiple-plume contrail model. This model is based on a Gaussian plume model. It uses the known air traffic waypoint sequences for all the aircraft passing Germany during the day before the observations (provided by air traffic control, DFS). For each waypoint a Lagrangian calculation is started identifying flights under ambient conditions for which contrails are expected to form according to the Schmidt-Appleman criterion. The plume moves horizontally with the wind at constant potential temperature. This

  8. Soil wind erodibility based on dry aggregate-size distribution in the Tarim Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Tarim Basin is an important source of airborne particulate matter that contributes to poor air quality in China. However, little attention has been given to estimating wind erodibility of soils in the region. The objective of this study was to determine the soil wind erodibility for six land use...

  9. Airborne lidar measurements of pollution transport in central and southern California during CalNEX 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senff, C. J.; Alvarez, R. J., II; Hardesty, R.; Langford, A. O.; Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Davies, F.; Sandberg, S.; Marchbanks, R.; Weickmann, A.

    2010-12-01

    During the CalNEX experiment from May through July 2010, we co-deployed NOAA’s airborne ozone and aerosol lidar TOPAZ and the University of Leeds scanning Doppler wind lidar on a Twin Otter aircraft. We flew a total of 46 missions over central and southern California, focusing primarily on the Los Angeles Basin and Sacramento areas. The downward-looking lidars provided highly resolved measurements of ozone concentration, aerosol backscatter, and wind speed and direction in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere. We will use the airborne lidar data to characterize transport of ozone and aerosols on regional and local scales. In particular, we will focus on pollutant transport between air basins and the role of flow patterns in complex terrain, such as gap flows and orographic lifting and venting along mountain slopes, on pollutant distribution.

  10. JAWS multiple Doppler derived winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Kimberly L.

    1987-01-01

    An elementary working knowledge is given of the advantages and limitations of the multiple Doppler radar analyses that have recently become available from the Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) project. What Doppler radar is and what it does is addressed and the way Doppler radars were used in the JAWS project to gather wind shear data is described. The working definition of wind shear used is winds that affect aircraft flight over a span of 15 to 45 seconds and turbulence is defined as air motion that cause abrupt aircraft motions. The JAWS data current available contain no turbulence data. The concept of multiple Doppler analysis and the geometry of how it works are described, followed by an explanation of how data gathered in radar space are interpolated to a common Cartesian coordinate system and the limitations involved. A discussion is also presented of the analysis grid and how it was constructed. What the user actually gets is discussed, followed by a discussion of the expected errors in the three orthogonal wind components. Finally, a discussion is presented of why JAWS data are significant.

  11. Rotor equivalent wind speed for power curve measurement - comparative exercise for IEA Wind Annex 32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Cañadillas, B.; Clifton, A.; Feeney, S.; Nygaard, N.; Poodt, M.; St. Martin, C.; Tüxen, E.; Wagenaar, J. W.

    2014-06-01

    A comparative exercise has been organised within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Annex 32 in order to test the Rotor Equivalent Wind Speed (REWS) method under various conditions of wind shear and measurement techniques. Eight organisations from five countries participated in the exercise. Each member of the group has derived both the power curve based on the wind speed at hub height and the power curve based on the REWS. This yielded results for different wind turbines, located in diverse types of terrain and where the wind speed profile was measured with different instruments (mast or various lidars). The participants carried out two preliminary steps in order to reach consensus on how to implement the REWS method. First, they all derived the REWS for one 10 minute wind speed profile. Secondly, they all derived the power curves for one dataset. The main point requiring consensus was the definition of the segment area used as weighting for the wind speeds measured at the various heights in the calculation of the REWS. This comparative exercise showed that the REWS method results in a significant difference compared to the standard method using the wind speed at hub height in conditions with large shear and low turbulence intensity.

  12. Smectic Edge Dislocations under Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peilong; Lu, Chun-Yi David

    2011-09-01

    Layer structures around an edge dislocation in a smectic phase under shear are studied with both phase field and order parameter models. It is shown that, contrast to a crystal solid, the conventional picture of the Peach--Koehler force experienced by dislocations when the sample is under a shear stress cannot be readily applied to the smectic phases. Under a uniform shear flow, we obtain the phase field and order parameter solutions around an edge dislocation. The solutions elucidate properties such as the layer distortion range around the dislocation and scaling of inter-dislocation interaction on dislocation separation. Calculations on energy dissipation indicate the extreme shear-thinning behavior that an edge dislocation induces a shear stress independent of the shear rate. Finally in a bulk sample with dislocation forming loops and networks, we argue that the uniform flow component around the dislocation is important to the energy dissipation and we show that its scaling exponent with the shear rate is very close to results from many previous rheology measurements.

  13. Multidirectional direct simple shear apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    DeGroot, D.J.; Germaine, J.T.; Ladd, C.C.

    1993-09-01

    The paper describes a new simple shear testing device, the multidirectional direct simple shear (MDSS) apparatus, for testing soil specimens under conditions that simulate, at the element level, the state of stress acting within the foundation soil of an offshore Arctic gravity structure. The MDSS uses a circular specimen that is consolidated under both a vertical effective stress ({sigma}{sub vc}{prime}) and a horizontal shear stress ({tau}{sub 1}). The specimen is subsequently sheared undrained by applying a second independent horizontal shear stress ({tau}{sub 2}) at an angle {theta} relative to the horizontal consolidation shear stress {tau}{sub 1}. Evaluation of the MDSS first compares conventional K{sub D}-consolidated undrained direct simple shear (CK{sub 0}UDSS) test data ({tau}{sub 1} = 0) on normally consolidated Boston blue clay (BBC) with results obtained in the Geonor DSS device. The MDSS gives lower secant Young`s modulus values and on average 8% lower strengths, but produces remarkably less scatter in the test results than the Geonor DSS. Kinematic proof tests with an elastic material (rubber) confirm that the setup procedure, application of forces, and strain measurement systems in the MDSS work properly and produce repeatable results. Results from a MDSS test program on BBC wherein specimens were first normally consolidated with {sigma}{sub vc}{prime} and {tau}{sub 1} = 0.2{sigma}{sub vc}{prime} and then sheared undrained at {theta} varing in 30{degree} increments from zero (shear in same direction) to 150{degree} show dramatic differences in the response of the soil as a function of {theta}. The peak undrained strength varies almost twofold from 0 = 0 to 120{degree}, while the deformation behavior varies from very brittle at low {theta} angles to becoming ductile at higher angles. 11 refs., 15 figs.

  14. NASA wind shear flight test in situ results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera, Rosa M.

    1992-01-01

    The main objectives in developing the NASA in situ windshear detection algorithm were to provide a measurement standard for validation of forward-look sensors under development, and to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to operate with a suitably low nuisance alert rate. It was necessary to know exactly how the algorithm was implemented and what parameters and filtering were used, in order to be able to fully test its effectiveness and correlate in situ results with forward-look sensor data.

  15. Signal processing techniques for clutter filtering and wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.; Deshpande, Manohar D

    1991-01-01

    An extended Prony algorithm applicable to signal processing techniques for clutter filtering and windshear detection is discussed. The algorithm is based upon modelling the radar return as a time series, and appears to offer potential for improving hazard factor estimates in the presence of strong clutter returns.

  16. Airborne detection of diffuse carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, T.M.; Doukas, M.P.; McGee, K.A.; Kessler, R.

    1999-01-01

    We report the first airborne detection of CO2 degassing from diffuse volcanic sources. Airborne measurement of diffuse CO2 degassing offers a rapid alternative for monitoring CO2 emission rates at Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations, temperatures, and barometric pressures were measured at ~2,500 GPS-referenced locations during a one-hour, eleven-orbit survey of air around Mammoth Mountain at ~3 km from the summit and altitudes of 2,895-3,657 m. A volcanic CO2 anomaly 4-5 km across with CO2 levels ~1 ppm above background was revealed downwind of tree-kill areas. It contained a 1-km core with concentrations exceeding background by >3 ppm. Emission rates of ~250 t d-1 are indicated. Orographic winds may play a key role in transporting the diffusely degassed CO2 upslope to elevations where it is lofted into the regional wind system.We report the first airborne detection of CO2 degassing from diffuse volcanic sources. Airborne measurement of diffuse CO2 degassing offers a rapid alternative for monitoring CO2 emission rates at Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations, temperatures, and barometric pressures were measured at approximately 2,500 GPS-referenced locations during a one-hour, eleven-orbit survey of air around Mammoth Mountain at approximately 3 km from the summit and altitudes of 2,895-3,657 m. A volcanic CO2 anomaly 4-5 km across with CO2 levels approximately 1 ppm above background was revealed downwind of tree-kill areas. It contained a 1-km core with concentrations exceeding background by >3 ppm. Emission rates of approximately 250 t d-1 are indicated. Orographic winds may play a key role in transporting the diffusely degassed CO2 upslope to elevations where it is lofted into the regional wind system.

  17. Generation of Large-Scale Winds in Horizontally Anisotropic Convection.

    PubMed

    von Hardenberg, J; Goluskin, D; Provenzale, A; Spiegel, E A

    2015-09-25

    We simulate three-dimensional, horizontally periodic Rayleigh-Bénard convection, confined between free-slip horizontal plates and rotating about a distant horizontal axis. When both the temperature difference between the plates and the rotation rate are sufficiently large, a strong horizontal wind is generated that is perpendicular to both the rotation vector and the gravity vector. The wind is turbulent, large-scale, and vertically sheared. Horizontal anisotropy, engendered here by rotation, appears necessary for such wind generation. Most of the kinetic energy of the flow resides in the wind, and the vertical turbulent heat flux is much lower on average than when there is no wind. PMID:26451558

  18. Shear Banding of Complex Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divoux, Thibaut; Fardin, Marc A.; Manneville, Sebastien; Lerouge, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Even in simple geometries, many complex fluids display nontrivial flow fields, with regions where shear is concentrated. The possibility for such shear banding has been known for several decades, but in recent years, we have seen an upsurge in studies offering an ever-more precise understanding of the phenomenon. The development of new techniques to probe the flow on multiple scales with increasing spatial and temporal resolution has opened the possibility for a synthesis of the many phenomena that could only have been thought of separately before. In this review, we bring together recent research on shear banding in polymeric and soft glassy materials and highlight their similarities and disparities.

  19. Fluid-Assisted Shear Failure Within a Ductile Shear Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Compton, K.; Holk, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Exhumed shear zones often contain folded and/or dynamically recrystallized structures such as veins and pseudotachylytes that record contemporaneous brittle and ductile deformation representing mixed bulk rheology. Here, we constrain the conditions that promote the transitions between ductile and brittle deformation by investigating quartz veins with shear offsets in the Saddlebag Lake shear zone in the central Sierra Nevada, California. Mesozoic metasedimentary rocks within the shear zone contain transposed bedding, strong cleavage, dextrally rotated porphyroclasts, and a steep mineral lineation, which together suggest an overall transpressive kinematic regime for the ductile deformation. Foliation sub-parallel veins are one subset of the veins in the shear zone. They have observed horizontal trace lengths of up to around 5 meters, though most are obscured by limited exposure, and displacements range from ~3-30 mm, with 1-5 mm of opening. Foliation sub-parallel veins are folded with the foliation and quartz microstructures and fluid inclusion thermobarometry measurements from vein samples indicate temperatures during vein formation by fracture were between 300-680°C. Quartz δ18O values (+5.9 to +16.5) suggest extended fluid-rock interaction that involved magmatic (δ18O ~ +8 to +10) and meteoric (δ18O down to -1) fluids. Foliation sub-parallel veins are most abundant in relatively massive, quartz-rich rocks where they are boudinaged, indicating they were rigid inclusions after formation. Based on the orientation and spatial distribution of the veins, we infer that they formed under high differential stress with pore pressures sufficiently high for the rocks to be critically stressed for shear failure along mechanically weak foliation planes. These observations suggest high pore pressures and mechanical heterogeneity at a variety of scales are necessary conditions for nucleation of shear fractures within ductile shear zones.

  20. Field Wind Tunnel Testing of Two Silt Loam Soils on the North American Central High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion is a natural process of sediment redistribution resulting from the shear force of the wind interacting with unprotected soil surfaces. Globally, wind erosion accounts for nearly half of all soil loss. Breaking of the prairie sod and mechanical tillage of agricultural soils on the semi...

  1. The production of turbulent stress in a shear flow by irrotational fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartshore, I. S.; Durbin, P. A.; Hunt, J. C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Attention is given to the way in which external turbulence affects an initially turbulence-free region in which there is a mean velocity gradient. External turbulence induces irrotational fluctuations in the sheared region which interact with the shear to produce rotational velocity fluctuations and mean Reynolds stresses. Since the actual front between the initial external turbulence and the shear flow is a randomly contorted surface, the turbulence near the front is intermittent, and is presently included in the form of a simple statistical model. In wind tunnel tests, turbulent shear stress was found to grow from zero to significant values in the interaction region. Observed stress magnitude and extent agrees with predictions, and it is concluded that turbulent stresses can be produced by irrotational fluctuations in a region of mean shear.

  2. Characteristics of shear layer with pyrolysing coal particles in one of the streams

    SciTech Connect

    Gollahalli, S.R.; Butuk, N.

    1998-07-01

    This article presents an experimental study of the growth and structure of a two-dimensional shear layer formed by two gas streams, one of which contained coal particles undergoing pyrolysis. Apparatus consisted of a low speed shear layer wind-tunnel designed to generate two gas streams, initially with uniform velocity profiles and isotropic turbulence, which mix at the end of a splitter plate. A fluidized bed injector system was used to introduce bituminous coal particles into one of the streams which was heated to cause their pyrolysis. The test section was optically accessible. The instrumentation included thermocouple, Pitot tube, laser velocimeter, and gas analyzers. Velocity profiles, temperature profiles, shear layer growth rate parameter, and turbulent intensity measurements were obtained. Results indicate that the presence of coal particles affect the velocity and decreases the shear layer growth rate (visible and vorticity thickness) significantly; however, the mass addition due to pyrolysis alone does not change the shear layer characteristics significantly.

  3. Evaluation of the shear bond strength of resin cement to Y-TZP ceramic after different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yoo-Jin; Shin, Yooseok; Yi, Young-Ah; Kim, Jaehoon; Lee, In-Bog; Cho, Byeong-Hoon; Son, Ho-Hyun; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various surface treatments on the shear bond strength of Y-TZP (Yttria-Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal) ceramics with zirconia primer and two different resin cements both containing 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP). Zirconia blocks (LAVA, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) were polished and assigned to five groups according to the surface treatment: (1) no further treatment (control); (2) airborne abrasion with Al2 O3 particles; (3) Z-PRIME Plus (Bisco, Schaumburg, IL) applied on polished zirconia; (4) Z-PRIME Plus applied on zirconia after airborne abrasion; and (5) tribochemical silica-coating performed with the CoJet system (3M ESPE) followed by application of ESPE®-Sil (3M ESPE). Each group was further divided into one of two resin cements: Panavia F2.0 (Kuraray, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan) and Clearfil SA Luting (Kuraray). Resin cement placed inside a gel-cap was polymerized on the zirconia surface. Shear bond strength was tested with a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. One-way analysis of variance and paired t-test were done. (p < 0.05), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken. Zirconia primer applied after airborne abrasion significantly increased the shear bond strength resulting in the highest value for both resin cements. Control groups for both cements showed the weakest value for shear bond strength. No significant differences were found between the shear bond strengths of the individual resin cements applied to zirconia surfaces treated the same way. In conclusion, the combined surface treatment of airborne abrasion followed by a zirconia primer is recommended for zirconia bonding with Panavia F2.0 and Clearfil SA Luting cements. PMID:24676632

  4. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  5. Airborne wavemeter validation and calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goad, Joseph H., Jr.; Rinsland, Pamela L.; Kist, Edward H., Jr.; Geier, Erika B.; Banziger, Curtis G.

    1992-01-01

    This manuscript outlines a continuing effort to validate and verify the performance of an airborne autonomous wavemeter for tuning solid state lasers to a desired wavelength. The application is measuring the vertical profiles of atmospheric water vapor using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. Improved wavemeter performance data for varying ambient temperatures are presented. This resulted when the electronic grounding and shielding were improved. The results with short pulse duration lasers are also included. These lasers show that similar performance could be obtained with lasers operating in the continuous and the pulsed domains.

  6. High sensitive airborne radioiodine monitor.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Yoshimune; Yamasaki, Tadashi; Hanafusa, Ryuji

    2013-11-01

    Airborne radioiodine monitoring includes a problem in that commercial radioactive gas monitors have inadequate sensitivity. To solve this problem, we designed a highly sensitive monitoring system. The higher counting efficiency and lower background made it possible to perform the low-level monitoring. The characteristics of the system were investigated using gaseous (125)I. The minimum detectable activity concentration was 1 × 10(-4)Bq cm(-3) for 1 min counting, which is one tenth of the legal limit for the radiation controlled areas in Japan. PMID:23602709

  7. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  8. Cyberinfrastructure for Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2004 the NASA Airborne Science Program has been prototyping and using infrastructure that enables researchers to interact with each other and with their instruments via network communications. This infrastructure uses satellite links and an evolving suite of applications and services that leverage open-source software. The use of these tools has increased near-real-time situational awareness during field operations, resulting in productivity improvements and the collection of better data. This paper describes the high-level system architecture and major components, with example highlights from the use of the infrastructure. The paper concludes with a discussion of ongoing efforts to transition to operational status.

  9. Biological monitoring of airborne pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ditz, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Common plants such as grasses, mosses, and even goldenrod may turn out to have a new high-tech role as monitors of airborne pollution from solid waste incinerators. Certain plants that respond to specific pollutants can provide continuous surveillance of air quality over long periods of time: they are bio-indicators. Other species accumulate pollutants and can serve as sensitive indicators of pollutants and of food-chain contamination: they are bio-accumulators. Through creative use of these properties, biological monitoring can provide information that cannot be obtained by current methods such as stack testing.

  10. Airborne Research Experience for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V. B.; Albertson, R.; Smith, S.; Stockman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Airborne Research Experience for Educators (AREE) Program, conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Office of Education in partnership with the AERO Institute, NASA Teaching From Space Program, and California State University Fullerton, is a complete end-to-end residential research experience in airborne remote sensing and atmospheric science. The 2009 program engaged ten secondary educators who specialize in science, technology, engineering or mathematics in a 6-week Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) offered through NSERC. Educators participated in collection of in-flight remote sensor data during flights aboard the NASA DC-8 as well as in-situ research on atmospheric chemistry (bovine emissions of methane); algal blooms (remote sensing to determine location and degree of blooms for further in-situ analysis); and crop classification (exploration of how drought conditions in Central California have impacted almond and cotton crops). AREE represents a unique model of the STEM teacher-as-researcher professional development experience because it asks educators to participate in a research experience and then translate their experiences into classroom practice through the design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional materials that emphasize the scientific research process, inquiry-based investigations, and manipulation of real data. Each AREE Master Educator drafted a Curriculum Brief, Teachers Guide, and accompanying resources for a topic in their teaching assignment Currently, most professional development programs offer either a research experience OR a curriculum development experience. The dual nature of the AREE model engaged educators in both experiences. Educators’ content and pedagogical knowledge of STEM was increased through the review of pertinent research articles during the first week, attendance at lectures and workshops during the second week, and participation in the airborne and in-situ research studies, data

  11. Near-inertial kinetic energy budget of the mixed layer and shear evolution in the transition layer in the Arabian Sea during the monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Sudip; Tandon, Amit; Rudnick, Daniel L.; Thomas Farrar, J.

    2015-09-01

    We present the horizontal kinetic energy (KE) balance of near-inertial currents in the mixed layer and explain shear evolution in the transition layer using observations from a mooring at 15.26° N in the Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon. The highly sheared and stratified transition layer at the mixed-layer base varies between 5 m and 35 m and correlates negatively with the wind stress. Results from the mixed layer near-inertial KE (NIKE) balance suggest that wind energy at times can energize the transition layer and at other times is fully utilized within the mixed layer. A simple two layer model is utilized to study the shear evolution in the transition layer and shown to match well with observations. The shear production in this model arises from alignment of wind stress and shear. Although the winds are unidirectional during the monsoon, the shear in the transition layer is predominantly near-inertial. The near-inertial shear bursts in the observations show the same phasing and magnitude at near-inertial frequencies as the wind-shear alignment term.

  12. Shear instabilities in granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, David J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Shinbrot, Troy

    2002-01-01

    Unstable waves have been long studied in fluid shear layers. These waves affect transport in the atmosphere and oceans, in addition to slipstream stability behind ships, aeroplanes and heat-transfer devices. Corresponding instabilities in granular flows have not been previously documented, despite the importance of these flows in geophysical and industrial systems. Here we report that breaking waves can form at the interface between two streams of identical grains flowing on an inclined plane downstream of a splitter plate. Changes in either the shear rate or the angle of incline cause such waves to appear abruptly. We analyse a granular flow model that agrees qualitatively with our experimental data; the model suggests that the waves result from competition between shear and extensional strains in the flowing granular bed. We propose a dimensionless shear number that governs the transition between steady and wavy flows.

  13. Shear instabilities in granular flows.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, David J; Glasser, Benjamin J; Shinbrot, Troy

    2002-01-17

    Unstable waves have been long studied in fluid shear layers. These waves affect transport in the atmosphere and oceans, in addition to slipstream stability behind ships, aeroplanes and heat-transfer devices. Corresponding instabilities in granular flows have not been previously documented, despite the importance of these flows in geophysical and industrial systems. Here we report that breaking waves can form at the interface between two streams of identical grains flowing on an inclined plane downstream of a splitter plate. Changes in either the shear rate or the angle of incline cause such waves to appear abruptly. We analyse a granular flow model that agrees qualitatively with our experimental data; the model suggests that the waves result from competition between shear and extensional strains in the flowing granular bed. We propose a dimensionless shear number that governs the transition between steady and wavy flows. PMID:11797003

  14. Proteins in a shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymczak, P.; Cieplak, Marek

    2007-10-01

    The conformational dynamics of a single protein molecule in a shear flow is investigated using Brownian dynamics simulations. A structure-based coarse grained model of a protein is used. We consider two proteins, ubiquitin and integrin, and find that at moderate shear rates they unfold through a sequence of metastable states—a pattern which is distinct from a smooth unraveling found in homopolymers. Full unfolding occurs only at very large shear rates. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic interactions between the amino acids are shown to hinder the shear flow unfolding. The characteristics of the unfolding process depend on whether a protein is anchored or not, and if it is, on the choice of an anchoring point.

  15. Grafted polymer under shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Foster, Damien P.; Giri, Debaprasad; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    A self-attracting-self-avoiding walk model of polymer chain on a square lattice has been used to gain an insight into the behaviour of a polymer chain under shear flow in a slit of width L. Using exact enumeration technique, we show that at high temperature, the polymer acquires the extended state continuously increasing with shear stress. However, at low temperature the polymer exhibits two transitions: a transition from the coiled to the globule state and a transition to a stem-flower like state. For a chain of finite length, we obtained the exact monomer density distributions across the layers at different temperatures. The change in density profile with shear stress suggests that the polymer under shear flow can be used as a molecular gate with potential application as a sensor.

  16. A piezoelectric shear stress sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress, suppressing effects of normal stress components, by applying opposite poling vectors to the piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces where it demonstrated high sensitivity to shear stress (91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-33%PT, d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also exhibited negligible sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is up to 800 Hz.

  17. Cosmic Shear from Galaxy Spins.

    PubMed

    Lee; Pen

    2000-03-20

    We discuss the origin of galactic angular momentum and the statistics of the present-day spin distribution. It is expected that the galaxy spin axes are correlated with the intermediate principal axis of the gravitational shear tensor. This allows one to reconstruct the shear field and thereby the full gravitational potential from the observed galaxy spin fields. We use the direction of the angular momentum vector without any information of its magnitude, which requires a measurement of the position angle and inclination on the sky of each disk galaxy. We present the maximum likelihood shear inversion procedure, which involves a constrained linear minimization. The theory is tested against numerical simulations. We find the correlation strength of nonlinear structures with the initial shear field and show that accurate large-scale density reconstructions are possible at the expected noise level. PMID:10702119

  18. Simulation of the Impact of New Air-Based Ocean Surface Wind Measurements on H*Wind Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy; Atlas, Robert; Black, Peter; Case, Jonathan; Chen, Shuyi; Hood, Robbie; Jones, Linwood; Ruff, Chris; Uhlhorn, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The H'Wind analysis, a product of the Hurricane Research Division of NOAA's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, brings together wind measurements from a variety of observation platforms into an objective analysis of the distribution of wind speeds in a tropical cyclone. This product is designed to improve understanding of the extent and strength of the wind field, and to improve the assessment of hurricane intensity. See http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/data sub/wind.html. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRad) is a new airborne microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NOAA Hurricane Research Division, the University of Central Florida and the University of Michigan. HIRad is being designed to enhance the real-time airborne ocean surface winds observation capabilities of NOAA and USAF Weather Squadron hurricane hunter aircraft using the operational airborne Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR). Unlike SFMR, which measures wind speed and rain rate along the ground track directly beneath the aircraft, HIRad will provide images of the surface wind and rain field over a wide swath (approx. 3 x the aircraft altitude). The instrument is described in a paper presented to the Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Symposium. The present paper describes a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) in which measurements from the new instrument as well as those from existing instruments (air, surface, and space-based) are simulated from the output of a numerical model from the University of Miami and those results are used to construct H*Wind analyses. Evaluations will be presented on the impact of the HIRad instrument on H'Wind analyses, both in terms of adding it to the full suite of current measurements, as well as using it to replace instrument(s) that may not be functioning at the future tame the HIRad instrument is implemented.

  19. The Role of Aircraft Motion in Airborne Gravity Data Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, V. A.; Damiani, T.; Weil, C.; Preaux, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Many factors contribute to the quality of airborne gravity data measured with LaCoste and Romberg-type sensors, such as the Micro-g LaCoste Turnkey Airborne Gravity System used by the National Geodetic Survey's GRAV-D (Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum) Project. For example, it is well documented that turbulence is a big factor in the overall noise level of the measurement. Turbulence is best controlled by avoidance; thus flights in the GRAV-D Project are only undertaken when the predicted wind speeds at flight level are ≤ 40 kts. Tail winds are known to be particularly problematic. The GRAV-D survey operates on a number of aircraft in a variety of wind conditions and geographic locations, and an obvious conclusion from our work to date is that the aircraft itself plays an enormous role in the quality of the airborne gravity measurement. We have identified a number of features of the various aircraft which can be determined to play a role: the autopilot, the size and speed of the aircraft, inherent motion characteristics of the airframe, tip tanks and other modifications to the airframe to reduce motion, to name the most important. This study evaluates the motion of a number of the GRAV-D aircraft and looks at the correlation between this motion and the noise characteristics of the gravity data. The GRAV-D Project spans 7 years and 42 surveys, so we have a significant body of data for this evaluation. Throughout the project, the sensor suite has included an inertial measurement unit (IMU), first the Applanix POSAv, and then later the Honeywell MicroIRS IMU as a part of a NovAtel SPAN GPS/IMU system. We compare the noise characteristics of the data with measures of aircraft motion (via pitch, roll, and yaw captured by the IMU) using a variety of statistical tools. It is expected that this comparison will support the conclusion that certain aircraft tend to work well with this type of gravity sensor while others tend to be problematic in

  20. Wind Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Dr. Jack Cermak, Director of Fluid Dynamics and Diffusion Laboratory, developed the first wind tunnel to simulate the changing temperatures, directions and velocities of natural winds. In this work, Cermak benefited from NASA technology related to what is known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL).

  1. Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communications Program (AVLOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of airborne and ground-based laser communications and laser radar hardware is described in support of the Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communication program. The major emphasis is placed on the development of a highly flexible test bed for the evaluation of laser communications systems techniques and components in an operational environment.

  2. Global Test Range: Toward Airborne Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.; Freudinger, Larry; DelFrate John H.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned global sensor network that will monitor the Earth's climate, and resources using airborne sensor systems. The vision is an intelligent, affordable Earth Observation System. Global Test Range is a lab developing trustworthy services for airborne instruments - a specialized Internet Service Provider. There is discussion of several current and planned missions.

  3. Airborne Relay-Based Regional Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyuman; Noh, Hongjun; Lim, Jaesung

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based pseudolite systems have some limitations, such as low vertical accuracy, multipath effects and near-far problems. These problems are not significant in airborne-based pseudolite systems. However, the monitoring of pseudolite positions is required because of the mobility of the platforms on which the pseudolites are mounted, and this causes performance degradation. To address these pseudolite system limitations, we propose an airborne relay-based regional positioning system that consists of a master station, reference stations, airborne relays and a user. In the proposed system, navigation signals are generated from the reference stations located on the ground and are relayed via the airborne relays. Unlike in conventional airborne-based systems, the user in the proposed system sequentially estimates both the locations of airborne relays and his/her own position. Therefore, a delay due to monitoring does not occur, and the accuracy is not affected by the movement of airborne relays. We conducted several simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. Based on the simulation results, we demonstrated that the proposed system guarantees a higher accuracy than airborne-based pseudolite systems, and it is feasible despite the existence of clock offsets among reference stations. PMID:26029953

  4. The Continuous wavelet in airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Liu, L.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravimetry is an efficient method to recover medium and high frequency band of earth gravity over any region, especially inaccessible areas, which can measure gravity data with high accuracy,high resolution and broad range in a rapidly and economical way, and It will play an important role for geoid and geophysical exploration. Filtering methods for reducing high-frequency errors is critical to the success of airborne gravimetry due to Aircraft acceleration determination based on GPS.Tradiontal filters used in airborne gravimetry are FIR,IIR filer and so on. This study recommends an improved continuous wavelet to process airborne gravity data. Here we focus on how to construct the continuous wavelet filters and show their working principle. Particularly the technical parameters (window width parameter and scale parameter) of the filters are tested. Then the raw airborne gravity data from the first Chinese airborne gravimetry campaign are filtered using FIR-low pass filter and continuous wavelet filters to remove the noise. The comparison to reference data is performed to determinate external accuracy, which shows that continuous wavelet filters applied to airborne gravity in this thesis have good performances. The advantages of the continuous wavelet filters over digital filters are also introduced. The effectiveness of the continuous wavelet filters for airborne gravimetry is demonstrated through real data computation.

  5. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) (Global Carbon Cycle)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This bimonthly contractor progress report covers the operation, maintenance and data management of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Monthly activities included: mission planning, sensor operation and calibration, data processing, data analysis, network development and maintenance and instrument maintenance engineering and fabrication.

  6. Using machine learning to predict wind turbine power output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifton, A.; Kilcher, L.; Lundquist, J. K.; Fleming, P.

    2013-06-01

    Wind turbine power output is known to be a strong function of wind speed, but is also affected by turbulence and shear. In this work, new aerostructural simulations of a generic 1.5 MW turbine are used to rank atmospheric influences on power output. Most significant is the hub height wind speed, followed by hub height turbulence intensity and then wind speed shear across the rotor disk. These simulation data are used to train regression trees that predict the turbine response for any combination of wind speed, turbulence intensity, and wind shear that might be expected at a turbine site. For a randomly selected atmospheric condition, the accuracy of the regression tree power predictions is three times higher than that from the traditional power curve methodology. The regression tree method can also be applied to turbine test data and used to predict turbine performance at a new site. No new data are required in comparison to the data that are usually collected for a wind resource assessment. Implementing the method requires turbine manufacturers to create a turbine regression tree model from test site data. Such an approach could significantly reduce bias in power predictions that arise because of the different turbulence and shear at the new site, compared to the test site.

  7. Wind energy.

    PubMed

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented. PMID:17272245

  8. Wind machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gaston, E. E.

    1985-01-15

    To generate power from wind economically, a feathering vane is pivotally mounted perpendicular to a tail vane and shifts the orientation of a sprocket assembly controlled by the tail vane in response to wind velocity. The sprocket assembly changes the orientation of blades which orbit about and rotate the main power shaft so that, as wind velocity changes, the blade orientations are shifted in a compensating direction under the control of the tail vane. A lever shifts the position of the blades to positions that balance wind power and brake the rotation for maintenance purposes. The speed-control mechanism includes a damper to avoid being excessively affected by wind gusts. The main shaft is connected through a speed increaser which has less mass at the high-speed end than the low-speed end to an induction generator when used for cogeneration, the field of the induction generator being excited by the cogeneration frequency.

  9. A theoretical model for airborne radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubert, D.

    1989-11-01

    This work describes a general theory for the simulation of airborne (or spaceborne) radars. It can simulate many types of systems including Airborne Intercept and Airborne Early Warning radars, airborne missile approach warning systems etc. It computes the average Signal-to-Noise ratio at the output of the signal processor. In this manner, one obtains the average performance of the radar without having to use Monte Carlo techniques. The model has provision for a waveform without frequency modulation and one with linear frequency modulation. The waveform may also have frequency hopping for Electronic Counter Measures or for clutter suppression. The model can accommodate any type of encounter including air-to-air, air-to-ground (look-down) and rear attacks. It can simulate systems with multiple phase centers on receive for studying advanced clutter or jamming interference suppression techniques. An Airborne Intercept radar is investigated to demonstrate the validity and the capability of the model.

  10. Velocity shear induced phenomena in solar and astrophysical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tevzadze, A. G.

    2006-04-01

    be overcome by a substantial increase of the Reynolds number. Secondly we study 3D perturbations where we contribute to the bypass transition scenario and derive a possible mechanism for the hydrodynamic turbulence in accretion disks. In Chapter 7 we have studied the resonant interactions of the MHD wave modes in shear flows. We have shown that the reciprocal transformation of the MHD wave modes may occur symmetrically. Depending on the wave-numbers, the mutual transformation of the Alfven and fast magnetosonic waves is possible in strongly magnetized plasmas. Transformations of the Alfven and the slow magnetosonic waves are expected in weakly magnetized plasmas. Plasmas with equal magnetic and thermal pressure (beta=1) may exhibit the transformations of all three MHD waves simultaneously. An important property is that this process is resonant by nature: in contrast with the mode conversion phenomenon described in Chapters (3-6) the amplitude of waves generated during transformations do not generally grow when the shear parameter increases. It is quite the opposite. The resonance and effective exchange of energy between the MHD wave modes require low value of shear parameters. We have discussed astrophysi! cal consequences of our study. Among these are applications in the solar atmosphere and wind, galactic spiral arms, pulsar magnetosphere and Earth's atmosphere. Overall, the main frame of investigation throughout this thesis lies on the non-modal analysis of perturbations, recovering short time transient phenomena that originate from the non-normal character of the shear flows. We hope that our efforts contribute to a better understanding of the kinematically inhomogeneous astrophysical objects. The aim here was twofold: Firstly, shear flows commonly occur in many astrophysical situations and they are thought to be the key to the explanation of accretion disk phenomena. Secondly, it gives us an opportunity to study vortex-wave mode conversion in a medium, where two

  11. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  12. Shade Effects on the Dispersal of Airborne Hemileia vastatrix Uredospores.

    PubMed

    Boudrot, Audrey; Pico, Jimmy; Merle, Isabelle; Granados, Eduardo; Vílchez, Sergio; Tixier, Philippe; Filho, Elías de Melo Virginio; Casanoves, Fernando; Tapia, Ana; Allinne, Clémentine; Rice, Robert A; Avelino, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Hemileia vastatrix caused a severe epidemic in Central America in 2012-13. The gradual development of that epidemic on nearly a continental scale suggests that dispersal at different scales played a significant role. Shade has been proposed as a way of reducing uredospore dispersal. The effect of shade (two strata: Erythrina poeppigiana below and Chloroleucon eurycyclum above) and full sun on H. vastatrix dispersal was studied with Burkard traps in relation to meteorological records. Annual and daily patterns of dispersal were observed, with peaks of uredospore capture obtained during wet seasons and in the early afternoon. A maximum of 464 uredospores in 1 day (in 14.4 m(3) of air) was recorded in October 2014. Interactions between shade/full sun and meteorological conditions were found. Rainfall, possibly intercepted by tree cover and redistributed by raindrops of higher kinetic energy, was the main driver of uredospore dispersal under shade. Wind gusts reversed this effect, probably by inhibiting water accumulation on leaves. Wind gusts also promoted dispersal under dry conditions in full sun, whereas they had no effect under shaded conditions, probably because the canopy blocked the wind. Our results indicate the importance of managing shade cover differentially in rainy versus dry periods to control the dispersal of airborne H. vastatrix uredospores. PMID:26828230

  13. Wind/solar resource in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Gaines, H.

    1997-12-31

    Data are being collected at 17 sites to delineate a baseline for the wind and solar resource across Texas. Wind data are being collected at 10, 25, and 40 m (in some cases at 50 m) to determine wind shear and power at hub heights of large turbines. Many of the sites are located in areas of predicted terrain enhancement. The typical day in a month for power and wind turbine output was calculated for selected sites and combination of sites; distributed systems. Major result to date is that there is the possibility of load matching in South Texas during the summer months, even though the average values by month indicate a low wind potential.

  14. Towards a Wind Energy Climatology at Advanced Turbine Hub-Heights: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2005-05-01

    Measurements of wind characteristics over a wide range of heights up to and above 100 m are useful to: (1) characterize the local and regional wind climate; (2) validate wind resource estimates derived from numerical models; and (3) evaluate changes in wind characteristics and wind shear over the area swept by the blades. Developing wind climatology at advanced turbine hub heights for the United States benefits wind energy development. Tall tower data from Kansas, Indiana, and Minnesota (which have the greatest number of tall towers with measurement data) will be the focus of this paper. Analyses of data from the tall towers will start the process of developing a comprehensive climatology.

  15. Aeolian sand transport: a wind tunnel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhibao; Liu, Xiaoping; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xunming

    2003-09-01

    Wind sand transport is an important geological process on earth and some other planets. Formulating the wind sand transport model has been of continuing significance. Majority of the existing models relate sand transport rate to the wind shear velocity based on dynamic analysis. However, the wind shear velocity readapted to blown sand is difficult to determine from the measured wind profiles when sand movement occurs, especially at high wind velocity. Moreover, the effect of grain size on sand transport is open to argument. Detailed wind tunnel tests were carried out with respect to the threshold velocity, threshold shear velocity, and transport rate of differently sized, loose dry sand at different wind velocities to reformulate the transport model. The results suggest that the relationship between threshold shear velocity and grain size basically follow the Bagnold-type equation for the grain size d>0.1 mm. However, the threshold coefficient A in the equation is not constant as suggested by Bagnold, but decreases with the particle Reynolds number. The threshold velocity at the centerline height of the wind tunnel proved to be directly proportional to the square root of grain diameter. Attempts have been made to relate sand transport rate to both the wind velocity and shear velocity readapted to the blown sand movement. The reformulated transport model for loose dry sand follows the modified O'Brien-Rindlaub-type equation: Q= f1( d)(1- Ru) 2( ρ/ g) V3, or the modified Bagnold-type equation: Q= f2( d)(1- Rt) 0.25( ρ/ g) U*3. Where Q is the sand transport rate, the sand flux per unit time and per unit width, in kg m -1 s -1; ρ is the air density, 1.25 kg m -3; g is the acceleration due to gravity, 9.81 m s -2; Ru= Vt/ V; Rt= U*t/ U*; V is the wind velocity at the centerline of the wind tunnel, in m s -1; Vt is the threshold velocity measured at the same height as V, in m s -1; U* is the shear velocity with saltating flux, in m s -1; U*t is threshold shear

  16. Ambient Airborne Solids Concentrations Including Volcanic Ash at Hanford, Washington Sampling Sites Subsequent to the Mount St. Helens Eruption

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1982-12-20

    A major eruption of Mount St. Helens occurred on May 18, 1980. Subsequently, airborne solid concentrations were measured as a function of time at two sites within the southern edge of the fallout plume about 211 km east of Mount St. Helens. This ash was a source for investigating area-wide resuspension. Rain had a variable effect on decreasing airborne concentrations from resuspension. From 0.5 to 1.5 cm of rain were required to significantly reduce airborne solid concentrations through July. For a more aged resuspension source in September, a rain of 2.0 cm had a negligible effect. A monthly average threshold-wind speed for resuspension was defined as 3.6 m/s. For monthly-average wind speeds less than the threshold wind speed, monthly-average airborne concentrations tended to decrease with time. A decrease was recorded between September and October. For this 4-month time period, the half-life was on the order of 50 days, corresponding to a weathering rate of 5.1 year/sup -1/.

  17. Investigation of airborne lidar for avoidance of windshear hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Targ, Russell; Bowles, Roland L.

    1990-01-01

    A generalized windshear hazard index is defined, which is derived from considerations of wind conditions at the present position of an aircraft and from remotely sensed information along the extended flight path. Candidate airborne sensor technologies based on microwave Doppler radar, Doppler lidar, and infrared radiometric techniques are discussed in the context of overall system functional requirements. Initial results of a performance and technology assessment study for competing lidars are presented. Based on a systems approach to the windshear threat, lidar appears to be a viable technology for windshear detection and avoidance, even in conditions of moderately heavy precipitation. The proposed airborne CO2 and Ho:YAG lidar windshear-detection systems analyzed here can give the pilot information about the line-of-sight component of windshear threat from his present position to a region extending 1 to 3 km in front of the aircraft. This constitutes a warning time of 15 to 45 seconds. The technology necessary to design, build, and test such a brassboard 10.6 micron CO2 lidar is now available. However, for 2-micron systems, additional analytical and laboratory investigations are needed to arrive at optimum 2-micron rare-earth-based laser crystals.

  18. Airborne Turbulence Detection and Warning ACLAIM Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannon, Stephen M.; Bagley, Hal R.; Soreide, Dave C.; Bowdle, David A.; Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. Jack

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced Inflight Measurements (ACLAIM) is a NASA/Dryden-lead program to develop and demonstrate a 2 micrometers pulsed Doppler lidar for airborne look-ahead turbulence detection and warning. Advanced warning of approaching turbulence can significantly reduce injuries to passengers and crew aboard commercial airliners. The ACLAIM instrument is a key asset to the ongoing Turbulence component of NASA's Aviation Safety Program, aimed at reducing the accident rate aboard commercial airliners by a factor of five over the next ten years and by a factor of ten over the next twenty years. As well, the advanced turbulence warning capability can prevent "unstarts" in the inlet of supersonic aircraft engines by alerting the flight control computer which then adjusts the engine to operate in a less fuel efficient, and more turbulence tolerant, mode. Initial flight tests of the ACLAIM were completed in March and April of 1998. This paper and presentation gives results from these initial flights, with validated demonstration of Doppler lidar wind turbulence detection several kilometers ahead of the aircraft.

  19. Stellar Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, Stan

    A "stellar wind" is the continuous, supersonic outflow of matter from the surface layers of a star. Our sun has a solar wind, driven by the gas-pressure expansion of the hot (T > 106 K) solar corona. It can be studied through direct in situ measurement by interplanetary spacecraft; but analogous coronal winds in more distant solar-type stars are so tenuous and transparent that that they are difficult to detect directly. Many more luminous stars have winds that are dense enough to be opaque at certain wavelengths of the star's radiation, making it possible to study their wind outflows remotely through careful interpretation of the observed stellar spectra. Red giant stars show slow, dense winds that may be driven by the pressure from magnetohydrodyanmic waves. As stars with initial mass up to 8 M ⊙ evolve toward the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), a combination of stellar pulsations and radiative scattering off dust can culminate in "superwinds" that strip away the entire stellar envelope, leaving behind a hot white dwarf stellar core with less than the Chandrasekhar mass of ˜ ​​ 1. 4M ⊙. The winds of hot, luminous, massive stars are driven by line-scattering of stellar radiation, but such massive stars can also exhibit superwind episodes, either as Red Supergiants or Luminous Blue Variable stars. The combined wind and superwind mass loss can strip the star's hydrogen envelope, leaving behind a Wolf-Rayet star composed of the products of earlier nuclear burning via the CNO cycle. In addition to such direct effects on a star's own evolution, stellar winds can be a substantial source of mass, momentum, and energy to the interstellar medium, blowing open large cavities or "bubbles" in this ISM, seeding it with nuclear processed material, and even helping trigger the formation of new stars, and influencing their eventual fate as white dwarves or core-collapse supernovae. This chapter reviews the properties of such stellar winds, with an emphasis on the various

  20. Windshear avoidance - Requirements and proposed system for airborne lidar detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Targ, Russell; Bowles, Roland L.

    1988-01-01

    A generalized windshear hazard index is derived from considerations of wind conditions and an aircraft's present and potential altitude. Based on a systems approach to the windshear threat, lidar appears to be a viable methodology for windshear detection and avoidance, even in conditions of moderately heavy precipitation. The airborne CO2 and Ho:YAG lidar windshear detection systems analyzed can each give the pilot information about the line-of-sight component of windshear threat from his present position to a region extending 1 to 3 km in front of the aircraft. This constitutes a warning time of 15 to 45 s. The technology necessary to design, build and test such a brassboard 10.6-micron CO2 lidar is at hand.