Science.gov

Sample records for airbreathing propulsion branch

  1. Experimental investigation of a unique airbreathing pulsed laser propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Nagamatsu, H. T.; Manka, C.; Lyons, P. W.; Jones, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Investigations were conducted into unique methods of converting pulsed laser energy into propulsive thrust across a flat impulse surface under atmospheric conditions. The propulsion experiments were performed with a 1-micron neodymium-glass laser at the Space Plasma Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory. Laser-induced impulse was measured dynamically by ballistic pendulums and statically using piezoelectric pressure transducers on a stationary impulse surface. The principal goal was to explore methods for increasing the impulse coupling performance of airbreathing laser-propulsion engines. A magnetohydrodynamic thrust augmentation effect was discovered when a tesla-level magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the impulse surface. The impulse coupling coefficient performance doubled and continued to improve with increasing laser-pulse energies. The resultant performance of 180 to 200 N-s/MJ was found to be comparable to that of the earliest afterburning turbojets.

  2. Laser power beaming for rocket propulsion and airbreathing propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.

    1980-01-01

    The developing technology of laser power beaming is introduced, and two systems are used as examples of the capabilities of the laser for beamed energy. In the first system, the potential of the laser to power flight systems ranging from hypersonic air-breathing launch vehicles to commercial jet transports is examined. Attention is given to the possibility of an air-breathing propulsion which offers the promise of a global air transportation network independent of kerosene and powered by solar energy. In addition, consideration is given to a new type of rocket propulsion based on the laser's ability to concentrate coherent laser energy to high power densities. Focused laser beams would heat the propellants directly to produce specific impulses approaching ion and MHD rocket levels, and would do so without the burden of a heavy electrical power supply.

  3. Hypersonic airbreathing propulsion/airframe integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidner, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent interest in airbreathing hypersonic flight has centered around the need to develop advanced space launch systems which can reduce the cost of inserting payloads in orbit and make space more accessible. An effect of the thermal environment is to require the vehicle to operate at high altitudes, in very thin air, to maintain aircraft structural load limits. The high altitudes at which the hypersonic vehicle must operate give rise to the concept of an airframe integrated propulsion system to provide a much larger inlet and nozzle to process the required volume of air at low density, atmospheric conditions. In the integrated system, the forward portion of the vehicle compresses the air flow and serves as the external portion of the inlet; the aftbody completes the expansion process for the nozzle. In addition, the engine, which is contained between the body and the forebody shock wave, lends itself to a modular integration of a number of separate engines. In this manner, a relatively small engine can be defined to allow engine development in existing ground facilities.

  4. Optimization of Air-Breathing Propulsion Engine Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1997-01-01

    Air-breathing propulsion engines play an important role in the development of both civil and military aircraft Design optimization of such engines can lead to higher power, or more thrust for less fuel consumption. A multimission propulsion engine design can be modeled mathematically as a multivariable global optimization problem, with a sequence of subproblems, which are specific to the mission events defined through Mach number, altitude, and power setting combinations.

  5. Laser-driven hypersonic air-breathing propulsion simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Prakash B.; Lo, Edmond Y.; Pugh, Evan R.

    1992-01-01

    A feasibility study is presented of simulating airbreathing propulsion on small scale hypersonic models using laser energy. The laser heat addition scheme allows simultaneous inlet and exhaust flows during wind tunnel testing of models with scramjet models. The proposed propulsion simulation concept has extended the Kantrowitz (1974) idea to propulsive wind tunnel models of hypersonic aircraft. Critical issues in aeropropulsive testing of models based on a ramjet power plant are addressed which include transfer of the correct amount of energy to the flowing gas, efficient absorption of laser energy into the gas, and test performance under tunnel reservoir conditions and at reasonable Reynolds numbers.

  6. Fluid dynamic problems associated with air-breathing propulsive systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    A brief account of research activities on problems related to air-breathing propulsion is made in this final report for the step funded research grant NASA NGL 14-005-140. Problems include the aircraft ejector-nozzle propulsive system, nonconstant pressure jet mixing process, recompression and reattachment of turbulent free shear layer, supersonic turbulent base pressure, low speed separated flows, transonic boattail flow with and without small angle of attack, transonic base pressures, Mach reflection of shocks, and numerical solution of potential equation through hodograph transformation.

  7. Optimum Design of Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Sato, Tetsuya; Tanatsugu, Nobuhiro

    The flight of Spaceplane is always under accelarating in the assent way and always under decelarating in the desent way and yet cruising in the return way. Besides, its flight envelope is considerably wider than that of airplane. Thus the integrated design method is required to build the best transportation system optimized taking into account the propulsion system and the airframe under the entire flight conditions. In this paper it is shown an optimization method on TSTO spaceplane system. Genetic algorithm (GA) was applied to optimize design parameters of engine, airframe, and trajectory simultaneously. Several types of engine were quantitatively compared using payload ratio as an evaluating function. It was concluded that precooled turbojets is the most promising engine for TSTO among Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) engines.

  8. Innovative Airbreathing Propulsion Concepts for High-speed Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The current cost to launch payloads to low earth orbit (LEO) is approximately loo00 U.S. dollars ($) per pound ($22000 per kilogram). This high cost limits our ability to pursue space science and hinders the development of new markets and a productive space enterprise. This enterprise includes NASA's space launch needs and those of industry, universities, the military, and other U.S. government agencies. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) proposes a vision of the future where space travel is as routine as in today's commercial air transportation systems. Dramatically lower launch costs will be required to make this vision a reality. In order to provide more affordable access to space, NASA has established new goals in its Aeronautics and Space Transportation plan. These goals target a reduction in the cost of launching payloads to LEO to $lo00 per pound ($2200 per kilogram) by 2007 and to $100' per pound by 2025 while increasing safety by orders of magnitude. Several programs within NASA are addressing innovative propulsion systems that offer potential for reducing launch costs. Various air-breathing propulsion systems currently are being investigated under these programs. The NASA Aerospace Propulsion and Power Base Research and Technology Program supports long-term fundamental research and is managed at GLenn Research Center. Currently funded areas relevant to space transportation include hybrid hyperspeed propulsion (HHP) and pulse detonation engine (PDE) research. The HHP Program currently is addressing rocket-based combined cycle and turbine-based combined cycle systems. The PDE research program has the goal of demonstrating the feasibility of PDE-based hybrid-cycle and combined cycle propulsion systems that meet NASA's aviation and access-to-space goals. The ASTP also is part of the Base Research and Technology Program and is managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. As technologies developed under the Aerospace Propulsion and Power Base

  9. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Airbreathing Propulsion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Bitler, Dean W.

    2014-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in Airbreathing Propulsion which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are twenty technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as with a Turbo-Brayton cryocooler for aircraft superconducting systems, braided composite rotorcraft structures, engine air brake, combustion control valve, flexible composite driveshaft, and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  10. Combining MHD Airbreathing and Fusion Rocket Propulsion for Earth-to-Orbit Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Froning, H. D. Jr; Yang, Yang; Momota, H.; Burton, E.; Miley, G. H.; Luo, Nie

    2005-02-06

    Previous studies have shown that Single-State-to-Orbit (SSTO) vehicle propellant can be reduced by Magnets-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) processes that minimize airbreathing propulsion losses and propellant consumption during atmospheric flight. Similarly additional reduction in SSTO propellant is enabled by Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion, whose more energetic reactions reduce rocket propellant needs. MHD airbreathing propulsion during an SSTO vehicle's initial atmospheric flight phase and IEC fusion propulsion during its final exo-atmospheric flight phase is therefore being explored. Accomplished work is not yet sufficient for claiming such a vehicle's feasibility. But takeoff and propellant mass for an MHD airbreathing and IEC fusion vehicle could be as much as 25 and 40 percent less than one with ordinary airbreathing and IEC fusion; and as much as 50 and 70 percent less than SSTO takeoff and propellant mass with MHD airbreathing and chemical rocket propulsion. Thus this unusual combined cycle engine shows great promise for performance gains beyond contemporary combined-cycle airbreathing engines.

  11. Research in Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Drummond, J. Philip; McClinton, Charles R.; Hunt, James L.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has been conducting research for over four decades to develop technology for an airbreathing-propelled vehicle. Several other organizations within the United States have also been involved in this endeavor. Even though significant progress has been made over this period, a hypersonic airbreathing vehicle has not yet been realized due to low technology maturity. One of the major reasons for the slow progress in technology development has been the low level and cyclic nature of funding. The paper provides a brief historical overview of research in hypersonic airbreathing technology and then discusses current efforts at NASA Langley to develop various analytical, computational, and experimental design tools and their application in the development of future hypersonic airbreathing vehicles. The main focus of this paper is on the hypersonic airbreathing propulsion technology.

  12. Investigation of antimatter air-breathing propulsion for single-stage-to-orbit ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, H. D.

    Because the mutual annihilation of matter and antimatter releases all the energy that is stored within the physical structure of material mass, it provides the most powerful reaction that is possible for propulsive thrust. This paper considers the use of such annihilation energy for single-stage-to-orbit vehicles that would be powered by rocket and air-breathing propulsion and would reach and return from orbit with a single propulsive stage.

  13. A conceptual design of an unmanned test vehicle using an airbreathing propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    According to Aviation Week and Space Technology (Nov. 16, 1992), without a redefined approach to the problem of achieving single stage-to-orbit flight, the X-30 program is virtually assured of cancellation. One of the significant design goals of the X-30 program is to achieve single stage to low-earth orbit using airbreathing propulsion systems. In an attempt to avoid cancellation, the NASP Program has decided to design a test vehicle to achieve these goals. This report recommends a conceptual design of an unmanned test vehicle using an airbreathing propulsion system.

  14. Minimum-fuel ascent to orbit using air-breathing propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, Mark A.; Mease, Kenneth D.

    1989-01-01

    Single-stage vehicles using air-breathing propulsion hold promise for more economical delivery of payloads to orbit. The characterization of minimum-fuel trajectories over the range of possible engine and aerodynamic performance of such vehicles provides useful feedback to engine and vehicle designers and paves the way for the development of guidance logic. The minimum-fuel trajectory problem is formulated, propulsion system and aerodynamic models are presented, a numerical solution approach is described, and some preliminary results are discussed.

  15. Propulsion Airframe Integration Test Techniques for Hypersonic Airbreathing Configurations at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, David W.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; Trexler, Carl A.; Cabell, Karen F.; Andrews, Earl H., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The scope and significance of propulsion airframe integration (PAI) for hypersonic airbreathing vehicles is presented through a discussion of the PAI test techniques utilized at NASA Langley Research Center. Four primary types of PAI model tests utilized at NASA Langley for hypersonic airbreathing vehicles are discussed. The four types of PAI test models examined are the forebody/inlet test model, the partial-width/truncated propulsion flowpath test model, the powered exhaust simulation test model, and the full-length/width propulsion flowpath test model. The test technique for each of these four types of PAI test models is described, and the relevant PAI issues addressed by each test technique are illustrated through the presentation of recent PAI test data.

  16. Impact of aeroelasticity on propulsion and longitudinal flight dynamics of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Mcminn, John D.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Wooley, Christine L.

    1993-01-01

    Many air-breathing hypersonic aerospacecraft design concepts incorporate an elongated fuselage forebody acting as the aerodynamic compression surface for a hypersonic combustion module, or scram jet. This highly integrated design approach creates the potential for an unprecedented form of aero-propulsive-elastic interaction in which deflections of the vehicle fuselage give rise to propulsion transients, producing force and moment variations that may adversely impact the rigid body flight dynamics and/or further excite the fuselage bending modes. To investigate the potential for such interactions, a math model was developed which included the longitudinal flight dynamics, propulsion system, and first seven elastic modes of a hypersonic air-breathing vehicle. Perturbation time histories from a simulation incorporating this math model are presented that quantify the propulsive force and moment variations resulting from aeroelastic vehicle deflections. Root locus plots are presented to illustrate the effect of feeding the propulsive perturbations back into the aeroelastic model. A concluding section summarizes the implications of the observed effects for highly integrated hypersonic air-breathing vehicle concepts.

  17. Impact of aeroelasticity on propulsion and longitudinal flight dynamics of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raney, David L.; McMinn, John D.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Wooley, Christine L.

    1993-04-01

    Many air-breathing hypersonic aerospacecraft design concepts incorporate an elongated fuselage forebody acting as the aerodynamic compression surface for a hypersonic combustion module, or scram jet. This highly integrated design approach creates the potential for an unprecedented form of aero-propulsive-elastic interaction in which deflections of the vehicle fuselage give rise to propulsion transients, producing force and moment variations that may adversely impact the rigid body flight dynamics and/or further excite the fuselage bending modes. To investigate the potential for such interactions, a math model was developed which included the longitudinal flight dynamics, propulsion system, and first seven elastic modes of a hypersonic air-breathing vehicle. Perturbation time histories from a simulation incorporating this math model are presented that quantify the propulsive force and moment variations resulting from aeroelastic vehicle deflections. Root locus plots are presented to illustrate the effect of feeding the propulsive perturbations back into the aeroelastic model. A concluding section summarizes the implications of the observed effects for highly integrated hypersonic air-breathing vehicle concepts.

  18. JANNAF Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee and 35th Combustion Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This document, CPIA Publication 682, Volume 1, is a compilation of 5 unclassified/unlimited technical papers (approved for public release) which were presented at the 1 998 meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) and Combustion Subcommittee (CS) held jointly with the Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS). The meeting was held on 7-11 December 1998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include HyTech technology development, hydrocarbon fuel development for hypersonic applications, pulse detonation propulsion system development and arc heaters for direct-connect scramjet testing.

  19. Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, George S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper surveys the use of aerothermodynamic facilities which have been useful in the study of external flows and propulsion aspects of hypersonic, air-breathing vehicles. While the paper is not a survey of all facilities, it covers the utility of shock tunnels and conventional hypersonic blow-down facilities which have been used for hypersonic air-breather studies. The problems confronting researchers in the field of aerothermodynamics are outlined. Results from the T5 GALCIT tunnel for the shock-on lip problem are outlined. Experiments on combustors and short expansion nozzles using the semi-free jet method have been conducted in large shock tunnels. An example which employed the NASA Ames 16-Inch shock tunnel is outlined, and the philosophy of the test technique is described. Conventional blow-down hypersonic wind tunnels are quite useful in hypersonic air-breathing studies. Results from an expansion ramp experiment, simulating the nozzle on a hypersonic air-breather from the NASA Ames 3.5 Foot Hypersonic wind tunnel are summarized. Similar work on expansion nozzles conducted in the NASA Langley hypersonic wind tunnel complex is cited. Free-jet air-frame propulsion integration and configuration stability experiments conducted at Langley in the hypersonic wind tunnel complex on a small generic model are also summarized.

  20. Calibration of the Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel for Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Rock, Kenneth E.; Voland, Randall T.; Wieting, Allan R.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel has recently been modified to produce a unique testing capability for hypersonic airbreathing propulsion systems. Prior to these modifications, the facility was used primarily for aerothermal loads and structural verification testing at true flight total enthalpy conditions for Mach numbers between 6 and 7. One of the recent modifications was an oxygen replenishment system which allows operating airbreathing propulsion systems to be tested at true flight total enthalpies. Following the modifications to the facility, calibration runs were performed at total enthalpies corresponding to flight Mach numbers of 6.3 and 6.8 to establish the flow characteristics of the facility with its new capabilities. The results of this calibration, as well as modifications to tunnel combustor hardware prior to calibration to improve tunnel flow quality, are described in this paper.

  1. Advances in computational design and analysis of airbreathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of commercial and military aircraft depends, to a large extent, on engine manufacturers being able to achieve significant increases in propulsion capability through improved component aerodynamics, materials, and structures. The recent history of propulsion has been marked by efforts to develop computational techniques that can speed up the propulsion design process and produce superior designs. The availability of powerful supercomputers, such as the NASA Numerical Aerodynamic Simulator, and the potential for even higher performance offered by parallel computer architectures, have opened the door to the use of multi-dimensional simulations to study complex physical phenomena in propulsion systems that have previously defied analysis or experimental observation. An overview of several NASA Lewis research efforts is provided that are contributing toward the long-range goal of a numerical test-cell for the integrated, multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization of propulsion systems. Specific examples in Internal Computational Fluid Mechanics, Computational Structural Mechanics, Computational Materials Science, and High Performance Computing are cited and described in terms of current capabilities, technical challenges, and future research directions.

  2. JANNAF 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee and 36th Combustion Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Volume 1, the first of three volumes is a compilation of 16 unclassified/unlimited-technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee and 36th Combustion Subcommittee held jointly with the 181 Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee. The meeting was held on 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered include overviews of RBCC and PDE hypersonic technology, Hyper-X propulsion ground testing, development of JP-8 for hypersonic vehicle applications, numerical simulation of dual-mode SJ combustion, V&V of M&S computer codes, MHD SJ and Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) launch vehicle concepts, and Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) propulsion technology development including fundamental investigations, modeling, aerodynamics, operation and performance.

  3. Airbreathing Propulsion System Analysis Using Multithreaded Parallel Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, Richard Gregory; Chung, T. J.; Rodriguez, Pete (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, parallel processing is used to analyze the mixing, and combustion behavior of hypersonic flow. Preliminary work for a sonic transverse hydrogen jet injected from a slot into a Mach 4 airstream in a two-dimensional duct combustor has been completed [Moon and Chung, 1996]. Our aim is to extend this work to three-dimensional domain using multithreaded domain decomposition parallel processing based on the flowfield-dependent variation theory. Numerical simulations of chemically reacting flows are difficult because of the strong interactions between the turbulent hydrodynamic and chemical processes. The algorithm must provide an accurate representation of the flowfield, since unphysical flowfield calculations will lead to the faulty loss or creation of species mass fraction, or even premature ignition, which in turn alters the flowfield information. Another difficulty arises from the disparity in time scales between the flowfield and chemical reactions, which may require the use of finite rate chemistry. The situations are more complex when there is a disparity in length scales involved in turbulence. In order to cope with these complicated physical phenomena, it is our plan to utilize the flowfield-dependent variation theory mentioned above, facilitated by large eddy simulation. Undoubtedly, the proposed computation requires the most sophisticated computational strategies. The multithreaded domain decomposition parallel processing will be necessary in order to reduce both computational time and storage. Without special treatments involved in computer engineering, our attempt to analyze the airbreathing combustion appears to be difficult, if not impossible.

  4. Innovative Airbreathing Propulsion Concepts for Access to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Jr., Woodrow; Blech, Richard A.; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will present technologies and concepts for novel aeropropulsion systems. These technologies will enhance the safety of operations, reduce life cycle costs, and contribute to reduced costs of air travel and access to space. One of the goals of the NASA program is to reduce the carbon-dioxide emissions of aircraft engines. Engine concepts that use highly efficient fuel cell/electric drive technologies in hydrogen-fueled engines will be presented in the proposed paper. Carbon-dioxide emissions will be eliminated by replacing hydrocarbon fuel with hydrogen, and reduce NOx emissions through better combustion process control. A revolutionary exoskeletal engine concept, in which the engine drum is rotated, will be shown. This concept has the potential to allow a propulsion system that can be used for subsonic through hypersonic flight. Dual fan concepts that have ultra-high bypass ratios, low noise, and low drag will be presented. Flow-controlled turbofans and control-configured turbofans also will be discussed. To increase efficiency, a system of microengines distributed along lifting surfaces and on the fuselage is being investigated. This concept will be presented in the paper. Small propulsion systems for affordable, safe personal transportation vehicles will be discussed. These low-oil/oilless systems use technologies that enable significant cost and weight reductions. Pulse detonation engine-based hybrid-cycle and combined-cycle propulsion systems for aviation and space access will be presented.

  5. Hypersonic propulsion flight tests as essential to air-breathing aerospace plane development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion utilizing scramjets can fundamentally change transatmospheric acclerators for transportation from low Earth orbits (LEOs). The value and limitations of ground tests, of flight tests, and of computations are presented, and scramjet development requirements are discussed. Near-full-scale hypersonic propulsion flight tests are essential for developing a prototype hypersonic propulsion system and for developing computation-design technology that can be used in designing that system. In order to determine how these objectives should be achieved, some lessons learned from past programs are presented. A conceptual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) prototype/experimental aerospace plane is recommended as a means of providing access-to-space and for conducting flight tests. A road map for achieving these objectives is also presented.

  6. Air-breathing aerospace plane development essential: Hypersonic propulsion flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1994-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion utilizing scramjets can fundamentally change transatmospheric accelerators for low earth-to-orbit and return transportation. The value and limitations of ground tests, of flight tests, and of computations are presented, and scramjet development requirements are discussed. It is proposed that near full-scale hypersonic propulsion flight tests are essential for developing a prototype hypersonic propulsion system and for developing computational-design technology so that it can be used for designing this system. In order to determine how these objectives should be achieved, some lessons learned from past programs are presented. A conceptual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) prototype/experimental aerospace plane is recommended as a means of providing access-to-space and for conducting flight tests. A road map for achieving these objectives is also presented.

  7. The QED engine spectrum - Fusion-electric propulsion for air-breathing to interstellar flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussard, Robert W.; Jameson, Lorin W.

    1993-01-01

    A new inertial-electrostatic-fusion direct electric power source can be used to drive a relativistic e-beam to heat propellant. The resulting system is shown to yield specific impulse and thrust/mass ratio 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than from other advanced propulsion concepts. This QED system can be applied to aerospace vehicles from air-breathing to near-interstellar flight. Examples are given for Earth/Mars flight missions, that show transit times of 40 d with 20 percent payload in single-stage vehicles.

  8. Turbulent Mixing and Combustion for High-Speed Air-Breathing Propulsion Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-12

    AIR-BREATHING PROPULSION APPLICATIONS P . E. Dimotakis, Principal Investigator John K. Northrop Professor ofAeronautics and Professor of Applied Physics...performance of the device is the overall pressure coefficient, C = 2(pe- p )/(pU12), where pe and pi are the exit and inlet pressures, respectively. In...1 . O. 1 o-o p ) Fig. 6 Instantaneous passive scalar isosurfaces for a M, 0.5 top stream. 7 Fig. 7 Computed pressure coefficient on the top (solid line

  9. Air-breathing aerospace plane development essential: Hypersonic propulsion flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersonic airbreathing propulsion utilizing scramjets can change transatmospheric accelerators for low earth-to-orbit and return transportation. The value and limitation of ground tests, of flight tests, and of computations are presented, and scramjet development requirements are discussed. It is proposed that near full-scale hypersonic propulsion flight tests are essential for developing computational design technology so that it can be used for designing this system. In order to determine how these objectives should be achieved, some lessons learned from past programs are presented. A conceptual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) prototype/experimental aerospace plane is recommended as a means of providing access-to-space and for conducting flight tests.

  10. Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion: An Aerodynamics, Aerothermodynamics, and Acoustics Competency White Paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Pellett, Gerald L.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Exton, Reginald J.; Guy, R. Wayne; Hoppe, John C.; Puster, Richard L.; Rogers, R. Clayton

    2002-01-01

    This White Paper examines the current state of Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion at the NASA Langley Research Center and the factors influencing this area of work and its personnel. Using this knowledge, the paper explores beyond the present day and suggests future directions and strategies for the field. Broad views are first taken regarding potential missions and applications of hypersonic propulsion. Then, candidate propulsion systems that may be applicable to these missions are suggested and discussed. Design tools and experimental techniques for developing these propulsion systems are then described, and approaches for applying them in the design process are considered. In each case, current strategies are reviewed and future approaches that may improve the techniques are considered. Finally, the paper concentrates on the needs to be addressed in each of these areas to take advantage of the opportunities that lay ahead for both the NASA Langley Research Center and the Aerodynamic Aerothermodynamic, and Aeroacoustics Competency. Recommendations are then provided so that the goals set forth in the paper may be achieved.

  11. Evaluation of an Ejector Ramjet Based Propulsion System for Air-Breathing Hypersonic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Perkins, H. Douglas; Trefny, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    A Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine system is designed to combine the high thrust to weight ratio of a rocket along with the high specific impulse of a ramjet in a single, integrated propulsion system. This integrated, combined cycle propulsion system is designed to provide higher vehicle performance than that achievable with a separate rocket and ramjet. The RBCC engine system studied in the current program is the Aerojet strutjet engine concept, which is being developed jointly by a government-industry team as part of the Air Force HyTech program pre-PRDA activity. The strutjet is an ejector-ramjet engine in which small rocket chambers are embedded into the trailing edges of the inlet compression struts. The engine operates as an ejector-ramjet from takeoff to slightly above Mach 3. Above Mach 3 the engine operates as a ramjet and transitions to a scramjet at high Mach numbers. For space launch applications the rockets would be re-ignited at a Mach number or altitude beyond which air-breathing propulsion alone becomes impractical. The focus of the present study is to develop and demonstrate a strutjet flowpath using hydrocarbon fuel at up to Mach 7 conditions.

  12. Cascade Optimization Strategy for Aircraft and Air-Breathing Propulsion System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Coroneos, Rula M.

    1996-01-01

    Design optimization for subsonic and supersonic aircraft and for air-breathing propulsion engine concepts has been accomplished by soft-coupling the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) and the NASA Engine Performance Program analyzer (NEPP), to the NASA Lewis multidisciplinary optimization tool COMETBOARDS. Aircraft and engine design problems, with their associated constraints and design variables, were cast as nonlinear optimization problems with aircraft weight and engine thrust as the respective merit functions. Because of the diversity of constraint types and the overall distortion of the design space, the most reliable single optimization algorithm available in COMETBOARDS could not produce a satisfactory feasible optimum solution. Some of COMETBOARDS' unique features, which include a cascade strategy, variable and constraint formulations, and scaling devised especially for difficult multidisciplinary applications, successfully optimized the performance of both aircraft and engines. The cascade method has two principal steps: In the first, the solution initiates from a user-specified design and optimizer, in the second, the optimum design obtained in the first step with some random perturbation is used to begin the next specified optimizer. The second step is repeated for a specified sequence of optimizers or until a successful solution of the problem is achieved. A successful solution should satisfy the specified convergence criteria and have several active constraints but no violated constraints. The cascade strategy available in the combined COMETBOARDS, FLOPS, and NEPP design tool converges to the same global optimum solution even when it starts from different design points. This reliable and robust design tool eliminates manual intervention in the design of aircraft and of air-breathing propulsion engines where it eases the cycle analysis procedures. The combined code is also much easier to use, which is an added benefit. This paper describes COMETBOARDS

  13. Real time guidance and propulsion control for single-stage-to-orbit airbreathing vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corban, John Eric

    1989-03-01

    Problems associated with on-board trajectory optimization and with the synthesis of guidance laws are addressed for ascent to low-Earth-orbit of an air-breathing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle. A multi-mode propulsion system is assumed which incorporates turbojet, ramjet, SCRAMJET, and rocket engines. An energy state approximation is applied to a four-state dynamic model for flight of a point mass over a spherical non-rotating Earth. An algorithm for generating fuel-optimal climb profiles is derived via singular perturbation theory. This algorithm results from application of the minimum principle to a low order dynamic model that includes general functional dependence on angle of attack and a component of thrust normal to the flight path. Maximum dynamic pressure and maximum aerodynamic heating rate constraints are considered in addition to acceleration limits. Switching conditions are derived which, under appropriate assumptions, govern optimal transition from one propulsion mode to another. The use of bank angle to modulate the magnitude of the vertical component of lift is shown to improve the index of performance slightly. A nonlinear transformation technique is employed to derive a feedback controller for tracking the computed trajectory. Numerical results illustrate the nature of the resulting fuel-optimal climb paths and the performance of the feedback control law.

  14. Airbreathing Laser Propulsion Experiments with 1 {mu}m Terawatt Pharos III Laser: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Myrabo, L. N.; Lyons, P. W.; Jones, R. A.; Liu, S.; Manka, C.

    2011-11-10

    This basic research study examines the physics of airbreathing laser propulsion at the extreme flux range of 1-2x10{sup 11} W/cm{sup 2}--within the air breakdown threshold for l {mu}m radiation--using the terawatt PHAROS III neodymium-glass pulsed laser. Six different experimental setups were tested using a 34 mm line focus with 66 {mu}m focal waist, positioned near the flat impulse surface. The first campaign investigated impulse generation with the beam oriented almost normal to the target surface, with energies ranging from 23 to 376 J, and pulses of 5 to 30 ns FWHM. Air breakdown/ plasma dynamics were diagnosed with GOI cameras and color photography. Laser generated impulse was quantified with both vertical pendulums and piezoelectric pressure transducers using the standard performance metric, C{sub M}--the momentum coupling coefficient. Part 1 of this 2-part paper covers Campaign no. 1 results including laser plasma diagnostics, pressure gage and vertical pendulum data.

  15. Airbreathing Laser Propulsion Experiments with 1 {mu}m Terawatt Pharos IIILaser: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Myrabo, L. N.; Lyons, P. W.; Jones, R. A.; Liu, S.; Manka, C.

    2011-11-10

    This basic research study examines the physics of airbreathing laser propulsion at the extreme flux range of 1-2x10{sup 11} W/cm{sup 2}--within the air breakdown threshold for l {mu}m radiation--using the terawatt Pharos III neodymium-glass pulsed laser. Six different experimental setups were employed using a 34 mm line focus with 66 {mu}m focal waist, positioned near the flat impulse surface. The 2nd Campaign investigated impulse generation with the laser beam focused at grazing incidence across near horizontal target surfaces, with pulse energies ranging from 55 to 186 J, and pulse-widths of 2 to 30 ns FWHM. Laser generated impulse was measured with a horizontal Plexiglas registered ballistic pendulum equipped with either a steel target insert or 0.5 Tesla permanent magnet (NEIT-40), to quantify changes in the momentum coupling coefficient (C{sub M}). Part 2 of this 2-part paper covers Campaign no. 2 results including C{sub M} performance data, and long exposure color photos of LP plasma phenomena.

  16. Propulsion integration of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles utilizing a top-down design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Brad Kenneth

    In recent years, a focus of aerospace engineering design has been the development of advanced design methodologies and frameworks to account for increasingly complex and integrated vehicles. Techniques such as parametric modeling, global vehicle analyses, and interdisciplinary data sharing have been employed in an attempt to improve the design process. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach to integrated vehicle design known as the top-down design methodology. In the top-down design methodology, the main idea is to relate design changes on the vehicle system and sub-system level to a set of over-arching performance and customer requirements. Rather than focusing on the performance of an individual system, the system is analyzed in terms of the net effect it has on the overall vehicle and other vehicle systems. This detailed level of analysis can only be accomplished through the use of high fidelity computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The utility of the top-down design methodology is investigated through its application to the conceptual and preliminary design of a long-range hypersonic air-breathing vehicle for a hypothetical next generation hypersonic vehicle (NHRV) program. System-level design is demonstrated through the development of the nozzle section of the propulsion system. From this demonstration of the methodology, conclusions are made about the benefits, drawbacks, and cost of using the methodology.

  17. Static and Hypersonic Experimental Analysis of Impulse Generation in Air-Breathing Laser-Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Israel Irone

    The present research campaign centered on static and hypersonic experiments performed with a two-dimensional, repetitively-pulsed (RP) laser Lightcraft model. The future application of interest for this basic research endeavor is the laser launch of nano- and micro-satellites (i.e., 1-100 kg payloads) into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), at low-cost and "on-demand". This research began with an international collaboration on Beamed Energy Propulsion between the United States Air Force and Brazilian Air Force to conduct experiments at the Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics (HTN-LAH). The laser propulsion (LP) experiments employed the T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel (HST), integrated with twin gigawatt pulsed Lumonics 620-TEA CO2 lasers to produce the required test conditions. Following an introduction of the pulsed laser thermal propulsion concept and a state-of-the-art review of the topic, the principal physical processes are outlined starting from the onset of the laser pulse and subsequent laser-induced air-breakdown, to the expansion and exhaust of the resulting blast wave. After installation of the 254 mm wide, 2D Lightcraft model into the T3 tunnel, static LP tests were performed under quiescent (no-flow) conditions at ambient pressures of 0.06, 0.15, 0.3 and 1 bar, using the T3 test-section/dump-tank as a vacuum chamber. Time-dependent surface pressure distributions were measured over the engine thrust-generating surfaces following laser energy deposition; the delivered impulse and momentum coupling coefficients (Cm) were calculated from that pressure data. A Schlieren visualization system (using a high-speed Cordin digital camera) captured the laser breakdown and blast wave expansion process. The 2D model's Cm performance of 600 to 3000 N/MW was 2.5-5x higher than theoretical projections available in the literature, but indeed in the realm of feasibility for static conditions. Also, these Cm values exceed that for smaller Lightcraft models

  18. Evaluation of an Ejector Ramjet Based Propulsion System for Air-Breathing Hypersonic Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Perkins, H. Douglas; Trefny, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    A Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine system is designed to combine the high thrust to weight ratio of a rocket along with the high specific impulse of a ramjet in a single, integrated propulsion system. This integrated, combined cycle propulsion system is designed to provide higher vehicle performance than that achievable with a separate rocket and ramjet. The RBCC engine system studied in the current program is the Aerojet strutjet engine concept, which is being developed jointly by a government-industry team as part of the Air Force HyTech program pre-PRDA activity. The strutjet is an ejector-ramjet engine in which small rocket chambers are embedded into the trailing edges of the inlet compression struts. The engine operates as an ejector-ramjet from take-off to slightly above Mach 3. Above Mach 3 the engine operates as a ramjet and transitions to a scramjet at high Mach numbers. For space launch applications the rockets would be re-ignited at a Mach number or altitude beyond which air-breathing propulsion alone becomes impractical. The focus of the present study is to develop and demonstrate a strutjet flowpath using hydrocarbon fuel at up to Mach 7 conditions. Freejet tests of a candidate flowpath for this RBCC engine were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Hypersonic Tunnel Facility between July and September 1996. This paper describes the engine flowpath and installation, outlines the primary objectives of the program, and describes the overall results of this activity. Through this program 15 full duration tests, including 13 fueled tests were made. The first major achievement was the further demonstration of the HTF capability. The facility operated at conditions up to 1950 K and 7.34 MPa, simulating approximately Mach 6.6 flight. The initial tests were unfueled and focused on verifying both facility and engine starting. During these runs additional aerodynamic appliances were incorporated onto the facility diffuser to enhance starting

  19. An Airbreathing Launch Vehicle Design with Turbine-Based Low-Speed Propulsion and Dual Mode Scramjet High-Speed Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, P. L.; Bouchard, K. A.; Vause, R. F.; Pinckney, S. Z.; Ferlemann, S. M.; Leonard, C. P.; Taylor, L. W., III; Robinson, J. S.; Martin, J. G.; Petley, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    Airbreathing launch vehicles continue to be a subject of great interest in the space access community. In particular, horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing vehicles are attractive with their airplane-like benefits and flexibility for future space launch requirements. The most promising of these concepts involve airframe integrated propulsion systems, in which the external undersurface of the vehicle forms part of the propulsion flowpath. Combining of airframe and engine functions in this manner involves all of the design disciplines interacting at once. Design and optimization of these configurations is a most difficult activity, requiring a multi-discipline process to analytically resolve the numerous interactions among the design variables. This paper describes the design and optimization of one configuration in this vehicle class, a lifting body with turbine-based low-speed propulsion. The integration of propulsion and airframe, both from an aero-propulsive and mechanical perspective are addressed. This paper primarily focuses on the design details of the preferred configuration and the analyses performed to assess its performance. The integration of both low-speed and high-speed propulsion is covered. Structural and mechanical designs are described along with materials and technologies used. Propellant and systems packaging are shown and the mission-sized vehicle weights are disclosed.

  20. CFD Study of Turbo-Ramjet Interactions in Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Ing; Hunter, Louis G.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced airbreathing propulsion systems used in Mach 4-6 mission scenarios, usually involve turbo-ramjet configurations. As the engines transition from turbojet to ramjet, there is an operational envelope where both engines operate simultaneously. In the first phase of our study, an over/under nozzle configuration was analyzed. The two plumes from the turbojet and ramjet interact at the end of a common 2-D cowl, where they both reach an approximate Mach 3.0 condition and then jointly expand to Mach 3.6 at the common nozzle exit plane. For the problem analyzed, the turbojet engine operates at a higher nozzle pressure ratio than the ramjet, causes the turbojet plume overpowers the ramjet plume, deflecting it approximately 12 degrees downward and in turn the turbojet plume is deflected 6 degrees upward. In the process, shocks were formed at the deflections and a shear layer formed at the confluence of the two jets. This particular case was experimentally tested and the data were used to compare with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study using the PARC2D code. The CFD results were in good agreement with both static pressure distributions on the cowl separator and on nozzle walls. The thrust coefficients were also in reasonable agreement. In addition, inviscid relationships were developed around the confluence point, where the two exhaust jets meet, and these results compared favorably with the CFD results. In the second phase of our study, a 3-D CFD solution was generated to compare with the 2-D solution. The major difference between the 2-D and 3-D solutions was the interaction of the shock waves, generated by the plume interactions, on the sidewall. When a shock wave interacts with a sidewall and sidewall boundary layer, it is called a glancing shock sidewall interaction. These interactions entrain boundary layer flow down the shockline into a vortical flow pattern. The 3-D plots show the streamlines being entrained down the shockline. The pressure of the flow

  1. JANNAF 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee, 37th Combustion Subcommittee and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S.; Becker, Dorothy L.

    2000-01-01

    Volume I, the first of three volumes, is a compilation of 24 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee, 37th Combustion Subcommittee and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee (MSS) meeting held jointly with the 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee. The meeting was held 13-17 November 2000 at the Naval Postgraduate School and Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California. Topics covered include: a Keynote Address on Future Combat Systems, a review of the new JANNAF Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee, and technical papers on Hyper-X propulsion development and verification; GTX airbreathing launch vehicles; Hypersonic technology development, including program overviews, fuels for advanced propulsion, ramjet and scramjet research, hypersonic test medium effects; and RBCC engine design and performance, and PDE and UCAV advanced and combined cycle engine technologies.

  2. Nuclear blast response of airbreathing propulsion systems: laboratory measurements with an operational J-85-5 turbojet engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.G.; Rafferty, J.M.

    1982-07-01

    This paper describes an experimental technique for controlled laboratory measurements of the nuclear blast response of airbreathing propulsion systems. The experiments utilize an available G.E. J-855 turbojet engine located in the test section of the Calspan Ludwieg-tube facility. Significant modifications were made to this facility in order to adapt it to the desired configuration. The J-85 engine had previously been used at Calspan for other purposes and thus came equipped with eight pressure transducers at four axial locations along the compressor section. These transducers have a frequency response on the order of 40 KHz. Pressure histories obtained at several circumferential and axial locations along the compressor are presented for blastwave equivalent overpressures up to 17.2 kPa (2.5 psi) at corrected engine speeds on the order of 94 percent of maximum speed.

  3. Spaceliner Class Operability Gains Via Combined Airbreathing/ Rocket Propulsion: Summarizing an Operational Assessment of Highly Reusable Space Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nix, Michael B.; Escher, William J. d.

    1999-01-01

    In discussing a new NASA initiative in advanced space transportation systems and technologies, the Director of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Arthur G. Stephenson, noted that, "It would use new propulsion technology, air-breathing engine so you don't have to carry liquid oxygen, at least while your flying through the atmosphere. We are calling it Spaceliner 100 because it would be 100 times cheaper, costing $ 100 dollars a pound to orbit." While airbreathing propulsion is directly named, rocket propulsion is also implied by, "... while you are flying through the atmosphere." In-space final acceleration to orbital speed mandates rocket capabilities. Thus, in this informed view, Spaceliner 100 will be predicated on combined airbreathing/rocket propulsion, the technical subject of this paper. Interestingly, NASA's recently concluded Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) study focused on the same affordability goal as that of the Spaceliner 100 initiative and reflected the decisive contribution of combined propulsion as a way of expanding operability and increasing the design robustness of future space transports, toward "aircraft like" capabilities. The HRST study built on the Access to Space Study and the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) development activities to identify and characterize space transportation concepts, infrastructure and technologies that have the greatest potential for reducing delivery cost by another order of magnitude, from $1,000 to $100-$200 per pound for 20,000 lb. - 40.000 lb. payloads to low earth orbit (LEO). The HRST study investigated a number of near-term, far-term, and very far-term launch vehicle concepts including all-rocket single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) concepts, two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) concepts, concepts with launch assist, rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) concepts, advanced expendable vehicles, and more far term ground-based laser powered launchers. The HRST study consisted of preliminary concept studies, assessments

  4. Study of Forebody Injection and Mixing with Application to Hypervelocity Airbreathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axdahl, Erik; Kumar, Ajay; Wilhite, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The use of premixed, shock-induced combustion in the context of a hypervelocity, airbreathing vehicle requires effective injection and mixing of hydrogen fuel and air on the vehicle forebody. Three dimensional computational simulations of fuel injection and mixing from flush-wall and modified ramp and strut injectors are reported in this study. A well-established code, VULCAN, is used to conduct nonreacting, viscous, turbulent simulations on a flat plate at conditions relevant to a Mach 12 flight vehicle forebody. In comparing results of various fuel injection strategies, it is found that strut injection provides the greatest balance of performance between mixing efficiency and stream thrust potential.

  5. Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    The dream of producing an air-breathing, hydrogen fueled, hypervelocity aircraft has been before the aerospace community for decades. However, such a craft has not yet been realized, even in an experimental form. Despite the simplicity and beauty of the concept, many formidable problems must be overcome to make this dream a reality. This paper summarizes the aero/aerothermodynamic issues that must be addressed to make the dream a reality and discusses how aerothermodynamics facilities and their modem companion, real-gas computational fluid dynamics (CFD), can help solve the problems blocking the way to realizing the dream. The approach of the paper is first to outline the concept of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle and then discuss the nose-to-tail aerothermodynamics issues and special aerodynamic problems that arise with such a craft. Then the utility of aerothermodynamic facilities and companion CFD analysis is illustrated by reviewing results from recent United States publications wherein these problems have been addressed. Papers selected for the discussion have k e n chosen such that the review will serve to survey important U.S. aero/aerothermodynamic real gas and conventional wind tunnel facilities that are useful in the study of hypersonic, hydrogen propelled hypervelocity vehicles.

  6. Conceptual study of space plane powered by hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maita, Masataka; Ohkami, Yoshiaki; Yamanaka, Tatsuo; Mori, Takashige

    1990-10-01

    The paper describes the investigations of aerospace plane concept, conducted by the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) of Japan, with particular attention given to a concept which integrates a scram/liquid air cycle engine (LACE) hypersonic propulsion system fueling with slush hydrogen. The key requirements in achieving the space plane using scram/LACE propulsion system are described along with the mission requirements and the vehicle characteristics. Typical outputs of SSTO analysis are presented.

  7. I(sup STAR), NASA's Next Step in Air-Breathing Propulsion for Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutt, John J.; McArthur, Craig; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established a strategic plan for future activities in space. A primary goal of this plan is to make drastic improvements in the cost and safety of earth to low-earth-orbit transportation. One approach to achieving this goal is through the development of highly reusable, highly reliable space transportation systems analogous to the commercial airline system. In the year 2000, NASA selected the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine as the next logical step towards this goal. NASA will develop a complete flight-weight, pump-fed engine system under the Integrated System Test of an Airbreathing Rocket (I(sup STAR)) Project. The objective of this project is develop a reusable engine capable of self-powering a vehicle through the air-augmented rocket, ramjet and scramjet modes required in all RBCC based operational vehicle concepts. The project is currently approved and funded to develop the engine through ground test demonstration. Plans are in place to proceed with flight demonstration pending funding approval. The project is in formulation phase and the Preliminary Requirements Review has been completed. The engine system and vehicle have been selected at the conceptual level. The I(sup STAR) engine concept is based on an air-breathing flowpath downselected from three configurations evaluated in NASA's Advanced Reusable Technology contract. The selected flowpath features rocket thrust chambers integrated into struts separating modular flowpath ducts, a variable geometry inlet, and a thermally choked throat. The engine will be approximately 220 inches long and 79 inches wide and fueled with a hydrocarbon fuel using liquid oxygen as the primary oxidizer candidate. The primary concept for the pump turbine drive is pressure-fed catalyzed hydrogen peroxide. In order to control costs, the flight demonstration vehicle will be launched from a B-52 aircraft. The vehicle concept is based on the Air

  8. An Overview of the NASA FAP Hypersonics Project Airbreathing Propulsion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auslender, A. H.; Suder, Kenneth L.; Thomas, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    The propulsion research portfolio of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Fundamental Aeronautics Program Hypersonics Project encompasses a significant number of technical tasks that are aligned to achieve mastery and intellectual stewardship of the core competencies in the hypersonic-flight regime. An overall coordinated programmatic and technical effort has been structured to advance the state-of-the-art, via both experimental and analytical efforts. A subset of the entire hypersonics propulsion research portfolio is presented in this overview paper. To this end, two programmatic research disciplines are discussed; namely, (1) the Propulsion Discipline, including three associated research elements: the X-51A partnership, the HIFiRE-2 partnership, and the Durable Combustor Rig, and (2) the Turbine-Based Combine Cycle Discipline, including three associated research elements: the Combined Cycle Engine Large Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment, the small-scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment, and the High-Mach Fan Rig.

  9. Filtered Mass Density Function for Design Simulation of High Speed Airbreathing Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Givi, P.; Madnia, C. K.; Gicquel, L. Y. M.; Sheikhi, M. R. H.; Drozda, T. G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve and implement the filtered mass density function (FDF) methodology for large eddy simulation (LES) of high speed reacting turbulent flows. NASA is interested in the design of various components involved in air breathing propulsion systems such as the scramjet. There is a demand for development of robust tools that can aid in the design procedure. The physics of high speed reactive flows is rich with many complexities. LES is regarded as one of the most promising means of simulating turbulent reacting flows.

  10. Modification of NASA Langley 8 Foot High Temperature Tunnel to provide a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, H. N.; Wieting, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A planned modification of the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to make it a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems is described, and some of the ongoing supporting research for that modification is discussed. The modification involves: (1) the addition of an oxygen-enrichment system which will allow the methane-air combustion-heated test stream to simulate air for propulsion testing; and (2) supplemental nozzles to expand the test simulation capability from the current nominal Mach number to 7.0 include Mach numbers 3.0, 4.5, and 5.0. Detailed design of the modifications is currently underway and the modified facility is scheduled to be available for tests of large scale propulsion systems by mid 1988.

  11. Modification of NASA Langley 8 foot high temperature tunnel to provide a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, H. N.; Wieting, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A planned modification of the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to make it a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems is described, and some of the ongoing supporting research for that modification is discussed. The modification involves: (1) the addition of an oxygen-enrichment system which will allow the methane-air combustion-heated test stream to simulate air for propulsion testing; and (2) supplemental nozzles to expand the test simulation capability from the current nominal Mach number to 7.0 include Mach numbers 3.0, 4.5, and 5.0. Detailed design of the modifications is currently underway and the modified facility is scheduled to be available for tests of large scale propulsion systems by mid 1988.

  12. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase 1 and Phase 2 Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights nine of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Air-Breathing Propulsion. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as development of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging method for the measurement of complex 3D ice shapes, phased array techniques for low signal-to-noise ratio wind tunnels, compact kinetic mechanisms for petroleum-derived and alternative aviation fuels, and hybrid electric propulsion systems for a multirotor aircraft. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides as an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Flow Characteristics of Supersonic Airbreathing Laser Propulsion Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Don; Pang, Jun-Sik; Jeung, In-Seuck; Choi, Jeong-Yeol

    2003-05-01

    LITA(Laser-Driven In-Tube Accelerator) is a new device for the propulsion of projectile under high velocity condition. LITA is a little different from other accelerators in that it needs continuous laser source energy for acceleration process. One of the issues for LITA is the optical design of the projectile, because the focusing point of laser behind projectile decides its performance. Laser-supported detonation wave is a main energy source mechanism. Present study shows the performance analysis of LITA using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Laser power, laser energy, laser frequency, laser focusing point, and projectile base geometry play important roles in LITA's performance. In this research, blast wave produced by explicitly energy input is used.

  14. A US History of Airbreathing/Rocket Combined-Cycle (RBCC) Propulsion for Powering Future Aerospace Transports, with a Look Ahead to the Year 2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1999-01-01

    A technohistorical and forward-planning overview of U.S. developments in combined airbreathing/rocket propulsion for advanced aerospace vehicle applications is presented. Such system approaches fall into one of two categories: (1) Combination propulsion systems (separate, non-interacting engines installed), and (2) Combined-Cycle systems. The latter, and main subject, comprises a large family of closely integrated engine types, made up of both airbreathing and rocket derived subsystem hardware. A single vehicle-integrated, multimode engine results, one capable of operating efficiently over a very wide speed and altitude range, atmospherically and in space. While numerous combination propulsion systems have reached operational flight service, combined-cycle propulsion development, initiated ca. 1960, remains at the subscale ground-test engine level of development. However, going beyond combination systems, combined-cycle propulsion potentially offers a compelling set of new and unique capabilities. These capabilities are seen as enabling ones for the evolution of Spaceliner class aerospace transportation systems. The following combined-cycle hypersonic engine developments are reviewed: (1) RENE (rocket engine nozzle ejector), (2) Cryojet and LACE, (3) Ejector Ramjet and its derivatives, (4) the seminal NASA NAS7-377 study, (5) Air Force/Marquardt Hypersonic Ramjet, (6) Air Force/Lockheed-Marquardt Incremental Scramjet flight-test project, (7) NASA/Garrett Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE), (8) National Aero-Space Plane (NASP), (9) all past projects; and such current and planned efforts as (10) the NASA ASTP-ART RBCC project, (11) joint CIAM/NASA DNSCRAM flight test,(12) Hyper-X, (13) Trailblazer,( 14) W-Vehicle and (15) Spaceliner 100. Forward planning programmatic incentives, and the estimated timing for an operational Spaceliner powered by combined-cycle engines are discussed.

  15. An Overview of Air-Breathing Propulsion Efforts for 2015 SBIR Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights 24 of the innovative SBIR 2015 Phase I projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Air-Breathing Propulsion. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as hybrid nanocomposites for efficient aerospace structures; plasma flow control for drag reduction; physics-based aeroanalysis methods for open rotor conceptual designs; vertical lift by series hybrid power; fast pressure-sensitive paint systems for production wind tunnel testing; rugged, compact, and inexpensive airborne fiber sensor interrogators based on monolithic tunable lasers; and high sensitivity semiconductor sensor skins for multi-axis surface pressure characterization. Each featured technology describes an innovation and technical objective and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  16. Analysis of the Magneto-Hydrodynamic (MHD) Energy Bypass Engine for High-Speed Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggins, David W.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of the MHD energy bypass air-breathing engine for high-speed propulsion is analyzed in this investigation. This engine is a specific type of the general class of inverse cycle engines. In this paper, the general relationship between engine performance (specific impulse and specific thrust) and the overall total pressure ratio through an engine (from inlet plane to exit plane) is first developed and illustrated. Engines with large total pressure decreases, regardless of cause or source, are seen to have exponentially decreasing performance. The ideal inverse cycle engine (of which the MHD engine is a sub-set) is then demonstrated to have a significant total pressure decrease across the engine; this total pressure decrease is cycle-driven, degrades rapidly with energy bypass ratio, and is independent of any irreversibility. The ideal MHD engine (inverse cycle engine with no irreversibility other than that inherent in the MHD work interaction processes) is next examined and is seen to have an additional large total pressure decrease due to MHD-generated irreversibility in the decelerator and the accelerator. This irreversibility mainly occurs in the deceleration process. Both inherent total pressure losses (inverse cycle and MHD irreversibility) result in a significant narrowing of the performance capability of the MHD bypass engine. The fundamental characteristics of MHD flow acceleration and flow deceleration from the standpoint of irreversibility and second-law constraints are next examined in order to clarify issues regarding flow losses and parameter selection in the MM modules. Severe constraints are seen to exist in the decelerator in terms of allowable deceleration Mach numbers and volumetric (length) required for meaningful energy bypass (work interaction). Considerable difficulties are also encountered and discussed due to thermal/work choking phenomena associated with the deceleration process. Lastly, full engine simulations utilizing inlet

  17. Integrated System Test of an Airbreathing Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Gregory; Beaudry, Charles; Ketchum, Andrew; McArthur, J. Craig (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on NASA's attempts to develop an air-breathing propulsion in an effort to make future space transportation safer, more reliable and significantly less expensive than today's missions. Spacecraft powered by air-breathing rocket engines would be completely reusable, able to take off and land at airport runways and ready to fly again within days. A radical new engine project is called the Integrated System Tests of an Air-breathing Rocket, or ISTAR.

  18. Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) for the Aerospace Systems Directorate. Delivery Order 0021: Engineering Research and Technical Analyses of Advanced Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels, Subtask: T700 Biofuel Low Lubricity Endurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Engineering Research and Technical Analyses of Advanced Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels Subtask: T700 Biofuel Low Lubricity Endurance Jeff Sympson...Subtask: T700 Biofuel Low Lubricity Endurance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-08-D-2806-0021 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63216F 6... biofuel low lubricity endurance test. The testing was performed on Woodward Item Number 6970-034 according to Woodward test procedure DTP-1827 Rev

  19. Hypersonic Airbreathing Missile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Lawing, P. L.; Marcum, D. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A hypersonic airbreathing missile using dual mode scramjet engines for propulsion is described. The fuselage is constructed of a material with a high heat sink capacity and is covered with a thermal protective shield and lined with an internal insulating blanket. The engine airframe integration uses the flat lower portion of the lower fuselage to precompress the air entering the scramjet engines. The precompression of air entering the scramjet inlets increases as the angles of attack. This feature results in a highly maneuverable missile which can accelerate as it banks into a turn.

  20. Airbreathing Acceleration Toward Earth Orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J C

    2007-05-09

    As flight speed increases, aerodynamic drag rises more sharply than the availability of atmospheric oxygen. The ratio of oxygen mass flux to dynamic pressure cannot be improved by changing altitude. The maximum possible speed for airbreathing propulsion is limited by the ratio of air capture area to vehicle drag area, approximately Mach 6 at equal areas. Simulation of vehicle acceleration shows that the use of atmospheric oxygen offers a significant potential for minimizing onboard consumables at low speeds. These fundamental calculations indicate that a practical airbreathing launch vehicle would accelerate to near steady-state speed while consuming only onboard fuel, then transition to rocket propulsion. It is suggested that an aircraft carrying a rocket-propelled vehicle to approximately Mach 5 could be a realistic technical goal toward improving access to orbit.

  1. Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Technology Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    2003-01-01

    Of the technical factors that would contribute to lowering the cost of space access, reusability has high potential. The primary objective of the GTX program is to determine whether or not air-breathing propulsion can enable reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) operations. The approach is based on maturation of a reference vehicle design with focus on the integration and flight-weight construction of its air-breathing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system.

  2. Airbreathing/Rocket Single-Stage-to-Orbit Design Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.

    1995-01-01

    A definitive design/performance study was performed on a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) airbreathing propelled orbital vehicle with rocket propulsion augmentation in the Access to Space activities during 1993. A credible reference design was established, but by no means an optimum. The results supported the viability of SSTO airbreathing/rocket vehicles for operational scenarios and indicated compelling reasons to continue to explore the design matrix. This paper will (1) summarize the Access to Space design activity from the SSTO airbreathing/rocket perspective, (2) present an airbreathing/rocket SSTO design matrix established for continued optimization of the design space, and (3) focus on the compelling reasons for airbreathing vehicles in Access to Space scenarios.

  3. Propulsion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air and Space, 1978

    1978-01-01

    An introductory discussion of aircraft propulsion is included along with diagrams and pictures of piston, turbojet, turboprop, turbofan, and jet engines. Also, a table on chemical propulsion is included. (MDR)

  4. Airbreathing hypersonic vehicle design and analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary Kae; Petley, Dennis H.; Hunt, James L.; Martin, John G.

    1996-01-01

    The design, analysis, and optimization of airbreathing hypersonic vehicles requires analyses involving many highly coupled disciplines at levels of accuracy exceeding those traditionally considered in a conceptual or preliminary-level design. Discipline analysis methods including propulsion, structures, thermal management, geometry, aerodynamics, performance, synthesis, sizing, closure, and cost are discussed. Also, the on-going integration of these methods into a working environment, known as HOLIST, is described.

  5. STS 2000 - A reference airbreathing SSTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Alain; Thevenot, Regis

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the most recent results (including wind tunnel testing) dealing with a SSTO using airbreathing propulsion up to March 6. The choice of the external shape of the vehicle is explained then the aerodynamic coefficients of the glider are derived. The integration of the propulsion system (a turborocket-ramjet-rocket) to the vehicle is then presented including forebody effects. The launch trajectory and the way to refine it thanks to a simultaneous optimization of the mass budget, is described. The internal accommodation and the structural concepts are briefly presented.

  6. Prospects for future hypersonic air-breathing vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, H. L., Jr.; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the technical progress achieved in key areas of hypersonic airbreathing vehicle development is presented. The context for hypersonic applications is discussed with emphasis placed on technology issues and requirements, particularly for propulsion and technology integration. Attention is given to CFD technology which allows the consideration of configurations and extrapolations to flight conditions that cannot be simulated on the ground.

  7. Optimization of Air-Breathing Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1996-01-01

    The design optimization of air-breathing propulsion engine concepts has been accomplished by soft-coupling the NASA Engine Performance Program (NEPP) analyzer with the NASA Lewis multidisciplinary optimization tool COMETBOARDS. Engine problems, with their associated design variables and constraints, were cast as nonlinear optimization problems with thrust as the merit function. Because of the large number of mission points in the flight envelope, the diversity of constraint types, and the overall distortion of the design space; the most reliable optimization algorithm available in COMETBOARDS, when used by itself, could not produce satisfactory, feasible, optimum solutions. However, COMETBOARDS' unique features-which include a cascade strategy, variable and constraint formulations, and scaling devised especially for difficult multidisciplinary applications-successfully optimized the performance of subsonic and supersonic engine concepts. Even when started from different design points, the combined COMETBOARDS and NEPP results converged to the same global optimum solution. This reliable and robust design tool eliminates manual intervention in the design of air-breathing propulsion engines and eases the cycle analysis procedures. It is also much easier to use than other codes, which is an added benefit. This paper describes COMETBOARDS and its cascade strategy and illustrates the capabilities of the combined design tool through the optimization of a high-bypass- turbofan wave-rotor-topped subsonic engine and a mixed-flow-turbofan supersonic engine.

  8. Airbreathing nuclear propulsion: A new look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear-powered air-cushion vehicles using lightweight aircraft-type nuclear powerplants show promise of carrying transoceanic cargo at cost-per-metric-ton-kilometer (cost-per-ton-n mi) rates comparable to railroad rates. These rates are independent of the distance traveled. Cargo rates for nonstop distances of 4000 n mi are expected to be less than one-half those for similar fossil-fueled air-cushion vehicles. For 6000-n mi nonstop distances, the rates are expected to be less than one-sixth as much. There are no fundamental technical reasons why subsonic nuclear aircraft cannot be made to fly successfully if the gross weight is over 1 million lb. Public safety of airborne nuclear powerplants is receiving the greatest attention in low-level experimental and analytical investigations. Idealized model containment vessels which have been impacted on reinforced concrete showed no leaks after impact at velocities to 400 mph. The experiments indicate feasibility of impacting at speeds over 600 mph with no leaks.

  9. Evaluation of some significant issues affecting trajectory and control management for air-breathing hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattis, Philip D.; Malchow, Harvey L.

    1992-01-01

    Horizontal takeoff airbreathing-propulsion launch vehicles require near-optimal guidance and control which takes into account performance sensitivities to atmospheric characteristics while satisfying physically-derived operational constraints. A generic trajectory/control analysis tool that deepens insight into these considerations has been applied to two versions of a winged-cone vehicle model. Information that is critical to the design and trajectory of these vehicles is derived, and several unusual characteristics of the airbreathing propulsion model are shown to have potentially substantial effects on vehicle dynamics.

  10. Airbreathing Hypersonic Vision-Operational-Vehicles Design Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.; Pegg, Robert J.; Petley, Dennis H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the airbreathing hypersonic airplane and space-access vision-operational-vehicle design matrix, with emphasis on horizontal takeoff and landing systems being studied at Langley; it reflects the synergies and issues, and indicates the thrust of the effort to resolve the design matrix including Mach 5 to 10 airplanes with global-reach potential, pop-up and dual-role transatmospheric vehicles and airbreathing launch systems. The convergence of several critical systems/technologies across the vehicle matrix is indicated. This is particularly true for the low speed propulsion system for large unassisted horizontal takeoff vehicles which favor turbines and/or perhaps pulse detonation engines that do not require LOX which imposes loading concerns and mission flexibility restraints.

  11. Airbreathing Hypersonic Vision-Operational-Vehicles Design Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.; Pegg, Robert J.; Petley, Dennis H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the airbreathing hypersonic airplane and space-access vision-operational-vehicle design matrix, with emphasis on horizontal takeoff and landing systems being, studied at Langley, it reflects the synergies and issues, and indicates the thrust of the effort to resolve the design matrix including Mach 5 to 10 airplanes with global-reach potential, pop-up and dual-role transatmospheric vehicles and airbreathing launch systems. The convergence of several critical systems/technologies across the vehicle matrix is indicated. This is particularly true for the low speed propulsion system for large unassisted horizontal takeoff vehicles which favor turbines and/or perhaps pulse detonation engines that do not require LOX which imposes loading concerns and mission Flexibility restraints.

  12. NASA Glenn Research Center's Hypersonic Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Donald T.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), as NASA's lead center for aeropropulsion, is responding to the challenge of reducing the cost of space transportation through the integration of air-breathing propulsion into launch vehicles. Air- breathing launch vehicle (ABLV) propulsion requires a marked departure from traditional propulsion applications. and stretches the technology of both rocket and air-breathing propulsion. In addition, the demands of the space launch mission require an unprecedented level of integration of propulsion and vehicle systems. GRC is responding with a program with rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion technology as its main focus. RBCC offers the potential for simplicity, robustness, and performance that may enable low-cost single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) transportation. Other technologies, notably turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion, offer benefits such as increased robustness and greater mission flexibility, and are being advanced, at a slower pace, as part of GRC's program in hypersonics.

  13. Prospects for future hypersonic air-breathing vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, H. L., Jr.; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    1991-01-01

    The age of hypersonics is (almost) here. This is evident from the amount of activity in the United States, Europe, the USSR and Japan; this activity is a reflection of technical progress in key areas which will enable new vehicle systems, as well as renewed interest in the utilization of these systems. The current situation, at least in the United States, is the product of an interesting history which is briefly reviewed here. The context for hypersonic applications is discussed, but the emphasis is on hypersonic technology issues and needs, particularly for propulsion and technology integration. The paper concludes with prospects for accomplishing the objective of air-breathing hypersonic vehicle systems.

  14. Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) for the Aerospace Systems Directorate. Delivery Order 0021: Engineering Research and Technical Analyses of Advanced Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels, Subtask: Fit-for-Purpose (FFP) and Dynamic Seal Testing of Alternative Aviation Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    High Frequency Reciprocating Rig HRJ Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Hz Hertz ID Ignition Delay IPK Iso -Paraffinic Kerosene IQTTM Ignition Quality ...RESEARCH DIVISION ISO 9001 CERTIFIED ISO 14001 CERTIFIED 247 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 248 Approved for public...JAMES T. EDWARDS MIGUEL A. MALDONADO, Chief Program Manager Fuels and Energy Branch Fuels and Energy Branch Turbine Engine Division Turbine

  15. An Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Concept for Single-Stage-to-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    The "Trailblazer" is a 300-lb payload, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle concept that uses air-breathing propulsion to reduce the required propellant fraction. The integration of air-breathing propulsion is done considering performance, structural and volumetric efficiency, complexity, and design risk. The resulting configuration is intended to be viable using near-term materials and structures. The aeropropulsion performance goal for the Trailblazer launch vehicle is an equivalent effective specific impulse (I*) of 500 sec. Preliminary analysis shows that this requires flight in the atmosphere to about Mach 10, and that the gross lift-off weight is 130,000 lb. The Trailblazer configuration and proposed propulsion system operating modes are described. Preliminary performance results are presented, and key technical issues are highlighted. An overview of the proposed program plan is given.

  16. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  17. Performance Validation Approach for the GTX Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.; Roche, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of the GTX effort is to determine whether or not air-breathing propulsion can enable a launch vehicle to achieve orbit in a single stage. Structural weight, vehicle aerodynamics, and propulsion performance must be accurately known over the entire flight trajectory in order to make a credible assessment. Structural, aerodynamic, and propulsion parameters are strongly interdependent, which necessitates a system approach to design, evaluation, and optimization of a single-stage-to-orbit concept. The GTX reference vehicle serves this purpose, by allowing design, development, and validation of components and subsystems in a system context. The reference vehicle configuration (including propulsion) was carefully chosen so as to provide high potential for structural and volumetric efficiency, and to allow the high specific impulse of air-breathing propulsion cycles to be exploited. Minor evolution of the configuration has occurred as analytical and experimental results have become available. With this development process comes increasing validation of the weight and performance levels used in system performance determination. This paper presents an overview of the GTX reference vehicle and the approach to its performance validation. Subscale test rigs and numerical studies used to develop and validate component performance levels and unit structural weights are outlined. The sensitivity of the equivalent, effective specific impulse to key propulsion component efficiencies is presented. The role of flight demonstration in development and validation is discussed.

  18. Sustained periodic terrestrial locomotion in air-breathing fishes.

    PubMed

    Pace, C M; Gibb, A C

    2014-03-01

    While emergent behaviours have long been reported for air-breathing osteichthyians, only recently have researchers undertaken quantitative analyses of terrestrial locomotion. This review summarizes studies of sustained periodic terrestrial movements by air-breathing fishes and quantifies the contributions of the paired appendages and the axial body to forward propulsion. Elongate fishes with axial-based locomotion, e.g. the ropefish Erpetoichthys calabaricus, generate an anterior-to-posterior wave of undulation that travels down the axial musculoskeletal system and pushes the body against the substratum at multiple points. In contrast, appendage-based locomotors, e.g. the barred mudskipper Periophthalmus argentilineatus, produce no axial bending during sustained locomotion, but instead use repeated protraction-retraction cycles of the pectoral fins to elevate the centre of mass and propel the entire body anteriorly. Fishes that use an axial-appendage-based mechanism, e.g. walking catfishes Clarias spp., produce side-to-side, whole-body bending in co-ordination with protraction-retraction cycles of the pectoral fins. Once the body is maximally bent to one side, the tail is pressed against the substratum and drawn back through the mid-sagittal plane, which elevates the centre of mass and rotates it about a fulcrum formed by the pectoral fin and the ground. Although appendage-based terrestrial locomotion appears to be rare in osteichthyians, many different species appear to have converged upon functionally similar axial-based and axial-appendage-based movements. Based on common forms observed across divergent taxa, it appears that dorsoventral compression of the body, elongation of the axial skeleton or the presence of robust pectoral fins can facilitate effective terrestrial movement by air-breathing fishes.

  19. Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) Propulsion Technology Workshop. Tutorial session

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this workshop was to illuminate the nation's space transportation and propulsion engineering community on the potential of hypersonic combined cycle (airbreathing/rocket) propulsion systems for future space transportation applications. Four general topics were examined: (1) selections from the expansive advanced propulsion archival resource; (2) related propulsion systems technical backgrounds; (3) RBCC engine multimode operations related subsystem background; and (4) focused review of propulsion aspects of current related programs.

  20. Power Reduction of the Air-Breathing Hall-Effect Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungrae

    Electric propulsion system is spotlighted as the next generation space propulsion system due to its benefits; one of them is specific impulse. While there are a lot of types in electric propulsion system, Hall-Effect Thruster, one of electric propulsion system, has higher thrust-to-power ratio and requires fewer power supplies for operation in comparison to other electric propulsion systems, which means it is optimal for long space voyage. The usual propellant for Hall-Effect Thruster is Xenon and it is used to be stored in the tank, which may increase the weight of the thruster. Therefore, one theory that uses the ambient air as a propellant has been proposed and it is introduced as Air-Breathing Hall-Effect Thruster. Referring to the analysis on Air-Breathing Hall-Effect Thruster, the goal of this paper is to reduce the power of the thruster so that it can be applied to real mission such as satellite orbit adjustment. To reduce the power of the thruster, two assumptions are considered. First one is changing the altitude for the operation, while another one is assuming the alpha value that is electron density to ambient air density. With assumptions above, the analysis was done and the results are represented. The power could be decreased to 10s˜1000s with the assumptions. However, some parameters that do not satisfy the expectation, which would be the question for future work, and it will be introduced at the end of the thesis.

  1. Affordable Flight Demonstration of the GTX Air-Breathing SSTO Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Roche, Joseph M.; Riehl, John P.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2002-01-01

    The rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost per pound for orbital payload missions. To validate overall system performance, a flight demonstration must be performed. This paper presents an overview of the first phase of a flight demonstration program for the GTX SSTO vehicle concept. Phase 1 will validate the propulsion performance of the vehicle configuration over the supersonic and hypersonic airbreathing portions of the trajectory. The focus and goal of Phase 1 is to demonstrate the integration and performance of the propulsion system flowpath with the vehicle aerodynamics over the air-breathing trajectory. This demonstrator vehicle will have dual mode ramjet/scramjets, which include the inlet, combustor, and nozzle with geometrically scaled aerodynamic surface outer mold lines (OML) defining the forebody, boundary layer diverter, wings, and tail. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate propulsion system performance and operability including the ram to scram transition, as well as to validate vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration. To minimize overall risk and development cost the effort will incorporate proven materials, use existing turbomachinery in the propellant delivery systems, launch from an existing unmanned remote launch facility, and use basic vehicle recovery techniques to minimize control and landing requirements. A second phase would demonstrate propulsion performance across all critical portions of a space launch trajectory (lift off through transition to all-rocket) integrated with flight-like vehicle systems.

  2. Airbreathing combined cycle engine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohde, John

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force and NASA share a common interest in developing advanced propulsion systems for commercial and military aerospace vehicles which require efficient acceleration and cruise operation in the Mach 4 to 6 flight regime. The principle engine of interest is the turboramjet; however, other combined cycles such as the turboscramjet, air turborocket, supercharged ejector ramjet, ejector ramjet, and air liquefaction based propulsion are also of interest. Over the past months careful planning and program implementation have resulted in a number of development efforts that will lead to a broad technology base for those combined cycle propulsion systems. Individual development programs are underway in thermal management, controls materials, endothermic hydrocarbon fuels, air intake systems, nozzle exhaust systems, gas turbines and ramjet ramburners.

  3. JTEC panel report on space and transatmospheric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Duane

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of Japan's current capabilities in the areas of space and transatmospheric propulsion is presented. The report focuses primarily upon Japan's programs in liquid rocket propulsion and in propulsion for spaceplanes and related transatmospheric areas. It also includes brief reference to Japan's solid rocket programs, as well as to supersonic air-breathing propulsion efforts that are just getting underway. The results are based upon the findings of a panel of U.S. engineers made up of individuals from academia, government, and industry, and are derived from a review of a broad array of the open literature, combined with visits to the primary propulsion laboratories and development agencies in Japan.

  4. Flight testing of airbreathing hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Using the scramjet engine as the prime example of a hypersonic airbreathing concept, this paper reviews the history of and addresses the need for hypersonic flight tests. It also describes how such tests can contribute to the development of airbreathing technology. Aspects of captive-carry and free-flight concepts are compared. An incremental flight envelope expansion technique for manned flight vehicles is also described. Such critical issues as required instrumentation technology and proper scaling of experimental devices are addressed. Lastly, examples of international flight test approaches, existing programs, or concepts currently under study, development, or both, are given.

  5. The Design of Future Airbreathing Engine Systems within an Intelligent Synthesis Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, J. B.; Housner, J. M.; Lytle, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new Initiative proposed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The purpose of this initiative is to develop a future design environment for engineering and science mission synthesis for use by NASA scientists and engineers. This new initiative is called the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). The paper describes the mission of NASA, future aerospace system characteristics, the current engineering design process, the ISE concept, and concludes with a description of possible ISE applications for the decision of air-breathing propulsion systems.

  6. A fast ascent trajectory optimization method for hypersonic air-breathing vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Oscar J., Jr.

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate a fast and reliable method to generate three-dimensional optimal ascent trajectories for hypersonic air-breathing vehicles. The problem is notoriously difficult because of the strong nonlinear coupling amongst aerodynamics, propulsion, vehicle attitude and trajectory state. As such an algorithm matures, the ultimate goal is to realize optimal closed-loop ascent guidance for hypersonic air-breathing vehicles. The problem is formulated as a fuel-optimal control problem. The corresponding necessary conditions are given. It is shown how the original problem of search for the optimal control commands can be reduced to a univariate root-finding problem at each point along the trajectory. A finite difference scheme is used to numerically solve the associated two-point-boundary-value problem. Evaluation of the approach is done through open-loop solutions and closed-loop simulations. The results show promising potential of the proposed approach as a rapid trajectory optimization tool for the class of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles.

  7. Supersonic Air-Breathing Stage For Commercial Launch Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    Concept proposed to expand use of air-breathing, reusable stages to put more payload into orbit at less cost. Stage with supersonic air-breathing engines added to carry expendable stages from subsonic airplane to supersonic velocity. Carry payload to orbit. Expendable stages and payload placed in front of supersonic air-breathing stage. After releasing expendable stages, remotely piloted supersonic air-breathing stage returns to takeoff site and land for reuse. New concept extends use of low-cost reusable hardware and increases payload delivered from B-52.

  8. Swimming in air-breathing fishes.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

    2014-03-01

    Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise.

  9. Air-breathing Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie depicts the Rocketdyne static test of an air-breathing rocket. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's advanced Transportation Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  10. Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic-Bypass Airbreathing Hypersonic Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Bityurin, Valentine A.; Lineberry, John T.

    1999-01-01

    Established analyses of conventional ramjet/scramjet performance characteristics indicate that a considerable decrease in efficiency can be expected at off-design flight conditions. This can be explained, in large part, by the deterioration of intake mass flow and limited inlet compression at low flight speeds and by the onset of thrust degradation effects associated with increased burner entry temperature at high flight speeds. In combination, these effects tend to impose lower and upper Mach number limits for practical flight. It has been noted, however, that Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy management techniques represent a possible means for extending the flight Mach number envelope of conventional engines. By transferring enthalpy between different stages of the engine cycle, it appears that the onset of thrust degradation may be delayed to higher flight speeds. Obviously, the introduction of additional process inefficiencies is inevitable with this approach, but it is believed that these losses are more than compensated through optimization of the combustion process. The fundamental idea is to use MHD energy conversion processes to extract and bypass a portion of the intake kinetic energy around the burner. We refer to this general class of propulsion system as an MHD-bypass engine. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the performance potential and scientific feasibility of MHD-bypass airbreathing hypersonic engines using ideal gasdynamics and fundamental thermodynamic principles.

  11. Airframe Research and Technology for Hypersonic Airbreathing Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.; Merski, N. Ronald; Glass, Christopher E.

    2002-01-01

    The Hypersonics Investment Area (HIA) within NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) has the responsibility to develop hypersonic airbreathing vehicles for access to space. The Airframe Research and Technology (AR and T) Project, as one of six projects in the HIA, will push the state-of-the-art in airframe and vehicle systems for low-cost, reliable, and safe space transportation. The individual technologies within the project are focused on advanced, breakthrough technologies in airframe and vehicle systems and cross-cutting activities that are the basis for improvements in these disciplines. Both low and medium technology readiness level (TRL) activities are being pursued. The key technical areas that will be addressed by the project include analysis and design tools, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), composite (polymer, metal, and ceramic matrix) materials development, thermal/structural wall concepts, thermal protection systems, seals, leading edges, aerothermodynamics, and airframe/propulsion flowpath technology. Each of the technical areas or sub-projects within the Airframe R and T Project is described in this paper.

  12. Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic-Bypass Hypersonic Airbreathing Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, R. J.; Cole, J. W.; Bityurin, V. A.; Lineberry, J. T.

    2000-01-01

    The prospects for realizing a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) bypass hypersonic airbreathing engine are examined from the standpoint of fundamental thermodynamic feasibility. The MHD-bypass engine, first proposed as part of the Russian AJAX vehicle concept, is based on the idea of redistributing energy between various stages of the propulsion system flow train. The system uses an MHD generator to extract a portion of the aerodynamic heating energy from the inlet and an MHD accelerator to reintroduce this power as kinetic energy in the exhaust stream. In this way, the combustor entrance Mach number can be limited to a specified value even as the flight Mach number increases. Thus, the fuel and air can be efficiently mixed and burned within a practical combustor length, and the flight Mach number operating envelope can be extended. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the performance potential and scientific feasibility of MHD-bypass engines using a simplified thermodynamic analysis. This cycle analysis, based on a thermally and calorically perfect gas, incorporates a coupled MHD generator-accelerator system and accounts for aerodynamic losses and thermodynamic process efficiencies in the various engin components. It is found that the flight Mach number range can be significantly extended; however, overall performance is hampered by non-isentropic losses in the MHD devices.

  13. Ascent performance of an air-breathing horizontal-takeoff launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.; Shaughnessy, John D.; Cruz, Christopher I.; Naftel, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Simulations are conducted to investigate a proposed NASA launch vehicle that is fully reusable, takes off horizontally, and uses airbreathing propulsion in a single stage. The propulsion model is based on a cycle analysis method, and the vehicle is assumed to be a rigid structure with distributed fuel, operating under a range of atmospheric conditions. The program to optimize simulated trajectories (POST) is modified to include a predictor-corrector guidance capability and then used to generate the trajectories. Significant errors are encountered during the unpowered coast phase due to uncertainty in the atmospheric density profile. The amount of ascent propellant needed is shown to be directly related to the thrust-vector angle and the location of the center of gravity of the vehicle because of the importance of aim-drag losses to total ideal velocity.

  14. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with the aerospace industry, other government agencies, and academia, is leading the effort to develop an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. The initial development of NPSS focused on the analysis and design of airbreathing aircraft engines, but the resulting NPSS framework may be applied to any system, for example: aerospace, rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and even human system modeling. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Advanced Virtual Engine Test Cell (AVETeC). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes capabilities to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS will provide improved tools to develop custom components and to use capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multi-fidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full development life cycle.

  15. Affordable Flight Demonstration of the GTX Air-Breathing SSTO Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Roche, Joseph M.; Riehl, John P.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2003-01-01

    The rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost per pound for orbital payload missions. To validate overall system performance, a flight demonstration must be performed. This paper presents an overview of the first phase of a flight demonstration program for the GTX SSTO vehicle concept. Phase 1 will validate the propulsion performance of the vehicle configuration over the supersonic and hypersonic air- breathing portions of the trajectory. The focus and goal of Phase 1 is to demonstrate the integration and performance of the propulsion system flowpath with the vehicle aerodynamics over the air-breathing trajectory. This demonstrator vehicle will have dual mode ramjetkcramjets, which include the inlet, combustor, and nozzle with geometrically scaled aerodynamic surface outer mold lines (OML) defining the forebody, boundary layer diverter, wings, and tail. The primary objective of this study is to demon- strate propulsion system performance and operability including the ram to scram transition, as well as to validate vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration. To minimize overall risk and develop ment cost the effort will incorporate proven materials, use existing turbomachinery in the propellant delivery systems, launch from an existing unmanned remote launch facility, and use basic vehicle recovery techniques to minimize control and landing requirements. A second phase would demonstrate propulsion performance across all critical portions of a space launch trajectory (lift off through transition to all-rocket) integrated with flight-like vehicle systems.

  16. SPE propulsion electrolyzer for NASA's integrated propulsion test article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Hamilton Standard has delivered a 3000 PSI SPE Propulsion Electrolyzer Stack and Special Test Fixture to the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) Integrated Propulsion Test Article (IPTA) program in June 1990, per contract NAS9-18030. This prototype unit demonstrates the feasibility of SPE-high pressure water electrolysis for future space applications such as Space Station propulsion and Lunar/Mars energy storage. The SPE-Propulsion Electrolyzer has met or exceeded all IPTA program goals. It continues to function as the primary hydrogen and oxygen source for the IPTA test bed at the NASA/JSC Propulsion and Power Division Thermochemical Test Branch.

  17. Structural Sizing of a 25,000-lb Payload, Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle For Single-Stage-To-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Joseph M.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Palac, Don (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In support of NASA's Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle (ABLV) study, a 25,000-lb payload version of the GTX (formerly Trailblazer) reference vehicle concept was developed. The GTX is a vertical lift-off, reusable, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle concept that uses hypersonic air-breathing propulsion in a rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system to reduce the required propellant fraction. To achieve this goal the vehicle and propulsion system must be well integrated both aerodynamically and structurally to reduce weight. This study demonstrates the volumetric and structural efficiency of a vertical takeoff, horizontal landing, hypersonic vehicle with a circular cross section. A departure from the lifting body concepts, this design philosophy is even extended to the engines, which have semicircular nacelles symmetrically mounted on the vehicle. Material candidates with a potential for lightweight and simplicity have been selected from a set of near term technologies (5 to 10 years). To achieve the mission trajectory, preliminary weight estimates show the vehicle's gross lift-off weight is 1.26 x 10(exp 6) lb. The structural configuration of the GTX vehicle and its propulsion system are described. The vehicle design benefits are presented, and key technical issues are highlighted.

  18. Structural Sizing of a 25,000-lb Payload, Air-breathing Launch Vehicle for Single-stage-to-orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Joseph M.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2001-01-01

    In support of NASA's Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle (ABLV) study, a 25,000-lb payload version of the GTX (formerly Trailblazer) reference vehicle concept was developed. The GTX is a vertical lift-off, reusable, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle concept that uses hypersonic air-breathing propulsion in a rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system to reduce the required propellant fraction. To achieve this goal the vehicle and propulsion system must be well integrated both aerodynamically and structurally to reduce weight. This study demonstrates the volumetric and structural efficiency of a vertical takeoff, horizontal landing, hypersonic vehicle with a circular cross section. A departure from the lifting body concepts, this design philosophy is even extended to the engines, which have semicircular nacelles symmetrically mounted on the vehicle. Material candidates with a potential for lightweight and simplicity have been selected from a set of near term technologies (five to ten years). To achieve the mission trajectory, preliminary weight estimates show the vehicle's gross lift-off weight is 1.26 x 10(exp 6) lb. The structural configuration of the GTX vehicle and its propulsion system are described. The vehicle design benefits are presented, and key technical issues are highlighted.

  19. Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  20. Airbreathing Propulsion for Missiles and Projectiles (Propulsion Aerobie des Missiles et Projectiles)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    formulations sont pr6cis~es par l~a t~s de discr~tion. suite. Les calculs thermodynamiques sont r~alisds Ces compositions poss~dent g~n~ralement un en...l’intbgration. La pr6sentation porte sur les travaux thermodynamiques et la conception rncanique. Les quatre compresseurs axiaux ont 6t6 d6finis h partir de

  1. Air-breathing hypersonic vehicle guidance and control studies: An integrated trajectory/control analysis methodology, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattis, Philip D.; Malchow, Harvey L.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated trajectory/control analysis algorithm has been used to generate trajectories and desired control strategies for two different hypersonic air-breathing vehicle models and orbit targets. Both models used cubic spline curve fit tabulated winged-cone accelerator vehicle representations. Near-fuel-optimal, horizontal takeoff trajectories, imposing a dynamic pressure limit of 1000 psf, were developed. The first model analysis case involved a polar orbit and included the dynamic effects of using elevons to maintain longitudinal trim. Analysis results indicated problems with the adequacy of the propulsion model and highlighted dynamic pressure/altitude instabilities when using vehicle angle of attack as a control variable. Also, the magnitude of computed elevon deflections to maintain trim suggested a need for alternative pitch moment management strategies. The second analysis case was reformulated to use vehicle pitch attitude relative to the local vertical as the control variable. A new, more realistic, air-breathing propulsion model was incorporated. Pitch trim calculations were dropped and an equatorial orbit was specified. Changes in flight characteristics due to the new propulsion model have been identified. Flight regimes demanding rapid attitude changes have been noted. Also, some issues that would affect design of closed-loop controllers were ascertained.

  2. Airbreathing Hypersonic Technology Vision Vehicles and Development Dreams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClinton, C. R.; Hunt, J. L.; Ricketts, R. H.; Reukauf, P.; Peddie, C. L.

    1999-01-01

    Significant advancements in hypersonic airbreathing vehicle technology have been made in the country's research centers and industry over the past 40 years. Some of that technology is being validated with the X-43 flight tests. This paper presents an overview of hypersonic airbreathing technology status within the US, and a hypersonic technology development plan. This plan builds on the nation's large investment in hypersonics. This affordable, incremental plan focuses technology development on hypersonic systems, which could be operating by the 2020's.

  3. NASA's Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnaughey, Paul K.; Femminineo, Mark G.; Koelfgen, Syri J.; Lepsch, Roger A; Ryan, Richard M.; Taylor, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Safe, reliable, and affordable access to low-Earth (LEO) orbit is necessary for all of the United States (US) space endeavors. In 2010, NASA s Office of the Chief Technologist commissioned 14 teams to develop technology roadmaps that could be used to guide the Agency s and US technology investment decisions for the next few decades. The Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Area (LPSTA) team was tasked to address the propulsion technology challenges for access to LEO. The developed LPSTA roadmap addresses technologies that enhance existing solid or liquid propulsion technologies and their related ancillary systems or significantly advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of less mature systems like airbreathing, unconventional, and other launch technologies. In developing this roadmap, the LPSTA team consulted previous NASA, military, and industry studies as well as subject matter experts to develop their assessment of this field, which has fundamental technological and strategic impacts for US space capabilities.

  4. Air-breathing adaptation in a marine Devonian lungfish

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Alice M.; Long, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent discoveries of tetrapod trackways in 395 Myr old tidal zone deposits of Poland (Niedźwiedzki et al. 2010 Nature 463, 43–48 (doi:10.1038/nature.08623)) indicate that vertebrates had already ventured out of the water and might already have developed some air-breathing capacity by the Middle Devonian. Air-breathing in lungfishes is not considered to be a shared specialization with tetrapods, but evolved independently. Air-breathing in lungfishes has been postulated as starting in Middle Devonian times (ca 385 Ma) in freshwater habitats, based on a set of skeletal characters involved in air-breathing in extant lungfishes. New discoveries described herein of the lungfish Rhinodipterus from marine limestones of Australia identifies the node in dipnoan phylogeny where air-breathing begins, and confirms that lungfishes living in marine habitats had also developed specializations to breathe air by the start of the Late Devonian (ca 375 Ma). While invasion of freshwater habitats from the marine realm was previously suggested to be the prime cause of aerial respiration developing in lungfishes, we believe that global decline in oxygen levels during the Middle Devonian combined with higher metabolic costs is a more likely driver of air-breathing ability, which developed in both marine and freshwater lungfishes and tetrapodomorph fishes such as Gogonasus. PMID:20147310

  5. Geometry Modeling and Adaptive Control of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vick, Tyler Joseph

    Air-breathing hypersonic vehicles have the potential to provide global reach and affordable access to space. Recent technological advancements have made scramjet-powered flight achievable, as evidenced by the successes of the X-43A and X-51A flight test programs over the last decade. Air-breathing hypersonic vehicles present unique modeling and control challenges in large part due to the fact that scramjet propulsion systems are highly integrated into the airframe, resulting in strongly coupled and often unstable dynamics. Additionally, the extreme flight conditions and inability to test fully integrated vehicle systems larger than X-51 before flight leads to inherent uncertainty in hypersonic flight. This thesis presents a means to design vehicle geometries, simulate vehicle dynamics, and develop and analyze control systems for hypersonic vehicles. First, a software tool for generating three-dimensional watertight vehicle surface meshes from simple design parameters is developed. These surface meshes are compatible with existing vehicle analysis tools, with which databases of aerodynamic and propulsive forces and moments can be constructed. A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamics simulation model which incorporates this data is presented. Inner-loop longitudinal and lateral control systems are designed and analyzed utilizing the simulation model. The first is an output feedback proportional-integral linear controller designed using linear quadratic regulator techniques. The second is a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) which augments this baseline linear controller with an adaptive element. The performance and robustness of each controller are analyzed through simulated time responses to angle-of-attack and bank angle commands, while various uncertainties are introduced. The MRAC architecture enables the controller to adapt in a nonlinear fashion to deviations from the desired response, allowing for improved tracking performance, stability, and

  6. JANNAF 35th Combustion Subcommittee and 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting: Joint Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of 15 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 1998 meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1 998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include advanced ingredients and reaction kinetics in solid propellants and experimental diagnostic techniques.

  7. Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Propulsion Workshop, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chojnacki, Kent T.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Propulsion Technology Workshop, was to impart technology information to the propulsion community with respect to hypersonic combined cycle propulsion capabilities. The major recommendation resulting from this technology workshop was as follows: conduct a systems-level applications study to define the desired propulsion system and vehicle technology requirements for LEO launch vehicles. All SSTO and TSTO options using the various propulsion systems (airbreathing combined cycle, rocket-based combined cycle, and all rocket) must be considered. Such a study should be accomplished as soon as possible. It must be conducted with a consistent set of ground rules and assumptions. Additionally, the study should be conducted before any major expenditures on a RBCC technology development program occur.

  8. Earth-to-orbit propulsion for the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Robert; Richmond, Robert, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of NASA's liquid and solid rocket and air-breathing propulsion research programs along with some recent accomplishments. Attention is focused on two contrasting, but complementary, space transportation system elements. One is directed toward the unmanned delivery of massive and/or bulky 'space cargo' to low earth orbit. The other is tailored to the transportation of humans and light priority cargo in smaller manned piloted vehicles.

  9. Propulsion systems from takeoff to high-speed flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billig, F. S.

    Potential applications for missiles and aircraft requiring highly efficient engines serve as the basis for discussing new propulsion concepts and novel combinations of existing cycles. Comparisons are made between rocket and airbreathing powered missiles for anti-ballistic and surface-to-air missions. The properties of cryogenic hydrogen are presented to explain the mechanics and limitations of liquid air cycles. Conceptual vehicle designs of a transatmospheric accelerator are introduced to permit examination of the factors that guide the choice of the optimal propulsion system.

  10. A Review of Laser Ablation Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude; Bohn, Willy; Lippert, Thomas; Sasoh, Akihiro; Schall, Wolfgang; Sinko, John

    2010-10-01

    Laser Ablation Propulsion is a broad field with a wide range of applications. We review the 30-year history of laser ablation propulsion from the transition from earlier pure photon propulsion concepts of Oberth and Sänger through Kantrowitz's original laser ablation propulsion idea to the development of air-breathing "Lightcraft" and advanced spacecraft propulsion engines. The polymers POM and GAP have played an important rôle in experiments and liquid ablation fuels show great promise. Some applications use a laser system which is distant from the propelled object, for example, on another spacecraft, the Earth or a planet. Others use a laser that is part of the spacecraft propulsion system on the spacecraft. Propulsion is produced when an intense laser beam strikes a condensed matter surface and produces a vapor or plasma jet. The advantages of this idea are that exhaust velocity of the propulsion engine covers a broader range than is available from chemistry, that it can be varied to meet the instantaneous demands of the particular mission, and that practical realizations give lower mass and greater simplicity for a payload delivery system. We review the underlying theory, buttressed by extensive experimental data. The primary problem in laser space propulsion theory has been the absence of a way to predict thrust and specific impulse over the transition from the vapor to the plasma regimes. We briefly discuss a method for combining two new vapor regime treatments with plasma regime theory, giving a smooth transition from one regime to the other. We conclude with a section on future directions.

  11. A Review of Laser Ablation Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, Claude; Bohn, Willy; Lippert, Thomas; Sasoh, Akihiro; Schall, Wolfgang; Sinko, John

    2010-10-08

    Laser Ablation Propulsion is a broad field with a wide range of applications. We review the 30-year history of laser ablation propulsion from the transition from earlier pure photon propulsion concepts of Oberth and Saenger through Kantrowitz's original laser ablation propulsion idea to the development of air-breathing 'Lightcraft' and advanced spacecraft propulsion engines. The polymers POM and GAP have played an important role in experiments and liquid ablation fuels show great promise. Some applications use a laser system which is distant from the propelled object, for example, on another spacecraft, the Earth or a planet. Others use a laser that is part of the spacecraft propulsion system on the spacecraft. Propulsion is produced when an intense laser beam strikes a condensed matter surface and produces a vapor or plasma jet. The advantages of this idea are that exhaust velocity of the propulsion engine covers a broader range than is available from chemistry, that it can be varied to meet the instantaneous demands of the particular mission, and that practical realizations give lower mass and greater simplicity for a payload delivery system. We review the underlying theory, buttressed by extensive experimental data. The primary problem in laser space propulsion theory has been the absence of a way to predict thrust and specific impulse over the transition from the vapor to the plasma regimes. We briefly discuss a method for combining two new vapor regime treatments with plasma regime theory, giving a smooth transition from one regime to the other. We conclude with a section on future directions.

  12. Electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, Philip W.

    Electric propulsion (EP) is an attractive option for unmanned orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's). Vehicles with solar electric propulsion (SEP) could be used routinely to transport cargo between nodes in Earth, lunar, and Mars orbit. Electric propulsion systems are low-thrust, high-specific-impulse systems with fuel efficiencies 2 to 10 times the efficiencies of systems using chemical propellants. The payoff for this performance can be high, since a principal cost for a space transportation system is that of launching to low Earth orbit (LEO) the propellant required for operations between LEO and other nodes. Several aspects of electric propulsion, including candidate systems and the impact of using nonterrestrial materials, are discussed.

  13. Computational analysis of hypersonic airbreathing aircraft flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwoyer, Douglas L.; Kumar, Ajay

    1987-01-01

    The general problem of calculating the flow fields associated with hypersonic airbreathing aircraft is presented. Unique aspects of hypersonic aircraft aerodynamics are introduced and their demands on computational fluid dynamics are outlined. Example calculations associated with inlet/forebody integration and hypersonic nozzle design are presented to illustrate the nature of the problems considered.

  14. Analysis of Pulsed Laser-Generated Impulse in AN Advanced Airbreathing Thruster.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Jacques Constant

    This thesis describes the study of an advanced beam-powered propulsion system, called an External Radiation -Heated (ERH) thruster. The repetitively-pulsed, airbreathing engine develops thrust by expanding high pressure, radiation -heated gas over an annular shroud surface. The blast waves are generated by laser radiation heating of air using Laser Supported Detonation (LSD) waves. The phenomenology of LSD waves will be described in detail, as will the blast waves and resultant impulse they produce. Analytical simulation of the ERH thruster is accomplished with a one-dimensional model of blast waves propagating uniformly and radially outward from a laser -generated "line source" of high pressure, high temperature gas. Cylindrical blast wave scaling relationships developed by Sedov are employed in this model. The possibility of including other physical phenomena (e.g., viscosity, radiation, conduction or real gas effects) in the analysis will be reviewed. The analyses for the ERH thruster model are performed for a sample vehicle point design. This vehicle, known as the "Lightcraft Technology Demonstrator" (LTD), may be constructed within the next five years to illustrate the potential of Earth-to-Orbit laser propulsion. The external flow over the LTD vehicle was analyzed to determine basic drag characteristics, inlet total pressure recovery and captured air mass flow rate--all projected as functions of flight Mach number and altitude. The ERH thruster performance analysis indicates that the optimum LTD inlet air gap is about 3 cm around the 100 cm diameter centerbody, for transonic "refresh" air flow over the impulse surface. In this analysis, the principal indicator used to predict engine performance was the "impulse coupling coefficient (CC)"; i.e., the thrust developed per unit laser power input. Coupling coefficients up to 600-700 Newtons/Megawatt were found to be feasible, which are an order of magnitude larger than those for laser-heated rockets. For maximum

  15. NASA Hypersonic Propulsion: Overview of Progress from 1995 to 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cikanek, Harry A., III; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Klem, Mark D.; Rausch, Vince L.

    2007-01-01

    Hypersonic propulsion work supported by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration had a primary focus on Space Transportation during the period from 1995 to 2005. The framework for these advances was established by policy and pursued with substantial funding. Many noteworthy advances were made, highlighted by the pinnacle flights of the X-43. This paper reviews and summarizes the programs and accomplishments of this era. The accomplishments are compared to the goals and objectives to lend an overarching perspective to what was achieved. At least dating back to the early days of the Space Shuttle program, NASA has had the objective of reducing the cost of access to space and concurrently improving safety and reliability. National Space Transportation Policy in 1994 coupled with a base of prior programs such as the National Aerospace Plane and the need to look beyond the Space Shuttle program set the stage for NASA to pursue Space Transportation Advances. Programs defined to pursue the advances represented a broad approach addressing classical rocket propulsion as well as airbreathing propulsion in various combinations and forms. The resulting portfolio of activities included systems analysis and design studies, discipline research and technology, component technology development, propulsion system ground test demonstration and flight demonstration. The types of propulsion systems that were pursued by these programs included classical rocket engines, "aerospike" rocket engines, high performance rocket engines, scram jets, rocket based combined cycles, and turbine based combined cycles. Vehicle architectures included single and two stage vehicles. Either single types of propulsion systems or combinations of the basic propulsion types were applied to both single and two stage vehicle design concepts. Some of the propulsion system design concepts were built and tested at full scale, large scale and small scale. Many flight demonstrators were

  16. Feasibility study of air-breathing turbo-engines for horizontal take-off and landing space plane

    SciTech Connect

    Minoda, M.; Sakata, K.; Tamaki, T.; Saitoh, T.; Yasuda, A.

    1989-01-01

    Various concepts of air-breathing engines (ABEs) that could be used for a horizontal take-off and landing SSTO vehicle are investigated. The performances (with respect to thrust and the specific fuel consumption) of turboengines based on various technologies, including a turbojet with and without afterburner (TJ), turboramjet, and air-turbo-ram jet engines are compared. The mission capabilities of these ABEs for SSTO and TSTO vehicles is examined in terms of the ratio of the effective remaining weight (i.e., the weight on the orbit) to the take-off gross weight, using two-dimensional flight analysis. It was found that the dry TJ with the turbine inlet temperature 2000 C is one of the most promising candidates for the propulsion system of the SSTO vehicle, because of its small weight and high specific impulse. 6 refs.

  17. JANNAF 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Volume 1, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 16 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 17th meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the 35th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include projectile and shaped charge jet impact vulnerability of munitions; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; damage and hot spot initiation mechanisms with energetic materials; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  18. JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  19. JANNAF 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Kuckels, Melanie C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 25 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 37th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS), and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee (MSS) meetings. The meeting was held 13-17 November 2000 at the Naval Postgraduate School and Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: impact and thermal vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction and detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact loading; and hazard classification, and insensitive munitions testing of propellants and propulsion systems.

  20. Airbreathing Hypersonic Systems Focus at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James L.; Rausch, Vincent L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the airbreathing hypersonic airplane and space-access vehicle design matrix, reflects on the synergies and issues, and indicates the thrust of the effort to resolve the design matrix and to focus/advance systems technology maturation. Priority is given to the design of the vision operational vehicles followed by flow-down requirements to flight demonstrator vehicles and their design for eventual consideration in the Future-X Program.

  1. Fully reusable launch vehicle with airbreathing booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.

    1983-10-01

    The performance of a two-stage, fully reusable scramjet-Shuttle launch vehicle is examined analytically. The first stage of the hybrid vehicle would be a hydrocarbon/hydrogen fueled air breathing hypersonic aircraft. The winged booster, in one configuration, would be equipped with both turbojets and scramjets, and the Orbiter would be a scaled-up version of the present STS Orbiter. The nominal mission would involve placing a 65,000 lb payload into a 92.5 x 185 km orbit. The size of the manned first stage is dictated by the ventricle gross weight, density, and contents, with the fuel carried in integrated tanks. A delta planform is presented, with an elliptical cone forebody, an elliptical cross-section afterbody, and a smooth transition surface from the end of the forebody to the straightline leading edge. Formulations are defined for the wing loading, gross density, fatness ratio, and breadpoint ratio, as well as for the propulsion, aerodynamics, and trajectories.

  2. Analysis of Laser-Generated Impulse In An Airbreathing Pulsed Detonation Engine: Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Jacques C.; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2005-04-01

    An investigation is performed on an airbreathing laser propulsion (LP) system designed to propel a 1.4 m diameter, 120-kg (dry mass) vehicle called the Lightcraft Technology Demonstrator (LTD) into low Earth orbit, along with its opto-electronics payload. The LTD concept led directly to the model ♯200 lightcraft — recently demonstrated in laboratory and flight experiments at White Sands Missile Range, NM at the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF), using the 10-kW PLVTS CO2 laser. The pulsed detonation wave engine (PDE) employs repetitively ignited, laser-supported detonation (LSD) waves to develop thrust by expanding high pressure blast waves over an annular, interior shroud surface. Numerical simulation of thruster impulse is accomplished with a 1-D cylindrical model of blast waves propagating radially outward from a laser-generated `line-source' of high temperature, high pressure air. External airflow over the LTD structure is also analyzed to predict basic engine/vehicle drag characteristics, including inlet total pressure recovery, and captured air mass flow rate — all projected vs. flight Mach number and altitude.

  3. Biannular Airbreathing Nozzle Rig (BANR) facility checkout and plug nozzle performance test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Chase B.

    2010-09-01

    The motivation for development of a supersonic business jet (SSBJ) platform lies in its ability to create a paradigm shift in the speed and reach of commercial, private, and government travel. A full understanding of the performance capabilities of exhaust nozzle configurations intended for use in potential SSBJ propulsion systems is critical to the design of an aircraft of this type. Purdue University's newly operational Biannular Airbreathing Nozzle Rig (BANR) is a highly capable facility devoted to the testing of subscale nozzles of this type. The high accuracy, six-axis force measurement system and complementary mass flowrate measurement capabilities of the BANR facility make it rather ideally suited for exhaust nozzle performance appraisal. Detailed accounts pertaining to methods utilized in the proper checkout of these diagnostic capabilities are contained herein. Efforts to quantify uncertainties associated with critical BANR test measurements are recounted, as well. Results of a second hot-fire test campaign of a subscale Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) axisymmetric, shrouded plug nozzle are presented. Determined test article performance parameters (nozzle thrust efficiencies and discharge coefficients) are compared to those of a previous test campaign and numerical simulations of the experimental set-up. Recently acquired data is compared to published findings pertaining to plug nozzle experiments of similar scale and operating range. Suggestions relating to the future advancement and improvement of the BANR facility are provided. Lessons learned with regards to test operations and calibration procedures are divulged in an attempt to aid future facility users, as well.

  4. 2-D Air-Breathing Lightcraft Engine Experiments in Hypersonic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Israel I.; Myrabo, Leik N.; Minucci, Marco A. S.; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Toro, Paulo G. P.; Chanes, José B.; Rego, Israel S.

    2011-11-01

    Experiments were performed with a 2-D, repetitively-pulsed (RP) laser Lightcraft model in hypersonic flow conditions. The main objective was the feasibility analysis for impulse generation with repetitively-pulsed air-breathing laser Lightcraft engines at hypersonic speeds. The future application of interest for this basic research endeavor is the laser launch of pico-, nano-, and micro-satellites (i.e., 0.1-100 kg payloads) into Low-Earth-Orbit, at low-cost and on-demand. The laser propulsion experiments employed a Hypersonic Shock Tunnel integrated with twin gigawatt pulsed Lumonics 620-TEA CO2 lasers (˜ 1 μs pulses), to produce the required test conditions. This hypersonic campaign was carried out at nominal Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 10. Time-dependent surface pressure distributions were recorded together with Schlieren movies of the flow field structure resulting from laser energy deposition. Results indicated laser-induced pressure increases of 0.7-0.9 bar with laser pulse energies of ˜ 170 J, on off-shroud induced breakdown condition, and Mach number of 7.

  5. Prospective new transportation application initiatives in NASA's earth-to-orbit propulsion technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) Propulsion Technology Program, a multi-year/multi-task focused technology effort is, today, highly focused on conventional high-thrust cryogenic liquid chemical rocket engines and their envisioned future technology needs. But as highlighted in the U.S. National Ten-Year Space Launch Technology Plan, a set of less-conventional propulsion subjects, ones which offer significant promise for both, improving the state of the art and opening up new propulsion-capability possibilities, is now directed to the space propulsion planning community's attention. In conducting its forward-planning activities, it is highly appropriate that the ETO Program (and other programs as well) carefully consider integrating these "new initiative" subjects into the taskwork of future years. After an introductory consideration of the National Plan's propulsion-related directives, followed by a brief background overview of the ETO Program, the following specific new-initiative candidates are discussed from the standpoint of technology-program planning: operationally efficient propulsion systems; high-thrust hybrid rocket propulsion; low-cost, low-pressure expendable propulsion subsystems; advanced cryogenic in-space propulsion systems; integrated modular engine (IME) configured propulsion systems, and combined-cycle airbreathing/rocket propulsion systems.

  6. Performance Study of Two-Stage-To-Orbit Reusable Launch Vehicle Propulsion Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    sec) T Thrust Force (lbf) T/W Thrust to Weight TAV Trans-atmospheric Vehicle TBCC Turbine Based Combined Cycle TPS Thermal Protection...airbreathing engines; combined propulsion systems like Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engines and Turbine Based Combined Cycle ( TBCC ) engines; and...engine in a single flow-path. TBCC engines combine a turbine engine and a ramjet or scramjet engine in a single engine casing. Additionally there is

  7. Heat transfer in space power and propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.; Dunning, J. W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's planned Space Station has projected power requirements in the 75-300 kW range; attention is presently given to the range of power system configurations thus far proposed. These are a silicon solar cell system incorporating regenerative fuel cell or battery storage, with a 10-year lifetime, a solar-dynamic power system with phase-change or regenerative fuel cell energy storage, and a combination of these two alternatives. A development status evaluation is also given for the propulsion systems that may be used by next-generation boosters. These include such novel airbreathing systems as turboramjets, air liquefaction cycle rockets, airturboramjet/rockets, and supersonic combustion ramjets.

  8. Replacement of chemical rocket launchers by beamed energy propulsion.

    PubMed

    Fukunari, Masafumi; Arnault, Anthony; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2014-11-01

    Microwave Rocket is a beamed energy propulsion system that is expected to reach space at drastically lower cost. This cost reduction is estimated by replacing the first-stage engine and solid rocket boosters of the Japanese H-IIB rocket with Microwave Rocket, using a recently developed thrust model in which thrust is generated through repetitively pulsed microwave detonation with a reed-valve air-breathing system. Results show that Microwave Rocket trajectory, in terms of velocity versus altitude, can be designed similarly to the current H-IIB first stage trajectory. Moreover, the payload ratio can be increased by 450%, resulting in launch-cost reduction of 74%.

  9. Effect of Correlation on Multi-Engine Rocket Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. R.; Breneman, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    A matter of great concern in the design and operation of multi-engine rocket propulsion systems is the effect of the premature shutdown of one engine on the vehicle. This probability that a premature shutdown will cause a vehicle loss is termed correlation. Based on airbreathing experiences as well as rocket engine data the best estimate of this correlation is made and then applied to the overall multi-engine reliability problem to demonstrate its potential effect. At this point, follow-on analyses are pointed out that illustrate how any potential failures that may cause a correlatable event can be eliminated; thus bringing this correlation to almost 0.

  10. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  11. Sensor/actuator failure detection and isolation for airbreathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G. G.; Behbehani, K.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, the Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLR) test is used to detect and isolate sensor and/or actuator failures when a digital computer simulation model of the physical system is available. The input to the GLR detector is an innovation sequence formed by subtracting the model outputs from the sensed outputs. Application of the GLR detector to the General Electric QCSEE turbofan engine demonstrates the utility of the proposed procedure.

  12. Filtered Mass Density Function for Design Simulation of High Speed Airbreathing Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozda, T. G.; Sheikhi, R. M. H.; Givi, P.; Drummond, J. Philip (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop and implement a new methodology for large eddy simulation of (LES) of high-speed reacting turbulent flows. We have just completed 2 1/2 years of Phase I of this research. The work within the past six months was concentrated on the following two subjects: (1) Development of the joint velocity-scalar filtered density function (VSFDF) scheme for LES. (2) Implementation of our previously developed scalar filtered density function (SFDF) for flame simulations.

  13. Role of Air-Breathing Pulse Detonation Engines in High Speed Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Lee, Jin-Ho; Anderberg, Michael O.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of flight Mach number on the relative performance of pulse detonation engines and gas turbine engines is investigated. The effect of ram and mechanical compression on combustion inlet temperature and the subsequent sensible heat release is determined. Comparison of specific thrust, fuel consumption and impulse for the two engines show the relative benefits over the Mach number range.

  14. Study of Unsteady, Sphere-Driven, Shock-Induced Combustion for Application to Hypervelocity Airbreathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axdahl, Erik; Kumar, Ajay; Wilhite, Alan

    2011-01-01

    A premixed, shock-induced combustion engine has been proposed in the past as a viable option for operating in the Mach 10 to 15 range in a single stage to orbit vehicle. In this approach, a shock is used to initiate combustion in a premixed fuel/air mixture. Apparent advantages over a conventional scramjet engine include a shorter combustor that, in turn, results in reduced weight and heating loads. There are a number of technical challenges that must be understood and resolved for a practical system: premixing of fuel and air upstream of the combustor without premature combustion, understanding and control of instabilities of the shock-induced combustion front, ability to produce sufficient thrust, and the ability to operate over a range of Mach numbers. This study evaluated the stability of the shock-induced combustion front in a model problem of a sphere traveling in a fuel/air mixture at high Mach numbers. A new, rapid analysis method was developed and applied to study such flows. In this method the axisymmetric, body-centric Navier-Stokes equations were expanded about the stagnation streamline of a sphere using the local similarity hypothesis in order to reduce the axisymmetric equations to a quasi-1D set of equations. These reduced sets of equations were solved in the stagnation region for a number of flow conditions in a premixed, hydrogen/air mixture. Predictions from the quasi-1D analysis showed very similar stable or unstable behavior of the shock-induced combustion front as compared to experimental studies and higher-fidelity computational results. This rapid analysis tool could be used in parametric studies to investigate effects of fuel rich/lean mixtures, non-uniformity in mixing, contaminants in the mixture, and different chemistry models.

  15. Interactions between Flight Dynamics and Propulsion Systems of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Details of a Mach 14 Waverider Wind Tunnel Test,” 18th AIAA Aerospace Ground Testing Conference, 1994, AIAA Paper 1994-2476. 7 [51] Goldman, R. L...May 1995, Technical Paper 3502. 12, 35 [110] Fernandez, R., Trefny, C. J., Thomas, S. R., and Bulman, M. J., “Parametric Data From a Wind Tunnel Test...Springer, 2009, pp. 69–81. 15 [141] Argodale, J., Bird , K., Breen, T., Christensen, D., and Dellinger, N., “2001 Industry Studies: Space,” Tech. rep

  16. Filtered Mass Density Function for Design Simulation of High Speed Airbreathing Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozda, T. G.; Sheikhi, R. M.; Givi, Peyman

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop and implement new methodology for large eddy simulation of (LES) of high-speed reacting turbulent flows. We have just completed two (2) years of Phase I of this research. This annual report provides a brief and up-to-date summary of our activities during the period: September 1, 2000 through August 31, 2001. In the work within the past year, a methodology termed "velocity-scalar filtered density function" (VSFDF) is developed and implemented for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows. In this methodology the effects of the unresolved subgrid scales (SGS) are taken into account by considering the joint probability density function (PDF) of all of the components of the velocity and scalar vectors. An exact transport equation is derived for the VSFDF in which the effects of the unresolved SGS convection, SGS velocity-scalar source, and SGS scalar-scalar source terms appear in closed form. The remaining unclosed terms in this equation are modeled. A system of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) which yields statistically equivalent results to the modeled VSFDF transport equation is constructed. These SDEs are solved numerically by a Lagrangian Monte Carlo procedure. The consistency of the proposed SDEs and the convergence of the Monte Carlo solution are assessed by comparison with results obtained by an Eulerian LES procedure in which the corresponding transport equations for the first two SGS moments are solved. The unclosed SGS convection, SGS velocity-scalar source, and SGS scalar-scalar source in the Eulerian LES are replaced by corresponding terms from VSFDF equation. The consistency of the results is then analyzed for a case of two dimensional mixing layer.

  17. Technology Roadmap for Dual-Mode Scramjet Propulsion to Support Space-Access Vision Vehicle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Guy, R. Wayne; McClinton, Charles R.; Welch, Sharon S.

    2002-01-01

    Third-generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV) systems are envisioned that utilize airbreathing and combined-cycle propulsion to take advantage of potential performance benefits over conventional rocket propulsion and address goals of reducing the cost and enhancing the safety of systems to reach earth orbit. The dual-mode scramjet (DMSJ) forms the core of combined-cycle or combination-cycle propulsion systems for single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles and provides most of the orbital ascent energy. These concepts are also relevant to two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) systems with an airbreathing first or second stage. Foundation technology investments in scramjet propulsion are driven by the goal to develop efficient Mach 3-15 concepts with sufficient performance and operability to meet operational system goals. A brief historical review of NASA scramjet development is presented along with a summary of current technology efforts and a proposed roadmap. The technology addresses hydrogen-fueled combustor development, hypervelocity scramjets, multi-speed flowpath performance and operability, propulsion-airframe integration, and analysis and diagnostic tools.

  18. Air-breathing hypersonic vehicle guidance and control studies; An integrated trajectory/control analysis methodology: Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattis, Philip D.; Malchow, Harvey L.

    1991-01-01

    A tool which generates optimal trajectory/control histories in an integrated manner is generically adapted to the treatment of single-stage-to-orbit air-breathing hypersonic vehicles. The methodology is implemented as a two point boundary value problem solution technique. Its use permits an assessment of an entire near-minimum-fuel trajectory and desired control strategy from takeoff to orbit while satisfying physically derived inequality constraints and while achieving efficient propulsive mode phasing. A simpler analysis strategy that partitions the trajectory into several boundary condition matched segments is also included to construct preliminary trajectory and control history representations with less computational burden than is required for the overall flight profile assessment. A demonstration was accomplished using a tabulated example (winged-cone accelerator) vehicle model that is combined with a newly developed multidimensional cubic spline data smoothing routine. A constrained near-fuel-optimal trajectory, imposing a dynamic pressure limit of 1000 psf, was developed from horizontal takeoff to 20,000 ft/sec relative air speed while aiming for a polar orbit. Previously unspecified propulsive discontinuities were located. Flight regimes demanding rapid attitude changes were identified, dictating control effector and closed-loop controller authority was ascertained after evaluating effector use for vehicle trim. Also, inadequacies in vehicle model representations and specific subsystem models with insufficient fidelity were determined based on unusual control characteristics and/or excessive sensitivity to uncertainty.

  19. Propulsion controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkney, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Increased system requirements and functional integration with the aircraft have placed an increased demand on control system capability and reliability. To provide these at an affordable cost and weight and because of the rapid advances in electronic technology, hydromechanical systems are being phased out in favor of digital electronic systems. The transition is expected to be orderly from electronic trimming of hydromechanical controls to full authority digital electronic control. Future propulsion system controls will be highly reliable full authority digital electronic with selected component and circuit redundancy to provide the required safety and reliability. Redundancy may include a complete backup control of a different technology for single engine applications. The propulsion control will be required to communicate rapidly with the various flight and fire control avionics as part of an integrated control concept.

  20. Propulsion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    that Isp is a measure of how efficiently we produce thrust. In a sense, it is similar to the specific fuel consumption for a gas turbine or miles...valves or pyro valve are often used instead. Check Valves. Check valves are used to allow gas flow in one direction but prevent gas from flowing in...propulsion absorbs direct solar energy with a heat exchanger. A propellant gas , typically hydrogen, flows over the heat exchanger and is expelled out of a

  1. Propulsion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Edward J.; Sullivan, Rogelio A.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  2. Advanced controls for airbreathing engines, volume 3: Allison gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bough, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to airbreathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two-phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 3 of these reports describes the studies performed by the Allison Gas Turbine Division.

  3. 20th JANNAF Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Inzar, Jeanette M. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a collection of 24 unclassified/unlimited-distribution papers which were presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 20th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS), 38th Combustion Subcommittee (CS), 26th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS), and 21 Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee meeting. The meeting was held 8-12 April 2002 at the Bayside Inn at The Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort and Eglin Air Force Base, Destin, Florida. Topics covered include: insensitive munitions and hazard classification testing of solid rocket motors and other munitions; vulnerability of gun propellants to impact stimuli; thermal decomposition and cookoff properties of energetic materials; burn-to-violent reaction phenomena in energetic materials; and shock-to-detonation properties of solid propellants and energetic materials.

  4. Engines and innovation: Lewis Laboratory and American propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Virginia Parker

    1991-01-01

    This book is an institutional history of the NASA Lewis Research Center, located in Cleveland, Ohio, from 1940, when Congress authorized funding for a third laboratory for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, through the 1980s. The history of the laboratory is discussed in relation to the development of American propulsion technology, with particular focus on the transition in the 1940s from the use of piston engines in airplanes to jet propulsion and that from air-breathing engines to rocket technology when the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established in 1958. The personalities and research philosophies of the people who shaped the history of the laboratory are discussed, as is the relationship of Lewis Research Center to the Case Institute of Technology.

  5. Mechanical Components Branch Test Facilities and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.

    2004-01-01

    The Mechanical Components Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center formulates, conducts, and manages research focused on propulsion systems for both present and advanced aeronautical and space vehicles. The branch is comprised of research teams that perform basic research in three areas: mechanical drives, aerospace seals, and space mechanisms. Each team has unique facilities for testing aerospace hardware and concepts. This report presents an overview of the Mechanical Components Branch test facilities.

  6. NASA's Advanced Propulsion Technology Activities for Third Generation Fully Reusable Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) established the following three major goals, referred to as "The Three Pillars for Success": Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, and Access to Space. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Propulsion Projects within ASTP under the investment area of Spaceliner100, focus on the earth-to-orbit (ETO) third generation reusable launch vehicle technologies. The goals of Spaceliner 100 is to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The ETO Propulsion Projects in ASTP, are actively developing combination/combined-cycle propulsion technologies that utilized airbreathing propulsion during a major portion of the trajectory. System integration, components, materials and advanced rocket technologies are also being pursued. Over the last several years, one of the main thrusts has been to develop rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. The focus has been on conducting ground tests of several engine designs to establish the RBCC flowpaths performance. Flowpath testing of three different RBCC engine designs is progressing. Additionally, vehicle system studies are being conducted to assess potential operational space access vehicles utilizing combined-cycle propulsion systems. The design, manufacturing, and ground testing of a scale flight-type engine are planned. The first flight demonstration of an airbreathing combined cycle propulsion system is envisioned around 2005. The paper will describe the advanced propulsion technologies that are being being developed under the ETO activities in the ASTP program. Progress, findings, and future activities for the propulsion technologies will be discussed.

  7. Highlights of NASA's Special ETO Program Planning Workshop on rocket-based combined-cycle propulsion system technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, W. J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A NASA workshop on rocket-based combined-cycle propulsion technologies is described emphasizing the development of a starting point for earth-to-orbit (ETO) rocket technologies. The tutorial is designed with attention given to the combined development of aeronautical airbreathing propulsion and space rocket propulsion. The format, agenda, and group deliberations for the tutorial are described, and group deliberations include: (1) mission and space transportation infrastructure; (2) vehicle-integrated propulsion systems; (3) development operations, facilities, and human resource needs; and (4) spaceflight fleet applications and operations. Although incomplete the workshop elevates the subject of combined-cycle hypersonic propulsion and develops a common set of priniciples regarding the development of these technologies.

  8. Laser propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.; Putre, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    The use of an earth-based high-power laser beam to provide energy for earth-launched rocket vehicle is investigated. The laser beam energy is absorbed in an opaque propellant gas and is converted to high-specific-impulse thrust by expanding the heated propellant to space by means of a nozzle. This laser propulsion scheme can produce specific impulses of several thousand seconds. Payload to gross-weight fractions about an order of magnitude higher than those for conventional chemical earth-launched vehicles appear possible. There is a potential for a significant reduction in cost per payload mass in earth orbit.

  9. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  10. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  11. Instrumentation requirements from the user's view. [For airbreathing hypersonic engines

    SciTech Connect

    Harsha, P.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of combustor diagnostics is considered from the point of view of demonstration of performance of an airbreathing hypersonic engine. The basic need is seen to be that of providing the data necessary to verify performance predictions for the engine as installed in the airplane. This necessitates the use of a diagnostics capability that can provide the inputs required by the computational analyses that will be used to assess this performance. Because of the cost of ground test facilities, a premium is placed on measurement technique reliability and redundancy of instrumentation. A mix of nonintrusive optical techniques and probe-based measurements is seen to be the best approach using current diagnostics capability; one such instrument mix is outlined for a ramjet/scramjet test program. 11 references.

  12. Composite predictive flight control for airbreathing hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Zhao, Zhenhua; Li, Shihua; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2014-09-01

    The robust optimised tracking control problem for a generic airbreathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV) subject to nonvanishing mismatched disturbances/uncertainties is investigated in this paper. A baseline nonlinear model predictive control (MPC) method is firstly introduced for optimised tracking control of the nominal dynamics. A nonlinear-disturbance-observer-based control law is then developed for robustness enhancement in the presence of both external disturbances and uncertainties. Compared with the existing robust tracking control methods for AHVs, the proposed composite nonlinear MPC method obtains not only promising robustness and disturbance rejection performance but also optimised nominal tracking control performance. The merits of the proposed method are validated by implementing simulation studies on the AHV system.

  13. Kite propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Pontavice, Emmanuel; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2014-11-01

    Kite propulsion is one way to harvest wind energy. The typical force is 1 kilo Newton per square meter, which means that with kites in the range 100 to 1000 square meters, one is able to propel ships from the trawler to the tanker. Several scientific issues arise when trying to design kites of these sizes. They first need to take off and land autonomously. This leads to the use of kites with an inflatable structure that can be compact when stored but very rigid and light once in the air. For that matter, we studied the behavior of large inflatable structures under static and dynamic load. Then, the kite needs to stay in the air. However, it appears that under certain conditions, kites without active control tend to engage into large oscillations and eventually crash. Through wind tunnel experiments, we try to understand this flight behavior to find the conditions of stability.

  14. Theme and variations: amphibious air-breathing intertidal fishes.

    PubMed

    Martin, K L

    2014-03-01

    Over 70 species of intertidal fishes from 12 families breathe air while emerging from water. Amphibious intertidal fishes generally have no specialized air-breathing organ but rely on vascularized mucosae and cutaneous surfaces in air to exchange both oxygen and carbon dioxide. They differ from air-breathing freshwater fishes in morphology, physiology, ecology and behaviour. Air breathing and terrestrial activity are present to varying degrees in intertidal fish species, correlated with the tidal height of their habitat. The gradient of amphibious lifestyle includes passive remainers that stay in the intertidal zone as tides ebb, active emergers that deliberately leave water in response to poor aquatic conditions and highly mobile amphibious skipper fishes that may spend more time out of water than in it. Normal terrestrial activity is usually aerobic and metabolic rates in air and water are similar. Anaerobic metabolism may be employed during forced exercise or when exposed to aquatic hypoxia. Adaptations for amphibious life include reductions in gill surface area, increased reliance on the skin for respiration and ion exchange, high affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen and adjustments to ventilation and metabolism while in air. Intertidal fishes remain close to water and do not travel far terrestrially, and are unlikely to migrate or colonize new habitats at present, although in the past this may have happened. Many fish species spawn in the intertidal zone, including some that do not breathe air, as eggs and embryos that develop in the intertidal zone benefit from tidal air emergence. With air breathing, amphibious intertidal fishes survive in a variable habitat with minimal adjustments to existing structures. Closely related species in different microhabitats provide unique opportunities for comparative studies.

  15. Effect of aeroelastic-propulsive interactions on flight dynamics of a hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Mcminn, John D.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Wooley, Christine L.

    1993-01-01

    The desire to achieve orbit-on-demand access to space with rapid turn-around capability and aircraft-like processing operations has given rise to numerous hypersonic aerospace plane design concepts which would take off horizontally from a conventional runway and employ air-breathing scramjet propulsion systems for acceleration to orbital speeds. Most of these air-breathing hypersonic vehicle concepts incorporate an elongated fuselage forebody to act as the aerodynamic compression surface for a scramjet combustor module. This type of airframe-integrated scramjet propulsion system tends to be highly sensitive to inlet conditions and angle-of-attack perturbations. Furthermore, the basic configuration of the fuselage, with its elongated and tapered forebody, produces relatively low frequency elastic modes which will cause perturbations in the combustor inlet conditions due to the oscillation of the forebody compression surface. The flexibility of the forebody compression surface, together with sensitivity of scramjet propulsion systems to inlet conditions, creates the potential for an unprecedented form of aeroelastic-propulsive interaction in which deflections of the vehicle fuselage give rise to propulsion transients, producing force and moment variations that may adversely impact the longitudinal flight dynamics and/or excite the elastic modes. These propulsive force and moment variations may have an appreciable impact on the performance, guidance, and control of a hypersonic aerospace plane. The objectives of this research are to quantify the magnitudes of propulsive force and moment perturbations resulting from elastic deformation of a representative hypersonic vehicle, and to assess the potential impact of these perturbations on the vehicle's longitudinal flight dynamics.

  16. Integrated Propulsion/Vehicle System Structurally Optimized

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, James E.; McCurdy, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Ongoing research and testing are essential in the development of air-breathing hypersonic propulsion technology, and this year some positive advancement was made at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Recent work performed for GTX, a rocket-based combined-cycle, single-stage-to-orbit concept, included structural assessments of both the engine and flight vehicle. In the development of air-breathing engine technology, it is impractical to design and optimize components apart from the fully integrated system because tradeoffs must be made between performance and structural capability. Efforts were made to control the flight trajectory, for example, to minimize the aerodynamic heating effects. Structural optimization was applied to evaluate concept feasibility and was instrumental in the determination of the gross liftoff weight of the integrated system. Achieving low Earth orbit with even a small payload requires an aggressive approach to weight minimization through the use of lightweight, oxidation-resistant composite materials. Assessing the integrated system involved investigating the flight trajectory to determine where the critical load events occur in flight and then generating the corresponding environment at each of these events. Structural evaluation requires the mapping of the critical flight loads to finite element models, including the combined effects of aerodynamic, inertial, combustion, and other loads. NASA s APAS code was used to generate aerodynamic pressure and temperature profiles at each critical event. The radiation equilibrium surface temperatures from APAS were used to predict temperatures through the thickness. Heat transfer solutions using NASA's MINIVER code and the SINDA code (Cullimore & Ring Technologies, Littleton, CO) were calculated at selective points external to the integrated vehicle system and then extrapolated over the entire exposed surface. FORTRAN codes were written to expedite the finite element mapping of the aerodynamic heating

  17. Air-breathing fishes in aquaculture. What can we learn from physiology?

    PubMed

    Lefevre, S; Wang, T; Jensen, A; Cong, N V; Huong, D T T; Phuong, N T; Bayley, M

    2014-03-01

    During the past decade, the culture of air-breathing fish species has increased dramatically and is now a significant global source of protein for human consumption. This development has generated a need for specific information on how to maximize growth and minimize the environmental effect of culture systems. Here, the existing data on metabolism in air-breathing fishes are reviewed, with the aim of shedding new light on the oxygen requirements of air-breathing fishes in aquaculture, reaching the conclusion that aquatic oxygenation is much more important than previously assumed. In addition, the possible effects on growth of the recurrent exposure to deep hypoxia and associated elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide, ammonia and nitrite, that occurs in the culture ponds used for air-breathing fishes, are discussed. Where data on air-breathing fishes are simply lacking, data for a few water-breathing species will be reviewed, to put the physiological effects into a growth perspective. It is argued that an understanding of air-breathing fishes' respiratory physiology, including metabolic rate, partitioning of oxygen uptake from air and water in facultative air breathers, the critical oxygen tension, can provide important input for the optimization of culture practices. Given the growing importance of air breathers in aquaculture production, there is an urgent need for further data on these issues.

  18. Electric propulsion, circa 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the future of electric propulsion, circa 2000. Starting with the first generation Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology as the first step toward the next century's advanced propulsion systems, the current status and future trends of other systems such as the magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator, the mass driver, the laser propulsion system, and the rail gun are described.

  19. Advanced nuclear propulsion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Cassenti, B.N. )

    1991-01-01

    Advanced nuclear propulsion can take on several forms. Radioactive thrust sheets directly use the decay of radioactive nuclei to provide propulsion. The fissioning of nuclei has been extensively studied for propulsion both analytically and experimentally. Fusion has been analytically examined as a means of providing propulsion during the last few decades. In the last decade, serious attention has been given to the direct annihilation of matter. Each of these technologies is discussed in this paper with the greatest emphasis on antiproton annihilation propulsion.

  20. Alternate Propulsion Energy Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    sails, laser propulsion , tethers, fusion rockets, antimatter rockets Z9 BSTRACT (Continue on reverse aide if necessary and identify by block number) This...advanced propulsion Dr. Robert Frisbee, JPL - advanced propulsion Dr. Jonas Zmuidzinas, JPL - metastable helium Dr. Paul Massier, JPL - antimatter ... propulsion Dr. Duane Dipprey, JPL - antimatter propulsion Dr. Giulio Varsi, JPL - solar sails Dr. William Carroll, JPL - solar sails Dr. Duncan Steel

  1. Experiments on hypersonic ramjet propulsion cycles using a ram accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chew, G.; Knowlen, C.; Burnham, E. A.; Hertzberg, A.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Work on hypersonic propulsion research using a ram accelerator is presented. Several different ram accelerator propulsive cycles have been experimentally demonstrated over the Mach number range of 3 to 8.5. The subsonic, thermally choked combustion mode has accelerated projectiles to near the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) detonation velocity within many different propellant mixtures. In the transdetonative velocity regime (85 to 115 percent of C-J speed), projectiles have established a propulsive cycle which allows them to transition smoothly from subdetonative to superdetonative velocities. Luminosity data indicate that the combustion process moves forward onto the projectile body as it approaches the C-J speed. In the superdetonative velocity range, the projectiles accelerate while always traveling faster than the C-J velocity. Ram accelerator projectiles operating continuously through these velocity regimes generate distinctive hypersonic phenomena which can be studied very effectively in the laboratory. These results would be very useful for validating sophisticated CFD computer codes and in collecting engineering data for potential airbreathing hypersonic propulsive systems.

  2. Propulsion Flight-Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Nate; Vachon, M. Jake; Richwine, Dave; Moes, Tim; Creech, Gray

    2003-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center s new Propulsion Flight Test Fixture (PFTF), designed in house, is an airborne engine-testing facility that enables engineers to gather flight data on small experimental engines. Without the PFTF, it would be necessary to obtain such data from traditional wind tunnels, ground test stands, or laboratory test rigs. Traditionally, flight testing is reserved for the last phase of engine development. Generally, engines that embody new propulsion concepts are not put into flight environments until their designs are mature: in such cases, either vehicles are designed around the engines or else the engines are mounted in or on missiles. However, a captive carry capability of the PFTF makes it possible to test engines that feature air-breathing designs (for example, designs based on the rocket-based combined cycle) economically in subscale experiments. The discovery of unknowns made evident through flight tests provides valuable information to engine designers early in development, before key design decisions are made, thereby potentially affording large benefits in the long term. This is especially true in the transonic region of flight (from mach 0.9 to around 1.2), where it can be difficult to obtain data from wind tunnels and computational fluid dynamics. In January 2002, flight-envelope expansion to verify the design and capabilities of the PFTF was completed. The PFTF was flown on a specially equipped supersonic F-15B research testbed airplane, mounted on the airplane at a center-line attachment fixture, as shown in Figure 1. NASA s F-15B testbed has been used for several years as a flight-research platform. Equipped with extensive research air-data, video, and other instrumentation systems, the airplane carries externally mounted test articles. Traditionally, the majority of test articles flown have been mounted at the centerline tank-attachment fixture, which is a hard-point (essentially, a standardized weapon-mounting fixture

  3. A Technology Pathway for Airbreathing, Combined-Cycle, Horizontal Space Launch Through SR-71 Based Trajectory Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloesel, Kurt J.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.; Clark, Casie M.

    2011-01-01

    Access to space is in the early stages of commercialization. Private enterprises, mainly under direct or indirect subsidy by the government, have been making headway into the LEO launch systems infrastructure, of small-weight-class payloads of approximately 1000 lbs. These moderate gains have emboldened the launch industry and they are poised to move into the middle-weight class (roughly 5000 lbs). These commercially successful systems are based on relatively straightforward LOX-RP, two-stage, bi-propellant rocket technology developed by the government 40 years ago, accompanied by many technology improvements. In this paper we examine a known generic LOX-RP system with the focus on the booster stage (1st stage). The booster stage is then compared to modeled Rocket-Based and Turbine-Based Combined Cycle booster stages. The air-breathing propulsion stages are based on/or extrapolated from known performance parameters of ground tested RBCC (the Marquardt Ejector Ramjet) and TBCC (the SR-71/J-58 engine) data. Validated engine models using GECAT and SCCREAM are coupled with trajectory optimization and analysis in POST-II to explore viable launch scenarios using hypothetical aerospaceplane platform obeying the aerodynamic model of the SR-71. Finally, and assessment is made of the requisite research technology advances necessary for successful commercial and government adoption of combined-cycle engine systems for space access.

  4. Rapid near-optimal trajectory generation and guidance law development for single-stage-to-orbit airbreathing vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Flandro, G. A.; Corban, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    General problems associated with on-board trajectory optimization, propulsion system cycle selection, and with the synthesis of guidance laws were addressed for an ascent to low-earth-orbit of an air-breathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The NASA Generic Hypersonic Aerodynamic Model Example and the Langley Accelerator aerodynamic sets were acquired and implemented. Work related to the development of purely analytic aerodynamic models was also performed at a low level. A generic model of a multi-mode propulsion system was developed that includes turbojet, ramjet, scramjet, and rocket engine cycles. Provisions were made in the dynamic model for a component of thrust normal to the flight path. Computational results, which characterize the nonlinear sensitivity of scramjet performance to changes in vehicle angle of attack, were obtained and incorporated into the engine model. Additional trajectory constraints were introduced: maximum dynamic pressure; maximum aerodynamic heating rate per unit area; angle of attack and lift limits; and limits on acceleration both along and normal to the flight path. The remainder of the effort focused on required modifications to a previously derived algorithm when the model complexity cited above was added. In particular, analytic switching conditions were derived which, under appropriate assumptions, govern optimal transition from one propulsion mode to another for two cases: the case in which engine cycle operations can overlap, and the case in which engine cycle operations are mutually exclusive. The resulting guidance algorithm was implemented in software and exercised extensively. It was found that the approximations associated with the assumed time scale separation employed in this work are reasonable except over the Mach range from roughly 5 to 8. This phenomenon is due to the very large thrust capability of scramjets in this Mach regime when sized to meet the requirement for ascent to orbit. By accounting for flight path

  5. Stack air-breathing membraneless glucose microfluidic biofuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Moreno-Zuria, A.; Vallejo-Becerra, V.; Arjona, N.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.; Ledesma-García, J.; Arriaga, L. G.

    2016-11-01

    A novel stacked microfluidic fuel cell design comprising re-utilization of the anodic and cathodic solutions on the secondary cell is presented. This membraneless microfluidic fuel cell employs porous flow-through electrodes in a “V”-shape cell architecture. Enzymatic bioanodic arrays based on glucose oxidase were prepared by immobilizing the enzyme onto Toray carbon paper electrodes using tetrabutylammonium bromide, Nafion and glutaraldehyde. These electrodes were characterized through the scanning electrochemical microscope technique, evidencing a good electrochemical response due to the electronic transference observed with the presence of glucose over the entire of the electrode. Moreover, the evaluation of this microfluidic fuel cell with an air-breathing system in a double-cell mode showed a performance of 0.8951 mWcm-2 in a series connection (2.2822mAcm-2, 1.3607V), and 0.8427 mWcm-2 in a parallel connection (3.5786mAcm-2, 0.8164V).

  6. High capacity for extracellular acid-base regulation in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong; Tuong, Dang Diem; Thinh, Phan Vinh; Huong Thanh, Do Thi; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of accessory air-breathing structures is typically associated with reduction of the gills, although branchial ion transport remains pivotal for acid-base and ion regulation. Therefore, air-breathing fishes are believed to have a low capacity for extracellular pH regulation during a respiratory acidosis. In the present study, we investigated acid-base regulation during hypercapnia in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in normoxic and hypoxic water at 28-30°C. Contrary to previous studies, we show that this air-breathing fish has a pronounced ability to regulate extracellular pH (pHe) during hypercapnia, with complete metabolic compensation of pHe within 72 h of exposure to hypoxic hypercapnia with CO2 levels above 34 mmHg. The high capacity for pHe regulation relies on a pronounced ability to increase levels of HCO3(-) in the plasma. Our study illustrates the diversity in the physiology of air-breathing fishes, such that generalizations across phylogenies may be difficult.

  7. Beamed energy propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Beamed energy concepts offer an alternative for an advanced propulsion system. The use of a remote power source reduces the weight of the propulsion system in flight and this, combined with the high performance, provides significant payload gains. Within the context of this study's baseline scenario, two beamed energy propulsion concepts are potentially attractive: solar thermal propulsion and laser thermal propulsion. The conceived beamed energy propulsion devices generally provide low thrust (tens of pounds to hundreds of pounds); therefore, they are typically suggested for cargo transportation. For the baseline scenario, these propulsion system can provide propulsion between the following nodes: (1) low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit; (2) low Earth orbit to low lunar orbit; (3) low lunar orbit to low Mars orbit--only solar thermal; and (4) lunar surface to low lunar orbit--only laser thermal.

  8. Hybrid rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzman, Allen L.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) comparison of the theoretical impulses; (2) comparison of the density-specific impulses; (3) general propulsion system features comparison; (4) hybrid systems, booster applications; and (5) hybrid systems, upper stage propulsion applications.

  9. OTV Propulsion Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The statistical technology needs of aero-assist maneuvering, propulsion, and usage of cryogenic fluids were presented. Industry panels discussed the servicing of reusable space based vehicles and propulsion-vehicle interation.

  10. Propulsion system ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles C.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to provide management visibility relative to the roles of simulation and propulsion system testing for future development programs through assessment of current propulsion related simulation capabilities and review of contributions from propulsion system test programs. The presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  11. Directions in propulsion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is research at NASA Lewis in the area of propulsion controls as driven by trends in advanced aircraft. The objective of the Lewis program is to develop the technology for advanced reliable propulsion control systems and to integrate the propulsion control with the flight control for optimal full-system control.

  12. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  13. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-01-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  14. Excretory nitrogen metabolism and defence against ammonia toxicity in air-breathing fishes.

    PubMed

    Chew, S F; Ip, Y K

    2014-03-01

    With the development of air-breathing capabilities, some fishes can emerge from water, make excursions onto land or even burrow into mud during droughts. Air-breathing fishes have modified gill morphology and morphometry and accessory breathing organs, which would tend to reduce branchial ammonia excretion. As ammonia is toxic, air-breathing fishes, especially amphibious ones, are equipped with various strategies to ameliorate ammonia toxicity during emersion or ammonia exposure. These strategies can be categorized into (1) enhancement of ammonia excretion and reduction of ammonia entry, (2) conversion of ammonia to a less toxic product for accumulation and subsequent excretion, (3) reduction of ammonia production and avoidance of ammonia accumulation and (4) tolerance of ammonia at cellular and tissue levels. Active ammonia excretion, operating in conjunction with lowering of ambient pH and reduction in branchial and cutaneous NH₃ permeability, is theoretically the most effective strategy to maintain low internal ammonia concentrations. NH₃ volatilization involves the alkalization of certain epithelial surfaces and requires mechanisms to prevent NH₃ back flux. Urea synthesis is an energy-intensive process and hence uncommon among air-breathing teleosts. Aestivating African lungfishes detoxify ammonia to urea and the accumulated urea is excreted following arousal. Reduction in ammonia production is achieved in some air-breathing fishes through suppression of amino acid catabolism and proteolysis, or through partial amino acid catabolism leading to alanine formation. Others can slow down ammonia accumulation through increased glutamine synthesis in the liver and muscle. Yet, some others develop high tolerance of ammonia at cellular and tissue levels, including tissues in the brain. In summary, the responses of air-breathing fishes to ameliorate ammonia toxicity are many and varied, determined by the behaviour of the species and the nature of the environment in

  15. Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP). Some of the topics include: 1) Ways to use Solar Energy for Propulsion; 2) Solar (fusion) Energy; 3) Operation in Orbit; 4) Propulsion Concepts; 5) Critical Equations; 6) Power Efficiency; 7) Major STP Projects; 8) Types of STP Engines; 9) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Assembly; 10) Specific Impulse; 11) Thrust; 12) Temperature Distribution; 13) Pressure Loss; 14) Transient Startup; 15) Axial Heat Input; 16) Direct Gain Engine Design; 17) Direct Gain Engine Fabrication; 18) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Components; 19) Solar Thermal Test Facility; and 20) Checkout Results.

  16. Enhanced Control Effector Designs for Airbreathing Transatmospheric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E.; McMinn, John D.

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential effectiveness of a moveable cowl-trailing-edge design for airbreathing hypersonic single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) configurations, which can be extended or deflected from the nominal position in order to provide additional pitching moment capability. This additional pitching moment capability may reduce the necessary deflection angle from conventional control surfaces and the associated trim drag penalty. Calculations for a generic SSTO configuration with baseline and modified cowl trailing edge geometries were performed at Mach 6 and 10 initially with an engineering analysis code in order to examine several design parametrics. In order to more accurately model geometries and flow physics, 2-D viscous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions were obtained. FInally, a limited set of 3D CFD predictions were obtained at Mach 6 in order to show the effects of modeling 3D flow fields as well as the full 3D vehicle geometry. Comparisons of aftbody surface pressures and force and moment predictions show differences between initial predictions and 2-D CFD solutions due to geometry modeling and calculation method differences. The 3-D CFD predictions confirm the trends observed in the 2-D solutions and provide additional information on 3D effects. These analyses shows that cowl-trailing-edge extensions were effective in providing additional (nose-down) pitching moment increments as well as increased thrust compared to the baseline geometry. These effects reduce the control surface deflection angle required to trim the vehicle and the associated trim drag. Cowl-trailingedge deflections were not as effective, generating more nose-up pitching moment and decreased thrust compared to non-deflected cases.

  17. Branching Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Arie; Simons, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tubular structures are a fundamental anatomical theme recurring in a wide range of animal species. In mammals, tubulogenesis underscores the development of several systems and organs, including the vascular system, the lungs, and the kidneys. All tubular systems are hierarchical, branching into segments of gradually diminishing diameter. There are only two cell types that form the lumen of tubular systems – either endothelial cells in the vascular system, or epithelial cells in all other organs. The most important feature in determining the morphology of the tubular systems is the frequency and geometry of branching. Hence, deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the sprouting of new branches from pre-existing ones is the key to understanding the formation of tubular systems. The morphological similarity between the various tubular systems is underscored by similarities between the signaling pathways which control their branching. A prominent feature common to these pathways is their duality – an agonist counterbalanced by an inhibitor. The formation of the tracheal system in Drosophila melanogaster is driven by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and inhibited by Sprouty/Notch. In vertebrates, the analogous pathways are FGF and transforming growth factor β in epithelial tubular systems, or vascular endothelial growth factor and Notch in the vascular system. PMID:19179661

  18. NASA electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkopec, F. D.; Stone, J. R.; Aston, G.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the requirements for future electric propulsion cover an extremely large range of technical and programmatic characteristics. A NASA program is to provide options for the many potential mission applications, taking into account work on electrostatic, electromagnetic, and electrothermal propulsion systems. The present paper is concerned with developments regarding the three classes of electric propulsion. Studies concerning electrostatic propulsion are concerned with ion propulsion for primary propulsion for planetary and earth-orbit transfer vehicles, stationkeeping for geosynchronous spacecraft, and ion thruster systems. In connection with investigations related to electromagnetic propulsion, attention is given to electromagnetic launchers, the Hall current thruster, and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. In a discussion of electrothermal developments, space station resistojets are considered along with high performance resistojets, arcjets, and a laser thruster.

  19. Developing Conceptual Hypersonic Airbreathing Engines Using Design of Experiments Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferlemann, Shelly M.; Robinson, Jeffrey S.; Martin, John G.; Leonard, Charles P.; Taylor, Lawrence W.; Kamhawi, Hilmi

    2000-01-01

    Designing a hypersonic vehicle is a complicated process due to the multi-disciplinary synergy that is required. The greatest challenge involves propulsion-airframe integration. In the past, a two-dimensional flowpath was generated based on the engine performance required for a proposed mission. A three-dimensional CAD geometry was produced from the two-dimensional flowpath for aerodynamic analysis, structural design, and packaging. The aerodynamics, engine performance, and mass properties arc inputs to the vehicle performance tool to determine if the mission goals were met. If the mission goals were not met, then a flowpath and vehicle redesign would begin. This design process might have to be performed several times to produce a "closed" vehicle. This paper will describe an attempt to design a hypersonic cruise vehicle propulsion flowpath using a Design of' Experiments method to reduce the resources necessary to produce a conceptual design with fewer iterations of the design cycle. These methods also allow for more flexible mission analysis and incorporation of additional design constraints at any point. A design system was developed using an object-based software package that would quickly generate each flowpath in the study given the values of the geometric independent variables. These flowpath geometries were put into a hypersonic propulsion code and the engine performance was generated. The propulsion results were loaded into statistical software to produce regression equations that were combined with an aerodynamic database to optimize the flowpath at the vehicle performance level. For this example, the design process was executed twice. The first pass was a cursory look at the independent variables selected to determine which variables are the most important and to test all of the inputs to the optimization process. The second cycle is a more in-depth study with more cases and higher order equations representing the design space.

  20. Space Propulsion Technology Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. Focused program elements are: (1) transportation systems, which include earth-to-orbit propulsion, commercial vehicle propulsion, auxiliary propulsion, advanced cryogenic engines, cryogenic fluid systems, nuclear thermal propulsion, and nuclear electric propulsion; (2) space platforms, which include spacecraft on-board propulsion, and station keeping propulsion; and (3) technology flight experiments, which include cryogenic orbital N2 experiment (CONE), SEPS flight experiment, and cryogenic orbital H2 experiment (COHE).

  1. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  2. Analysis of a Nuclear Enhanced Airbreathing Rocket for Earth to Orbit Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; Landrum, D. Brian; Brown, Norman (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The proposed engine concept is the Nuclear Enhanced Airbreathing Rocket (NEAR). The NEAR concept uses a fission reactor to thermally heat a propellant in a rocket plenum. The rocket is shrouded, thus the exhaust mixes with ingested air to provide additional thermal energy through combustion. The combusted flow is then expanded through a nozzle to provide thrust.

  3. Nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, G.A.; Lawrence, T.J. )

    1989-06-01

    The state of the art in nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer is discussed. Cryogenic propulsion, electric propulsion, solar-thermal propulsion and direct nuclear propulsion are examined in this context. New technologies with exceptional promise are addressed, emphasizing the particle test bed nuclear engine.

  4. Expendable launch vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The current status is reviewed of the U.S. Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) fleet, the international competition, and the propulsion technology of both domestic and foreign ELVs. The ELV propulsion technology areas where research, development, and demonstration are most needed are identified. These propulsion technology recommendations are based on the work performed by the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC), an industry panel established by the Dept. of Transportation.

  5. Synerjet propulsion and the trimarket opportunity - Orbital, transglobal and lunar transportation services with one vehicle type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed aerospace transporter for performing earth-to-orbit/return missions as well as transatmospheric and in-space high-energy missions is argued to be an effective and feasible alternative for development. The vehicles are based on the exploitation of 'synerjet' technologies that use airbreathing/rocket combined-cycle propulsion. The vehicle is shown to be capable of terrestrial-service intercontinental transglobal flight in an 'orbital cruise' mode as well as round trips from low orbits to high orbits and to the moon. The operational flexibility is linked to the development of synerjet propulsion, so directions are proposed for technology development and validation efforts. The development of the NASP X-30 by NASA is shown to be an important initial contribution to the R&D in this direction.

  6. Aerosciences, Aero-Propulsion and Flight Mechanics Technology Development for NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program, Vehicle Systems Research and Technology (VSR&T) project is pursuing technology advancements in aerothermodynamics, aeropropulsion and flight mechanics to enable development of future reusable launch vehicle (RLV) systems. The current design trade space includes rocket-propelled, hypersonic airbreathing and hybrid systems in two-stage and single-stage configurations. Aerothermodynamics technologies include experimental and computational databases to evaluate stage separation of two-stage vehicles as well as computational and trajectory simulation tools for this problem. Additionally, advancements in high-fidelity computational tools and measurement techniques are being pursued along with the study of flow physics phenomena, such as boundary-layer transition. Aero-propulsion technology development includes scramjet flowpath development and integration, with a current emphasis on hypervelocity (Mach 10 and above) operation, as well as the study of aero-propulsive interactions and the impact on overall vehicle performance. Flight mechanics technology development is focused on advanced guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) algorithms and adaptive flight control systems for both rocket-propelled and airbreathing vehicles.

  7. Field resonance propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion concept was developed based on a proposed resonance between coherent, pulsed electromagnetic wave forms, and gravitational wave forms (or space-time metrics). Using this concept a spacecraft propulsion system potentially capable of galactic and intergalactic travel without prohibitive travel times was designed. The propulsion system utilizes recent research associated with magnetic field line merging, hydromagnetic wave effects, free-electron lasers, laser generation of megagauss fields, and special structural and containment metals. The research required to determine potential, field resonance characteristics and to evaluate various aspects of the spacecraft propulsion design is described.

  8. Fault Branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Poliakov, A. N.

    2001-12-01

    Theoretical stress analysis for a propagating shear rupture suggests that the propensity of the rupture path to branch is determined by rupture speed and by the preexisting stress state. See Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice (JGR, submitted April 2001, URL below). Deviatoric stresses near a mode II rupture tip are found to be much higher to both sides of the fault plane than directly ahead, when rupture speed becomes close to the Rayleigh speed. However, the actual pattern of predicted Coulomb failure on secondary faults is strongly dependent on the angle between the fault and the direction of maximum compression Smax in the pre-stress field. Steep Smax angles lead to more extensive failure on the extensional side, whereas shallow angles give comparable failure regions on both. Here we test such concepts against natural examples. For crustal thrust faults we may assume that Smax is horizontal. Thus nucleation on a steeply dipping plane, like the 53 ° dip for the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, is consistent with rupture path kinking to the extensional side, as inferred. Nucleation on a shallow dip, like for the 12 ° -18 ° of the 1985 Kettleman Hills event, should activate both sides, as seems consistent with aftershock patterns. Similarly, in a strike slip example, Smax is inferred to be at approximately 60 ° with the Johnson Valley fault where it branched to the extensional side onto the Landers-Kickapoo fault in the 1992 event, and this too is consistent. Further, geological examination of the activation of secondary fault features along the Johnson Valley fault and the Homestead Valley fault consistently shows that most activity occurs on the extensional side. Another strike-slip example is the Imperial Valley 1979 earthquake. The approximate Smax direction is north-south, at around 35 ° with the main fault, where it branched, on the extensional side, onto Brawley fault, again interpretable with the concepts developed.

  9. Advanced Propulsion Concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Current interest in advanced propulsion within NASA and research activities in advanced propulsion concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reviewed. The concepts, which include high power plasma thrusters such as lithuim-fueled Lorentz-Force-Accelerators, MEMS-scale propulsion systems, in-situ propellant utilization techniques, fusion propulsion systems and methods of using antimatter, offer the potential for either significantly enhancing space transportation capability as compared with that of traditional chemical propulsion, or enabling ambitious new missions.

  10. 2-D Airbreathing Lightcraft Engine Experiments in Quiescent Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Israel I.; Myrabo, Leik N.; Minucci, Marco A. S.; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Toro, Paulo G. P.; Chanes, José B.; Rego, Israel S.

    2011-11-01

    Ground-breaking laser propulsion (LP) experiments were performed under quiescent conditions with a 25 cm wide, two-dimensional Lightcraft model using a Lumonics TEA-622 CO2 laser emitting ˜ 1 μs pulses. In preparation for subsequent hypersonic experiments, this static test campaign was conducted at ambient pressures of 0.06, 0.15, 0.30 and 1 bar with laser pulse energies of 150 to 230 J. Time-variant pressure distributions, generated over engine "absorption chamber" walls, were integrated to obtain total impulse and momentum coupling coefficients (Cm) representative of a single propulsion cycle. Schlieren visualization of laser-induced air breakdown and expanding blast waves was also accomplished. Surprisingly, the Cm results of 600-3000 Ns/MJ were 2.5x to 5x greater than previous results from smaller Lightcraft models; this suggests that higher static Cm performance can likely be achieved in larger scale LP engines. This research collaboration, forged between the USAF and Brazilian Air Force, was carried out at the Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics in Brazil.

  11. Test facilities of the structural dynamics branch of NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montague, Gerald T.; Kielb, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center Structural Dynamics Branch conducts experimental and analytical research related to the structural dynamics of aerospace propulsion and power systems. The experimental testing facilities of the branch are examined. Presently there are 10 research rigs and 4 laboratories within the branch. These facilities are described along with current and past research work.

  12. NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The grand opening of NASA's new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, took place in July 2004. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) serves as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of innovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility is the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, features a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility allows it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellant propulsion. An important area of emphasis is the development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and sets the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  13. Nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    This document is presented in viewgraph form, and the topics covered include the following: (1) the direct fission-thermal propulsion process; (2) mission applications of direct fission-thermal propulsion; (3) nuclear engines for rocket vehicles; (4) manned mars landers; and (5) particle bed reactor design.

  14. Advanced Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Leslie, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Chemical Propulsion (ACP) provides near-term incremental improvements in propulsion system performance and/or cost. It is an evolutionary approach to technology development that produces useful products along the way to meet increasingly more demanding mission requirements while focusing on improving payload mass fraction to yield greater science capability. Current activities are focused on two areas: chemical propulsion component, subsystem, and manufacturing technologies that offer measurable system level benefits; and the evaluation of high-energy storable propellants with enhanced performance for in-space application. To prioritize candidate propulsion technology alternatives, a variety of propulsion/mission analyses and trades have been conducted for SMD missions to yield sufficient data for investment planning. They include: the Advanced Chemical Propulsion Assessment; an Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Model; a LOx-LH2 small pumps conceptual design; a space storables propellant study; a spacecraft cryogenic propulsion study; an advanced pressurization and mixture ratio control study; and a pump-fed vs. pressure-fed study.

  15. Electric Propulsion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electric propulsion machine includes an ion thruster having an annular discharge chamber housing an anode having a large surface area. The ion thruster includes flat annular ion optics with a small span to gap ratio. Optionally, a second electric propulsion thruster may be disposed in a cylindrical space disposed within an interior of the annulus.

  16. Application of steady and unsteady detonation waves to propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wintenberger, Eric

    The present work investigates the applications of steady and unsteady detonation waves to air-breathing propulsion systems. The efficiency of ideal detonation-based propulsion systems is first investigated based on thermodynamics. We reformulate the Hugoniot analysis of steady combustion waves for a fixed initial stagnation state to conclude that steady detonation waves are less desirable than deflagrations for propulsion. However, a thermostatic approach shows that unsteady detonations have the potential for generating more work than constant-pressure combustion. The subsequent work focuses on specific engine concepts. A flow path analysis of ideal steady detonation engines is conducted and shows that their performance is limited and poorer than that of the ideal ramjet or turbojet engines. The limitations associated with the use of a steady detonation in the combustor are drastic and such engines do not appear to be practical. This leads us to focus on unsteady detonation engines, i.e., pulse detonation engines. The unsteady generation of thrust in the simple configuration of a detonation tube is first analyzed using gas dynamics. We develop one of the first models to quickly and reliably estimate the impulse of a pulse detonation tube. The impulse is found to scale directly with the mass of explosive in the tube and the square root of the energy release per unit mass of the mixture. Impulse values for typical fuel-oxidizer mixtures are found to be on the order of 160 s for hydrocarbon-oxygen mixtures and 120 s for fuel-air mixtures at standard conditions. These results are then used as a basis to develop the first complete system-level performance analysis of a supersonic, single-tube, air-breathing pulse detonation engine. We show that hydrogen- and JP10-fueled pulse detonation engines generate thrust up to a Mach number of 4, and that the specific impulse decreases quasi-linearly with increasing flight Mach number. Finally, we find that the performance of our

  17. Propulsion Research and Technology: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John; Schmidt, George

    1999-01-01

    Propulsion is unique in being the main delimiter on how far and how fast one can travel in space. It is the lack of truly economical high-performance propulsion systems that continues to limit and restrict the extent of human endeavors in space. Therefore the goal of propulsion research is to conceive and investigate new, revolutionary propulsion concepts. This presentation reviews the development of new propulsion concepts. Some of these concepts are: (1) Rocket-based Combined Cycle (RBCC) propulsion, (2) Alternative combined Cycle engines suc2 as the methanol ramjet , and the liquid air cycle engines, (3) Laser propulsion, (4) Maglifter, (5) pulse detonation engines, (6) solar thermal propulsion, (7) multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB) and other low-G cryogenic fluids, (8) Electric propulsion, (9) nuclear propulsion, (10) Fusion Propulsion, and (11) Antimatter technology. The efforts of the NASA centers in this research is also spotlighted.

  18. Optimal guidance and propulsion control for transatmospheric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, J. E.; Calise, A. J.; Flandro, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    Problems associated with on-board trajectory optimization and with the synthesis of guidance laws are addressed for ascent to LEO of an air-breathing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle. A multimode propulsion system is assumed which incorporates turbojet, ramjet, scramjet, and rocket engines. An energy-state approximation is applied to a four-state dynamic model for flight of a point mass over a spherical nonrotating earth. An algorithm for generating fuel-optimal climb profiles is derived via singular perturbation theory. This algorithm results from application of the minimum principle to a low-order dynamic model that includes general functional dependence on angle of attack and a normal component of thrust. Switching conditions are derived which, under appropriate assumptions, govern optimal transition from one propulsion mode to another. The use of bank angle to modulate the magnitude of the vertical component of lift is shown to improve the index performance. Numerical results illustrate the nature of the resulting fuel-optimal climb paths.

  19. Large eddy simulation modelling of combustion for propulsion applications.

    PubMed

    Fureby, C

    2009-07-28

    Predictive modelling of turbulent combustion is important for the development of air-breathing engines, internal combustion engines, furnaces and for power generation. Significant advances in modelling non-reactive turbulent flows are now possible with the development of large eddy simulation (LES), in which the large energetic scales of the flow are resolved on the grid while modelling the effects of the small scales. Here, we discuss the use of combustion LES in predictive modelling of propulsion applications such as gas turbine, ramjet and scramjet engines. The LES models used are described in some detail and are validated against laboratory data-of which results from two cases are presented. These validated LES models are then applied to an annular multi-burner gas turbine combustor and a simplified scramjet combustor, for which some additional experimental data are available. For these cases, good agreement with the available reference data is obtained, and the LES predictions are used to elucidate the flow physics in such devices to further enhance our knowledge of these propulsion systems. Particular attention is focused on the influence of the combustion chemistry, turbulence-chemistry interaction, self-ignition, flame holding burner-to-burner interactions and combustion oscillations.

  20. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  1. Bionic Propulsion on Water and Measurement of Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Liu; Si-yuan, Zhao; Shan-chao, Tu; Tian-yu, Zhu; Rong-xiang, Li

    Traditional propulsion fashion on water are propeller propulsion and jet propulsion, but the efficiency relatively low. Used by biological propulsion, after the last million years of evolution, the maximum utilization of its power. Bionic propulsion system designed in this paper consists of two large travel umbrella wing plate in reciprocating linear travel agencies, led by the reciprocating motion along the vertical, in the water under the influence of backward movement of the wing disk automatically open, resulting in the pull forward, the forward movement of the wing disk automatically shut down to reduce water resistance. This paper designs a bionic propulsion and drag model for the static test and measurement test propulsion.

  2. Dispersion, Mixing, and Combustion in Uniform- and Variable-Density Air-Breathing High-Speed Propulsion Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-28

    modifications allowed inclined-jet injection in supersonic flow to be studied with and without chemical reactions and heat release. Work on hydrocarbon ...completion times present particular challenges for scramjet powered flight in the low Mach number regime in that chemical reactions must be preceded...numerical simulations and modeling of jet injection into supersonic flow, and dispersion, mixing, and chemical reactions of flow past a rearward-facing

  3. Sensor failure and multivariable control for airbreathing propulsion systems. Ph.D. Thesis - Dec. 1979 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behbehani, K.

    1980-01-01

    A new sensor/actuator failure analysis technique for turbofan jet engines was developed. Three phases of failure analysis, namely detection, isolation, and accommodation are considered. Failure detection and isolation techniques are developed by utilizing the concept of Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLR) tests. These techniques are applicable to both time varying and time invariant systems. Three GLR detectors are developed for: (1) hard-over sensor failure; (2) hard-over actuator failure; and (3) brief disturbances in the actuators. The probability distribution of the GLR detectors and the detectability of sensor/actuator failures are established. Failure type is determined by the maximum of the GLR detectors. Failure accommodation is accomplished by extending the Multivariable Nyquest Array (MNA) control design techniques to nonsquare system designs. The performance and effectiveness of the failure analysis technique are studied by applying the technique to a turbofan jet engine, namely the Quiet Clean Short Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Single and multiple sensor/actuator failures in the QCSEE are simulated and analyzed and the effects of model degradation are studied.

  4. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  5. Pulsed Laser Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    Journal, Vol. 12, No. 9,September 1974, pp. 1254-1261. 5. D. D. Papailiou, ed., "Frontiers in Propulsion Research: Laser, Matter - Antimatter , Exited...82177AD-AI09 850 PHYSICAL SCIENCES INC WOBURN MA F/G 20/5 PULSED LASER PROPULSION .(U) OCT 78 P E NEBOLSINE, A N PIRRI, J S GOELA N00014-76-C 0738...UNCLASSIFIED PSI-TR-142 III~~D EEC~h~I -M 0 1111_L251.4 11 [4 LEVEL2PSI TR-1 2 LO "r PULSED LASER PROPULSION " P. E. Nebolsine, A. N. Pirri, J. S. Goela, G

  6. Ion propulsion cost effectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zafran, S.; Biess, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Ion propulsion modules employing 8-cm thrusters and 30-cm thrusters were studied for Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) applications. Recurring and nonrecurring cost elements were generated for these modules. As a result, ion propulsion cost drivers were identified to be Shuttle charges, solar array, power processing, and thruster costs. Cost effective design approaches included short length module configurations, array power sharing, operation at reduced thruster input power, simplified power processing units, and power processor output switching. The MMS mission model employed indicated that nonrecurring costs have to be shared with other programs unless the mission model grows. Extended performance missions exhibited the greatest benefits when compared with monopropellant hydrazine propulsion.

  7. Electric Propulsion Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    DTIC FILE COPY AL-TR-89-040 AD: AD-A227 121 Final Report forteprod Electric Propulsion Study 21 Sep 1988 to 30 Nov 1989 DTIC ’ELECTE0OCT 0c 41990u... Electric Propulsion Study (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Cravens, Dennis J. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 15. PAGE...identif bv block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Inductive theories, electric propulsion, unified field 21 0- theories, Conservatc!±,n Laws, Dynamic

  8. Air-breathing hypersonic cruise - Prospects for Mach 4-7 waverider aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.

    1992-01-01

    In the Mach 4-7 range, waverider aircraft are considered as candidates for both short- and long-range cruise missions, as hypersonic missiles, and as high L/D highly maneuverable craft. The potential for near- and far-term application of airbreathing engines to the waverider vehicle missions and concepts is presented. Attention is focused on the cruise mission and attempts are made to compare and contrast it with the accelerator mission.

  9. Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation describes a number of advanced space propulsion technologies with the potential for meeting the need for dramatic reductions in the cost of access to space, and the need for new propulsion capabilities to enable bold new space exploration (and, ultimately, space exploitation) missions of the 21st century. For example, current Earth-to-orbit (e.g., low Earth orbit, LEO) launch costs are extremely high (ca. $10,000/kg); a factor 25 reduction (to ca. $400/kg) will be needed to produce the dramatic increases in space activities in both the civilian and government sectors identified in the Commercial Space Transportation Study (CSTS). Similarly, in the area of space exploration, all of the relatively 'easy' missions (e.g., robotic flybys, inner solar system orbiters and landers; and piloted short-duration Lunar missions) have been done. Ambitious missions of the next century (e.g., robotic outer-planet orbiters/probes, landers, rovers, sample returns; and piloted long-duration Lunar and Mars missions) will require major improvements in propulsion capability. In some cases, advanced propulsion can enable a mission by making it faster or more affordable, and in some cases, by directly enabling the mission (e.g., interstellar missions). As a general rule, advanced propulsion systems are attractive because of their low operating costs (e.g., higher specific impulse, ISD) and typically show the most benefit for relatively 'big' missions (i.e., missions with large payloads or AV, or a large overall mission model). In part, this is due to the intrinsic size of the advanced systems as compared to state-of-the-art (SOTA) chemical propulsion systems. Also, advanced systems often have a large 'infrastructure' cost, either in the form of initial R&D costs or in facilities hardware costs (e.g., laser or microwave transmission ground stations for beamed energy propulsion). These costs must then be amortized over a large mission to be cost-competitive with a SOTA

  10. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future Human Exploration requires high power solar electric propulsion vehicles to move cargo and humans beyond Low Earth Orbit, which requires large light weight arrays, high power processing, and...

  11. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  12. Solar Thermal Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Paper analyzes potential of solar thermal rockets as means of propulsion for planetary spacecraft. Solar thermal rocket uses concentrated Sunlight to heat working fluid expelled through nozzle to produce thrust.

  13. Propulsion technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lee W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on propulsion technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: water electrolysis O2/H2 system; hydrazine system advancements; common technology; fluids disposal; and storable bipropellant system.

  14. Spacecraft propulsion: new methods.

    PubMed

    Alfvén, H

    1972-04-14

    Cosmic plasmas contain energy which may be tapped and used for spacecraft propulsion. The energy needed for launching a spacecraft could be supplied to it from the ground through a plasma channel in the atmosphere.

  15. Advanced propulsion on a shoestring

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, E.J.

    1990-05-01

    Consideration is given to propulsion concepts under study by NASA Advanced Propulsion Research Program. These concepts include fusion, antimatter-matter annihilation, microwave electrothermal, and electron cyclotron resonance propulsion. Results from programs to develop fusion technologies are reviewed, including compact fusion devices and inertial confinement experiments. Problems concerning both antimatter and fusion propulsion concepts are examined and the economic issues related to propulsion research are discussed.

  16. Mission applications of electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the mission applications of electric propulsion. The energy requirements of candidate high-energy missions gaining in NASA priority are used to highlight the potential of electric propulsion. Mission-propulsion interfaces are examined to point out differences between chemical and electric applications. Brief comparisons between ballistic requirements and capabilities and those of electric propulsion show that electric propulsion is presently the most practical and perhaps the only technology which can accomplish missions with these energy requirements.

  17. Electric propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced electric propulsion program is directed towards lowering the specific impulse and increasing the thrust per unit of ion thruster systems. In addition, electrothermal and electromagnetic propulsion technologies are being developed to attempt to fill the gap between the conventional ion thruster and chemical rocket systems. Most of these new concepts are exagenous and are represented by rail accelerators, ablative Teflon thrusters, MPD arcs, Free Radicals, etc. Endogenous systems such as metallic hydrogen offer great promise and are also being pursued.

  18. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. This image, taken during the test, depicts the light being concentrated into the focal point inside the vacuum chamber. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  19. Ion Beam Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Ion Beam Propulsion Study was a joint high-level study between the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Berkeley Scientific, Berkeley, California. The results were promising and suggested that work should continue if future funding becomes available. The application of ion thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is limited to quite modest ion sources with similarly modest ion beam parameters because of the mass penalty associated with the ion source and its power supply system. Also, the ion source technology has not been able to provide very high-power ion beams. Small ion beam propulsion systems were used with considerable success. Ion propulsion systems brought into practice use an onboard ion source to form an energetic ion beam, typically Xe+ ions, as the propellant. Such systems were used for steering and correction of telecommunication satellites and as the main thruster for the Deep Space 1 demonstration mission. In recent years, "giant" ion sources were developed for the controlled-fusion research effort worldwide, with beam parameters many orders of magnitude greater than the tiny ones of conventional space thruster application. The advent of such huge ion beam sources and the need for advanced propulsion systems for exploration of the solar system suggest a fresh look at ion beam propulsion, now with the giant fusion sources in mind.

  20. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and

  1. Laser space propulsion overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude; Luke, James; Helgeson, Wesley

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we review the history of laser space propulsion from its earliest theoretical conceptions to modern practical applicatons. Applications begin with the "Lightcraft" flights of Myrabo and include practical thrusters for satellites now completing development as well as proposals for space debris removal and direct launch of payloads into orbit. We consider laser space propulsion in the most general sense, in which laser radiation is used to propel a vehicle in space. In this sense, the topic includes early proposals for pure photon propulsion, laser ablation propulsion, as well as propulsion using lasers to detonate a gas, expel a liquid, heat and expel a gas, or even to propagate power to a remote conventional electric thruster. We also discuss the most recent advances in LSP. For the first time, it is possible to consider space propulsion engines which exhibit thrust of one to several newtons while simultaneously delivering 3,000 seconds, or greater, specific impulse. No other engine concept can do both in a compact format. These willl use onboard, rather than remote, lasers. We will review the concept of chemically augmented electric propulsion, which can provide overall thrust efficiency greater than unity while maintaining very low mass to power ratio, high mean time to failure and broad operating range. The main advantage of LSP is exhaust velocity which can be instantaneously varied from 2km/s to 30km/s, simply by varying laser pulsewidth and focal spot size on target. The laser element will probably be a diode-pumped, fiber master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) system. Liquid fuels are necessary for volumetric efficiency and reliable performance at the multi-kW optical power levels required for multi-N thrust.

  2. Analysis of efficiency of using hybrid propulsion for accelerating small-size rockets starting from the earth surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, V. M.; Zvegintsev, V. I.; Mazhuls, I. I.; Shumskii, V. V.

    2010-12-01

    The flight trajectories of a hypothetical small-size rocket starting from the Earth surface and driven by hybrid propulsion, which involves a solid-propellant rocket motor (SRM) and a ramjet-type air-breathing engine (ramjet), are calculated and analyzed. The basic varied parameter is the ratio of the fuel masses used for operation of various engine types with the total fuel mass being unchanged. The objective function is the flight range of the rocket under different initial conditions. Based on a model problem considered as an example, it is demonstrated that the flight range can be substantially increased by using hybrid propulsion (SRM and ramjet), as compared with the vehicle having identical mass and size characteristics and using the SRM only.

  3. Partitioning of oxygen uptake and cost of surfacing during swimming in the air-breathing catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Wang, Tobias; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Bayley, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Though air-breathing has probably evolved mainly as a response to hypoxia, it may provide an important oxygen supplement when metabolism is elevated, as for example during swimming. Due to the increased travelling distance involved when an air-breathing fish swims to and from the surface, and the increased drag when the surface is breached, it can be proposed that air-breathing results in a rise in the apparent cost of transport. In order to investigate this hypothesis, it is necessary to use a fish that is able to swim equally well with and without access to air. The striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus has been shown to have a sufficiently high capacity for aquatic oxygen uptake in normoxia, to allow for such a comparison. Here, we measured the partitioning of oxygen uptake (MO2) during swimming and recovery, and calculated the apparent cost of transport with and without access to air, under normoxic conditions. Aerial MO2 constituted 25-40 % of the total MO2 during swimming and less than 15 % during recovery. The net cost of transport was 25 % lower in fish that did not air-breathe compared to fish that did, showing that the cost of surfacing can be substantial. This is the first study to measure partitioning in an air-breathing fish during swimming at velocities close to the critical swimming speed.

  4. Laser Propulsion Standardization Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Scharring, Stefan; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Sinko, John E.; Sasoh, Akihiro

    2010-10-08

    It is a relevant issue in the research on laser propulsion that experimental results are treated seriously and that meaningful scientific comparison is possible between groups using different equipment and measurement techniques. However, critical aspects of experimental measurements are sparsely addressed in the literature. In addition, few studies so far have the benefit of independent confirmation by other laser propulsion groups. In this paper, we recommend several approaches towards standardization of published laser propulsion experiments. Such standards are particularly important for the measurement of laser ablation pulse energy, laser spot area, imparted impulse or thrust, and mass removal during ablation. Related examples are presented from experiences of an actual scientific cooperation between NU and DLR. On the basis of a given standardization, researchers may better understand and contribute their findings more clearly in the future, and compare those findings confidently with those already published in the laser propulsion literature. Relevant ISO standards are analyzed, and revised formats are recommended for application to laser propulsion studies.

  5. Nuclear concepts/propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion systems will enable and/or enhance important space exploration missions to the moon and Mars. Current efforts are addressing certain research areas, although NASA and DOE still have much work yet to do. Relative to chemical systems, nuclear thermal propulsion offers the potential of reduced vehicle weight, wider launch windows. and shorter transit times, even without aerobrakes. This would improve crew safety by reducing their exposure to cosmic radiation. Advanced materials and structures will be an important resource in responding to the challenges posed by safety and test facility requirements, environmental concerns, high temperature fuels and the high radiation, hot hydrogen environment within nuclear thermal propulsion systems. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) has its own distinct set of advantages relative to chemical systems. These include low resupply mass, the availability of large amounts of onboard electric power for other uses besides propulsion, improved launch windows, and the ability to share technology with surface power systems. Development efforts for NEP reactors will emphasize long life operation of compact designs. This will require designs that provide high fuel burnup and high temperature operation along with personnel and environmental safety.

  6. Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicatelli, Amy K.; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) successfully demonstrated real-time fault detection and isolation of a virtual reusable launch vehicle (RLV) main propulsion system (MPS). Specifically, the PITEX research project developed and applied a model-based diagnostic system for the MPS of the X-34 RLV, a space-launch technology demonstrator. The demonstration was simulation-based using detailed models of the propulsion subsystem to generate nominal and failure scenarios during captive carry, which is the most safety-critical portion of the X-34 flight. Since no system-level testing of the X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) was performed, these simulated data were used to verify and validate the software system. Advanced diagnostic and signal processing algorithms were developed and tested in real time on flight-like hardware. In an attempt to expose potential performance problems, the PITEX diagnostic system was subjected to numerous realistic effects in the simulated data including noise, sensor resolution, command/valve talkback information, and nominal build variations. In all cases, the PITEX system performed as required. The research demonstrated potential benefits of model-based diagnostics, defined performance metrics required to evaluate the diagnostic system, and studied the impact of real-world challenges encountered when monitoring propulsion subsystems.

  7. A liquid propulsion panorama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caisso, Philippe; Souchier, Alain; Rothmund, Christophe; Alliot, Patrick; Bonhomme, Christophe; Zinner, Walter; Parsley, Randy; Neill, Todd; Forde, Scott; Starke, Robert; Wang, William; Takahashi, Mamoru; Atsumi, Masahiro; Valentian, Dominique

    2009-12-01

    Liquid-propellant rocket engines are widely used all over the world, thanks to their high performances, in particular high thrust-to-weight ratio. The present paper presents a general panorama of liquid propulsion as a contribution of the IAF Advanced Propulsion Prospective Group. After a brief history of its past development in the different parts of the world, the current status of liquid propulsion, the currently observed trends, the possible areas of future improvement and a summarized road map of future developments are presented. The road map includes a summary of the liquid propulsion status presented in the "Year in review 2007" of Aerospace America. Although liquid propulsion is often seen as a mature technology with few areas of potential improvement, the requirements of an active commercial market and a renewed interest for space exploration has led to the development of a family of new engines, with more design margins, simpler to use and to produce associated with a wide variety of thrust and life requirements.

  8. The NASA ASTP Combined-Cycle Propulsion Database Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Eric H.; Escher, Daric W.; Heck, Mary T.; Roddy, Jordan E.; Lyles, Garry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) communicated its long-term R&D goals for aeronautics and space transportation technologies in its 1997-98 annual progress report (Reference 1). Under "Pillar 3, Goal 9" a 25-year-horizon set of objectives has been stated for the Generation 3 Reusable Launch Vehicle ("Gen 3 RLV") class of space transportation systems. An initiative referred to as "Spaceliner 100" is being conducted to identify technology roadmaps in support of these objectives. Responsibility for running "Spaceliner 100" technology development and demonstration activities have been assigned to NASA's agency-wide Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) office located at the Marshall Space Flight Center. A key technology area in which advances will be required in order to meet these objectives is propulsion. In 1996, in order to expand their focus beyond "allrocket" propulsion systems and technologies (see Appendix A for further discussion), ASTP initiated technology development and demonstration work on combined-cycle airbreathing/rocket propulsion systems (ARTT Contracts NAS8-40890 through 40894). Combined-cycle propulsion (CCP) activities (see Appendix B for definitions) have been pursued in the U.S. for over four decades, resulting in a large documented knowledge base on this subject (see Reference 2). In the fall of 1999 the Combined-Cycle Propulsion Database (CCPD) project was established with the primary purpose of collecting and consolidating CCP related technical information in support of the ASTP's ongoing technology development and demonstration program. Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) was selected to perform the initial development of the Database under its existing support contract with MSFC (Contract NAS8-99060) because of the company's unique combination of capabilities in database development, information technology (IT) and CCP knowledge. The CCPD is summarized in the descriptive 2-page flyer appended

  9. Electric Propulsion Applications and Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Frank M.; Wickenheiser, Timothy J.

    1996-01-01

    Most space missions require on-board propulsion systems and these systems are often dominant spacecraft mass drivers. Presently, on-board systems account for more than half the injected mass for commercial communications systems and even greater mass fractions for ambitious planetary missions. Anticipated trends toward the use of both smaller spacecraft and launch vehicles will likely increase pressure on the performance of on-board propulsion systems. The acceptance of arcjet thrusters for operational use on commercial communications satellites ushered in a new era in on-board propulsion and exponential growth of electric propulsion across a broad spectrum of missions is anticipated. NASA recognizes the benefits of advanced propulsion and NASA's Office of Space Access and Technology supports an aggressive On-Board Propulsion program, including a strong electric propulsion element, to assure the availability of high performance propulsion systems to meet the goals of the ambitious missions envisioned in the next two decades. The program scope ranges from fundamental research for future generation systems through specific insertion efforts aimed at near term technology transfer. The On-Board propulsion program is committed to carrying technologies to levels required for customer acceptance and emphasizes direct interactions with the user community and the development of commercial sources. This paper provides a discussion of anticipated missions, propulsion functions, and electric propulsion impacts followed by an overview of the electric propulsion element of the NASA On-Board Propulsion program.

  10. Nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.; Tubb, David J.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility is investigated of using nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) for slow freighter ships traveling from a 500 km low Earth orbit (LEO) to the Moon's orbit about the Earth, and on to Mars. NEP is also shown to be feasible for transporting people to Mars on long conjunction-class missions lasting about nine months one way, and on short sprint missions lasting four months one way. Generally, it was not attempted to optimize ion exhaust velocities, but rather suitable parameters to demonstrate NEP feasibility were chosen. Various combinations of missions are compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTR) systems. Typically, NEP and NTR can accomplish the same lifting task with similar mass in LEO. When compared to chemical propulsion, NEP was found to accomplish the same missions with 40% less mass in LEO. These findings are sufficiently encouraging as to merit further studies with optimum systems.

  11. Space station propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The progress on the Space Station Propulsion Technology Program is described. The objectives are to provide a demonstration of hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) space station application, specifically gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and warm hydrogen thruster concepts, and to establish a means for evolving from the IOC space station propulsion to that required to support and interface with advanced station functions. The evaluation of concepts was completed. The accumulator module of the test bed was completed and, with the microprocessor controller, delivered to NASA-MSFC. An oxygen/hydrogen thruster was modified for use with the test bed and successfully tested at mixture ratios from 4:1 to 8:1.

  12. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  13. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    A free radical propulsion concept utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust was examined. The concept offered promise of a propulsion system operating at a theoretical impulse, with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, thus filling the gas existing between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas was transferred to the propellant via three body recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Power absorption by the microwave plasma discharge was in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressures. Gas temperatures inferred from gas dynamic equations showed much higher temperatures from microwave heating than from electrothermal heating. Spectroscopic analysis appeared to corroborate the inferred temperatures of one of the gases tested.

  14. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-01-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  15. Jet propulsion for airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckingham, Edgar

    1924-01-01

    This report is a description of a method of propelling airplanes by the reaction of jet propulsion. Air is compressed and mixed with fuel in a combustion chamber, where the mixture burns at constant pressure. The combustion products issue through a nozzle, and the reaction of that of the motor-driven air screw. The computations are outlined and the results given by tables and curves. The relative fuel consumption and weight of machinery for the jet, decrease as the flying speed increases; but at 250 miles per hour the jet would still take about four times as much fuel per thrust horsepower-hour as the air screw, and the power plant would be heavier and much more complicated. Propulsion by the reaction of a simple jet can not compete with air screw propulsion at such flying speeds as are now in prospect.

  16. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  17. Electric Propulsion Test & Evaluation Methodologies for Plasma in the Environments of Space and Testing (EP TEMPEST) (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2015-April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electric Propulsion Test & Evaluation Methodologies for Plasma...Integrity  Service  Excellence Air Force Research Laboratory Electric Propulsion Test & Evaluation Methodologies for Plasma in the Environments...of Space and Testing (EP TEMPEST) AFOSR T&E Program Review 13-17 April 2015 Dr. Daniel L. Brown In-Space Propulsion Branch (RQRS) Aerospace Systems

  18. Space Transportation Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Stewart, Mark E.; Suresh, Ambady; Owen, A. Karl

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the Space Transportation Propulsion Systems for the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) program. Topics include: 1) a review of Engine/Inlet Coupling Work; 2) Background/Organization of Space Transportation Initiative; 3) Synergy between High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP) and Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP); 4) Status of Space Transportation Effort, including planned deliverables for FY01-FY06, FY00 accomplishments (HPCCP Funded) and FY01 Major Milestones (HPCCP and ASTP); and 5) a review current technical efforts, including a review of the Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC), Scope of Work, RBCC Concept Aerodynamic Analysis and RBCC Concept Multidisciplinary Analysis.

  19. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  20. Focused technology: Nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form and include: nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), which challenges (1) high temperature fuel and materials, (2) hot hydrogen environment, (3) test facilities, (4) safety, (5) environmental impact compliance, and (6) concept development, and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), which challenges (1) long operational lifetime, (2) high temperature reactors, turbines, and radiators, (3) high fuel burn-up reactor fuels, and designs, (4) efficient, high temperature power conditioning, (5) high efficiency, and long life thrusters, (6) safety, (7) environmental impact compliance, and (8) concept development.

  1. Supersonic laser propulsion.

    PubMed

    Rezunkov, Yurii; Schmidt, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    To produce supersonic laser propulsion, a new technique based on the interaction of a laser-ablated jet with supersonic gas flow in a nozzle is proposed. It is shown that such parameters of the jet, such as gas-plasma pressure and temperature in the ablation region as well as the mass consumption rate of the ablated solid propellant, are characteristic in this respect. The results of numerical simulations of the supersonic laser propulsion are presented for two types of nozzle configuration. The feasibility to achieve the momentum coupling coefficient of C(m)∼10(-3) N/W is shown.

  2. Nuclear thermal propulsion program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion program is described. The following subject areas are covered: lunar and Mars missions; national space policy; international cooperation in space exploration; propulsion technology; nuclear rocket program; and budgeting.

  3. NASA Electric Propulsion System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, James L.

    2015-01-01

    An overview of NASA efforts in the area of hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion in large transport. This overview includes a list of reasons why we are looking at transmitting some or all of the propulsive power for the aircraft electrically, a list of the different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems, and the results of 4 aircraft studies that examined different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems.

  4. Acute toxicity bioassays of mercuric chloride and malathion on air-breathing fish Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sanjay; Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Shilpi; Nagpure, N S; Srivastava, Satish K; Verma, M S

    2005-05-01

    Acute toxicity tests (96 h) were conducted in flow-through systems to determine the lethal toxicity of a heavy metal compound, mercuric chloride, and an organophosphorus pesticide, malathion, to air-breathing teleost fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch) and to study their behavior. The 96-h LC50 values were determined, as well as safe levels. The results indicate that mercuric chloride is more toxic than malathion to the fish species under study. Dose- and dose-time-dependent increases in mortality rate were also observed in response to both test chemicals.

  5. Aerodynamic characteristics of a series of single-inlet air-breathing missile configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, C.

    1983-01-01

    A series of air-breathing missile configurations was investigated to provide a data base for the design of such missiles. The model could be configured with either a single axisymmetric or a two dimensional inlet located at the bottom of the body. Two tail configurations were investigated: a tri-tail and an X-tail. The tail surfaces could be deflected to provide pitch control. A wing could be located above the inlet on the center line of the model. Tests were made at supersonic Mach numbers with the inlet open and internal flow, and at subsonic-transonic Mach numbers with the internal duct closed and no internal flow.

  6. Hypersonic airbreathing missile concepts under study at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Johnston, P. J.; Cubbage, J. M.; Dillon, J. L.; Richie, C. B.; Marcum, D. C., Jr.; Carlson, C. H.

    1982-01-01

    The design and performance of several tactical and strategic hypersonic airbreathing missile concepts under study at the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed from an evolutionary perspective. A mid- and chin inlet missile design, constrained to the Navy's vertical box launcher, was investigated; a performance comparison is presented that is favorable to the mid-inlet approach. Parasol wing, confined flow field, and spatula-like cruise missile configurations were examined with strategic applications in mind. The preliminary results are encouraging with respect to aerodynamic and volumetric efficiency and choice of engine integration schemes.

  7. Cubic PdNP-based air-breathing cathodes integrated in glucose hybrid biofuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggion Junior, D.; Haddad, R.; Giroud, F.; Holzinger, M.; Maduro de Campos, C. E.; Acuña, J. J. S.; Domingos, J. B.; Cosnier, S.

    2016-05-01

    Cubic Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) were synthesized using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and were evaluated for the catalytic oxygen reduction reaction. PdNPs were confined with multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) dispersions to form black suspensions and these inks were dropcast onto glassy carbon electrodes. Different nanoparticle sizes were synthesized and investigated upon oxygen reduction capacities (onset potential and electrocatalytic current densities) under O2 saturated conditions at varying pH values. Strong evidence of O2 diffusion limitation was demonstrated. In order to overcome oxygen concentration and diffusion limitations in solution, we used a gas diffusion layer to create a PdNP-based air-breathing cathode, which delivered -1.5 mA cm-2 at 0.0 V with an onset potential of 0.4 V. This air-breathing cathode was combined with a specially designed phenanthrolinequinone/glucose dehydrogenase-based anode to form a complete glucose/O2 hybrid bio-fuel cell providing an open circuit voltage of 0.554 V and delivering a maximal power output of 184 +/- 21 μW cm-2 at 0.19 V and pH 7.0.Cubic Pd nanoparticles (PdNPs) were synthesized using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and were evaluated for the catalytic oxygen reduction reaction. PdNPs were confined with multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) dispersions to form black suspensions and these inks were dropcast onto glassy carbon electrodes. Different nanoparticle sizes were synthesized and investigated upon oxygen reduction capacities (onset potential and electrocatalytic current densities) under O2 saturated conditions at varying pH values. Strong evidence of O2 diffusion limitation was demonstrated. In order to overcome oxygen concentration and diffusion limitations in solution, we used a gas diffusion layer to create a PdNP-based air-breathing cathode, which delivered -1.5 mA cm-2 at 0.0 V with an onset potential of 0.4 V. This air-breathing cathode was combined with a specially designed phenanthrolinequinone

  8. Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. Also the propulsion systems required to enable the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Vision for Space Exploration in an affordable manner will need to have high reliability, safety and autonomous operation capability. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of Intelligent Propulsion Systems. This paper describes the current activities of the CDB under the NASA Aeronautics Research and Exploration Systems Missions. The programmatic structure of the CDB activities is described along with a brief overview of each of the CDB tasks including research objectives, technical challenges, and recent accomplishments. These tasks include active control of propulsion system components, intelligent propulsion diagnostics and control for reliable fault identification and accommodation, distributed engine control, and investigations into unsteady propulsion systems.

  9. NASA Now: Propulsion

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Now, you’ll visit NASA’s Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, called B-2, at NASA Plum Brook Station. You’ll meet Dr. Louis Povinelli and Brian Jones who explain w...

  10. Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology area is tasked to develop near and mid-term SEP technology to improve or enable science mission capture while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. The solar electric propulsion investments are primarily driven by SMD cost-capped mission needs. The technology needs are determined partially through systems analysis tasks including the recent "Re-focus Studies" and "Standard Architecture Study." These systems analysis tasks transitioned the technology development to address the near term propulsion needs suitable for cost-capped open solicited missions such as Discovery and New Frontiers Class missions. Major SEP activities include NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), implementing a Standard Architecture for NSTAR and NEXT EP systems, and developing a long life High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC). Lower level investments include advanced feed system development and xenon recovery testing. Future plans include completion of ongoing ISP development activities and evaluating potential use of commercial electric propulsion systems for SMD applications. Examples of enhanced mission capability and technology readiness dates shall be discussed.

  11. Advanced Propulsion Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    23 2.4.9 Laser and Microwave ...Power Propulsion: Laser and Microwave Rockets............................................. 28 3.3.1 RF-Powered Lenticular Craft...Reusable Launch Vehicle RVT – Reusable Rocket Vehicle Test SDIO – Strategic Defense Initiative Organization SETI – Search for Extraterrestrial

  12. General Aviation Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Programs exploring and demonstrating new technologies in general aviation propulsion are considered. These programs are the quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) program; the general aviation turbine engine (GATE) study program; the general aviation propeller technology program; and the advanced rotary, diesel, and reciprocating engine programs.

  13. Turboprop Propulsion Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This instructional package consists of a plan of instruction, glossary, and student handouts and exercises for use in training Air Force personnel to become turboprop propulsion mechanics. Addressed in the individual lessons of the course are the following: common hand tools, hardware, measuring devices, and safety wiring; aircraft and engine…

  14. Rarefaction wave gun propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathe, Eric Lee

    A new species of gun propulsion that dramatically reduces recoil momentum imparted to the gun is presented. First conceived by the author on 18 March 1999, the propulsion concept is explained, a methodology for the design of a reasonable apparatus for experimental validation using NATO standard 35mm TP anti-aircraft ammunition is developed, and the experimental results are presented. The firing results are juxtaposed by a simple interior ballistic model to place the experimental findings into a context within which they may better be understood. Rarefaction wave gun (RAVEN) propulsion is an original contribution to the field of armament engineering. No precedent is known, and no experimental results of such a gun have been published until now. Recoil reduction in excess of 50% was experimentally achieved without measured loss in projectile velocity. RAVEN achieves recoil reduction by means of a delayed venting of the breech of the gun chamber that directs the high enthalpy propellant gases through an expansion nozzle to generate forward thrust that abates the rearward momentum applied to the gun prior to venting. The novel feature of RAVEN, relative to prior recoilless rifles, is that sufficiently delayed venting results in a rarefaction wave that follows the projectile though the bore without catching it. Thus, the projectile exits the muzzle without any compromise to its propulsion performance relative to guns that maintain a sealed chamber.

  15. The Use of Steady and Unsteady Detonation Waves for Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Henry G.; Menees, Gene P.; Cambier, Jean-Luc; Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Cavolowsky, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Detonation wave enhanced supersonic combustors such as the Oblique Detonation Wave Engine (ODWE) are attractive propulsion concepts for hypersonic flight. These engines utilize detonation waves to enhance fuel-air mixing and combustion. The benefits of wave combustion systems include shorter and lighter engines which require less cooling and generate lower internal drag. These features allow air-breathing operation at higher Mach numbers than the diffusive burning scramjet delaying the need for rocket engine augmentation. A comprehensive vehicle synthesis code has predicted the aerodynamic characteristics and structural size and weight of a typical single-stage-to-orbit vehicle using an ODWE. Other studies have focused on the use of unsteady or pulsed detonation waves. For low speed applications, pulsed detonation engines (PDE) have advantages in low weight and higher efficiency than turbojets. At hypersonic speeds, the pulsed detonations can be used in conjunction with a scramjet type engine to enhance mixing and provide thrust augmentation.

  16. Methods for Prediction of High-Speed Reacting Flows in Aerospace Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Research to develop high-speed airbreathing aerospace propulsion systems was underway in the late 1950s. A major part of the effort involved the supersonic combustion ramjet, or scramjet, engine. Work had also begun to develop computational techniques for solving the equations governing the flow through a scramjet engine. However, scramjet technology and the computational methods to assist in its evolution would remain apart for another decade. The principal barrier was that the computational methods needed for engine evolution lacked the computer technology required for solving the discrete equations resulting from the numerical methods. Even today, computer resources remain a major pacing item in overcoming this barrier. Significant advances have been made over the past 35 years, however, in modeling the supersonic chemically reacting flow in a scramjet combustor. To see how scramjet development and the required computational tools finally merged, we briefly trace the evolution of the technology in both areas.

  17. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Space Propulsion (CASP) is part of the University of Tennessee-Calspan Center for Aerospace Research (CAR). It was formed in 1985 to take advantage of the extensive research faculty and staff of the University of Tennessee and Calspan Corporation. It is also one of sixteen NASA sponsored Centers established to facilitate the Commercial Development of Space. Based on investigators' qualifications in propulsion system development, and matching industries' strong intent, the Center focused its efforts in the following technical areas: advanced chemical propulsion, electric propulsion, AI/Expert systems, fluids management in microgravity, and propulsion materials processing. This annual report focuses its discussion in these technical areas.

  18. The NASA Electric Propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that the NASA Electric Propulsion program is aimed at providing technology for auxiliary and primary propulsion functions for earth-orbital and planetary space missions. Efforts in electrostatic propulsion include analyses of ion propulsion for Geosynchronous (GEO) and planetary spacecraft, continued preflight efforts associated with the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), and research and technology for advanced and simplified ion thruster systems. In the area of electromagnetic propulsion, studies were conducted regarding the feasibility and impacts of the use of electromagnetic launchers. Research on magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, electromagnetic launchers, and Hall current thrusters was also performed. Studies in the electrothermal sector included an evaluation of electric propulsion options for the Space Station, taking into account also resistojets, a pulsed electrothermal thruster, and arc jets.

  19. The Propulsion Center at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold; Schmidt, George R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Propulsion Research Center at MSFC serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. Our mission is to move the nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft like access to earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space. Current efforts cover a wide range of exciting areas, including high-energy plasma thrusters, advanced fission and fusion engines, antimatter propulsion systems, beamed energy rockets and sails, and fundamental motive physics. Activities involve concept investigation, proof-of-concept demonstration, and breadboard validation of new propulsion systems. The Propulsion Research Center at MSFC provides an environment where NASA, national laboratories, universities, and industry researchers can pool their skills together to perform landmark propulsion achievements. We offer excellent educational opportunities to students and young researchers-fostering a wellspring of innovation that will revolutionize space transportation.

  20. Micro electric propulsion feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

    1992-01-01

    Miniature, 50 kg class, strategic satellites intended for extended deployment in space require an on-board propulsion capability to perform needed attitude control adjustments and drag compensation maneuvers. Even on such very small spacecraft, these orbit maintenance functions can be significant and result in a substantial propellant mass requirement. Development of advanced propulsion technology could reduce this propellant mass significantly, and thereby maximize the payload capability of these spacecraft. In addition, spacecraft maneuverability could be enhanced and/or multi-year mission lifetimes realized. These benefits cut spacecraft replacement costs, and reduce services needed to maintain the launch vehicles. For SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, a miniaturized hydrazine propulsion system provides both boost and divert thrust control. This type of propulsion system is highly integrated and is capable of delivering large thrust levels for short time periods. However, orbit maintenance functions such as drag make-up require only very small velocity corrections. Using the boost and/or divert thrusters for these small corrections exposes this highly integrated propulsion system to continuous on/off cycling and thereby increases the risk of system failure. Furthermore, since drag compensation velocity corrections would be orders of magnitude less than these thrusters were designed to deliver, their effective specific impulse would be expected to be lower when operated at very short pulse lengths. The net result of these effects would be a significant depletion of the on-board hydrazine propellant supply throughout the mission, and a reduced propulsion system reliability, both of which would degrade the interceptors usefulness. In addition to SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, comparably small spacecraft can be anticipated for other future strategic defense applications such as surveillance and communication. For such spacecraft, high capability and reliability

  1. Micro electric propulsion feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

    1992-11-01

    Miniature, 50 kg class, strategic satellites intended for extended deployment in space require an on-board propulsion capability to perform needed attitude control adjustments and drag compensation maneuvers. Even on such very small spacecraft, these orbit maintenance functions can be significant and result in a substantial propellant mass requirement. Development of advanced propulsion technology could reduce this propellant mass significantly, and thereby maximize the payload capability of these spacecraft. In addition, spacecraft maneuverability could be enhanced and/or multi-year mission lifetimes realized. These benefits cut spacecraft replacement costs, and reduce services needed to maintain the launch vehicles. For SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, a miniaturized hydrazine propulsion system provides both boost and divert thrust control. This type of propulsion system is highly integrated and is capable of delivering large thrust levels for short time periods. However, orbit maintenance functions such as drag make-up require only very small velocity corrections. Using the boost and/or divert thrusters for these small corrections exposes this highly integrated propulsion system to continuous on/off cycling and thereby increases the risk of system failure. Furthermore, since drag compensation velocity corrections would be orders of magnitude less than these thrusters were designed to deliver, their effective specific impulse would be expected to be lower when operated at very short pulse lengths. The net result of these effects would be a significant depletion of the on-board hydrazine propellant supply throughout the mission, and a reduced propulsion system reliability, both of which would degrade the interceptors usefulness. In addition to SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, comparably small spacecraft can be anticipated for other future strategic defense applications such as surveillance and communication. For such spacecraft, high capability and reliability

  2. Highlights from a Mach 4 Experimental Demonstration of Inlet Mode Transition for Turbine-Based Combined Cycle Hypersonic Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Lancert E.; Saunders, John D., Jr.; Sanders, Bobby W.; Weir, Lois J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is focused on technologies for combined cycle, air-breathing propulsion systems to enable reusable launch systems for access to space. Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems offer specific impulse (Isp) improvements over rocket-based propulsion systems in the subsonic takeoff and return mission segments along with improved safety. Among the most critical TBCC enabling technologies are: 1) mode transition from the low speed propulsion system to the high speed propulsion system, 2) high Mach turbine engine development and 3) innovative turbine based combined cycle integration. To address these challenges, NASA initiated an experimental mode transition task including analytical methods to assess the state-of-the-art of propulsion system performance and design codes. One effort has been the Combined-Cycle Engine Large Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE-LIMX) which is a fully integrated TBCC propulsion system with flowpath sizing consistent with previous NASA and DoD proposed Hypersonic experimental flight test plans. This experiment was tested in the NASA GRC 10 by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) Facility. The goal of this activity is to address key hypersonic combined-cycle engine issues including: (1) dual integrated inlet operability and performance issues-unstart constraints, distortion constraints, bleed requirements, and controls, (2) mode-transition sequence elements caused by switching between the turbine and the ramjet/scramjet flowpaths (imposed variable geometry requirements), and (3) turbine engine transients (and associated time scales) during transition. Testing of the initial inlet and dynamic characterization phases were completed and smooth mode transition was demonstrated. A database focused on a Mach 4 transition speed with limited off-design elements was developed and will serve to guide future TBCC system studies and to validate higher level analyses.

  3. State-of-the-Art for Small Satellite Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Khary I.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is in the business of performing world-class, space-based, scientific research on various spacecraft platforms, which now include small satellites (SmallSats). In order to perform world class science on a SmallSat, NASA/GSFC requires that their components be highly reliable, high performing, have low power consumption, at the lowest cost possible. The Propulsion Branch (Code 597) at NASA/GSFC has conducted a SmallSat propulsion system survey to determine their availability and level of development. Based on publicly available information and unique features, this paper discusses some of the existing SmallSat propulsion systems.. The systems described in this paper do not indicate or imply any endorsement by NASA or NASA/GSFC over those not included.

  4. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are

  5. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

  6. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT) have been developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters have been flown in space, though only PPTs have been used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPTs is quite poor, providing only about 8 percent efficiency at about 1000 sec specific impulse. Laboratory PPTs yielding 34 percent efficiency at 5170 sec specific impulse have been demonstrated. Laboratory MPD thrusters have been demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 7000 sec specific impulse. Recent PIT performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 and 8000 sec.

  7. Hypersonic missile propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmar, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Pratt and Whitney is developing the technology for hypersonic components and engines. A supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) database was developed using hydrogen fueled propulsion systems for space access vehicles and serves as a point of departure for the current development of hydrocarbon scramjets. The Air Force Hypersonic Technology (HyTech) Program has put programs in place to develop the technologies necessary to demonstrate the operability, performance and structural durability of an expendable, liquid hydrocarbon fueled scramjet system that operates from Mach 4 to 8. This program will culminate in a flight type engine test at representative flight conditions. The hypersonic technology base that will be developed and demonstrated under HyTech will establish the foundation to enable hypersonic propulsion systems for a broad range of air vehicle applications from missiles to space access vehicles. A hypersonic missile flight demonstration is planned in the DARPA Affordable Rapid Response Missile Demonstrator (ARRMD) program in 2001.

  8. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  9. Hydrodynamics of Peristaltic Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    A curious class of animals called salps live in marine environments and self-propel by ejecting vortex rings much like jellyfish and squid. However, unlike other jetting creatures that siphon and eject water from one side of their body, salps produce vortex rings by pumping water through siphons on opposite ends of their hollow cylindrical bodies. In the simplest cases, it seems like some species of salp can successfully move by contracting just two siphons connected by an elastic body. When thought of as a chain of timed contractions, salp propulsion is reminiscent of peristaltic pumping applied to marine locomotion. Inspired by salps, we investigate the hydrodynamics of peristaltic propulsion, focusing on the scaling relationships that determine flow rate, thrust production, and energy usage in a model system. We discuss possible actuation methods for a model peristaltic vehicle, considering both the material and geometrical requirements for such a system.

  10. STOL propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denington, R. J.; Koenig, R. W.; Vanco, M. R.; Sagerser, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The selection and the characteristics of quiet, clean propulsion systems for STOL aircraft are discussed. Engines are evaluated for augmentor wing and externally blown flap STOL aircraft with the engines located both under and over the wings. Some supporting test data are presented. Optimum engines are selected based on achieving the performance, economic, acoustic, and pollution goals presently being considered for future STOL aircraft. The data and results presented were obtained from a number of contracted studies and some supporting NASA inhouse programs, most of which began in early 1972. The contracts include: (1) two aircraft and mission studies, (2) two propulsion system studies, (3) the experimental and analytic work on the augmentor wing, and (4) the experimental programs on Q-Fan. Engines are selected and discussed based on aircraft economics using the direct operating cost as the primary criterion. This cost includes the cost of the crew, fuel, aircraft, and engine maintenance and depreciation.

  11. Emerging Propulsion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    The Emerging Propulsion Technologies (EPT) investment area is the newest area within the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project and strives to bridge technologies in the lower Technology Readiness Level (TRL) range (2 to 3) to the mid TRL range (4 to 6). A prioritization process, the Integrated In-Space Transportation Planning (IISTP), was developed and applied in FY01 to establish initial program priorities. The EPT investment area emerged for technologies that scored well in the IISTP but had a low technical maturity level. One particular technology, the Momentum-eXchange Electrodynamic-Reboost (MXER) tether, scored extraordinarily high and had broad applicability in the IISTP. However, its technical maturity was too low for ranking alongside technologies like the ion engine or aerocapture. Thus MXER tethers assumed top priority at EPT startup in FY03 with an aggressive schedule and adequate budget. It was originally envisioned that future technologies would enter the ISP portfolio through EPT, and EPT developed an EPT/ISP Entrance Process for future candidate ISP technologies. EPT has funded the following secondary, candidate ISP technologies at a low level: ultra-lightweight solar sails, general space/near-earth tether development, electrodynamic tether development, advanced electric propulsion, and in-space mechanism development. However, the scope of the ISPT program has focused over time to more closely match SMD needs and technology advancement successes. As a result, the funding for MXER and other EPT technologies is not currently available. Consequently, the MXER tether tasks and other EPT tasks were expected to phased out by November 2006. Presentation slides are presented which provide activity overviews for the aerocapture technology and emerging propulsion technology projects.

  12. Army Ground Vehicle Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-25

    IV (> 75 bhp ) compliant COTS engines and directly integrate into current and new heavy-duty vehicles. • Combat vehicle: permanent armor...propulsion system volume [ bhp /ft3] — Air filtration requirements, thermal management system, transmission, engine, ducting requirements, final drives...transmission 40 ft3;  engine 31 ft3;  air filtration 31 ft3 o Bradley FIV: Cummins VTA903 has SHRR of 0.6 BHP / BHP vs. today’s COTS > 0.85

  13. Why Density Dependent Propulsion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they call the Chameleon, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. The Chameleon theory has implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties, which implies a new force mechanism with ties to the far and local density environment. In this paper, the Chameleon Density Model is discussed in terms of propulsion toward new propellant-less engineering methods.

  14. Chemical propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priem, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of NASA's low thrust liquid chemical propulsion program is presented with particular emphasis on thrust system technology in the ten to one thousand pound thrust range. Key technology issues include high performance of cooled low thrust engines; small cryogenic pumps; multiple starts-shutdowns (10) with slow ramps (approximately 10 seconds); thrust variation - 4/1 in flight and 20/1 between flights; long life (100 hours); improved system weight and size; and propellant selection.

  15. Geosynchronous earth orbit base propulsion - electric propulsion options

    SciTech Connect

    Palaszewski, B.

    1987-01-01

    Electric propulsion and chemical propulsion requirements for a geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) base were analyzed. The base is resupplied from the Space Station's low earth orbit. Orbit-transfer Delta-Vs, nodal-regression Delta-Vs and orbit-maintenance Delta-Vs were considered. For resupplying the base, a cryogenic oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) is currently-baselined. Comparisons of several electric propulsion options with the O2/H2 OTV were conducted. Propulsion requirements for missions related to the GEO base were also analyzed. Payload data for the GEO missions were drawn from current mission data bases. Detailed electric propulsion module designs are presented. Mission analyses and propulsion analyses for the GEO-delivered payloads are included. 23 references.

  16. Free radical propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, C. E.; Nakanishi, S.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a free radical propulsion system, utilizing the recombination energy of dissociated low molecular weight gases to produce thrust, is analyzed. The system, operating at a theoretical impulse with hydrogen, as high as 2200 seconds at high thrust to power ratio, is hypothesized to bridge the gap between chemical and electrostatic propulsion capabilities. A comparative methodology is outlined by which characteristics of chemical and electric propulsion for orbit raising mission can be investigated. It is noted that free radicals proposed in rockets previously met with difficulty and complexity in terms of storage requirements; the present study proposes to eliminate the storage requirements by using electric energy to achieve a continuous-flow product of free radicals which are recombined to produce a high velocity propellant. Microwave energy used to dissociate a continuously flowing gas is transferred to the propellant via three-body-recombination for conversion to propellant kinetic energy. Microwave plasma discharge was found in excess of 90 percent over a broad range of pressure in preliminary experiments, and microwave heating compared to electrothermal heating showed much higher temperatures in gasdynamic equations.

  17. The MAP Propulsion Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gary T.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements, design, integration, test, performance, and lessons learned of NASA's Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) propulsion subsystem. MAP was launched on a Delta-II launch vehicle from NASA's Kennedy Space Center on June 30, 2001. Due to instrument thermal stability requirements, the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point was selected for the mission orbit. The L2 trajectory incorporated phasing loops and a lunar gravity assist. The propulsion subsystem's requirements are to manage momentum, perform maneuvers during the phasing loops to set up the lunar swingby, and perform stationkeeping at L2 for 2 years. MAP's propulsion subsystem uses 8 thrusters which are located and oriented to provide attitude control and momentum management about all axes, and delta-V in any direction without exposing the instrument to the sun. The propellant tank holds 72 kg of hydrazine, which is expelled by unregulated blowdown pressurization. Thermal management is complex because no heater cycling is allowed at L2. Several technical challenges presented themselves during I and T, such as in-situ weld repairs and in-situ bending of thruster tubes to accommodate late changes in the observatory CG. On-orbit performance has been nominal, and all phasing loop, mid-course correction, and stationkeeping maneuvers have been successfully performed to date.

  18. In-Space Propulsion Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s In-space Propulsion Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The solar electric propulsion technology area has been investing in NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Current status and expected capabilities of the solar electric propulsion technologies will be discussed.

  19. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  20. NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, NASA established the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program to seek the ultimate breakthroughs in space transportation: propulsion that requires no propellant mass, propulsion that attains the maximum transit speeds physically possible, and breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. Topics of interest include experiments and theories regarding the coupling of gravity and electromagnetism, vacuum fluctuation energy, warp drives and worm-holes, and superluminal quantum effects. Because these propulsion goals are presumably far from fruition, a special emphasis is to identify affordable, near-term, and credible research that could make measurable progress toward these propulsion goals. The methods of the program and the results of the 1997 workshop are presented. This Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program, managed by Lewis Research Center, is one part of a comprehensive, long range Advanced Space Transportation Plan managed by Marshall Space Flight Center.

  1. Heat transfer in aerospace propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of heat transfer related research in support of aerospace propulsion, particularly as seen from the perspective of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Aerospace propulsion is defined to cover the full spectrum from conventional aircraft power plants through the Aerospace Plane to space propulsion. The conventional subsonic/supersonic aircraft arena, whether commercial or military, relies on the turbine engine. A key characteristic of turbine engines is that they involve fundamentally unsteady flows which must be properly treated. Space propulsion is characterized by very demanding performance requirements which frequently push systems to their limits and demand tailored designs. The hypersonic flight propulsion systems are subject to severe heat loads and the engine and airframe are truly one entity. The impact of the special demands of each of these aerospace propulsion systems on heat transfer is explored.

  2. Embedded Wing Propulsion Conceptual Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun D.; Saunders, John D.

    2003-01-01

    As a part of distributed propulsion work under NASA's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts or RAC project, a new propulsion-airframe integrated vehicle concept called Embedded Wing Propulsion (EWP) is developed and examined through system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. The idea behind the concept is to fully integrate a propulsion system within a wing structure so that the aircraft takes full benefits of coupling of wing aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of the EWP concept applied to large transport aircraft such as the Blended-Wing-Body aircraft. In this paper, some of early analysis and current status of the study are presented. In addition, other current activities of distributed propulsion under the RAC project are briefly discussed.

  3. 1995 JANNAF Propulsion Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This volume is a collection of 36 unclassified/unlimited distribution papers which were presented at the 1995 Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) propulsion meeting. Specific subjects discussed include the integrated High Payoff Rocket Propulsion Technology initiative, hybrid propulsion, electric propulsion, the Minuteman 2/3 missile system, slag, aluminum in propellant compositions, electric propulsion, rocket nozzle design, and tactical missiles.

  4. Simulation of Electric Propulsion Thrusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Electric Propulsion Thrusters RTO-EN-AVT-194 17 - 3 [3] is a well-developed, highly successful numerical technique for simulating rarefied gas flows ... Rarefied Flows (Modeles et methodes de calcul des coulements de gaz rarefies ). RTO-EN-AVT-194 14. ABSTRACT Electric propulsion thrusters are replacing...METHODS The focus of this article is on numerical methods used to model the flow of gas and plasma through electric propulsion devices. Discussion

  5. Future of Magnetohydrodynamic Ship Propulsion,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-16

    83 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION FUTURE OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION by A.P. Baranov DTIQ ~E tJ Approved for public release; 0.. distribution...MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION By: A.P. Baranov -,English pages: 10 Source: Sudostroyeniye, Nr. 12, December 1966, pp. 3-6 . Country of origin: USSR X...equations, etc. merged into this translation were extracted from the best quality copy available. FUTURE OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHIP PROPULSION A. P

  6. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  7. Electrolysis Propulsion for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroot, Wim A.; Arrington, Lynn A.; McElroy, James F.; Mitlitsky, Fred; Weisberg, Andrew H.; Carter, Preston H., II; Myers, Blake; Reed, Brian D.

    1997-01-01

    Electrolysis propulsion has been recognized over the last several decades as a viable option to meet many satellite and spacecraft propulsion requirements. This technology, however, was never used for in-space missions. In the same time frame, water based fuel cells have flown in a number of missions. These systems have many components similar to electrolysis propulsion systems. Recent advances in component technology include: lightweight tankage, water vapor feed electrolysis, fuel cell technology, and thrust chamber materials for propulsion. Taken together, these developments make propulsion and/or power using electrolysis/fuel cell technology very attractive as separate or integrated systems. A water electrolysis propulsion testbed was constructed and tested in a joint NASA/Hamilton Standard/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories program to demonstrate these technology developments for propulsion. The results from these testbed experiments using a I-N thruster are presented. A concept to integrate a propulsion system and a fuel cell system into a unitized spacecraft propulsion and power system is outlined.

  8. Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization of Hypersonic Air-Breathing Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Tang, Zhili; Sheng, Jianda

    2016-06-01

    A 2D hypersonic vehicle shape with an idealized scramjet is designed at a cruise regime: Mach number (Ma) = 8.0, Angle of attack (AOA) = 0 deg and altitude (H) = 30kms. Then a multi-objective design optimization of the 2D vehicle is carried out by using a Pareto Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). In the optimization process, the flow around the air-breathing vehicle is simulated by inviscid Euler equations using FLUENT software and the combustion in the combustor is modeled by a methodology based on the well known combination effects of area-varying pipe flow and heat transfer pipe flow. Optimization results reveal tradeoffs among total pressure recovery coefficient of forebody, lift to drag ratio of vehicle, specific impulse of scramjet engine and the maximum temperature on the surface of vehicle.

  9. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Lai, Wei-Hsiang; Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm × 6 cm × 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm × 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm -2 and 0.4 mg cm -2, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm -2 at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm -2 at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 °C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of parallel connected and

  10. Analysis of possible improvement of acceleration of a high-velocity air-breathing flying vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goonko, Yu. P.; Mazhul, I. I.

    2008-09-01

    Results of parametric calculations of the total aeropropulsive characteristics and characteristics of acceleration of a small-scale high-velocity flying vehicle with an air-breathing engine are presented. Integral parameters of acceleration from the flight Mach number M∞ = 4 to M∞ = 7 are determined, namely, the time required fuel stock, and range. A schematic configuration of the vehicle is considered, which allows studying the basic parameters, such as the forebody shape, the angles of surfaces of compression of the stream captured by the inlet, angles of external aerodynamic surfaces of the airframe, relative planform area of the wing panels, and relative area of the nozzle cross section. A comparative estimate of the effect of these parameters shows that it is possible to improve the characteristics of acceleration of vehicles of the type considered.

  11. Robust tracking control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with input constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Gang; Wang, Jinzhi; Wang, Xianghua

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this paper is on the design and simulation of robust tracking control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV), which is affected by high nonlinearity, uncertain parameters and input constraints. The linearisation method is employed for the longitudinal AHV model about a specific trim condition, and then considering the additive uncertainties of three parameters, the linearised model is just in the form of affine parameter dependence. From this point, the linear parameter-varying method is applied to design the desired controller. The poles for the closed-loop system of the linearised model are placed into a desired vertical strip, and the quadratic stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed. Input constraints of the AHV are addressed by additional linear matrix inequalities. Finally, the designed controller is evaluated on the nonlinear AHV model and simulation results demonstrate excellent tracking performance with good robustness.

  12. Water management in a planar air-breathing fuel cell array using operando neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coz, E.; Théry, J.; Boillat, P.; Faucheux, V.; Alincant, D.; Capron, P.; Gébel, G.

    2016-11-01

    Operando Neutron imaging is used for the investigation of a planar air-breathing array comprising multiple cells in series. The fuel cell demonstrates a stable power density level of 150 mW/cm2. Water distribution and quantification is carried out at different operating points. Drying at high current density is observed and correlated to self-heating and natural convection. Working in dead-end mode, water accumulation at lower current density is largely observed on the anode side. However, flooding mechanisms are found to begin with water condensation on the cathode side, leading to back-diffusion and anodic flooding. Specific in-plane and through-plane water distribution is observed and linked to the planar array design.

  13. Continuous high order sliding mode controller design for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Zong, Qun; Su, Rui; Tian, Bailing

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of tracking control with uncertainties for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV). In order to overcome the analytical intractability of this model, an Input-Output linearization model is constructed for the purpose of feedback control design. Then, the continuous finite time convergence high order sliding mode controller is designed for the Input-Output linearization model without uncertainties. In addition, a nonlinear disturbance observer is applied to estimate the uncertainties in order to compensate the controller and disturbance suppression, where disturbance observer and controller synthesis design is obtained. Finally, the synthesis of controller and disturbance observer is used to achieve the tracking for the velocity and altitude of the FAHV and simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategies.

  14. Influence of copper treatment on the immune response in an air-breathing teleost, Saccobranchus fossilis

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.; Singh, K.P.

    1988-08-01

    The introduction of small amounts of copper ions from natural and anthropogenic sources into the aquatic environment causes multiple changes in freshwater organisms, even at non-lethal levels. Exposure of mammalian test animals to heavy metals, even at moderate levels of contract, may alter the immunological responses. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in the use of the immune systems as a target organ for detecting toxicity of environmental pollutants. The fish immune system is well defined and has many sensitive parameters whose alteration, as a result of pollutant exposure, are easily determined. The effect of copper on the fish immune system is of particular interest since it is known that chronic treatment of copper decreases resistance of the blue gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus) to virus and bacterial (Roales and Perlmutter 1977). The purpose of this study was to determine if sublethal doses of copper would alter the immune response of the air-breathing fish, Saccobranchus fossilis.

  15. Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle Tracking Control Based on Adaptive Dynamic Programming.

    PubMed

    Mu, Chaoxu; Ni, Zhen; Sun, Changyin; He, Haibo

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a data-driven supplementary control approach with adaptive learning capability for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle tracking control based on action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming (ADHDP). The control action is generated by the combination of sliding mode control (SMC) and the ADHDP controller to track the desired velocity and the desired altitude. In particular, the ADHDP controller observes the differences between the actual velocity/altitude and the desired velocity/altitude, and then provides a supplementary control action accordingly. The ADHDP controller does not rely on the accurate mathematical model function and is data driven. Meanwhile, it is capable to adjust its parameters online over time under various working conditions, which is very suitable for hypersonic vehicle system with parameter uncertainties and disturbances. We verify the adaptive supplementary control approach versus the traditional SMC in the cruising flight, and provide three simulation studies to illustrate the improved performance with the proposed approach.

  16. The Direction of Fluid Dynamics for Liquid Propulsion at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Lisa W.

    2012-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-designated center for the development of space launch systems. MSFC is particularly known for propulsion system development. Many engineering skills and technical disciplines are needed to accomplish this mission. This presentation will focus on the work of the Fluid Dynamics Branch (ER42). ER42 resides in the Propulsion Systems Department at MSFC. The branch is responsible for all aspects of the discipline of fluid dynamics applied to propulsion or propulsion-induced loads and environments. This work begins with design trades and parametric studies, and continues through development, risk assessment, anomaly investigation and resolution, and failure investigations. Applications include the propellant delivery system including the main propulsion system (MPS) and turbomachinery; combustion devices for liquid engines and solid rocket motors; coupled systems; and launch environments. An advantage of the branch is that it is neither analysis nor test centric, but discipline centric. Fluid dynamics assessments are made by analysis, from lumped parameter modeling through unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD); testing, which can be cold flow or hot fire; or a combination of analysis and testing. Integration of all discipline methods into one branch enables efficient and accurate support to the projects. To accomplish this work, the branch currently employs approximately fifty engineers divided into four teams -- Propellant Delivery CFD, Combustion Driven Flows CFD, Unsteady and Experimental Flows, and Acoustics and Stability. This discussion will highlight some of the work performed in the branch and the direction in which the branch is headed.

  17. Miniature propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John G.

    1992-07-01

    Miniature solenoid valves, check valves and a hydrazine gas generator typify the miniaturization used in the liquid propulsion system for the Army Light Weight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP). The pressure control subsystem uses a solenoid valve weighing 24 grams to control flow of helium to pressurize the propellant tanks. The attitude control subsystem uses a gas generator weighing 71 grams to produce decomposed hydrazine as the gaseous propellant for miniature 1 lbf ACS thrusters weighing 5.4 grams. The successful use of these miniature components in development tests and a hover test of the LEAP is described.

  18. Plug nozzle propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heald, Dan A.

    1992-02-01

    General Dynamics studied a vertical takeoff/vertical landing fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) concept for medium payload missions. A hydrogen oxygen plug nozzle main engine integrates well in the wide aft end. The principal driver for its selection was the promise of very high I(sub SP), 480 seconds vacuum. Further, preliminary design and analysis with Rocketdyne showed uncertainties and performance losses degrading this number to 467.4 seconds. Nevertheless, this SSTO configuration appears to be optimum for a plug nozzle main engine system. The merits and risks of this propulsion system are discussed. Continued development is recommended.

  19. Radiation Augmented Propulsion Feasibility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    FE 1~ 1986 December 1985 Authors: Rockwell International S . C. Hurlock Rocketdyne Division V. Quan 6633 Canoga Ave ()J. Blauer Canoga Park, CA 91304 00...Organization Report Number( s ) RI /RD85-257 AFRPL-TR-85-068 Gam NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION b. OF FICE SY MBO L 7. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION...EW - PropulsionFeasibilityStudy_(U) ______ 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) Hurlock, S . C.; Quan, V.; Blauer, J.; Hall, J. R.; Wagner, R. I.; Wilson, R. 0. 113

  20. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-12-31

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960`s and early 1970`s was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  1. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts.

  2. Propulsion by tachyon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, C.

    1989-07-01

    A possibility of generating collimated beams of faster-than-light particles (tachyons) and using them for rocket propulsion is explored. The relativistic rocket equations are derived, and are solved for a single-stage rocket with constant mass flow rate, constant exhaust velocity and no coasting period. The features of these solutions for faster-than-light exhaust velocities are discussed. It is shown that a tachyon drive would not violate the first law of thermodynamics. However, as seen in the Galactic frame, it would violate the second law.

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  4. Space propulsion technology and cryogenic fluid depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Larry A.

    1988-01-01

    Information on space propulsion and technology and the cryogenic fluid depot is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on orbit transfer, electric propulsion, spacecraft propulsion, and program objectives.

  5. Investigation of advanced propulsion technologies: The RAM accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Knowlen, C.; Mattick, A. T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1992-01-01

    The two principal areas of advanced propulsion investigated are the ram accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater. The concept of the ram accelerator is presented as a hypervelocity launcher for large-scale aeroballistic range applications in hypersonics and aerothermodynamics research. The ram accelerator is an in-bore ramjet device in which a projectile shaped like the centerbody of a supersonic ramjet is propelled in a stationary tube filled with a tailored combustible gas mixture. Combustion on and behind the projectile generates thrust which accelerates it to very high velocities. The acceleration can be tailored for the 'soft launch' of instrumented models. The distinctive reacting flow phenomena that have been observed in the ram accelerator are relevant to the aerothermodynamic processes in airbreathing hypersonic propulsion systems and are useful for validating sophisticated CFD codes. The recently demonstrated scalability of the device and the ability to control the rate of acceleration offer unique opportunities for the use of the ram accelerator as a large-scale hypersonic ground test facility. The flowing gas radiation receiver is a novel concept for using solar energy to heat a working fluid for space power or propulsion. Focused solar radiation is absorbed directly in a working gas, rather than by heat transfer through a solid surface. Previous theoretical analysis had demonstrated that radiation trapping reduces energy loss compared to that of blackbody receivers, and enables higher efficiencies and higher peak temperatures. An experiment was carried out to measure the temperature profile of an infrared-active gas and demonstrate the effect of radiation trapping. The success of this effort validates analytical models of heat transfer in this receiver, and confirms the potential of this approach for achieving high efficiency space power and propulsion.

  6. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT), were developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters were flown in space, though only PPT's were used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPT's is quite poor, providing only approximately 8 percent efficiency at approximately 1000 s specific impulse. However, laboratory PPT's yielding 34 percent efficiency at 2000 s specific impulse were extensively tested, and peak performance levels of 53 percent efficiency at 5170 s specific impulse were demonstrated. MPD thrusters were flown as experiments on the Japanese MS-T4 spacecraft and the Space Shuttle and were qualified for a flight in 1994. The flight MPD thrusters were pulsed, with a peak performance of 22 percent efficiency at 2500 s specific impulse using ammonia propellant. Laboratory MPD thrusters were demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 700 s specific impulse using lithium propellant. While the PIT thruster has never been flown, recent performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 to 8000 s. The fundamental operating principles, performance measurements, and system level design for the three types of electromagnetic thrusters are reviewed, and available data on flight tests are discussed for the PPT and MPD thrusters.

  7. Jet propulsion without inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolie, Saverio E.; Lauga, Eric

    2010-08-01

    A body immersed in a highly viscous fluid can locomote by drawing in and expelling fluid through pores at its surface. We consider this mechanism of jet propulsion without inertia in the case of spheroidal bodies and derive both the swimming velocity and the hydrodynamic efficiency. Elementary examples are presented and exact axisymmetric solutions for spherical, prolate spheroidal, and oblate spheroidal body shapes are provided. In each case, entirely and partially porous (i.e., jetting) surfaces are considered and the optimal jetting flow profiles at the surface for maximizing the hydrodynamic efficiency are determined computationally. The maximal efficiency which may be achieved by a sphere using such jet propulsion is 12.5%, a significant improvement upon traditional flagella-based means of locomotion at zero Reynolds number, which corresponds to the potential flow created by a source dipole at the sphere center. Unlike other swimming mechanisms which rely on the presentation of a small cross section in the direction of motion, the efficiency of a jetting body at low Reynolds number increases as the body becomes more oblate and limits to approximately 162% in the case of a flat plate swimming along its axis of symmetry. Our results are discussed in the light of slime extrusion mechanisms occurring in many cyanobacteria.

  8. Integrated airframe propulsion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, R. E.; Black, S. B.

    1982-01-01

    Perturbation equations which describe flight dynamics and engine operation about a given operating point are combined to form an integrated aircraft/propulsion system model. Included in the model are the dependence of aerodynamic coefficients upon atmospheric variables along with the dependence of engine variables upon flight condition and inlet performance. An off-design engine performance model is used to identify interaction parameters in the model. Inclusion of subsystem interaction effects introduces coupling between flight and propulsion variables. To analyze interaction effects on control, consideration is first given to control requirements for separate flight and engine models. For the separate airframe model, feedback control provides substantial improvement in short period damping. For the integrated system, feedback control compensates for the coupling present in the model and provides good overall system stability. However, this feedback control law involves many non-zero gains. Analysis of suboptimal control strategies indicates that performance of the closed loop integrated system can be maintained with a feedback matrix in which the number of non-zero gains is small relative to the number of components in the feedback matrix.

  9. Assessing potential propulsion breakthroughs.

    PubMed

    Millis, Marc G

    2005-12-01

    The term, propulsion breakthrough, refers to concepts like propellantless space drives and faster-than-light travel, the kind of breakthroughs that would make interstellar exploration practical. Although no such breakthroughs appear imminent, a variety of investigations have begun. During 1996-2002 NASA supported the breakthrough propulsion physics project to examine physics in the context of breakthrough spaceflight. Three facets of these assessments are now reported: (1) predicting benefits, (2) selecting research, and (3) recent technical progress. Predicting benefits is challenging, since the breakthroughs are still only notional concepts, but energy can serve as a basis for comparison. A hypothetical space drive would require many orders of magnitude less energy than a rocket for journeys to our nearest neighboring star. Assessing research options is challenging when the goals are beyond known physics and when the implications of success are profound. To mitigate the challenges, a selection process is described where: (1) research tasks are constrained to only address the immediate unknowns, curious effects, or critical issues; (2) reliability of assertions is more important than their implications; and (3) reviewers judge credibility rather than feasibility. The recent findings of a number of tasks, some selected using this process, are discussed. Of the 14 tasks included, six reached null conclusions, four remain unresolved, and four have opportunities for sequels. A dominant theme with the sequels is research about the properties of space, inertial frames, and the quantum vacuum.

  10. Assessing Potential Propulsion Breakthroughs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2005-01-01

    The term, propulsion breakthrough, refers to concepts like propellantless space drives and faster-than-light travel, the kind of breakthroughs that would make interstellar exploration practical. Although no such breakthroughs appear imminent, a variety of investigations into these goals have begun. From 1996 to 2002, NASA supported the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project to examine physics in the context of breakthrough spaceflight. Three facets of these assessments are now reported: (1) predicting benefits, (2) selecting research, and (3) recent technical progress. Predicting benefits is challenging since the breakthroughs are still only notional concepts, but kinetic energy can serve as a basis for comparison. In terms of kinetic energy, a hypothetical space drive could require many orders of magnitude less energy than a rocket for journeys to our nearest neighboring star. Assessing research options is challenging when the goals are beyond known physics and when the implications of success are profound. To mitigate the challenges, a selection process is described where: (a) research tasks are constrained to only address the immediate unknowns, curious effects or critical issues, (b) reliability of assertions is more important than their implications, and (c) reviewers judge credibility rather than feasibility. The recent findings of a number of tasks, some selected using this process, are discussed. Of the 14 tasks included, six reached null conclusions, four remain unresolved, and four have opportunities for sequels. A dominant theme with the sequels is research about the properties of space, inertial frames, and the quantum vacuum.

  11. Exotic power and propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forward, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    The status of some exotic physical phenomena and unconventional spacecraft concepts that might produce breakthroughs in power and propulsion in the 21st Century are reviewed. The subjects covered include: electric, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, antimatter, high energy density materials, metallic hydrogen, laser thermal, solar thermal, solar sail, magnetic sail, and tether propulsion.

  12. Progress in NASA Rotorcraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Johnson, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation reviews recent progress made under NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) propulsion research activities. Advances in engines, drive systems and optimized propulsion systems are discussed. Progress in wide operability compressors, modeling of variable geometry turbine performance, foil gas bearings and multi-speed transmissions are presented.

  13. The NASA Electric Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Lisa Wood; Curran, Francis M.

    1996-01-01

    Nearly all space missions require on-board propulsion systems and these systems typically have a major impact on spacecraft mass and cost. Electric propulsion systems offer major performance advantages over conventional chemical systems for many mission functions and the NASA Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT) supports an extensive effort to develop the technology for high-performance, on-board electric propulsion system options to enhance and enable near- and far-term US space missions. This program includes research and development efforts on electrothermal, electrostatic, and electromagnetic propulsion system technologies to cover a wide range of potential applications. To maximize expectations of technology transfer, the program emphasizes strong interaction with the user community through a variety of cooperative and contracted approaches. This paper provides an overview of the OSAT electric propulsion program with an emphasis on recent progress and future directions.

  14. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  16. Melons are Branched Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurau, Razvan; Ryan, James P.

    2014-11-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  17. Space station propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Morren, W. Earl; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: gaseous H/O rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These two thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the space station, utilizing waste fluids as their source of propellant. The H/O rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use waste gases collected from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. The results are presented of experimental efforts with H/O and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability, as well as results of studies to determine the availability of water and waste gases.

  18. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

    1992-01-01

    The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of

  19. Pulsed plasmoid electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourque, Robert F.; Parks, Paul B.; Tamano, Teruo

    1990-01-01

    A method of electric propulsion is explored where plasmoids such as spheromaks and field reversed configurations (FRC) are formed and then allowed to expand down a diverging conducting shell. The plasmoids contain a toroidal electric current that provides both heating and a confining magnetic field. They are free to translate because there are no externally supplied magnetic fields that would restrict motion. Image currents in the diverging conducting shell keep the plasmoids from contacting the wall. Because these currents translate relative to the wall, losses due to magnetic flux diffusion into the wall are minimized. During the expansion of the plasma in the diverging cone, both the inductive and thermal plasma energy are converted to directed kinetic energy producing thrust. Specific impulses can be in the 4000 to 20000 sec range with thrusts from 0.1 to 1000 Newtons, depending on available power.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  1. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.; Pivirotto, Thomas J.; Polk, James E.

    1992-11-01

    The work performed in fiscal year (FY) 1991 under the Propulsion Technology Program RTOP (Research and Technology Objectives and Plans) No. (55) 506-42-31 for Low-Thrust Primary and Auxiliary Propulsion technology development is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with the development of ion engines for primary propulsion in support of solar system exploration. The second with the advancement of steady-state magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology at 100 kW to multimegawatt input power levels. The major technology issues for ion propulsion are demonstration of adequate engine life at the 5 to 10 kW power level and scaling ion engines to power levels of tens to hundreds of kilowatts. Tests of a new technique in which the decelerator grid of a three-grid ion accelerator system is biased negative of neutralizer common potential in order to collect facility induced charge-exchange ions are described. These tests indicate that this SAND (Screen, Accelerator, Negative Decelerator) configuration may enable long duration ion engine endurance tests to be performed at vacuum chamber pressures an order of magnitude higher than previously possible. The corresponding reduction in pumping speed requirements enables endurance tests of 10 kW class ion engines to be performed within the resources of existing technology programs. The results of a successful 5,000-hr endurance of a xenon hollow cathode operating at an emission current of 25 A are described, as well as the initial tests of hollow cathodes operating on a mixture of argon and 3 percent nitrogen. Work performed on the development of carbon/carbon grids, a multi-orifice hollow cathode, and discharge chamber erosion reduction through the addition of nitrogen are also described. Critical applied-field MPD thruster technical issues remain to be resolved, including demonstration of reliable steady-state operation at input powers of hundreds to thousands of

  2. Propulsion by directional adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John; Prakash, Manu

    2008-03-01

    The rough, hairy integument of water-walking arthropods is well known to be responsible for their water-repellency; we here consider its additional propulsive role. We demonstrate that the tilted flexible leg hairs of water-walking arthropods render the leg cuticle directionally anisotropic: contact lines advance most readily towards the leg tips. The dynamical role of the resulting unidirectional adhesion is explored, and yields new insight into the manner in which water-walking arthropods generate thrust, glide and leap from the free surface. We thus provide new rationale for the fundamental topological difference in the roughness on plants and insects, and suggest novel directions for biomimetic design of smart, hydrophobic surfaces.

  3. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. This photograph, taken at MSFC's Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility, shows a concentrator mirror, a combination of 144 mirrors forming this 18-ft diameter concentrator, and a vacuum chamber that houses the focal point. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-foot diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  4. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John; Power, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC- 3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NTP project could also help enable high performance fission power systems and Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  5. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr Renee

    2015-01-01

    Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project, sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  6. Electric propulsion and interstellar flight

    SciTech Connect

    Matloff, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Two general classes of interstellar space-flights are defined: endothermic and exothermic. Endothermic methods utilize power sources external to the vehicle and associated technology. Faster exothermic methods utilize on-board propulsive power sources or energy-beam technology. Various proposed endothermic electric propulsion methods are described. These include solar electric rockets, mass drivers, and ramjets. A review of previously suggested exothermic electric propulsion methods is presented. Following this review is a detailed discussion of possible near future application of the beamed-laser ramjet, mainly for ultimate relativistic travel. Electric/magnetic techniques offer an excellent possibility for decelerating an interstellar vehicle, regardless of the acceleration technique. 20 references.

  7. Combined microwave science and propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Palaszewski, B.

    1989-01-01

    The combined use of high-power active science instruments and high-power electric propulsion is investigated with a view to new science opportunities and measurements on future planetary missions. An example of a comet rendezvous mission that could benefit from this combination is discussed. It was found that, with electric propulsion, the launch mass of the comet spacecraft could be reduced by 61-68 percent over the chemical propulsion baseline mission. This high-power spacecraft is also capable of delivering a significant high-power radar science payload to the comet. 28 references.

  8. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginn, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Description of current ARMD projects; Team Seedling project AFRC and LaRC 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing on truck bed up 75 miles per hour for coefficient of lift validation. Convergent Aeronautic Solutions project (new ARMD reorg), sub-project Convergent Electric Propulsion Technologies AFRC, LaRC and GRC, re-winging a 4 passenger Tecnam aircraft with a 31ft distributed electric propulsion wing. Advanced Air Transport Technologies (Fixed Wing), Hybrid Electric Research Theme, developing a series hybrid ironbird and flight sim to study integration and performance challenges in preparation for a 1-2 MW flight project.

  9. NASA research in aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A broad overview of the scope of research presently being supported by NASA in aircraft propulsion is presented with emphasis on Lewis Research Center activities related to civil air transports, CTOL and V/STOL systems. Aircraft systems work is performed to identify the requirements for the propulsion system that enhance the mission capabilities of the aircraft. This important source of innovation and creativity drives the direction of propulsion research. In a companion effort, component research of a generic nature is performed to provide a better basis for design and provides an evolutionary process for technological growth that increases the capabilities of all types of aircraft. Both are important.

  10. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  11. 46 CFR 130.120 - Propulsion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Propulsion control. 130.120 Section 130.120 Shipping... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.120 Propulsion control. (a) Each vessel must have— (1) A propulsion-control system operable from the pilothouse; and (2) A means at each propulsion...

  12. 46 CFR 130.120 - Propulsion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Propulsion control. 130.120 Section 130.120 Shipping... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.120 Propulsion control. (a) Each vessel must have— (1) A propulsion-control system operable from the pilothouse; and (2) A means at each propulsion...

  13. 46 CFR 130.120 - Propulsion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Propulsion control. 130.120 Section 130.120 Shipping... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.120 Propulsion control. (a) Each vessel must have— (1) A propulsion-control system operable from the pilothouse; and (2) A means at each propulsion...

  14. 46 CFR 130.120 - Propulsion control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Propulsion control. 130.120 Section 130.120 Shipping... MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.120 Propulsion control. (a) Each vessel must have— (1) A propulsion-control system operable from the pilothouse; and (2) A means at each propulsion...

  15. Control of cardiorespiratory function in response to hypoxia in an air-breathing fish, the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Belão, T C; Zeraik, V M; Florindo, L H; Kalinin, A L; Leite, C A C; Rantin, F T

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the role of the first pair of gill arches in the control of cardiorespiratory responses to normoxia and hypoxia in the air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus. An intact group (IG) and an experimental group (EG, bilateral excision of first gill arch) were submitted to graded hypoxia, with and without access to air. The first pair of gill arches ablations reduced respiratory surface area and removed innervation by cranial nerve IX. In graded hypoxia without access to air, both groups displayed bradycardia and increased ventilatory stroke volume (VT), and the IG showed a significant increase in breathing frequency (fR). The EG exhibited very high fR in normoxia that did not increase further in hypoxia, this was linked to reduced O2 extraction from the ventilatory current (EO2) and a significantly higher critical O2 tension (PcO2) than the IG. In hypoxia with access to air, only the IG showed increased air-breathing, indicating that the first pair of gill arches excision severely attenuated air-breathing responses. Both groups exhibited bradycardia before and tachycardia after air-breaths. The fH and gill ventilation amplitude (VAMP) in the EG were overall higher than the IG. External and internal NaCN injections revealed that O2 chemoreceptors mediating ventilatory hypoxic responses (fR and VT) are internally oriented. The NaCN injections indicated that fR responses were mediated by receptors predominantly in the first pair of gill arches but VT responses by receptors on all gill arches. Receptors eliciting cardiac responses were both internally and externally oriented and distributed on all gill arches or extra-branchially. Air-breathing responses were predominantly mediated by receptors in the first pair of gill arches. In conclusion, the role of the first pair of gill arches is related to: (a) an elevated EO2 providing an adequate O2 uptake to maintain the aerobic metabolism during normoxia; (b) a significant bradycardia and increased fAB elicited

  16. Influence of cathode opening size and wetting properties of diffusion layers on the performance of air-breathing PEMFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, A.; Tranitz, M.; Eccarius, S.; Weil, A.; Hebling, C.

    Air-breathing PEMFCs consist of an open cathodic side to allow an entirely passive supply of oxygen by diffusion. Furthermore, a large fraction of the produced water is removed by evaporation from the open cathode. Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and the opening size of the cathode have a crucial influence on the performance of an air-breathing PEMFC. In order to assure an unobstructed supply of oxygen the water has to be removed efficiently and condensation in the GDL has to be avoided. On the other hand good humidification of the membrane has to be achieved to obtain high protonic conductivity. In this paper the influence of varying cathodic opening sizes (33%, 50% and 80% opening ratios) and of GDLs with different wetting properties are analysed. GDLs with hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties are prepared by coating of untreated GDLs (Toray ® carbon paper TGP-H-120, thickness of 350 μm). The air-breathing PEMFC test samples are realised using printed circuit board (PCB) technology. The cell samples were characterised over the entire potential range (0-0.95 V) by extensive measurements of the current density, the temperature and the cell impedance at 1 kHz. Additionally, measurements of the water balance were carried out at distinct operation points. The best cell performance was achieved with the largest opening ratio (80%) and an untreated GDL. At the maximum power point, this cell sample achieved a power density of 100 mW cm -2 at a moderate cell temperature of 43 °C. Furthermore, it could be shown that GDLs with hydrophilic or intense hydrophobic properties do not improve the performance of an air-breathing PEMFC. Based on the extensive characterisations, two design rules for air-breathing PEMFCs could be formulated. Firstly, it is crucial to maximise the cathode opening as far as an appropriate compression pressure of the cell assembly and therewith low contact resistance can be assured. Secondly, it is advantageous to use an untreated, slightly hydrophobic

  17. 1998 JANNAF Propulsion Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, Debra S. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This volume, the first of four volumes, is a collection of 40 unclassified/unlimited-distribution papers which were presented at the 1998 Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Propulsion Meeting (JPM), held 15-17 July 1998 at the Cleveland Marriott Downtown at Key Center and the Celebreeze Federal Building in Cleveland, Ohio. The 1998 JPM was co-located with the 1998 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Joint Propulsion Conference. Specific subjects discussed include reusable liquid boosters, controllable solid propulsion, advanced propellants for the 2.75' rocket system, air-turbo-rocket propulsion, issues in gun propulsion, electric propulsion, liquid engine turbomachinery, and new liquid propulsion technology.

  18. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  19. Electric propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Garner, Charles E.; Goodfellow, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    The work performed on the Ion Propulsion System Technology Task in FY90 is described. The objectives of this work fall under two broad categories. The first of these deals with issues associated with the application of xenon ion thrusters for primary propulsion of planetary spacecraft, and the second with the investigation of technologies which will facilitate the development of larger, higher power ion thrusters to support more advanced mission applications. Most of the effort was devoted to investigation of the critical issues associated with the use of ion thrusters for planetary spacecraft. These issues may be succinctly referred to as life time, system integration, and throttling. Chief among these is the engine life time. If the engines do not have sufficient life to perform the missions of interest, then the other issues become unimportant. Ion engine life time was investigated through two experimental programs: an investigation into the reduction of ion engine internal sputter erosion through the addition of small quantities of nitrogen, and a long duration cathode life test. In addition, a literature review and analysis of accelerator grid erosion were performed. The nitrogen addition tests indicated that the addition of between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of nitrogen by mass to the xenon propellant results in a reduction in the sputter erosion of discharge chamber components by a factor of between 20 and 50, with negligible reduction in thruster performance. The long duration test of a 6.35-mm dia. xenon hollow cathode is still in progress, and has accumulated more than 4,000 hours of operation at an emission current of 25 A at the time of this writing. One of the major system integration issues concerns possible interactions of the ion thruster produced charge exchange plasma with the spacecraft. A computer model originally developed to describe the behavior of mercury ion thruster charge exchange plasmas was resurrected and modified for xenon propellant. This

  20. Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research in Support of NASA Aeronautics and Exploration Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research and Exploration Systems Missions. This paper provides a brief overview of the various CDB tasks in support of the NASA programs. The programmatic structure of the CDB activities is described along with a brief overview of each of the CDB tasks including research objectives, technical challenges, and recent accomplishments. These tasks include active control of propulsion system components, intelligent propulsion diagnostics and control for reliable fault identification and accommodation, distributed engine control, and investigations into unsteady propulsion systems.

  1. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progres made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  2. Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John D.; Hunter, Gary W.; Simon, Don; Meredith, Roger; Wrbanek, John; Woike, Mark; Tokars, Roger; Guffanti, Marianne; Lyall, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Tests in the Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies project. This overview covers highlights of the completed VIPR I and VIPR II tests and also covers plans for the VIPR III test.

  3. Environmental benefits of chemical propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Joyce A.; Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Anderson, David M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper identifies the necessity of chemical propulsion to satellite usage and some of the benefits accrued through monitoring global resources and patterns, including the Global Climate Change Model (GCM). The paper also summarized how the satellite observations are used to affect national and international policies. Chemical propulsion, like all environmentally conscious industries, does provide limited, controlled pollutant sources through its manufacture and usage. However, chemical propulsion is the sole source which enables mankind to launch spacecraft and monitor the Earth. The information provided by remote sensing directly affects national and international policies designed to protect the environment and enhance the overall quality of life on Earth. The resultant of chemical propulsion is the capability to reduce overall pollutant emissions to the benefit of mankind.

  4. Propulsion issues, options and trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Doug J.

    1986-01-01

    Several different types of propulsion concepts are discussed: pulsed fission; continuous nuclear fission; chemical; and chemical boost with advanced nuclear fission. Some of the key characteristics of each type are provided, and typical concepts of each are shown.

  5. Trajectory correction propulsion for TOPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, H. R.; Bjorklund, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A blowdown-pressurized hydrazine propulsion system was selected to provide trajectory correction impulse for outer planet flyby spacecraft as the result of cost/mass/reliability tradeoff analyses. Present hydrazine component and system technology and component designs were evaluated for application to the Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS); while general hydrazine technology was adequate, component design changes were deemed necessary for TOPS-type missions. A prototype hydrazine propulsion system was fabricated and fired nine times for a total of 1600 s to demonstrate the operation and performance of the TOPS propulsion configuration. A flight-weight trajectory correction propulsion subsystem (TCPS) was designed for the TOPS based on actual and estimated advanced components.

  6. Overview of Glenn Mechanical Components Branch Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrajsek, James

    2002-09-01

    Mr. James Zakrajsek, chief of the Mechanical Components Branch, gave an overview of research conducted by the branch. Branch members perform basic research on mechanical components and systems, including gears and bearings, turbine seals, structural and thermal barrier seals, and space mechanisms. The research is focused on propulsion systems for present and advanced aerospace vehicles. For rotorcraft and conventional aircraft, we conduct research to develop technology needed to enable the design of low noise, ultra safe geared drive systems. We develop and validate analytical models for gear crack propagation, gear dynamics and noise, gear diagnostics, bearing dynamics, and thermal analyses of gear systems using experimental data from various component test rigs. In seal research we develop and test advanced turbine seal concepts to increase efficiency and durability of turbine engines. We perform experimental and analytical research to develop advanced thermal barrier seals and structural seals for current and next generation space vehicles. Our space mechanisms research involves fundamental investigation of lubricants, materials, components and mechanisms for deep space and planetary environments.

  7. Fundamentals of Electrical Propulsion Plant Design,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-06

    Classification. Turboelectric Propulsion Plants ( TEGU ). Diesel- Electric Propulsion Plants (DEGU). § 9.3 Excitation and Control Systems with...is evident, for example, from /431 the data in Table 9.1. Table 9.1 Turboelectric Propulsion Plant ( TEGU ) Basic Characteristics Ship Name Plant Output...generators for GEU: nonsalient-pole machinery in turboelectric propulsion plants ( TEGU ) and salient-pole in diesel electric propulsion plants. Primary

  8. Theory for Plasma Rocket Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabbe, Crockett

    2009-11-01

    Electrical propulsion of rockets is developing potentially into the use of 3 different thrusters for future long-distance space missions that primarily involve plasma dynamics. These are the Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) Thruster, the Plasma Induction Thruster (PID), and the VASIMIR Thruster. The history of the development of electrical propulsion into these prospects and the current research of particularly the VASIMIR Thruster are reviewed. Theoretical questions that need to be addressed in that development are explored.

  9. Propulsion Induced Effects Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Won, Mark; Bencze, Dan

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this milestone is to assess the propulsion/airframe integration characteristics of the Technology Concept Airplane and design variations through computational analysis and experimental subsonic through supersonic wind tunnel testing. The Milestone will generate a comprehensive CFD and wind tunnel data base of the baseline, and design variations. Emphasis will be placed on establishing the propulsion induced effects on the flight performance of the Technology Concept Airplane with all appropriate wind tunnel corrections.

  10. Nuclear Propulsion in Space (1968)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-23

    Project NERVA was an acronym for Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, a joint program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and NASA managed by the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (SNPO) at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Jackass Flats, Nevada U.S.A. Between 1959 and 1972, the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office oversaw 23 reactor tests, both the program and the office ended at the end of 1972.

  11. Nuclear Propulsion in Space (1968)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Project NERVA was an acronym for Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, a joint program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and NASA managed by the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office (SNPO) at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Jackass Flats, Nevada U.S.A. Between 1959 and 1972, the Space Nuclear Propulsion Office oversaw 23 reactor tests, both the program and the office ended at the end of 1972.

  12. Detonation Propulsion - A Navy Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Session 2 Detonation Propulsion -A Navy Perspective Gabriel Roy Office of Naval Research Global 46 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Office of Naval Research Global 8...ADA593185 2013 International Workshop for Detonations in Propulsion (IWDP 2013) Held in Tainan, Taiwan on July 26-28, 2013. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT

  13. On Minkowskian branching structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroński, Leszek; Placek, Tomasz

    In Belnap's [Branching space-time. Synthese, 92, 385-434. 'Postprint' archived at http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/archive/00001003] theory of branching space-times (BST) Our World's possible histories are thought of as space-times, yet the theory has models in which histories do not resemble relativistic space-times or any other physical space-times. The aim of this paper is to define a certain class of BST models, called 'Minkowskian Branching Structures' (MBSs), in which histories are isomorphic to Minkowski space-time. By focusing on these models rather than on general BST models, we hope that one may be able to improve on earlier BST analyses of physical phenomena. Also, introducing MBSs sets the stage for recent discussions about whether or not branching is physically feasible.

  14. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  15. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. This photograph shows a fully assembled solar thermal engine placed inside the vacuum chamber at the test facility prior to testing. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move theNation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  16. Acute toxicity bioassay of dimethoate on freshwater airbreathing catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Rakesh K; Singh, Ram N; Singh, Sarika; Singh, Narendra N; Das, Vijai K

    2009-05-01

    Pesticides are chemicals used for pest control in the agricultural fields. They finally reach the surrounding water bodies through surface runoff affecting the aquatic fauna. Dimethoate is frequently used organophosphate pesticide due to its high effectiveness and rapid breakdown into environmentally safe products. A 96 hr static acute toxicity test was carried out to determine the LC50 value of dimethoate, on the freshwater airbreathing catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). The fish were exposed to 7 different concentrations of dimethoate (2.50, 2.75, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, 3.75 and 4.00 mg l(-1)) for toxicity bioassay. Control (0.00 mg l(-1)) was also carried out. The data were subjected to Finney's Probit analysis and processed with Trimmed Spearman-Karber statistical software. The LC50 values for dimethoate for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr were 3.38, 3.23, 3.08 and 2.98 mg l(-1), respectively. At higher concentration of dimethoate (3.25 mg l(-1) and above) the fish showed uncoordinated behaviour such as erratic and jerky swimming, attempt to jump out of water, frequent surfacing and gulping of air, decrease in opercular movement and copious secretion of mucus all over the body.

  17. Computational modeling of alkaline air-breathing microfluidic fuel cells with an array of cylinder anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ding-Ding; Zhang, Biao; Zhu, Xun; Sui, Pang-Chieh; Djilali, Ned; Liao, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    A three-dimensional computational model is developed for an alkaline air-breathing microfluidic fuel cell (AMFC) with an array of cylinder anodes. The model is validated against experimental data from an in-house prototype AMFC. The distributions of fluid velocity, fuel concentration and current density of the fuel cell are analyzed in detail. The effect of reactant flow rate on the cell performance and electrode potentials is also studied. The model results suggest that fuel crossover is minimized by the fast electrolyte flow in the vicinity of the cathode. The current production of each anode is uneven and is well correlated with internal ohmic resistance. Fuel transfer limitation occurs at low flow rates (<100 μL min-1) but diminishes at high flow rates. The model results also indicate that cathode potential reversal takes place at combined low flow rate and high current density conditions, mainly due to the improved overpotential downstream where fuel starvation occurs. The anode reaction current distribution is found to be relatively uniform, which is a result of a compensating mechanism that improves the current production of the bottom anodes downstream.

  18. Correlation and analysis of oil flow data for an air-breathing missile model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoy, S. L.; Dillon, J. L.; Roman, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper will present the results of an oil flow investigation on an airbreathing missile model. This oil flow study examined the flow around the model, which can be configured with both axisymmetric and two-dimensional inlets. Flow visualization analyses were conducted for both types of geometries by examining the surface flow patterns made visible by the oil flows for Mach numbers of 2.5 and 3.95. The analysis has shown the extent of flow spillage around the inlet which has helped explain the force and moment data collected during previous testing of the model. The oil flow data has also been used to develop guidelines for modeling the location of the crossflow separation line along inlet fairings. Finally, the oil flow analysis has been used to identify unique features of the boattail flow. These boattail flow characteristics have been correlated with previous oil flow analysis of noncircular body models. This paper demonstrates the use of this type of oil flow analysis in developing missile flow field analysis and aerodynamic predictions ranging from impact angle methods through Navier-Stokes methods.

  19. Anoxia and Acidosis Tolerance of the Heart in an Air-Breathing Fish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    PubMed

    Joyce, William; Gesser, Hans; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Air breathing has evolved repeatedly in fishes and may protect the heart during stress. We investigated myocardial performance in the air-breathing catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, a species that can withstand prolonged exposure to severe hypoxia and acidosis. Isometric ventricular preparations were exposed to anoxia, lactic acidosis, hypercapnic acidosis, and combinations of these treatments. Ventricular preparations were remarkably tolerant to anoxia, exhibiting an inotropic reduction of only 40%, which fully recovered during reoxygenation. Myocardial anoxia tolerance was unaffected by physiologically relevant elevations of bicarbonate concentration, in contrast to previous results in other fishes. Both lactic acidosis (5 mM; pH 7.10) and hypercapnic acidosis (10% CO2; pH 6.70) elicited a biphasic response, with an initial and transient decrease in force followed by overcompensation above control values. Spongy myocardial preparations were significantly more tolerant to hypercapnic acidosis than compact myocardial preparations. While ventricular preparations were tolerant to the isolated effects of anoxia and acidosis, their combination severely impaired myocardial performance and contraction kinetics. This suggests that air breathing may be a particularly important myocardial oxygen source during combined anoxia and acidosis, which may occur during exercise or environmental stress.

  20. Uncertainty analysis and robust trajectory linearization control of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Zhiqiang; Tan, Xiangmin; Fan, Guoliang; Yi, Jianqiang

    2014-08-01

    Flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicles feature significant uncertainties which pose huge challenges to robust controller designs. In this paper, four major categories of uncertainties are analyzed, that is, uncertainties associated with flexible effects, aerodynamic parameter variations, external environmental disturbances, and control-oriented modeling errors. A uniform nonlinear uncertainty model is explored for the first three uncertainties which lumps all uncertainties together and consequently is beneficial for controller synthesis. The fourth uncertainty is additionally considered in stability analysis. Based on these analyses, the starting point of the control design is to decompose the vehicle dynamics into five functional subsystems. Then a robust trajectory linearization control (TLC) scheme consisting of five robust subsystem controllers is proposed. In each subsystem controller, TLC is combined with the extended state observer (ESO) technique for uncertainty compensation. The stability of the overall closed-loop system with the four aforementioned uncertainties and additional singular perturbations is analyzed. Particularly, the stability of nonlinear ESO is also discussed from a Liénard system perspective. At last, simulations demonstrate the great control performance and the uncertainty rejection ability of the robust scheme.

  1. Design Evolution and Performance Characterization of the GTX Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis, J. R.; Steffen, C. J., Jr.; Rice, T.; Trefny, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    The design and analysis of a second version of the inlet for the GTX rocket-based combine-cycle launch vehicle is discussed. The previous design did not achieve its predicted performance levels due to excessive turning of low-momentum comer flows and local over-contraction due to asymmetric end-walls. This design attempts to remove these problems by reducing the spike half-angle to 10- from 12-degrees and by implementing true plane of symmetry end-walls. Axisymmetric Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations using both perfect gas and real gas, finite rate chemistry, assumptions were performed to aid in the design process and to create a comprehensive database of inlet performance. The inlet design, which operates over the entire air-breathing Mach number range from 0 to 12, and the performance database are presented. The performance database, for use in cycle analysis, includes predictions of mass capture, pressure recovery, throat Mach number, drag force, and heat load, for the entire Mach range. Results of the computations are compared with experimental data to validate the performance database.

  2. Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, G. E.; Holzman, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    Future launch systems of the United States will require improvements in booster safety, reliability, and cost. In order to increase payload capabilities, performance improvements are also desirable. The hybrid rocket motor (HRM) offers the potential for improvements in all of these areas. The designs are presented for two sizes of hybrid boosters, a large 4.57 m (180 in.) diameter booster duplicating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) vacuum thrust-time profile and smaller 2.44 m (96 in.), one-quater thrust level booster. The large booster would be used in tandem, while eight small boosters would be used to achieve the same total thrust. These preliminary designs were generated as part of the NASA Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program. This program is the first phase of an eventual three-phaes program culminating in the demonstration of a large subscale engine. The initial trade and sizing studies resulted in preferred motor diameters, operating pressures, nozzle geometry, and fuel grain systems for both the large and small boosters. The data were then used for specific performance predictions in terms of payload and the definition and selection of the requirements for the major components: the oxidizer feed system, nozzle, and thrust vector system. All of the parametric studies were performed using realistic fuel regression models based upon specific experimental data.

  3. Asymmetrical Capacitors for Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canning, Francis X.; Melcher, Cory; Winet, Edwin

    2004-01-01

    Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters have been proposed as a source of propulsion. For over eighty years, it has been known that a thrust results when a high voltage is placed across an asymmetrical capacitor, when that voltage causes a leakage current to flow. However, there is surprisingly little experimental or theoretical data explaining this effect. This paper reports on the results of tests of several Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters (ACTs). The thrust they produce has been measured for various voltages, polarities, and ground configurations and their radiation in the VHF range has been recorded. These tests were performed at atmospheric pressure and at various reduced pressures. A simple model for the thrust was developed. The model assumed the thrust was due to electrostatic forces on the leakage current flowing across the capacitor. It was further assumed that this current involves charged ions which undergo multiple collisions with air. These collisions transfer momentum. All of the measured data was consistent with this model. Many configurations were tested, and the results suggest general design principles for ACTs to be used for a variety of purposes.

  4. Pollution reducing aircraft propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, R.

    1980-07-29

    An aircraft pollution reducing propulsion airfoil system comprising a wing having upper and lower surfaces comprising wing skin plates extending longitudinally on the wing and being spaced one from another in chordwise directions, spars extending into the wing between the surfaces, stringer ducts extending along internal sides of the wing surfaces, the stringers having relatively rigid surface-supporting structure and having outward directed openings extending across the wing surfaces, interrupting the wing surfaces between edges of the wing skin plates, the ducts thereby forming stringer structural elements supporting the wing skin plates, the outward directed openings of the stringer ducts being arranged perpendicularly to the wing surfaces in a leading portion of the wing and tangential to the wing surfaces in a trailing portion of the wing surfaces, suction means connected to the stringer ducts with perpendicular opening for drawing gas into the ducts through those openings and blowing means connected to the ducts with tangential openings for flowing gas out of the tangential openings, combustion means connected to the suction means and to the blowing meanas for accelerating gas through the means.

  5. Mars Rocket Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Harber, Dan; Nabors, Sammy

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses the methane and carbon monoxide/LOX (McLOx) rocket for ascent from Mars as well as other critical space propulsion tasks. The system offers a specific impulse over 370 s roughly 50 s higher than existing space-storable bio-propellants. Current Mars in-situ propellant production (ISPP) technologies produce impure methane and carbon monoxide in various combinations. While separation and purification of methane fuel is possible, it adds complexity to the propellant production process and discards an otherwise useful fuel product. The McLOx makes such complex and wasteful processes unnecessary by burning the methane/CO mixtures produced by the Mars ISPP systems without the need for further refinement. Despite the decrease in rocket-specific impulse caused by the CO admixture, the improvement offered by concomitant increased propellant density can provide a net improvement in stage performance. One advantage is the increase of the total amount of propellant produced, but with a decrease in mass and complexity of the required ISPP plant. Methane/CO fuel mixtures also may be produced by reprocessing the organic wastes of a Moon base or a space station, making McLOx engines key for a human Lunar initiative or the International Space Station (ISS) program. Because McLOx propellant components store at a common temperature, very lightweight and compact common bulkhead tanks can be employed, improving overall stage performance further.

  6. Developmental transcriptome analysis and identification of genes involved in formation of intestinal air-breathing function of Dojo loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Weiwei; Cao, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xiuwen; Huang, Songqian; Liu, Chuanshu; Tomljanovic, Tea

    2016-08-22

    Dojo loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus is a freshwater fish species of the loach family Cobitidae, using its posterior intestine as an accessory air-breathing organ. Little is known about the molecular regulatory mechanisms in the formation of intestinal air-breathing function of M. anguillicaudatus. Here high-throughput sequencing of mRNAs was performed from six developmental stages of posterior intestine of M. anguillicaudatus: 4-Dph (days post hatch) group, 8-Dph group, 12-Dph group, 20-Dph group, 40-Dph group and Oyd (one-year-old) group. These six libraries were assembled into 81300 unigenes. Totally 40757 unigenes were annotated. Subsequently, 35291 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were scanned among different developmental stages and clustered into 20 gene expression profiles. Finally, 15 key pathways and 25 key genes were mined, providing potential targets for candidate gene selection involved in formation of intestinal air-breathing function in M. anguillicaudatus. This is the first report of developmental transcriptome of posterior intestine in M. anguillicaudatus, offering a substantial contribution to the sequence resources for this species and providing a deep insight into the formation mechanism of its intestinal air-breathing function. This report demonstrates that M. anguillicaudatus is a good model for studies to identify and characterize the molecular basis of accessory air-breathing organ development in fish.

  7. Developmental transcriptome analysis and identification of genes involved in formation of intestinal air-breathing function of Dojo loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Weiwei; Cao, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xiuwen; Huang, Songqian; Liu, Chuanshu; Tomljanovic, Tea

    2016-01-01

    Dojo loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus is a freshwater fish species of the loach family Cobitidae, using its posterior intestine as an accessory air-breathing organ. Little is known about the molecular regulatory mechanisms in the formation of intestinal air-breathing function of M. anguillicaudatus. Here high-throughput sequencing of mRNAs was performed from six developmental stages of posterior intestine of M. anguillicaudatus: 4-Dph (days post hatch) group, 8-Dph group, 12-Dph group, 20-Dph group, 40-Dph group and Oyd (one-year-old) group. These six libraries were assembled into 81300 unigenes. Totally 40757 unigenes were annotated. Subsequently, 35291 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were scanned among different developmental stages and clustered into 20 gene expression profiles. Finally, 15 key pathways and 25 key genes were mined, providing potential targets for candidate gene selection involved in formation of intestinal air-breathing function in M. anguillicaudatus. This is the first report of developmental transcriptome of posterior intestine in M. anguillicaudatus, offering a substantial contribution to the sequence resources for this species and providing a deep insight into the formation mechanism of its intestinal air-breathing function. This report demonstrates that M. anguillicaudatus is a good model for studies to identify and characterize the molecular basis of accessory air-breathing organ development in fish. PMID:27545457

  8. Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle Propulsion Technology for Access-to-Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology (OAST) established three major goals, referred to as, "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. One of the main activities over the past three years has been on advancing the hydrogen fueled rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion. Aerojet and Boeing-Rocketdyne designed, built and ground tested their RBCC engine concepts. In addition, ASTROX, Georgia Institute of Technology, McKinney Associates, Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and University of Alabama in Huntsville conducted supporting activities. The RBCC activity included ground testing of components (e.g., injectors, thrusters, ejectors and inlets) and integrated flowpaths. Inlet testing was performed at the Lewis Research Center's 1 x 1 wind tunnel. All direct connect and free-jet engine testing were conducted at the GASL facilities on Long Island, New York. Testing spanned the Mach range from sea level static to Mach 8. Testing of the rocket-only mode, simulating the final phase of the ascent mission profile, was also performed. The originally planned work on these contracts was completed in 1999. Follow-on activities have been initiated for both hydrogen and hydrocarbon fueled RBCC concepts. Studies to better understand system level issues with the integration of RBCC propulsion with earth-to-orbit vehicles have also been conducted. This paper describes the status, progress and future plans of the RBCC activities funded by NASA/MSFC with a major focus on the benefits of utilizing air-breathing combined-cycle propulsion in access-to-space applications.

  9. Propulsion Technology Needs for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of currently planned exploration efforts, as well as those further in the future, require significant advancements in propulsion technologies. The current Lunar exploration architecture has set goals and mission objectives that necessitate the use of new systems and the extension of existing technologies beyond present applications. In the near term, the majority of these technologies are the result of a need to apply high performing cryogenic propulsion systems to long duration in-space applications. Advancement of cryogenic propulsion to these applications is crucial to provide higher performing propulsion systems that reduce the vehicle masses; enhance the safety of vehicle systems and ground operations; and provide a path for In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU).Use of a LOX/LH2 main propulsion system for Lunar Lander Descent is a top priority because more conventional storable propellants are far from meeting the performance needs of the current architecture. While LOX/LH2 pump feed engines have been used in flight applications for many years, these engines have limited throttle capabilities. Engines that are capable of much greater throttling while still meeting high performance goals are a necessity to achieving exploration goals. Applications of LOX/CH4 propulsion to Lander ascent propulsion systems and reaction control systems are also if interest because of desirable performance and operations improvements over conventional storable systems while being more suitable for use of in-situ produced propellants. Within the current lunar architecture, use of cryogenic propulsion for the Earth Departure Stage and Lunar Lander elements also necessitate the need for advanced Cryogenic Fluid Management technologies. These technologies include long duration propellant storage/distribution, low-gravity propellant management, cryogenic couplings and disconnects, light weight composite tanks and support structure, and subsystem integration. In addition to

  10. Megawatt Electromagnetic Plasma Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James; Lapointe, Michael; Mikellides, Pavlos

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center program in megawatt level electric propulsion is centered on electromagnetic acceleration of quasi-neutral plasmas. Specific concepts currently being examined are the Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster and the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT). In the case of the MPD thruster, a multifaceted approach of experiments, computational modeling, and systems-level models of self field MPD thrusters is underway. The MPD thruster experimental research consists of a 1-10 MWe, 2 ms pulse-forming-network, a vacuum chamber with two 32 diffusion pumps, and voltage, current, mass flow rate, and thrust stand diagnostics. Current focus is on obtaining repeatable thrust measurements of a Princeton Benchmark type self field thruster operating at 0.5-1 gls of argon. Operation with hydrogen is the ultimate goal to realize the increased efficiency anticipated using the lighter gas. Computational modeling is done using the MACH2 MHD code, which can include real gas effects for propellants of interest to MPD operation. The MACH2 code has been benchmarked against other MPD thruster data, and has been used to create a point design for a 3000 second specific impulse (Isp) MPD thruster. This design is awaiting testing in the experimental facility. For the PIT, a computational investigation using MACH2 has been initiated, with experiments awaiting further funding. Although the calculated results have been found to be sensitive to the initial ionization assumptions, recent results have agreed well with experimental data. Finally, a systems level self-field MPD thruster model has been developed that allows for a mission planner or system designer to input Isp and power level into the model equations and obtain values for efficiency, mass flow rate, and input current and voltage. This model emphasizes algebraic simplicity to allow its incorporation into larger trajectory or system optimization codes. The systems level approach will be extended to the pulsed inductive

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic sea water propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Petrick, M.; Thomas, A.; Genens, L.; Libera, J.; Nietert, R.; Bouillard, J.; Pierson, E.; Hill, D.; Picologlou, B.; Ohlsson, O.; Kasprzyk, T.; Berry, G.

    1991-12-31

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a large scale MHD propulsor has been undertaken whose objectives are to (1) investigate the transient and steady state performance of the thruster over operating parameter ranges that are compatible with achievement of high efficiency, (2) to quantify the principal loss mechanisms within the thruster and (3) to obtain preliminary hydroacoustic data. The performance of the thruster was first investigated theoretically with a 3-D code to quantify the loss mechanisms and identify experimental parameter ranges of interest. The loss mechanisms of interest are ohmic losses within the channel and those resulting from electrical currents at the entrance and exit of the thruster, and enhanced frictional losses. The analysis indicated that the relative importance of the loss mechanisms was a function of the thruster design and operating parameters. The experimental investigation of the large scale propulsor is being conducted on a sea water test facility that was designed to match the capabilities of a large 6-T superconducting magnet. The facility design was such that {approximately}90{degrees} of all losses occurred within the propulsion test train (inlet nozzle, propulsor and diffuser) thus facilitating isolation of the loss mechanisms. The test thruster itself is heavily instrumented to provide local measurements of velocity, pressure, and electric fields. The predicted overall thruster performance and value of the loss mechanisms will be compared with measured values. Comparisons will also be presented of the voltage gradients between electrodes, overall thruster efficiency, axial pressure gradients across the propulsor, change in velocity profiles, axial and vertical current distributions and exit distribution of the electrolytic gases.

  13. Research Opportunities in Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    Rocket propulsion determines the primary characteristics of any space vehicle; how fast and far it can go, its lifetime, and its capabilities. It is the primary factor in safety and reliability and the biggest cost driver. The extremes of heat and pressure produced by propulsion systems push the limits of materials used for manufacturing. Space travel is very unforgiving with little room for errors, and so many things can go wrong with these very complex systems. So we have to plan for failure and that makes it costly. But what is more exciting than the roar of a rocket blasting into space? By its nature the propulsion world is conservative. The stakes are so high at every launch, in terms of payload value or in human life, that to introduce new components to a working, qualified system is extremely difficult and costly. Every launch counts and no risks are tolerated, which leads to the space world's version of Catch-22:"You can't fly till you flown." The last big 'game changer' in propulsion was the use of liquid hydrogen as a fuel. No new breakthrough, low cost access to space system will be developed without new efficient propulsion systems. Because there is no large commercial market driving investment in propulsion, what propulsion research is done is sponsored by government funding agencies. A further difficulty in propulsion technology development is that there are so few new systems flying. There is little opportunity to evolve propulsion technologies and to update existing systems with results coming out of research as there is in, for example, the auto industry. The biggest hurdle to space exploration is getting off the ground. The launch phase will consume most of the energy required for any foreseeable space exploration mission. The fundamental physical energy requirements of escaping earth's gravity make it difficult. It takes 60,000 kJ to put a kilogram into an escape orbit. The vast majority (-97%) of the energy produced by a launch vehicle is used

  14. Hypersonic propulsion - Breaking the thermal barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidner, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The challenges of hypersonic propulsion impose unique features on the hypersonic vehicle - from large volume requirements to contain cryogenic fuel to airframe-integrated propulsion required to process sufficient quantities of air. Additional challenges exist in the design of the propulsion module that must be capable of efficiently processing air at very high enthalpies, adding and mixing fuel at supersonic speeds and expanding the exhaust products to generate thrust greater than drag. The paper explores the unique challenges of the integrated hypersonic propulsion system, addresses propulsion cycle selection to cope with the severe thermal environment and reviews the direction of propulsion research at hypervelocity speeds.

  15. Space station propulsion test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.; Evans, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    A test bed was fabricated to demonstrate hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the intital operating configuration (IOC) space station application. The test bed propulsion module and computer control system were delivered in December 1985, but activation was delayed until mid-1986 while the propulsion system baseline for the station was reexamined. A new baseline was selected with hydrogen/oxygen thruster modules supplied with gas produced by electrolysis of waste water from the space shuttle and space station. As a result, an electrolysis module was designed, fabricated, and added to the test bed to provide an end-to-end simulation of the baseline system. Subsequent testing of the test bed propulsion and electrolysis modules provided an end-to-end demonstration of the complete space station propulsion system, including thruster hot firings using the oxygen and hydrogen generated from electrolysis of water. Complete autonomous control and operation of all test bed components by the microprocessor control system designed and delivered during the program was demonstrated. The technical readiness of the system is now firmly established.

  16. Space propulsion: The antimatter advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, A.; Edwards, C.; Kane, A.; Pandipati, S. )

    1993-11-01

    With each century come new and exciting technologies, but perhaps the most challenging innovations have occurred in the modern era as a result of man's quest to explore the universe. While enormous advancements have occurred during the space age, there still remain significant obstacles in deep space exploration. A practical challenge to exploration is the development of a type of propulsion suitable for deep space endeavors. The development of such a propulsion system would greatly facilitate space research, while providing additional opportunities for other classes of exploration not yet defined. Based upon current research, there exist several possibilities for future propulsion techniques. Some of the most promising research has dealt with antimatter and its usefulness in energy production. The potential of antimatter as an efficient and renewable energy source exists, yet important practical and scientific concerns must be overcome to make this technology feasible. For deep space exploration to be successful, more advanced and powerful propulsion systems need to be devised. Current rocket technology is inadequate to meet these future needs. The authors predict that antimatter propulsion will emerge as the new standard for space exploration. At least the beginnings of this new technology are expected within the next twenty years.

  17. LISA Propulsion Module Separation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is a space-borne gravitational wave detector consisting of three spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. Each spacecraft is delivered to it operational orbit by a propulsion module. Because of the strict thermal and mass balancing requirements of LISA, the baseline mission concept requires that the propulsion module separate from the sciencecraft after delivery. The only propulsion system currently baselined for the sciencecraft are micronewton level thrusters, such as FEEP or colloid thrusters, that are used to balance the 30-40 microN of solar radiation pressure and provide the drag-free and attitude control of the spacecraft. Due to these thrusters limited authority, the separation of the propulsion module from the sciencecraft must be well controlled to not induce a large tip-off rotation of the sciencecraft. We present here the results of a design study of the propulsion module separation system that is shown to safely deliver the LISA sciencecraft to its final operational orbit.

  18. Balancing the competing requirements of air-breathing and display behaviour during male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Alton, Lesley A; Portugal, Steven J; White, Craig R

    2013-02-01

    Air-breathing fish of the Anabantoidei group meet their metabolic requirements for oxygen through both aerial and aquatic gas exchange. Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens are anabantoids that frequently engage in aggressive male-male interactions which cause significant increases in metabolic rate and oxygen requirements. These interactions involve opercular flaring behaviour that is thought to limit aquatic oxygen uptake, and combines with the increase in metabolic rate to cause an increase in air-breathing behaviour. Air-breathing events interrupt display behaviour and increase risk of predation, raising the question of how Siamese fighting fish manage their oxygen requirements during agonistic encounters. Using open-flow respirometry, we measured rate of oxygen consumption in displaying fish to determine if males increase oxygen uptake per breath to minimise visits to the surface, or increase their reliance on aquatic oxygen uptake. We found that the increased oxygen requirements of Siamese fighting fish during display behaviour were met by increased oxygen uptake from the air with no significant changes in aquatic oxygen uptake. The increased aerial oxygen uptake was achieved almost entirely by an increase in air-breathing frequency. We conclude that limitations imposed by the reduced gill surface area of air-breathing fish restrict the ability of Siamese fighting fish to increase aquatic uptake, and limitations of the air-breathing organ of anabantoids largely restrict their capacity to increase oxygen uptake per breath. The resulting need to increase surfacing frequency during metabolically demanding agonistic encounters has presumably contributed to the evolution of the stereotyped surfacing behaviour seen during male-male interactions, during which one of the fish will lead the other to the surface, and each will take a breath of air.

  19. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  20. Pen Branch delta expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Christensen, E.J.; Mackey, H.E.; Sharitz, R.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Hodgson, M.E.

    1984-02-01

    Since 1954, cooling water discharges from K Reactor ({anti X} = 370 cfs {at} 59 C) to Pen Branch have altered vegetation and deposited sediment in the Savannah River Swamp forming the Pen Branch delta. Currently, the delta covers over 300 acres and continues to expand at a rate of about 16 acres/yr. Examination of delta expansion can provide important information on environmental impacts to wetlands exposed to elevated temperature and flow conditions. To assess the current status and predict future expansion of the Pen Branch delta, historic aerial photographs were analyzed using both basic photo interpretation and computer techniques to provide the following information: (1) past and current expansion rates; (2) location and changes of impacted areas; (3) total acreage presently affected. Delta acreage changes were then compared to historic reactor discharge temperature and flow data to see if expansion rate variations could be related to reactor operations.

  1. NASA Glenn Research in Controls and Diagnostics for Intelligent Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. Also the propulsion systems required to enable the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Vision for Space Exploration in an affordable manner will need to have high reliability, safety and autonomous operation capability. The Controls and Dynamics Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of Intelligent Propulsion Systems. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Propulsion System are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance operational reliability and component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This paper describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  2. Tip-to-tail numerical simulation of a hypersonic air-breathing engine with ethylene fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharavath, Malsur; Manna, P.; Chakraborty, Debasis

    2016-11-01

    End to end CFD simulations of external and internal flow paths of an ethylene fueled hypersonic airbreathing vehicle with including forebody, horizontal fins, vertical fins, intake, combustor, single expansion ramp nozzle are carried out. The performance of the scramjet combustor and vehicle net thrust-drag is calculated for hypersonic cruise condition. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved along with SST-k-ω turbulence model using the commercial CFD software CFX-14. Single step chemical reaction based on fast chemistry assumption is used for combustion of gaseous ethylene fuel. Simulations captured complex shock structures including the shocks generated from the vehicle nose and compression ramps, impingement of cowl-shock on vehicle undersurface and its reflection in the intake and combustor etc. Various thermochemical parameters are analyzed and performance parameters are evaluated for nonreacting and reacting cases. Very good mixing ( 98%) of fuel with incoming air stream is observed. Positive thrust-drag margins are obtained for fuel equivalence ratio of 0.6 and computed combustion efficiency is observed to be 94 %. Effect of equivalence ratio on the vehicle performance is studied parametrically. Though the combustion efficiency has come down by 8% for fuel equivalence ratio of 0.8, net vehicle thrust is increased by 44%. Heat flux distribution on the various walls of the whole vehicle including combustor is estimated for the isothermal wall condition of 1000 K in reacting flow. Higher local heat flux values are observed at all the leading edges of the vehicle (i.e., nose, wing, fin and cowl leading edges) and strut regions of the combustor.

  3. Aerodynamic experimentation with ducted models as applied to hypersonic air-breathing vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goon'ko, Yu. P.

    A methodology of experimentation in high supersonic wind tunnels for studying aerodynamic characteristics of hypersonic flying vehicles powered by air-breathing engines is discussed. Investigations of such total aerodynamic forces as drag, lift and pitching moment at testing the models are implicit when the air flow through the model ducts is accomplished so that to provide the simulation of the external flow around the airplane and flow over the inlets, but the operating engines and, hence, the exhaust jets are not modeled. The methods used for testing such models are based on the measurement of duct stream parameters alongside with the balance measurement of aerodynamic forces acting on the models. In the tests, aerometric tools are used such as narrow metering nozzles (plugs), pitot and static pressure probes, stagnation temperature probes and pressure orifices in walls of the model duct. The aerometric data serve to determine the flow rate and momentum of the stream at the duct exit. The internal non-simulated forces of the model ducts are also determined using the conservation equations for energy, mass flow and momentum, and these forces are eliminated from the aerodynamic test results. The techniques of the said model testing have been well developed as applied to supersonic aircraft, however their application for hypersonic vehicles whose models are tested at high supersonic speeds, Mach number M∞>4, implies some specific features. In the present paper, the results of experimental and theoretical study of these features are discussed. Some experimental data on aerodynamics of hypersonic aircraft models received in methodological tests are also presented. The tunnel experiments have been carried out in the Mach number range M∞=2-6.

  4. Nuclear thermal propulsion workshop overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John S.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is planning an Exploration Technology Program as part of the Space Exploration Initiative to return U.S. astronauts to the moon, conduct intensive robotic exploration of the moon and Mars, and to conduct a piloted mission to Mars by 2019. Nuclear Propulsion is one of the key technology thrust for the human mission to Mars. The workshop addresses NTP (Nuclear Thermal Rocket) technologies with purpose to: assess the state-of-the-art of nuclear propulsion concepts; assess the potential benefits of the concepts for the mission to Mars; identify critical, enabling technologies; lay-out (first order) technology development plans including facility requirements; and estimate the cost of developing these technologies to flight-ready status. The output from the workshop will serve as a data base for nuclear propulsion project planning.

  5. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  6. Automated Rocket Propulsion Test Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Ian; Nelson, Cheryl; Jones, Helene

    2007-01-01

    The Rocket Propulsion Test-Automated Management System provides a central location for managing activities associated with Rocket Propulsion Test Management Board, National Rocket Propulsion Test Alliance, and the Senior Steering Group business management activities. A set of authorized users, both on-site and off-site with regard to Stennis Space Center (SSC), can access the system through a Web interface. Web-based forms are used for user input with generation and electronic distribution of reports easily accessible. Major functions managed by this software include meeting agenda management, meeting minutes, action requests, action items, directives, and recommendations. Additional functions include electronic review, approval, and signatures. A repository/library of documents is available for users, and all items are tracked in the system by unique identification numbers and status (open, closed, percent complete, etc.). The system also provides queries and version control for input of all items.

  7. The Need for Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassibry, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. In this talk those arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  8. Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1996-01-01

    In 1996, a team of government, university and industry researchers proposed a program to seek the ultimate breakthroughs in space transportation: propulsion that requires no propellant mass, propulsion that can approach and, if possible, circumvent light speed, and breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. This Breakthrough Propulsion Physics program, managed by Lewis Research Center, is one part of a comprehensive, long range Advanced Space Transportation Plan managed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Because the breakthrough goals are beyond existing science, a main emphasis of this program is to establish metrics and ground rules to produce near-term credible progress toward these incredible possibilities. An introduction to the emerging scientific possibilities from which such solutions can be sought is also presented.

  9. Materials Advance Chemical Propulsion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    In the future, the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate hopes to use better-performing and lower-cost propulsion systems to send rovers, probes, and observers to places like Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. For such purposes, a new propulsion technology called the Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) was developed under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project, located at Glenn Research Center. As an advanced chemical propulsion system, AMBR uses nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer and hydrazine fuel to propel a spacecraft. Based on current research and development efforts, the technology shows great promise for increasing engine operation and engine lifespan, as well as lowering manufacturing costs. In developing AMBR, ISPT has several goals: to decrease the time it takes for a spacecraft to travel to its destination, reduce the cost of making the propulsion system, and lessen the weight of the propulsion system. If goals like these are met, it could result in greater capabilities for in-space science investigations. For example, if the amount (and weight) of propellant required on a spacecraft is reduced, more scientific instruments (and weight) could be added to the spacecraft. To achieve AMBR s maximum potential performance, the engine needed to be capable of operating at extremely high temperatures and pressure. To this end, ISPT required engine chambers made of iridium-coated rhenium (strong, high-temperature metallic elements) that allowed operation at temperatures close to 4,000 F. In addition, ISPT needed an advanced manufacturing technique for better coating methods to increase the strength of the engine chamber without increasing the costs of fabricating the chamber.

  10. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion Second Annual Technical Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings for the Center for Advanced Space Propulsion Second Annual Technical Symposium are divided as follows: Chemical Propulsion, CFD; Space Propulsion; Electric Propulsion; Artificial Intelligence; Low-G Fluid Management; and Rocket Engine Materials.

  11. Electric propulsion - A high energy capability for solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, K. L.

    1976-01-01

    The principles of spacecraft electric (ion thruster) propulsion are briefly reviewed. Attention is given to the inner and outer planet applications of electric (and solar electric) propulsion. Electric propulsion is considered as a stepping stone to nuclear electric propulsion.

  12. Antimatter Propulsion Developed by NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie shows possible forms of an antimatter propulsion system being developed by NASA. Antimatter annihilation offers the highest possible physical energy density of any known reaction substance. It is about 10 billion times more powerful than that of chemical energy such as hydrogen and oxygen combustion. Antimatter would be the perfect rocket fuel, but the problem is that the basic component of antimatter, antiprotons, doesn't exist in nature and has to manufactured. The process of antimatter development is ongoing and making some strides, but production of this as a propulsion system is far into the future.

  13. Workshop on Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David; Marvin, Dean

    1993-01-01

    A summary of the discussion at the workshop on solar electric propulsion (SEP) is presented. The purpose of ELITE SEP flight experiment is to demonstrate operation of solar array powered electric thrusters for raising spacecraft from parking orbit to higher altitudes, leading to definition of an operational SEP orbit transfer vehicles (OTV) for Air Force missions. Many of the problems or potential problems that may be associated with SEP are not well understood nor clearly identified, and system level phenomena such as interaction of thruster plume with the solar arrays cannot be simulated in a ground test. Therefore, an end-to-end system flight test is required to demonstrate solar electric propulsion.

  14. Nuclear Propulsion Project Workshop summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.; Clark, John S.; Barnett, John W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has undertaken the planning and coordination of a joint NASA/DOE/DOD Nuclear Propulsion Project which will investigate both nuclear electric and nuclear thermal concepts. The three-agency team has been tasked with the development of an Interagency Agreement and Memorandum of Understanding, as well as the drafting of a statement as to astronaut crew guidelines and values, the assessment of human-rating requirements, the development of an interagency safety and environmental assessment plan, and the development of test facility requirements. Attention is to be given to the role of SP-100 for nuclear-electric propulsion applications.

  15. Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Shorter trips are better for humans in the harmful radiation environment of deep space. Nuclear propulsion and power plants can enable high Ispand payload mass fractions because they require less fuel mass. Fusion energy research has characterized the Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method. (1) Lightning is form of pinched plasma electrical discharge phenomena. (2) Wire array Z-Pinch experiments are commonly studied and nuclear power plant configurations have been proposed. (3) Used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, nuclear weapon x-rays are simulated through Z-Pinch phenomena.

  16. Propulsion on a superhydrophobic ratchet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrianne, Philippe; Dupeux, Guillaume; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David

    2013-11-01

    As shown by Linke in 2006, an evaporating Leidenfrost drop self-propels on a hot ratchet. Indeed, the vapour flow below the drop can be rectified by the asymmetric teeth of the ratchet and, therefore, entrain the levitating drop by viscosity. This motion is usually observed above the Leidenfrost temperature. We show how the use of a super-hydrophobic ratchet allows us to extend self-propulsion down to the boiling point of water, and even below. We discuss a possible explanation for this ``cold regime'' of propulsion.

  17. Basic Processes of Plasma Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    s T*S IFI /G i’ u A "m = - ILI l ~2 U0k.. ’~la BASIC PROCESSES OF PLASMA PROPULSION Herbert 0. Schrade Institut fir Raumfahrtsysteme Universitat...discharge channel with respect to a small disturbance. IZ4 q, , L No cl W) 03Cii >i 04 -9- Depending on the amouunt of e given in eqs. (la) and (Ib) and...available at the University of Stuttgart about a year ago. H. 0. Schrade, M. Auweter-Kurtz and H. L . Kurtz, "Basic Processes of Plasma Propulsion

  18. Integrated Booster-Rocket Propulsion Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Dickinson, William J.; Wong, George S.; Waldrop, Glen

    1994-01-01

    Report summarizes study of conceptual integrated booster propulsion module for use in launching spacecraft. Substitution of integrated propulsion modules for multiple engines of present booster rockets intended to simplify ground operations and reduce costs.

  19. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  20. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  1. Branching space-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placek, Tomasz; Müller, Thomas

    The five papers presented below have been selected from among the fourteen read at the European Science Foundation workshop Branching Space-Times (BST), held at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland, in October 2005. This event gathered for the first time leading researchers working on this subject.

  2. Propulsion Risk Reduction Activities for Nontoxic Cryogenic Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Fisher, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    The Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) Project s primary objective is to develop propulsion system technologies for nontoxic or "green" propellants. The PCAD project focuses on the development of nontoxic propulsion technologies needed to provide necessary data and relevant experience to support informed decisions on implementation of nontoxic propellants for space missions. Implementation of nontoxic propellants in high performance propulsion systems offers NASA an opportunity to consider other options than current hypergolic propellants. The PCAD Project is emphasizing technology efforts in reaction control system (RCS) thruster designs, ascent main engines (AME), and descent main engines (DME). PCAD has a series of tasks and contracts to conduct risk reduction and/or retirement activities to demonstrate that nontoxic cryogenic propellants can be a feasible option for space missions. Work has focused on 1) reducing the risk of liquid oxygen/liquid methane ignition, demonstrating the key enabling technologies, and validating performance levels for reaction control engines for use on descent and ascent stages; 2) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for liquid oxygen/liquid methane ascent engines; and 3) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for deep throttling liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen descent engines. The progress of these risk reduction and/or retirement activities will be presented.

  3. Propulsion Risk Reduction Activities for Non-Toxic Cryogenic Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Fisher, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) Project s primary objective is to develop propulsion system technologies for non-toxic or "green" propellants. The PCAD project focuses on the development of non-toxic propulsion technologies needed to provide necessary data and relevant experience to support informed decisions on implementation of non-toxic propellants for space missions. Implementation of non-toxic propellants in high performance propulsion systems offers NASA an opportunity to consider other options than current hypergolic propellants. The PCAD Project is emphasizing technology efforts in reaction control system (RCS) thruster designs, ascent main engines (AME), and descent main engines (DME). PCAD has a series of tasks and contracts to conduct risk reduction and/or retirement activities to demonstrate that non-toxic cryogenic propellants can be a feasible option for space missions. Work has focused on 1) reducing the risk of liquid oxygen/liquid methane ignition, demonstrating the key enabling technologies, and validating performance levels for reaction control engines for use on descent and ascent stages; 2) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for liquid oxygen/liquid methane ascent engines; and 3) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for deep throttling liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen descent engines. The progress of these risk reduction and/or retirement activities will be presented.

  4. Electrolysis Propulsion Provides High-Performance, Inexpensive, Clean Spacecraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroot, Wim A.

    1999-01-01

    An electrolysis propulsion system consumes electrical energy to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. These gases are stored in separate tanks and used when needed in gaseous bipropellant thrusters for spacecraft propulsion. The propellant and combustion products are clean and nontoxic. As a result, costs associated with testing, handling, and launching can be an order of magnitude lower than for conventional propulsion systems, making electrolysis a cost-effective alternative to state-of-the-art systems. The electrical conversion efficiency is high (>85 percent), and maximum thrust-to-power ratios of 0.2 newtons per kilowatt (N/kW), a 370-sec specific impulse, can be obtained. A further advantage of the water rocket is its dual-mode potential. For relatively high thrust applications, the system can be used as a bipropellant engine. For low thrust levels and/or small impulse bit requirements, cold gas oxygen can be used alone. An added innovation is that the same hardware, with modest modifications, can be converted into an energy-storage and power-generation fuel cell, reducing the spacecraft power and propulsion system weight by an order of magnitude.

  5. In-Space Propulsion Technology Program Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's In-space Propulsion (ISP) Technology Project is developing new propulsion technologies that can enable or enhance near and mid-term NASA science missions. The Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology area has been investing in NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAC), lightweight reliable feed systems, wear testing, and thruster modeling. These investments are specifically targeted to increase planetary science payload capability, expand the envelope of planetary science destinations, and significantly reduce the travel times, risk, and cost of NASA planetary science missions. Status and expected capabilities of the SEP technologies are reviewed in this presentation. The SEP technology area supports numerous mission studies and architecture analyses to determine which investments will give the greatest benefit to science missions. Both the NEXT and HiVHAC thrusters have modified their nominal throttle tables to better utilize diminished solar array power on outbound missions. A new life extension mechanism has been implemented on HiVHAC to increase the throughput capability on low-power systems to meet the needs of cost-capped missions. Lower complexity, more reliable feed system components common to all electric propulsion (EP) systems are being developed. ISP has also leveraged commercial investments to further validate new ion and hall thruster technologies and to potentially lower EP mission costs.

  6. The Future of Spacecraft Nuclear Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, F.

    2014-06-01

    This paper summarizes the advantages of space nuclear power and propulsion systems. It describes the actual status of international power level dependent spacecraft nuclear propulsion missions, especially the high power EU-Russian MEGAHIT study including the Russian Megawatt-Class Nuclear Power Propulsion System, the NASA GRC project and the low and medium power EU DiPoP study. Space nuclear propulsion based mission scenarios of these studies are sketched as well.

  7. Test facilities for high power electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Vetrone, Robert H.; Grisnik, Stanley P.; Myers, Roger M.; Parkes, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Electric propulsion has applications for orbit raising, maneuvering of large space systems, and interplanetary missions. These missions involve propulsion power levels from tenths to tens of megawatts, depending upon the application. General facility requirements for testing high power electric propulsion at the component and thrust systems level are defined. The characteristics and pumping capabilities of many large vacuum chambers in the United States are reviewed and compared with the requirements for high power electric propulsion testing.

  8. A New Propulsion System for Ships.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-31

    complex relationships involving ship propulsion , ship control and a host of independent problems related to hydrodynamics, structural mechanics, efficiency...namely ship configuration and ship con- trol in addition to ship propulsion . The transmission pump can 1be used for boundary layer control on the...possibly overcome the limitation and performance shortcomings of existing ship propulsion systems. Light weight propulsion systems for naval ship

  9. Nuclear Propulsion Technical Interchange Meeting, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to review the work performed in fiscal year 1992 in the areas of nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion technology development. These proceedings are an accumulation of the presentations provided at the meeting along with annotations provided by authors. The proceedings cover system concepts, technology development, and system modeling for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). The test facilities required for the development of the nuclear propulsion systems are also discussed.

  10. Advanced NSTS propulsion system verification study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles

    1989-01-01

    The merits of propulsion system development testing are discussed. The existing data base of technical reports and specialists is utilized in this investigation. The study encompassed a review of all available test reports of propulsion system development testing for the Saturn stages, the Titan stages, and the Space Shuttle main propulsion system. The knowledge on propulsion system development and system testing available from specialists and managers was also 'tapped' for inclusion.

  11. Comparison of Mars Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    The propulsion system is a critical aspect of the performance and feasibility of a Mars aircraft. Propulsion system mass and performance greatly influence the aircraft s design and mission capabilities. Various propulsion systems were analyzed to estimate the system mass necessary for producing 35N of thrust within the Mars environment. Three main categories of propulsion systems were considered: electric systems, combustion engine systems and rocket systems. Also, the system masses were compared for mission durations of 1, 2, and 4 h.

  12. YF-12 propulsion research program and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J. A.; Olinger, F. V.

    1976-01-01

    The objectives and status of the propulsion program, along with the results acquired in the various technology areas, are discussed. The instrumentation requirements for and experience with flight testing the propulsion systems at high supersonic cruise are reported. Propulsion system performance differences between wind tunnel and flight are given. The effects of high frequency flow fluctuations (transients) on the stability of the propulsion system are described, and shock position control is evaluated.

  13. A fusion based plasma propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, J. A.; Anderson, B.; Bryant, D.; Creese, C.; Djordjevic, V.; Peddicord, K. L.

    1987-01-01

    The Fusion Plasma Propulsion System scoping study was performed to investigate the possibilities of a fusion powered plasma propulsion system for space applications. Specifically, it was to be compared against existing electric propulsion concepts for a manned Mars mission. Design parameters consist of 1000 N thrust for 500 days, and the minimum mass possible. This investigation is briefly presented and conclusions drawn.

  14. NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the second volume in the 1994 annual report for the NASA Propulsion Engineering Research Center's Sixth Annual Symposium. This conference covered: (1) Combustors and Nozzles; (2) Turbomachinery Aero- and Hydro-dynamics; (3) On-board Propulsion systems; (4) Advanced Propulsion Applications; (5) Vaporization and Combustion; (6) Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics; and (7) Atomization and Sprays.

  15. Some Interplanetary Missions Using IEC Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Brandon, Larry B. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    IEC fusion offers the possibility of very efficient space propulsion with substantial thrust, examine human travel to the planets in order to determine the impact this technology could have reduced travel time and reduced fuel mass, travel via IEC propulsion is from earth orbit to another planetary orbit. Propulsion to a planet's or moon's surface assumed separate.

  16. Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristic parameters of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, argon MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. Overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

  17. Applications of nuclear propulsion to Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Robert; Reck, Gregory M.; Bennett, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    The basic features of a piloted mission to Mars is described, and it is shown how nuclear propulsion can improve upon the various performance measures of such a mission. An overview of the history and types of nuclear propulsion in the U.S. is presented. Current planning to develop nuclear propulsion technology for the Space Exploration Initiative is addressed.

  18. Electronic modification of Pt via Ti and Se as tolerant cathodes in air-breathing methanol microfluidic fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiwei; Habrioux, Aurélien; Morais, Cláudia; Alonso-Vante, Nicolas

    2014-07-21

    We reported herein on the use of tolerant cathode catalysts such as carbon supported Pt(x)Ti(y) and/or Pt(x)Se(y) nanomaterials in an air-breathing methanol microfluidic fuel cell. In order to show the improvement of mixed-reactant fuel cell (MRFC) performances obtained with the developed tolerant catalysts, a classical Pt/C nanomaterial was used for comparison. Using 5 M methanol concentration in a situation where the fuel crossover is 100% (MRFC-mixed reactant fuel cell application), the maximum power density of the fuel cell with a Pt/C cathodic catalyst decreased by 80% in comparison with what is observed in the laminar flow fuel cell (LFFC) configuration. With Pt(x)Ti(y)/C and Pt(x)Se(y)/C cathode nanomaterials, the performance loss was only 55% and 20%, respectively. The evaluation of the tolerant cathode catalysts in an air-breathing microfluidic fuel cell suggests the development of a novel nanometric system that will not be size restricted. These interesting results are the consequence of the high methanol tolerance of these advanced electrocatalysts via surface electronic modification of Pt. Herein we used X-ray photoelectron and in situ FTIR spectroscopies to investigate the origin of the high methanol tolerance on modified Pt catalysts.

  19. Mitochondrial citrulline synthesis from ammonia and glutamine in the liver of ureogenic air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Kharbuli, Zaiba Y; Biswas, Kuheli; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2007-12-01

    The possible synthesis of citrulline, a rate limiting step for urea synthesis via the ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) in teleosts was tested both in the presence of ammonia and glutamine as nitrogen-donating substrates by the isolated liver mitochondria of ureogenic air-breathing walking catfish, C. batrachus. Both ammonia and glutamine could be used as nitrogen-donating substrates for the synthesis of citrulline by the isolated liver mitochondria, since the rate of citrulline synthesis was almost equal in presence of both the substrates. The citrulline synthesis by the isolated liver mitochondria requires succinate at a concentration of 0.1 mM as an energy source, and also requires the involvement of intramitochondrial carbonic anhydrase activity for supplying HCO3 as another substrate for citrulline synthesis. The rate of citrulline synthesis was further stimulated significantly by the isolated liver mitochondria of the fish after pre-exposure to 25 mM NH4Cl for 7 days. Due to possessing this biochemical adaptational strategy leading to the amelioration of ammonia toxicity mainly by channeling ammonia directly and/or via the formation of glutamine to the OUC, this air-breathing catfish could succeed in surviving in high external ammonia, which it faces in its natural habitat in certain seasons of the year.

  20. SMART-1 Electrical propulsion mechanism (EPMEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brian; Buff, Walter; Delouard, Philippe

    2001-09-01

    The SMART-1 Spacecraft is due to launch in 2002 and is being developed as a test bed for various new technologies that will be needed for interplanetary missions. One of these new technologies is the Electric Propulsion system (EPS) which is to be used as the main source of thrust during the mission. Contraves Space AG were selected for the development of a "low budget" Steering Mechanism (EPMEC) for the EPS and for the associated drive electronics (EPMEL). The EPS selected for the SMART-1 mission is the PPS 1350 developed by SNECMA Moteurs in France. Since this thruster configuration is almost identical to that used on the STENTOR mission, the use of this thruster unit have placed certain limitations on the design of the EPMEC. In satisfying the requirements, the design of the EPMEC described in this paper utilised some novel ideas and new technologies in the spacecraft mechanism branch. The EPMEC mechanism has recently successfully completed the qualification test programme for SMART-1 and has been mounted into the spacecraft for system testing. The flight model is currently in manufacture. The results from the Qualification Tests will also be briefly presented in this paper.

  1. Controls and Health Management Technologies for Intelligent Aerospace Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2004-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of an Intelligent Engine. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Engine are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This paper describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic Propulsion for the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Gabriel I.; Dudley, Scott C.

    2004-10-01

    The cinema industry can sometimes prove to be an ally when searching for material with which to motivate students to learn physics. Consider, for example, the electromagnetic force on a current in the presence of a magnetic field. This phenomenon is at the heart of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion systems. A submarine employing this type of propulsion was immortalized in the movie Hunt for Red October. While mentioning this to students certainly gets their attention, it often elicits comments that it is only fiction and not physically possible. Imagine their surprise when a working system is demonstrated! It is neither difficult nor expensive to construct a working system that can be demonstrated in the front of a classroom.2 In addition, all aspects of the engineering hurdles that must be surmounted and myths concerning this "silent propulsion" system are borne out in a simple apparatus. This paper details how to construct an inexpensive MHD propulsion boat that can be demonstrated for students in the classroom.

  3. Moment generation in wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-Yuen; Zhao, K D; Su, Fong-Chin; An, Kai-Nan

    2003-01-01

    Wheelchair propulsion is a man machine interaction in which chair design and fit affect the relative positions and orientations of the upper extremity relative to the handrim and wheel axle. To understand these relationships better, experimental data were collected in five hand positions from five subjects exerting maximal effort to propel an instrumented wheelchair with its wheel in a locked position. The results of experiments revealed that the progression moment was greater at both initial and terminal propulsion positions and smaller in the mid-propulsion position. The vertical and horizontal force components were directed radially away from the wheel axle posterior to the dead centre position and radially towards the wheel axle anterior to top dead centre. Subsequently, a subject-specific quasi-static model of the upper extremity which maximized wheel progression moment was developed to augment our understanding of experimental measures. Model-predicted trends in progression moments and hand force direction were similar to experiment. Model predictions revealed that the optimal progression moment generation could potentially be affected by an individual's anthropometric parameters, joint strengths and also the direction of force applied by the hand on the handrim. Through wheelchair fitting and training of wheelchair users, it may be possible to improve propulsion technique.

  4. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip C.; Bailey, Michael R.; Harper, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Recent findings Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the UPJ with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Summary Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing UPJ stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic. PMID:26845428

  5. Multi-Thruster Propulsion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An electric propulsion machine includes an ion thruster having a discharge chamber housing a large surface area anode. The ion thruster includes flat annular ion optics with a small span to gap ratio. Optionally, at least a second thruster may be disposed radially offset from the ion thruster.

  6. OMV--Propulsion Module Changeout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    In this 1986 artist's concept, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), undergoes changeout of the Propulsion Module outside the Space Shuttle Cargo Bay. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  7. In-space nuclear propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, C.; Dujarric, C.

    2013-02-01

    The past and the recent status of nuclear propulsion (NP) for application to space mission is presented. The case for using NP in manned space missions is made based on fundamental physics and on the necessity to ensure safe radiation doses to future astronauts. In fact, the presence of solar and galactic-cosmic radiation poses substantial risks to crews traveling for months in a row to destinations such as asteroids and Mars. Since passive or active shields would be massive to protect against the more energetic part of the radiation energy spectrum, the only alternative is to reduce dose by traveling faster. Hence the importance of propulsion systems with much higher specific impulse than that of current chemical systems, and thus the use of nuclear propulsion. Nuclear-thermal and nuclear-electric propulsions are then discussed in view of their potential application to missions now in the preliminary planning stage by space agencies and industries and being considered by the ISECG international panel. In this context, recent ideas for future use of the ISS that may require NP are also presented.

  8. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M.

    2015-09-15

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers.

  9. Software To Secure Distributed Propulsion Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaser, Tammy M.

    2003-01-01

    Distributed-object computing systems are presented with many security threats, including network eavesdropping, message tampering, and communications middleware masquerading. NASA Glenn Research Center, and its industry partners, has taken an active role in mitigating the security threats associated with developing and operating their proprietary aerospace propulsion simulations. In particular, they are developing a collaborative Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines

  10. Developmental cardiorespiratory physiology of the air-breathing tropical gar, Atractosteus tropicus.

    PubMed

    Burggren, Warren W; Bautista, Gil Martinez; Coop, Susana Camarillo; Couturier, Gabriel Márquez; Delgadillo, Salomón Páramo; García, Rafael Martínez; González, Carlos Alfonso Alvarez

    2016-10-01

    The physiological transition to aerial breathing in larval air-breathing fishes is poorly understood. We investigated gill ventilation frequency (fG), heart rate (fH), and air breathing frequency (fAB) as a function of development, activity, hypoxia, and temperature in embryos/larvae from day (D) 2.5 to D30 posthatch of the tropical gar, Atractosteus tropicus, an obligate air breather. Gill ventilation at 28°C began at approximately D2, peaking at ∼75 beats/min on D5, before declining to ∼55 beats/min at D30. Heart beat began ∼36-48 h postfertilization and ∼1 day before hatching. fH peaked between D3 and D10 at ∼140 beats/min, remaining at this level through D30. Air breathing started very early at D2.5 to D3.5 at 1-2 breaths/h, increasing to ∼30 breaths/h at D15 and D30. Forced activity at all stages resulted in a rapid but brief increase in both fG and fH, (but not fAB), indicating that even in these early larval stages, reflex control existed over both ventilation and circulation prior to its increasing importance in older fishes. Acute progressive hypoxia increased fG in D2.5-D10 larvae, but decreased fG in older larvae (≥D15), possibly to prevent branchial O2 loss into surrounding water. Temperature sensitivity of fG and fH measured at 20°C, 25°C, 28°C and 38°C was largely independent of development, with a Q10 between 20°C and 38°C of ∼2.4 and ∼1.5 for fG and fH, respectively. The rapid onset of air breathing, coupled with both respiratory and cardiovascular reflexes as early as D2.5, indicates that larval A. tropicus develops "in the fast lane."

  11. Effect of High Z material on the performance of an air-breathing laser ablation thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Kiyono, Inoru; Yokota, Ippei; Ozaki, Naoto; Yokota, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    A Laser propulsion, such as a Lightcraft, is a candidate for the low cost transportation system between the ground to space instead of the chemical rocket. Using the shock wave induced by focusing laser beam on the ablator in air, the huge fuel is unnecessary to generate the thrust. In this study, the high-Z material was doped into the polystyrene to emphasize the ionization effect in air. We evaluate the intensity of the bremsstrahlung radiation, the plasma parameter, and the thrust performance.

  12. Fast-starting after a breath: air-breathing motions are kinematically similar to escape responses in the catfish Hoplosternum littorale

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.; Johansen, Jacob L.; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Svendsen, Morten B. S.; Steffensen, John F.; Abe, Augusto S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fast-starts are brief accelerations commonly observed in fish within the context of predator–prey interactions. In typical C-start escape responses, fish react to a threatening stimulus by bending their body into a C-shape during the first muscle contraction (i.e. stage 1) which provides a sudden acceleration away from the stimulus. Recently, similar C-starts have been recorded in fish aiming at a prey. Little is known about C-starts outside the context of predator–prey interactions, though recent work has shown that escape response can also be induced by high temperature. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts in the context of gulping air at the surface. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of air-gulping at the surface, followed by a fast turn which re-directs the fish towards the bottom. Using high-speed video in the laboratory, we compared the kinematics of the turn immediately following air-gulping performed by H. littorale in normoxia with those of mechanically-triggered C-start escape responses and with routine (i.e. spontaneous) turns. Our results show that air-breathing events overlap considerably with escape responses with a large stage 1 angle in terms of turning rates, distance covered and the relationship between these rates. Therefore, these two behaviours can be considered kinematically comparable, suggesting that air-breathing in this species is followed by escape-like C-start motions, presumably to minimise time at the surface and exposure to avian predators. These findings show that C-starts can occur in a variety of contexts in which fish may need to get away from areas of potential danger. PMID:25527644

  13. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies MicroRNAs from Posterior Intestine of Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) and Their Response to Intestinal Air-Breathing Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Songqian; Cao, Xiaojuan; Tian, Xianchang; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exert important roles in animal growth, immunity, and development, and regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Knowledges about the diversities of miRNAs and their roles in accessory air-breathing organs (ABOs) of fish remain unknown. In this work, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify known and novel miRNAs from the posterior intestine, an important ABO, in loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) under normal and intestinal air-breathing inhibited conditions. A total of 204 known and 84 novel miRNAs were identified, while 47 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two small RNA libraries (i.e. between the normal and intestinal air-breathing inhibited group). Potential miRNA target genes were predicted by combining our transcriptome data of the posterior intestine of the loach under the same conditions, and then annotated using COG, GO, KEGG, Swissprot and Nr databases. The regulatory networks of miRNAs and their target genes were analyzed. The abundances of nine known miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The relative expression profiles of six known miRNAs and their eight corresponding target genes, and two novel potential miRNAs were also detected. Histological characteristics of the posterior intestines in both normal and air-breathing inhibited group were further analyzed. This study contributes to our understanding on the functions and molecular regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in accessory air-breathing organs of fish. PMID:26872032

  14. Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tixador, P.

    1994-04-01

    Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried out in Japan since 1970. The construction of a 43 km long track is to be the next step. In 1991 a six year programme was launched in the United States to evaluate the performances of MagLev systems for transportation. The MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamic) offers some interesting advantages (efficiency, stealth characteristics, ...) for naval propulsion and increasing attention is being paid towards it nowadays. Japan is also up at the top with the tests of Yamato I, a 260 ton MHD propulsed ship. Depuis quelques années nous assistons à un redémarrage de programmes concernant la lévitation et la propulsion supraconductrices. Différents systèmes supraconducteurs de lévitation et de propulsion seront décrits en examinant plus particulièrement l'aspect électromagnétique. Quelques programmes à travers le monde seront abordés. Les trains à sustentation magnétique pourraient constituer un nouveau mode de transport terrestre à vitesse élevée (500 km/h) pour le 21^e siècle. Les japonais n'ont cessé de s'intéresser à ce système avec bobine supraconductrice. Ils envisagent un stade préindustriel avec la construction d'une ligne de 43 km. En 1991 un programme américain pour une durée de six ans a été lancé pour évaluer les performances des systèmes à lévitation pour le transport aux Etats Unis. La MHD (Magnéto- Hydro-Dynamique) présente des avantages intéressants pour la propulsion navale et un regain d'intérêt apparaît à l'heure actuelle. Le japon se situe là encore à la pointe des d

  15. The Direction of Fluid Dynamics for Liquid Propulsion at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Lisa W.

    2012-01-01

    The Fluid Dynamics Branch's (ER42) at MSFC mission is to support NASA and other customers with discipline expertise to enable successful accomplishment of program/project goals. The branch is responsible for all aspects of the discipline of fluid dynamics, analysis and testing, applied to propulsion or propulsion-induced loads and environments, which includes the propellant delivery system, combustion devices, coupled systems, and launch and separation events. ER42 supports projects from design through development, and into anomaly and failure investigations. ER42 is committed to continually improving the state-of-its-practice to provide accurate, effective, and timely fluid dynamics assessments and in extending the state-of-the-art of the discipline.

  16. Attitude propulsion technology for TOPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.

    1972-01-01

    The thermoelectric outer planet spacecraft (TOPS) attitude propulsion subsystem (APS) effort is discussed. It includes the tradeoff rationale that went into the selection of an anhydrous hydrazine baseline system, followed by a discussion of the 0.22 N thruster and its integration into a portable, self-contained propulsion module that was designed, developed, and man rated to support the TOPS single-axis attitude control tests. The results of a cold-start feasibility demonstration with a modified thruster are presented. A description of three types of 0.44 thrusters that were procured for in-house evaluation is included along with the results of the test program. This is followed by a description of the APS feed system components, their evaluations, and a discussion of an evaluation of elastomeric material for valve seat seals. A list of new technology items which will be of value for application to future systems of this type is included.

  17. High-speed rotorcraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, John W.; Fitzpatrick, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Recently completed high-speed rotorcraft design studies for NASA provide the basis to assess technology needs for the development of these aircraft. Preliminary analysis of several concepts possessing helicopter-like hover characteristics and cruise capabilities in the 450 knot regime, led to the selection of two concepts for further study. The concepts selected included the Rotor/Wing and the Tilt Wing. The two unique concepts use turbofan and turboshaft engines respectively. Designs, based on current technology for each, established a baseline configuration from which technology trade studies could be conducted. Propulsion technology goals from the IHPTET program established the advanced technolgy year. Due to high-speed requirements, each concept possesses its own unique propulsion challenges. Trade studies indicate that achieving th IHPTET Phase III goals significantly improves the effectiveness of both concepts. Increased engine efficiency is particularly important to VTOL aircraft by reducing gross weight.

  18. Planetary explorer liquid propulsion study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckevitt, F. X.; Eggers, R. F.; Bolz, C. W.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of several candidate monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system approaches is conducted in order to define the most suitable configuration for the combined velocity and attitude control system for the Planetary Explorer spacecraft. Both orbiter and probe-type missions to the planet Venus are considered. The spacecraft concept is that of a Delta launched spin-stabilized vehicle. Velocity control is obtained through preprogrammed pulse-mode firing of the thrusters in synchronism with the spacecraft spin rate. Configuration selection is found to be strongly influenced by the possible error torques induced by uncertainties in thruster operation and installation. The propulsion systems defined are based on maximum use of existing, qualified components. Ground support equipment requirements are defined and system development testing outlined.

  19. Advanced propulsion - Cleaner and quieter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.; Antl, R. J.; Povolny, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the factors which are significant in advancing propulsion technology. The studies surveyed a wide distribution of variables including aircraft configuration, payload, range, and speed. System studies placed major emphasis on reducing noise and exhaust emissions while attaining good economies and performance. An engine for an advanced transport will probably superficially resemble the presently emerging generation of modern high-bypass and high-temperature turbofan engines, but would incorporate the advances in component and system technology identified by the propulsion system studies. These advances could be used to improve aircraft economics significantly with no increase in noise, or to significantly reduce noise and pollution with few or no economic penalties.

  20. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  1. Space Shuttle Propulsion Finishing Strong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W.; Singer, Jody

    2011-01-01

    Numerous lessons have been documented from the Space Shuttle Propulsion elements. Major events include loss of the SRB's on STS-4 and shutdown of an SSME during ascent on STS- 51F. On STS-112 only half the pyrotechnics fired to release the vehicle from the launch pad, a testament for redundancy. STS-91 exhibited freezing of a main combustion chamber pressure measurement and on STS-93 nozzle tube ruptures necessitated a low liquid level oxygen cut off of the main engines. A number of on pad aborts were experienced during the early program resulting in delays. And the two accidents, STS-51L and STS-107, had unique heritage in history from early Program decisions and vehicle configuration. Following STS-51L significant resources were invested in developing fundamental physical understanding of solid rocket motor environments and material system behavior. Human rating of solid rocket motors was truly achieved. And following STS-107, the risk of ascent debris was better characterized and controlled. Situational awareness during all mission phases improved, and the management team instituted effective risk assessment practices. These major events and lessons for the future are discussed. The last 22 flights of the Space Shuttle, following the Columbia accident, were characterized by remarkable improvement in safety and reliability. Numerous problems were solved in addition to reduction of the ascent debris hazard. The propulsion system elements evolved to high reliability and heavy lift capability. The Shuttle system, though not a operable as envisioned in the 1970's, successfully assembled the International Space Station (ISS) and provided significant logistics and down mass for ISS operations. By the end of the Program, the remarkable Space Shuttle Propulsion system achieved very high performance, was largely reusable, exhibited high reliability, and is a heavy lift earth to orbit propulsion system. The story of this amazing system is discussed in detail in the paper.

  2. The 21st century propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

  3. Magnetic insulation for plasma propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Dora E.

    1990-01-01

    The design parameters of effective magnetic insulation for plasma engines are discussed. An experimental model used to demonstrate the process of plasma acceleration and magnetic insulation is considered which consists of a copper strap that is wound around a glass tube and connected to a capacitor. In order to adequately model the magnetic insulation mechanisms, a computer algorithm is developed. Plasma engines, with their efficient utilization of the propellant mass, are expected to provide the next-generation advanced propulsion systems.

  4. Quiet powered-lift propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Latest results of programs exploring new propulsion technology for powered-lift aircraft systems are presented. Topics discussed include results from the 'quiet clean short-haul experimental engine' program and progress reports on the 'quiet short-haul research aircraft' and 'tilt-rotor research aircraft' programs. In addition to these NASA programs, the Air Force AMST YC 14 and YC 15 programs were reviewed.

  5. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Development Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Tony

    2015-01-01

    There are clear advantages of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) for a crewed mission to Mars. NTP for in-space propulsion enables more ambitious space missions by providing high thrust at high specific impulse ((is) approximately 900 sec) that is 2 times the best theoretical performance possible for chemical rockets. Missions can be optimized for maximum payload capability to take more payload with reduced total mass to orbit; saving cost on reduction of the number of launch vehicles needed. Or missions can be optimized to minimize trip time significantly to reduce the deep space radiation exposure to the crew. NTR propulsion technology is a game changer for space exploration to Mars and beyond. However, 'NUCLEAR' is a word that is feared and vilified by some groups and the hostility towards development of any nuclear systems can meet great opposition by the public as well as from national leaders and people in authority. The public often associates the 'nuclear' word with weapons of mass destruction. The development NTP is at risk due to unwarranted public fears and clear honest communication of nuclear safety will be critical to the success of the development of the NTP technology. Reducing cost to NTP development is critical to its acceptance and funding. In the past, highly inflated cost estimates of a full-scale development nuclear engine due to Category I nuclear security requirements and costly regulatory requirements have put the NTP technology as a low priority. Innovative approaches utilizing low enriched uranium (LEU). Even though NTP can be a small source of radiation to the crew, NTP can facilitate significant reduction of crew exposure to solar and cosmic radiation by reducing trip times by 3-4 months. Current Human Mars Mission (HMM) trajectories with conventional propulsion systems and fuel-efficient transfer orbits exceed astronaut radiation exposure limits. Utilizing extra propellant from one additional SLS launch and available

  6. Space Propulsion by Intermittent Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Change: A Possible Approach for Follow-on Efforts* 1. Introduction One critical aspect of space platform maneuverability is the performance of rapid...STATEMENT t2b. OtSTRIUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (Au~nman 200’ ’ ’ One critical aspect of space platform maneuverability is the performance of rapid orbital...participated in a workshop on Orbit-Raising and Maneuvering Propulsion, held in Orlando, Florida. I -iii- TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Title Page

  7. Electrodynamic Tethers for Spacecraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Estes, Robert D.; Lorenzini, Enrico; Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel; Sanmartin, Juan; Vas, Irwin

    1998-01-01

    Relatively short electrodynamic tethers can use solar power to 'push' against a planetary magnetic field to achieve propulsion without the expenditure of propellant. The groundwork has been laid for this type of propulsion. NASA began developing tether technology for space applications in the 1960's. Important recent milestones include retrieval of a tether in space (TSS-1, 1992), successful deployment of a 20-km-long tether in space (SEDS-1, 1993), and operation of an electrodynamic tether with tether current driven in both directions-power and thrust modes (PMG, 1993). The planned Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) experiment will demonstrate electrodynamic tether thrust during its flight in early 2000. ProSEDS will use the flight-proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a 5 km bare copper tether from a Delta II upper stage to achieve approximately 0.4 N drag thrust, thus deorbiting the stage. The experiment will use a predominantly 'bare' tether for current collection in lieu of the endmass collector and insulated tether approach used on previous missions. Theory and ground-based plasma chamber testing indicate that the bare tether is a highly-efficient current collector. The flight experiment is a precursor to utilization of the technology on the International Space Station for reboost application and the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes - all using electrodynamic thrust. In addition, the use of this type of propulsion may be attractive for future missions at Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

  8. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  9. Interstellar Propulsion Research Within NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA is actively conducting advanced propulsion research and technology development in various in-space transportation technologies with potential application to interstellar missions and precursors. Within the last few years, interest in the scientific community in interstellar missions as well as outer heliospheric missions, which could function as interstellar precursor missions, has increased. A mission definition team was charted by NASA to define such a precursor, The Interstellar Probe, which resulted in a prioritization of relatively near-term transportation technologies to support its potential implementation. In addition, the goal of finding and ultimately imaging extra solar planets has raised the issue of our complete inability to mount an expedition to such as planet, should one be found. Even contemplating such a mission with today's technology is a stretch of the imagination. However, there are several propulsion concepts, based on known physics, that have promise to enable interstellar exploration in the future. NASA is making small, incremental investments in some key advanced propulsion technologies in an effort to advance their state-of-the-art in support potential future mission needs. These technologies, and their relative maturity, are described.

  10. Space station propulsion requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Propulsion system requirements to support Low Earth Orbit (LEO) manned space station development and evolution over a wide range of potential capabilities and for a variety of STS servicing and space station operating strategies are described. The term space station and the overall space station configuration refers, for the purpose of this report, to a group of potential LEO spacecraft that support the overall space station mission. The group consisted of the central space station at 28.5 deg or 90 deg inclinations, unmanned free-flying spacecraft that are both tethered and untethered, a short-range servicing vehicle, and a longer range servicing vehicle capable of GEO payload transfer. The time phasing for preferred propulsion technology approaches is also investigated, as well as the high-leverage, state-of-the-art advancements needed, and the qualitative and quantitative benefits of these advancements on STS/space station operations. The time frame of propulsion technologies applicable to this study is the early 1990's to approximately the year 2000.

  11. Antimatter propulsion, status and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Hynes, Michael V.

    1986-01-01

    The use of advanced propulsion techniques must be considered if the currently envisioned launch date of the manned Mars mission were delayed until 2020 or later. Within the next thirty years, technological advances may allow such methods as beaming power to the ship, inertial-confinement fusion, or mass-conversion of antiprotons to become feasible. A propulsion system with an ISP of around 5000 s would allow the currently envisioned mission module to fly to Mars in 3 months and would require about one million pounds to be assembled in Earth orbit. Of the possible methods to achieve this, the antiproton mass-conversion reaction offers the highest potential, the greatest problems, and the most fascination. Increasing the production rates of antiprotons is a high priority task at facilities around the world. The application of antiprotons to propulsion requires the coupling of the energy released in the mass-conversion reaction to thrust-producing mechanisms. Recent proposals entail using the antiprotons to produce inertial confinement fusion or to produce negative muons which can catalyze fusion. By increasing the energy released per antiproton, the effective cost, (dollars/joule) can be reduced. These proposals and other areas of research can be investigated now. These short term results will be important in assessing the long range feasibility of an antiproton powered engine.

  12. Systematic Propulsion Optimization Tools (SPOT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Mark; Celestian, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a computer program written by senior-level Mechanical Engineering students at the University of Alabama in Huntsville which is capable of optimizing user-defined delivery systems for carrying payloads into orbit. The custom propulsion system is designed by the user through the input of configuration, payload, and orbital parameters. The primary advantages of the software, called Systematic Propulsion Optimization Tools (SPOT), are a user-friendly interface and a modular FORTRAN 77 code designed for ease of modification. The optimization of variables in an orbital delivery system is of critical concern in the propulsion environment. The mass of the overall system must be minimized within the maximum stress, force, and pressure constraints. SPOT utilizes the Design Optimization Tools (DOT) program for the optimization techniques. The SPOT program is divided into a main program and five modules: aerodynamic losses, orbital parameters, liquid engines, solid engines, and nozzles. The program is designed to be upgraded easily and expanded to meet specific user needs. A user's manual and a programmer's manual are currently being developed to facilitate implementation and modification.

  13. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Roldan, Victoria; Fermas, Soraya; Brewer, Philip B; Puech-Pagès, Virginie; Dun, Elizabeth A; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Letisse, Fabien; Matusova, Radoslava; Danoun, Saida; Portais, Jean-Charles; Bouwmeester, Harro; Bécard, Guillaume; Beveridge, Christine A; Rameau, Catherine; Rochange, Soizic F

    2008-09-11

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence that carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8 shoot branching mutants of pea are strigolactone deficient and that strigolactone application restores the wild-type branching phenotype to ccd8 mutants. Moreover, we show that other branching mutants previously characterized as lacking a response to the branching inhibition signal also lack strigolactone response, and are not deficient in strigolactones. These responses are conserved in Arabidopsis. In agreement with the expected properties of the hormonal signal, exogenous strigolactone can be transported in shoots and act at low concentrations. We suggest that endogenous strigolactones or related compounds inhibit shoot branching in plants. Furthermore, ccd8 mutants demonstrate the diverse effects of strigolactones in shoot branching, mycorrhizal symbiosis and parasitic weed interaction.

  14. Branching toughens fibrous networks.

    PubMed

    Koh, C T; Oyen, M L

    2012-08-01

    Fibrous collagenous networks are not only stiff but also tough, due to their complex microstructures. This stiff yet tough behavior is desirable for both medical and military applications but it is difficult to reproduce in engineering materials. While the nonlinear hyperelastic behavior of fibrous networks has been extensively studied, the understanding of toughness is still incomplete. Here, we identify a microstructure mimicking the branched bundles of a natural type I collagen network, in which partially cross-linked long fibers give rise to novel combinations of stiffness and toughness. Finite element analysis shows that the stiffness of fully cross-linked fibrous networks is amplified by increasing the fibril length and cross-link density. However, a trade-off of such stiff networks is reduced toughness. By having partially cross-linked networks with long fibrils, the networks have comparable stiffness and improved toughness as compared to the fully cross-linked networks. Further, the partially cross-linked networks avoid the formation of kinks, which cause fibril rupture during deformation. As a result, the branching allows the networks to have stiff yet tough behavior.

  15. Pen Branch Fault Program

    SciTech Connect

    Price, V.; Stieve, A.L.; Aadland, R.

    1990-09-28

    Evidence from subsurface mapping and seismic reflection surveys at Savannah River Site (SRS) suggests the presence of a fault which displaces Cretaceous through Tertiary (90--35 million years ago) sediments. This feature has been described and named the Pen Branch fault (PBF) in a recent Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) paper (DP-MS-88-219). Because the fault is located near operating nuclear facilities, public perception and federal regulations require a thorough investigation of the fault to determine whether any seismic hazard exists. A phased program with various elements has been established to investigate the PBF to address the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guidelines represented in 10 CFR 100 Appendix A. The objective of the PBF program is to fully characterize the nature of the PBF (ESS-SRL-89-395). This report briefly presents current understanding of the Pen Branch fault based on shallow drilling activities completed the fall of 1989 (PBF well series) and subsequent core analyses (SRL-ESS-90-145). The results are preliminary and ongoing: however, investigations indicate that the fault is not capable. In conjunction with the shallow drilling, other activities are planned or in progress. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Novel prescribed performance neural control of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with unknown initial errors.

    PubMed

    Bu, Xiangwei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Fujing; Huang, Jiaqi; Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Rui

    2015-11-01

    A novel prescribed performance neural controller with unknown initial errors is addressed for the longitudinal dynamic model of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV) subject to parametric uncertainties. Different from traditional prescribed performance control (PPC) requiring that the initial errors have to be known accurately, this paper investigates the tracking control without accurate initial errors via exploiting a new performance function. A combined neural back-stepping and minimal learning parameter (MLP) technology is employed for exploring a prescribed performance controller that provides robust tracking of velocity and altitude reference trajectories. The highlight is that the transient performance of velocity and altitude tracking errors is satisfactory and the computational load of neural approximation is low. Finally, numerical simulation results from a nonlinear FAHV model demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed strategy.

  17. Advanced propulsion concepts study: Comparative study of solar electric propulsion and laser electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forward, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) and laser electric propulsion (LEP) was compared. The LEP system configuration consists of an 80 kW visible laser source on earth, transmitting via an 8 m diameter adaptively controlled phased array through the atmosphere to a 4 m diameter synchronous relay mirror that tracks the LEP spacecraft. The only significant change in the SEP spacecraft for an LEP mission is the replacement of the two 3.7 m by 33.5 m solar cell arrays with a single 8 m diameter laser photovoltaic array. The solar cell array weight is decreased from 320 kg to 120 kg for an increase in payload of 200 kg and a decrease in specific mass of the power system from 20.5 kg/kW to 7.8 kg/kW.

  18. Development of gas exchange and ion regulation in two species of air-breathing fish, Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic air-breathing anabantoids, a group of fish species characterized by the presence of a labyrinth organ and some gills, exhibit morphological variations. This study aimed to examine whether unequal gill growth begins during the early stages and described the sequence of the early gill developmental events in Betta splendens and Macropodus opercularis. To determine when the ion regulatory and gas exchange abilities first appear in the gills, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) and neuroepithelial cells (NECs) were examined in young B. splendens. To evaluate the relative importance of the gills and the labyrinth organ under different levels of oxygen uptake stress, the levels of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) protein expressions in 2 gills and the labyrinth organ were examined in M. opercularis. We found that the first 3 gills developed earlier than the 4th gill in both species, an indication that the morphological variation begins early in life. In B. splendens, the MRCs and NECs clearly appeared in the first 3 gills at 4 dph and were first found in the 4th gill until 11 dph. The oxygen-sensing ability of the gills was concordant with the ionoregulatory function. In M. opercularis, the hypoxic group had a significantly higher air-breathing frequency. CAII protein expression was higher in the labyrinth organ in the hypoxic group. The gills exhibited increased NKA protein expression in the hypoxic and restricted groups, respectively. Functional plasticity in CAII and NKA protein expressions was found between the gills and the labyrinth organ in adult M. opercularis.

  19. Certification Testing Approach for Propulsion System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Henry; Popp, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The Certification of Propulsion Systems is costly and complex, involving development and qualification testing. The desire of the certification process is to assure all requirements can be demonstrated to be compliant. The purpose of this paper is to address the technical design concerns of certifying a propulsion system for flight. Presented are Pressurization, Tankage, Feed System and Combustion Instability concerns. Propulsion System Engineers are challenged with the dilemma for testing new systems to specific levels to reduce risk yet maintain budgetary targets. A methodical approach is presented to define the types of test suitable to address the technical issues for qualifying systems for retiring the risk levels. Experience of the lessons learned from supporting the Shuttle Program for Main Propulsion and On Orbit Propulsions Systems as well as previous collaborations on design concerns for certifying propulsion systems are utilized to address design concerns and verification approaches.

  20. Propulsion System Models for Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual design code NDARC (NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft) was initially implemented to model conventional rotorcraft propulsion systems, consisting of turboshaft engines burning jet fuel, connected to one or more rotors through a mechanical transmission. The NDARC propulsion system representation has been extended to cover additional propulsion concepts, including electric motors and generators, rotor reaction drive, turbojet and turbofan engines, fuel cells and solar cells, batteries, and fuel (energy) used without weight change. The paper describes these propulsion system components, the architecture of their implementation in NDARC, and the form of the models for performance and weight. Requirements are defined for improved performance and weight models of the new propulsion system components. With these new propulsion models, NDARC can be used to develop environmentally-friendly rotorcraft designs.

  1. Propulsion in cubomedusae: mechanisms and utility.

    PubMed

    Colin, Sean P; Costello, John H; Katija, Kakani; Seymour, Jamie; Kiefer, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary constraints which limit the forces produced during bell contractions of medusae affect the overall medusan morphospace such that jet propulsion is limited to only small medusae. Cubomedusae, which often possess large prolate bells and are thought to swim via jet propulsion, appear to violate the theoretical constraints which determine the medusan morphospace. To examine propulsion by cubomedusae, we quantified size related changes in wake dynamics, bell shape, swimming and turning kinematics of two species of cubomedusae, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsella bronzie. During growth, these cubomedusae transitioned from using jet propulsion at smaller sizes to a rowing-jetting hybrid mode of propulsion at larger sizes. Simple modifications in the flexibility and kinematics of their velarium appeared to be sufficient to alter their propulsive mode. Turning occurs during both bell contraction and expansion and is achieved by generating asymmetric vortex structures during both stages of the swimming cycle. Swimming characteristics were considered in conjunction with the unique foraging strategy used by cubomedusae.

  2. Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching.

    PubMed

    Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja

    2013-03-01

    An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% ÷ 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is obtained by varying the reaction conditions such as pH value, the choice of reducing agent and its concentration and reaction time. Linear amylose is formed by the phosphorylase-catalyzed propagation of glucose-1-phosphate while Dg GBE introduces branching points on the α-(1→6) position by relocating short oligosaccharide chains. Our results show that the best way to obtain different degrees of branching with this set of enzymes is by regulation of the reaction time.

  3. Assessment of flying-quality criteria for air-breathing aerospacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Myers, Thomas T.; Hoh, Roger H.; Ashkenas, Irving L.; Johnston, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A study of flying quality requirements for air breathing aerospacecraft gives special emphasis to the unusual operational requirements and characteristics of these aircraft, including operation at hypersonic speed. The report considers distinguishing characteristics of these vehicles, including dynamic deficiencies and their implications for control. Particular emphasis is given to the interaction of the airframe and propulsion system, and the requirements for dynamic systems integration. Past operational missions are reviewed to define tasks and maneuvers to be considered for this class of aircraft. Areas of special concern with respect to vehicle dynamics and control are identified. Experience with the space shuttle orbiter is reviewed with respect to flight control system mechanization and flight experience in approach and landing flying qualities for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP).

  4. Convective Heat Transfer for Ship Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    RD-A124 Wi CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER FOR SHIP PROPULSION (U) ARIZONA 112 UNIV TUCSON ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION PARK ET AL. 01 APR 82 1248-9 N814...395 CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER FOR SHIP PROPULSION Prepared for Office of Naval Research Code 431 Arlington, Virginia Prepared by J. S. Park, M. F...FOR SHIP PROPULSION By J. S. Park, M. F. Taylor and D. M. McEligot Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Department University of Arizona Tucson

  5. Convective Heat Transfer for Ship Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    OF RILJORT 6 PelIOO COVERED Convective Heat Transfer for Ship Propulsion . Annual gummary Report / (Sixth Annual Sumary Report) //115 Jan 180-30 Mard...DO* IrCOVE) Sixth Annual Summary Report CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER FOR SHIP PROPULSION By M. A. Habib and D. M. McEligot Aerospace and Mechanical...permitted for any purpose of the United States Government. ._ _ _ _ _ _ I CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER FOR SHIP PROPULSION M. A. Habib* and D. M. McEligot

  6. Modeling of Spacecraft Advanced Chemical Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benfield, Michael P. J.; Belcher, Jeremy A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of the Advanced Chemical Propulsion System (ACPS) model for Earth and Space Storable propellants. This model was developed by the System Technology Operation of SAIC-Huntsville for the NASA MSFC In-Space Propulsion Project Office. Each subsystem of the model is described. Selected model results will also be shown to demonstrate the model's ability to evaluate technology changes in chemical propulsion systems.

  7. In-Space Propulsion (ISP) Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the rationale and content for Solar Sail Propulsion (SSP), the on-going project to advance solar technology from technology readiness level 3 to 6 will be provided. A descriptive summary of the major and minor component efforts underway will include identification of the technology providers and a listing of anticipated products Recent important results from major system ground demonstrators will be provided. Finally, a current status of all activities will provided along with the most recent roadmap for the SSP technology development program.

  8. Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Development for Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing technologies to prepare for human exploration missions to Mars. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems are expected to enable a new cost effective means to deliver cargo to the Mars surface. Nearer term missions to Mars moons or near-Earth asteroids can be used to both develop and demonstrate the needed technology for these future Mars missions while demonstrating new capabilities in their own right. This presentation discusses recent technology development accomplishments for high power, high voltage solar arrays and power management that enable a new class of SEP missions.

  9. Twenty First Century Space Propulsion Study Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    90265-7783 June 1991 Final Report DTIC ELECTE JUL15I9U ~> PHILLIPS LABOR.ATORY Propulsion Directorate ~ AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND EDWARDS AIR FORCE...Century Space Propulsion Study (Addendum) (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Forward, Robert L. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT...AL-TR-90-030, 21st Century Space Propulsion Study, October 1990, AD: A229279) evaluates a number of new space propulsion and sensor concepts. The major

  10. Low-thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The need for large structures in high orbit is reported in terms of the many mission opportunities which require such structures. Mission and transportation options for large structures are presented, and it is shown that low-thrust propulsion is an enabling requirement for some missions and greatly enhancing to many others. Electric and low-thrust chemical propulsion are compared, and the need for an requirements of low-thrust chemical propulsion are discussed in terms of the interactions that are perceived to exist between the propulsion system and the large structure.

  11. Explosive propulsion applications. [to future unmanned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Varsi, G.; Back, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility and application of an explosive propulsion concept capable of supporting future unmanned missions in the post-1980 era were examined and recommendations made for advanced technology development tasks. The Venus large lander mission was selected as the first in which the explosive propulsion concept can find application. A conceptual design was generated and its performance, weight, costs, and interaction effects determined. Comparisons were made with conventional propulsion alternatives. The feasibility of the explosive propulsion system was verified for planetology experiments within the dense atmosphere of Venus as well as the outer planets. Additionally, it was determined that the Venus large lander mission could be augmented ballistically with a significant delivery margin.

  12. Green space propulsion: Opportunities and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Amir S.; Stanojev, Johann; Demairé, Alain; Anflo, Kjell; Persson, Mathias; Wingborg, Niklas; Nilsson, Christer

    2014-11-01

    Currently, toxic and carcinogenic hydrazine propellants are commonly used in spacecraft propulsion. These propellants impose distinctive environmental challenges and consequential hazardous conditions. With an increasing level of future space activities and applications, the significance of greener space propulsion becomes even more pronounced. In this article, a selected number of promising green space propellants are reviewed and investigated for various space missions. In-depth system studies in relation to the aforementioned propulsion architectures further unveil possible approaches for advanced green propulsion systems of the future.

  13. Nuclear Propulsion Technical Interchange Meeting, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Propulsion Technical Interchange Meeting (NP-TIM-92) was sponsored and hosted by the Nuclear Propulsion Office at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The purpose of the meeting was to review the work performed in fiscal year 1992 in the areas of nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion technology development. These proceedings are a compilation of the presentations given at the meeting (many of the papers are presented in outline or viewgraph form). Volume 1 covers the introductory presentations and the system concepts and technology developments related to nuclear thermal propulsion.

  14. Electric Propulsion Platforms at DFRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraaclough, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is a world-class flight research facility located at Edwards AFB, CA. With access to a 44 sq. mile dry lakebed and 350 testable days per year, it is the ideal location for flight research. DFRC has been undertaking aircraft research for approximately six decades including the famous X-aircraft (X-1 through X-48) and many science and exploration platforms. As part of this impressive heritage, DFRC has garnered more hours of full-sized electric aircraft testing than any other facility in the US, and possibly the world. Throughout the 80 s and 90 s Dryden was the home of the Pathfinder, Pathfinder Plus, and Helios prototype solar-electric aircraft. As part of the ERAST program, these electric aircraft achieved a world record 97,000 feet altitude for propeller-driven aircraft. As a result of these programs, Dryden s staff has collected thousands of man-hours of electric aircraft research and testing. In order to better answer the needs of the US in providing aircraft technologies with lower fuel consumption, lower toxic emissions (NOx, CO, VOCs, etc.), lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and lower noise emissions, NASA has engaged in cross-discipline research under the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). As a part of this overall effort, Mark Moore of LaRC has initiated a cross-NASA-center electric propulsion working group (EPWG) to focus on electric propulsion technologies as applied to aircraft. Electric propulsion technologies are ideally suited to overcome all of the obstacles mentioned above, and are at a sufficiently advanced state of development component-wise to warrant serious R&D and testing (TRL 3+). The EPWG includes participation from NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), Glenn Research Center (GRC), Ames Research Center (ARC), and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). Each of the center participants provides their own unique expertise to support the overall goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in aircraft

  15. Development and Qualification of ATV Propulsion Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, M.; Jost, R.

    2002-01-01

    In the frame of the development and operation of the International Space Station ISS, the European Space Agency ESA is not only contributing experiments and a laboratory module but also logistics capacity. This purpose of supplying the ISS shall be covered by an unmanned, Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) that will be launched for the first time in 2004 by Ariane 5. The development of the ATV is in close conjunction to the future Ariane 5 launch capacity of about 20 tons injected into low earth orbit. Thus this unmanned transporter will be a quite large space craft that is subjected to fulfil several mission objectives apart of only delivering cargo such as multiple automatic docking/de-docking, re-boost services and re-fuelling. For those reasons and due to its dimensions the propulsion sub-system is one of the most sophisticated in the field of space propulsion. Even safety issues of manned space flight have to be applied since the pressurised cargo section is part of the ISS when docked to the manned modules. This leads to by far the largest but also the most sophisticated propulsion system ever built in Europe. Astrium as one of the major partners of this european project is responsible for this major system that will be described in the paper. Focusing on the major core assemblies such as multi thruster platforms, pressure control system incl. safety and redundancy mechanisms as well as tanks and other components that completes a propulsion system. System Design and Qualification Starting from the basic criteria the paper will present the major performance requirements such as pressures, thrust levels and other parameters that led to the selection of major components of the system such as thrusters, valves, tanks, etc. Some of the component could be selected from off the shelve, whereas other core components such as the 200N Attitude Control and Braking Thrusters or Propellant Tanks had to be newly developed. The stepwise approach of development and careful

  16. Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portz, Ron; Alexander, Leslie; Chapman, Jack; England, Chris; Henderson, Scott; Krismer, David; Lu, Frank; Wilson, Kim; Miller, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A detailed; mission-level systems study has been performed to show the benefit resulting from engine performance gains that will result from NASA's In-Space Propulsion ROSS Cycle 3A NRA, Advanced Chemical Technology sub-topic. The technology development roadmap to accomplish the NRA goals are also detailed in this paper. NASA-Marshall and NASA-JPL have conducted mission-level studies to define engine requirements, operating conditions, and interfaces. Five reference missions have been chosen for this analysis based on scientific interest, current launch vehicle capability and trends in space craft size: a) GTO to GEO, 4800 kg, delta-V for GEO insertion only approx.1830 m/s; b) Titan Orbiter with aerocapture, 6620 kg, total delta V approx.210 m/s, mostly for periapsis raise after aerocapture; c) Enceladus Orbiter (Titan aerocapture) 6620 kg, delta V approx.2400 m/s; d) Europa Orbiter, 2170 kg, total delta V approx.2600 m/s; and e) Mars Orbiter, 2250 kg, total delta V approx.1860 m/s. The figures of merit used to define the benefit of increased propulsion efficiency at the spacecraft level include propulsion subsystem wet mass, volume and overall cost. The objective of the NRA is to increase the specific impulse of pressure-fed earth storable bipropellant rocket engines to greater than 330 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and monomothylhydrazine propellants and greater than 335 , seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine. Achievement of the NRA goals will significantly benefit NASA interplanetary missions and other government and commercial opportunities by enabling reduced launch weight and/or increased payload. The study also constitutes a crucial stepping stone to future development, such as pump-fed storable engines.

  17. Propulsion Technology Lifecycle Operational Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; Rhodes, Russell E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a focused effort performed by the members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) Functional Requirements Sub-team to develop propulsion data to support Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This is a spreadsheet application to analyze the impact of technology decisions at a system-of-systems level. Results are summarized in an Excel workbook we call the Technology Tool Box (TTB). The TTB provides data for technology performance, operations, and programmatic parameters in the form of a library of technical information to support analysis tools and/or models. The lifecycle of technologies can be analyzed from this data and particularly useful for system operations involving long running missions. The propulsion technologies in this paper are listed against Chemical Rocket Engines in a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) format. The overall effort involved establishing four elements: (1) A general purpose Functional System Breakdown Structure (FSBS). (2) Operational Requirements for Rocket Engines. (3) Technology Metric Values associated with Operating Systems (4) Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) of Chemical Rocket Engines The list of Chemical Rocket Engines identified in the WBS is by no means complete. It is planned to update the TTB with a more complete list of available Chemical Rocket Engines for United States (US) engines and add the Foreign rocket engines to the WBS which are available to NASA and the Aerospace Industry. The Operational Technology Metric Values were derived by the SPST Sub-team in the form of the TTB and establishes a database for users to help evaluate and establish the technology level of each Chemical Rocket Engine in the database. The Technology Metric Values will serve as a guide to help determine which rocket engine to invest technology money in for future development.

  18. NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Mitchell, Sonny; Kim, Tony; Borowski, Stan; Power, Kevin; Scott, John; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steve

    2015-01-01

    HEOMD's (Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate) AES (Advanced Exploration Systems) Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project is making significant progress. First of four FY 2015 milestones achieved this month. Safety is the highest priority for NTP (as with other space systems). After safety comes affordability. No centralized capability for developing, qualifying, and utilizing an NTP system. Will require a strong, closely integrated team. Tremendous potential benefits from NTP and other space fission systems. No fundamental reason these systems cannot be developed and utilized in a safe, affordable fashion.

  19. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission operations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prickett, W. Z.; Spera, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration missions conducted by unmanned Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference mission are Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. Mission operations and options are defined from spacecraft assembly through mission completion. Pre-launch operations and related GSE requirements are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur d-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and heliocentric mission phases.

  20. Space station propulsion system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Meng, Phillip R.; Schneider, Steven J.; Sovey, James S.; Tacina, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Two propulsion systems have been selected for the space station: O/H rockets for high thrust applications and the multipropellant resistojets for low thrust needs. These thruster systems integrate very well with the fluid systems on the station. Both thrusters will utilize waste fluids as their source of propellant. The O/H rocket will be fueled by electrolyzed water and the resistojets will use stored waste gases from the environmental control system and the various laboratories. This paper presents the results of experimental efforts with O/H and resistojet thrusters to determine their performance and life capability.

  1. Low thrust propulsion literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Darrel

    1989-01-01

    A literature search was performed to investigate the area of low thrust propulsion. In an effort to evaluate this technology, a number of articles, obtained through the use of the NASA-RECON database, were collected and categorized. The study indicates that although much was done, particularly in the 1960's and 1970's, more can be done in the area of practical navigation and guidance. It is suggested that the older studies be reinvestigated to see what potential there exists for future low thrust applications.

  2. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  3. Branches in the Everett interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Arthur J.

    2014-05-01

    Hugh Everett III describes a quantum measurement as resulting in the "branching" of the quantum state of observer and measured system, with all possible measurement outcomes represented by the ensuing branches of the total quantum state. But Everett does not specify a general rule for decomposing a quantum state into branches, and commentators have long puzzled over how, and even whether, to regard Everett's notion of branching states as physically meaningful. It is common today to appeal to decoherence considerations as a way of giving physical content to the Everettian notion of branches, but these appeals to decoherence are often regarded as considerations foreign to Everett's own approach. This paper contends that this assessment is only half right: though he does not invoke environmental decoherence, Everett does appeal to decoherence considerations, broadly understood, in his treatment of measurement. Careful consideration of his idealized models of measurement, and of the significance he ascribes to the branching of states corresponding to definite measurement outcomes, reveals that his notion of branching refers to a special physical characteristic of elements of a particular decomposition, namely the absence of interference between these component states as a result of the particular dynamics governing the evolution of the system. Characterizations of branching that appeal to the results of modern decoherence theory should therefore be regarded as a natural development of Everett's own physically meaningful conception of branching.

  4. Artificial Intelligence Research Branch future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains information on the activities of the Artificial Intelligence Research Branch (FIA) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in 1992, as well as planned work in 1993. These activities span a range from basic scientific research through engineering development to fielded NASA applications, particularly those applications that are enabled by basic research carried out in FIA. Work is conducted in-house and through collaborative partners in academia and industry. All of our work has research themes with a dual commitment to technical excellence and applicability to NASA short, medium, and long-term problems. FIA acts as the Agency's lead organization for research aspects of artificial intelligence, working closely with a second research laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and AI applications groups throughout all NASA centers. This report is organized along three major research themes: (1) Planning and Scheduling: deciding on a sequence of actions to achieve a set of complex goals and determining when to execute those actions and how to allocate resources to carry them out; (2) Machine Learning: techniques for forming theories about natural and man-made phenomena; and for improving the problem-solving performance of computational systems over time; and (3) Research on the acquisition, representation, and utilization of knowledge in support of diagnosis design of engineered systems and analysis of actual systems.

  5. Combining prehension and propulsion: the foot of Ardipithecus ramidus.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, C Owen; Latimer, Bruce; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane; White, Tim D

    2009-10-02

    Several elements of the Ardipithecus ramidus foot are preserved, primarily in the ARA-VP-6/500 partial skeleton. The foot has a widely abducent hallux, which was not propulsive during terrestrial bipedality. However, it lacks the highly derived tarsometatarsal laxity and inversion in extant African apes that provide maximum conformity to substrates during vertical climbing. Instead, it exhibits primitive characters that maintain plantar rigidity from foot-flat through toe-off, reminiscent of some Miocene apes and Old World monkeys. Moreover, the action of the fibularis longus muscle was more like its homolog in Old World monkeys than in African apes. Phalangeal lengths were most similar to those of Gorilla. The Ardipithecus gait pattern would thus have been unique among known primates. The last common ancestor of hominids and chimpanzees was therefore a careful climber that retained adaptations to above-branch plantigrady.

  6. A revolutionary lunar space transportation system architecture using extraterrestrial LOX-augmented NTR propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; McIlwain, Mel C.

    1994-08-01

    The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on

  7. A Revolutionary Lunar Space Transportation System Architecture Using Extraterrestrial Lox-augmented NTR Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; Mcilwain, Mel C.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on

  8. Computational analysis of flow in 3D propulsive transition ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepri, Paavo

    1990-01-01

    A numerical analysis of fully three dimensional, statistically steady flows in propulsive transition ducts being considered for use in future aircraft of higher maneuverability is investigated. The purpose of the transition duct is to convert axisymmetric flow from conventional propulsion systems to that of a rectangular geometry of high aspect ratio. In an optimal design, the transition duct would be of minimal length in order to reduce the weight penalty, while the geometrical change would be gradual enough to avoid detrimental flow perturbations. Recent experiments conducted at the Propulsion Aerodynamics Branch have indicated that thrust losses in ducts of superelliptic cross-section can be surprisingly low, even if flow separation occurs near the divergent walls. In order to address the objective of developing a rational design procedure for optimal transition ducts, it is necessary to have available a reliable computational tool for the analysis of flows achieved in a sequence of configurations. Current CFD efforts involving complicated geometries usually must contend with two separate but interactive aspects: namely, grid generation and flow solution. The first two avenues of the present investigation were comprised of suitable grid generation for a class of transition ducts of superelliptic cross-section, and the subsequent application of the flow solver PAB3D to this geometry. The code, PAB3D, was developed as a comprehensive tool for the solution of both internal and external high speed flows. The third avenue of investigation has involved analytical formulations to aid in the understanding of the nature of duct flows, and also to provide a basis of comparison for subsequent numerical solutions. Numerical results to date include the generation of two preliminary grid systems for duct flows, and the initial application of PAB3D to the corresponding geometries, which are of the class tested experimentally.

  9. Enzymatic Fuel Cells: Integrating Flow-Through Anode and Air-Breathing Cathode into a Membrane-Less Biofuel Cell Design (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    with poly- methylene green (poly-MG) catalyst for biofuel cell anode fabrication. A fungal laccase that catalyzes oxygen reduction via direct electron...enzyme, Poly- methylene green, Membrane-less U U U UU 6 Glenn R. Johnson Reset This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy...2011 Keywords: Biofuel cell Flow-through Air-breathing cathode NAD+-dependent enzyme Poly- methylene green Membrane-less a b s t r a c t One

  10. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B; Huong, Do T T; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T; Bayley, Mark

    2011-07-01

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO₂⁻) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO(2max)) and critical swimming speed (U(crit)) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC₅₀ of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO(2max) and U(crit). The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO(2max) and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish.

  11. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2004-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. Because the NPSS was developed using the object-oriented paradigm, the resulting architecture is an extensible and flexible framework that is currently being used by a diverse set of participants in government, academia, and the aerospace industry. NPSS is being used by over 15 different institutions to support rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and aerospace. Full system-level simulations as well as subsystems may be modeled using NPSS. The NPSS architecture enables the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail, which is called numerical zooming. The middleware used to enable zooming and distributed simulations is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The NPSS Developer's Kit offers tools for the developer to generate CORBA-based components and wrap codes. The Developer's Kit enables distributed multi-fidelity and multi-discipline simulations, preserves proprietary and legacy codes, and facilitates addition of customized codes. The platforms supported are PC, Linux, HP, Sun, and SGI.

  12. Feasibility of MHD submarine propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.D. ); Sikes, W.C. )

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the collaborative research program established between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company (NNS). Phase I of the program focused on the development of computer models for Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) propulsion. Phase 2 focused on the experimental validation of the thruster performance models and the identification, through testing, of any phenomena which may impact the attractiveness of this propulsion system for shipboard applications. The report discusses in detail the work performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, a two Tesla test facility was designed, built, and operated. The facility test loop, its components, and their design are presented. The test matrix and its rationale are discussed. Representative experimental results of the test program are presented, and are compared to computer model predictions. In general, the results of the tests and their comparison with the predictions indicate that thephenomena affecting the performance of MHD seawater thrusters are well understood and can be accurately predicted with the developed thruster computer models.

  13. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  14. High Energy Plasma Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    In order to meet NASA's challenge on advanced concept activity in the propulsion area, we initiated a new program entitled "High Energy Plasma Space Propulsion Studies" within the current cooperative agreement in 1998. The goals of this work are to gain further understanding of the engine of the AIMStar spacecraft, a concept which was developed at Penn State University, and to develop a prototype concept for the engine. The AIMStar engine concept was developed at Penn State University several years ago as a hybrid between antimatter and fusion technologies. Because of limited amounts of antimatter available, and concurrently the demonstrated ability for antiprotons to efficiently ignite nuclear fusion reactions, it was felt that this was a very good match. Investigations have been made concerning the performance of the reaction trap. This is a small Penning-like electromagnetic trap, which is used to simultaneously confine antiprotons and fusion fuels. Small DHe3 or DT droplets, containing a few percent molar of a fissile material, are injected into the trap, filled with antiprotons. We have found that it is important to separate the antiprotons into two adjacent wells, to inject he droplet between them and to simultaneously bring the antiprotons to the center of the trap, surrounding the droplet. Our previous concept had the droplet falling onto one cloud of antiprotons. This proved to be inefficient, as the droplet tended to evaporate away from the cloud as it interacted on its surface.

  15. Fiberoptics for propulsion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    In aircraft systems with digital controls, fiberoptics has advantages over wire systems because of its inherent immunity to electromagnetic noise (EMI) and electromagnetic pulses (EMP). It also offers a weight benefit when metallic conductors are replaced by optical fibers. To take full advantage of the benefits of optical waveguides, passive optical sensors are also being developed to eliminate the need for electrical power to the sensor. Fiberoptics may also be used for controlling actuators on engine and airframe. In this application, the optical fibers, connectors, etc. will be subjected to high temperature and vibrations. This paper discussed the use of fiberoptics in aircraft propulsion systems together with the optical sensors and optically controlled actuators being developed to take full advantage of the benefits which fiberoptics offers. The requirements for sensors and actuators in advanced propulsion systems are identified. The benefits of using fiberoptics in place of conventional wire systems are discussed as well as the environmental conditions under which the optical components must operate.

  16. Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear fusion appears to be the most promising concept for producing extremely high specific impulse rocket engines. One particular fusion concept which seems to be particularly well suited for fusion propulsion applications is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM). This device would operate at much higher plasma densities and with much larger LD ratios than previous mirror machines. Several advantages accrue from such a design. First, the high LA:) ratio minimizes to a large extent certain magnetic curvature effects which lead to plasma instabilities causing a loss of plasma confinement. Second, the high plasma density will result in the plasma behaving much more Re a conventional fluid with a mean free path shorter than the length of the device. This characteristic helps reduce problems associated with "loss cone" microinstabilities. An experimental GDM device is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to provide an initial assessment of the feasibility of this type of propulsion system. Initial experiments are expected to commence in the late fall of 2000.

  17. Overview of Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of an Intelligent Engine. CDB conducts propulsion control and diagnostics research in support of various programs and projects under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate and the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The paper first provides an overview of the various research tasks in CDB relative to the NASA programs and projects, and briefly describes the progress being made on each of these tasks. The discussion here is at a high level providing the objectives of the tasks, the technical challenges in meeting the objectives and most recent accomplishments. References are provided for each of the technical tasks for the reader to familiarize themselves with the details.

  18. Artist's Concept of NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies is under construction at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory will serve as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of irnovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility will be the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The Laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, will feature a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility will allow it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellantless propulsion. An important area of emphasis will be development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and will set the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  19. NASA Technology Area 1: Launch Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnaughey, Paul; Femminineo, Mark; Koelfgen, Syri; Lepsch, Roger; Ryan, Richard M.; Taylor, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology advancements plans for the NASA Technology Area 1, Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Area (LPSTA). The draft roadmap reviews various propulsion system technologies that will be developed during the next 25 + years. This roadmap will be reviewed by the National Research Council which will issue a final report, that will include findings and recommendations.

  20. Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, Charles E. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP) is a combined activity of Case Western Reserve University, Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) and NASA Lewis. The purpose of ICOMP is to develop techniques to improve problem solving capabilities in all aspects of computational mechanics related to propulsion. The activities at ICOMP during 1991 are described.