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Sample records for airbus in-service aircraft

  1. Comparison of Ozone and Water Vapor Retrieved From Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) and AIRS data over Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Bhattacharjee, P. S.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a key trace gas in tropospheric photochemistry and controls the oxidizing capacity in the troposphere. On oxidation with OH radicals, in turn, could perturb the growth rates of many greenhouse gases such as CH4 and O3. We have used Carbon Monoxide (CO in ppbv), Water (H2O) and ozone (O3) mixing ratio data from Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) over Delhi centrally located in the northern part of India. We have analyzed more than 100 aircraft profile data measured by flights to and from Delhi during period 2003 - 2006. CO from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Measurement of Pollution in the atmosphere (MOPITT), is compared with MOZAIC data. Satellite derived data are found to be be in good agreement with the aircraft data, although the satellite overpass time are not concurrent with aircraft descending/ascending time. CO, H2O and O3 all show prominent seasonal variations and a climatology is produced from the observation data. The seasonal effect on the trace gas concentrations and effect of dust show characteristic behavior.

  2. Measurement of ozone and water vapor by Airbus in-service aircraft: The MOZAIC airborne program, An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenco, Alain; Thouret, ValéRie; NéDéLec, Philippe; Smit, Herman; Helten, Manfred; Kley, Dieter; Karcher, Fernand; Simon, Pascal; Law, Kathy; Pyle, John; Poschmann, Georg; von Wrede, Rainer; Hume, Chris; Cook, Tim

    1998-10-01

    Tentative estimates, using three-dimensional chemistry and transport models, have suggested small ozone increases in the upper troposphere resulting from current aircraft emissions, but have also concluded to significant deficiencies in today's models and to the need to improve them through comparison with extended data sets. The Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program was initiated in 1993 by European scientists, aircraft manufacturers, and airlines to collect experimental data. Its goal is to help understand the atmosphere and how it is changing under the influence of human activity, with particular interest in the effects of aircraft. MOZAIC consists of automatic and regular measurements of ozone and water vapor by five long range passenger airliners flying all over the world. The aim is not to detect direct effects of aircraft emissions on the ozone budget inside the air traffic corridors but to build a large database of measurements to allow studies of chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere, and hence to validate global chemistry transport models. MOZAIC data provide, in particular, detailed ozone and water vapor climatologies at 9-12 km where subsonic aircraft emit most of their exhaust and which is a very critical domain (e.g., radiatively and stratosphere/troposphere exchanges) still imperfectly described in existing models. This will be valuable to improve knowledge about the processes occuring in the upper troposphere and the lowermost stratosphere, and the model treatment of near tropopause chemistry and transport. During MOZAIC I (January 1993-September 1996), fully automatic devices were developed, installed aboard five commercial Airbus A340s, and flown in normal airline service. A second phase, MOZAIC II, started in October 1996 with the aim of continuing the O3 and H2O measurements and doing a feasibility study of new airborne devices (CO, NOy). Between September 1994 and December 1997, 7500

  3. IAGOS : operational start of atmospheric measurements on commercial Airbus aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelec, P.

    2011-12-01

    AUTHORS : Philippe Nedelec 1, Jean-Pierre Cammas 1, Gilles Athier 1, Damien Boulanger 1, Jean-Marc Cousin 1., Andreas Volz-Thomas 2. 1. Laboratoire d' Aerologie, CNRS and University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France. 2. FZ Jülich, Jülich, Germany The MOZAIC program (http://mozaic.aero.obs-mip.fr) measures atmospheric parameters since August 1994, on board 5 commercial Airbus A340 aircraft operated by European airlines, with about 33 000 flights up to present. Three aircraft are still in operation and a new project has been sponsored by the European Community, and French and German national budgets. This project is called IAGOS for "In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing system" and can be considered as an update of Mozaic systems, increasing the performances and the measuring capacity. Plans are to equip 10-20 aircraft in the coming years to ensure a global coverage of the observations. Instrumentation has been developed by the participating partners and has been certified for installation on commercial passenger aircraft. The basic instrumentation includes O3, CO, H2O and clouds sensors, as well as the position and meteorological parameters acquired by the aircraft. One of the optional equipment can also be installed: NOx or NOy or CO2/CH4 or Aerosols. Data measured during flight are automatically transmitted after aircraft landing to CNRS reception centre in Toulouse, France, and made available to scientist some days later. The installation on a Lufthansa Airbus A340 has been finalised and certified by EASA (European Aviation Safety Agency) on July 7th, 2011 and operations started the following day, with data transmitted every landing to the CNRS centre. We will present technical details of the IAGOS aeronautic installation, measuring instruments of the basic system and some results of the first months of IAGOS operation.

  4. Ground-based aircraft exhaust measurements of a Lufthansa Airbus A340 using FTIR emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus; Heland, Joerg

    1999-01-01

    The emission inventories of aircraft emissions are being set up using flight routing data and test rig measurements of the engine manufacturers for certification purposes which have to be extrapolated with respect to the actual parameters at cruise altitude. Precise data from in-service engines are not existing. FTIR-emission-spectroscopy as a remote sensing multi-component exhaust gas analysis method has been further developed to specify the traceable molecules in aircraft exhausts, to determine the detection limits, and to obtain reliable statements concerning its accuracy. The first measurement with the Airbus A340 engine CFM56-5C2 during run up tests at ground level showed the overall ability of the FTIR-emission system to analyze the exhausts of modern gas turbines with high bypass ratio and mixing of fan air into the exhausts before the nozzle exit. Good quality spectra were measured and analyzed with respect to the mixing rations of CO2, H2O, CO, NO, and N2O, and the emission indices of CO, NO, and N2O. Total measurement times at one thrust level should be about 15 minutes to obtain reliable result which can be compared to the ICAO data of this engine.

  5. Nitrogen oxides at the UTLS: Combining observations from research aircraft and in-service aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziereis, Helmut; Stratmann, Greta; Schlager, Hans; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Zahn, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; van, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides have a decisive influence on the chemistry of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. They are key constituents of several reaction chains influencing the production of ozone. They also play an essential role in the cycling of hydroxyl radicals and therefore influence the lifetime of methane. Due to their short lifetime and their variety of sources there is still a high uncertainty about the abundance of nitrogen oxides in the UTLS. Dedicated aircraft campaigns aim to study specific atmospheric questions like lightning, long range transport or aircraft emissions. Usually, within a short time period comprehensive measurements are performed within a more or less restricted region. Therefore, especially trace constituents like nitrogen oxides with short lifetime and a variety of different sources are not represented adequately. On the other hand, routine measurements from in-service aircraft allow observations over longer time periods and larger regions. However, it is nearly impossible to influence the scheduling of in-service aircraft and thereby time and space of the observations. Therefore, the combination of dedicated aircraft campaigns and routine observations might supplement each other. For this study we combine nitrogen oxides data sets obtained with the IAGOS-CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) flying laboratory and with the German research aircraft HALO (High altitude and long range research aircraft). Data have been acquired within the IAGOS-CARIBIC project on a monthly base using a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 since December 2004. About four flights are performed each month covering predominantly northern mid-latitudes. Additional flights have been conducted to destinations in South America and South Africa. Since 2012 HALO has been operational. Nitrogen oxides measurements have been performed during six missions covering mid latitudes, tropical as well as Polar

  6. 78 FR 17071 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... introduced by Airbus modification (mod.) 201500, or mod. 201681 in production, or Airbus Service Bulletin (SB) A330-21-3165, SB A330-21-3160 or SB A340-21-4152 in service. In addition, for aeroplanes already modified in accordance with the instructions of Airbus SB A330-21-3165, SB A330-21-3160 or SB...

  7. Astroplane - The Airbus proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lena, P.

    The design features and capabilities of an airborne IR observatory intended for carriage on a modified Airbus A 300-B2 are presented. The telescope would weigh three tons, including all equipment and operators, and require modifications to the engine regime and trailing flaps suitable for high altitude flight. An extra fuel tank is needed to assure quick flight to altitudes over 40,000 ft, and to fly missions in the Southern Hemisphere. The telescope would have an elevation range from 15-55 deg, good vibration insulation, a 1 cu m focal tracking plane capability, and weigh about 300 kg. The tracking capability would be 3 arcsec (rms), and be built in either a 1.5 m or 2 m configuration. Interior modifications would be needed for mounting the telescope in the cargo aircraft, and the instrument would be shaped for minimum aerodynamic interference.

  8. In-service inspection methods for graphite-epoxy structures on commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    In-service inspection methods for graphite-epoxy composite structures on commercial transport aircraft are determined. Graphite/epoxy structures, service incurred defects, current inspection practices and concerns of the airline and manufacturers, and other related information were determind by survey. Based on this information, applicable inspection nondestructive inspection methods are evaluated and inspection techniques determined. Technology is developed primarily in eddy current inspection.

  9. 78 FR 29666 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 series airplanes; Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes; and Model A340-541 and -642 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of wing tip brakes (WTBs) losing their braking function in service due to heavy wear on the brake discs. WTBs are designed to stop and hold the mechanical......

  10. Characterization of the Aerosol Instrument Package for the In-service Aircraft Global Observing System IAGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, Ulrich; Berg, Marcel; Tettig, Frank; Franke, Harald; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric aerosol influences the climate twofold via the direct interaction with solar radiation and indirectly effecting microphysical properties of clouds. The latter has the largest uncertainty according to the last IPPC Report. A measured in situ climatology of the aerosol microphysical properties is needed to reduce the reported uncertainty of the aerosol climate impact. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platform. However, scientific instrumentation for the measurement of atmospheric constituents requires major modifications before being deployable aboard in-service passenger aircraft. The IAGOS Aerosol Package (IAGOS-P2C) consists of two modified Butanol based CPCs (Model Grimm 5.410) and one optical particle counter (Model Grimm Sky OPC 1.129). A thermodenuder at 250°C is placed upstream the second CPC, thus the number concentrations of the total aerosol and the non-volatile aerosol fraction is measured. The Sky OPC measures the size distribution in the rage theoretically up to 32 μ m. Because of the inlet cut off diameter of D50=3 μ m we are using the 16 channel mode in the range of 250 nm - 2.5 μ m at 1 Hz resolution. In this presentation the IAGOS Aerosol package is characterized for pressure levels relevant for the planned application, down to cruising level of 150 hPa including the inlet system. In our aerosol lab we have tested the system against standard instrumentation with different aerosol test substances in a long duration test. Particle losses are characterized for the inlet system. In addition first results for airborne measurements are shown from a first field campaign.

  11. In-Service Evaluation of HVOF Coated Main Landing Gear on Navy P-3 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, jon L.; Forrest, Clint

    2008-01-01

    Due to the environmental and health concerns with Electroplated Hard Chrome (EHC), the Hard Chrome Alternatives Team (HCAT) has been working to provide an alternative wear coating for EHC. The US Navy selected Tungsten-Carbide Cobalt (WC- 17Co) High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating for this purpose and completed service evaluations on select aircraft components to support the HCAT charter in identifying an alternative wear coating for chrome plating. Other benefits of WC-Co thermal spray coatings over EHC are enhanced corrosion resistance, improved durability, and exceptional wear properties. As part of the HCAT charter and to evaluate HVOF coatings on operational Navy components, the P-3 aircraft was selected for a service evaluation to determine the coating durability as compared to chrome plating. In April 1999, a VP-30 P-3 aircraft was outfitted with a right-hand Main Landing Gear (MLG) shock strut coated with WCCo HYOF thermal spray applied to the piston barrel and four axle journals. The HVOF coating on the piston barrel and axle journals was applied by Southwest United Industries, Inc. This HVOF coated strut assembly has since completed 6,378 landings. Teardown analysis .for this WC-Co HVOF coated MLG asset is significant in assessing the durability of this wear coating in service relative to EHC and to substantiate Life Cycle Cost (LCC) data to support a retrograde transition from EHC to HVOF thermal spray coatings. Findings from this teardown analysis may also benefit future transitions to HVOF thermal spray coatings by identifying enhancements to finishing techniques, mating bearing and liner material improvements, improved seal materials, and improvements in HVOF coating selection.

  12. Fatigue damage assessment of high-usage in-service aircraft fuselage structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosinyi, Bao Rasebolai

    As the commercial and military aircraft fleets continue to age, there is a growing concern that multiple-site damage (MSD) can compromise structural integrity. Multiple site damage is the simultaneous occurrence of many small cracks at independent structural locations, and is the natural result of fatigue, corrosion, fretting and other possible damage mechanisms. These MSD cracks may linkup and form a fatigue lead crack of critical length. The presence of MSD also reduces the structure's ability to withstand longer cracks. The objective of the current study is to assess, both experimentally and analytically, MSD formation and growth in the lap joint of curved panels removed from a retired aircraft. A Boeing 727-232 airplane owned and operated by Delta Air Lines, and retired at its design service goal, was selected for the study. Two panels removed from the left-hand side of the fuselage crown, near stringer 4L, were subjected to extended fatigue testing using the Full-Scale Aircraft Structural Test Evaluation and Research (FASTER) facility located at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) William J. Hughes Technical Center. The state of MSD was continuously assessed using several nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods. Damage to the load attachment points of the first panel resulted in termination of the fatigue test at 43,500 fatigue cycles, before cracks had developed in the lap joint. The fatigue test for the second panel was initially conducted under simulated in-service loading conditions for 120,000 cycles, and no cracks were detected in the skin of the panel test section. Artificial damage was then introduced into the panel at selected rivets in the critical (lower) rivet row, and the fatigue loads were increased. Visually detectable crack growth from the artificial notches was first seen after 133,000 cycles. The resulting lead crack grew along the lower rivet row, eventually forming an 11.8" long unstable crack after 141,771 cycles, at which point the

  13. PM emissions measurements of in-service commercial aircraft engines during the Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald E.; Whitefield, Philip D.; Raper, David

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the results of the physical characterization of aircraft engine PM emission measurements conducted during the Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield Study at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Engine exit plane PM emissions were sampled from on-wing engines on several in-service commercial transport aircraft from the fleet of Delta Airlines. The size distributions were lognormal in nature with a single mode. The geometric mean diameter was found to increase with increasing engine thrust, ranging from 15 nm at idle to 40 nm at takeoff. PM number- and mass-based emission indices were observed to be higher at the idle conditions (4% and 7%), lowest at 15%-30% thrust, and then increase with increasing thrust. Emissions measurements were also conducted during an advected plume study where over 300 exhaust plumes generated by a broad mix of commercial transports were sampled 100-350 m downwind from aircraft operational runways during normal airport operations. The range of values measured at take-off for the different engine types in terms of PM number-based emission index was between 7 × 1015-9 × 1017 particles/kg fuel burned, and that for PM mass-based emission index was 0.1-0.6 g/kg fuel burned. PM characteristics of aircraft engine specific exhaust were found to evolve over time as the exhaust plume expands, dilutes with ambient air, and cools. The data from these measurements will enhance the emissions inventory development for a subset of engines operating in the commercial fleet and improve/validate current environmental impact predictive tools with real world aircraft engine specific PM emissions inputs.

  14. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  15. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  16. Aircraft engine-mounted camera system for long wavelength infrared imaging of in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Markham, James; Cosgrove, Joseph; Scire, James; Haldeman, Charles; Agoos, Ian

    2014-12-01

    This paper announces the implementation of a long wavelength infrared camera to obtain high-speed thermal images of an aircraft engine's in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades. Long wavelength thermal images were captured of first-stage blades. The achieved temporal and spatial resolutions allowed for the identification of cooling-hole locations. The software and synchronization components of the system allowed for the selection of any blade on the turbine wheel, with tuning capability to image from leading edge to trailing edge. Its first application delivered calibrated thermal images as a function of turbine rotational speed at both steady state conditions and during engine transients. In advance of presenting these data for the purpose of understanding engine operation, this paper focuses on the components of the system, verification of high-speed synchronized operation, and the integration of the system with the commercial jet engine test bed. PMID:25554314

  17. Aircraft engine-mounted camera system for long wavelength infrared imaging of in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, James; Cosgrove, Joseph; Scire, James; Haldeman, Charles; Agoos, Ian

    2014-12-01

    This paper announces the implementation of a long wavelength infrared camera to obtain high-speed thermal images of an aircraft engine's in-service thermal barrier coated turbine blades. Long wavelength thermal images were captured of first-stage blades. The achieved temporal and spatial resolutions allowed for the identification of cooling-hole locations. The software and synchronization components of the system allowed for the selection of any blade on the turbine wheel, with tuning capability to image from leading edge to trailing edge. Its first application delivered calibrated thermal images as a function of turbine rotational speed at both steady state conditions and during engine transients. In advance of presenting these data for the purpose of understanding engine operation, this paper focuses on the components of the system, verification of high-speed synchronized operation, and the integration of the system with the commercial jet engine test bed.

  18. Assessment of state-of-the-art of in-service inspection methods for graphite epoxy composite structures on commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine current in-service inspection practices for all types of aircraft structure and particularly for advanced composite structures. The survey consisted of written questionnaires to commercial airlines, visits to airlines, aircraft manufacturers, and government agencies, and a literature search. Details of the survey including visits, questions asked, a bibliography of reviewed literature and details of the results are reported. From the results, a current in-service inspection baseline and a preliminary inspection program for advanced composite structures is documented as appendices to the report.

  19. 77 FR 67256 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 28914). That NPRM proposed to require incorporating a design change to the rudder control... the NPRM (76 FR 28914, May 19, 2011), Airbus has issued the following service information: Airbus... comments received on the proposal (76 FR 28914, May 19, 2011) and the FAA's response to each...

  20. 76 FR 73496 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... horizontal flange of the keel beam located on FR 40 datum on RH and/or LH side of the fuselage, in accordance... the fasteners installation in the junction keel beam fitting at FR 40, in accordance with Airbus... installation in the junction keel beam fitting at FR 40, in accordance with Airbus Service Bulletin...

  1. 78 FR 68347 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... (74 FR 7549, February 18, 2009). Airbus also stated that for Model A340-541 and A340-642 airplanes.... Airbus stated that this requirement for Model A330 MRTT airplanes is equivalent to one in the NPRM (78 FR... (f) of AD 2009-04-07, Amendment 39-15813 (74 FR 7549, February 18, 2009). For all airplanes...

  2. 78 FR 70003 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... series airplanes; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model A300...

  3. Airbus windshear warning and guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonafe, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    From its first designed airplane, Airbus considered mandatory a help in the crew's decision-making process to initiate an escape maneuver and help to successfully realize it. All the Airbus airplanes designed since 1975 included an alpha-floor function and a speed reference control law imbedded in the speed reference system (SRS) box for A 300 and FAC and FCC for A 310, A300/600 and the A 320. Alpha-Floor function takes into account the airplane energy situation considering angle of attack and observed longitudinal situation in order to apply immediately the full power without any pilot action. Speed reference managers control airspeed and/or ground speed in order to survive a maximum in shear situation. In order to comply with the new FAA regulation: Aerospatiale and Airbus developed more efficient systems. A comparison between 1975 and a newly developed system is given. It is explained how the new system improves the situation.

  4. 78 FR 71996 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... published in the Federal Register on March 4, 2013 (78 FR 14029). The NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe... stringer (STGR) 39 on the right-hand (RH) side of FR 24 (Section 13-14 side). The hole of the missing... to Revised EASA AD Airbus requested that paragraph (j) of the NPRM (78 FR 14029, March 4, 2013)...

  5. 77 FR 59732 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... condition during the take off phase. For the above described reasons, this AD requires: --repetitive... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and...-040-AD; Amendment 39-17202; AD 2012-19-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus...

  6. 78 FR 60667 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... incorporation by reference of a certain other publication listed in this AD as of January 24, 2013 (78 FR 1723... 2, 2013 (78 FR 25666), and proposed to supersede AD 2012-26-51, Amendment 39-17312 (78 FR 1723... (78 FR 1723, January 9, 2013)] to require amendment of the AFM by incorporating the Airbus TR....

  7. 77 FR 49705 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... was published in the Federal Register on March 21, 2012 (77 FR 16492). That NPRM proposed to correct... also requested that we revise the NPRM (77 FR 16492, March 21, 2012) to give credit for Airbus Service... revise the ``Costs of Compliance'' section of the NPRM (77 FR 16492, March 21, 2012) to correctly...

  8. 78 FR 54377 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... to the specified products. The NPRM was published in the Federal Register on February 26, 2013 (78 FR... that paragraph (i) of the NPRM (78 FR 12988, February 26, 2013) be revised to delete the word ``new... Vendor Service Information Airbus requested that paragraphs (g), (h), and (i) of the NPRM (78 FR...

  9. 76 FR 68671 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... December 28, 2008, we issued AD 2009-02-04, Amendment 39-15794 (74 FR 7792, February 20, 2009). That AD... issued AD 2009-02-04, Amendment 39-15794 (74 FR 7792, February 20, 2009), Airbus has issued new service... AD 2008-0055 [which corresponds to FAA AD 2009-02-04, Amendment 39-15794 (74 FR 7792, February...

  10. 77 FR 60075 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... AD. Discussion On March 17, 2005, we issued AD 2005-07-04, Amendment 39-14028 (70 FR 16104, March 30... 2005-07-04, Amendment 39-14028 (70 FR 16104, March 30, 2005).] Airbus has later introduced 4 new THSA P..., pins and parts, or incorrect installation of items. AD 2005-07-04, Amendment 39-14028 (70 FR...

  11. 77 FR 67263 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... NPRM was published in the Federal Register on May 8, 2012 (77 FR 26998). That NPRM proposed to correct... could be incorporated in the NPRM (77 FR 26998, May 8, 2012) to allow only one broken piccolo tube link...) of the NPRM (77 FR 26998, May 8, 2012) Airbus requested that we change the word ``engine''...

  12. 77 FR 32060 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... 2007-15-06 R1, Amendment 39- 16097 (74 FR 62219, November 27, 2009). That AD required actions intended..., Amendment 39-16097 (74 FR 62219, November 27, 2009), Airbus has issued A318/A319/A320/A321 Fuel... of the restated requirements of AD 2007-15-06 R1, Amendment 39-16097 (74 FR 62219, November 27,...

  13. 77 FR 64765 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... installation of ground fault interrupters (GFIs). This proposed AD would also require either replacement of the... potential unsafe condition, Airbus developed a modification which includes installing Ground...

  14. 77 FR 46937 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... in the Federal Register on February 28, 2012 (77 FR 11793). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe... 2007-03-18, Amendment 39- 14929 (72 FR 5919, February 8, 2007)] was to mandate, for A300 and A300-600... we revise the NPRM (77 FR 11793, February 28, 2012) to refer to Airbus Mandatory Service...

  15. 77 FR 17327 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2011-1087; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-032-AD; Amendment 39-16967; AD 2012-04-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus...

  16. 77 FR 60653 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... and AFT lower deck cargo holds, as applicable to aeroplane configuration, in accordance with Airbus SB...-14974 (72 FR 10348, March 8, 2007), and retained in this proposed AD take about 4 work-hours per product...; and Model A321-111, -112, -131, -211, -212, -213, -231, and -232 airplanes; certificated in...

  17. 78 FR 22175 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 4, 2012 (77 FR 60653), and proposed to supersede AD 2007-05-13... configuration, in accordance with Airbus SB A320-25-1294 Revision 01. It has recently been identified that for... intent that was proposed in the NPRM (77 FR 60653, October 4, 2012) for correcting the unsafe...

  18. 76 FR 73486 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Airbus SB A340-28-4097 on aeroplanes which were previously in SB Configurations 02 or 03 [required by FAA..., in combination with flammable fuel vapors, could result in fuel tank explosions and consequent loss... in the MCAI. DATES: This AD becomes effective December 14, 2011. The Director of the Federal...

  19. 78 FR 28152 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ..., Amendment 39-16526 (75 FR 75878, December 7, 2010), exempted airplanes on which Airbus Modification 34804..., Amendment 39-16526 (75 FR 75878, December 7, 2010). Except for Model A318-121 and -122 airplanes, and except...) of AD 2010-24-07, Amendment 39-16526 (75 FR 75878, December 7, 2010). Except for airplanes on...

  20. 78 FR 19085 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... (77 FR 73340). That second SNPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products... Airbus requested that the service information referenced in the second SNPRM (77 FR 73340, December 10...' request regarding using the most recent service information. Since the second SNPRM (77 FR 73340,...

  1. 76 FR 77934 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... series airplanes. Since we issued AD 2005-23-02, Amendment 39-14360 (70 FR 69067, November 14, 2005), The... certain ACT equipped airplanes, produced after AD 2005-23-02, Amendment 39-14360 (70 FR 69067, November 14...-14360 (70 FR 69067, November 14, 2005). Applicability (c) This AD applies to Airbus airplanes listed...

  2. 78 FR 40057 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A321 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of certain sliding windows that...

  3. 78 FR 8054 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ...-07, Amendment 39-13741 (69 FR 44592, July 27, 2004). For airplanes on which Airbus Modification 5106...-07, Amendment 39-13741 (69 FR 44592, July 27, 2004). That AD required actions intended to address an... (69 FR 44592, July 27, 2004), the manufacturer has done a reassessment of the previous...

  4. 78 FR 37498 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... Freighter, and -300 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report that a certain wire...

  5. 76 FR 79560 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... airplanes; Model A330-223F and -243F airplanes; and Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 series...

  6. 77 FR 69391 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... A310-204, -222, -304, -322, and -324 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by the manufacturer...

  7. 77 FR 60331 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A321 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report of an uncommanded nose landing...

  8. 77 FR 51729 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes..., A340-200 and A340-300 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report that revealed...

  9. 77 FR 66760 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...-200, A330-300, A340-200, A340- 300, A340-500, and A340-600 series airplanes. This proposed AD...

  10. 78 FR 41286 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... NPRM was published in the Federal Register on October 3, 2012 (77 FR 60331). The NPRM proposed to... America requested that the NPRM (77 FR 60331, October 3, 2012) mandate this revision in lieu of Airbus... the service information that was referenced in the proposed NPRM (77 FR 60331, October 3, 2012) so...

  11. 77 FR 66764 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... the isolation valve 283HN to Frame (FR) 64, between Stringer (STGR) 33 and STGR 34, was too close to... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus...

  12. 77 FR 66762 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes..., -304, -322, and -324 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a design review of the fuel...

  13. 78 FR 41280 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... in the Federal Register on October 4, 2012 (77 FR 60658). The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA... Inspection Requirement Airbus requested that the one-time HFEC inspection in paragraph (g) of the NPRM (77 FR... that this would be an approved method for repair as required by paragraph (g) of the NPRM (77 FR...

  14. 77 FR 58327 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ...-20, Amendment 39- 16017 (74 FR 46313, September 9, 2009), applicable to certain Airbus Model A330-300... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... (hydraulic locking function) after manual depressurization of the corresponding hydraulic circuit. Loss...

  15. A high-fidelity airbus benchmark for system fault detection and isolation and flight control law clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goupil, Ph.; Puyou, G.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a high-fidelity generic twin engine civil aircraft model developed by Airbus for advanced flight control system research. The main features of this benchmark are described to make the reader aware of the model complexity and representativeness. It is a complete representation including the nonlinear rigid-body aircraft model with a full set of control surfaces, actuator models, sensor models, flight control laws (FCL), and pilot inputs. Two applications of this benchmark in the framework of European projects are presented: FCL clearance using optimization and advanced fault detection and diagnosis (FDD).

  16. 78 FR 78705 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...We are superseding Airworthiness Directive (AD) 2010-24-07 for all Airbus Model A318 series airplanes, Model A319 series airplanes, Model A320 series airplanes, and Model A321 series airplanes. AD 2010- 24-07 required repetitive inspections of the 80VU rack lower lateral fittings for damage, repetitive inspections of the 80VU rack lower central support for cracking, and corrective action if......

  17. 77 FR 12989 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200 series airplanes; Model A330-300 series airplanes; Model A340-200 series airplanes; and Model A340-300 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report that three failures of the retraction bracket occurred during fatigue testing before the calculated life limit of the main landing gear (MLG). This AD......

  18. 78 FR 66861 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ...-11, Amendment 39-13230 (68 FR 41521, July 14, 2003), for all Airbus Model A330 and A340 series... May 20, 2004, we issued AD 2004-11-08, Amendment 39-13654 (69 FR 31874, June 8, 2004), for certain... controllability of the airplane. On June 24, 2004, we issued AD 2004-13-25, Amendment 39-13707 (69 FR 41394,...

  19. 77 FR 26996 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A320-214 and-232 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports that medium-head fasteners were installed in lieu of shear-head fasteners on a certain upper panel which manufacturer fatigue and damage tolerance analyses demonstrated could have an affect on panel fatigue life. This proposed AD would require......

  20. 78 FR 78294 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200, A330-200 Freighter, and A330-300 series airplanes; and Model A340-200, A340-300, A340-500, and A340-600 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by the failure of the generator control unit-constant speed motor/generator (GCU-CSM/G) during a final assembly operational test. This proposed AD would......

  1. 77 FR 65812 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200 freighter series airplanes; Model A330-200 and - 300 series airplanes; and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of ram air turbine (RAT) pump failure. This AD requires inspecting the RAT pump anti-stall valve for correct setting, re-identifying the RAT pump, performing a......

  2. 77 FR 40830 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200 freighter series airplanes; Model A330-200 and - 300 series airplanes; and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of ram air turbine (RAT) pump failure. This proposed AD would require inspecting the RAT pump anti- stall valve for correct setting, re-identifying the......

  3. Extreme CO concentrations in the upper troposphere over northeast Asia in June 2003 from the in situ MOZAIC aircraft data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelec, Philippe; Thouret, Valérie; Brioude, Jérôme; Sauvage, Bastien; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Stohl, Andreas

    2005-07-01

    This paper analyses 320 MOZAIC (Measurements of Ozone aboard Airbus in-service airCraft) flights between Europe and East Asia in the year 2003. Carbon monoxide (CO) measurements in the upper troposphere (UT) clearly show the influence of plumes from boreal forest fires burning around Lake Baikal between April and July. On many flights, CO concentrations were above 300 ppbv over several hundred kilometers, with values above 500 ppbv over 50 kilometers and peaks up to 800 ppbv. To our knowledge, such high UT CO concentrations have never been reported before. A case study reveals that biomass burning plumes were rapidly transported by a warm conveyor belt. On the regional and seasonal scale, MOZAIC monthly-mean concentrations were above 150 ppbv on average, i.e. 30% above the northern hemisphere background as determined over Europe.

  4. 75 FR 1538 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus (Type Certificate Previously Held by Airbus Industrie) Model...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Certificate Previously Held by Airbus Industrie) Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 Series Airplanes AGENCY... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034..., Safety. Adoption of the Amendment 0 Accordingly, under the authority delegated to me by the...

  5. Setup and first airborne application of an aerosol optical properties package for the In-service Aircraft Global Observing System IAGOS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, Ulrich; Freedman, Andrew; Herber, Andreas; Mattis, Ina; Berg, Marcel; De Faira, Julia; Petzold, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric aerosol influences the climate twofold via the direct interaction with solar radiation and indirectly effecting microphysical properties of clouds. The latter has the largest uncertainty according to the last IPPC Report. A measured in situ climatology of the aerosol microphysical and optical properties is needed to reduce the reported uncertainty of the aerosol climate impact. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platform. However, scientific instrumentation for the measurement of atmospheric constituents requires major modifications before being deployable aboard in-service passenger aircraft. The prototype of the IAGOS Aerosol Package (IAGOS-P2E) consists of two modified CAPS (Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift) instruments from Aerodyne Research, Inc. and one optical particle counter (Model Grimm Sky OPC 1.129). The CAPS PMex monitor provides a measurement of the optical extinction (the sum of scattering and absorption) of an ambient sample of particles. There is a choice of 5 different wavelengths - blue (450 nm), green (530 nm), red (630 nm), far red (660 nm) and near infrared (780 nm) - which match the spectral bands of most other particle optical properties measurement equipment. In our prototype setup we used the instrument operating at 630nm wavelength (red). The second CAPS instrument we have chosen is the CAPS NO2 monitor. This instrument provides a direct absorption measurement of nitrogen dioxide in the blue region of the electromagnetic spectrum (450 nm). Unlike standard chemiluminescence-based monitors, the instrument requires no conversion of NO2 to another species and thus is not sensitive to other nitro-containing species. In the final IAGOS Setup, up to 4 CAPS might be used to get additional aerosol properties using the

  6. 75 FR 50856 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A380-800 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... been found on the Droop Nose (DN) 1 master sidestay bracket on the inboard leading edge of an Airbus... found on the Droop Nose (DN) 1 master sidestay bracket on the inboard leading edge of an Airbus A380... on the inboard leading edge of an Airbus A380 flight test aeroplane. In case of failure of the...

  7. 76 FR 1346 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300, A300-600, A310, A318, A319, A320, A321, A330-300...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... 5 61 93 44 51; e-mail account.airworth-eas@airbus.com ; Internet http://www.airbus.com . For service... 96; fax +33 5 61 93 44 51; e-mail account.airworth-eas@airbus.com ; Internet http://www.airbus.com... ; Internet http://www.airbus.com . Examining the AD Docket You may examine the AD docket on the Internet...

  8. Aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  9. The significance of wing end configuration in airfoil design for civil aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmer, H.

    1979-01-01

    Lift-dependent induced drag in commercial aviation aircraft is discussed, with emphasis on the necessary compromises between wing and configuration modifications which better lift performance and the weight gains accompanying such modifications. Triangular, rectangular and elliptical configurations for wing ends are considered; attention is also given to airfoil designs incorporating winglets. Water tunnel tests of several configurations are reported. In addition, applications of wing and modifications to advanced technology commercial aviation aircraft and the Airbus A-300 are mentioned.

  10. Depreciation of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  11. Aircraft-type dependency of contrail evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterstrasser, S.; Görsch, N.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of aircraft type on contrail evolution is assessed using a large eddy simulation model with Lagrangian ice microphysics. Six different aircraft ranging from the small regional airliner Bombardier CRJ to the largest aircraft Airbus A380 are taken into account. Differences in wake vortex properties and fuel flow lead to considerable variations in the early contrail geometric depth and ice crystal number. Larger aircraft produce contrails with more ice crystals (assuming that the number of initially generated ice crystals per kilogram fuel is constant). These initial differences are reduced in the first minutes, as the ice crystal loss during the vortex phase is stronger for larger aircraft. In supersaturated air, contrails of large aircraft are much deeper after 5 min than those of small aircraft. A parameterization for the final vertical displacement of the wake vortex system is provided, depending only on the initial vortex circulation and stratification. Cloud resolving simulations are used to examine whether the aircraft-induced initial differences have a long-lasting mark. These simulations suggest that the synoptic scenario controls the contrail cirrus evolution qualitatively. However, quantitative differences between the contrail cirrus properties of the various aircraft remain over the total simulation period of 6 h. The total extinctions of A380-produced contrails are about 1.5 to 2.5 times higher than those from contrails of a Bombardier CRJ.

  12. 75 FR 8549 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 Series Airplanes, Airbus Model A300 B4-600 Series...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... maintenance check performed by an A310 operator, the recommended modification of the lower attachment beam of... attachment beam of rack 101VU by accomplishment of Airbus Service Bulletin (SB) A310-53-2076 was embodied...

  13. European parabolic flight campaigns with Airbus ZERO-G: Looking back at the A300 and looking forward to the A310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Rouquette, Sebastien; Friedrich, Ulrike; Clervoy, Jean-Francois; Gharib, Thierry; Gai, Frederic; Mora, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Aircraft parabolic flights repetitively provide up to 23 s of reduced gravity during ballistic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. The use of parabolic flights is complementary to other microgravity carriers (drop towers, sounding rockets), and preparatory to manned space missions on board the International Space Station and other manned spacecraft, such as Shenzhou and the Chinese Space Station CSS. The European Space Agency (ESA), the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency) and the 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, the German Aerospace Centre) have used the Airbus A300 ZERO-G for research experiments in microgravity, and at Moon and Mars gravity levels, from 1997 until October 2014. The French company Novespace, a subsidiary of CNES, based in Bordeaux, France, is in charge of the organisation of Airbus A300 ZERO-G flights. A total of 104 parabolic flight campaigns have been organised by ESA, CNES and DLR since 1997, including 38 ESA, 34 CNES and 23 DLR microgravity campaigns, two Joint European ESA-CNES-DLR Partial-g Parabolic Flight Campaigns, and seven ESA Student campaigns. After 17 years of good and loyal services, this European workhorse for microgravity research in parabolic flights has been retired. The successor aircraft, the Airbus A310 ZERO-G, is being prepared for a first ESA-CNES-DLR cooperative campaign in Spring 2015. This paper looks back over 17 years of microgravity research in parabolic flights with the A300 ZERO-G, and introduces the new A310 ZERO-G that will be used from 2015 onwards.

  14. 76 FR 34 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... March 6, 1991, we issued AD 91-06-18, amendment 39-6940 (56 FR 10796), for all Airbus Model A310-200... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310... proposed AD by February 17, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may send comments by any of the following methods:...

  15. 76 FR 62653 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ...-15330 (73 FR 2795, January 16, 2008). Applicability (c) This AD applies to Airbus Model A310-203, -204... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310... 25, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may send comments by any of the following methods: Federal...

  16. 76 FR 15872 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... issued AD 2006-09-07, Amendment 39-14577 (71 FR 25919, May 3, 2006), that applies to Airbus Model A330... FR 8610, February 15, 2011), for Airbus Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 series airplanes, to... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3....

  17. 77 FR 55105 - Airbus Operations GmbH Grant of Exemption No. 10611

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR ; or 3. Contacting the person... Administration 14 CFR Part 121 Airbus Operations GmbH Grant of Exemption No. 10611 AGENCY: Federal Aviation...: Summary of Grant of Exemption Docket No.: FAA-2012-0429. Petitioner: Airbus Operations GmbH. Sections...

  18. 77 FR 10409 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... February 7, 2012. Ali Bahrami, Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service... a potential source of ignition and consequent fire or explosion. For the reasons described...

  19. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeßberger, P.; Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Sölch, I.; Schlager, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Petzold, A.; Schäuble, D.; Gayet, J.-F.

    2013-05-01

    The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2-5.9 μm), but differences in particle number densities nice (162-235 cm-3) and in vertical contrail extensions (120-290 m), resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ (0.25-0.94). Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI-1)2/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  20. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeßberger, P.; Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Sölch, I.; Schlager, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Petzold, A.; Schäuble, D.; Gayet, J.-F.

    2013-12-01

    The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of types A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in situ instruments on board DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min-old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2-5.9 μm), but differences in particle number densities nice (162-235 cm-3) and in vertical contrail extensions (120-290 m), resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ at 550 nm (0.25-0.94). Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and, in addition, the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction (CoCiP) model to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. CoCiP model results suggest that the aircraft dependence of climate-relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft-dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with the fuel flow rate, as confirmed by observations. For higher relative humidity with respect to ice (RHI), the analytical relationship suggests a non-linear increase in the form (RHI-12/3. Summarized, our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft-dependent contrail parameterization.

  1. Adaptive structures for fixed and rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Willi; Jänker, Peter; Siemetzki, Markus; Lorkowski, Thomas; Grohmann, Boris; Maier, Rudolf; Maucher, Christoph; Klöppel, Valentin; Enenkl, Bernhard; Roth, Dieter; Hansen, Heinz

    2007-07-01

    Since more than 10 years EADS Innovation Works, which is the corporate research centre of EADS (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company), is investigating smart materials and adaptive structures for aircraft in cooperation with EADS business units. Focus of research efforts are adaptive systems for shape control, noise reduction and vibration control of both fixed and rotary wing aircraft as well as for lift optimisation of fixed wing aircraft. Two outstanding adaptive systems which have been pushed ahead in cooperation with Airbus Germany and Eurocopter Germany are adaptive servo flaps for helicopter rotor blades and innovative high lift devices for fixed wing aircraft which both were tested in flight for the first time representing world premieres. In this paper various examples of adaptive systems are presented which were developed and realized by EADS in recent years.

  2. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) are examined for the 12 year period from 2002-2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations of forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons, summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban site s (Edmonton and Calgary cities) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role on the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values while the poor dispersion in central and south Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Inter-annual variations of satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  3. Spatial and temporal variation in CO over Alberta using measurements from satellites, aircraft, and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2015-04-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer, and its oil sands deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) is examined for the 12-year period from 2002 to 2013. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations in forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons: summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban sites (Edmonton and Calgary) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role in the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows a stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values, while the poor dispersion in central and southern Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Interannual variations in satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions, while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  4. Tropospheric Ozone Variability during the East Asian Summer Monsoon as Observed by Satellite (IASI), Aircraft (MOZAIC) and Ground Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safieddine, S.; Boynard, A.; Hao, N.; Huang, F.; Wang, L.; Ji, D.; Barret, B.; Ghude, S. D.; Coheur, P.-F.; Hurtmans, D.; Clerbaux, C.

    2015-11-01

    Satellite measurements from the thermal Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), the Measurements of OZone and water vapor by in-service AIrbus airCraft (MOZAIC), as well as observations from ground based stations, are used to assess the tropospheric ozone (O3) variability during the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). Six years [2008-2013] of IASI data analysis reveals the ability of the instrument to detect the onset and the progression of the monsoon reflected by a decrease in the tropospheric [0-6] km O3 column due to the EASM, and to reproduce this decrease from one year to the other. Focusing on the period of May-August 2011, taken as an example year, IASI data show clear inverse relationship between tropospheric [0-6] km O3 on one hand and meteorological parameters such as cloud cover, relative humidity and wind speed, on the other hand. Aircraft data from the MOZAIC project at Hyderabad, Nanjing and Guangzhou are used to validate the IASI data and to assess the effect of the monsoon on the vertical distribution of the tropospheric O3 at different locations. Results show good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.74 between the [0-6] km O3 column derived from IASI and MOZAIC. The aircraft data show a decrease in the tropospheric O3 that is more important in the free troposphere than in the boundary layer and at Hyderabad than at the other two Chinese cities. Ground station data at different locations in India and China show a spatiotemporal dependence on meteorology during the monsoon, with decrease up to 22 ppbv in Hyderabad, and up to 5 ppbv in the North China Plain.

  5. 78 FR 46536 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... skin stringers at rib 14 during full-scale fatigue testing and in service. This proposed AD would...: During full-scale fatigue testing, cracks were detected in the bottom wing skin stringers at rib 14. In... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4....

  6. The IAGOS Information System: From the aircraft measurements to the users.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Damien; Thouret, Valérie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.

    2013-04-01

    IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System, http://www.iagos.org) aims at the provision of long-term, frequent, regular, accurate, and spatially resolved in-situ observations of atmospheric chemical composition throughout the troposphere and in the UTLS. It builds on almost 20 years of scientific and technological expertise gained in the research projects MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus In-service Aircraft) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The European consortium includes research centres, universities, national weather services, airline operators and aviation industry. IAGOS consists of two complementary building blocks proving a unique global observation system: IAGOS-CORE deploys newly developed instrumentation for regular in-situ measurements of atmospheric chemical species both reactive and greenhouse gases (O3, CO, NOx, NOy, H2O, CO2, CH4), aerosols and cloud particles. In IAGOS-CARIBIC a cargo container is deployed monthly as a flying laboratory aboard one aircraft. Involved airlines ensure global operation of the network. Today, 5 aircraft are flying with the MOZAIC (3) or IAGOS-CORE (2) instrumentation namely 3 aircraft from Lufthansa, 1 from Air Namibia, and 1 from China Airlines Taiwan. A main improvement and new aspect of the IAGOS-CORE instrumentation compared to MOZAIC is to deliver the raw data in near real time (i.e. as soon as the aircraft lands data are transmitted). After a first and quick validation of the O3 and CO measurements, preliminary data are made available in the central database for both the MACC project (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and scientific research groups. In addition to recorded measurements, the database also contains added-value products such as meteorological information (tropopause height, air mass backtrajectories) and lagrangian model outputs (FLEXPART). Data access is handled by open

  7. Vertical profiles of carbon monoxide and ozone from MOZAIC aircraft over Delhi, India during 2003-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Partha S.; Singh, Ramesh P.; Nédélec, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains is one of the most densely populated regions in the world and associated with large anthropogenic pollutants. Aircraft measurements of two such pollutants, ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) over Delhi, an urban location are analyzed to study monthly and seasonal variations. Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) vertical profile data during 2003-2005 are used in the present study. O3 over Delhi exhibits a lower tropospheric (surface to 850 mb) high value during post-monsoon (October and November) and winter (December-February) seasons, upper tropospheric (above 400 mb) enhancement during pre-monsoon and a zone of high values in the mid-troposphere (700-400 mb) during monsoon. The anthropogenic emissions show high CO concentrations below 800 mb during winter and pre-monsoon seasons in addition to transported CO in the upper atmosphere during pre-monsoon. During winter season, convective activities are suppressed as a result O3 and CO concentrations are higher near surface, while during summer season, surface air masses enhance levels of H2O, CO and other trace gases are lifted and subsequently mixed into the large scale circulation that enhance mixing ratios of many trace gases in the upper level anticyclones. MOZAIC observed vertical O3 profiles are compared with three chemistry-climate coupled models from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase5 (CMIP5) with interactive O3 chemistry. All the models show good agreement with MOZAIC during pre-monsoon, with large biases during winter and monsoon seasons. Finally, monthly variations of MOZAIC observed CO show a good comparison with AIRS and MOPITT satellite data.

  8. 76 FR 8610 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... given in Airbus A340 ALI Document reference AI/SE-M4/95A.0051/97, which is approved by the European... restrictive maintenance requirements/airworthiness limitations as specified in Airbus A340 ALI Document...

  9. 76 FR 8612 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... 2006-09-07, Amendment 39-14577 (71 FR 25919, May 3, 2006), for all Airbus Model A330-200 and -300, and...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have.... Adapted airworthiness limitations were introduced in Airbus A340 Airworthiness Limitations Section...

  10. An Airbus arrives at KSC with third MPLM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An Airbus '''Beluga''' air cargo plane, The Super Transporter, lands at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. Its cargo, from the factory of Alenia Aerospazio in Turin, Italy, is the Italian Space Agency's Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Donatello, the third of three for the International Space Station. The module will be transported to the Space Station Processing Facility for processing. Among the activities for the payload test team are integrated electrical tests with other Station elements in the SSPF, leak tests, electrical and software compatibility tests with the Space Shuttle (using the Cargo Integrated Test equipment) and an Interface Verification Test once the module is installed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay at the launch pad. The most significant mechanical task to be performed on Donatello in the SSPF is the installation and outfitting of the racks for carrying the various experiments and cargo.

  11. An Airbus arrives at KSC with third MPLM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An Airbus '''Beluga''' air cargo plane, The Super Transporter, taxis onto the parking apron at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. Its cargo, from the factory of Alenia Aerospazio in Turin, Italy, is the Italian Space Agency's Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Donatello, the third of three for the International Space Station. The module will be transported to the Space Station Processing Facility for processing. Among the activities for the payload test team are integrated electrical tests with other Station elements in the SSPF, leak tests, electrical and software compatibility tests with the Space Shuttle (using the Cargo Integrated Test equipment) and an Interface Verification Test once the module is installed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay at the launch pad. The most significant mechanical task to be performed on Donatello in the SSPF is the installation and outfitting of the racks for carrying the various experiments and cargo.

  12. An Airbus arrives at KSC with third MPLM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An Airbus '''Beluga''' air cargo plane, The Super Transporter, arrives at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility from the factory of Alenia Aerospazio in Turin, Italy. Its cargo is the Italian Space Agency's Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Donatello, the third of three for the International Space Station. The module will be transported to the Space Station Processing Facility for processing. Among the activities for the payload test team are integrated electrical tests with other Station elements in the SSPF, leak tests, electrical and software compatibility tests with the Space Shuttle (using the Cargo Integrated Test equipment) and an Interface Verification Test once the module is installed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay at the launch pad. The most significant mechanical task to be performed on Donatello in the SSPF is the installation and outfitting of the racks for carrying the various experiments and cargo.

  13. 75 FR 32266 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 Series Airplanes; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Register on February 25, 2010 (75 FR 8549). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... Series Airplanes; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model...

  14. RFID Transponders' Radio Frequency Emissions in Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radio Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Williams, Reuben A.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2006-01-01

    Radiated emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured from several active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The individual tags are different in design and operations. They may also operate in different frequency bands. The process for measuring the emissions is discussed, and includes tag interrogation, reverberation chamber testing, and instrument settings selection. The measurement results are described and compared against aircraft emission limits. In addition, interference path loss for the cargo bays of passenger aircraft is measured. Cargo bay path loss is more appropriate for RFID tags than passenger cabin path loss. The path loss data are reported for several aircraft radio systems on a Boeing 747 and an Airbus A320.

  15. Determination of major combustion products in aircraft exhausts by FTIR emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heland, J.; Schäfer, K.

    The results of ground-based FTIR emission measurements of major combustion products such as CO 2, H 2O, CO, NO, and N 2O of in-service aircraft engines are reported and compared to values published in recent literature. About 25% differences in the NO and CO emission indices at several power settings were found for two military bypass engines of the same type. In addition the measured CO emission index of (51.8±4.6) g kg -1 at idle power of a CFM56-3 engine was about 27% lower than the value given by Spicer et al. (1984, 1994)for this engine type and about 27-48% higher than the ICAO data ( ICAO, 1995) for the whole span of CFM56-3 engines. The CO emission index measured at idle power of a CFM56-5C2 engine of AN Airbus A340 was (24±4) g kg -1 and can be compared to the ICAO value of 34 g kg -1. The N 2O mixing ratios measured at a higher power setting of this engine was found to be 4 ppm and is in the range of reported literature values. Since the NO and CO emissions are strongly connected to the combustion process/efficiency and thus to the state of engine maintainance and/or the engine age, it can be concluded that there are significant engine-to-engine (of the same type) and possibly day-to-day variations in the emission characteristics of aero engines which cannot be neglected for the estimation of the overall air-traffic emissions.

  16. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  17. Aircraft Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

    Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

  18. The new CARIBIC Airbus A340-600 based observational system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C.; Dix, B.; Filippi, D.; Ciais, P.; Ebinghaus, R.; Fischer, H.; Heintzenberg, J.; Hermann, M.; Leuenberger, M.; Martinsson, B.; Platt, U.; Schlager, H.; Schumann, U.; Sprung, D.; van Velthoven, P.; Waibel, A.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2005-12-01

    An airfreight container equipped with automated analysers was deployed onboard of a passenger Boeing 767 ER of LTU International Airways during regular long-distance flights. From November 1997 to the decommissioning of the aircraft in May 2002, 86 flights were carried out on routes to Southern India, the Caribbean, and Southern Africa providing data on distribution of O3, CO, aerosols (nuclei > 4, 12, 18 nm) in the tropopause region from continuous measurements and of CO2, H2, CO, their isotopic composition, halocarbons, hydrocarbons, N2O, CH4, SF6, and elemental aerosol composition from analyses of samples. Based on this experience a totally new and more powerful CARIBIC system has been developed and put into operation, based on a sophisticated inlet system and a new container with a largely extended instrumentation. The inlet system is designed for sampling of small aerosol particles. In addition, it contains 3 separate probes to sample air for measurements of trace gases (heated and PFA coated), total and gaseous water (heated electropolished stainless steel). It also accommodates 3 telescopes of a mini differential optical absorption spectrometer (MAX-DOAS) and a camera for information about clouds. The current instrument package comprises analysers for total and gaseous H2O, O3, NO and NOy, CO, CO2, O2, Hg, and three condensation nuclei counters for particles larger than 4, 12, and 18 nm. A proton transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an optical particle counter are installed to measure selected organic compounds and the particle size distributions, respectively. Samples of aerosol, of air (glass canisters) and of VOC and OVOC (adsorption tubes) are taken as well. This allows for a broad spectrum of laboratory analyses. The new CARIBIC system onboard a new passenger Lufthansa Airbus 340-600 has been in operation since December 2004 on a regular long-distance routes from Frankfurt to Santiago de Chile or Manila. The system is planned to flight monthly for a

  19. Acquisition and use of Orlando, Florida and Continental Airbus radar flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eide, Michael C.; Mathews, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse is developing a lookdown pulse Doppler radar for production as the sensor and processor of a forward looking hazardous windshear detection and avoidance system. A data collection prototype of that product was ready for flight testing in Orlando to encounter low level windshear in corroboration with the FAA-Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR). Airborne real-time processing and display of the hazard factor were demonstrated with TDWR facilitated intercepts and penetrations of over 80 microbursts in a three day period, including microbursts with hazard factors in excess of .16 (with 500 ft. PIREP altitude loss) and the hazard factor display at 6 n.mi. of a visually transparent ('dry') microburst with TDWR corroborated outflow reflectivities of +5 dBz. Range gated Doppler spectrum data was recorded for subsequent development and refinement of hazard factor detection and urban clutter rejection algorithms. Following Orlando, the data collection radar was supplemental type certified for in revenue service on a Continental Airlines Airbus in an automatic and non-interferring basis with its ARINC 708 radar to allow Westinghouse to confirm its understanding of commercial aircraft installation, interface realities, and urban airport clutter. A number of software upgrades, all of which were verified at the Receiver-Transmitter-Processor (RTP) hardware bench with Orlando microburst data to produce desired advanced warning hazard factor detection, included some preliminary loads with automatic (sliding window average hazard factor) detection and annunciation recording. The current (14-APR-92) configured software is free from false and/or nuisance alerts (CAUTIONS, WARNINGS, etc.) for all take-off and landing approaches, under 2500 ft. altitude to weight-on-wheels, into all encountered airports, including Newark (NJ), LAX, Denver, Houston, Cleveland, etc. Using the Orlando data collected on hazardous microbursts, Westinghouse has developed a lookdown pulse Doppler

  20. 76 FR 53305 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... (76 FR 8610, February 15, 2011), addresses Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 series airplanes. (2...-211-AD; Amendment 39-16773; AD 2011-17-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330... reference of a certain other publication listed in this AD as of June 7, 2006 (71 FR 25919, May 3,...

  1. 75 FR 6852 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-12

    ... 2009-NM-002-AD; Amendment 39-16196; AD 2010-04-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on August 25, 2009 (74 FR 42804). That NPRM... air commerce by prescribing regulations for practices, methods, and procedures the Administrator...

  2. 76 FR 39035 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310.... ADDRESSES: You may send comments by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to http... Requirements'' (66 FR 23086, May 7, 2001). In addition to new airworthiness standards for transport...

  3. 76 FR 20496 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A340-541 and -642 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...-105-AD; Amendment 39-16653; AD 2011-08-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A340..., 2011. ADDRESSES: You may send comments by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go... air commerce by prescribing regulations for practices, methods, and procedures the Administrator...

  4. 76 FR 421 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ...-261-AD; Amendment 39-16559; AD 2011-01-06] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310... Register on September 23, 2010 (75 FR 57880), and proposed to supersede AD 2007-02-22, Amendment 39- 14909 (72 FR 3708, January 26, 2007). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the...

  5. 75 FR 66659 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ...-195-AD; Amendment 39-16482; AD 2010-22-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on July 13, 2010 (75 FR 39863), and proposed to supersede AD 2006-09-05, Amendment 39-14575 (71 FR 25921, May 3, 2006). That NPRM proposed to correct...

  6. 75 FR 52652 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Directives; Airbus Model A300 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... proposed AD by October 12, 2010. ADDRESSES: You may send comments by any of the following methods: Federal... air commerce by prescribing regulations for practices, methods, and procedures the Administrator...

  7. 76 FR 27220 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...-091-AD; Amendment 39-16688; AD 2011-10-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310..., 2011 (76 FR 34). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI... Model A310-203 and A310-222 airplanes: Repetitive detailed inspections for cracking of the leading...

  8. 76 FR 50 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310.... ADDRESSES: You may send comments by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to http... proposes to supersede AD 98-26-01, amendment 39-10942 (63 FR 69179, December 16, 1998), to continue...

  9. 76 FR 65938 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ...-257-AD; Amendment 39-16846; AD 2011-22-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310... (76 FR 39035). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI... developing this AD. We received no comments on the NPRM (76 FR 39035, July 5, 2011) or on the...

  10. 76 FR 27227 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ...-090-AD; Amendment 39-16687; AD 2011-10-06] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on January 3, 2011 (76 FR 50). That NPRM proposed... regulations for practices, methods, and procedures the Administrator finds necessary for safety in...

  11. 76 FR 41657 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-342 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ...-249-AD; Amendment 39-16745; AD 2011-14-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330... may send comments by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to http://www... in this AD. The corrective action is repairing any cracks in accordance with a method approved by...

  12. 75 FR 57880 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310... of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the..., we issued AD 2007-02-22, Amendment 39-14909 (72 FR 3708, January 26, 2007). That AD required...

  13. 76 FR 28683 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330 and A340 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... was published on March 22, 2011 (76 FR 15872) for Model A330-200 and -300 series airplanes. That NPRM..., 2011 (76 FR 8612) for Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 series airplanes. That AD requires revising... Directives; Airbus Model A330 and A340 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department...

  14. 75 FR 75870 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ...-076-AD; Amendment 39-16536; AD 2010-25-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300... to the specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on August 27, 2010 (75 FR... air commerce by prescribing regulations for practices, methods, and procedures the Administrator...

  15. 75 FR 39863 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Directives; Airbus Model A310 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION..., 2010. ADDRESSES: You may send comments by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go... proposed AD. Discussion On April 20, 2006, we issued AD 2006-09-05, Amendment 39-14575 (71 FR 25921, May...

  16. 76 FR 53303 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...-210-AD; Amendment 39-16772; AD 2011-17-08] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330... reference of a certain other publication listed in this AD as of June 7, 2006 (71 FR 25919, May 3, 2006... (76 FR 15867), and proposed to supersede AD 2006-09-07, Amendment 39-14577 (71 FR 25919, May 3,...

  17. 76 FR 13075 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-243F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ...-231-AD; Amendment 39-16628; AD 2011-06-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330.... ADDRESSES: You may send comments by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to http... AD * * * is issued to extend the applicability to the newly certified model A330-243F. This AD...

  18. 76 FR 15867 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ...-09-07, Amendment 39-14577 (71 FR 25919, May 3, 2006). That AD requires actions intended to address an... 39-16605 (76 FR 8612, February 15, 2011), for Airbus Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 series... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...

  19. 75 FR 68693 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A380-800 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... AD: Do a one-time detailed visual inspection to ensure the correct installation of the OHDS sensing... ; Internet http://www.airbus.com , at the applicable time specified in paragraph (i)(1) or (i)(2) of this...

  20. 78 FR 76248 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Side Stick Controller

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http:// DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background documents or... A350-900 Series Airplane; Side Stick Controller AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Airbus Model A350-900 series airplanes. These airplanes will have a novel or unusual design...

  1. Tropospheric Ozone Increases in the TTL over the Southern African Region (1990-2007): Insights from Sonde and Aircraft Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashov, N. V.; Thompson, A. M.; Kollonige, D. E.; Coetzee, G.; Thouret, V.; Posny, F.

    2013-12-01

    Ozonesonde records from the early 1990s through 2007 over two subtropical stations, Irene (near Pretoria, South Africa) and Réunion Island (21S, 55W, ~3500 km NE of Irene in the southwest Indian Ocean) have been reported to exhibit free tropospheric (FT) ozone increases. We re-analyzed FT ozone in the1990-2007 Irene sondes, filling in mid-1990s gaps with ozone profiles taken by Measurements of Ozone by Airbus In-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) over nearby Johannesburg. We applied a multivariate regression model to monthly averaged data from the combined dataset as well as to 1992-2011 FT and TTL ozone from Réunion sondes. Taking into account terms for the seasonal cycle, ENSO, and potential vorticity (PV) anomalies, we found that: (1) Statistically significant trends appear predominantly in the middle troposphere up to the tropopause layer (6-11 km over Irene, 6-15 km over Réunion) in winter (June-August), with an increase ~ 1 ppbv/yr over Irene and ~2 ppbv/yr over Réunion. Both stations display a less intense ozone increase above 7 km in November-December. (2) Variability in TTL dynamics and stratosphere-troposphere interactions were considered as plausible explanations for the Irene ozone increases. For the spring, there is a pronounced sensitivity to PV anomalies (+ 70 ppbv ozone/PV unit). We compare these results to our prior study of TTL wave activity at Irene and Réunion and relationships among waves, TTL ozone variability and oscillations like the ENSO. Trend (change in ppbv ozone/year) computed from multivariate regression model for 4-15 km, profiles from Réunion sondes, 1992-2011. Diagonal shading denotes statistical significance.

  2. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS - From dedicated field studies to routine observations of the atmosphere by instrumented passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Thouret, Valerie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Iagos Team

    2013-04-01

    The global distribution of trace species is controlled by a complex interplay between natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks, atmospheric short- to long-range transport, and in future by diverse, largely not yet quantified feedback mechanisms such as enhanced evaporation of water vapour in a warming climate or possibly the release of methane from melting marine clathrates. Improving global trace gas budgets and reducing the uncertainty of climate predictions crucially requires representative data from routine long-term observations as independent constraint for the evaluation and improvement of model parameterizations. IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) is a new European Research Infrastructure which operates a unique global observing system by deploying autonomous instruments aboard a fleet of passenger aircraft. IAGOS consists of two complementary building blocks: IAGOS-CORE deploys newly developed high-tech instrumentation for regular in-situ measurements of atmospheric chemical species (O3, CO, CO2, NOx, NOy, H2O, CH4), aerosols and cloud particles. Involved airlines ensure global operation of the network. In IAGOS-CARIBIC a cargo container is operated as a flying laboratory aboard one passenger aircraft. IAGOS aims at the provision of long-term, frequent, regular, accurate, and spatially resolved in-situ observations of the atmospheric chemical composition in the UTLS and the extra tropical troposphere and on vertical profiles of greenhouse gases, reactive trace gases and aerosols throughout the troposphere. It builds on almost 20 years of scientific and technological expertise gained in the research projects MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus In-service Aircraft) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The European consortium includes research centres, universities, national weather services, airline operators and aviation

  3. STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Michael E. Fisher, President of AeroVisions International, has introduced the Culex light twin engine aircraft which offers economy of operation of a single engine plane, the ability to fly well on one engine, plus the capability of flying from short, unimproved fields of takeoff and landing distances less than 35 feet. Key element of design is an airfoil developed by Langley. Culex was originally intended to be factory built aircraft for special utility markets. However, it is now offered as a build-it-yourself kit plane.

  4. 75 FR 9515 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 Series Airplanes and Model A340-200 and -300...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...-16202; AD 2010-04-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 Series Airplanes and Model A340-200 and -300 Series Airplanes Correction In rule document 2010-3119 beginning on page 7940 in..., under the header ``Applicability,'' item (1) should read: ``(1) Airbus Model A330-201, - 202, -203,...

  5. Virtual verification of the AIRBUS A400M final assembly line industrialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, J. L.; Mas, F.; Serván, J.; Ríos, J.

    2012-04-01

    This document describes the experience gained from the project of implementing the Digital Manufacturing methodology to validate the industrial design of the AIRBUS A400M Final Assembly Line (FAL) in a virtual environment using state of the art Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) tools. The project has generated a remarkable innovation in the industrialization methods and tools used in AIRBUS Military, contributing to the A400M program success. The document presents: the background and reasons motivating the project, the context and the main barriers identified, and the definition of a Final Assembly Line. An innovative concept of industrial Digital Mock-Up (iDMU) was coined, representing the interoperable grouping of product, processes and manufacturing resources data.

  6. Protection of electrical and electronic equipment against lightning indirect effects on the Airbus A340 wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiller, Olaf

    1991-01-01

    The provisions applied to the Airbus A340 wing wiring against lightning indirect effects are presented. The construction and installation of the wiring's shielding systems are described, and the analysis and tests performed to determine the effectiveness of the measures taken are discussed. A first evaluation of the results of the theoretical analysis together with the provisional results of tests indicate a sufficient safety margin between required and achieved protection levels.

  7. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  8. Durability of aircraft composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dextern, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Confidence in the long term durability of advanced composites is developed through a series of flight service programs. Service experience is obtained by installing secondary and primary composite components on commercial and military transport aircraft and helicopters. Included are spoilers, rudders, elevators, ailerons, fairings and wing boxes on transport aircraft and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on helicopters. Materials included in the evaluation are boron/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy and boron/aluminum. Inspection, maintenance, and repair results for the components in service are reported. The effects of long term exposure to laboratory, flight, and outdoor environmental conditions are reported for various composite materials. Included are effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, and aircraft fuels and fluids.

  9. In-Flight Lightning Measurements and Reconstruction on a Metallic and Composite Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiddin, J.-F.; Flourens, F.; De Boer, A.; Bardet, M.; Herve, A.; Perez, G.; Riccio, L.

    2012-05-01

    Based on the success of the In-flight Lightning Strike Damage Assessment System (ILDAS) project launched within the scope of the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Commission and completed in July 2009, the results described in this paper form part of the ILDAS2 project initiated by Airbus Operations SAS in partnership with EADS IW and NLR. The principle aim of ILDAS2 project is to develop a system installed aboard an aircraft in order to determine the level, the current waveform and the attachments points of a lightning strike during an aircraft flight. The expectations linked to ILDAS2, the functional architecture of the system, the status and the projection of this development will be presented.

  10. Is tropospheric ozone over southern Africa really increasing? Evidence from sonde and aircraft profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Balashov, N. V.; Witte, J. C.; Coetzee, J. G. R.; Thouret, V.; Posny, F.

    2014-04-01

    Ozonesonde records from the early 1990's through 2008 over two subtropical stations, Irene (near Pretoria, South Africa) and Réunion Island (21° S, 55° W, ~3500 km NE of Irene in the Indian Ocean) were reported to exhibit free tropospheric (FT) ozone increases. Over Irene a large increase in the urban-influenced boundary layer (BL, 1.5-4 km) was also observed during the 18 year period, equivalent to 30% decade-1. Here we show that the Irene BL trend is at least partly due to a gradual change in the sonde launch times from early morning to the midday period. The FT ozone profiles over Irene in 1990-2007 are re-examined, filling in a 1995-1999 gap with ozone profiles taken by Measurements of Ozone by Airbus In-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) over nearby Johannesburg. A multivariate regression model that accounts for the annual ozone cycle, ENSO and possible tropopause changes was applied to monthly averaged Irene data from 4-11 km and to 1992-2011 Réunion sonde data from 4-15 km. Statistically significant trends appear predominantly in the middle and upper troposphere (UT, 4-11 km over Irene, 5-13 km over Réunion) in winter (June-August), with increases ~1 ppbv yr-1 over Irene and ~2 ppbv yr-1 over Réunion. These changes are equivalent to ~25% and 40-50% decade-1, respectively. Both stations also display smaller positive trends in summer with a 50% decade-1 ozone increase near the tropopause over Réunion in December. To explain the ozone increases, we investigated a time series of dynamical markers, e.g., potential vorticity (PV) at 330-350 K. PV affects UT ozone over Irene in November-December but displays little relationship to ozone over Réunion. A more likely reason for wintertime FT ozone increases over Irene and Réunion appears to be long-range transport of growing pollution in the Southern Hemisphere. The ozone increases are consistent with trajectory origins of air parcels sampled by the sondes and with recent NOx emissions trends estimated for Africa

  11. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  12. Magnetic levitation assisted aircraft take-off and landing (feasibility study - GABRIEL concept)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohacs, Daniel; Rohacs, Jozsef

    2016-08-01

    The Technology Roadmap 2013 developed by the International Air Transport Association envisions the option of flying without an undercarriage to be in operation by 2032. Preliminary investigations clearly indicate that magnetic levitation technology (MagLev) might be an appealing solution to assist the aircraft take-off and landing. The EU supported research project, abbreviated as GABRIEL, was dealing with (i) the concept development, (ii) the identification, evaluation and selection of the deployable magnetic levitation technology, (iii) the definition of the core system elements (including the required aircraft modifications, the ground-based system and airport elements, and the rendezvous control system), (iv) the analysis of the safety and security aspects, (v) the concept validation and (vi) the estimation of the proposed concept impact in terms of aircraft weight, noise, emission, cost-benefit). All results introduced here are compared to a medium size hypothetic passenger aircraft (identical with an Airbus A320). This paper gives a systematic overview of (i) the applied methods, (ii) the investigation of the possible use of magnetic levitation technology to assist the commercial aircraft take-off and landing processes and (iii) the demonstrations, validations showing the feasibility of the radically new concept. All major results are outlined.

  13. Modeling and assessment of civil aircraft evacuation based on finer-grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhi-Ming; Lv, Wei; Jiang, Li-Xue; Xu, Qing-Feng; Song, Wei-Guo

    2016-04-01

    Studying civil aircraft emergency evacuation process by using computer model is an effective way. In this study, the evacuation of Airbus A380 is simulated using a Finer-Grid Civil Aircraft Evacuation (FGCAE) model. In this model, the effect of seat area and others on escape process and pedestrian's "hesitation" before leaving exits are considered, and an optimized rule of exit choice is defined. Simulations reproduce typical characteristics of aircraft evacuation, such as the movement synchronization between adjacent pedestrians, route choice and so on, and indicate that evacuation efficiency will be determined by pedestrian's "preference" and "hesitation". Based on the model, an assessment procedure of aircraft evacuation safety is presented. The assessment and comparison with the actual evacuation test demonstrate that the available exit setting of "one exit from each exit pair" used by practical demonstration test is not the worst scenario. The half exits of one end of the cabin are all unavailable is the worst one, that should be paid more attention to, and even be adopted in the certification test. The model and method presented in this study could be useful for assessing, validating and improving the evacuation performance of aircraft.

  14. The global decentralization of commercial aircraft production: Implications for United States-based manufacturing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, David John

    This research explores the role of industrial offset agreements and international subcontracting patterns in the global decentralization of US commercial aircraft production. Particular attention is given to the manufacturing processes involved in the design and assembly of large passenger jets (100 seats or more). It is argued that the current geography of aircraft production at the global level has been shaped by a new international distribution of input costs and technological capability. Specifically, low-cost producers within several of the newly emerging markets (NEMs) have acquired front-end manufacturing expertise as a direct result of industrial offset contracts and/or other forms of technology transfer (e.g. international joint-ventures, imports of advanced machine tools). The economic and technological implications of industrial offset (compensatory trade) are examined with reference to the commercial future of US aircraft production. Evidence gathered via personal interviews with both US and foreign producers suggests that the current Western duopoly (Boeing and Airbus) faces a rather uncertain future. In particular, the dissertation shows that the growth of subcontracting and industrial offset portends the transformation of Boeing from an aircraft manufacturer to a systems integrator. The economic implications of this potential reconfiguration of the US aircraft industry are discussed in the context of several techno-market futures, some of which look rather bleak for US workers in this industry.

  15. Ageing airplane repair assessment program for Airbus A300

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaillardon, J. M.; Schmidt, HANS-J.; Brandecker, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of the repair categorization activities and includes all details about the methodologies developed for determination of the inspection program for the skin on pressurized fuselages. For inspection threshold determination two methods are defined based on fatigue life approach, a simplified and detailed method. The detailed method considers 15 different parameters to assess the influences of material, geometry, size location, aircraft usage, and workmanship on the fatigue life of the repair and the original structure. For definition of the inspection intervals a general method is developed which applies to all concerned repairs. For this the initial flaw concept is used by considering 6 parameters and the detectable flaw sizes depending on proposed nondestructive inspection methods. An alternative method is provided for small repairs allowing visual inspection with shorter intervals.

  16. 76 FR 61645 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 Series Airplanes; Model A330-300 Series Airplanes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 Series Airplanes; Model A330-300 Series Airplanes; Model A340-200 Series Airplanes; and Model A340... November 21, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may send comments by any of the following methods: Federal...

  17. 76 FR 4219 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 Series Airplanes; Model A330-300 Series Airplanes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...-279-AD; Amendment 39-16583; AD 2011-02-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 Series Airplanes; Model A330-300 Series Airplanes; Model A340-200 Series Airplanes; and Model A340... comments on this AD by March 11, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may send comments by any of the following...

  18. 76 FR 16582 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... continuing airworthiness information (MCAI) originated by an aviation authority of another country...

  19. 78 FR 6198 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A318-112 Airplane (S/N 3238); Certification of Cooktops

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Airbus Model A318- 112 airplane, serial number (S/N) 3238. This airplane, as modified by Fokker Services B.V., will have a novel or unusual design feature associated with a cooktop installation. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain......

  20. 76 FR 63159 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-243F Airplanes Equipped With Rolls Royce Trent 700...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...-243F Airplanes Equipped With Rolls Royce Trent 700 Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... AD applies to Airbus Model A330-243F airplanes; certificated in any category; equipped with Rolls... 39-12221 (66 FR 23838, May 10, 2001] * * * is issued to extend the applicability to the...

  1. 75 FR 8551 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300, A300-600, and A310 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300... difficulties to pressurise the hydraulic reservoirs, due to leakage of the Crissair reservoir...

  2. 78 FR 76254 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Control Surface Awareness and Mode...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov/ . Docket: Background documents or... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane... Model A350-900 series airplanes. These airplanes will have a novel or unusual design...

  3. 15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vans, and other carriers and containers. (a) Vessels, locomotives, aircraft, rail cars, trucks, other..., aircraft, locomotive, rail car, vehicle, or container, whether in service or newly built or manufactured... regulations in this part, identifying the port through or from which the vessel, aircraft, locomotive,...

  4. 15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vans, and other carriers and containers. (a) Vessels, locomotives, aircraft, rail cars, trucks, other..., aircraft, locomotive, rail car, vehicle, or container, whether in service or newly built or manufactured... regulations in this part, identifying the port through or from which the vessel, aircraft, locomotive,...

  5. 15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vans, and other carriers and containers. (a) Vessels, locomotives, aircraft, rail cars, trucks, other..., aircraft, locomotive, rail car, vehicle, or container, whether in service or newly built or manufactured... regulations in this part, identifying the port through or from which the vessel, aircraft, locomotive,...

  6. 15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vans, and other carriers and containers. (a) Vessels, locomotives, aircraft, rail cars, trucks, other..., aircraft, locomotive, rail car, vehicle, or container, whether in service or newly built or manufactured... regulations in this part, identifying the port through or from which the vessel, aircraft, locomotive,...

  7. Analyzing atmospheric trace gases and aerosols using passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenninkmeijer, , C. A. M.; Slemr, F.; Koeppel, C.; Scharffe, D. S.; Pupek, M.; Lelieveld, J.; Crutzen, P.; Zahn, A.; Sprung, D.; Fischer, H.; Hermann, M.; Reichelt, M.; Heintzenberg, J.; Schlager, H.; Ziereis, H.; Schumann, U.; Dix, B.; Platt, U.; Ebinghaus, R.; Martinsson, B.; Ciais, P.; Filippi, D.; Leuenberger, M.; Oram, D.; Penkett, S.; van Velthoven, P.; Waibel, A.

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) resumed regular measurement flights with an extended scientific payload in December 2004. After an automated measurement container was successfully deployed on intercontinental flights using a Boeing 767 from 1997 to 2002, a far more powerful package now is deployed using a new Airbus A340-600 made available by Lufthansa German Airlines (Star Alliance). The new CARIBIC system will help address a range of current atmospheric science questions during its projected lifetime of 10 years.European and Japanese scientists are developing a variety of atmospheric chemistry research and monitoring projects based on the use of passenger aircraft. This is a logical approach with a main advantage being that near-global coverage is obtained, in contrast to limited coverage through research aircraftbased expeditions. Moreover, highly detailed and consistent data sets can be acquired, as compared to satellite observations in general. In addition, even compared to land-based observatories, operational costs are moderate.

  8. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  9. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  10. Combat aircraft noise: The operator's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogg, R.

    1992-04-01

    Combat aircraft are not subject to the same noise reduction regulations as civil aircraft. Additionally, combat aircraft are operated closer to their performance limits and at high power settings for extended periods. There is general pressure to reduce noise of all kinds, but particularly noise from low flying aircraft. Although there is little that can be done to quiet in-service engines, operational palliatives, such as noise abatement procedures and restrictions on low flying, have been introduced. Moreover, there has been a concerted education and public relations campaign, and numerous airspace management changes have been introduced to reduce the impact of low flying on the population. These subjects were considered during a Pilot Study into aircraft noise under the auspices of the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society; the findings of the Study are discussed, giving both the international viewpoint and the UK perspective in particular. Some options for the reduction of low flying are also considered, but so long as military aircraft need to fly low to evade enemy air defences, low flying will remain a principal tactic of NATO air forces, and peacetime training will remain an essential military requirement. Thus, noise from low flying combat aircraft will remain a sensitive issue, and ways of reducing it will continue to be of importance for many years to come.

  11. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  12. Simulator evaluation of optimal thrust management/fuel conservation strategies for airbus aircraft on short haul routes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bochem, J. H.; Mossman, D. C.; Lanier, P. D.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating optimal concepts into a practical system was determined. Various earlier theoretical analyses were confirmed, and insight was gained into the sensitivity of fuel conservation strategies to nonlinear and second order aerodynamic and engine characteristics. In addition to the investigation of optimal trajectories the study ascertained combined fuel savings by utilizing various procedure-oriented improvements such as delayed flap/decelerating approaches and great circle navigation.

  13. AIRCRAFT DEPAINTING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical paint strippers historically used for aircraft contained toxic and hazardous components; aircraft depainting operations are a major source of hazardous waste generation in DOD. Federal and state agencies have begun to restrict using these hazardous materials and Governme...

  14. Aircraft noise problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The problems related to aircraft noise were studied. Physical origin (sound), human reaction (noise), quantization of noise and sound sources of aircraft noise are discussed. Noise abatement at the source, technical, fleet-political and air traffic measures are explained. The measurements and future developments are also discussed. The position of Lufthansa as regards aircraft noise problems is depicted.

  15. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  16. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  17. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  18. First Results of Noy Measurements Made In Mozaic Aboard Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz-Thomas, A.; Paetz, H.-W.; Houben, N.; Petrick, W.; Heil, T.; Smit, H. G. J.; Kley, D.; Marenco, A.; Nedelec, P.

    The European MOZAIC Program comprises measurements of ozone and water va- por aboard five Airbus A340 aircraft operated by four European airlines. Since the beginning of the project in 1994, more than 130.000 hours of in flight data were col- lected. In the second phase of MOZAIC, a small, light-weight and fully automatic NOy instrument was developed at FZ-Jülich and certified by Lufthansa Technik. The NOy instrument, which is calibrated in-situ with zero air, NO and NO2, was installed aboard an aircraft of Lufthansa in Jan 2001 and is producing data since April 2001 (more than 200 successful flights so far). The instrument is exchanged and serviced at monthly intervals. The detection limit is 50 ppt at an integration time of 4s (principal time resolution 0.1 s). The NOy data obtained from flights between Europe, North America, Asia and Africa are discussed in terms of the correlation with the other trace gases (O3, H2O, and CO) which allow to identify the influence of stratospheric air and pollution plumes from the continental boundary layer. Recent aircraft emissions are detected as short spikes in the high resolution data.

  19. First Results of NOy Measurements Made in MOZAIC Aboard Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volz-Thomas, A.; Paetz, H. W.; Houben, N.; Petrick, W.; Heil, T.; Smit, H. G.; Kley, D.; Marenco, A.; Nedelec, P.

    2001-12-01

    The European MOZAIC Program comprises measurements of ozone and water vapor aboard five Airbus A340 aircraft operated by four European airlines. Since the beginning of the project in 1994, more than 150.000 hours of in-flight data were collected. In the second phase of MOZAIC, a small, light-weight and fully automatic NOy instrument was developed at FZ-Jülich and certified by Lufthansa Technik. The NOy instrument, which is calibrated in-situ with zero air, NO and NO2, was installed aboard an aircraft of Lufthansa in Jan 2001 and is producing data since April 2001 (more than 100 successful flights so far). The instrument is exchanged and serviced at monthly intervals. The detection limit is 50 ppt at an integration time of 4s (principal time resolution 0.1 s). The NOy data obtained from flights between Europe, North America, Asia and Africa are discussed in conjunction with ozone and water vapor with respect to the influence of stratospheric air, pollution plumes from the continental boundary layer and aircraft emissions.

  20. Understanding electrostatic charge behaviour in aircraft fuel systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvy, Jill A.; Hooker, Phil; Bennett, Darrell

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents work on the simulation of electrostatic charge build-up and decay in aircraft fuel systems. A model (EC-Flow) has been developed by BAE Systems under contract to Airbus, to allow the user to assess the effects of changes in design or in refuel conditions. Some of the principles behind the model are outlined. The model allows for a range of system components, including metallic and non-metallic pipes, valves, filters, junctions, bends and orifices. A purpose-built experimental rig was built at the Health and Safety Laboratory in Buxton, UK, to provide comparison data. The rig comprises a fuel delivery system, a test section where different components may be introduced into the system, and a Faraday Pail for measuring generated charge. Diagnostics include wall currents, charge densities and pressure losses. This paper shows sample results from the fitting of model predictions to measurement data and shows how analysis may be used to explain some of the observed trends.

  1. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  2. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  3. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  4. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  5. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  6. NASA's B377SGT Super Guppy Turbine cargo aircraft touches down at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's B377SGT Super Guppy Turbine cargo aircraft touches down at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on June 11, 2000 to deliver the latest version of the X-38 flight test vehicle to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. The B-377SGT Super Guppy Turbine evolved from the 1960s-vintage Pregnant Guppy, Mini Guppy and Super Guppy, used for transporting sections of the Saturn rocket used for the Apollo program moon launches and other outsized cargo. The various Guppies were modified from 1940's and 50's-vintage Boeing Model 377 and C-97 Stratocruiser airframes by Aero Spacelines, Inc., which operated the aircraft for NASA. NASA's Flight Research Center assisted in certification testing of the first Pregnant Guppy in 1962. One of the turboprop-powered Super Guppies, built up from a YC-97J airframe, last appeared at Dryden in May, 1976 when it was used to transport the HL-10 and X-24B lifting bodies from Dryden to the Air Force Museum at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. NASA's present Super Guppy Turbine, the fourth and last example of the final version, first flew in its outsized form in 1980. It and its three sister ships were built in the 1970s for Europe's Airbus Industrie to ferry outsized structures for Airbus jetliners to the final assembly plant in Toulouse, France. It later was acquired by the European Space Agency, and then acquired by NASA in late 1997 for transport of large structures for the International Space Station to the launch site. It replaced the earlier-model Super Guppy, which has been retired and is used for spare parts. NASA's Super Guppy Turbine carries NASA registration number N941NA, and is based at Ellington Field near the Johnson Space Center. For more information on NASA's Super Guppy Turbine, log onto the Johnson Space Center Super Guppy web page at http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/station/assembly/superguppy/

  7. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  8. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  9. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  10. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  11. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  12. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  13. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  14. 75 FR 28475 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 Series Airplanes, and Model A340-300...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...-122-AD; Amendment 39-16304; AD 2010-10-25] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 Series Airplanes, and Model A340-300 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on October 19, 2009 (74 FR 53440). That...

  15. 75 FR 7940 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 Series Airplanes and Model A340-200 and -300...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...-138-AD; Amendment 39-16202; AD 2010-04-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 Series Airplanes and Model A340-200 and -300 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on December 1, 2009 (74 FR 62713). That...

  16. 75 FR 46873 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A318-111 and A318-112 Airplanes and Model A319, A320, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 35601). That earlier NPRM proposed to require actions intended to address the unsafe... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model...

  17. 75 FR 7942 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A310-203, -221, -222 Airplanes; and Model A300 F4-605R and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... published in the Federal Register on July 16, 2009 (74 FR 34509). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe.... Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February...-043-AD; Amendment 39-16206; AD 2010-04-13] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model...

  18. 75 FR 47207 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 Series Airplanes, and Model A340-200...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...- 19, Amendment 39-16364 (75 FR 39814, July 13, 2010), for certain Airbus Model A330-200 and -300... A340-200, -300, -500 and -600 series airplanes. A certain service bulletin number in Note 3 of the regulatory section is incorrect. This document corrects that service bulletin number. In all other...

  19. 75 FR 28480 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 Series Airplanes; Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, F4-600R...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on February 25, 2010 (75 FR 8551). That NPRM... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3...-189-AD; Amendment 39-16308; AD 2010-11-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model...

  20. 76 FR 6581 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... System Design Review, Flammability Reduction and Maintenance and Inspection Requirements'' (66 FR 23086... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model...

  1. 75 FR 60010 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 Series Airplanes and Model A340-200...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 Series Airplanes and Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 Series... connector internal arcing and hydraulic system malfunction. In addition, as the connectors are located...

  2. 76 FR 27242 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on February 7, 2011 (76 FR 6581). That NPRM... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or...-273-AD; Amendment 39-16691; AD 2011-10-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model...

  3. 75 FR 38947 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A330-200 and A330-300 Series Airplanes, and Model A340-200...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or negative, on a substantial number of small entities under the criteria of the... (back-up speed scale) has been embodied in production or Airbus Service Bulletin A330-34-3213,...

  4. 75 FR 12965 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes; Seats With Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ..., except Federal holidays, between 7:30 a.m. and 4 p.m. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alan Sinclair, FAA... preamble between 7:30 a.m. and 4 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. We will consider all... the postcard and mail it back to you. Background On January 15, 2010, Airbus Industrie, 1 Rond...

  5. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  6. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  7. Loftin Collection - Boeing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1933-01-01

    Either a F2B-1 or F3B-1, both aircraft were built by Boeing and both were powered by Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines. These fighters were intended for Navy shipboard use. Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers the Lexington and the Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was the next to last F3B-1 build in November 1928.

  8. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  9. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  10. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  11. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  12. Microwave imaging of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Bernard D.

    1988-12-01

    Three methods of imaging aircraft from the ground with microwave radar with quality suitable for aircraft target recognition are described. The imaging methods are based on a self-calibration procedure called adaptive beamforming that compensates for the severe geometric distortion inherent in any imaging system that is large enough to achieve the high angular resolution necessary for two-dimensional target imaging. The signal processing algorithm is described and X-band (3-cm)-wavelength experiments demonstrate its success on commercial aircraft flying into Philadelphia International Airport.

  13. Millimeter-Wave Localizers for Aircraft-to-Aircraft Approach Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Adrian J.

    2013-01-01

    Aerial refueling technology for both manned and unmanned aircraft is critical for operations where extended aircraft flight time is required. Existing refueling assets are typically manned aircraft, which couple to a second aircraft through the use of a refueling boom. Alignment and mating of the two aircraft continues to rely on human control with use of high-resolution cameras. With the recent advances in unmanned aircraft, it would be highly advantageous to remove/reduce human control from the refueling process, simplifying the amount of remote mission management and enabling new operational scenarios. Existing aerial refueling uses a camera, making it non-autonomous and prone to human error. Existing commercial localizer technology has proven robust and reliable, but not suited for aircraft-to-aircraft approaches like in aerial refueling scenarios since the resolution is too coarse (approximately one meter). A localizer approach system for aircraft-to-aircraft docking can be constructed using the same modulation with a millimeterwave carrier to provide high resolution. One technology used to remotely align commercial aircraft on approach to a runway are ILS (instrument landing systems). ILS have been in service within the U.S. for almost 50 years. In a commercial ILS, two partially overlapping beams of UHF (109 to 126 MHz) are broadcast from an antenna array so that their overlapping region defines the centerline of the runway. This is called a localizer system and is responsible for horizontal alignment of the approach. One beam is modulated with a 150-Hz tone, while the other with a 90-Hz tone. Through comparison of the modulation depths of both tones, an autopilot system aligns the approaching aircraft with the runway centerline. A similar system called a glide-slope (GS) exists in the 320-to-330MHz band for vertical alignment of the approach. While this technology has been proven reliable for millions of commercial flights annually, its UHF nature limits

  14. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  15. Predicting Aircraft Noise Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Computer program developed for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. Noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust jet flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine and airframe. Program written in FORTRAN IV.

  16. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  17. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  18. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  19. Aircraft Safety Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, G.

    1985-01-01

    Fabrication and testing of honeycomb sandwich aircraft panels are discussed. Also described is the use of the following instruments: thermogravimetric analyzer, differential scanning calorimeter, limiting oxygen index, and infrared spectrometer.

  20. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  1. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  2. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  3. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  4. Aircraft of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeger, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic problems connected with attempts to increase the size and capacity of transport aircraft are discussed. According to the square-cubic law, the increase in structural weight is proportional to the third power of the increase in the linear dimensions of the aircraft when geomettric similarity is maintained, while the surface area of the aircraft increases according to the second power. A consequence is that the fraction of useful weight will decrease as aircraft increase in size. However, in flying-wing designs in which the whole load on the wing is proportional to the distribution of lifting forces, the total bending moment on the wing will be sharply reduced, enabling lighter construction. Flying wings may have an ultimate capacity of 3000 passengers.

  5. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  6. ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT MOTIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed by Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, as a technique for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data, to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This technique should prove useful as a source of data in the investigation of commercial airline accidents and in the analysis of accidents involving aircraft which do not have onboard data recorders (e.g., military, short-haul, and general aviation). The technique used to determine the aircraft motions involves smoothing of raw radar data. These smoothed results, in combination with other available information (wind profiles and aircraft performance data), are used to derive the expanded set of data. This program uses a cubic least-square fit to smooth the raw data. This moving-arc procedure provides a smoothed time history of the aircraft position, the inertial velocities, and accelerations. Using known winds, these inertial data are transformed to aircraft stability axes to provide true airspeed, thrust-drag, lift, and roll angle. Further derivation, based on aircraft dependent performance data, can determine the aircraft angle of attack, pitch, and heading angle. Results of experimental tests indicate that values derived from ATC radar records using this technique agree favorably with airborne measurements. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode, and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of 64k (octal) of 60 bit words.

  7. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  8. Monitoring Integrity Of Composite Aircraft Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Shu Shing; Chen, Kuan-Luen; Kuo, An-Yu; Riccardella, Peter C.; Mucciardi, Anthony N.; Andrews, Robert J.; Grady, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    System developed that monitors integrity of composite-material structural components of aircraft in service. Includes strain gauges and accelerometers installed permanently in components to monitor vibrations, microprocessor-based data-acquisition system to process outputs of these vibration sensors, and desktop computer to analyze acquired data. By automating significant part of inspection process, system reduces amount of time needed for inspection and cost of inspection equipment. Contributes to safety by giving timely warning of hidden flaws that necessitate early, detailed inspection of critical components to determine whether components should be replaced immediately.

  9. Pathfinder Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long- duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar- powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  10. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  11. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  12. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  14. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  15. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  16. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  17. Damage tolerance for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The damage tolerance experience in the United States Air Force with military aircraft and in the commercial world with large transport category aircraft indicates that a similar success could be achieved in commuter aircraft. The damage tolerance process is described for the purpose of defining the approach that could be used for these aircraft to ensure structural integrity. Results of some of the damage tolerance assessments for this class of aircraft are examined to illustrate the benefits derived from this approach. Recommendations are given for future damage tolerance assessment of existing commuter aircraft and on the incorporation of damage tolerance capability in new designs.

  18. Performance retention of the RB211 powerplant in service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astridge, B. L.; Pinder, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms of deterioration is essential in order that features to counteract performance degradation can be built into the basic design of an engine and nacelle. Furthermore, the interpretation must be continued in service for effective feedback to provide modifications which may be necessary in maintaining a satisfactory performance retention program. The in service assessment must be accurate as to magnitude and causes and this requires consideration of: (1) the powerplant as a complete entity, i.e., the engine components and nacelle including the thrust reverser; (2) measurement of performance in flight rather than by sole reliance on the scaling of test cell data to flight conditions (although some correlation should be possible); and (3) the relationship of engine parts condition to overhaul performance and in flight deterioration level of that engine. These aspects are addressed by consideration of the RB211 engine in service in both the Lockheed L1011 Tristar and Boeing 747 aircraft.

  19. Aircraft icing instrumentation: Unfilled needs. [rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A list of icing instrumentation requirements are presented. Because of the Army's helicopter orientation, many of the suggestions are specific to rotary wing aircraft; however, some of the instrumentation are also suitable for general aviation aircraft.

  20. Emissions from queuing aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, H.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of the FAA (U.S. Federal Aviation Administration) Simplex mathematical model, which employs a simple point-source algorithm with provisions for selecting a particular plume height and initial box size for each aircraft being analyzed, to predict air quality through modeling emissions released from queuing aircraft was verified by measurements of carbon monoxide emissions from such aircraft during a five-day period at Los Angeles International Airport. The model predicted carbon monoxide concentrations of 4 ppm (National Ambient Air Quality Standard limit value is 35 ppm) at expected populated locations during the highest activity hour monitored. This study should also apply to other engine exhaust gases such as NO/sub x/.

  1. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  2. Scaling aircraft noise perception.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollerhead, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Following a brief review of the background to the study, an extensive experiment is described which was undertaken to assess the practical differences between numerous alternative methods for calculating the perceived levels of individual aircraft flyover wounds. One hundred and twenty recorded sounds, including jets, turboprops, piston aircraft and helicopters were rated by a panel of subjects in a pair comparison test. The results were analyzed to evaluate a number of noise rating procedures, in terms of their ability to accurately estimate both relative and absolute perceived noise levels over a wider dynamic range (84-115 dB SPL) than had generally been used in previous experiments. Performances of the different scales were examined in detail for different aircraft categories, and the merits of different band level summation procedures, frequency weighting functions, duration and tone corrections were investigated.

  3. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  4. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  5. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  6. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid, spray on elastomeric polyurethanes are selected and investigated as best candidates for aircraft external protective coatings. Flight tests are conducted to measure drag effects of these coatings compared to paints and a bare metal surface. The durability of two elastometric polyurethanes are assessed in airline flight service evaluations. Laboratory tests are performed to determine corrosion protection properties, compatibility with aircraft thermal anti-icing systems, the effect of coating thickness on erosion durability, and the erosion characteristics of composite leading edges-bare and coated. A cost and benefits assessment is made to determine the economic value of various coating configurations to the airlines.

  7. Aircraft Flutter Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Wilmer Reed gained international recognition for his innovative research, contributions and patented ideas relating to flutter and aeroelasticity of aerospace vehicles at Langley Research Center. In the early 1980's, Reed retired from Langley and joined the engineering staff of Dynamic Engineering Inc. While at DEI, Reed conceived and patented the DEI Flutter Exciter, now used world-wide in flight flutter testing of new or modified aircraft designs. When activated, the DEI Flutter Exciter alternately deflects the airstream upward and downward in a rapid manner, creating a force similar to that produced by an oscillating trailing edge flap. The DEI Flutter Exciter is readily adaptable to a variety of aircraft.

  8. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  9. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  10. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  11. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  12. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  13. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; David, J.; Heitman, K.; Crocker, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The revived interest in the design of propeller driven aircraft is based on increasing fuel prices as well as on the need for bigger short haul and commuter aircraft. A major problem encountered with propeller driven aircraft is propeller and exhaust noise that is transmitted through the fuselage sidewall structure. Part of the work which was conducted during the period April 1 to August 31, 1983, on the studies of sound transmission through light aircraft walls is presented.

  14. Aircraft community noise impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) conduct a program to determine the community noise impact of advanced technology engines when installed in a supersonic aircraft, (2) determine the potential reduction of community noise by flight operational techniques for the study aircraft, (3) estimate the community noise impact of the study aircraft powered by suppressed turbojet engines and by advanced duct heating turbofan engines, and (4) compare the impact of the two supersonic designs with that of conventional commercial DC-8 aircraft.

  15. The variable density aircraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    In the variable density aircraft concept the aircraft's density is varied by varying its volume. This is accomplished by combining a variable volume hull, which is called the dynapod, with intrinsic means for the controlled variation of a mass of working fluid or substance within the aircraft. The dynapod is a hinged structure and follows the volumetric variations of the working fluid. The result is a variable density hull, which with the attachment of power plants, etc., becomes a variable density aircraft.

  16. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  17. 75 FR 8479 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A340-541 and -642 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as: During the A340-600 full scale... condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: During the A340-600 full scale fatigue test, cracks... not corrected, can affect the aircraft structural integrity. Further to this full scale fatigue...

  18. Aircraft Wake RCS Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, William H.

    1994-01-01

    A series of multi-frequency radar measurements of aircraft wakes at altitudes of 5,000 to 25,00 ft. were performed at Kwajalein, R.M.I., in May and June of 1990. Two aircraft were tested, a Learjet 35 and a Lockheed C-5A. The cross-section of the wake of the Learjet was too small for detection at Kwajalein. The wake of the C-5A, although also very small, was detected and measured at VHF, UHF, L-, S-, and C-bands, at distances behind the aircraft ranging from about one hundred meters to tens of kilometers. The data suggest that the mechanism by which aircraft wakes have detectable radar signatures is, contrary to previous expectations, unrelated to engine exhaust but instead due to turbulent mixing by the wake vortices of pre-existing index of refraction gradients in the ambient atmosphere. These measurements were of necessity performed with extremely powerful and sensitive instrumentation radars, and the wake cross-section is too small for most practical applications.

  19. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  20. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  1. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  2. Aircraft adaptive learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, P. S. T.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The optimal control theory of stochastic linear systems is discussed in terms of the advantages of distributed-control systems, and the control of randomly-sampled systems. An optimal solution to longitudinal control is derived and applied to the F-8 DFBW aircraft. A randomly-sampled linear process model with additive process and noise is developed.

  3. Ozone and aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The cabin ozone problem is discussed. Cabin ozone in terms of health effects, the characteristics of ozone encounters by aircraft, a brief history of studies to define the problem, corrective actions taken, and possible future courses of action are examined. It is suggested that such actions include avoiding high ozone concentrations by applying ozone forecasting in flight planning procedures.

  4. A measurement system for continuous observations of CO2, CH4, H2O and CO onboard passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbig, Christoph; Filges, Annette; Franke, Harald; Klaus, Christoph; Chen, Huilin

    2013-04-01

    Improved quantification and understanding of surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) caused by natural as well as anthropogenic processes is of paramount importance in a world of a changing climate and ever increasing emissions. Top-down estimation of GHG fluxes is traditionally done by inverse transport modeling, using GHG observations from a global network of stations. Uncertainties in modeled vertical transport rates (moist convection, turbulent mixing, stratosphere-troposphere exchange) however greatly affect the quality of flux estimates. More recently, remote sensing of vertical column mole fractions of GHGs have become available for inverse modeling, reducing the impact of vertical transport uncertainties to first order. However, those need validation against in-situ observations. A strategy for regular, global in-situ atmospheric profiling of GHGs, covering at least the troposphere, is thus needed to provide validation of remote sensing and of forward transport modeling of GHGs, to serve as input for inverse modeling, and to reduce the impact of transport uncertainties. IAGOS-ERI (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System - European Research Infrastructure) exploits the synergy between globally operating civil aviation and the need for long-term monitoring of atmospheric composition. Within the framework of IAGOS-ERI a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) based measurement system for greenhouse gases was designed, tested, and qualified for deployment on commercial airliners. The design meets requirements regarding physical dimensions (size, weight), performance (long-term stability, low maintenance, robustness, full automation) and safety issues (fire prevention regulations, airworthiness). The system uses components of a commercially available CRDS instrument (G2401-m, Picarro Inc.) mounted into a frame suitable for integration in the avionics bay of the Airbus A-340. The first of the IAGOS GHG packages is scheduled for

  5. Advanced ATC - An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, L.; Williams, D. H.; Howell, W. E.; Spitzer, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. This paper describes efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  6. Turboprop cargo aircraft systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, R. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of using advanced turboprop propulsion systems to reduce the fuel consumption and direct operating costs of cargo aircraft were studied, and the impact of these systems on aircraft noise and noise prints around a terminal area was determined. Parametric variations of aircraft and propeller characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on noiseprint areas, fuel consumption, and direct operating costs. From these results, three aircraft designs were selected and subjected to design refinements and sensitivity analyses. Three competitive turbofan aircraft were also defined from parametric studies to provide a basis for comparing the two types of propulsion.

  7. Advanced ATC: An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Williams, David H.; Howell, William E.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. Efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency are discussed. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  8. Automated exterior inspection of an aircraft with a pan-tilt-zoom camera mounted on a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovančević, Igor; Larnier, Stanislas; Orteu, Jean-José; Sentenac, Thierry

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with an automated preflight aircraft inspection using a pan-tilt-zoom camera mounted on a mobile robot moving autonomously around the aircraft. The general topic is image processing framework for detection and exterior inspection of different types of items, such as closed or unlatched door, mechanical defect on the engine, the integrity of the empennage, or damage caused by impacts or cracks. The detection step allows to focus on the regions of interest and point the camera toward the item to be checked. It is based on the detection of regular shapes, such as rounded corner rectangles, circles, and ellipses. The inspection task relies on clues, such as uniformity of isolated image regions, convexity of segmented shapes, and periodicity of the image intensity signal. The approach is applied to the inspection of four items of Airbus A320: oxygen bay handle, air-inlet vent, static ports, and fan blades. The results are promising and demonstrate the feasibility of an automated exterior inspection.

  9. NASA service experience with composite components. [for aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.; Chapman, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    NASA Langley has been active in sponsoring flight service programs with advanced composites during the past decade. A broad data base and confidence in the durability of composite structures are being developed. Flight service experience is reported for more than 140 composite aircraft components with up to 8 years service and almost two million successful component flight hours. Composite components are being evaluated on Boeing, Douglas, and Lockheed transport aircraft. Components are currently under development for service evaluation on Bell and Sikorsky helicopters. Design concepts and inspection and maintenance results are reported for components currently in service. Components under development in the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program are discussed. Results of flight, outdoor ground, and controlled laboratory environmental tests on composite materials used in the flight service programs are also presented.

  10. Studies of Transport of Anthropogenic Pollutants by the Civil Aircraft Surveillance Project CARIBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Zahn, A.; Slemr, F.; Hermann, M.; Oram, D.; Martinsson, B.; van Velthoven, P.

    2002-12-01

    CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container)has been operational from 1997 to 2002 using a Boeing 767 of LTU Airways,and will restart September 2003 using an Airbus A340-600 of Lufthansa. Monthly flights were conducted to: southernmost India (23), intercepting the Asian Plume; to southern Africa (3)showing the impact of biomass burning; and to the Caribbean (12), thus probing the North American Plume. The instrumented container (1200 kg) records ozone, CO, fine aersols (3 channels), takes aerosol samples for elemental analysis and collects air samples for nmhc, halocarbon and greenhouse gas analyses. The broad spectrum of measured parameters allows fairly detailed studies of pollution plumes, and we present some examples. The co-variations between CO and ozone have been studied over different scales of length. Accurate discrimination between stratospheric air and tropospheric air is based on an improved chemical tropopause definition. Important sources of methyl chloroform are inferred and the composition of the plume intercepted over the Arabian Sea during the summer Monsoon is documented.

  11. Autonomous aircraft initiative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.

  12. Aircraft Design Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Successful commercialization of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) tool has resulted in the creation of Phoenix Integration, Inc. ACSYNT has been exclusively licensed to the company, an outcome of a seven year, $3 million effort to provide unique software technology to a focused design engineering market. Ames Research Center formulated ACSYNT and in working with the Virginia Polytechnic Institute CAD Laboratory, began to design and code a computer-aided design for ACSYNT. Using a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, Ames formed an industry-government-university alliance to improve and foster research and development for the software. As a result of the ACSYNT Institute, the software is becoming a predominant tool for aircraft conceptual design. ACSYNT has been successfully applied to high- speed civil transport configuration, subsonic transports, and supersonic fighters.

  13. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  14. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  15. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  16. Project report: Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Baughcum, S.; Metwally, M.; Seals, R.

    1994-04-01

    Analyses of scenarios of past and possible future emissions are an important aspect of assessing the potential environmental effects from aircraft, including the proposed high speed civil transport (HSCT). The development of a detailed three-dimensional database that accurately represents the integration of all aircraft emissions along realistic flight paths for such scenarios requires complex computational modeling capabilities. Such a detailed data set is required for the scenarios evaluated in this interim assessment. Within the NASA High-Speed Research Program, the Emissions Scenarios Committee provides a forum for identifying the required scenarios and evaluating the resulting database being developed with the advanced emissions modeling capabilities at the Boeing Company and McDonnell Douglas Corporation.

  17. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  18. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are: (1) engine component improvement, directed at current engines, (2) energy efficient engine, directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) advanced turboprops, directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  19. Electrical Thermometers for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Womack, S H J

    1937-01-01

    Electrical thermometers commonly used on aircraft are the thermoelectric type for measuring engine-cylinder temperatures, the resistance type for measuring air temperatures, and the superheat meters of thermoelectric and resistance types for use on airships. These instruments are described and their advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Methods of testing these instruments and the performance to be expected from each are discussed. The field testing of engine-cylinder thermometers is treated in detail.

  20. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  1. Current and future developments in civil aircraft non-destructive evaluation from an operator's point of view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, Jeff

    1992-01-01

    In June, 1988, the first International Conference on aging aircraft was held to address nondestructive tests (NDT) of aging aircraft and other issues. From this meeting, a research program was initiated and funded by the FAA. As a result of this program, a lot of work has been done to study current NDT practices in the aviation industry and secondly, to research and develop new NDT methods to improve the reliability and efficiency of in-service inspection of aircraft structures and powerplants. The following is an overview of the current and future developments in civil aircraft NDT, as viewed by an air carrier and the concerns for NDT in the future.

  2. An Evaluation of Aircraft Emissions Inventory Methodology by Comparisons with Reported Airline Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, D. L.; Sutkus, D. J.; DuBois, D. P.; Baughcum, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides results of work done to evaluate the calculation methodology used in generating aircraft emissions inventories. Results from the inventory calculation methodology are compared to actual fuel consumption data. Results are also presented that show the sensitivity of calculated emissions to aircraft payload factors. Comparisons of departures made, ground track miles flown and total fuel consumed by selected air carriers were made between U.S. Dept. of Transportation (DOT) Form 41 data reported for 1992 and results of simplified aircraft emissions inventory calculations. These comparisons provide an indication of the magnitude of error that may be present in aircraft emissions inventories. To determine some of the factors responsible for the errors quantified in the DOT Form 41 analysis, a comparative study of in-flight fuel flow data for a specific operator's 747-400 fleet was conducted. Fuel consumption differences between the studied aircraft and the inventory calculation results may be attributable to several factors. Among these are longer flight times, greater actual aircraft weight and performance deterioration effects for the in-service aircraft. Results of a parametric study on the variation in fuel use and NOx emissions as a function of aircraft payload for different aircraft types are also presented.

  3. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  4. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  5. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after... FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.7 Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft...

  6. Aircraft cockpit vision: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir, J.; Singh, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the field of vision of a pilot seated in an aircraft. Given the position and orientation of the aircraft, along with the geometrical configuration of its windows, and the location of an object, the model determines whether the object would be within the pilot's external vision envelope provided by the aircraft's windows. The computer program using this model was implemented and is described.

  7. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  8. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  9. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  10. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  11. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  12. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  13. Long-term Airborne Black Carbon Measurements on a Lufthansa Passenger Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y.; Su, H.; Ditas, J.; Scharffe, D.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Y.; McMeeking, G. R.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Poeschl, U.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol particles containing black carbon are the most absorbing component of incoming solar radiation and exert a significant positive radiative forcing thus forming next to CO2 the strongest component of current global warming. Nevertheless, the role of black carbon particles and especially their complex interaction with clouds needs further research which is hampered by the limited experimental data, especially observations in the free troposphere, and in the UTLS (upper troposphere and lower stratosphere). In August 2014, a single particle soot photometer (SP2) was included in the extensive scientific payload of the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) project. CARIBIC is in operation since 1997 and carries out systematic observations of trace gas and aerosol sampling and on-line analyses, as well as DOAS remote sensing system at 10-12 km altitude. For this a special air freight container combining different instruments is transported on a monthly basis using a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 passenger aircraft with destinations from 120°W to 120°E and 10°N to 75°N. The integration of a SP2 offers the possibility for the first long-term measurement of global distribution of black carbon. Up to date the SP2 measurements have been analyzed for 392 flights hours over four continents (Fig. 1). The first measurements show promising results of black carbon including periods when background concentrations in the UTLS were encountered. Beside a general distribution of number and mass of black carbon particles, peak events were detected with up to 20 times higher concentrations compared to the background. Moreover, high concentration plumes have been observed continuously over a range of 10,000 km. Interestingly, our results show also a generally lower amount of black carbon mass in the tropics compared to the mid latitude northern hemisphere.

  14. Emission of atmospheric pollutants out of Africa - Analysis of CARIBIC aircraft air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorenz, Ute R.; Baker, Angela K.; Schuck, Tanja; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Ziereis, Helmut; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning (BB) emissions. The burning African savannas and tropical forests are a source for a wide range of chemical species, which are important for global atmospheric chemistry, especially for the pristine Southern Hemisphere. Emitted compounds include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons and particles. Deep convection over Central Africa transports boundary layer emissions to the free troposphere making aircraft-based observations useful for investigation of surface emissions and examination of transport and chemistry processes over Africa The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmosphere.com part of IAGOS www.iagos.org) is a long term atmospheric measurement program using an instrument container deployed aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 for a monthly sequence of long-distance passenger flights. Besides the online measurements mixing ratios of greenhouse gases and a suite of C2-C8 non methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude. During northern hemispheric winter 2010/2011 CARIBIC flights took place from Frankfurt to Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. Several BB tracers like methane, CO and various NMHCs were found to be elevated over tropical Africa. Using tracer-CO- and tracer-NOy-correlations emissions were characterized. The NMHC-CO correlations show monthly changing slopes, indicating a change in burned biomass, major fire stage, source region and/or other factors influencing NMHC emissions. To expand our analysis of emission sources a source region data filter was used, based on backward trajectories calculated along the flight tracks. Taking all CARIBIC samples into account having backward trajectories to the African boundary layer the dataset was enlarged from 77 to 168 samples. For both datasets tracer

  15. The Typical General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnbull, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The reliability of General Aviation aircraft is unknown. In order to "assist the development of future GA reliability and safety requirements", a reliability study needs to be performed. Before any studies on General Aviation aircraft reliability begins, a definition of a typical aircraft that encompasses most of the general aviation characteristics needs to be defined. In this report, not only is the typical general aviation aircraft defined for the purpose of the follow-on reliability study, but it is also separated, or "sifted" into several different categories where individual analysis can be performed on the reasonably independent systems. In this study, the typical General Aviation aircraft is a four-place, single engine piston, all aluminum fixed-wing certified aircraft with a fixed tricycle landing gear and a cable operated flight control system. The system breakdown of a GA aircraft "sifts" the aircraft systems and components into five categories: Powerplant, Airframe, Aircraft Control Systems, Cockpit Instrumentation Systems, and the Electrical Systems. This breakdown was performed along the lines of a failure of the system. Any component that caused a system to fail was considered a part of that system.

  16. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  17. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  18. NASA research in aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A broad overview of the scope of research presently being supported by NASA in aircraft propulsion is presented with emphasis on Lewis Research Center activities related to civil air transports, CTOL and V/STOL systems. Aircraft systems work is performed to identify the requirements for the propulsion system that enhance the mission capabilities of the aircraft. This important source of innovation and creativity drives the direction of propulsion research. In a companion effort, component research of a generic nature is performed to provide a better basis for design and provides an evolutionary process for technological growth that increases the capabilities of all types of aircraft. Both are important.

  19. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  20. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  1. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  2. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  3. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  4. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A series of studies in which films and liquid spray-on materials were evaluated in the laboratory for transport aircraft external surface coatings are summarized. Elastomeric polyurethanes were found to best meet requirements. Two commercially available products, CAAPCO B-274 and Chemglaze M313, were subjected to further laboratory testing, airline service evaluations, and drag-measurement flight tests. It was found that these coatings were compatible with the severe operating environment of airlines and that coatings reduced airplane drag. An economic analysis indicated significant dollar benefits to airlines from application of the coatings.

  5. Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1933-01-01

    This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

  6. Structural integrity in aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardrath, H. F.

    1973-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the current design philosophies for achieving long, efficient, and reliable service in aircraft structures. The strengths and weaknesses of these design philosophies and their demonstrated records of success are discussed. The state of the art has not been developed to the point where designing can be done without major test inspection and maintenance programs. A broad program of research is proposed through which a viable computerized design scheme will be provided during the next decade. The program will organize and correlate existing knowledge on fatigue and fracture behavior, identify gaps in this knowledge, and guide specific research to upgrade design capabilities.

  7. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  8. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C. (Inventor); Gea, Lie-Mine (Inventor); McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witowski, David P. (Inventor); Krist, Steven E. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The slot may either extend spanwise along only a portion of the wingspan, or it may extend spanwise along the entire wingspan. In either case, the slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  9. Aircraft Inspection for the General Aviation Aircraft Owner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is useful information for owners, pilots, student mechanics, and others with aviation interests. Part I of this booklet outlines aircraft inspection requirements, owner responsibilities, inspection time intervals, and sources of basic information. Part II is concerned with the general techniques used to inspect an aircraft. (Author/JN)

  10. Dumbo heavy lifter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riester, Peter; Ellis, Colleen; Wagner, Michael; Orren, Scott; Smith, Byron; Skelly, Michael; Zgraggen, Craig; Webber, Matt

    1992-01-01

    The world is rapidly changing from one with two military superpowers, with which most countries were aligned, to one with many smaller military powers. In this environment, the United States cannot depend on the availability of operating bases from which to respond to crises requiring military intervention. Several studies (e.g. the SAB Global Reach, Global Power Study) have indicated an increased need to be able to rapidly transport large numbers of troops and equipment from the continental United States to potential trouble spots throughout the world. To this end, a request for proposals (RFP) for the concept design of a large aircraft capable of 'projecting' a significant military force without reliance on surface transportation was developed. These design requirements are: minimum payload of 400,000 pounds at 2.5 g maneuver load factor; minimum unfueled range of 6,000 nautical miles; and aircraft must operate from existing domestic air bases and use existing airbases or sites of opportunity at the destination.

  11. Aircraft landing using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  12. Hypersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A hypersonic transport aircraft design project was selected as a result of interactions with NASA Lewis Research Center personnel and fits the Presidential concept of the Orient Express. The Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) and an undergraduate student worked at the NASA Lewis Research Center during the 1986 summer conducting a literature survey, and relevant literature and useful software were collected. The computer software was implemented in the Computer Aided Design Laboratory of the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department. In addition to the lectures by the three instructors, a series of guest lectures was conducted. The first of these lectures 'Anywhere in the World in Two Hours' was delivered by R. Luidens of NASA Lewis Center. In addition, videotaped copies of relevant seminars obtained from NASA Lewis were also featured. The first assignment was to individually research and develop the mission requirements and to discuss the findings with the class. The class in consultation with the instructors then developed a set of unified mission requirements. Then the class was divided into three design groups (1) Aerodynamics Group, (2) Propulsion Group, and (3) Structures and Thermal Analyses Group. The groups worked on their respective design areas and interacted with each other to finally come up with an integrated conceptual design. The three faculty members and the GTA acted as the resource persons for the three groups and aided in the integration of the individual group designs into the final design of a hypersonic aircraft.

  13. Altus aircraft on runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  14. Experimental Measurements of the Effects of Photo-chemical Oxidation on Aerosol Emissions in Aircraft Exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miracolo, M. A.; Presto, A. A.; Hennigan, C. J.; Nguyen, N.; Ranjan, M.; Reeder, A.; Lipsky, E.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2009-12-01

    Many military and commercial airfields are located in non-attainment areas for particulate matter (PM2.5), but the contribution of emissions from in-use aircraft to local and regional PM2.5 concentrations is uncertain. In collaboration with the Pennsylvania Air National Guard 171st Air Refueling Wing, the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Mobile Laboratory was deployed to measure fresh and aged emissions from a CFM56-2B1 gas-turbine engine mounted on a KC-135 Stratotanker airframe. The CFM-56 family of engine powers many different types of military and civilian aircraft, including the Boeing 737 and several Airbus models. It is one of the most widely deployed models of engines in the world. The goal of this work was to measure the gas-particle partitioning of the fresh emissions at atmospherically relevant conditions and to investigate the effect of atmospheric oxidation on aerosol loadings as the emissions age. Emissions were sampled from an inlet installed one meter downstream of the engine exit plane and transferred into a portable smog chamber via a heated inlet line. Separate experiments were conducted at different engine loads ranging from ground idle to take-off rated thrust. During each experiment, some diluted exhaust was added to the chamber and the volatility of the fresh emissions was then characterized using a thermodenuder. After this characterization, the chamber was exposed to either ambient sunlight or UV lights to initiate photochemical oxidation, which produced secondary aerosol and ozone. A suite of gas and particle-phase instrumentation was used to characterize the evolution of the gas and particle-phase emissions, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to measure particle size and composition distributions. Fresh emissions of fine particles varied with engine load with peak emission factors at low and high loads. At high engine loads, the fresh emissions were dominated by black carbon; at low loads volatile organic carbon emissions were

  15. Aircraft disinsection: exposure assessment and evaluation of a new pre-embarkation method.

    PubMed

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Koch, Wolfgang; Gerling, Susanne; Kock, Heiko; Klasen, Jutta; Hoffmann, Godehard; Appel, Klaus E

    2006-01-01

    A new "pre-embarkation" method for aircraft disinsection was investigated using two different 2% d-phenothrin containing aerosols. Five experiments in aircrafts of the type Airbus 310 (4x) and Boeing 747-400 (1x) were performed. In the absence of passengers and crew the d-phenothrin aerosol was sprayed under the seat rows and in a second step at the height of approximately 1.60 m by moving from one end of the cabin to the other. Concentration levels of d-phenothrin were determined at different time periods after application of the aerosol spray. In a B 747-400 with the air conditioning system operating the concentrations ranged between 853 and 1753 microg/m3 during and till 5 min after the beginning of spraying at different locations in the cabin. Within 5-20min after the end of the spraying concentrations of 36-205 microg/m3 and 20-40 min thereafter only ca. 1 microg d-phenothrin/m3 were detectable (average values in relation to each period of measurement). On cabin interior surfaces the median values for mainly horizontal areas ranged from 100 to 1160 ng d-phenothrin/cm2. d-Phenothrin concentrations in the air were sufficient to kill flying insects like house flies and mosquitoes within 20 min. Horizontal surfaces were 100% effective against insects up to 24 h after spraying. Doses inhaled by sprayers determined by personal measurements were calculated to be 30-235 microg d-phenothrin per 100 g spray applied (30% in the respirable fraction for Arrow Aircraft Disinsectant; 10% for Aircraft Disinsectant Denka). If passengers will board, e.g., 20 min after the end of the disinsection operation, inhalation exposure is estimated to be practically negligible. Also possible dermal exposure from residues in seats and headrests is very low for passengers during the flight. Therefore any health effects for passengers and crew members are very unlikely. PMID:16373201

  16. Steam Power Plants in Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E E

    1926-01-01

    The employment of steam power plants in aircraft has been frequently proposed. Arguments pro and con have appeared in many journals. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief analysis of the proposal from the broad general viewpoint of aircraft power plants. Any such analysis may be general or detailed.

  17. The Ultra Light Aircraft Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard W.

    1993-01-01

    The final report for grant NAG1-345 is presented. Recently, the bulk of the work that the grant has supported has been in the areas of ride quality and the structural analysis and testing of ultralight aircraft. The ride quality work ended in May 1989. Hence, the papers presented in this final report are concerned with ultralight aircraft.

  18. Composite Lightning Rods for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Charles F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Composite, lightweight sacrificial tip with graphite designed reduces lightning-strike damage to composite parts of aircraft and dissipates harmful electrical energy. Device consists of slender composite rod fabricated from highly-conductive unidirectional reinforcing fibers in matrix material. Rods strategically installed in trailing edges of aircraft wings, tails, winglets, control surfaces, and rearward-most portion of aft fuselage.

  19. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  20. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  1. 75 FR 76926 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... Directives; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R Series Airplanes, and Model C4-605R Variant F... B4-605R and B4-622R airplanes; Model A300 F4-605R and F4-622R airplanes; Model A300 C4-605R Variant...

  2. [Organizational problems of disaster victim identification in mass casualties as exemplified by Tu 154-M and Airbus A310 passenger plane crashes].

    PubMed

    Volkov, A V; Kolkutin, V V; Klevno, V A; Shkol'nikov, B V; Kornienko, I V

    2008-01-01

    Managerial experience is described that was gained during the large-scale work on victim identification following mass casualties in the Tu 154-M and Airbus A310 passenger plane crashes. The authors emphasize the necessity to set up a specialized agency of constant readiness meeting modern requirements for the implementation of a system of measures for personality identification. This agency must incorporate relevant departments of the Ministries of Health, Defense, and Emergency Situations as well as investigative authorities and other organizations. PMID:19048869

  3. Tilt Rotor Aircraft Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.

    1996-01-01

    A fleet of civil tilt rotor transports offers a means of reducing airport congestion and point-to-point travel time. The speed, range, and fuel economy of these aircraft, along with their efficient use of vertiport area, make them good candidates for short-to-medium range civil transport. However, to be successfully integrated into the civilian community, the tilt rotor must be perceived as a quiet, safe, and economical mode of transportation that does not harm the environment. In particular, noise impact has been identified as a possible barrier to the civil tilt rotor. Along with rotor conversion-mode flight, and blade-vortex interaction noise during descent, hover mode is a noise problem for tilt rotor operations. In the present research, tilt rotor hover aeroacoustics have been studied analytically, experimentally, and computationally. Various papers on the subject were published as noted in the list of publications. More recently, experimental measurements were made on a 1/12.5 scale model of the XV-15 in hover and analyses of this data and extrapolations to full scale were also carried out. A dimensional analysis showed that the model was a good aeroacoustic approximation to the full-scale aircraft, and scale factors were derived to extrapolate the model measurements to the full-scale XV-15. The experimental measurements included helium bubble flow visualization, silk tuft flow visualization, 2-component hot wire anemometry, 7-hole pressure probe measurements, vorticity measurements, and outdoor far field acoustic measurements. The hot wire measurements were used to estimate the turbulence statistics of the flow field into the rotors, such as length scales, velocity scales, dissipation, and turbulence intermittency. Several different configurations of the model were tested: (1) standard configurations (single isolated rotor, two rotors without the aircraft, standard tilt rotor configuration); (2) flow control devices (the 'plate', the 'diagonal fences'); (3

  4. Aircraft agility maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Eugene M.; Thompson, Brian G.

    1992-01-01

    A new dynamic model for aircraft motions is presented. This model can be viewed as intermediate between a point-mass model, in which the body attitude angles are control-like, and a rigid-body model, in which the body-attitude angles evolve according to Newton's Laws. Specifically, consideration is given to the case of symmetric flight, and a model is constructed in which the body roll-rate and the body pitch-rate are the controls. In terms of this body-rate model a minimum-time heading change maneuver is formulated. When the bounds on the body-rates are large the results are similar to the point-mass model in that the model can very quickly change the applied forces and produce an acceleration to turn the vehicle. With finite bounds on these rates, the forces change in a smooth way. This leads to a measurable effect of agility.

  5. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  6. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  7. Aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  8. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  9. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Sorokin, A. A.; Buriko, Y. Y.

    The conversion of fuel sulfur to S(VI) (SO3 + H2SO4) in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. Model results indicate between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as S(VI). It is also shown that, for a high sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is kinetically limited by the level of atomic oxygen. This results in a higher oxidation efficiency at lower sulfur loadings. SO3 is the primary S(VI) oxidation product and calculated H2SO4 emission levels were less than 1% of the total fuel sulfur. This source of S(VI) can exceed the S(VI) source due to gas phase oxidation in the exhaust wake.

  10. A methodology to enable rapid evaluation of aviation environmental impacts and aircraft technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Keith Frederick

    Commercial aviation has become an integral part of modern society and enables unprecedented global connectivity by increasing rapid business, cultural, and personal connectivity. In the decades following World War II, passenger travel through commercial aviation quickly grew at a rate of roughly 8% per year globally. The FAA's most recent Terminal Area Forecast predicts growth to continue at a rate of 2.5% domestically, and the market outlooks produced by Airbus and Boeing generally predict growth to continue at a rate of 5% per year globally over the next several decades, which translates into a need for up to 30,000 new aircraft produced by 2025. With such large numbers of new aircraft potentially entering service, any negative consequences of commercial aviation must undergo examination and mitigation by governing bodies so that growth may still be achieved. Options to simultaneously grow while reducing environmental impact include evolution of the commercial fleet through changes in operations, aircraft mix, and technology adoption. Methods to rapidly evaluate fleet environmental metrics are needed to enable decision makers to quickly compare the impact of different scenarios and weigh the impact of multiple policy options. As the fleet evolves, interdependencies may emerge in the form of tradeoffs between improvements in different environmental metrics as new technologies are brought into service. In order to include the impacts of these interdependencies on fleet evolution, physics-based modeling is required at the appropriate level of fidelity. Evaluation of environmental metrics in a physics-based manner can be done at the individual aircraft level, but will then not capture aggregate fleet metrics. Contrastingly, evaluation of environmental metrics at the fleet level is already being done for aircraft in the commercial fleet, but current tools and approaches require enhancement because they currently capture technology implementation through post

  11. Multibody aircraft study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  12. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  13. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2000-05-01

    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  14. Multibody aircraft study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  15. NASA Aircraft Controls Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, G. P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The workshop consisted of 24 technical presentations on various aspects of aircraft controls, ranging from the theoretical development of control laws to the evaluation of new controls technology in flight test vehicles. A special report on the status of foreign aircraft technology and a panel session with seven representatives from organizations which use aircraft controls technology were also included. The controls research needs and opportunities for the future as well as the role envisioned for NASA in that research were addressed. Input from the panel and response to the workshop presentations will be used by NASA in developing future programs.

  16. Designing for aircraft structural crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. G.; Caiafa, C.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes structural aviation crash dynamics research activities being conducted on general aviation aircraft and transport aircraft. The report includes experimental and analytical correlations of load-limiting subfloor and seat configurations tested dynamically in vertical drop tests and in a horizontal sled deceleration facility. Computer predictions using a finite-element nonlinear computer program, DYCAST, of the acceleration time-histories of these innovative seat and subfloor structures are presented. Proposed application of these computer techniques, and the nonlinear lumped mass computer program KRASH, to transport aircraft crash dynamics is discussed. A proposed FAA full-scale crash test of a fully instrumented radio controlled transport airplane is also described.

  17. Fiber Optic Sensors for Health Monitoring of Morphing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Timothy; Wood, Karen; Childers, Brooks; Cano, Roberto; Jensen, Brian; Rogowski, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors are being developed for health monitoring of future aircraft. Aircraft health monitoring involves the use of strain, temperature, vibration and chemical sensors. These sensors will measure load and vibration signatures that will be used to infer structural integrity. Sine the aircraft morphing program assumes that future aircraft will be aerodynamically reconfigurable there is also a requirement for pressure, flow and shape sensors. In some cases a single fiber may be used for measuring several different parameters. The objective of the current program is to develop techniques for using optical fibers to monitor composite cure in real time during manufacture and to monitor in-service structural integrity of the composite structure. Graphite-epoxy panels were fabricated with integrated optical fibers of various types. The panels were mechanically and thermally tested to evaluate composite strength and sensor durability. Finally the performance of the fiber optic sensors was determined. Experimental results are presented evaluating the performance of embedded and surface mounted optical fibers for measuring strain, temperature and chemical composition. The performance of the fiber optic sensors was determined by direct comparison with results from more conventional instrumentation. The facilities for fabricating optical fiber and associated sensors and methods of demodulating Bragg gratings for strain measurement will be described.

  18. Characteristics of future aircraft impacting aircraft and airport compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Results are reported of an opinion survey of selected individuals at the decision-making level within the five major manufacturers of transport aircraft in the United States and Europe. Opinions were obtained concerning both possible and probable existence of over 50 compatibility-related characteristics of transport aircraft in use in the years 1990, 2000, and 2010. The maximum size of aircraft is expected to increase, at a roughly uniform rate, to the year 2010 by 85 percent in passengers, 55 percent in airfreighter payload, and 35 percent in gross weight weight. Companion to the expected growth in payloads and gross weight was the identification of probable increases in aircraft geometrical dimensions and component capability, and use of fully double-decked passenger compartments. Wing span will increase considerably more than normally expected to provide wings of higher aspect ratio. New aircraft features coming into probable use include large turboprops, synthetic jet-A fuel, winglets, wake-vortex-reducing devices and laminar flow control. New operational concepts considered probable include steep approaches, high-speed turnoffs, and taxiway towing for the aircraft, plus passenger bypass of the terminal building, expedited handling of belly cargo and an intermodal cargo container for the payloads.

  19. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  20. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  1. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  2. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  3. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  4. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  5. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  6. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  7. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  8. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  9. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  10. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  11. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  12. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices or... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section...

  13. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72 Stat... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft....

  14. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  15. Aircraft Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in aircraft mechanics. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 24 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: airframe mechanic, power plant mechanic, aircraft mechanic, aircraft sheet metal worker, aircraft electrician,…

  16. Progress in aircraft design since 1903

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Significant developments in aviation history are documented to show the advancements in aircraft design which have taken place since 1903. Each aircraft is identified according to the manufacturer, powerplant, dimensions, normal weight, and typical performance. A narrative summary of the major accomplishments of the aircraft is provided. Photographs of each aircraft are included.

  17. Wet runways. [aircraft landing and directional control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft stopping and directional control performance on wet runways is discussed. The major elements affecting tire/ground traction developed by jet transport aircraft are identified and described in terms of atmospheric, pavement, tire, aircraft system and pilot performance factors or parameters. Research results are summarized, and means for improving or restoring tire traction/aircraft performance on wet runways are discussed.

  18. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  19. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  20. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  1. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  2. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  3. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  4. Turboprop Cargo Aircraft Systems study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, F. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of advanced propellers (propfan) on aircraft direct operating costs, fuel consumption, and noiseprints were determined. A comparison of three aircraft selected from the results with competitive turbofan aircraft shows that advanced turboprop aircraft offer these potential benefits, relative to advanced turbofan aircraft: 21 percent fuel saving, 26 percent higher fuel efficiency, 15 percent lower DOCs, and 25 percent shorter field lengths. Fuel consumption for the turboprop is nearly 40 percent less than for current commercial turbofan aircraft. Aircraft with both types of propulsion satisfy current federal noise regulations. Advanced turboprop aircraft have smaller noiseprints at 90 EPNdB than advanced turbofan aircraft, but large noiseprints at 70 and 80 EPNdB levels, which are usually suggested as quietness goals. Accelerated development of advanced turboprops is strongly recommended to permit early attainment of the potential fuel saving. Several areas of work are identified which may produce quieter turboprop aircraft.

  5. Aircraft icing research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Shaw, R. J.; Olsen, W. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Research activity is described for: ice protection systems, icing instrumentation, experimental methods, analytical modeling for the above, and in flight research. The renewed interest in aircraft icing has come about because of the new need for All-Weather Helicopters and General Aviation aircraft. Because of increased fuel costs, tomorrow's Commercial Transport aircraft will also require new types of ice protection systems and better estimates of the aeropenalties caused by ice on unprotected surfaces. The physics of aircraft icing is very similar to the icing that occurs on ground structures and structures at sea; all involve droplets that freeze on the surfaces because of the cold air. Therefore all icing research groups will benefit greatly by sharing their research information.

  6. Future Civil Aircraft and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J.; Zuk, J.

    1989-01-01

    New aircraft technologies are presented that have the potential to expand the air transportation system and reduce congestion through new operating capabilities while also providing greater levels of safety and environmental compatibility. These new capabilities will result from current and planned civil aeronautics technology at the NASA Ames, Lewis, and Langley Research Centers and will cover the complete spectrum of current aircraft and new vehicle concepts including rotorcraft (helicopters and tilt rotors), vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), and short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft, subsonic transports, high-speed transports, and hypersonic/transatmospheric vehicles. New technologies will improve efficiency, affordability, safety, and environmental compatibility of current aircraft and will enable the development of new transportation system. The new capabilities of vehicles could lead to substantial market opportunities and economic growth and could improve the competitive position of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  7. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  8. Alloy design for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-08-01

    Metallic materials are fundamental to advanced aircraft engines. While perceived as mature, emerging computational, experimental and processing innovations are expanding the scope for discovery and implementation of new metallic materials for future generations of advanced propulsion systems.

  9. Electromagnetic Interference In New Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, William E.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews plans to develop tests and standards to ensure that digital avionics systems in new civil aircraft immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Updated standards reflect more severe environment and vulnerabilities of modern avionics.

  10. Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce. The work was undertaken in recognition of the difficulty of drawing correct conclusions from efforts to analyze and compare reports of aircraft accidents prepared by different organizations using different classifications and definitions. The air coordination committee's request was made "in order that practices used may henceforth conform to a standard and be universally comparable." the purpose of the special committee therefore was to prepare a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military. (author)

  11. Propulsion integration for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, William P.

    1989-01-01

    The transonic aerodynamic characteristics for high-performance aircraft are significantly affected by shock-induced flow interactions as well as other local flow interference effects which usually occur at transonic speeds. These adverse interactions can not only cause high drag, but can cause unusual aerodynamic loadings and/or severe stability and control problems. Many new programs are underway to develop methods for reducing the adverse effects, as well as to develop an understanding of the basic flow conditions which are the primary contributors. It is anticipated that these new programs will result in technologies which can reduce the aircraft cruise drag through improved integration as well as increased aircraft maneuverability throughh the application of thrust vectoring. This paper will identify some of the primary propulsion integration problems for high performance aircraft at transonic speeds, and demonstrate several methods for reducing or eliminating the undesirable characteristics, while enhancing configuration effectiveness.

  12. Unmanned Aircraft: A Pilot's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the challenges of "piloting" a unmanned aircraft. The topic include the pilot-vehicle interact design, the concept of pilot/operator, and role of NASA's Ikhana UAS in the western states fire mission.

  13. Energy Index For Aircraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Drew, Douglas A. (Inventor); Ainsworth, Robert J. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Romanowski, Tomothy P. (Inventor); Bloch, Laurent (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing, separately or in combination, kinetic energy and potential energy and/or their time derivatives, measured or estimated or computed, for an aircraft in approach phase or in takeoff phase, to determine if the aircraft is or will be put in an anomalous configuration in order to join a stable approach path or takeoff path. A 3 reference value of kinetic energy andor potential energy (or time derivatives thereof) is provided, and a comparison index .for the estimated energy and reference energy is computed and compared with a normal range of index values for a corresponding aircraft maneuver. If the computed energy index lies outside the normal index range, this phase of the aircraft is identified as anomalous, non-normal or potentially unstable.

  14. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial aircraft manufacturers are making production commitments to composite structure for future aircraft and modifications to current production aircraft. Flight service programs with advanced composites sponsored by NASA during the past 10 years are described. Approximately 2.5 million total composite component flight hours have been accumulated since 1970 on both commercial transports and helicopters. Design concepts with significant mass savings were developed, appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures were established, and satisfactory service was achieved for the various composite components. A major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites was undertaken. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs supplement the flight service evaluation.

  15. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  16. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K.; Bernhard, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The plausibility of using the two microphone sound intensity technique to study noise transmission into light aircraft was investigated. In addition, a simple model to predict the interior sound pressure level of the cabin was constructed.

  17. Characterization of the frequency and nature of bleed air contamination events in commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Shehadi, M; Jones, B; Hosni, M

    2016-06-01

    Contamination of the bleed air used to pressurize and ventilate aircraft cabins is of concern due to the potential health and safety hazards for passengers and crew. Databases from the Federal Aviation Administration, NASA, and other sources were examined in detail to determine the frequency of bleed air contamination incidents. The frequency was examined on an aircraft model basis with the intent of identifying aircraft make and models with elevated frequencies of contamination events. The reported results herein may help investigators to focus future studies of bleed air contamination incidents on smaller number of aircrafts. Incident frequency was normalized by the number of aircraft, number of flights, and flight hours for each model to account for the large variations in the number of aircraft of different models. The focus of the study was on aircraft models that are currently in service and are used by major airlines in the United States. Incidents examined in this study include those related to smoke, oil odors, fumes, and any symptom that might be related to exposure to such contamination, reported by crew members, between 2007 and 2012, for US-based carriers for domestic flights and all international flights that either originated or terminated in the US. In addition to the reported frequency of incidents for different aircraft models, the analysis attempted to identify propulsion engines and auxiliary power units associated with aircrafts that had higher frequencies of incidents. While substantial variations were found in frequency of incidents, it was found that the contamination events were widely distributed across nearly all common models of aircraft. PMID:25864418

  18. Turbulence modeling in aircraft icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    The Icing and Cryogenic Technology Branch develops computational tools which predict ice growth on aircraft surfaces and uses existing CFD technology to evaluate the aerodynamic changes associated with such accretions. Surface roughness, transition location, and laminar, transition, or turbulent convective heat transfer all influence the ice growth process on aircraft surfaces. Turbulence modeling is a critical element within the computational tools used for both ice shape prediction and for performance degradation evaluation.

  19. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  20. Neural networks for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  1. Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Tanner, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has recently upgraded the Landing Loads Track (LLT) to improve the capability of low-cost testing of conventional and advanced landing gear systems. The unique feature of the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is the ability to test aircraft landing gear systems on actual runway surfaces at operational ground speeds and loading conditions. A historical overview of the original LLT is given, followed by a detailed description of the new ALDF systems and operational capabilities.

  2. Advanced technology composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Work performed during the 25th month on NAS1-18889, Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, is summarized. The main objective of this program is to develop an integrated technology and demonstrate a confidence level that permits the cost- and weight-effective use of advanced composite materials in primary structures of future aircraft with the emphasis on pressurized fuselages. The period from 1-31 May 1991 is covered.

  3. Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

  4. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Flight experience gained with numerous composite aircraft structures is discussed. Both commercial transports and helicopters are included. Design concepts with significant mass savings and appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures are among the factors considered. Also, a major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites is described, including preliminary results. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs are also discussed.

  5. Qualification needs for advanced integrated aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    In an effort to achieve maximum aircraft performance, designers are integrating aircraft systems. The characteristics of aerodynamics, vehicle structure, and propulsion systems are being integrated and controlled through embedded, often flight critical, electronic systems. The qualification needs for such highly integrated aircraft systems are addressed. Based on flight experience with research aircraft, a set of test capabilities is described which allows for complete and efficient qualification of advanced integrated aircraft.

  6. Detection and Analysis of High Ice Concentration Events and Supercooled Drizzle from IAGOS Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Martin; Baumgardner, Darrel; Lloyd, Gary; Beswick, Karl; Freer, Matt; Durant, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Hazardous encounters with high ice concentrations that lead to temperature and airspeed sensor measurement errors, as well as engine rollback and flameout, continue to pose serious problems for flight operations of commercial air carriers. Supercooled liquid droplets (SLD) are an additional hazard, especially for smaller commuter aircraft that do not have sufficient power to fly out of heavy icing conditions or heat to remove the ice. New regulations issued by the United States and European regulatory agencies are being implemented that will require aircraft below a certain weight class to carry sensors that will detect and warn of these types of icing conditions. Commercial aircraft do not currently carry standard sensors to detect the presence of ice crystals in high concentrations because they are typical found in sizes that are below the detection range of aircraft weather radar. Likewise, the sensors that are currently used to detect supercooled water do not respond well to drizzle-sized drops. Hence, there is a need for a sensor that can fill this measurement void. In addition, the forecast models that are used to predict regions of icing rely on pilot observations as the only means to validate the model products and currently there are no forecasts for the prevalence of high altitude ice crystals. Backscatter Cloud Probes (BCP) have been flying since 2011 under the IAGOS project on six Airbus commercial airliners operated by Lufthansa, Air France, China Air, Iberia and Cathay Pacific, and measure cloud droplets, ice crystals and aerosol particles larger than 5 μm. The BCP can detect these particles and measures an optical equivalent diameter (OED) but is not able to distinguish the type of particle, i.e. whether they are droplets, ice crystals, dust or ash. However, some qualification can be done based on measured temperature to discriminate between liquid water and ice. The next generation BCP (BCPD, Backscatter Cloud Probe with polarization detection) is

  7. Sun powered aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccready, P. B.; Lissaman, P. B. S.; Morgan, W. R.; Burke, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Two piloted aircraft have been developed and flown powered solely by photovoltaic cells in a program sponsored by the DuPont Company. The 30.8-kg (68-lb), 21.6-m (71-ft) span, Gossamer Penguin was used as a solar test bed, making a 2.6-km (1.6-mile) flight in August 1980. The 88.1-kg (194-lb), 14.3-m (47-ft) span Solar Challenger was developed for long flights in normal turbulence. Stressed to +9 G, it utilizes Kevlar, Nomex honeycomb-graphite sandwich wall tubes, expanded polystyrene foam ribs, and Mylar skin. With a 54.9-kg (121-lb) airframe, 33.1-kg (73-lb) propulsion system, and a 45.4-kg (100-lb) pilot, it flies on 1400 watts. In summer, the projected maximum climb is 1.0 m/s (200 ft/min) at 9,150 m (30,000 ft). Sixty purely solar-powered flights were made during winter 1980-1981. Using thermals, 1,070 m (3,500 ft) was reached with 115-minute duration.

  8. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  9. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

    1996-01-01

    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  10. Pilotless Aircraft Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    Technician D.A. Dereng examines power plug in 1/10-scale model of Northrop Snark missile with Deacon booster at Wallops, November 1950. Joseph Shortal described the missile as follows: 'The Snark was to be the Nation's first intercontinental strategic missile and it was to serve as an interim weapon while ballistic missiles were under development. The Snark first attained its design range of 5,000 miles on October 31, 1957, and became operational in April 1959.' The NACA research program based on Northrup's 'need for rocket-model tests of the Snark....' 'Although the Snark was essentially a subsonic missile, one flight plan called for the missile to attain transonic speeds in a final dive on its target from high altitude. The Air Force requested a free-flight program by the rocket-model technique on March 23, 1950 and the NACA issued RA 1564 on April 17, 1950, to cover the investigation.' 'The purpose of the investigation was 'to determine the drag, roll, and pitch characteristics at transonic and low supersonic velocities.' From four to six 1/12-scale models, to be built by Northrop Aircraft Inc., were authorized. Actually the models were 1/10-scale and eight models were tested....' 'The first model was launched on November 15, 1950 and the last on June 4, 1954. All flights were successful and were reported.' Excerpts from Joseph Shortal's history of Wallops Station.

  11. Laser aircraft. [using kerosene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Sun, K.; Jones, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of a laser-powered aircraft is discussed. Laser flight would be completely compatible with existing airports and air-traffic control, with the airplane using kerosene only power, up to a cruising altitude of 9 km where the laser satellite would lock on and beam laser energy to it. Two major components make up the laser turbofan, a heat exchanger for converting laser radiation into thermal energy, and conventional turbomachinery. The laser power satellite would put out 42 Mw using a solar-powered thermal engine to generate electrical power for the closed-cycle supersonic electric discharge CO laser, whose radiators, heat exchangers, supersonic diffuser, and ducting will amount to 85% of the total subsystem mass. Relay satellites will be used to intercept the beam from the laser satellite, correct outgoing beam aberrations, and direct the beam to the next target. A 300-airplane fleet with transcontinental range is projected to save enough kerosene to equal the energy content of the entire system, including power and relay satellites, in one year.

  12. High-altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdi, Renee Anna

    1991-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000+ ft, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. This project is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer. The aircraft must be able to satisfy four mission profiles. The first is a polar mission that ranges from Chile to the South Pole and back to Chile, a total range of 6000 n.m. at 100,000 ft with a 2500-lb payload. The second mission is also a polar mission with a decreased altitude and an increased payload. For the third mission, the aircraft will take off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 ft, and land in Chile. The final mission requires the aircraft to make an excursion to 120,000 ft. All four missions require that a subsonic Mach number be maintained because of constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the requirements. The performance of each is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the mission requirements.

  13. Fiber optics for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The increased use of composites makes the digital control more susceptible to electromagnetic effects. In order to provide the protection to the digital control additional shielding will be required as well as protective circuitry for the electronics. This results in increased weight and reduced reliability. The advantages that fiber optic technology provides for advanced aircraft applications is recognized. The use of optical signals to carry information between the aircraft and the control module provides immunity from contamination by electromagnetic sources as well as other important benefits such as reduced weight and volume resulting from the elimination of the shielding and the replacement of metal conductors with low weight glass fibers. In 1975 NASA began work to develop passive optical sensors for use with fiber optics in aircraft control systems. The problem now is to choose the best optical sensor concepts and evaluate them for use. In 1985 NASA and DOD entered into a joint program, Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI), to look at optical technology specifically for use in advanced aircraft systems. The results of this program are discussed. The conclusion of the study indicated that the use of fiber optic technology in advanced aircraft systems is feasible and desirable. The study pointed to a lack of available sensors from vendors capable of operating in the adverse environments of advanced aircraft.

  14. Fiber optics for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    The increased use of composites makes the digital control more susceptible to electromagnetic effects. In order to provide the protection to the digital control additional shielding will be required as well as protective circuitry for the electronics. This results in increased weight and reduced reliability. The advantages that fiber optic technology provides for advanced aircraft applications is recognized. The use of optical signals to carry information between the aircraft and the control module provides immunity from contamination by electromagnetic sources as well as other important benefits such as reduced weight and volume resulting from the elimination of the shielding and the replacement of metal conductors with low weight glass fibers. In 1975 NASA began work to develop passive optical sensors for use with fiber optics in aircraft control systems. The problem now is to choose the best optical sensor concepts and evaluate them for use. In 1985 NASA and DOD entered into a joint program, Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI), to look at optical technology specifically for use in advanced aircraft systems. The results of this program are discussed. The conclusion of the study indicated that the use of fiber optic technology in advanced aircraft systems is feasible and desirable. The study pointed to a lack of available sensors from vendors capable of operating in the adverse environments of advanced aircraft.

  15. Technologies for Aircraft Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for aircraft noise reduction have been developed by NASA over the past 15 years through the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project. This presentation summarizes highlights from these programs and anticipated noise reduction benefits for communities surrounding airports. Historical progress in noise reduction and technologies available for future aircraft/engine development are identified. Technologies address aircraft/engine components including fans, exhaust nozzles, landing gear, and flap systems. New "chevron" nozzles have been developed and implemented on several aircraft in production today that provide significant jet noise reduction. New engines using Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) ratios are projected to provide about 10 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Level in decibels) engine noise reduction relative to the average fleet that was flying in 1997. Audio files are embedded in the presentation that estimate the sound levels for a 35,000 pound thrust engine for takeoff and approach power conditions. The predictions are based on actual model scale data that was obtained by NASA. Finally, conceptual pictures are shown that look toward future aircraft/propulsion systems that might be used to obtain further noise reduction.

  16. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  17. Long-term airborne black carbon measurements on a Lufthansa passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditas, Jeannine; Su, Hang; Scharffe, Dieter; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Yuxuan; Brenninkmeijer, Carl; Pöschl, Ulrich; Cheng, Yafang

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol particles containing black carbon are the most absorbing component of incoming solar radiation and exert a significant positive radiative forcing thus forming next to CO² the strongest component of current global warming (Bond, 2013). Nevertheless, the role of black carbon particles and especially their complex interaction with clouds needs further research which is hampered by the limited experimental data, especially observations in the free and upper troposphere, and in the UTLS (upper troposphere and lower stratosphere). Many models underestimate the global atmospheric absorption attributable to black carbon by a factor of almost 3 (Bond, 2013). In August 2014, a single particle soot photometer was included in the extensive scientific payload of the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) project. CARIBIC is in operation since 1997 (with an interruption for 2002-2005) and carries out systematic observations at 10-12 km altitude. For this a special air freight container combining different instruments is transported on a monthly basis using a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 passenger aircraft with destinations from 120°W to 120°E and 10°N to 75°N. The container has equipment for trace gas analyses and sampling and aerosol analyses and sampling and is connected to an inlet system that is part of the aircraft which contains a camera and DOAS remote sensing system. The integration of a single particle soot photometer (SP2) offers the possibility for the first long-term measurement of global distribution of black carbon and so far flights up to November 2015 have been conducted with more than 400 flight hours. So far the SP2 measurements have been analysed for flights over four continents from Munich to San Francisco, Sao Paulo, Tokyo, Beijing, Cape Town, Los Angeles and Hong Kong). The first measurements show promising results of black carbon measurements. Background concentrations in the UTLS

  18. Ball lightning risk to aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, R.; Keul, A.

    2009-04-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Aircraft are designed to withstand lightning strikes. Research on lightning and aircraft can be called detailed and effective. In the last 57 years, 18 reported lightning aviation disasters with a fatality figure of at least 714 persons occurred. For comparison, the last JACDEC ten-year average fatality figure was 857. The majority encountered lightning in the climb, descent, approach and/or landing phase. Ball lightning, a metastable, rare lightning type, is also seen from and even within aircraft, but former research only reported individual incidents and did not generate a more detailed picture to ascertain whether it constitutes a significant threat to passenger and aircraft safety. Lacking established incident report channels, observations were often only passed on as "air-travel lore". In an effort to change this unsatisfactory condition, the authors have collected a first international dataset of 38 documented ball lightning aircraft incidents from 1938 to 2001 involving 13 reports over Europe, 13 over USA/Canada, and 7 over Russia. 18 (47%) reported ball lightning outside the aircraft, 18 (47%) inside, 2 cases lacked data. 8 objects caused minor damage, 8 major damage (total: 42%), only one a crash. No damage was reported in 18 cases. 3 objects caused minor crew injury. In most cases, ball lightning lasted several seconds. 11 (29%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. A cloud-aircraft lightning flash was seen in only 9 cases (24%) of the data set. From the detailed accounts of air personnel in the last 70 years, it is evident that ball lightning is rarely, but consistently observed in connection with aircraft and can also occur inside the airframe. Reports often came from multiple professional witnesses and in several cases, damages were investigated by civil or military authorities. Although ball lightning is no main air traffic risk, the authors suggest that incident and accident

  19. Biosignal alterations generated by parabolic flights of small aerobatic aircrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M. Jose; Perez-Poch, Antoni; Ruiz, Xavier; Gavalda, Fina; Saez, Nuria

    characteristics of the aerobatic parabolic flights are different from the ones corresponding to the big Airbus-300 of Novespace-CNES-ESA aircraft. In this case, the two episodes of hypergravity reach 1.8g for 3 seconds with 20-25 seconds of low gravity in between whereas the small aerobatic plane reaches 3g level during roughly 2.5 seconds and 8 seconds period of low gravity. This means that the present potential alterations of the human body are more aggressive but also faster. [1] Y. Kawai, M. Doi, A. Setogawa, R. Shimoyama, K. Ueda, Y. Asai, K. Tatebayashi, Effects of Microgravity on Cerebral Hemodynamics, Yonago Acta Medica, 46 (2003) 1-8. [2] E.A.I. Aidu, V.G. Trunov, L.I. Titomir, A. Capderou, P. Vaïda, Transformation of Vectorcardiogram Due to Gravitation Alteration, Measurement, Science Review, 3 (2003) 29-32. [3] R.J. Von Baumgarten, G. Baldrighi, G.L. Schillinger, O. Harth, R. Thuemler, Vestibular function in the space environment, Acta Astronautica, 2 (1975) 49-58. [4] http://reversiblefigures.blogspot.com.es/p/outreach.html

  20. Combustion technology overview. [the use of broadened property aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of combustor technology developments required for use of broadened property fuels in jet aircraft is presented. The intent of current investigations is to determine the extent to which fuel properties can be varied, to obtain a data base of combustion - fuel quality effects, and to determine the trade-offs associated with broadened property fuels. Subcomponents of in-service combustors such as fuel injectors and liners, as well as air distributions and stoichiometry, are being altered to determine the extent to which fuel flexibility can be extended. Finally, very advanced technology consisting of new combustor concepts is being evolved to optimize the fuel flexibility of gas turbine combustors.

  1. Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

  2. Fixed-range optimum trajectories for short-haul aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, H.; Mclean, J. D.; Barman, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    An algorithm, based on the energy-state method, is derived for calculating optimum trajectories with a range constraint. The basis of the algorithm is the assumption that optimum trajectories consist of, at most, three segments: an increasing energy segment (climb); a constant energy segment (cruise); and a decreasing energy segment (descent). This assumption allows energy to be used as the independent variable in the increasing and decreasing energy segments, thereby eliminating the integration of a separate adjoint differential equation and simplifying the calculus of variations problem to one requiring only pointwise extremization of algebraic functions. The algorithm is used to compute minimum fuel, minimum time, and minimum direct-operating-cost trajectories, with range as a parameter, for an in-service CTOL aircraft and for an advanced STOL aircraft. For the CTOL aircraft and the minimum-fuel performance function, the optimum controls, consisting of air-speed and engine power setting, are continuous functions of the energy in both climb and descent as well as near the maximum or cruise energy. This is also true for the STOL aircraft except in the descent where at one energy level a nearly constant energy dive segment occurs, yielding a discontinuity in the airspeed at that energy. The reason for this segment appears to be the relatively high fuel flow at idle power of the engines used by this STOL aircraft. Use of a simplified trajectory which eliminates the dive increases the fuel consumption of the total descent trajectory by about 10 percent and the time to fly the descent by about 19 percent compared to the optimum.

  3. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows two QF-106 aircraft that were used for the Eclipse project, both parked at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  4. Aircraft flight characteristics in icing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yihua; Wu, Zhenlong; Su, Yuan; Xu, Zhongda

    2015-04-01

    Aircraft flight dynamic characteristics can be greatly changed by ice accretion, which has been considered a considerable threat to aircraft flight safety for a long time. An overview of the studies on several ice accretion effects on aircraft flight dynamics is presented here. Special attention is paid to the following areas: ways to obtain the aerodynamic data of iced aircraft, flight dynamic modeling and simulation for iced aircraft, effects of ice accretion on aircraft stability and control as well as on flight performance and aircraft icing envelope protection and control adaption. Finally based on the progress of existing research in these areas, some key issues which deserve more attention for researchers to resolve are addressed, including obtaining aerodynamic data of iced aircraft through numerical simulation method, consummating the existing calculation models about effects of ice accretion on aircraft aerodynamic derivatives and enhancing the investigation on problems of tailplane ice accretion.

  5. A study of aircraft cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.

    1986-01-01

    The long range aircraft cruise problem is analyzed using a model intermediate in complexity between energy model and point mass model. It is shown that this formulation imbeds the classical steady state cruise as the central member along with several other oscillatory extremals. The oscillatory cruise trajectories are shown to exist if the Hessian of the function QD/VT with respect to altitude and airspeed is positive definite. An expression for predicting the frequency of oscillation is developed. Qualitative effects of increasing the vehicle thrust and improving the L/D are discussed. Numerical results for two fighter aircraft and a transport aircraft are given. While oscillatory cruise mode exists for the two fighter aircraft, steady state cruise at full throttle is found to be optimal for the transport aircraft. A second variation analysis to bring out the reason for fuel savings is developed. It is shown that whenever the Hessian of the function QD/VT is positive definite, the second variation will be zero along the classical steady state cruise arc, indicating that a neighboring extremal is competitive. Comparisons with the previous point mass and energy modeled results are given.

  6. Dryden F-8 Research Aircraft Fleet 1973 in flight, DFBW and SCW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (left) and F-8 Supercritical Wing in flight. These two aircraft fundamentally changed the nature of aircraft design. The F-8 DFBW pioneered digital flight controls and led to such computer-controlled airacrft as the F-117A, X-29, and X-31. Airliners such as the Boeing 777 and Airbus A320 also use digital fly-by-wire systems. The other aircraft is a highly modified F-8A fitted with a supercritical wing. Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb of Langley Research Center originated the supercritical wing concept in the late 1960s. (Dr. Whitcomb also developed the concept of the 'area rule' in the early 1950s. It singificantly reduced transonic drag.) The F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) flight research project validated the principal concepts of all-electric flight control systems now used on nearly all modern high-performance aircraft and on military and civilian transports. The first flight of the 13-year project was on May 25, 1972, with research pilot Gary E. Krier at the controls of a modified F-8C Crusader that served as the testbed for the fly-by-wire technologies. The project was a joint effort between the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) and Langley Research Center. It included a total of 211 flights. The last flight was December 16, 1985, with Dryden research pilot Ed Schneider at the controls. The F-8 DFBW system was the forerunner of current fly-by-wire systems used in the space shuttles and on today's military and civil aircraft to make them safer, more maneuverable, and more efficient. Electronic fly-by-wire systems replaced older hydraulic control systems, freeing designers to design aircraft with reduced in-flight stability. Fly-by-wire systems are safer because of their redundancies. They are more maneuverable because computers can command more frequent adjustments than a human pilot can. For airliners, computerized control ensures a smoother ride than a human pilot alone can provide

  7. Flight directors for STOl aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, U. H.

    1983-01-01

    Flight director logic for flight path and airspeed control of a powered-lift STOL aircraft in the approach, transition, and landing configurations are developed. The methods for flight director design are investigated. The first method is based on the Optimal Control Model (OCM) of the pilot. The second method, proposed here, uses a fixed dynamic model of the pilot in a state space formulation similar to that of the OCM, and includes a pilot work-load metric. Several design examples are presented with various aircraft, sensor, and control configurations. These examples show the strong impact of throttle effectiveness on the performance and pilot work-load associated with manual control of powered-lift aircraft during approach. Improved performed and reduced pilot work-load can be achieved by using direct-lift-control to increase throttle effectiveness.

  8. Improvement of aircraft maintenance methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, N. I.

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of recent theoretical and experimental research aimed at improving the maintenance of aircraft, developing advanced diagnostic techniques, and increasing the efficiency and safety of flight operations. Topics discussed include design characteristics of the functional systems of aircraft and prediction of their technical condition, a probability analysis of a method for diagnosing gas turbine engines on the basis of thermogasdynamic parameters, characteristics of fatigue crack growth under the service-spectrum loading of the tail boom, and the accuracy of nonparametric reliability estimates under varying operation conditions. Papers are also presented on ways of reducing the aeration of hydraulic fluids in aircraft, evaluation of the efficiency of the pilot's control activity in a flight simulator, and using control charts for the analysis of the performance of aviation specialists. (For individual items see A93-18327 to A93-18351)

  9. Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

  10. The 400-Hz aircraft power-generation systems: Advancing the baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glennon, T.

    1983-06-01

    Today's benchmark system for the Boeing 757/767/A310 airplanes and future trends in hydromechanical aircraft power generating systems are discussed. The 757/767/A310 system represents the commercial state of the art and the direction in which Sundstrand Corp. is headed, particularly in regard to weight reduction. Sundstrand introduced microprocessor control in an in service system in the Boeing 767 and was the first to use databus communications between the controls. Plans to develop this technology are briefly discussed. Alternative ways to produce and use power in aircraft are discussed. The integrated starter drive is discussed.

  11. An artificial intelligence-based structural health monitoring system for aging aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Tang, Stanley S.; Chen, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    To reduce operating expenses, airlines are now using the existing fleets of commercial aircraft well beyond their originally anticipated service lives. The repair and maintenance of these 'aging aircraft' has therefore become a critical safety issue, both to the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration. This paper presents the results of an innovative research program to develop a structural monitoring system that will be used to evaluate the integrity of in-service aerospace structural components. Currently in the final phase of its development, this monitoring system will indicate when repair or maintenance of a damaged structural component is necessary.

  12. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  13. Aircraft Dynamic Modeling in Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunninham, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    A method for accurately identifying aircraft dynamic models in turbulence was developed and demonstrated. The method uses orthogonal optimized multisine excitation inputs and an analytic method for enhancing signal-to-noise ratio for dynamic modeling in turbulence. A turbulence metric was developed to accurately characterize the turbulence level using flight measurements. The modeling technique was demonstrated in simulation, then applied to a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft in flight. Comparisons of modeling results obtained in turbulent air to results obtained in smooth air were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  14. Aircraft anti-insect system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Fric, Thomas Frank (Inventor); Leon, Ross Michael (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Insect debris is removed from or prevented from adhering to insect impingement areas of an aircraft, particularly on an inlet cowl of an engine, by heating the area to 180.degree.-500.degree. C. An apparatus comprising a means to bring hot air from the aircraft engine to a plenum contiguous to the insect impingement area provides for the heating of the insect impingement areas to the required temperatures. The plenum can include at least one tube with a plurality of holes contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl. It can also include an envelope with a plurality of holes on its surface contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl.

  15. Human response to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Fields, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The human auditory system and the perception of sound are discussed. The major concentration is on the annnoyance response and methods for relating the physical characteristics of sound to those psychosociological attributes associated with human response. Results selected from the extensive laboratory and field research conducted on human response to aircraft noise over the past several decades are presented along with discussions of the methodology commonly used in conducting that research. Finally, some of the more common criteria, regulations, and recommended practices for the control or limitation of aircraft noise are examined in light of the research findings on human response.

  16. Minimum noise impact aircraft trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Melton, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical optimization is used to compute the optimum flight paths, based upon a parametric form that implicitly includes some of the problem restrictions. The other constraints are formulated as penalties in the cost function. Various aircraft on multiple trajectores (landing and takeoff) can be considered. The modular design employed allows for the substitution of alternate models of the population distribution, aircraft noise, flight paths, and annoyance, or for the addition of other features (e.g., fuel consumption) in the cost function. A reduction in the required amount of searching over local minima was achieved through use of the presence of statistical lateral dispersion in the flight paths.

  17. Aircraft gas turbine emissions challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Koff, B.L. )

    1994-07-01

    The new generation of jet powered aircraft faces a significant challenge to reduce pollutant emissions while increasing fuel efficiency. Carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions are already very low and continued control of these pollutants is expected as engine temperatures and pressure ratios are increased. In contrast, significant system design improvements are needed to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) emissions because of their harmful effect on the earth's ozone layer. This paper discusses the prospects and technical approaches for significant NO[sub x] reductions in current and future subsonic and supersonic aircraft.

  18. Model of aircraft noise adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of an aircraft noise adaptation model, which would account for much of the variability in the responses of subjects participating in human response to noise experiments, was studied. A description of the model development is presented. The principal concept of the model, was the determination of an aircraft adaptation level which represents an annoyance calibration for each individual. Results showed a direct correlation between noise level of the stimuli and annoyance reactions. Attitude-personality variables were found to account for varying annoyance judgements.

  19. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the use of composite components in commercial aircraft. NASA has been active in sponsoring flight service programs with advanced composites for the last 10 years, with 2.5 million total composite component hours accumulated since 1970 on commercial transports and helicopters with no significant degradation in residual strength of composite components. Design, inspection, and maintenance procedures have been developed; a major NASA/US industry technology program has been developed to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites.

  20. Unmanned Aircraft Systems at NASA Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Dryden has a heritage of developmental and operational experience with unmanned aircraft systems. Work on Boeing's sub-scale X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, X-48 Blended Wing ...

  1. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  2. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  3. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  4. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  5. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, Larry M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    1996-01-01

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  6. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is provided of the goals, objectives, and recent progress in each of six aircraft energy efficiency programs aimed at improved propulsive, aerodynamic and structural efficiency for future transport aircraft. Attention is given to engine component improvement, an energy efficient turbofan engine, advanced turboprops, revolutionary gains in aerodynamic efficiency for aircraft of the late 1990s, laminar flow control, and composite primary aircraft structures.

  7. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, L.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

    1996-01-16

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components. 14 figs.

  8. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  10. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  11. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each...

  12. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with 41 CFR 102-33, subpart B and DOE Order 440.2B latest revision. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  13. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  14. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on... insure the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  15. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  17. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  18. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  19. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  20. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 142.57 Section 142... Requirements § 142.57 Aircraft requirements. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center certificate must ensure that each aircraft used for flight instruction and solo flights meets the...

  1. 14 CFR 141.75 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 141.75 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.75 Aircraft requirements. The following items must be carried on each aircraft used for flight training and solo flights: (a) A...

  2. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6.... § 87.6 Aircraft safety. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 36381, June 18, 2012. The provisions of... revised text is set forth as follows: § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of this part will be...

  3. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  4. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  5. 14 CFR 141.75 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 141.75 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.75 Aircraft requirements. The following items must be carried on each aircraft used for flight training and solo flights: (a) A...

  6. 14 CFR 135.25 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirements of this chapter (14 CFR chapter I) that would be applicable to that aircraft were it registered in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 135.25 Section 135... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT...

  7. 14 CFR 135.25 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements of this chapter (14 CFR chapter I) that would be applicable to that aircraft were it registered in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 135.25 Section 135... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT...

  8. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  9. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  10. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  11. 14 CFR 135.25 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements of this chapter (14 CFR chapter I) that would be applicable to that aircraft were it registered in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 135.25 Section 135... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT...

  12. 14 CFR 141.75 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 141.75 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.75 Aircraft requirements. The following items must be carried on each aircraft used for flight training and solo flights: (a) A...

  13. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  14. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  15. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  16. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 142.57 Section 142... Requirements § 142.57 Aircraft requirements. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center certificate must ensure that each aircraft used for flight instruction and solo flights meets the...

  17. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  18. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on... insure the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  19. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 142.57 Section 142... Requirements § 142.57 Aircraft requirements. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center certificate must ensure that each aircraft used for flight instruction and solo flights meets the...

  20. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  1. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with 41 CFR 102-33, subpart B and DOE Order 440.2B latest revision. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  3. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  4. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  5. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  6. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft....

  7. 14 CFR 135.25 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aviation if— (1) The aircraft carries an appropriate airworthiness certificate issued by the country of... requirements of this chapter (14 CFR chapter I) that would be applicable to that aircraft were it registered in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 135.25 Section...

  8. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  9. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  10. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft. ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  12. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  13. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  14. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42...

  15. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has been... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37...

  16. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a)...

  17. Douglas DT-2 (Naval Aircraft Factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1923-01-01

    Douglas DT-2 (Naval Aircraft Factory): This example of the Douglas DT-2 torpedo plane, which flew as 'NACA 11,' was built in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by the Naval Aircraft Factory. Langley's NACA staff studied the take-off characteristics of a twin-float seaplane with this aircraft.

  18. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  19. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  20. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  1. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  2. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  3. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  4. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  5. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  6. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  7. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft under a type certificate must establish an approved production flight test procedure...

  8. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft under a type certificate must establish an approved production flight test procedure...

  9. Fiber optic hardware for transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, John A.

    Fiber Optic Technology is being developed for aircraft and offers benefits in system performance and manufacturing cost reduction. Thr fiber optic systems have high bandwidths that exceeds all of the new aircraft design requirements and exceptional electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity. Additionally, fiber optic systems have been installed in production aircraft proving design feasiblity.

  10. Fiber optic hardware for transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, John A.

    1994-10-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are developing fiber optic technology to exploit the benefits in system performance and manufacturing cost reduction. The fiber optic systems have high bandwidths and exceptional Electromagnetic Interference immunity that exceeds all new aircraft design requirements. Additionally, aircraft manufacturers have shown production readiness of fiber optic systems and design feasibility.

  11. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... position lights; (2) Park or move an aircraft in, or in dangerous proximity to, a night flight...

  12. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... position lights; (2) Park or move an aircraft in, or in dangerous proximity to, a night flight...

  13. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... position lights; (2) Park or move an aircraft in, or in dangerous proximity to, a night flight...

  14. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... position lights; (2) Park or move an aircraft in, or in dangerous proximity to, a night flight...

  15. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  16. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  17. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  18. 14 CFR 141.75 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 141.75 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.75 Aircraft requirements. The following items must be carried on each aircraft used for flight training and solo flights: (a) A...

  19. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.83 Section 93.83... Aircraft operations. (a) North-South Corridor. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC (including the Eglin Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South...

  20. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155... § 93.155 Aircraft operations. (a) When an advisory is received from the Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  1. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  2. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 142.57 Section 142... Requirements § 142.57 Aircraft requirements. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center certificate must ensure that each aircraft used for flight instruction and solo flights meets the...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  4. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  5. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  6. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  7. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  8. 14 CFR 135.25 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of this chapter (14 CFR chapter I) that would be applicable to that aircraft were it registered in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 135.25 Section 135... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT...

  9. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  10. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  11. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... position lights; (2) Park or move an aircraft in, or in dangerous proximity to, a night flight...

  12. 78 FR 76252 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Isolation or Protection of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo...; Isolation or Protection of the Aircraft Electronic System Security From Unauthorized Internal Access AGENCY... isolation from unauthorized internal access. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not...

  13. The Cleveland Aircraft Fire Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenneman, James J.; Heine, Donald A.

    1968-01-01

    On June 30 and July 1, 1966, tests were conducted to evaluate high expansion foam's ability to extend the time for which an aircraft passenger cabin environment would remain survivable during a post-crash fire. While some results tend to confirm those of similar tests, others may shed new light on the problem.

  14. Aircraft Simulators and Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    Flight simulators are built as realistically as possible, presumably to enhance their training value. Yet, their training value is determined by the way they are used. Traditionally, simulators have been less important for training than have aircraft, but they are currently emerging as primary pilot training vehicles. This new emphasis is an…

  15. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  16. Carbon fiber counting. [aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for characterizing the number and lengths of carbon fibers accidentally released by the burning of composite portions of civil aircraft structure in a jet fuel fire after an accident. Representative samplings of carbon fibers collected on transparent sticky film were counted from photographic enlargements with a computer aided technique which also provided fiber lengths.

  17. Composite structural materials. [aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    The development of composite materials for aircraft applications is addressed with specific consideration of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, reliability, and life prediction. The design and flight testing of composite ultralight gliders is documented. Advances in computer aided design and methods for nondestructive testing are also discussed.

  18. Aircraft Control-Position Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, D. V.

    1985-01-01

    Aircraft control-position indicator cockpit-mounted instrument that displays positions of elevator and ailerons to pilot. Display is cruciform array of lights: horizontal row of amber lights and vertical row of green lights representing aileron and elevator positions, respectively. Display used extensively in spin testing and has been trouble-free, with no maintenance required after about 30 hours of operation.

  19. Disturbance caused by aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josse, R.

    1980-01-01

    Noise pollution caused by the presence of airfields adjacent to residential areas is studied. Noise effects on the sleep of residents near airports and the degree of the residents noise tolerance are evaluated. What aircraft noises are annoying and to what extent the annoyance varies with sound level are discussed.

  20. Ryan Flexwing aircraft under test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    A flexible wing aircraft built by Ryan, was flown in the Full Scale Tunnel. The researcher posing as the pilot is John W. Paulson, Assistant Head of the Full Scale Tunnel. Photograph published in Sixty Years of Aeronautical Research 1917-1977, by David A. Anderton - NASA publication (page 60).